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Trauma, Violence, & Abuse

Impact factor: 2.4 5-Year impact factor: 4.209 Print ISSN: 1524-8380 Publisher: Sage Publications

Subjects: Criminology & Penology, Family Studies, Social Work

Most recent papers:

  • Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Prevention Initiatives: A Literature Review.
    Lopes, N. R. L., Williams, L. C. d. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 06, 2016

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is a serious form of child maltreatment that needs to be prevented. The aim of this study was to summarize the main AHT prevention strategies described in literature, aiming to identify evidence of their efficiency, as well as strengths and limitations. International databases were reviewed from 2005 to 2015 using the key words Shaken Baby Syndrome or abusive head trauma or nonaccidental head trauma or abusive head injury or nonaccidental head injury and prevention. A total of 1,215 articles were found and 34 complete articles were selected for this study. Five initiatives with the main objective of reducing infant crying in the first months of life were found, three aimed at caregiver’s emotional regulation and 12 aimed at raising parents and caregivers awareness on AHT. Among them, parental education about infant crying and risks of shaking a baby stands out for its empirical evidence.

    November 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016675479   open full text
  • "I Still Feel Like I Am Not Normal": A Review of the Role of Stigma and Stigmatization Among Female Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Assault, and Intimate Partner Violence.
    Kennedy, A. C., Prock, K. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 01, 2016

    Child sexual abuse (CSA), sexual assault (SA), and intimate partner violence (IPV) occur within social contexts that shape how survivors judge themselves and are evaluated by others. Because these are gendered sexual and intimate crimes that violate social norms about what is appropriate and acceptable, survivors may experience stigma that includes victim-blaming messages from the broader society as well as specific stigmatizing reactions from others in response to disclosure; this stigmatization can be internalized among survivors as self-blame, shame, and anticipatory stigma. Stigma and stigmatization play an important role in shaping survivors’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors as they recover; their risk of revictimization; and their help-seeking and attainment process. In this review, we synthesize recent CSA, SA, and IPV research (N = 123) that examines female survivors’ self-blame, shame, internalized stigma, and anticipatory stigma as well as negative social reactions in response to survivors’ disclosure. We highlight critical findings as well as implications for research, practice, and policy, and we note gaps in our current knowledge.

    November 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016673601   open full text
  • Reviewing the Focus: A Summary and Critique of Child-Focused Sexual Abuse Prevention.
    Rudolph, J., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 26, 2016

    Due to the high incidence, and widespread detrimental health consequences, of child sexual abuse (CSA), effective prevention remains at the forefront of public and mental health research, prevention and intervention agendas. To date much of the focus of prevention has been on school-based education programs designed to teach children skills to evade adult sexual advances, and disclose past or ongoing abuse. Evaluation of sexual abuse prevention programs demonstrate their effectiveness in increasing children’s knowledge of CSA concepts and protection skills, but little is known about their effects on children’s capacity to prevent abuse. Moreover, concerns persist about the unintended side-effects for young children such as anxiety, worry and wariness of touch. This paper summarizes the recent history of CSA prevention and the critique of child-focused protection programs in order to demonstrate the need to compliment or replace these programs by focusing more on protectors in the children’s ecology, specifically parents, in order to create safer environments in which abuse is less likely to occur.

    October 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016675478   open full text
  • Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on the Parenting of Male Survivors.
    Wark, J., Vis, J.-A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 21, 2016

    Research shows that child sexual abuse (CSA) can have detrimental effects on adult functioning. While much research regarding the effects of CSA on parenting of mothers is available, there is a dearth of information on how CSA impacts fatherhood. This literature review finds that the parenting experiences of male survivors are characterized by self-perceptions as adequate parents, deficient parenting as measured by standardized instruments, conceptualization of parenting as an intergenerational legacy and potential healing experience, fear of becoming an abuser, and physical and emotional distance from their children. These themes are strongly related to social discourses on intergenerational cycle of violence theories. Fatherhood is not exclusively problematic for male survivors and can be a healing experience and a source of strength for some survivors. Based on literature concerning male survivors who are parents, narrative therapy is recommended as a therapeutic model to explore how fathers who are survivors challenge dominant discourses around legacies of family violence, intergenerational parenting deficiencies, and victimization. Restorying fatherhood as a healing opportunity is essential when working with fathers who are male survivors and their families.

    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016673600   open full text
  • Setting an Agenda to Address Intimate Partner Violence Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Conceptual Model and Review.
    Kubicek, K.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 18, 2016

    Research investigating intimate partner violence (IPV) among sexual minorities is limited. The research that does exist has found that rates of IPV are similar to or higher than the rates found for heterosexual women, the most commonly studied population in this area. This limited research has resulted in a dearth of prevention/intervention programs targeted for these populations. While some may argue that existing IPV programs can be used for these populations, this review presents an argument for more targeted work with sexual minority populations, using young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as an example. Drawing on the framework of intersectionality, this article argues that the intersectionality of age, sexual identity, and gender combines to create a spectrum of unique factors that require specific attention. This framework allows for the identification of known correlates for IPV as well as factors that may be unique to YMSM or other sexual minority populations. The article presents a conceptual model that suggests new areas of research as well as a foundation for the topics and issues that should be addressed in an intervention.

    October 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016673599   open full text
  • Mental Health Outcomes for Youth Living in Refugee Camps: A Review.
    Vossoughi, N., Jackson, Y., Gusler, S., Stone, K.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 11, 2016

    Currently, there are approximately 10.8 million child refugees worldwide. Youth living in refugee camps face a wide range of difficulties placing them at risk for trauma exposure and negative mental health outcomes. However, little is known about the mental health functioning of these youth. The present review provides a systematic review of mental health outcomes for refugee/displaced youth residing in refugee camps. Twenty studies were included in the present review. Among these studies, the prevalence of mental health disorders varied greatly with some studies reporting null effects for disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder and others reporting prevalence as high as 87%. Levels of anxiety, somatic symptoms, depression, and aggression also varied across studies. The results point to the significant need for more research on the mental health of youth residing in refugee camps. Despite the wide range of measurement approaches, the evidence points to a fairly consistent finding of a range of maladjustment problems for youth living in refugee camps. Implications for improving the methodology for investigating mental health are discussed.

    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016673602   open full text
  • Preventing Posttraumatic Stress Related to Sexual Assault Through Early Intervention: A Systematic Review.
    Dworkin, E. R., Schumacher, J. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. September 28, 2016

    Sexual assault survivors come into contact with a variety of community responders after assault, and these interactions may play an important role in mitigating distress. Given theoretical understandings of the importance of early experiences in the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS), early contact with formal systems (e.g., health care, criminal justice, social services) and informal responders (e.g., friends, family) might be particularly important in preventing PTS. However, the effectiveness of these early interventions is unclear. Understanding the key elements of early interventions, both formal and informal, that successfully prevent the development of PTS could help to improve community responses to sexual assault and ultimately promote survivor well-being. In this systematic review, we investigate the types of experiences with responders in the early aftermath of assault that are associated with PTS, the duration of effects on PTS, and the role of the timing of these responses in the development of PTS. Findings indicate that responder contact alone is not typically associated with significant differences in PTS, and there is insufficient evidence to indicate that the timing of seeking help is associated with PTS, but the quality of services provided and perceptions of interactions with certain responders appear to be associated with PTS. Although many effects were short-lived, interventions that were perceived positively may be associated with lower PTS up to a year postassault. These findings support the importance of offering best practice interventions that are perceived positively, rather than simply encouraging survivors to seek help.

    September 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016669518   open full text
  • Attachment, Development, and Mental Health in Abused and Neglected Preschool Children in Foster Care: A Meta-Analysis.
    Vasileva, M., Petermann, F.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. September 22, 2016

    A proper preparation for foster parents to care for abused and neglected children includes effective training and initial diagnostics in order to plan individual treatment. Hence, a basic knowledge about the main psychosocial and developmental problems associated with abuse and neglect and their prevalence in foster children is needed. For this purpose, a systematical literature review and a series of meta-analyses were conducted. A total of 25 studies reporting data on development (n = 4,033), mental health (n = 726), and attachment (n = 255) of foster children in preschool age met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analyses indicated prevalence rates of approximately 40% for developmental, mental health problems, and insecure attachment. Rates of disorganized attachment were estimated to 22%. These findings outline the necessity of an initial trauma-oriented diagnostics and trainings for foster parents that address foster children’s development, mental health, and disorganized attachment.

    September 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016669503   open full text
  • Addressing Intimate Partner Violence With Latina Women: A Call for Research.
    Alvarez, C., Fedock, G.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. September 20, 2016

    Latina women, especially those who are immigrants, have an increased vulnerability to intimate partner violence, yet they also have a low rate of using formal services (i.e. health care and legal services). Existing research focused on Latina women’s help seeking for intimate partner violence has identified multiple factors, such as the presence of children, cultural values, and type of victimization, that influence women’s formal help seeking. Immigrant Latina women in particular commonly report many barriers to formal services; however, heterogeneity and nuanced patterns of help seeking exist across Latina survivors. While research has focused mainly on understanding factors that are barriers to help seeking by Latina women, there is an overwhelming dearth of research about interventions and factors that facilitate effective help-seeking experiences for Latina IPV survivors. In an effort to improve Latina IPV survivors’ access to services, we examine the gaps in research across dimensions of access to care (i.e. availability, affordability, accessibility, accommodation, and acceptability of services). Research within each of these facets of access to services for Latina survivors is lacking. This brief commentary illustrates the sparse data to inform evidence based interventions for Latina IPV survivors and is a call for research in order to determine best practices and to move the knowledge base from the vast descriptive base to evidence-based, culturally appropriate and acceptable interventions.

    September 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016669508   open full text
  • Nonfatal Gun Use in Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
    Sorenson, S. B., Schut, R. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. September 14, 2016

    Guns figure prominently in the homicide of women by an intimate partner. Less is known, however, about their nonfatal use against an intimate partner. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched eight electronic databases and identified 10 original research articles that reported the prevalence of the nonfatal use of firearms against an intimate partner. Results indicate that (1) there is relatively little research on the subject of intimate partners’ nonfatal gun use against women. (2) The number of U.S. women alive today who have had an intimate partner use a gun against them is substantial: About 4.5 million have had an intimate partner threaten them with a gun and nearly 1 million have been shot or shot at by an intimate partner. Whether nonfatal gun use is limited to the extreme form of abuse (battering) or whether it occurs in the context of situational violence remains to be seen. Regardless, when it comes to the likely psychological impact, it may be a distinction without a difference; because guns can be lethal quickly and with relatively little effort, displaying or threatening with a gun can create a context known as coercive control, which facilitates chronic and escalating abuse. Implications for policy, practice, and research are discussed, all of which include expanding an implicit focus on homicide to include an intimate partner’s nonfatal use of a gun.

    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016668589   open full text
  • Sports Fans, Alcohol Use, and Violent Behavior: A Sociological Review.
    Ostrowsky, M. K.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. August 31, 2016

    This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors—sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd—that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.

    August 31, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016663937   open full text
  • Reproductive Coercion: A Systematic Review.
    Grace, K. T., Anderson, J. C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. August 16, 2016

    Reproductive coercion is a behavior that interferes with the autonomous decision-making of a woman, with regard to reproductive health. It may take the form of birth control sabotage, pregnancy coercion, or controlling the outcome of a pregnancy. The objectives of this article are to address the questions: (1) What is known about reproductive coercion, its prevalence, and correlates? (2) What strategies do women use to preserve their reproductive autonomy when experiencing reproductive coercion? (3) What interventions are effective to decrease reproductive coercion? In this review of 27 research studies, 12 contained findings regarding the general phenomenon of reproductive coercion and 19 contained findings about at least one component of reproductive coercion. Additionally, 11 studies contained findings related to the intersection of intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion, 6 presented data on strategies women use to resist reproductive coercion, and 3 included intervention data. Variation in measurement makes synthesis of prevalence and correlate data challenging. The reviewed literature presents reproductive coercion as a phenomenon that disproportionately affects women experiencing concurrent IPV, women of lower socioeconomic status, single women, and African American, Latina and multiracial women. Women who experience reproductive coercion were found to present frequently for certain health services. Most data on reproductive coercion are descriptive, and there is need for further research to examine the co-occurrence with related phenomena such as IPV and unintended pregnancy. More research is also needed on the strategies women use to resist reproductive coercion as well as interventions aimed at survivors and perpetrators of reproductive coercion and health-care providers who encounter them.

    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016663935   open full text
  • Perceptions of Social Climate and Aggressive Behavior in Forensic Services: A Systematic Review.
    Robinson, J., Craig, L. A., Tonkin, M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. August 12, 2016

    Social climate is a term used to describe the environment of a particular setting which may influence the moods and behaviors of the people inhabiting that setting. This review explores perceptions of social climate in secure forensic services and the associations with aggression. Article searches were conducted using electronic databases, hand-searching reference lists, and contacting experts. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied to each study, and quality screens conducted on the remaining articles to establish those for inclusion. A total of seven studies were identified. Factors which were found to have an association with aggression included patients’ perceptions of safety, the level of cohesion between patients, the atmosphere of the environment, and an open group climate. It is argued that services which create positive social climates for both staff and patients are more likely to observe lower levels of aggression.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016663936   open full text
  • The Effect of Victim Resistance on Rape Completion: A Meta-Analysis.
    Wong, J. S., Balemba, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. August 12, 2016

    When confronted with a sexual attacker, women are often extremely concerned with avoiding rape completion. While narrative reviews typically suggest that the victim resistance is linked to rape avoidance, much of the existing literature relies on overlapping samples from the National Crime Victimization Survey. The current meta-analysis examines whether victim resistance is related to a greater likelihood of avoiding rape completion. Results from a systematic literature search across 25 databases supplemented by a search of the gray literature resulted in 4,581 hits of which seven studies met eligibility criteria for the review. Findings suggest that women who resist their attacker are significantly more likely than nonresisters to avoid rape completion. This finding held across analyses for physical resistance, verbal resistance, or resistance of any kind. Limitations of the analysis and policy implications are discussed, with particular focus on other research findings that resistance may be linked to greater victim injury.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016663934   open full text
  • Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation of Interventions to Prevent Youth Violence in Latin America: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.
    Atienzo, E. E., Kaltenthaler, E., Baxter, S. K.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. August 12, 2016

    Youth violence in Latin America is an important public health problem. However, the evidence from preventive programs within the region to address this problem is limited. Identifying context-specific factors that facilitate or hinder the success of interventions is necessary to guarantee the successful implementation of new preventive strategies. We present a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies to identify factors affecting the implementation of programs to prevent youth violence in Latin America. We searched 10 electronic databases and websites of international institutions. The quality of the studies was assessed using the critical appraisal skills program checklist, while the certainty of the findings of the synthesis was assessed using the certainty of the qualitative evidence approach. We included eight papers describing five programs in Argentina, Venezuela, Peru, El Salvador, and Mexico. Most of the factors affecting the implementation of programs were aspects related to features of the programs and social/political constraints. The synthesis suggests that future programs can benefit from having a multidisciplinary and/or multisectoral approach involving different key players. At the same time, potential strategies for avoiding problems related to such active engagement should be planned via promoting effective channels for communication and supervision. The review also suggests the importance of increasing awareness and motivation toward the problem of youth violence among relevant agencies and stakeholders. While the limited volume and quality of the literature impact on the ability to draw conclusions, the results could be useful for new programs being designed and the ones seeking to be adapted from other contexts.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016664044   open full text
  • A Study Space Analysis and Narrative Review of Trauma-Informed Mediators of Dating Violence.
    Cascardi, M., Jouriles, E. N.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 28, 2016

    Research linking child maltreatment and dating violence in adolescence and emerging adulthood has proliferated in the past two decades; however, the precise mechanisms by which these experiences are related remain elusive. A trauma-informed perspective suggests four particularly promising mediators: maladaptive attachment, emotion regulation difficulties, emotional distress, and hostility. The current article characterizes the status of the empirical literature examining these four mediators using a study space analysis and a narrative review of existing research. An extensive literature search identified 42 papers (44 studies) that met the following criteria: (1) at least one measure of child maltreatment (emotional, physical, sexual, neglect, or exposure to intimate partner violence); (2) a measure of one of the four mediator variables; (3) a measure of dating violence perpetration or victimization; and (4) a sample of adolescents or young adults. The study space analysis suggested several important observations about the research on this topic, including a dearth of studies examining hostility as a mediator and little research using prospective designs or clinical samples. There are also limitations with the conceptualization and measurement of dating violence, child maltreatment, and some of the mediator variables. In addition, few studies examined more than one mediator variable in the same study. The narrative review suggested that maladaptive attachment (specifically insecure attachment styles), emotion regulation difficulties (specifically regulation of the emotion of anger), and emotional distress construed broadly represent promising mediators of the association between child maltreatment and dating violence, but conclusions about mediation must remain tentative given the state of the literature. The discussion offers recommendations for improved theoretical and empirical rigor to advance future research on mechanisms linking child maltreatment and dating violence.

    July 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016659485   open full text
  • Polyvictimization Among Children and Adolescents in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Le, M. T. H., Holton, S., Romero, L., Fisher, J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 26, 2016

    Most of the world’s children and adolescents live in low- and lower-middle-income countries (LALMIC), but there is limited evidence about polyvictimization (experiences of multiple forms of victimization) among them. The aims of this article were to systematically review the evidence from LALMIC about the overall prevalence of polyvictimization and to identify the associations between polyvictimization and health and well-being among children and adolescents.


    A systematic search of the English-language peer-reviewed literature to identify empirical, quantitative studies conducted in LALMIC between 2005 and 2015, assessing at least four forms of victimization among young people aged up to 19 years. Where prevalence of any victimization and of polyvictimization were reported, meta-analyses were performed.


    A total of 30/8,496 articles were included in the review. Evidence was available from 16/84 LALMIC and methodology and quality varied. Pooled prevalence of experiences of any victimization was 76.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) [64.8%, 88.9%]). Prevalence of polyvictimization ranged from 0.3% to 74.7% with an overall estimate of 38.1% (95% CI [18.3%, 57.8%]). None of the studies examined the associations between polyvictimization and physical or reproductive health or quality of life. Polyvictimization was associated with increased likelihood of mental health problems and involvement in health risk behaviors.


    Experiences of polyvictimization among children and adolescents in LALMIC are more prevalent than in high- and upper-middle-income countries and contribute to the burden of poor health among children and adolescents. Most LALMIC lack local data, and research is required to address this knowledge gap.

    July 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016659489   open full text
  • Physical Health Consequences of Interpersonal Trauma: A Systematic Review of the Role of Psychological Variables.
    Lopez-Martinez, A. E., Serrano-Ibanez, E. R., Ruiz-Parraga, G. T., Gomez-Perez, L., Ramirez-Maestre, C., Esteve, R.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 25, 2016

    Interpersonal forms of trauma are among the most commonly reported traumas. These types of traumas are more damaging to well-being than noninterpersonal forms. They have also been strongly associated with somatic symptoms and more general physical health problems. Nevertheless, the results of trauma studies are mixed and suggest that pathways may vary according to the stressors, mediators, and health outcomes investigated. This article presents a systematic qualitative review of published studies that have investigated interpersonal trauma, its association with physical health, and the potential role of intervening psychological variables. A systematic search was made of four psychology and health electronic databases. Of the 863 studies reviewed, 50 were preselected, 11 of which met the inclusion and methodological quality criteria. All but one study had a cross-sectional design. The findings showed that childhood trauma exposure was the most common category of interpersonal trauma addressed in the reviewed studies and that the physical health variables investigated were diverse. The psychological variables most frequently investigated in the studies were posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, dissociation, and substance abuse. Overall, the results suggest that interpersonal trauma exposure is associated with poorer physical health; however, the role of intervening psychological variables remains unclear. The limitations of the reviewed literature are discussed, and methodological recommendations are made for future research.

    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016659488   open full text
  • The Sibling Relationship in the Context of Child Maltreatment: What Do We Know? What Are the Directions for the Future?
    Katz, C., Hamama, L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 20, 2016

    Siblings share a common and unique bond. It is one of the most enduring relationships during an individual’s life span. Thus, the impact of child maltreatment on sibling relationships is an important area of research to explore. The current article carries out a scoping review targeted at determining the existing knowledge and then identifying research priorities within the field of sibling relationship in the context of child maltreatment. The method elaborates on the various stages that were taken to perform the scoping review, and later, the article provides three results for the readers: The first result is a detailed mapping of the existing literature in the area of sibling relationship in the context of maltreatment. The second result is a thorough thematic analysis that was carried out on this literature that focused on several relevant domains: sibling exposure to intimate partner violence, sibling relationship and experiences in the context of child maltreatment, risk assessment for siblings following maltreatment, and sibling relationships and out-of-home placement. The third result is a set of conclusions targeted mainly at recommending future directions to researchers.

    July 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016659878   open full text
  • Responding to Delayed Disclosure of Sexual Assault in Health Settings: A Systematic Review.
    Lanthier, S., Du Mont, J., Mason, R.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 19, 2016

    Few adolescent and adult women seek out formal support services in the acute period (7 days or less) following a sexual assault. Instead, many women choose to disclose weeks, months, or even years later. This delayed disclosure may be challenging to support workers, including those in health-care settings, who lack the knowledge and skills to respond effectively. We conducted a systematic literature review of health-care providers’ responses to delayed disclosure by adolescent and adult female sexual assault survivors. Our primary objective was to determine how health-care providers can respond appropriately when presented with a delayed sexual assault disclosure in their practice. Arising out of this analysis, a secondary objective was to document recommendations from the articles for health-care providers on how to create an environment conducive to disclosing and support disclosure in their practice. These recommendations for providing an appropriate response and supporting disclosure are summarized.

    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016659484   open full text
  • Unpacking "Sexting": A Systematic Review of Nonconsensual Sexting in Legal, Educational, and Psychological Literatures.
    Krieger, M. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 19, 2016

    Concerns about sexting are increasingly prevalent in mainstream and academic media despite limited and inconsistent research findings about the practice. Much of this discourse centers around harm and sexting is commonly considered to be a risky behavior. A driving factor in these discussions is the apparent conflation of consensual and nonconsensual acts or sexting behaviors. A systematic review was conducted to determine the extent to which consensual and nonconsensual acts were conflated in the legal, educational, and psychological literatures on sexting, and how nonconsensual sexting was conceptualized within these disciplines. Definitions of sexting varied widely with regard to the inclusion or exclusion of nonconsensual acts. Nonconsensual acts were conceptualized in the following ways: as a risk of sexing, as being the fault of the victim, as bullying, or as a form of violence against women. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016659486   open full text
  • The Cycle of Abuse: When Victims Become Offenders.
    Plummer, M., Cossins, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 19, 2016

    Various psychological theories exist in the literature to explain the behavior of men who commit child sex offences, including the belief that child sexual abuse (CSA) is a predisposing factor for the transition from victim to offender. These theories are, however, unable to explain the fact that while most victims of CSA are female, most perpetrators of CSA are male. The sex specificity of CSA in terms of victims and offenders suggests that the experience of CSA and its psychosocial effects may be different for boys, compared to girls. We hypothesize that CSA experiences may involve risk factors that affect the development of sexually abusive behavior for boys, rather than girls. Our aim was to determine whether the literature provides evidence of a cycle of abuse from victim to offender, and, if so, to document its characteristics. We undertook a comprehensive literature review of studies on both victims and offenders, including studies which revealed the following: age of onset of CSA, duration of abuse, gender of the abuser, the relationship between victim and abuser, grooming behaviors, the types and severity of abuse, and disclosure of abuse. While we found no evidence for the existence of a cycle of abuse for female CSA victims, we discovered evidence to support the existence of a cycle of abuse for male CSA victims who had experienced particular abuse characteristics. As an original contribution to the literature, we identified four factors that may be associated with a boy’s transition from victim to offender as well as the methodological issues to be addressed in future research. Based on criminological theories, we argue that these four factors share a common theme, that is, that they represent experiences of power (for the abuser) and powerlessness (for the victim).

    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016659487   open full text
  • Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence: A Literature Review of Empirical Research.
    Henry, N., Powell, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 16, 2016

    Technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) refers to a range of behaviors where digital technologies are used to facilitate both virtual and face-to-face sexually based harms. Such behaviors include online sexual harassment, gender- and sexuality-based harassment, cyberstalking, image-based sexual exploitation, and the use of a carriage service to coerce a victim into an unwanted sexual act. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on these different dimensions, drawing on existing empirical studies. While there is a growing body of research into technology-facilitated harms perpetrated against children and adolescents, there is a dearth of qualitative and quantitative research on TFSV against adults. Moreover, few of the existing studies provide reliable data on the nature, scope, and impacts of TFSV. Preliminary studies, however, indicate that some harms, much like sexual violence more broadly, may be predominantly gender-, sexuality-, and age-based, with young women being overrepresented as victims in some categories. This review collects the empirical evidence to date regarding the prevalence and gender-based nature of TFSV against adults and discusses the implications for policy and programs, as well as suggestions for future research.

    June 16, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016650189   open full text
  • A Critical Review of Negative Affect and the Application of CBT for PTSD.
    Brown, W. J., Dewey, D., Bunnell, B. E., Boyd, S. J., Wilkerson, A. K., Mitchell, M. A., Bruce, S. E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 14, 2016

    Forms of cognitive and behavioral therapies (CBTs), including prolonged exposure and cognitive processing therapy, have been empirically validated as efficacious treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the assumption that PTSD develops from dysregulated fear circuitry possesses limitations that detract from the potential efficacy of CBT approaches. An analysis of these limitations may provide insight into improvements to the CBT approach to PTSD, beginning with an examination of negative affect as an essential component to the conceptualization of PTSD and a barrier to the implementation of CBT for PTSD. As such, the literature regarding the impact of negative affect on aspects of cognition (i.e., attention, processing, memory, and emotion regulation) necessary for the successful application of CBT was systematically reviewed. Several literature databases were explored (e.g., PsychINFO and PubMed), resulting in 25 articles that met criteria for inclusion. Results of the review indicated that high negative affect generally disrupts cognitive processes, resulting in a narrowed focus on stimuli of a negative valence, increased rumination of negative autobiographical memories, inflexible preservation of initial information, difficulty considering counterfactuals, reliance on emotional reasoning, and misinterpretation of neutral or ambiguous events as negative, among others. With the aim to improve treatment efficacy of CBT for PTSD, suggestions to incorporate negative affect into research and clinical contexts are discussed.

    June 14, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016650188   open full text
  • Abuse of Older Persons With Dementia: A Review of the Literature.
    Boye, F., Yan, E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 31, 2016

    In view of the rapidly aging population, increasing attention has been paid to studying persons with dementia. Factors associated with its onset, prognosis, and treatment as well as ways to support caregivers in the community have been extensively studied. Despite the fact that older persons with dementia are at higher risk of abuse compared to their cognitively unimpaired counterparts in institutions and the community, however, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding such abuse. This review summarizes the available literature on abuse of older persons with dementia. It compares methodologies used across studies and highlights the implications of using different informants, sampling strategies, and abuse subtypes in studying abuse of persons with dementia and discussed the relevant cultural considerations for research. The results of this review provide important information for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners.

    May 31, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016650185   open full text
  • The Role of Narcissism in Aggression and Violence: A Systematic Review.
    Lambe, S., Hamilton-Giachritsis, C., Garner, E., Walker, J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 24, 2016

    It has long been hypothesized that feelings of inferiority or low self-esteem lead individuals to aggress against those they view as being threatening. However, recent studies suggest that it is not just the level of self-esteem but stability that is relevant to understanding this process. As such, researchers have looked to related constructs, such as narcissism, in trying to understand aggressive behaviors. Narcissism is characterized by a dissociation between an unconscious sense of inadequacy and a conscious feeling of superiority. A large number of studies examining the relationship between narcissism and violence have recently been published within both clinical and student populations. This review aimed to systematically collate the findings of such studies and integrate them within current theories of violence. Electronic literature databases such as Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and LexisNexis (legal database) were searched to identify studies examining the relationship between narcissism and violence. Twenty articles were included in this review, describing 25 separate samples. Findings suggest that narcissism is relevant in understanding aggression and violence. This was consistent across both clinical and nonclinical populations and therefore does not appear to be an artifact of studying either very violent or student samples. Evidence from student samples strongly supported the association between narcissism and aggression following an ego threat, while studies using clinical samples did not examine the effect of an ego threat. These findings may have an impact on how we understand, predict, and reduce violence.

    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016650190   open full text
  • Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.
    Kabengele Mpinga, E., Koya, M., Hasselgard-Rowe, J., Jeannot, E., Rehani, S. B., Chastonay, P.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 19, 2016

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

    May 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016650184   open full text
  • Schools, Families, and the Prevention of Child Maltreatment: Lessons That Can Be Learned From a Literature Review.
    Admon Livny, K., Katz, C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 19, 2016

    Child maltreatment is a worldwide social problem that receives considerable attention. However, prevention efforts remain rare, allowing the phenomenon to continue and spread. The aim of the current article is to systematically review evidence-based prevention efforts that address schools and families as key stakeholders for preventing child maltreatment. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a thorough literature review revealed that only five programs matched the inclusion criteria for the current article. These programs were analyzed for several domains, including level of prevention, target population, participants, and the programs’ outcomes. The current review highlights the urgent needs to develop, modify, and further evaluate prevention programs for child maltreatment in the context of the ecological model. More specifically, it illuminates the need to create and champion programs that enhance the collaboration between families and schools, both of which are key stakeholders within the phenomenon of child maltreatment. Collaboration between policymakers, researchers, and practitioners should guide future efforts by promoting cultural adaptation to such programs and by integrating children’s perceptions to improve these efforts and to benefit everyone involved.

    May 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016650186   open full text
  • Gender Transformative Approaches to Engaging Men in Gender-Based Violence Prevention: A Review and Conceptual Model.
    Casey, E., Carlson, J., Two Bulls, S., Yager, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 18, 2016

    Engaging men and boys as participants and stakeholders in gender-based violence (GBV) prevention initiatives is an increasingly institutionalized component of global efforts to end GBV. Accordingly, evidence of the impact of men’s engagement endeavors is beginning to emerge, particularly regarding interventions aimed at fostering gender equitable and nonviolent attitudes and behaviors among men. This developing evidence base suggests that prevention programs with a "gender transformative" approach, or an explicit focus on questioning gender norms and expectations, show particular promise in achieving GBV prevention outcomes. Interventions targeting attitude and behavior change, however, represent just one kind of approach within a heterogeneous collection of prevention efforts around the globe, which can also include community mobilization, policy change, and social activism. The degree to which gender transformative principles inform this broader spectrum of men’s engagement work is unclear. The goals of this article are twofold. First, we offer a conceptual model that captures and organizes a broader array of men’s antiviolence activities in three distinct but interrelated domains: (1) initial outreach and recruitment of previously unengaged males, (2) interventions intended to promote gender-equitable attitudes and behavior among men, and (3) gender equity-related social action aimed at eradicating GBV, inclusive of all genders’ contributions. Second, we review empirical literature in each of these domains. Across these two goals, we critically assess the degree to which gender transformative principles inform efforts within each domain, and we offer implications for the continuing conceptualization and assessment of efforts to increase men’s participation in ending GBV.

    May 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016650191   open full text
  • Trafficking and Health: A Systematic Review of Research Methods.
    Cannon, A. C., Arcara, J., Graham, L. M., Macy, R. J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 17, 2016

    Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP and its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to TIP’s clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, and the need to use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, and research to assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature review of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles to (a) identify TIP and health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research. Results revealed that there are various quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods being used to investigate TIP and health. Furthermore, findings show that the limitations of current methodologies affect what is known about TIP and health. In particular, varying definitions, participant recruitment strategies, ethical standards, and outcome measures all affect what is known about TIP and health. Moreover, findings demonstrate an urgent need for representative and nonpurposive recruitment strategies in future investigations of TIP and health as well as research on risk and protective factors related to TIP and health, intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, and research on trafficked people beyond women trafficked for sex. We offer recommendations for research, policy, and practice based on review results.

    May 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016650187   open full text
  • Fostering Child Development by Improving Care Quality: A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Structural Interventions and Caregiver Trainings in Institutional Care.
    Hermenau, K., Goessmann, K., Rygaard, N. P., Landolt, M. A., Hecker, T.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. April 12, 2016

    Quality of child care has been shown to have a crucial impact on children’s development and psychological adjustment, particularly for orphans with a history of maltreatment and trauma. However, adequate care for orphans is often impacted by unfavorable caregiver–child ratios and poorly trained, overburdened personnel, especially in institutional care in countries with limited resources and large numbers of orphans. This systematic review investigated the effects of structural interventions and caregiver trainings on child development in institutional environments. The 24 intervention studies included in this systematic review reported beneficial effects on the children’s emotional, social, and cognitive development. Yet, few studies focused on effects of interventions on the child–caregiver relationship or the general institutional environment. Moreover, our review revealed that interventions aimed at improving institutional care settings have largely neglected violence and abuse prevention. Unfortunately, our findings are partially limited by constraints of study design and methodology. In sum, this systematic review sheds light on obstacles and possibilities for the improvement in institutional care. There must be greater efforts at preventing violence, abuse, and neglect of children living in institutional care. Therefore, we advocate for combining attachment theory-based models with maltreatment prevention approaches and then testing them using rigorous scientific standards. By using approaches grounded in the evidence, it could be possible to enable more children to grow up in supportive and nonviolent environments.

    April 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016641918   open full text
  • The Impact on Informal Supporters of Domestic Violence Survivors: A Systematic Literature Review.
    Gregory, A. C., Williamson, E., Feder, G.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. April 10, 2016

    Domestic violence (DV) is experienced by 1 in 4 women in the United Kingdom during their lifetime, and most survivors will seek informal support from the people around them, even if they choose not to access help from professionals. Support from these relatives, friends, neighbors, and colleagues can provide a buffer against effects on the survivor’s physical health, mental health, and quality of life, and has been shown to be protective against future abuse. There has been an absence of research studying members of survivors’ networks and, in particular, investigating how the impact of DV might diffuse to affect them. A systematic literature review of reported research (either in peer-reviewed journals or in gray literature) was undertaken to explore the impacts of DV on survivor networks. Of the articles found, 24 had data relating to the topic area, though no study addressed the question directly. Framework analysis and meta-ethnography generated the following themes: physical health impacts, negative impacts on psychological well-being, direct impacts from the perpetrator, and beneficial impacts on psychological well-being. The studies in this review indicated that informal supporters may be experiencing substantial impact, including vicarious trauma and the risk of physical harm. Currently, there is little support available which is directly aimed at informal supporters of DV survivors, thus these findings have practical and policy implications, in order to acknowledge and meet their needs.

    April 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016641919   open full text
  • A Scoping Review on Studies of Cyberbullying Prevalence Among Adolescents.
    Brochado, S., Soares, S., Fraga, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. April 05, 2016

    This descriptive scoping aims to understand how the prevalence of cyberbullying has been estimated across studies. A systematic scoping review of cyberbullying empirical studies was conducted by using three bibliographic databases to search for papers published between January 2004 and August 2014. A protocol was defined to identify the relevant papers. Papers selected were included in a data sheet developed by the authors to record specific findings. In total, 159 studies were included in the scoping review. Most of the prevalence studies were conducted in the last 4 years, mainly in North America (n = 77) and in Europe (n = 65). High methodological heterogeneity was found among the studies, which may contribute to explain variability in prevalence estimates. Cyberbullying experiences were assessed through several different perspectives: focused only on victims, focused only on perpetrators, or focused on both victims and perpetrators (without differentiating between if they are victims or perpetrators). Most of the studies tend to assess cybervictimization experiences. However, even considering the same perspective, the same country, and the same recall period, a high variability in the estimates was observed. As a main conclusion, the way in which the prevalence of cyberbullying is estimated is influenced by methodological research options.

    April 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016641668   open full text
  • Outcome Measures for Evaluating Intimate Partner Violence Programs Within Clinical Settings: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
    Sprague, S., McKay, P., Madden, K., Scott, T., Tikasz, D., Slobogean, G. P., Bhandari, M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. April 05, 2016

    Multiple intimate partner violence (IPV) identification and assistance programs have been implemented across clinical settings. The results of these studies are inconclusive and frequently conflicting, resulting in clinical uncertainty and controversy regarding the merits of IPV identification and assistance programs. We aimed to describe the choice of outcome measures used in previously published randomized trials of IPV identification and assistance programs.


    A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the Medline, Embase, PyscInfo, and CENTRAL databases. The outcomes assessed in each included study were extracted and categorized, and the methodological quality of each eligible study was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool.


    Of 20 eligible studies, 6 evaluated IPV identification programs and 14 studies examined IPV assistance programs. The included studies used 48 different outcomes that we classified into 10 categories. For identification studies, the most commonly used outcome categories were IPV disclosure (66.7%) and resource use (66.7%). The most commonly used outcome categories for the IPV assistance studies included IPV recurrence and severity (64.3%) and health outcomes (50%). The included studies demonstrated a number of methodological limitations as identified by the Cochrane Risk of Bias instrument.


    IPV identification and assistance programs are evaluated using many different outcome measures. Although this diversity enriches the IPV literature, it makes it challenging to compare studies. The results of this review highlight the challenges of conducting research in the field of IPV and the complexity of selecting, measuring, and interpreting outcomes.

    April 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016641667   open full text
  • Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.
    Beck, D. C., Choi, K. R., Munro-Kramer, M. L., Lori, J. R.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 31, 2016

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

    March 31, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016641670   open full text
  • Sexual Assault and Justice for Older Women: A Critical Review of the Literature.
    Fileborn, B.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 31, 2016

    This article provides a critical review of current literature on the sexual assault of older women—including an exploration of the specific features and emotional and physical impacts of older women’s experiences—and highlights current gaps and future directions for research, practice, and theory. A review of the literature indicates that older women constitute only a small proportion of victim/survivors. However, there is evidence to suggest that existing research underestimates the extent of this issue. Older women face particular barriers to disclosure and accessing the justice system, resulting in their experiences remaining hidden. Many of these barriers also contribute toward older women’s experiences being ignored, dismissed, or downplayed by potential bystanders. These barriers are explored in depth in this article and include cultural context, ageism, cognitive and health impairments, and living in a residential care setting. Responding to, and preventing, the sexual assault of older women requires a tailored approach—and we currently lack sufficient insight to develop appropriate responses. In closing, this article considers how we might work toward achieving "justice" for older women victim/survivors.

    March 31, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016641666   open full text
  • Provider Screening and Counseling for Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review of Practices and Influencing Factors.
    Alvarez, C., Fedock, G., Grace, K. T., Campbell, J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 31, 2016

    Primary care providers have an important role in identifying survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and providing safety options. Routine screening rates by providers have been consistently low, indicating a need to better understand providers’ practices to ensure the translation of policy into clinical practice.


    This systematic review examines common themes regarding provider screening practices and influencing factors on these practices.


    A literature search was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The search focused on research articles which met the following criteria: (1) health-care providers as participants, (2) provider reports on screening and counseling practices for IPV, and (3) were in English or Spanish.


    A total of 35 studies were included in the review. Across studies, providers commonly acknowledged the importance of IPV screening yet often used only selective screening. Influencing factors on clinic, provider, and patient levels shaped the process and outcomes of provider screening practices. Overall, a great deal of variability exists in regard to provider screening practices. This variability may be due to a lack of clear system-level guidance for these practices and a lack of research regarding best practices.


    These findings suggest the necessity of more facilitative, clearly defined, and perhaps mandatory strategies to fulfill policy requirements. Future research directions are outlined to assist with these goals.

    March 31, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016637080   open full text
  • Forgiveness Therapy for the Promotion of Mental Well-Being: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Akhtar, S., Barlow, J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 23, 2016

    Interpersonal hurts and violence against the individual have a high prevalence and are associated with a range of long-term problems in terms of psychological functioning. There is a growing body of research highlighting the role of forgiveness therapy in improving different aspects of psychological health in populations who have experienced diverse types of hurt, violence, or trauma. This article reports the findings of a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of process-based forgiveness interventions among samples of adolescents and adults who had experienced a range of sources of hurt or violence against them. Randomized controlled trials were retrieved using electronic databases and an examination of reference sections of previous reviews; each study was assessed for risk of bias. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess treatment effects. The results suggest that forgiveness interventions are effective in reducing depression (SMD = –0.37, 95% CI [–0.68, –0.07]), anger and hostility (SMD = –0.49, 95% CI [–0.77, –0.22]), and stress and distress (SMD = –0.66, 95% CI [–0.91, –0.41]) and in promoting positive affect (SMD = –0.29, 95% CI [–0.52, –0.06]). There was also evidence of improvements in state (SMD = –0.55, 95% CI [–0.88, –0.21) and trait (SMD = –0.43, 95% CI [–0.67, –0.20]) forgiveness. The findings provide moderately strong evidence to suggest that forgiving a variety of real-life interpersonal offenses can be effective in promoting different dimensions of mental well-being. Further research is, however, needed.

    March 23, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016637079   open full text
  • Reporting Sexual Victimization During Incarceration: Using Ecological Theory as a Framework to Inform and Guide Future Research.
    Kubiak, S. P., Brenner, H., Bybee, D., Campbell, R., Fedock, G.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 08, 2016

    The U.S. Department of Justice estimates that between 149,200 and 209,400 incidents of sexual victimization occur annually in prisons and jails. However, very few individuals experiencing sexual victimization during incarceration report these incidents to correctional authorities. Federal-level policy recommendations derived from the Prison Rape Elimination Act suggest mechanisms for improving reporting as well as standards for the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of prison-based sexual victimization. Despite these policy recommendations, sexual assault persists in prisons and jails, with only 8% of prisoners who experience sexual assault reporting their victimization. This review focuses on gaps in the existing research about what factors influence whether adult victims in incarcerated systems will report that they have been sexually assaulted. Using ecological theory to guide this review, various levels of social ecology are incorporated, illuminating a variety of factors influencing the reporting of sexual victimization during incarceration. These factors include the role of individual-level behavior, assault characteristics, the unique aspects and processes of the prison system, and the social stigma that surrounds individuals involved in the criminal/legal system. This review concludes with recommendations for future research, policy, and practice, informed by an ecological conceptualization of reporting.

    March 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016637078   open full text
  • From "Buzzword" to Best Practice: Applying Intersectionality to Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.
    Etherington, N., Baker, L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 07, 2016

    Empirical studies on the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on children have burgeoned over the last three decades. Notably absent from existing approaches to studying children exposed to IPV, however, is attention to how various positionalities intersect to impact the experiences of children and their families. In fact, while the importance of an intersectional framework for understanding IPV has been discussed for over two decades, little or no attention has been given to issues of children’s exposure to IPV. In this article, we examine the current state of the literature on children exposed to IPV through an exploratory meta-analysis, finding limited application of intersectionality and a focus on discrete categories of difference. We then demonstrate why and how an intersectional framework should be applied to children exposed to IPV, with specific strategies for research and policy. We suggest a child-centered approach that recognizes diversity among children exposed to IPV, extending the challenge to traditional "one-size-fits-all" models to include an intersectionality-informed stance.

    March 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016631128   open full text
  • Campus Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review of Prevalence Research From 2000 to 2015.
    Fedina, L., Holmes, J. L., Backes, B. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. February 22, 2016

    Sexual assault is a pervasive problem on university and college campuses in the United States that has garnered growing national attention, particularly in the past year. This is the first study to systematically review and synthesize prevalence findings from studies on campus sexual assault (CSA) published since 2000 (n = 34). The range of prevalence findings for specific forms of sexual victimization on college campuses (i.e., forcible rape, unwanted sexual contact, incapacitated rape, sexual coercion, and studies’ broad definitions of CSA/rape) is provided, and methodological strengths and limitations in the empirical body of research on CSA are discussed. Prevalence findings, research design, methodology, sampling techniques, and measures, including the forms of sexual victimization measured, are presented and evaluated across studies. Findings suggest that unwanted sexual contact appears to be most prevalent on college campuses, including sexual coercion, followed by incapacitated rape, and completed or attempted forcible rape. Additionally, several studies measured broad constructs of sexual assault that typically include combined forms of college-based sexual victimization (i.e., forcible completed or attempted rape, unwanted sexual contact, and/or sexual coercion). Extensive variability exists within findings for each type of sexual victimization measured, including those that broadly measure sexual assault, which is largely explained by differences in sampling strategies and overall study designs as well as measures of sexual assault used in studies. Implications for findings and recommendations for future research on the prevalence of college-based sexual victimization are provided.

    February 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016631129   open full text
  • Bullying and Other Forms of Peer Victimization in Adolescence and Alcohol Use.
    Maniglio, R.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. February 17, 2016

    To examine the relationship between bullying and other forms of peer victimization in adolescence and alcohol use or misuse, all the pertinent studies were reviewed. Fourteen databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were performed by two independent researchers. Seventy-four studies including 2,066,131 participants across 56 countries all over the world and meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to ensure objectivity and to not invalidate results were analyzed. Across studies, evidence for a significant association between peer victimization and alcohol use or misuse was conflicting. Results were affected by sample size, definition of victim status, specific forms of peer victimization, and specific types of alcohol consumption. There was some evidence for a number of mediating or moderating variables, such as depression, coping, drinking motives, attachment to school, social support, and gender. Findings are discussed according to stress-coping and self-medication hypotheses. Alternative etiological mechanisms are also considered.

    February 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838016631127   open full text
  • Linking Adverse Childhood Effects and Attachment: A Theory of Etiology for Sexual Offending.
    Grady, M. D., Levenson, J. S., Bolder, T.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 25, 2016

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem affecting significant portions of the population. Unfortunately, an agreed upon theory of etiology remains elusive leading to challenges in developing effective prevention and treatment interventions. Recently, there is a growing body of literature examining the role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the development of sexually violent behavior. This research has begun to explore the rates of various types of child maltreatments and family dysfunction in individuals who have been convicted of a sexual crime. These empirical inquiries have been primarily descriptive in nature and have not yet provided a cohesive theoretical model as to why the presence of ACEs might contribute to sexually abusive behavior. This article suggests that attachment theory offers an explanatory link between early adversity and sexually abusive behavior in adulthood. We first summarize important attachment theory concepts, then integrate them with research in the area of developmental psychopathology and ACEs, and finally propose a model by which attachment can be used as an explanatory theory for subsequent sexualized coping and sexually abusive behaviors. Finally, this article explores the implications for practice, policy, and research using this explanatory theory as a framework for understanding sexual violence.

    January 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838015627147   open full text
  • Incident Reporting by Health-Care Workers in Noninstitutional Care Settings.
    Campbell, C. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 13, 2016

    Patient-perpetrated violence and aggression toward health-care workers, specifically in noninstitutional health-care settings, cause concerns for both health-care providers and the clients whom they serve. Consequentially, this presents a public affairs problem for the entire health-care system, which the current research has failed to adequately address. While the literature overwhelmingly supports the assertion that accurate incident reporting is critical to fully understanding patient violence and aggression toward health-care providers, there is limited research examining provider decision making related to reporting incidents of patient violence and aggression targeted toward the provider. There is an even greater paucity of research specifically examining this issue in noninstitutional health-care settings. It is therefore the objective of this review to examine this phenomenon across disciplines and service settings in order to offer a comprehensive review of incident reporting and to examine rationales for providers reporting or failing to report instances of patient violence and aggression toward health-care providers.

    January 13, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838015627148   open full text
  • The Need for New Emphasis on Batterers Intervention Programs.
    Aaron, S. M., Beaulaurier, R. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 12, 2016

    Although Batterers’ Intervention Programs (BIPs) remain a crucial part of victim safety and coordinated community responses, they have received less support and less attention by scholars than other parts of the domestic violence system. Research on BIPs also suggests that they have not been particularly effective at preventing recidivism, are prone to attrition, and increasingly lack the support and confidence of the courts. Nevertheless, BIPs remain one of the few viable alternatives to incarceration for perpetrators of domestic violence. This article examines the historical and empirical reasons for the apparent lack of effectiveness of BIPs. New research suggests avenues for improvement. This begins with incorporating existing research findings, consistency in implementation of best practice models, better diagnosis of personality characteristics of perpetrators and of types of violence that characterize their relationships as well as better funding and support for research. In addition, differentiated treatment approaches tailored to the abuser and their particular types of violence may hold promise—and require increased support by the research and practice communities.

    January 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838015622440   open full text
  • Bullying Perpetration, Victimization, and Demographic Differences in College Students: A Review of the Literature.
    Lund, E. M., Ross, S. W.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 11, 2016

    Although bullying has been widely recognized as a serious issue in elementary and secondary school and in the workplace, little is known about the prevalence of bullying in postsecondary education. We conducted a comprehensive search of the peer-reviewed literature and found 14 studies that reported the prevalence of bullying perpetration, victimization, or both in college or university students. Prevalence estimates varied widely been studies, but on average about 20–25% of students reported noncyberbullying victimization during college and 10–15% reported cyberbullying victimization. Similarly, approximately 20% of students on average reported perpetrating noncyberbullying during college, with about 5% reporting cyber perpetration. Men were more likely to report perpetration, but no consistent gender differences in victimization were found. Few studies reported prevalence by sexual orientation or race/ethnicity, and none reported prevalence by disability status. Overall, these results indicate that bullying continues to be prevalent in postsecondary education, but more research needs to be conducted, particularly that which uses multiuniversity samples and examines demographic differences in prevalence rates.

    January 11, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1524838015620818   open full text
  • A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Risk and Protective Factors and Correlates for Posttraumatic Stress and Its Natural History in Forcibly Displaced Children.
    Tam, S. Y., Houlihan, S., Melendez-Torres, G. J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 30, 2015

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) results in significant distress or functional impairment. Prevalence studies report higher rates of PTS in forcibly displaced children (FDC). Current evidence deriving mainly from cross-sectional studies is unable to make causal attributions. Given rising rates of forcible displacement reported by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 2014, there is increasing need to determine the best policies and practice for engaging mental health needs of FDC.


    This systematic review identifies (1) longitudinal risk and protective factors and correlates for PTS and (2) its natural history in FDC, contributing to research identifying vulnerable subgroups and malleable factors for PTS and understanding its natural history. No meta-analysis was conducted due to heterogeneity; results were analyzed through narrative synthesis.


    Eleven longitudinal studies were identified. All but one were prospective cohort designs. They identified prevalence rates between 20% and 48.7% at baseline, 10% and 48.3% at 1 year (k = 7), 18% and 48% at 2–3 years (k = 2), 8% and 38% at 6 years (k = 2), and 35% at 12 years using nine measurement methods in seven independent samples. Evidence from multiple associations supported the following risk factors: exposure to traumatic stressors or other stress, older age, and prior psychopathology. Evidence predominantly supported the stability of PTS with some decline.


    While results should be interpreted with caution given small or unrepresentative samples, they suggest regular mental health screenings should be conducted for FDC, who are a vulnerable subgroup with variable onset and remission. Risk associations with prior psychopathology also suggest that screening upon arrival may be advisable for early intervention and prevention.

    December 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015622437   open full text
  • Nonfatal Strangulation as Part of Domestic Violence: A Review of Research.
    Pritchard, A. J., Reckdenwald, A., Nordham, C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 30, 2015

    This article reviews recent scholarship around the issue of nonfatal strangulation in cases of domestic violence. In the mid-1990s, the San Diego City Attorney’s Office began a systematic study of attempted strangulation among 300 domestic violence cases, becoming one of the first systematic research studies to specifically examine the prevalence of attempted strangulation as a form of injury associated with ongoing domestic violence. Prior to this time, most of the research into strangulation was conducted postmortem, and little was known about the injuries and signs of attempted strangulation among surviving victims. This article reviews the research that has since been conducted around strangulation in domestic violence cases, highlighting topics that are more or less developed in the areas of criminology, forensic science, law, and medicine, and makes recommendations for future research and practice.

    December 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015622439   open full text
  • The National Problem of Untested Sexual Assault Kits (SAKs): Scope, Causes, and Future Directions for Research, Policy, and Practice.
    Campbell, R., Feeney, H., Fehler-Cabral, G., Shaw, J., Horsford, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 23, 2015

    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault kit (SAK; also termed a "rape kit") to preserve physical evidence (e.g., semen, blood, and/or saliva samples) to aid in the investigation and prosecution of the crime. Law enforcement are tasked with submitting the rape kit to a forensic laboratory for DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis, which can be instrumental in identifying offenders in previously unsolved crimes, confirming identify in known-offender assaults, discovering serial rapists, and exonerating individuals wrongly accused. However, a growing number of media stories, investigative advocacy projects, and social science studies indicate that police are not routinely submitting SAKs for forensic testing, and instead rape kits are placed in evidence storage, sometimes for decades. This review article examines the growing national problem of untested rape kits by summarizing current research on the number of untested SAKs in the United States and exploring the underlying reasons why police do not submit this evidence for DNA testing. Recommendations for future research that can guide policy and practice are discussed.

    December 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015622436   open full text
  • The State of Interventions for Sibling Conflict and Aggression: A Systematic Review.
    Tucker, C. J., Finkelhor, D.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 16, 2015

    Sibling conflict and aggression is often a pervasive part of family life that parents want help managing and can have negative effects on children’s well-being. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate current research regarding programs to reduce sibling conflict and aggression and promote positive sibling relationships. Online databases, reference lists, and Google Scholar were searched using key words and inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied. The search located five unique studies of programs focused on school-aged children. Heterogeneity of the studies precluded meta-analysis, but characteristics of the studies were systematically described. Three interventions were aimed at directly improving children’s social skills and two interventions trained parents on mediation techniques to use during sibling conflicts. Overall, of the four studies that included assessment of children’s social skills, the results were positive. Two of the three studies that evaluated sibling relationship quality demonstrated improved sibling interactions compared with the control group. With further research and evidentiary support, these programs have promise to modify sibling behaviors as part of current parenting education programs or as a stand-alone program to address sibling conflict and aggression.

    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015622438   open full text
  • Has Psychiatric Medication Reduced Crime and Delinquency?
    Finkelhor, D., Johnson, M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 13, 2015

    Several strands of research are consistent with the possibility that expansions in psychiatric medication usage have reduced crime and delinquency. Estimates suggest that medication usage has increased to as much as 9% of the youth population and up to 20% of the adult population in the United States and is high among populations associated with the criminal justice system. Studies show that four classes of commonly used psychiatric medication do reduce aggressive behavior, and crime rates are lower among diagnosed patients receiving such medications compared to those not. Prescriptions for medication increased fivefold for youth during the time that crime has declined in the United States and elsewhere, and two population-level analyses find some association between prescription rates and crime trends over time. However, true experimental studies are lacking, and one of the better trend studies does not show strong associations. This article proposes a research agenda for this issue.

    December 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015620817   open full text
  • Yoga for Trauma and Related Mental Health Problems: A Meta-Review With Clinical and Service Recommendations.
    Macy, R. J., Jones, E., Graham, L. M., Roach, L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 09, 2015

    Health and human service providers have expressed growing interest in the benefits of yoga to help individuals cope with the effects of trauma, including anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite the growing popularity and strong appeal of yoga, providers must be mindful of the evidence regarding the efficacy of yoga in treating trauma effects as well as trauma-related mental health symptoms and illnesses. Therefore, our research team sought to answer two questions: (a) What is the evidence regarding yoga as a treatment for trauma effects, including anxiety, depression, and PTSD and (b) what are the clinical and service recommendations for using yoga with trauma-exposed individuals? Our initial scans identified a substantial body of research, including reviews. Rather than replicate earlier efforts, we undertook a systematic meta-review of 13 literature reviews, one of which included a meta-analysis. We determined the 13 reviews examined 185 distinct studies. Findings show that the evidence regarding yoga as an intervention for the effects of trauma as well as the mental health symptoms and illnesses often associated with trauma is encouraging but preliminary. Overall, the body of research is lacking in rigor as well as specificity regarding trauma. Review results also only allow for the recommendation of yoga as an ancillary treatment. Further, the reviews had considerable differences in their methods and limitations. Nonetheless, the results yielded findings concerning how clinicians and service providers can use yoga in their own practices, which is an important step for building an evidence base in this area.

    December 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015620834   open full text
  • Efficacy or Chaos? Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Maltreating Populations: A Review of Research.
    Batzer, S., Berg, T., Godinet, M. T., Stotzer, R. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 09, 2015

    Child abuse remains a serious and expensive social problem in the United States. Few evidence-based treatments (EBTs) exist for at-risk families and/or maltreating families where neglect or abuse has occurred, limiting the ability of social service agencies to comply with legislative mandates to use EBTs with clients. One promising intervention, parent–child interaction therapy (PCIT), has been tested in 11 separate trials with this population. This review of research on PCIT with abusive adults found that overall PCIT is an appropriate, efficacious intervention method to prevent future maltreatment by targeting parenting skills and child externalizing behaviors. These findings must be taken with caution, since the key factor to determine efficacy is completion of treatment, and all the studies involved showed significant problems with sample attrition. While the current studies are promising, there is a need for research that focuses on measuring parental sensitivity and attachment levels, explores use in the foster and adoptive communities, and studies that use tertiary subjects to serve as unbiased reporters of perceived levels of behavioral changes.

    December 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015620819   open full text
  • The Maltreatment-Offending Association: A Systematic Review of the Methodological Features of Prospective and Longitudinal Studies.
    Malvaso, C. G., Delfabbro, P., Day, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 09, 2015

    Although the association between childhood maltreatment and the subsequent development of offending behavior is well documented, the association does not necessarily reflect a causal relationship. This paper provides a systematic review of prospective and longitudinal studies using official records of maltreatment to gain insights into the extent to which methodological variations are likely to influence the conclusions drawn about the likely relationship between maltreatment and offending. Sixty-two original studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were assessed according to a set of seven methodological criteria: (1) inclusion of comparison groups, (2) the use of statistical controls, (3) valid outcome measures, (4) operationalization of maltreatment, (5) proper temporal order of associations, (6) data relating to unsubstantiated maltreatment, and (7) consideration of mediating and moderating factors. The strength of evidence in support of the maltreatment–offending association was influenced by a number of methodological factors. Despite the increasing sophistication of studies, there is a need to be mindful of how these factors are taken into account in future research in order to gain a deeper understanding of the adverse consequences of maltreatment and how this might influence outcomes and inform interventions.

    December 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015620820   open full text
  • Psychological Aspects of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Systematic Review.
    Ayer, L., Venkatesh, B., Stewart, R., Mandel, D., Stein, B., Schoenbaum, M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 27, 2015

    Despite ongoing local and international peace efforts, the Jews, Arabs, and other residents of Israel and the Palestinian territories (i.e., the West Bank and Gaza) have endured decades of political, social, and physical upheaval, with periodic eruptions of violence. It has been theorized that the psychological impact of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict extends beyond the bounds of psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Exposure to the ongoing conflict may lead to changes in the way Israelis and Palestinians think, feel, and act; while these changes may not meet the thresholds of PTSD or depression, they nonetheless could have a strong public health impact. It is unclear whether existing studies have found associations between exposure to the conflict and nonclinical psychological outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize the empirical research on the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and its psychological consequences. As a whole, the body of literature we reviewed suggests that exposure to regional political conflict and violence may have detrimental effects on psychological well-being and that these effects likely extend beyond the psychiatric disorders and symptoms most commonly studied. We found evidence that exposure to the conflict informs not only the way Israelis and Palestinians think, feel, and act but also their attitudes toward different religious and ethnic groups and their degree of support for peace or war. We also found that Palestinians may be at particularly high risk of experiencing psychological distress as a result of the conflict, though more research is needed to determine the extent to which this is due to socioeconomic stress. Our review suggests the need for more studies on the nonclinical psychological aspects of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict as well as for longitudinal studies on the impact of the conflict on both Israelis and Palestinians.

    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015613774   open full text
  • Protective Factors Against Child Victimization in the School and Community: An Exploratory Systematic Review of Longitudinal Predictors and Interacting Variables.
    Jackson, V., Chou, S., Browne, K.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 22, 2015

    Protective factors against the victimization of children and young people within the school and community environments (extrafamilial victimization) have received less attention than risk factors. To date, there has been no systematic review on protective factors. This systematic review therefore aimed to synthesize the prospective longitudinal research findings on the protective factors against extrafamilial victimization. A systematic search of multiple sources led to the identification of 19,053 studies. Following application of a predefined inclusion and quality assessment criteria, 13 studies exploring protective factors against peer victimization and exposure to violence were included in this review. Across these studies, 19 protective factors were explored: 9 individual factors and 10 contextual factors. Four studies also explored the impact of mediating and moderating variables on the relationship between predictors and extrafamilial victimization. Findings highlight inconsistencies in the definition and measurement of victimization, along with bias in a number of areas. Nevertheless, a small number of variables (perceptions of social competence, physical strength, and aggression) were identified as potential protective factors against extrafamilial victimization. Additionally, mediating and moderating variables were identified, and the interaction between individual and contextual protective and risk factors were highlighted. These findings are explored under the theoretical framework of the ecological systems theory and their practical and research-based implications are discussed.

    October 22, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015611675   open full text
  • Changing the Hidden Curriculum of Campus Rape Prevention and Education: Women's Self-Defense as a Key Protective Factor for a Public Health Model of Prevention.
    McCaughey, M., Cermele, J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 16, 2015

    Recent activist, policy, and government efforts to engage in campus rape prevention education (RPE), culminating in the 2014 White House Task Force recommendations to combat campus sexual assault, prompt a need to examine the concept of "prevention" in the context of sexual assault on U.S. college campuses and their surrounding community service agencies. This article reviews previous research on effective resistance to sexual assault, showing that self-defense is a well-established protective factor in a public health model of sexual assault prevention. The article goes on to show, through an examination of campus rape prevention efforts framed as "primary prevention," that self-defense is routinely excluded. This creates a hidden curriculum that preserves a gender status quo even while it strives for change. The article concludes with recommendations for how administrators, educators, facilitators, funding agencies, and others can incorporate self-defense into campus RPE for a more effective, data-driven set of sexual assault prevention efforts.

    October 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015611674   open full text
  • A Systematic Review of Posttraumatic Growth in Survivors of Interpersonal Violence in Adulthood.
    Elderton, A., Berry, A., Chan, C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 11, 2015

    This review critically evaluates the literature on posttraumatic growth in survivors of interpersonal violence, integrating the findings from 12 quantitative and 4 qualitative studies. The following databases were searched using predetermined terms: AMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BNI, CINAHL, and Web of Knowledge. The review’s findings suggest that the mean prevalence of growth in interpersonal violence survivors is around 71% (range 58–99%). The highest level of growth was consistently experienced in the "appreciation of life" domain. However, survivors reported growth in the four remaining domains: "personal strength," "new possibilities," "experience of relationships with others," and "outlook on life." The nature of the relationship between growth and distress was inconsistent across studies. A combination of pretrauma, peritrauma, and posttrauma variables were found to be related to the degree of growth survivors experienced. Methodological weaknesses of the quantitative studies included the predominant use of retrospective, cross-sectional, correlational designs, discrepancy in the measurement of growth, insufficient sample sizes for power calculations in five studies and limited external validity. Qualitative findings were limited by sampling methods, insufficient information about interview schedules, the lack of credibility checks, and evidence of reflexivity demonstrated by some studies. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.

    October 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015611672   open full text
  • Permanency and Safety Among Children in Foster Family and Kinship Care: A Scoping Review.
    Bell, T., Romano, E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 11, 2015

    Over the past 25 years, kinship care placements have risen dramatically, such that when a child enters into care, child welfare agencies must first attempt to identify safe living arrangements with relatives or individuals known to the child before searching for alternatives. Despite the growing emphasis on kinship care, little is known about its impact on child outcomes in comparison to other placement types (e.g., foster family). Therefore, the aim of this scoping review was to evaluate quantitative research on children in out-of-home care from 2007 to 2014 with regard to the following outcomes: (1) permanency (i.e., reunification, reentry, placement stability, and adoption/guardianship) and (2) safety (e.g., additional reports to child welfare). Based on these objectives, the review identified 54 studies that examined permanency and safety among children in two major placement types, namely foster family and kinship care. Across studies, children in kinship care experienced greater permanency in terms of a lower rate of reentry, greater placement stability, and more guardianship placements in comparison to children living with foster families. Children in kinship care, however, had lower rates of adoption and reunification. The findings also indicated that differences in these variables diminish over time. Findings for safety outcomes were mixed. Study methodological limitations and recommendations for future research are considered.

    October 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015611673   open full text
  • Housing Relocation Policy and Violence: A Literature Review.
    Casas, A., Duell, J., O'Malley, T., Documet, P., Garland, R., Albert, S., Fabio, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. September 06, 2015

    This article summarizes and reviews the cross-discipline literature on violent crime in destination neighborhoods postrelocation in order to build a more comprehensive picture of risk factors for violence, as well as how and why housing policies influence risk of violence. High rates of violent crime continue to be a persistent problem in areas of concentrated poverty and public housing. Modern housing programs such as Moving to Opportunity and Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere are popular interventions for reducing the density of low-income people receiving public housing assistance by relocating residents of distressed housing projects. However, evidence suggests that relocated residents may not experience less violence or improved safety in their new communities.

    September 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015603211   open full text
  • Perpetrators' and Victims' Attributions for IPV: A Critical Review of the Literature.
    Neal, A. M., Edwards, K. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. September 06, 2015

    Research shows that there are a variety of reasons why people self-report engaging in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, but few studies report victims’ attributions for their partners’ IPV perpetration. Because there are two acting partners in relationships, as well as the IPV incidents that occur in the relationships, to fully understand the dynamics of IPV, both partners’ perceptions of why the incidents occur must be understood. The authors of this article systematically reviewed the available empirical evidence regarding male and female perpetrators’ endorsed attributions for their IPV perpetration, as well victims’ attributions for their partners’ IPV perpetration. Several literature databases were explored, resulting in 50 articles that met the criteria for inclusion in this review. IPV perpetrators’ commonly endorsed attributions for physical and psychological IPV consisted of control, anger, retaliation, self-defense, to get attention, and an inability to express oneself verbally. Research has not examined endorsed attributions for coercive control. The few studies examining attributions for sexual IPV found that it was attributed to dominance or hedonism. Themes regarding victims’ attributions were largely similar to those of the perpetrators, however, there were some differences. Victims’ attributions for physical IPV perpetration consisted of anger, control, jealousy, and the influence of drugs/alcohol, which are similar to perpetrators’ self-reported attributions for engaging in IPV perpetration. Victims’ attributions for their partners’ psychological IPV perpetration consisted of the perpetrator’s personality, relationship dissolution, alcohol, and their partners’ jealousy. Victims’ attributions for their partners’ sexual IPV perpetration, however, differed from perpetrators’ attributions, consisting of the victim believing that the perpetrator thought they wanted it, being under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and doing it out of love. Methodological inconsistencies, directions for future research, and treatment implications are also discussed.

    September 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015603551   open full text
  • Attentional Bias for Sexual Threat Among Sexual Victimization Survivors: A Meta-Analytic Review.
    Latack, J. A., Moyer, A., Simon, V. A., Davila, J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. September 03, 2015

    The current meta-analysis examined the effects of sexual victimization (SV) on attentional bias for sexual threat. This relationship was also examined among victims of SV with and without a current diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The broader aim was to elucidate potential mechanisms operating between SV and negative health outcomes. As hypothesized, the findings supported a positive relationship between SV and attentional bias toward sexual threat stimuli, and subanalyses indicated that PTSD symptomatology significantly contributed to this association.

    September 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015602737   open full text
  • Stalking: A Multidimensional Framework for Assessment and Safety Planning.
    Logan, T., Walker, R.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. September 03, 2015

    Despite the high prevalence of stalking and the risk of harm it poses to victims, arrest rates, prosecutions, and convictions for stalking continue to be low in the United States. The overall goal of this article is to introduce a multidimensional framework of stalking that adds to the current literature by (1) providing a conceptual framework consistent with legal elements of many stalking statutes to facilitate assessment, communication, documentation, and safety planning for stalking several victims; (2) introducing a more systematic way of assessing course of conduct and the context of fear in stalking situations in order to increase the understanding of cumulative fear for stalking victims; (3) emphasizing the aspects of stalking harm that go beyond violence and that show how harm from stalking accumulates over time including life sabotage; and (4) discussing 12 risk factors derived from the overall multidimensional framework that can be used to describe the big picture of stalking and to facilitate safety planning for victims. Implications for future research are discussed.

    September 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015603210   open full text
  • Short-Term Interventions for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Arroyo, K., Lundahl, B., Butters, R., Vanderloo, M., Wood, D. S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. September 02, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) impacts millions of adults and children every year and can result in homicide, legal proceedings, the involvement of child welfare, and the need for emergency shelter for survivors and their families. Survivors of IPV may develop psychological and somatic symptoms to the trauma, including anxiety, depression, and other mental health related disorders in addition to facing numerous safety, financial, and social challenges. To reestablish stability, effective short-term interventions are needed in order to address these issues survivors face. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes the extant literature on short-term interventions for survivors of IPV. Twenty-one studies are included in the analysis and overall effect sizes calculations and moderator analysis were conducted. On average, effects sizes were large (g = 1.02) suggesting that most sort-term interventions are effective, however CBT-based interventions that were tailored to IPV survivors achieved the largest effect sizes. Results of this study are presented in a question and answer format with the intent to guide practitioners, researchers and policy makers. IPV survivors access services in a variety of shelter and outpatient settings and present diverse needs. Although this study contributes a systematic review of the existing literature on IPV, there are relatively few rigorous outcome studies and even fewer that reflect the diversity in this population and the complexity of responding to IPV in real-world settings.

    September 02, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015602736   open full text
  • The Effects of Prison Visits From Family Members on Prisoners' Well-Being, Prison Rule Breaking, and Recidivism: A Review of Research Since 1991.
    De Claire, K., Dixon, L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. August 31, 2015

    The effect of family visits on prisoner well-being and future behavior is an important consideration in the development of prison policy. This review systematically examines current research findings that explore the impact of prison visits from family members on three specific offender outcomes: prisoners’ well-being, rule breaking within the prison, and recidivism. The review focuses on visits by family and does not duplicate earlier reviews but rather extends them into current literature, through identification of empirical studies conducted post 1989, published since 1991. Ten studies met the stipulated inclusion criteria. All are case–control and cohort studies. The review of studies used a standardized quality assessment tool. Results show considerable variation in study quality, methods, and findings. However, studies consistently reported positive effects of prisoners receiving visits. Prison visits reduced depressive symptoms in women and adolescent prisoners. There was some evidence of reduction in rule-breaking behavior. One high-quality study suggested that visits reduced recidivism and increased survival in the community. Although there were positive outcomes associated with prison visits, it was not possible to draw strong conclusions for the outcomes of interest due to a lack of research, methodological discrepancies, and variability in outcome measures and results. The discussion considers the implications of the findings for policy, practice, and research.

    August 31, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015603209   open full text
  • Association Between Substance Use and the Perpetration of Family Violence in Industrialized Countries: A Systematic Review.
    Choenni, V., Hammink, A., van de Mheen, D.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. August 20, 2015

    This review examines the association between alcohol and illicit drug use and the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM). In clinical populations, alcohol use is related to IPV, although other variables are also known to influence this relationship. Studies in specialized social/health care and in the community have also demonstrated the association between alcohol use and IPV. Although data on the association between illicit drug use and IPV are less clear, in most studies perpetration seems related to the use of cannabis and cocaine. The occurrence of CM is related to alcohol use in specialized social/health care and community populations but has not been extensively investigated in clinical samples. These findings also apply to studies on the association between illicit drug use and CM. Moreover, many studies on CM fail to distinguish between the effects of alcohol and those of illicit drugs. This review concludes with recommendations for future research about substance use and family violence and discusses implications for prevention and treatment.

    August 20, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015589253   open full text
  • Mental Health Help Seeking Among Traumatized Individuals: A Systematic Review of Studies Assessing the Role of Substance Use and Abuse.
    van den Berk-Clark, C., Patterson Silver Wolf, D.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 30, 2015

    Prior research has suggested that competing neurobehavioral decision-making processes might affect health outcomes among traumatized populations. Regulatory imbalances to impulsive and executive decision systems are affected by high levels of stress, including stress resulting from traumatic events. Such regulatory imbalances have been associated with addictive behaviors. However, it is not well known whether addictive behavior increases or decreases the likelihood of utilization of behavioral health services among traumatized populations. The aim of this study is to systematically review mental health utilization studies targeting traumatized populations to determine the direction of association between substance use and behavioral health utilization.


    Databases of literature were searched in a systematic manner, and 37 relevant studies were recovered and analyzed.


    Of the 37 relevant studies that included addictive behaviors as a predictor of utilization, 16 showed a positive significant relationship and 6 showed a negative significant relationship. Studies showing a negative significant relationship used younger samples with more recent trauma exposure.


    Studies have shown that for the most part, substance abuse increases the likelihood of utilization, except among younger populations with more recent trauma. Longitudinal studies that access how utilization evolves over time among traumatized populations and interacts with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance abuse severity are necessary to better understand how decision-making processes of traumatized individuals may increase the likelihood of chronic PTSD.

    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015596344   open full text
  • A Scientific Answer to a Scientific Question: The Gender Debate on Intimate Partner Violence.
    Hamby, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 28, 2015

    This article addresses Winstok’s critiques and comments on my review and analysis of the status of scientific information on intimate partner violence (IPV). I present some background on the development of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an analysis of issues related to the operationalization of gender symmetry in IPV, and an evaluation of the hypotheses put forth by Winstok and others to explain the multimethod divergence in estimates for IPV gender patterns. Happily, we know much more about IPV than we did at the time of the creation and publication of the CTS2 in the mid-1990s, and excellent data can be brought to bear on many of these hypotheses. A scientific evaluation indicates that these hypotheses do not explain all of the data showing multimethod divergence. In some cases, these hypotheses have been repeatedly disconfirmed. On the other hand, increasing amounts of data indicate that choices regarding the operationalization of IPV in surveys have a substantial impact on gender patterns. Fairly simply methodological modifications can improve multimethod convergence. Evidence-based suggestions for measures showing multimethod convergence are provided. The field needs to continue to invest in increasing the scientific precision of violence measures.

    July 28, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015596963   open full text
  • Critical Review of Hamby's (2014) Article Titled "Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Research, Scientific Progress, Scientific Challenges, and Gender".
    Winstok, Z.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 28, 2015

    In a recent article, Hamby advocates the replacement of the "old" Conflict Tactic Scales used to measure physical partner violence (PV) with a new measurement instrument that represents and supports a thesis that gender use of physical PV is asymmetrical rather than symmetrical. This article takes a critical look at the logic, assumptions, arguments, examples, interpretations, and conclusions, presented in Hamby’s article, and in some cases disagrees with them. Furthermore, this article uses Hamby’s proposals as an opportunity to review and examine core issues in the study of perpetration of physical PV, including gender-related theoretical and methodological issues.

    July 28, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015596962   open full text
  • Systematic Review on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Survivors of the Wenchuan Earthquake.
    Hong, C., Efferth, T.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 27, 2015

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) widely occurs among victims or witness of disasters. With flashbacks, hyperarousal, and avoidance being the typical symptoms, PTSD became a focus of psychological research. The earthquake in Wenchuan, China, on May 12, 2008, was without precedent in magnitude and aftermath and caused huge damage, which drew scientists’ attention to mental health of the survivors. We conducted a systematic overview by collecting published articles from the PubMed database and classifying them into five points: epidemiology, neuropathology, biochemistry, genetics and epigenetics, and treatment. The large body of research during the past 6 years showed that adolescents and adults were among the most studied populations with high prevalence rates for PTSD. Genomic and transcriptomic studies focusing on gene x environment studies as well as epigenetics are still rare, although a few available data showed great potential to better understand the pathophysiology of PTSD as multifactorial disease. Phytotherapy with Chinese herbs and acupuncture are rarely reported as of yet, although the first published data indicated promising therapy effects. Future studies should focus on the following points: (1) The affected populations under observation should be better defined concerning individual risk factor, time of observation, spatial movement, and individual disease courses of patients. (2) The role of social support for prevalence rates of PTSD should be observed in more detail. (3) Efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine should be studied to find potential interventions and effective treatments of PTSD.

    July 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015585313   open full text
  • Baby Factories in Nigeria: Starting the Discussion Toward a National Prevention Policy.
    Makinde, O. A., Olaleye, O., Makinde, O. O., Huntley, S. S., Brown, B.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 24, 2015

    Baby factories and baby harvesting are relatively new terms that involve breeding, trafficking, and abuse of infants and their biological mothers. Since it was first described in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization report in Nigeria in 2006, several more baby factories have been discovered over the years. Infertile women are noted to be major patrons of these baby factories due to the stigmatization of childless couples in Southern Nigeria and issues around cultural acceptability of surrogacy and adoption. These practices have contributed to the growth in the industry which results in physical, psychological, and sexual violence to the victims. Tackling baby factories will involve a multifaceted approach that includes advocacy and enacting of legislation barring baby factories and infant trafficking and harsh consequences for their patrons. Also, programs to educate young girls on preventing unwanted pregnancies are needed. Methods of improving awareness and acceptability of adoption and surrogacy and reducing the administrative and legal bottlenecks associated with these options for infertile couples should be explored to diminish the importance of baby factories.

    July 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015591588   open full text
  • Assessing Adult Exposure to Community Violence: A Review of Definitions and Measures.
    DeCou, C. R., Lynch, S. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 23, 2015

    Although experiences of community violence are linked with negative outcomes for adults and children, few standardized measures assessing community violence exist, and available measures lack consistency concerning the definition of community violence. Further, most measures currently utilized to assess adult exposure to community violence were designed for use with children and adolescents. To address these identified concerns and make recommendations for future research, this article reviews contemporary definitions of community violence, identifies the outcomes of exposure to community violence for adults, and evaluates measures of exposure to community violence with published psychometric data employing adult samples.


    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify studies that (1) included a self-report of community violence exposure, (2) included primarily adult respondents, and (3) reported psychometric data.


    Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Measures employed in these studies were reviewed and basic psychometric properties discussed. Notably, the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence was the most commonly used measure among these studies.


    Although multiple measures demonstrated limited but acceptable psychometric performance in select studies, few in-depth psychometric analyses exist for measures of adult exposure to community violence. Also, it is difficult to compare studies due to variations in definitions of community violence and multiple versions of each measure. Recommendations for future research include provision of explicit definitions of community violence and reporting psychometric data for measures.

    July 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015590590   open full text
  • A Self-Regulation Model of Sexual Grooming.
    Elliott, I. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 23, 2015

    A preparatory process is widely accepted to be a common feature in the perpetration of sexual offenses. Numerous commentators, however, have documented the difficulties in defining and understanding this process, given its transient nature and its specificity to this one form of criminal behavior. This theoretical review aims to provide a universal model of a grooming process for the achievement of illicit or illegal goals in which achievement requires the compliance or submission of another individual—one that can be applied both to the sexual offending process and beyond. First, an evaluation of three process models of grooming is conducted. Second, using a process of theory knitting, an integrated universal model of illicit grooming is developed. This model unites salient elements of the previous models while seeking to address their limitations. It is founded in control theory and self-regulation approaches to behavior, assumes a goal-directed protagonist, and comprises two distinct phases, namely, (1) a potentiality phase of rapport-building, incentivization, disinhibition, and security-management and (2) a disclosure phase in which goal-relevant information is introduced in a systematic and controlled manner in order to desensitize the target. Finally, the theoretical quality of the model is appraised, and its clinical implications are discussed.

    July 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015591573   open full text
  • The Nature of Instrumentality and Expressiveness of Homicide Crime Scene Behaviors: A Review.
    Adjorlolo, S., Chan, H. C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 23, 2015

    Homicide offender typologies developed based on crime scene behaviors have practical utility for scholarly and criminal investigative endeavors. Hence, there has been an increasing interest to develop empirical and testable offender typologies. Specifically, the present study offers a review of the instrumental/expressive offender dichotomy, which is developed primarily based on the analysis of (nonsexual) homicide crime scene behaviors. The validity of the instrumental/expressive dichotomy of homicide offenders have been supported by various studies that sampled population from different countries. In addition, the extant literature indicates that the instrumental and expressive categories could further be expressed in different subthemes or dimensions. Implications for practice in the aspect of suspect prioritization as well as for research are discussed.

    July 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015596528   open full text
  • Trauma Center Based Youth Violence Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review.
    Mikhail, J. N., Nemeth, L. S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 29, 2015

    Youth violence recidivism remains a significant public health crisis in the United States. Violence prevention is a requirement of all trauma centers, yet little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, this systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of trauma center–based youth violence prevention programs.


    A systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases was performed to identify eligible control trials or observational studies. Included studies were from 1970 to 2013, describing and evaluating an intervention, were trauma center based, and targeted youth injured by violence (tertiary prevention). The social ecological model provided the guiding framework, and findings are summarized qualitatively.


    Ten studies met eligibility requirements. Case management and brief intervention were the primary strategies, and 90% of the studies showed some improvement in one or more outcome measures. These results held across both social ecological level and setting: both emergency department and inpatient unit settings.


    Brief intervention and case management are frequent and potentially effective trauma center–based violence prevention interventions. Case management initiated as an inpatient and continued beyond discharge was the most frequently used intervention and was associated with reduced rearrest or reinjury rates. Further research is needed, specifically longitudinal studies using experimental designs with high program fidelity incorporating uniform direct outcome measures. However, this review provides initial evidence that trauma centers can intervene with the highest of risk patients and break the youth violence recidivism cycle.

    June 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584373   open full text
  • The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.
    Lowe, S. R., Galea, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 19, 2015

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions.

    June 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015591572   open full text
  • A Systematic Review of Research Strategies Used in Qualitative Studies on School Bullying and Victimization.
    Patton, D. U., Hong, J. S., Patel, S., Kral, M. J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 19, 2015

    School bullying and victimization are serious social problems in schools. Most empirical studies on bullying and peer victimization are quantitative and examine the prevalence of bullying, associated risk and protective factors, and negative outcomes. Conversely, there is limited qualitative research on the experiences of children and adolescents related to school bullying and victimization. We review qualitative research on school bullying and victimization published between 2004 and 2014. Twenty-four empirical research studies using qualitative methods were reviewed. We organize the findings from these studies into (1) emic, (2) context specific, (3) iterative, (4) power relations, and (5) naturalistic inquiry. We find that qualitative researchers have focused on elaborating on and explicating the experiences of bully perpetrators, victims, and bystanders in their own words. Directions for research and practice are also discussed.

    June 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015588502   open full text
  • The Impact of Inmate and Prison Characteristics on Prisoner Victimization.
    Steiner, B., Ellison, J. M., Butler, H. D., Cain, C. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 04, 2015

    A considerable amount of research has been directed at understanding the sources of inmate misconduct (offending within prison), whereas few studies have focused on identifying the causes and correlates of prisoner victimization. The sources of inmate victimization should be distinguished from those of offending, however, because the policy implications of each focus differ to some extent. In order to determine the predictors of inmate victimization and stimulate further research on the topic, we systematically reviewed studies of the causes/correlates of prisoner victimization published between 1980 and 2014. Our findings revealed that predictor variables reflecting inmates’ background characteristics (e.g., history of victimization), their institutional routines and experiences (e.g., history of misconduct), and prison characteristics (e.g., population size) all influence victimization.

    June 04, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015588503   open full text
  • Aftercare Services for Child Victims of Sex Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Policy and Practice.
    Muraya, D. N., Fry, D.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 29, 2015

    To explore aftercare services provided to child victims of sex trafficking globally based on the results of a systematic review of published and unpublished research, organizational policy, and current practice. This systematic review serves as a first step toward developing best practices for aftercare service providers.


    A systematic search was conducted of four English language databases, two human trafficking resource libraries, and one Internet search engine for journal articles and "grey" literature published between January 2000 and May 2013 on the services offered to child sex trafficking victims globally. The search yielded 15 documents for inclusion in the review.


    The 15 documents emphasized the need for aftercare service provision to be founded on children’s rights and trauma-informed service provision. They recommended delivery practices such as case management and multidisciplinary, multiagency and multinational coordination to ensure the child victims benefit fully from the services. The systematic review revealed that there are three phases to aftercare service provision: rescue, recover, and reintegration. Each of these phases is characterized by different needs and types of services provided. The recovery phase received the most attention compared to recovery and reintegration phases.


    The literature highlighted that aftercare service provision for child sex trafficking victims is a new area that needs an evidence base from which policy and practice can be formed. There is great need for further research and better documentation of service provision. While this research provides insight into this area, the gap in literature remains wide. The area of aftercare service provision for children who have been trafficked has experienced phenomenal growth within the last 10 years, and with more research and resources being directed to the area, the achievement of international minimum standards of care provision is possible.

    May 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584356   open full text
  • Feminist Framework Plus: Knitting Feminist Theories of Rape Etiology Into a Comprehensive Model.
    McPhail, B. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 27, 2015

    The radical–liberal feminist perspective on rape posits that the assault is motivated by power and control rather than sexual gratification and is a violent rather than a sexual act. However, rape is a complex act. Relying on only one early strand of feminist thought to explain the etiology of rape limits feminists’ understanding of rape and the practice based upon the theory. The history of the adoption of the "power, not sex" theory is presented and the model critiqued. A more integrated model is developed and presented, the Feminist Framework Plus, which knits together five feminist theories into a comprehensive model that better explains the depth and breadth of the etiology of rape. Empirical evidence that supports each theory is detailed as well as the implications of the model on service provision, education, and advocacy.

    May 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584367   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence in Self-Identified Lesbians: A Systematic Review of Its Prevalence and Correlates.
    Badenes-Ribera, L., Bonilla-Campos, A., Frias-Navarro, D., Pons-Salvador, G., Monterde-i-Bort, H.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 27, 2015

    This article presents the first systematic review on intimate partner violence (IPV) in self-identified lesbians in same-sex couples. Studies published from January 1990 to December 2013 were analyzed. Of the 687 studies reviewed, 59 were preselected, of which 14 studies were selected that met the inclusion and methodological quality criteria. A summary is presented of the characteristics of the studies, the participants, the prevalence of IPV victimization and perpetration, and its correlates. All the studies were carried out in the United States and used a nonprobabilistic sampling method. The majority of participants were White with a high educational level. The results indicate that all the forms of violence occur, but the most prevalent is emotional/psychological violence. The correlates positively associated with IPV are certain personality characteristics, fusion, previous IPV experience, a family history of violence, and alcohol consumption. This review finds significant limitations in the analyzed literature. Methodological recommendations are made for future studies.

    May 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584363   open full text
  • The Proximal Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on Male-to-Female Aggression: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Experimental Literature.
    Crane, C. A., Godleski, S. A., Przybyla, S. M., Schlauch, R. C., Testa, M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 24, 2015

    The current meta-analytic review examined the experimental literature to quantify the causal effect of acute alcohol consumption on self-reported and observed indicators of male-to-female general, sexual, and intimate partner aggression. Database and reference list searches yielded 22 studies conducted between 1981 and 2014 that met all criteria for inclusion and that were subjected to full text coding for analysis. Results detected a significant overall effect (d = .36), indicating that male participants who consumed alcohol evidenced greater aggressive behavior toward females while completing a subsequent laboratory aggression paradigm than male participants who received no alcohol. We found homogeneity across all categories of potential moderator variables. Results further indicated that alcohol resulted in comparable increases of male-to-female sexual (d = .32) and intimate partner (d = .45) aggression. Further research is required to draw meaningful conclusions about individual and situational factors that may interact with acute alcohol consumption to produce the highest levels of risk.

    May 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584374   open full text
  • Childhood Maltreatment and Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.
    Choi, K. W., Sikkema, K. J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 17, 2015

    Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) compromise maternal and child well-being and may be influenced by traumatic experiences across the life course. A potent and common form of trauma is childhood maltreatment, but its specific impact on PMADs is not well understood. A systematic review was undertaken to synthesize empirical literature on the relationship between maternal histories of childhood maltreatment and PMADs. Of the 876 citations retrieved, 35 reports from a total of 26,239 participants met inclusion criteria, documenting substantial rates of childhood maltreatment and PMADs. Robust trends of association were observed between childhood maltreatment and perinatal depression, as well as post-traumatic stress disorder, but findings for anxiety were less consistent. Examining multivariate results suggested that childhood maltreatment predicts PMADs above and beyond sociodemographic, psychiatric, perinatal, and psychosocial factors, but may also be partially mediated by variables such as later victimization and moderated by protective early relationships. Future research should test mediating and moderating pathways using prospective cohorts, expanding to cross-cultural settings and other disorder outcomes. Treatment and prevention of childhood maltreatment and its sequelae may help mitigate risk for perinatal psychopathology and its impact on maternal and child outcomes.

    May 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584369   open full text
  • Rethinking Compassion Fatigue Through the Lens of Professional Identity: The Case of Child-Protection Workers.
    Geoffrion, S., Morselli, C., Guay, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 17, 2015

    Compassion fatigue is currently the dominant model in work-related stress studies that explain the consequences of caring for others on child-protection workers. Based on a deterministic approach, this model excludes the role of cognition a priori and a posteriori in the understanding of the impact of caregiving or providing social support. By integrating the notion of professional identity, this article adds a subjective perspective to the compassion fatigue model allowing for the consideration of positive outcomes and takes into account the influence of stress caused by accountability. Mainly, it is argued that meanings derived from identity and given to situations may protect or accelerate the development of compassion fatigue or compassion satisfaction. To arrive at this proposition, the notions of compassion fatigue and identity theory are first reviewed. These concepts are then articulated around four work-related stressors specific to child-protection work. In light of this exercise, it is argued that professional identity serves as a subjective interpretative framework that guides the understanding of work-related situations. Therefore, compassion fatigue is not only a simple reaction to external stimuli. It is influenced by meanings given to the situation. Furthermore, professional identity modulates the impact of compassion fatigue on psychological well-being. Practice, policy, and research implications in light of these findings are also discussed.

    May 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584362   open full text
  • Sexual Risk Behaviors, Sexual Offenses, and Sexual Victimization Among Homeless Youth: A Systematic Review of Associations With Substance Use.
    Heerde, J. A., Hemphill, S. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 17, 2015

    The use of substances among youth experiencing homelessness is an important issue in the context of addressing the developing burden of morbidities arising due to illness, injury, physical and mental health concerns, and low rates of health care utilization among this population group. Youth experiencing homelessness report engaging in and being victimized by various forms of sexual behavior. Of interest in this systematic review were published studies investigating substance use in its association with perpetration of sexual offenses, engagement in sexual risk behavior, or experience of sexual victimization among homeless youth. A systematic search of 12 psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "sex crimes," "sexual victimization," "survival sex," "rape," "drugs," and "substance abuse." Twenty-three studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. No studies statistically examining substance use in its association with perpetrating sexual offenses were located. Findings showed substance use was generally associated with sexual risk behavior or sexual victimization; however, it remains unclear whether substance use precedes or follows these behaviors and experiences. It is possible substances are used by homeless youth as a means of coping with sexual risk behavior and victimization. Implications of the review findings in relation to prevention and intervention approaches aimed to decrease the incidence and severity of health concerns among homeless youth are discussed.

    May 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584371   open full text
  • Barriers to Help Seeking for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Calton, J. M., Cattaneo, L. B., Gebhard, K. T.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 15, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive and devastating social problem that is estimated to occur in one of every four opposite-sex relationships and at least one of every five same-sex romantic relationships. These estimates may not represent violence against those who identify as transgender or genderqueer, and very little comprehensive research has been conducted on IPV within these populations. One statewide study on IPV found rates of IPV were as high as one of every two transgender individuals. In order to cope with the effects of abuse or leave an abusive partner, many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and genderqueer (LGBTQ) IPV survivors seek support from others. However, LGBTQ IPV survivors may experience unique difficulties related to their sexual orientation and gender identity when seeking assistance. This article reviews the literature on LGBTQ IPV and suggests three major barriers to help-seeking exist for LGBTQ IPV survivors: a limited understanding of the problem of LGBTQ IPV, stigma, and systemic inequities. The significance and consequences of each barrier are discussed, and suggestions for future research, policy, and practice are provided.

    May 15, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015585318   open full text
  • Adolescent-to-Parent Abuse as a Form of "Domestic Violence": A Conceptual Review.
    Holt, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 13, 2015

    Across the Global North, adolescent-to-parent abuse (APA) is becoming recognized as a significant social problem and is receiving attention from researchers, policymakers, and practitioners who work in the intersecting fields of juvenile justice, child protection, and domestic violence. One of the key questions shaping current debates concerns the extent to which APA maps onto the contours of domestic violence, in terms of research and theory, policy, and practice. In particular, to what extent can our established ways of working with domestic violence be applied when working with APA? This article begins by reviewing definitions and prevalence rates of APA. It then considers how the problem fits into the "family conflicts" and "gender-based violence" paradigms that are most frequently used to conceptualize domestic violence. The article then examines how APA represents a similar but distinct phenomenon to adult-instigated domestic violence and identifies how its departures represent particular challenges in working toward its elimination. The article concludes by reviewing intervention programs that work with APA and exploring some of the ways in which they adopt and reject elements of good practice from the domestic violence practice field.

    May 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584372   open full text
  • Evidence for the Efficacy of the Child Advocacy Center Model: A Systematic Review.
    Herbert, J. L., Bromfield, L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 13, 2015

    The Child Advocacy Center (CAC) model has been presented as the solution to many of the problems inherent in responses by authorities to child sexual abuse. The lack of referral to therapeutic services and support, procedurally flawed and potentially traumatic investigation practices, and conflict between the different statutory agencies involved are all thought to contribute to low conviction rates for abuse and poor outcomes for children. The CAC model aims to address these problems through a combination of multidisciplinary teams, joint investigations, and services, all provided in a single child friendly environment. Using a systematic search strategy, this research aimed to identify and review all studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of the approach as a whole, recognizing that a separate evidence base exists for parts of the approach (e.g., victim advocacy and therapeutic responses). The review found that while the criminal justice outcomes of the model have been well studied, there was a lack of research on the effect of the model on child and family outcomes. Although some modest outcomes were clear, the lack of empirical research, and overreliance on measuring program outputs, rather than outcomes, suggests that some clarification of the goals of the CAC model is needed.

    May 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015585319   open full text
  • Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.
    Ip, P., Wong, R. S., Li, S. L., Chan, K. L., Ho, F. K., Chow, C.-b.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 13, 2015

    Childhood physical abuse (CPA) can lead to adverse mental health outcomes in adulthood, but its potential impact on Chinese populations is still unclear. This meta-analysis is the first to examine the association between CPA and mental health outcomes in Chinese populations.

    Study Design:

    Studies published before December 31, 2014 were identified from Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Studies with data on the association between CPA and mental health outcomes from Chinese subjects were included. Twenty-four studies were initially identified but two were excluded because of poor quality. Two reviewers independently extracted data to generate summary effect sizes using a random-effects meta-analytic model. A priori subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias in these studies.


    Our meta-analysis of 22 studies found a significant positive association between CPA and overall mental health outcomes among all Chinese subjects (pooled effect size: odds ratio [OR] = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.87, 2.49]) and among community samples (pooled effect size: OR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.71, 2.48]). Based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnostic criteria, CPA was more strongly associated with Axis II (OR = 2.62, 95% CI [2.13, 3.22]) than Axis I disorders (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.58, 2.17]).


    The detrimental effects of CPA on mental health outcomes in Chinese populations were comparable to, if not more than, the West. Contrary to the Chinese belief that physical punishment is a safe way to discipline children, our findings highlight the potential harm to mental health and the need to change this parenting practice.

    May 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015585317   open full text
  • Childhood Maltreatment and Development of Substance Use Disorders: A Review and a Model of Cognitive Pathways.
    Edalati, H., Krank, M. D.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 11, 2015

    Exposure to childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with increased risk for developing substance use disorders (SUDs). CM exerts negative effects on cognitive abilities including intellectual performance, memory, attention, and executive function. Parallel cognitive impairments have been observed in SUDs. Hence, limited studies have examined the mediating effect of cognitive impairments in the relationship between CM and SUDs. In addition, most studies used concurrent self-report assessments in adult populations. Longitudinal studies that investigated the long-term consequences of CM on psychopathology, including SUDs, throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood are rare. Thus, the underlying developmental pathways between CM and SUDs are not clearly understood. In this article, we review the evidence that cognitive impairments mediate, at least in part, the relationship between CM and development of SUDs and propose a model that explains how CM increases the risk for SUDs through the development of a cognitive framework of vulnerability.

    May 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584370   open full text
  • Relational Patterns Between Caregivers With PTSD and Their Nonexposed Children: A Review.
    van Ee, E., Kleber, R. J., Jongmans, M. J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 11, 2015

    The question as to whether or not children can be affected by the traumatization of their parents has been the topic of a long-standing debate. This article provides a critical review of 72 research studies on traumatized parents with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the parent–child interaction, and the impact on their nonexposed child (0–18 years). The evidence suggests that traumatization can cause parenting limitations, and these limitations can disrupt the development of the young child. From the studies reviewed several patterns emerged: Relational patterns of traumatized parents who are observed to be emotionally less available and who perceive their children more negatively than parents without symptoms of PTSD; relational patterns of children who at a young age are easily deregulated or distressed and at an older age are reported to face more difficulties in their psychosocial development than children of parents without symptoms of PTSD; and relational patterns that show remarkable similarities to relational patterns between depressed or anxious parents and their children. Mechanisms such as mentalization, attachment, physiological factors, and the cycle of abuse offer a valuable perspective to further our understanding of the relational patterns. This article builds on previous work by discussing the emerged patterns between traumatized parents and their nonexposed children from a relational and transactional perspective.

    May 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584355   open full text
  • Survivor Perspectives on IPV Perpetrator Interventions: A Systematic Narrative Review.
    McGinn, T., Taylor, B., McColgan, M., Lagdon, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 11, 2015

    More effective work with perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be built upon a better understanding of how and why they change their behavior. This article presents a systematic narrative review of female IPV survivor perspectives on the changes brought about by IPV perpetrator programs. Fourteen databases and web search engines were searched and 16 articles reporting relevant qualitative findings were identified. Survivors often reported some level of positive change through their partner’s engagement with a program, but the sustainability of this change is unclear and there was also some negative feedback. From the survivors’ perspective, key barriers to perpetrator change include alcohol dependency, mental health challenges, relationship dynamics, and their family of origin. Mechanisms by which perpetrators are held to account, namely, survivor validation and judicial measures, were seen as central to the change process. Survivors perceived changes in perpetrator behavior (the use of conflict interruption techniques and new communication skills) and changes in perpetrators’ belief systems (adopting new perspectives). Changes in belief systems were associated with more complete desistence from violence and would appear more difficult to effect. The review highlights the complexity in this field, which is discussed by the authors with reference to practice, policy, and research.

    May 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584358   open full text
  • Secondary Traumatization in Mental Health Professionals: A Systematic Review of Gender Findings.
    Baum, N.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 11, 2015

    The issue of gender is largely ignored in studies of secondary traumatization (STS). This article addresses the question of gender differences in susceptibility to STS among clinicians who treat traumatized clients. It does so by systematically reviewing the very limited body of published findings on this subject to date. These are 10 published studies that measure STS by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and 4 studies that measure it using Stamm’s Professionals Quality of Life Survey (ProQOL), which queries PTSD symptomatology along with other difficulties that may arise in helping traumatized clients. Almost all the studies based on PTSD symptomatology show greater female susceptibility. Although the pattern is less clear in the ProQOL studies, the article argues that the research to date does not really show mixed findings, as is repeatedly claimed, but greater susceptibility among female clinicians. It also points out that the findings do not mean that male clinicians are unaffected by their traumatized clients and notes the various manifestations of their distress reported in the reviewed studies. The article offers a variety of explanations for the heightened female susceptibility.

    May 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584357   open full text
  • Continuous Traumatic Situations in the Face of Ongoing Political Violence: The Relationship Between CTS and PTSD.
    Nuttman-Shwartz, O., Shoval-Zuckerman, Y.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 11, 2015

    This article presents a literature review of the concept of continuous traumatic situations (CTS), which relates to residents living in ongoing situations of political violence and national security threats. The first aim of this review is to narrow the gap regarding knowledge about the concept of CTS by presenting findings from studies that have assessed the effects of CTS on civilian populations. The second aim is to describe CTS in a way that highlights the differences and similarities between posttraumatic stress disorder and responses to CTS. This distinction is a necessary precondition for examining CTS, as is a careful clinical analysis of the development and course of symptoms. This literature review also highlights the importance of adopting a supplementary perspective for understanding the psychological impact of ongoing exposure to real threats, which can be used as a basis for developing intervention strategies that are appropriate for coping with life in the context of persistent violence. CTS can be manifested as emotions, behaviors, and perceptions among individuals, families, communities, and societies. The nature of the proposed model of CTS is a circular one, combining past and future perceptions and emotional reactions that have resulted from continuous and repeated traumatic experiences over an extended period of time. This wider understanding reflects the complexity of the CTS phenomenon. Various micro and macro interventions relating to CTS as the result of political violence situations and national security threats are presented, and recommendations for practice, policy, and future research are offered.

    May 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015585316   open full text
  • Enhancing the Impact of Family Justice Centers via Motivational Interviewing: An Integrated Review.
    Simmons, C. A., Howell, K. H., Duke, M. R., Beck, J. G.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 11, 2015

    The Family Justice Center (FJC) model is an approach to assisting survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) that focuses on integration of services under one roof and co-location of staff members from a range of multidisciplinary agencies. Even though the FJC model is touted as a best practice strategy to help IPV survivors, empirical support for the effectiveness of this approach is scarce. The current article consolidates this small yet promising body of empirically based literature in a clinically focused review. Findings point to the importance of integrating additional resources into the FJC model to engage IPV survivors who have ambivalent feelings about whether to accept help, leave the abusive relationship, and/or participate in criminal justice processes to hold the offender accountable. One such resource, motivational interviewing (MI), holds promise in aiding IPV survivors with these decisions, but empirical investigation into how MI can be incorporated into the FJC model has yet to be published. This article, therefore, also integrates the body of literature supporting the FJC model with the body of literature supporting MI with IPV survivors. Implications for practice, policy, and research are incorporated throughout this review.

    May 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015585312   open full text
  • Is Anybody Listening? The Literature on the Dialogical Process of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure Reviewed.
    Reitsema, A. M., Grietens, H.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 07, 2015

    We conducted an exploratory review of the current literature on child sexual abuse disclosure in everyday contexts. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of relevant publications on the process of child sexual abuse disclosure, in order to generate new directions for future research and clinical practice. The findings of the exploratory review show that disclosure is a relational process, which is renegotiated by each interaction and evolves over an extended period of time. The characteristics and reactions of the interaction partner appear to be as critical to this process as the behavior and words of children themselves. Methodological limitations of the review and the publications are discussed, as well as directions for future research and implications for practice.

    May 07, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584368   open full text
  • Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.
    Sloman, L., Taylor, P.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 06, 2015

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child’s ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory.

    May 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584354   open full text
  • Practice Update: What Professionals Who Are Not Brain Injury Specialists Need to Know About Intimate Partner Violence-Related Traumatic Brain Injury.
    Murray, C. E., Lundgren, K., Olson, L. N., Hunnicutt, G.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 06, 2015

    There is growing recognition of the risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) among victims and survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). A wide range of physically abusive behaviors may lead to injuries to the head or neck and place an individual at risk for a TBI. The purpose of this article is to consolidate current research and present practical guidelines for professionals, who are not brain injury specialists, but work with clients who may have sustained a TBI in the context of IPV. Recommendations are provided for TBI risk screening, making appropriate referrals, and providing services in light of a potential TBI.

    May 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584364   open full text
  • Clinician Responses to Client Traumas: A Chronological Review of Constructs and Terminology.
    Newell, J. M., Nelson-Gardell, D., MacNeil, G.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 06, 2015

    This paper presents a chronologically-organized review of various concepts and constructs in the literature describing professional burnout, compassion fatigue, secondary traumatic stress reactions, as well as other related terms and constructs that have been used to describe these experiences among clinical practitioners and other social service professionals. A timeline will provide a graphic illustration of the historical relationships between the concepts under examination. This paper begins with a review of practitioner-related stress that primarily results from interaction with clients, followed by an examination of professional burnout, which is thought to result largely from environmentally-related issues. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction.

    May 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584365   open full text
  • Efficacy of Bystander Programs to Prevent Dating Abuse Among Youth and Young Adults: A Review of the Literature.
    Storer, H. L., Casey, E., Herrenkohl, T.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 06, 2015

    Estimates suggest that between 10% and 25% of adolescents have experienced some form of physical violence within a dating relationship, and one in four college-age women experiences attempted or completed sexual violence on campus. Bystander programs focus on equipping young adults with the skills to safely intervene when they witness behaviors that can result in dating abuse. This approach is promoted for its capacity both to transform community norms that contribute to dating abuse and to foster more positive social interactions among youth, however, there has been limited review of the literature on the outcomes of bystander programs. Therefore, this article provides an in-depth systematic literature review, which describes the content and program components of bystander programs and summarizes what is currently known about the impact of bystander interventions on participants’ behaviors and attitudes. Results indicate that bystander programs are promising from the standpoint of increasing young adults’ willingness to intervene and confidence in their ability to intervene when they witness dating or sexual violence, however, the utilization of actual bystander behaviors was less straightforward. Implications for prevention practice and for future research are presented.

    May 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015584361   open full text
  • Green Space, Violence, and Crime: A Systematic Review.
    Bogar, S., Beyer, K. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 29, 2015

    To determine the state of evidence on relationships among urban green space, violence, and crime in the United States.

    Methods and Results:

    Major bibliographic databases were searched for studies meeting inclusion criteria. Additional studies were culled from study references and authors’ personal collections. Comparison among studies was limited by variations in study design and measurement and results were mixed. However, more evidence supports the positive impact of green space on violence and crime, indicating great potential for green space to shape health-promoting environments.


    Numerous factors influence the relationships among green space, crime, and violence. Additional research and standardization among research studies are needed to better understand these relationships.

    March 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015576412   open full text
  • Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.
    Wilson, L. C., Miller, K. E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 17, 2015

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p < .001, and inconsistency (I 2 = 93.5%) among included studies. The prevalence was significantly higher among college student participants compared to noncollege participants. The findings supported that over half of all female rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape."

    March 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838015576391   open full text
  • The Therapeutic Efficacy of Domestic Violence Victim Interventions.
    Hackett, S., McWhirter, P. T., Lesher, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 22, 2015

    A meta-analysis on domestic violence interventions was conducted to determine overall effectiveness of mental health programs involving women and children in joint treatment. These interventions were further analyzed to determine whether outcomes are differentially affected based on the outcome measure employed. To date, no meta-analyses have been published on domestic violence victim intervention efficacy. The 17 investigations that met study criteria yielded findings indicating that domestic violence interventions have a large effect size (d = .812), which decreases to a medium effect size when compared to control groups (d = .518). Effect sizes were assessed to determine whether treatment differed according to the focus of the outcome measure employed: (a) external stress (behavioral problems, aggression, or alcohol use); (b) psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, or happiness); (c) self-concept (self-esteem, perceived competence, or internal locus of control); (d) social adjustment (popularity, loneliness, or cooperativeness); (e) family relations (mother–child relations, affection, or quality of interaction); and (f) maltreatment events (reoccurrence of violence, return to partner). Results reveal that domestic violence interventions across all outcome categories yield effects in the medium to large range for both internalized and externalized symptomatology. Implications for greater awareness and support for domestic violence treatment and programming are discussed.

    January 22, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838014566720   open full text
  • An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.
    Turchik, J. A., Hebenstreit, C. L., Judson, S. S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 22, 2015

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories’ applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence.

    January 22, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838014566721   open full text
  • Integrating the Principles of Effective Intervention into Batterer Intervention Programming: The Case for Moving Toward More Evidence-Based Programming.
    Radatz, D. L., Wright, E. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 08, 2015

    The majority of batterer intervention program (BIP) evaluations have indicated they are marginally effective in reducing domestic violence recidivism. Meanwhile, correctional programs used to treat a variety of offenders (e.g., substance users, violent offenders, and so forth) that adhere to the "principles of effective intervention" (PEI) have reported significant reductions in recidivism. This article introduces the PEI—the principles on which evidence-based practices in correctional rehabilitation are based—and identifies the degree to which they are currently integrated into BIPs. The case is made that batterer programs could be more effective if they incorporate the PEI. Recommendations for further integration of the principles into BIPs are also provided.

    January 08, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838014566695   open full text
  • Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.
    Edelstein, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 08, 2015

    Since Cesare Lombroso’s days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.

    January 08, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838014566694   open full text
  • Effects of Parenting Programs on Child Maltreatment Prevention: A Meta-Analysis.
    Chen, M., Chan, K. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 08, 2015

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child maltreatment and modifying associated factors as well as to examine the moderator variables that are linked to program effects. For this meta-analysis, we searched nine electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials published before September 2013. The effect sizes of various outcomes at different time points were computed. From the 3,578 studies identified, we selected 37 studies for further analysis. The total random effect size was 0.296. Our results showed that parenting programs successfully reduced substantiated and self-reported child maltreatment reports and reduced the potential for child maltreatment. The programs also reduced risk factors and enhanced protective factors associated with child maltreatment. However, the effects of the parenting programs on reducing parental depression and stress were limited. Parenting programs produced positive effects in low-, middle-, and high-income countries and were effective in reducing child maltreatment when applied as primary, secondary, or tertiary child maltreatment intervention. In conclusion, parenting programs are effective public health approaches to reduce child maltreatment. The evidence-based service of parenting programs could be widely adopted in future practice.

    January 08, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838014566718   open full text
  • Sex Offender Recidivism Revisited: Review of Recent Meta-analyses on the Effects of Sex Offender Treatment.
    Kim, B., Benekos, P. J., Merlo, A. V.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 08, 2015

    The effectiveness of sex offender treatment programs continues to generate misinformation and disagreement. Some literature reviews conclude that treatment does not reduce recidivism while others suggest that specific types of treatment may warrant optimism. The principal purpose of this study is to update the most recent meta-analyses of sex offender treatments and to compare the findings with an earlier study that reviewed the meta-analytic studies published from 1995 to 2002. More importantly, this study examines effect sizes across different age populations and effect sizes across various sex offender treatments. Results of this review of meta-analyses suggest that sex offender treatments can be considered as "proven" or at least "promising," while age of participants and intervention type may influence the success of treatment for sex offenders. The implications of these findings include achieving a broader understanding of intervention moderators, applying such interventions to juvenile and adult offenders, and outlining future areas of research.

    January 08, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838014566719   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Sexual Violence: A Review of Terms, Definitions, and Prevalence.
    Bagwell-Gray, M. E., Messing, J. T., Baldwin-White, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 04, 2015

    Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a significant aspect of intimate partner violence (IPV). While intimate partners commit one third of sexual assaults, IPSV is often overlooked in studies about IPV and in research on sexual violence. There are difficulties identifying, defining, and measuring IPSV, and research lacks consistency in terminology and measurement. The purpose of this article is to review the terms, definitions, and measurements associated with IPSV. Academic journals and nonscholarly documents from the United States were searched for articles and reports associated with the study of sexual violence and IPV. Forty-nine documents met the criteria for inclusion. A four-part taxonomy defining IPSV was developed, which included IPSV, intimate partner sexual coercion, intimate partner sexual abuse, and intimate partner forced sexual activity. The average weighted prevalence rates of these various forms of IPSV were calculated across included research studies. However, the measurements generally used to assess IPV do not adequately measure IPSV. Future research should consist terms to ensure consistent conceptualization and measurement of IPSV and to inform practice with survivors.

    January 04, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1524838014557290   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence and the Rural-Urban-Suburban Divide: Myth or Reality? A Critical Review of the Literature.
    Edwards, K. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 04, 2014

    The author of this article presents a review of the published empirical and theoretical literature to date on similarities and differences in intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural locales compared to urban and suburban locales. A review of 63 studies indicates that (1) the rates of IPV are generally similar across rural, urban, and suburban locales, although some groups of rural women (e.g., multiracial and separated/divorced) may be at increased risk for IPV compared to similar groups of urban women, and rates of intimate partner homicide may be higher in rural locales than urban and suburban locales; (2) IPV perpetrator and victim characteristics in rural locales are generally similar to IPV perpetrator and victim characteristics in other locales with the exception of some demographic characteristics that can generally be accounted for by broader rural–urban–suburban demographic differences; (3) IPV perpetrators in rural locales, compared with perpetrators in urban locales, may perpetrate more chronic and severe IPV, which could be due to the higher rates of substance abuse and unemployment documented among rural perpetrators; (4) IPV victims in rural locales may have worse psychosocial and physical health outcomes due to the lack of availability, accessibility, and quality of IPV services; and (5) attitudes about IPV vary to some extent across locales, with individuals in rural locales generally supporting less governmental involvement in IPV issues than in urban locales. Limitations of the literature are reviewed and suggestions for research are provided as well as implications for practice and policy efforts, which primarily center on improving availability, accessibility, and quality of IPV services in rural locales.

    December 04, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014557289   open full text
  • Problem Gambling and Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Dowling, N., Suomi, A., Jackson, A., Lavis, T., Patford, J., Cockman, S., Thomas, S., Bellringer, M., Koziol-Mclain, J., Battersby, M., Harvey, P., Abbott, M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 03, 2014

    This study provides a systematic review of the empirical evidence related to the association between problem gambling and intimate partner violence (IPV). We identified 14 available studies in the systematic search (8 for victimisation only, 4 for perpetration only and 2 for both victimisation and perpetration). Although there were some equivocal findings, we found that most of the available research suggests that there is a significant relationship between problem gambling and being a victim of IPV. There was more consistent evidence that there is a significant relationship between problem gambling and perpetration of IPV. Meta-analyses revealed that over one third of problem gamblers report being victims of physical IPV (38.1%) or perpetrators of physical IPV (36.5%) and that the prevalence of problem gambling in IPV perpetrators is 11.3%. Although the exact nature of the relationships between problem gambling and IPV is yet to be determined, the findings suggest that less than full employment and clinical anger problems are implicated in the relationship between problem gambling and IPV victimization and that younger age, less than full employment, clinical anger problems, impulsivity, and alcohol and substance use are implicated in the relationship between problem gambling and IPV perpetration. The findings highlight the need for treatment services to undertake routine screening and assessment of problem gambling, IPV, alcohol and substance use problems, and mental health issues and provide interventions designed to manage this cluster of comorbid conditions. Further research is also required to investigate the relationship between problem gambling and violence that extends into the family beyond intimate partners.

    December 03, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014561269   open full text
  • Shared Resilience in a Traumatic Reality: A New Concept for Trauma Workers Exposed Personally and Professionally to Collective Disaster.
    Nuttman-Shwartz, O.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 25, 2014

    This article proposes a new concept, shared resilience in a traumatic reality (SRTR), which refers to trauma workers in shared reality situations. Based on the literature that emphasizes the positive effects of exposure to traumatic events for workers in this field, this article expands the perception of shared traumatic situations and examines the ability of trauma workers to cope, to show resilience, and to grow as a result of the mutual relationship with their clients. The literature review presents a variety of terms referring to the positive effects of working with trauma survivors on therapists as a basis for the new concept proposed here. These terms highlight the importance of empathic mutual aid relationships, which are a basic component for promoting resilience in a shared traumatic reality. The relative nature of shared resilience is discussed, bearing in mind that resilience can be manifested as emotions, behaviors, and conceptions. Various findings relating to shared resilience in traumatic situations are reviewed, and recommendations for research, practice, and policy are offered.

    November 25, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014557287   open full text
  • The Effectiveness of Art Therapy in the Treatment of Traumatized Adults: A Systematic Review on Art Therapy and Trauma.
    Schouten, K. A., Niet, G. J. d., Knipscheer, J. W., Kleber, R. J., Hutschemaekers, G. J. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 16, 2014

    Art therapy has often been applied in the treatment of traumatized adults, and good results in clinical practice have been reported. However, although art therapy experts underline these benefits, the effectiveness of art therapy in trauma treatment has not been established by systematic review. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and evaluate empirical evidence of the effectiveness of art therapy for trauma treatment. As a result of the systematic review, six controlled, comparative studies on art therapy for trauma in adult patients were found. In half of the included studies, a significant decrease in psychological trauma symptoms was found in the treatment groups, and one study reported a significant decrease in depression. Although there are limitations in the number of included studies, the number of participants, the heterogeneity of included studies, and their methodological quality, the results contribute to insight into the effectiveness of art therapy in trauma treatment and form an evidence base for the urgent need for further research on art therapy and trauma treatment.

    November 16, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014555032   open full text
  • Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration.
    Lippy, C., DeGue, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 16, 2014

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes.

    November 16, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014557291   open full text
  • Social Information Processing Mechanisms and Victimization: A Literature Review.
    van Reemst, L., Fischer, T. F. C., Zwirs, B. W. C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 10, 2014

    The aim of the current literature review, which is based on 64 empirical studies, was to assess to what extent mechanisms of the Social Information Processing (SIP) model of Crick and Dodge (1994) are related to victimization. The reviewed studies have provided support for the relation between victimization and several social information processing mechanisms, especially the interpretation of cues and self-efficacy (as part of the response decision). The relationship between victimization and other mechanisms, such as the response generation, was only studied in a few articles. Until now research has often focused on just one step of the model, instead of attempting to measure the associations between multiple mechanisms and victimization in multivariate analyses. Such analyses would be interesting to gain more insight into the SIP model and its relationship with victimization. The few available longitudinal studies show that mechanisms both predict victimization (internal locus of control, negative self-evaluations and less assertive response selection) and are predicted by victimization (hostile attribution of intent and negative evaluations of others). Associations between victimization and SIP mechanisms vary across different types and severity of victimization (stronger in personal and severe victimization), and different populations (stronger among young victims). Practice could focus on these stronger associations and the interpretation of cues. More research is needed however, to investigate whether intervention programs that address SIP mechanisms are suitable for victimization and all relevant populations.

    November 10, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014557286   open full text
  • Resilience in Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
    Domhardt, M., Munzer, A., Fegert, J. M., Goldbeck, L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 10, 2014

    This review article summarizes empirical research on resilience in survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and discusses protective factors that are associated with adaptive functioning in spite of sexual victimization.


    A literature search to identify studies published up to November 2013 was performed within the databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, and PSYNDEXplus. Additional relevant studies were retrieved using a snowball technique. A total of 37 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the final sample.


    In the studies included in this review, the percentage of CSA survivors who were found to have a normal level of functioning despite a history of sexual abuse ranged from 10% to 53%. The protective factors that had the best empirical support were found to be education, interpersonal and emotional competence, control beliefs, active coping, optimism, social attachment, external attribution of blame, and most importantly, support from the family and the wider social environment.


    Preventive and clinical interventions for survivors of CSA should utilize psychoeducation and cognitive strategies that are adapted to the developmental level of the victim and that seek to enhance social support from significant others. Future research should focus on longitudinal research designs considering resilience rather as a dynamic process with multiple dimensions in a social and developmental context.

    November 10, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014557288   open full text
  • A Systematic Review of Prevalence and Risk Factors for Elder Abuse in Asia.
    Yan, E., Chan, E. K.-L., Tiwari, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 06, 2014

    The number of older victims of domestic violence is expected to increase drastically in Asia as many countries are experiencing rapid population aging. In 2012, 11% of the population in Asia were aged 60 years and over. This is expected to rise to 24% by 2050. This article discusses the unique features of Asian cultures that are relevant to the understanding of elder abuse and summarizes the existing literature looking at the prevalence and risk factors of such abuse in Asian populations.

    November 06, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014555033   open full text
  • Co-victims of Homicide: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
    Connolly, J., Gordon, R.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 04, 2014

    This systematic literature review examines the effects of homicide on surviving family members, the "co-victims" or "survivors" of homicide. A content analysis was conducted on 40 articles identified through a search of the literature. The research samples were predominately located in the United States, but included two U.K. samples, one Jamaican sample, and one sample from Israel. All articles were written in English. Three themes were identified. Nineteen articles explored the psychological, academic, social, occupational, and familial effects of homicide. Thirteen articles considered survivors’ grieving process and how it was altered by experiences with the criminal justice system as well as coping strategies used by survivors to deal with their grief. Eight articles explored treatment interventions available to help surviving family members deal with their grief. Key findings from the articles, limitations of the current research, and implications for future research, policy, and practice are included.

    November 04, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014557285   open full text
  • Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.
    Kunst, M., Popelier, L., Varekamp, E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. October 28, 2014

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims’ emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization—either beneficially or maliciously—a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims’ emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet.

    October 28, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014555034   open full text
  • A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?
    Malhotra, K., Guarda-Gonzalez, R. M., Mitchell, E. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 24, 2014

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens.

    July 24, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014537903   open full text
  • The Effectiveness of Psychological Treatment for Reducing Recidivism in Child Molesters: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Nonrandomized Studies.
    Walton, J. S., Chou, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 26, 2014

    In this systematic review, the effectiveness of psychological treatment interventions for child molesters was examined. Studies were restricted to randomized control trials (RCTs), controlled trials, and cohort designs where recidivism had been used as the outcome variable. ASSIA, NCJRS, Medline, PsychINFO, EMBASE, Pro-requests Dissertations and Theses A&I, and the Cochrane Library were searched. Ten experts were contacted and the reference lists of 12 systematic reviews and 40 primary studies were observed. The number of hits was 3,019, of which 564 duplicates, 2,388 irrelevant references, and 38 that did not meet the inclusion criteria were removed. Fourteen studies using mixed samples had to be omitted because it was not possible to determine the recidivism rates of child molesters in the samples described. One RCT and 9 cohort studies were included in the data synthesis, providing 2,119 participants. In all, 52.1% received the intervention under investigation and 47.9% did not. The reported recidivism rates were 13.9% for the treated child molesters compared to 18.6% for the untreated child molesters. Three studies reported statistically significant lower recidivism rates for treated child molesters. Eight studies were assessed as weak. Four studies were assessed as having bias which increased the chance of finding a treatment effect and four studies were assessed as having bias which reduced the chance of finding a treatment effect. It was not possible to determine the direction of bias for two studies.

    June 26, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014537905   open full text
  • Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.
    Romano, E., Babchishin, L., Marquis, R., Frechette, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 11, 2014

    Children (0–18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow’s model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children’s academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively or negatively influence the educational outcomes of maltreated children. The theoretical, research, and applied implications stemming from the findings are considered.

    June 11, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014537908   open full text
  • Intercollegiate Athletes and Sexual Violence: A Review of Literature and Recommendations for Future Study.
    McCray, K. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 04, 2014

    The 1990s saw the development of research on violence against women perpetrated by intercollegiate student-athletes. Research in this field stagnated during the last 15 years, despite the fact that this time period has evidenced multiple high-profile, even fatal, cases of violence against women at the hands of male student-athletes. These events prompted the Office of Civil Rights to call upon universities to more appropriately investigate and sanction perpetrators of sexual assault. The ensuing actions by universities are expected to bring a renewed focus on male student-athletes, requiring further research to explore student-athletes sexually abusing women. This article outlines the pertinent literature on violence against women by male student-athletes, and suggests future research using new institutionalism as a theoretical framework.

    June 04, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014537907   open full text
  • Pathways From Bullying Perpetration, Victimization, and Bully Victimization to Suicidality Among School-Aged Youth: A Review of the Potential Mediators and a Call for Further Investigation.
    Hong, J. S., Kral, M. J., Sterzing, P. R.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 04, 2014

    In the wake of several highly publicized adolescent suicides attributed to bullying victimization, national attention has been brought to bear on the profound public health problem of bullying. This article reviews the extant literature on the associations between bullying perpetration, victimization, and thoughts of or attempts at suicide and proposes five potential mediators, namely depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, loneliness, and hopelessness, that may explain this relationship. Numerous studies have found empirical support for the interrelations between internalizing behaviors and both bullying perpetration and victimization and suicide. We find that further longitudinal research needs to be conducted to more conclusively determine the role and causal ordering these various psychosocial factors may play in bullying perpetration, victimization, and suicide. Although the research literature implies causal directions among all these potential mediators, untangling the unique influence of bullying perpetration, victimization, and bully victimization on suicide and its mechanisms of action has major research and practice implications.

    June 04, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014537904   open full text
  • Adult Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: A Literature Review.
    Tener, D., Murphy, S. B.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. June 04, 2014

    Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors’ experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors’ well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research.

    June 04, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014537906   open full text
  • The Safety of Women on College Campuses: Implications of Evolving Paradigms in Postsecondary Education.
    Jordan, C. E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 29, 2014
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    May 29, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014520635   open full text
  • The Safety of Women on College Campuses: Implications of Evolving Paradigms in Postsecondary Education.
    Jordan, C. E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 29, 2014
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    May 29, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014520636   open full text
  • The Significant Frequency and Impact of Stealth (Nonviolent) Gender-Based Abuse Among College Women.
    Belknap, J., Sharma, N.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 29, 2014

    The prevalence, incidence, and impact of the gender-based abuse (GBA) of college women have been increasingly documented since the 1980s, with growing precision in the measurements and expanding identification of tactics. Although there is an obvious class bias in focusing on college women (compared to women of similar ages not attending college), it is important to address GBA among this population as they are at serious risk of sexual abuse (particularly incapacitated rape), intimate partner abuse (IPA), and stalking. This article addresses the stealth nature of the nonviolent GBAs of college women and how these abuses frequently operate under the radar of acknowledgment by society, the abusers, campus officials, the criminal legal system, and sometimes, the survivors.

    May 29, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014520725   open full text
  • Using Virtual Reality to Explore Self-Regulation in High-Risk Settings.
    Kniffin, T. C., Carlson, C. R., Ellzey, A., Eisenlohr-Moul, T., Beck, K. B., McDonald, R., Jouriles, E. N.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. May 29, 2014

    Virtual reality (VR) models allow investigators to explore high-risk situations carefully in the laboratory using physiological assessment strategies and controlled conditions not available in field settings. This article introduces the use of a virtual experience to examine the influence of self-regulatory skills training on female participants’ reactions to a high-risk encounter with an aggressive male. Sixty-three female participants were recruited for the study. Demographic data indicated that 54% of the participants were not currently in a relationship, 36.5% were in a committed relationship, and 9.5% were occasionally dating. After obtaining informed consent, participants were assigned randomly to either a diaphragmatic breathing training condition or an attention control condition. Results indicated that both groups rated the virtual environment as equally realistic; the aggressive advances of the male were also perceived as equally real across the two experimental groups. Physiological data indicated that there were no differences between the groups on respiration or cardiovascular measures during baseline or during the VR task. After the VR experience, however, the participants in the breathing training condition had lower respiration rates and higher heart rate variability measures than those in the control condition. The results suggest that VR platforms provide a realistic and challenging environment to examine how self-regulation procedures may influence behavioral outcomes. Real-time dynamic engagement in a virtual setting affords investigators with an opportunity to evaluate the utility of self-regulatory skills training for improving safety in situations where there are uncertain and risky outcomes.

    May 29, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521501   open full text
  • Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examine the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration.
    Abbey, A., Wegner, R., Woerner, J., Pegram, S. E., Pierce, J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. April 27, 2014

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men’s sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men’s alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol’s effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation.

    April 27, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521031   open full text
  • Campus Sexual Misconduct: Restorative Justice Approaches to Enhance Compliance With Title IX Guidance.
    Koss, M. P., Wilgus, J. K., Williamsen, K. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. April 27, 2014

    Campus response to sexual violence is increasingly governed by federal law and administrative guidance such as the 1972 Title IX, the 2011 Dear Colleague Letter (DCL), and the 2013 Violence Against Women Act. Educational institutions are directed to expand disciplinary responses and establish coordinated action to eliminate sexual violence and remedy its effects. Compliance fosters a quasi-criminal justice approach not suited to all sexual misconduct and inconsistent with developing practice in student conduct management. This article envisions restorative justice (RJ) enhancements to traditional student conduct processes that maintain compliance, expand options, empower victim choice, and increase responsiveness to DCL aims. The article (1) defines sexual violence and sexual harassment within the DCL scope, (2) elaborates the DCL position on permissible alternative resolutions and differentiates mediation from RJ, (3) sequences action steps from case report to finalization, including both restorative and traditional justice pathways; and (4) discusses building support for innovation beginning with existing campus response.

    April 27, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521500   open full text
  • A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relationship Between Nonoffending Caregiver Support and Postdisclosure Functioning in Sexually Abused Children.
    Bolen, R. M., Gergely, K. B.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. April 03, 2014

    Postdisclosure caregiver support has long been considered a key factor in the functioning of children after their disclosure of sexual abuse, and numerous studies and reviews support this relationship. Yet, a closer look at this literature suggests that support for this relationship might not be as strong or consistent as reported. The purpose of this article is to review studies assessing the relationship between caregiver support of sexually abused children and postdisclosure functioning of their children. Studies were collected using various search engines, and the tables of contents of certain child maltreatment journals were reviewed. To be included, studies had to be published prior to 2012 and to quantitatively capture the bivariate relationship between a quantified assessment of nonoffending caregiver (NOC) support anytime after the child’s sexual abuse disclosure and a quantified assessment of at least 1 of the 11 types of postdisclosure functioning in the children. Twenty-nine studies met the criteria to be included. In the meta-analysis, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation, transformed to a Fisher’s Z, was used as the effect size. Potential moderators of effect size were also coded and assessed. Postdisclosure caregiver support was significantly related to 3 of the 11 different types of postdisclosure functioning in children. However, the largest effect size was .170, and 8 of the 11 types of postdisclosure functioning in children had effect sizes smaller than ±.100. Few moderators of the relationship between NOC support and postdisclosure functioning in children were found. Minimal support for the relationship between caregiver support of sexually abused children and children’s postdisclosure functioning was found. At this time, it is impossible to determine whether this weak relationship can be attributed to the many methodological weaknesses in the measurement of caregiver support or whether caregiver support is not related to postdisclosure functioning in children.

    April 03, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014526307   open full text
  • Use and Misuse of Research in Books on Sex Trafficking: Implications for Interdisciplinary Researchers, Practitioners, and Advocates.
    Fedina, L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 24, 2014

    Recent articles have raised important questions about the validity of prevalence data on human trafficking, exposing flawed methodologies behind frequently cited statistics. While considerable evidence points to the fact that human trafficking does exist in the United States and abroad, many sources of literature continue to cite flawed data and some misuse research in ways that seemingly inflate the problem, which can have serious implications for anti-trafficking efforts, including victim services and anti-trafficking legislation and policy. This systematic review reports on the prevalence data used in 42 recently published books on sex trafficking to determine the extent to which published books rely on data estimates and just how they use or misuse existing data. The findings from this review reveal that the vast majority of published books do rely on existing data that were not rigorously produced and therefore may be misleading or at minimum, inaccurate. Implications for practice, research, and policy are discussed, as well as recommendations for future prevalence studies on human trafficking.

    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014523337   open full text
  • Risk and Protective Factors for Physical and Sexual Abuse of Children and Adolescents in Africa: A Review and Implications for Practice.
    Meinck, F., Cluver, L. D., Boyes, M. E., Mhlongo, E. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 18, 2014

    There is now conclusive evidence of the major and long-lasting negative effects of physical and sexual abuse on children. Within Africa, studies consistently report high rates of child abuse, with prevalence as high as 64%. However, to date, there has been no review of factors associated with physical and sexual child abuse and polyvictimization in Africa. This review identified 23 quantitative studies, all of which showed high levels of child abuse in varying samples of children and adults. Although studies were very heterogeneous, a range of correlates of abuse at different levels of the Model of Ecologic Development were identified. These included community-level factors (exposure to bullying, sexual violence, and rural/urban location), household-level factors (poverty, household violence, and non-nuclear family), caregiver-level factors (caregiver illness in particular AIDS and mental health problems, caregiver changes, family functioning, parenting, caregiver-child relationship, and substance abuse), and child-level factors (age, disability, physical health, behavior, and gender). These findings identify key associated factors that are potential foci of child abuse prevention interventions. In addition, there is a clear need for further rigorous longitudinal research into predictive factors and culturally relevant interventions.

    March 18, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014523336   open full text
  • A Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence in the Military: Where Do We Go From Here?
    Rodrigues, A. E., Funderburk, J. S., Keating, N. L., Maisto, S. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 18, 2014

    A significant number of military personnel report engaging in or experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). To advance current research and understanding of this behavior, we conducted a methodological review of the literature on IPV in military personnel and veterans. Research from 1980 to the present, which consisted of 63 empirical studies, was objectively coded by two independent raters on a number of variables important to the methodological quality of research on IPV in the military. In addition, areas of importance to the future of IPV research are presented.

    March 18, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014526066   open full text
  • Institution-Specific Victimization Surveys: Addressing Legal and Practical Disincentives to Gender-Based Violence Reporting on College Campuses.
    Cantalupo, N. C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 12, 2014

    This review brings together both the legal literature and original empirical research regarding the advisability of amending the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act or creating new Department of Education regulations to mandate that all higher education institutions survey their students approximately every 5 years about students’ experiences with sexual violence. Legal research conducted regarding the three relevant federal legal regimes show inconsistent incentives for schools to encourage victim reporting and proactively address sexual violence on campus. Moreover, the original research carried out for this article shows that the experience of institutions that have voluntarily conducted such surveys suggests many benefits not only for students, prospective students, parents, and the general public but also for schools themselves. These experiences confirm the practical viability of a mandated survey by the Department of Education.

    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521323   open full text
  • Psychological Treatment of Sexual Offenders Against Children: A Meta-Analytic Review of Treatment Outcome Studies.
    Gronnerod, C., Gronnerod, J. S., Grondahl, P.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 12, 2014

    Numerous meta-analyses and reviews have been conducted on the effectiveness of psychological treatment of sexual offenders in reducing recidivism, but no meta-analysis has been done on sexual offenders against children (SOAC) specifically. A moderate treatment effect has been shown in several evaluations of general sexual offenders, while many scholars maintain that the question remains unanswered until an adequate number of effectiveness studies with a strong research design have been carried out. In this meta-analysis, we evaluated 14 studies selected and coded according to Collaborative Outcome Data Committee (CODC) criteria. They included 1,421 adult offenders in psychotherapy and 1,509 nontreated controls, with a minimum average follow-up period of 3 years, published in peer-reviewed journals in 1980 or later. Recidivism was defined as rearrest or reconviction. Study quality was classified into strong, good, weak or rejected. The analysis revealed a treatment effect size of r = .03 for nine studies evaluated as Good or Weak, while all studies yielded an effect size of r = .08, including five studies classified as Rejected. The results show that the available research cannot establish any effect of treatment on SOAC. Despite a large amount of research, only a tiny fraction of studies meet a minimum of scientific standards, and even fewer provide sensible and useful data from which it is possible to draw conclusions.

    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014526043   open full text
  • Traumatogenic Processes and Pathways to Mental Health Outcomes for Sexual Minorities Exposed to Bias Crime Information.
    Lannert, B. K.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 12, 2014

    Vicarious traumatization of nonvictim members of communities targeted by bias crimes has been suggested by previous qualitative studies and often dominates public discussion following bias events, but proximal and distal responses of community members have yet to be comprehensively modeled, and quantitative research on vicarious responses is scarce. This comprehensive review integrates theoretical and empirical literatures in social, clinical, and physiological psychology in the development of a model of affective, cognitive, and physiological responses of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals upon exposure to information about bias crimes. Extant qualitative research in vicarious response to bias crimes is reviewed in light of theoretical implications and methodological limitations. Potential pathways to mental health outcomes are outlined, including accumulative effects of anticipatory defensive responding, multiplicative effects of minority stress, and putative traumatogenic physiological and cognitive processes of threat. Methodological considerations, future research directions, and clinical implications are also discussed.

    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014526067   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence in Pakistan: A Systematic Review.
    Ali, P. A., Naylor, P. B., Croot, E., O'Cathain, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 12, 2014

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major social and public health problem affecting people in various cultures and societies. Though the issue of IPV in Pakistan has been researched since the 1990s, no attempt has been made systematically to review the available evidence on IPV in Pakistan. This article presents findings of a systematic review of available empirical literature related to IPV in Pakistan. Using various key words, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched to identify relevant studies. This resulted in the identification of 55 potential studies for inclusion. After application of exclusion criteria 23 studies were identified, 20 of which used quantitative research designs, two used qualitative designs and one adopted a mixed method case study approach. All studies reported men as the perpetrators of IPV and women as its victims. Findings are presented and discussed for IPV for its forms, predictors, effects and victims’ responses. Pakistani peoples’ perceived reasons for and their attitudes towards IPV are also presented and discussed.

    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014526065   open full text
  • Significance, Nature, and Direction of the Association Between Child Sexual Abuse and Conduct Disorder: A Systematic Review.
    Maniglio, R.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. March 12, 2014

    To elucidate the significance, nature, and direction of the potential relationship between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder, all the pertinent studies were reviewed. Ten databases were searched. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were performed by two independent researchers. Thirty-six studies including 185,358 participants and meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to ensure objectivity and to not invalidate results were analyzed. Across the majority of studies, conduct disorder was significantly and directly related to child sexual abuse, especially repeated sexual molestation and abuse involving penetration, even after controlling for various sociodemographic, family, and clinical variables. The association between child sexual abuse and conduct disorder was not confounded by other risk factors, such as gender, socioeconomic status, school achievement, substance problems, physical abuse, parental antisocial behavior or substance problems, parent–child relationships, and family disruption, conflict, or violence. Evidence for a significant interactive effect between child sexual abuse and monoamine oxidase A gene on conduct disorder was scant. Early sexual abuse might predispose to the subsequent onset of conduct disorder which, in turn, may lead to further sexual victimization through association with sexually abusive peers or involvement in dangerous situations or sexual survival strategies.

    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014526068   open full text
  • Thinking Critically About Campus-Based Self-Defense Programs: A Response to Christine Gidycz.
    DeKeseredy, W. S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. February 21, 2014

    Often labeled "ivory towers," colleges are fertile breeding grounds of male to female sexual assault and other types of woman abuse. Still, across the United States and elsewhere, many researchers, practitioners, and activists are involved in an ongoing and ever-changing struggle to curb female victimization in institutions of higher learning. The main objective of this article is to offer a few thoughts about some prevention issues raised by Christine Gidycz. Special attention is devoted to the dangers associated with new electronic technologies, including texting and Internet pornography.

    February 21, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521024   open full text
  • Perceived Threat in Childhood: A Review of Research and Implications for Children Living in Violent Households.
    Miller, L. E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. February 20, 2014

    The current study is a review of existing literature on perceived threat across childhood (0–19 years). There is strong evidence from this body of research that threat detection emerges in infancy and is present throughout childhood, with meaningful links to child adjustment. The wide range of methodologies employed to assess threat include biological measures (event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging), observational data (gaze duration and response time), and a range of ways of gathering cognitive data (threat appraisal). Across methodologies, a uniform finding is that children who have higher threat attenuation are at increased risk for the development of anxiety disorders. It also seems that children’s attention to threatening stimuli may vary across development, with heightened attention in infancy and early childhood. These findings have meaningful extensions for children who are living in violent families. Since many children living in violent homes are exposed to the threat of violence beginning in infancy, these children may be at heightened risk as compared to their nonexposed peers for the development of maladaptive patterns of threat detection and response. There is some evidence that this long-standing pattern of vigilance toward threat in key developmental periods may in part explain the increased risk of the development of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder following exposure to violence.

    February 20, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838013517563   open full text
  • Reconceptualizing Prevention of Violence Against Women on College Campuses: Response to Victoria Banyard's Actualizing the Potential of Primary Prevention: A Research Agenda.
    Gillum, T. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. February 05, 2014

    Research is clear that violence against college women is a problem that warrants alternative prevention approaches to addressing and reducing its prevalence and creating safer campuses for women and men. Banyard’s presentation gave us food for thought as we consider what such novel approaches may look like. New and innovative approaches that are multifaceted, comprehensive, and informed by theory are key. The ecological model can inform our understanding of the issue, the risk and protective factors associated, and the design and implementation of prevention efforts. It is critically important to engage college students in these efforts to create interventions that are culturally appropriate for college students. We must also meet students where they are, utilizing social marketing campaigns and capitalizing on social media and the use of communication technologies. Together, such efforts will facilitate our ultimate goal of reducing, if not eliminating, violence against women on college campuses.

    February 05, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521029   open full text
  • Improving College Campus-Based Prevention of Violence Against Women: A Strategic Plan for Research Built on Multipronged Practices and Policies.
    Banyard, V. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. February 04, 2014

    Growing awareness of the scope of violence against women (VAW) on college campuses has led to innovations in intervention and prevention These efforts have often followed best practices in prevention, have targeted different campus populations, and used varied tools. Prevention evaluation on campuses is increasing. This review briefly summarizes what we have learned about preventing VAW on campus from evaluation research and then describes a roadmap for where research needs to go. To date, most work focuses almost exclusively on sexual violence, concentrates on single programs on one campus, focuses on attitude outcomes, and most research explores main effects of program utility. More complex prevention and research models are needed including the use of multipronged prevention approaches and researching their synergistic effects; investigation of more specific program effects to better unpack what essential elements of different prevention tools are driving changes; and more complex analyses of outcomes including exploration of moderating variables. This research agenda has implications for new programs, policies, and research designs including the importance of partnerships between practitioners and researchers to actualize these goals.

    February 04, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521027   open full text
  • Dating Violence Among College Students: The Risk and Protective Factors.
    Kaukinen, C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. February 04, 2014

    The research review synthesizes the knowledge base on risk and protective factors for dating violence while highlighting its relevance to violence against college women. In particular, the review highlights the personal, family, relationship, and behavioral factors that heighten the risk of dating violence victimization and perpetration while also noting the methodological limitations of the current body of empirical research and identifying directions for future academic work. Researchers have identified the correlation between risky health and behavioral factors and dating violence, most often modeling these as part of the etiology of dating violence among college students. Less often have scholars explored these as co-occurring risk factors. This approach to dating violence may be used to develop meaningful and impactful interventions to reduce the incidence and prevalence of college dating violence while also addressing the other health risk behaviors that impact academic success and place students’ well-being at risk.

    February 04, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521321   open full text
  • Campus and College Victim Responses to Sexual Assault and Dating Violence: Disclosure, Service Utilization, and Service Provision.
    Sabina, C., Ho, L. Y.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. February 04, 2014

    After sexual assault or dating violence occurs, a college victim may disclose the event to formal and informal sources as well as seek services. The current review explores empirical research on formal disclosure, informal disclosure, service utilization, and service provision among college students. Forty-five empirical articles and reports that met certain criteria were reviewed. Overall, rates of informal disclosure were considerably higher than rates of formal disclosure. Characteristics of the incident, victim, and offender were associated with disclosure. Rates of service utilization were varied but appear to be low among those victimized in the past year. When services were used, physical and mental health services were most often utilized. Available services, policies for dating violence and sexual assault, and judicial processes varied according to the type of institution, and indicate several areas for improvement. A number of research, practice, and policy implications emerge from this critical review of the literature.

    February 04, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521322   open full text
  • Feminist Self-Defense and Resistance Training for College Students: A Critical Review and Recommendations for the Future.
    Gidycz, C. A., Dardis, C. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. February 03, 2014

    There remains resistance to feminist self-defense and resistance training programming for women, despite (a) documented effectiveness of rape resistance strategies in avoiding rape, (b) consistently high rates of sexual victimization on college campuses, and (c) limited evidence of lasting change in sexual assault perpetration reduction within existing men’s prevention programs. The current article seeks to discuss (1) the rationale for feminist self-defense and resistance training for women, (2) key components of feminist self-defense and resistance training, (3) barriers to its implementation, (4) outcomes of self-defense and resistance training programming, and (5) recommendations for future work. Such suggestions include increasing funding for large-scale self-defense and rape resistance outcome research to examine program effectiveness. Specifically, outcome research that examines the role of contextual factors (e.g., alcohol use) and women’s victimization histories is needed. Finally, self-defense training and resistance training should be combined with bystander intervention and men’s programs with the goal of providing synergistic effects on rape reduction.

    February 03, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521026   open full text
  • Violence Against College Women: A Review to Identify Limitations in Defining the Problem and Inform Future Research.
    Rennison, C. M., Addington, L. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 31, 2014

    Over the past 25 years, our understanding about violence against college women has greatly expanded, but it has been concentrated in particular areas. As a result, despite this increased attention, significant gaps in our knowledge still exist. One is a failure to take stock in how "violence" is defined and assess whether its current use adequately covers the variety of risks to which college women are exposed. We identify limitations in how the current literature operationalizes violence against college women and illustrate how addressing these limitations can inform and advance the field by identifying new patterns and correlates. We also propose a research agenda to explicitly examine the definition and scope of "violence" as considered in the study of college women.

    January 31, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014520724   open full text
  • Interpersonal Violence on College Campuses: Understanding Risk Factors and Working to Find Solutions.
    Littleton, H.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 30, 2014

    This commentary discusses the contributions of Drs. Antonia Abbey and Catherine Kaukinen to our understanding of risk factors for sexual and physical aggression among college students. Major contributions of their work are outlined. These include Abbey’s contributions to our understanding of trajectories of sexually aggressive behavior among college men, risk factors for engaging in sexual aggression among men, and the role of alcohol in sexual aggression. In addition, Kaukinen’s work has increased our understanding of the frequency of violence in college dating relationships as well as the association of violent relationships with health risk behaviors. Directions for future research are also outlined including a need to identify trajectories of violence risk as well as a need to understand the complex interrelationships among health risk behaviors and interpersonal violence. Finally, implications for practice and university policy are discussed, including a focus on the development of effective preventive strategies and proactive responses to violence.

    January 30, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521030   open full text
  • Measuring Sexual Victimization: On What Fronts is the Jury Still Out and Do We Need it to Come In?
    Krebs, C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 30, 2014

    Rennison and Addington use National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data to document the fact that college women experience violent victimization at a lower rate than women of the same age who do not attend college, which refutes the idea that women in college are at increased risk of being victimized. The measurement of victimization, especially sexual victimization, is, however, a topic that has be the source of much debate. Bureau of Justice Statistics is currently exploring what are the best methods for measuring sexual victimization within the NCVS, and recent methodological research, which is summarized in this article, could inform this process. Although consensus has seemingly been forming around come methods, such as using self-administered survey instruments and behaviorally specific questions when trying to measure sexual victimization, the jury is still out on some other design fronts. What is not clear is whether we need the jury to come in, so to speak. Some methodological variation might be acceptable, especially if the various methods being considered are producing similar results.

    January 30, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521028   open full text
  • Risk and Protective Factors for Sexual Aggression and Dating Violence: Common Themes and Future Directions.
    Thompson, M. P.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 27, 2014

    The primary aims of this article are to expand on three themes from the conference articles on risk and protective factors for dating and sexual violence and to offer suggestions that can guide future research. The first theme is the co-occurrence of sexual and dating violence with other forms of violence and other campus health issues. A second topic is the value of prospective studies in revealing temporal patterns of victimization and perpetration. A third theme is the role of peer norms in violence among college students. Suggestions for translating these ideas into research and action are discussed and include the need for comprehensive prevention approaches, more longitudinal research spanning the years before, during, and after college, and the application of social media technology in our interventions strategies.

    January 27, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014521025   open full text
  • Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Research: Scientific Progress, Scientific Challenges, and Gender.
    Hamby, S.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 24, 2014

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the current status of scientific knowledge on intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence, with a particular focus on the measurement of gender patterns. A multimethod analysis of estimates for the incidence and prevalence of intimate and sexual aggression reveals consistencies across some methodologies and inconsistencies across others. In particular, self-report using behavioral checklists such as the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales yields results that are very discrepant from other research findings. Contrary to some assertions, self-report studies using simple checklists do not represent "most data" on intimate violence; there are large criminological and public health databases that warrant attention. When these sources are considered and placed in the context of other data on violence and aggression, a clear pattern of gender asymmetry emerges, with males perpetrating more physical and sexual violence than females for virtually every form of violence ever studied. Violence research has been hampered by the conservative forces that affect most social science research, including peer review, grant review, and tenure review processes that discourage methodological innovation and reward incremental research studies. We need to focus resources on scientific and technological innovation to better understand violent phenomena and better serve all those involved in violence. Two examples of self-report methods that do not produce gender symmetry are described.

    January 24, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014520723   open full text
  • An Exploration of Sexual Victimization and Academic Performance Among College Women.
    Jordan, C. E., Combs, J. L., Smith, G. T.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 22, 2014

    The literature has documented the widespread nature of sexual assault victimization among college women. While the aftermath of violence against university women has also received focus, that is, documenting trauma-related sequelae; risk factors; reporting patterns; and legal interventions, the impact on academic performance has not received adequate attention in the literature. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the association of rape and sexual assault with academic performance among college women. Its specific aims included the following: to compare high school and college sexual assault experiences with collegiate grade point averages (GPAs) at key points in time; to examine any differences in GPA by type of sexual assault; to urge researchers studying retention and persistence patterns or sexual assault among college students to ensure that the relationship between the two is included in research designs; and to recommend that academic institutions expand programming on retention to include rape and sexual assault among the risk factors associated with a lack of persistence.

    January 22, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838014520637   open full text
  • An Examination of the Factors Related to Dating Violence Perpetration Among Young Men and Women and Associated Theoretical Explanations: A Review of the Literature.
    Dardis, C. M., Dixon, K. J., Edwards, K. M., Turchik, J. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 13, 2014

    This article provides a review of the literature on dating violence (DV) perpetration, specifically sex similarities and differences in the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration and the utility of current theories to explain young men’s and women’s DV perpetration. Overall, many of the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration are similar among young men and women (e.g., witnessing interparental violence, experiencing child abuse, alcohol abuse, traditional gender roles, relationship power dynamics). However, young women’s perpetration of DV is more strongly related to internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression), trait anger and hostility, and experiencing DV victimization than young men’s perpetration, whereas young men’s perpetration of DV is more consistently related to lower socioeconomic status and educational attainment, antisocial personality characteristics, and increased relationship length than young women’s perpetration. Each theory offers insights into but does not fully account for the correlates and predictors of DV perpetration. Sociocultural theories may be useful in explaining the use of coercive control in relationships, and learning/intergenerational transmission of violence theories may be useful in explaining bidirectional couple violence. Future research should focus on integrative theories, such as in the social–ecological theory, in order to explain various forms of DV. Our understanding of young men’s and young women’s DV perpetration is limited by cross-sectional research designs, methodological inconsistencies, a lack of sex-specific analytic approaches, and a lack of focus on contextual factors; more multivariate and longitudinal studies are needed. Further, as DV prevention programming is often presented in mixed-sex formats, a critical understanding of sex differences and similarities in DV perpetration could ultimately refine and improve effectiveness of programming efforts aimed at reducing DV.

    January 13, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838013517559   open full text
  • A Theory-Based Approach to Understanding Suicide Risk in Shelter-Seeking Women.
    Wolford-Clevenger, C., Smith, P. N.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. January 10, 2014

    Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence are at an increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to women in the general population. Control-based violence, which is common among shelter-seeking women, may play a pivotal role in the development of suicide ideation and attempts. Current risk assessment and management practices for shelter-seeking women are limited by the lack of an empirically grounded understanding of increased risk in this population. We argue that in order to more effectively promote risk assessment and management, an empirically supported theory that is sensitive to the experiences of shelter-seeking women is needed. Such a theory-driven approach has the benefits of identifying and prioritizing targetable areas for intervention. Here, we review the evidence for the link between coercive control and suicide ideation and attempts from the perspective of Baumeister’s escape theory of suicide. This theory has the potential to explain the role of coercive control in the development of suicide ideation and eventual attempts in shelter-seeking women. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention in domestic violence shelters are discussed.

    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1524838013517562   open full text
  • Domestic/Family Violence Death Reviews: An International Comparison.
    Bugeja, L., Dawson, M., McIntyre, S.-J., Walsh, C.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 31, 2013

    Domestic/Family Violence Death Reviews (D/FVDRs) have been established in a number of high-income countries since 1990 as a mechanism to inform prevention-focused interventions to reduce domestic/family violence. D/FVDRs differ in their structure, governance, case identification processes and inclusion criteria, review measures, and outputs. Outside of the United States, the extent of heterogeneity across and within countries has not been explored. This study comprised an international comparison of D/FVDRs and their core elements to inform the establishment of D/FVDRs in other developed countries, and potentially low- and middle-income countries where violence is a leading cause of death. Such a review is also a necessary foundation for any future evaluation D/FVDRs. The review identified 71 jurisdictions where a D/FVDRs had been established in the past two decades, 25 of which met the inclusion criteria. All D/FVDRs examined stated a reduction in deaths as a goal of the review process; however, none reported an actual reduction. The focus of the D/FVDRs examined was on intimate partner homicides; however, more recently established D/FVDRs include other familial relationships. Almost one third of the D/FVDRs examined reported changes to the domestic/family system that occurred as a result of recommendations made from the review process. While similar in many ways, D/FVDRs differ along a number of important dimensions that make it difficult to identify best practices for jurisdictions considering the establishment of such an initiative. To share knowledge, existing networks should be expanded nationally and internationally to include jurisdictions that may be considering this initiative.

    December 31, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013517561   open full text
  • Silenced Suffering: The Need for a Better Understanding of Partner Sexual Violence.
    Logan, T., Walker, R., Cole, J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 30, 2013

    This article has two overall goals. First, to examine the current state of sexual violence research to highlight several shortcomings in the knowledge on partner sexual violence. Second, to describe several factors to consider in future research to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual violence. Shortcomings of the research on partner sexual violence include (1) overreliance on dichotomous yes/no representations of sexual violence experiences; (2) lack of, or inadequate documentation of the scope and nature of partner sexual violence; (3) inadequate ways to account for impairment of consent under different circumstances; (4) difficulties in discriminating unwanted from nonconsensual sexual activities; and (5) limited information about the role sexual violence plays in the larger context of coercive control. In order to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual assault, there is a need (1) to better understand the scope and nature of partner sexual assault and (2) to better understand the role partner sexual violence plays in coercive control. By improving the measurement of this phenomenon, victims, researchers, practitioners, and those involved in the justice system might be better equipped to respond to sexual violence among intimate partners.

    December 30, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013517560   open full text
  • Neighborhood Environment and Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review.
    Beyer, K., Wallis, A. B., Hamberger, L. K.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 26, 2013

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important global public health problem, affecting women across the life span and increasing risk for a number of unfavorable health outcomes. Typically conceptualized as a private form of violence, most research has focused on individual-level risk markers. Recently, more scholarly attention has been paid to the role that the residential neighborhood environment may play in influencing the occurrence of IPV. With research accumulating since the 1990s, increasing prominence of the topic, and no comprehensive literature reviews yet undertaken, it is time to take stock of what is known, what remains unknown, and the methods and concepts investigators have considered. In this article, we undertake a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to date on the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, asking, "what is the status of scholarship related to the association between neighborhood environment and IPV occurrence?" Although the literature is young, it is receiving increasing attention from researchers in sociology, public health, criminology, and other fields. Obvious gaps in the literature include limited consideration of nonurban areas, limited theoretical motivation, and limited consideration of the range of potential contributors to environmental effects on IPV—such as built environmental factors or access to services. In addition, explanations of the pathways by which place influences the occurrence of IPV draw mainly from social disorganization theory that was developed in urban settings in the United States and may need to be adapted, especially to be useful in explaining residential environmental correlates of IPV in rural or non-U.S. settings. A more complete theoretical understanding of the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, especially considering differences among urban, semiurban, and rural settings and developed and developing country settings, will be necessary to advance research questions and improve policy and intervention responses to reduce the burden of IPV.

    December 26, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013515758   open full text
  • Understanding the Sociocultural Context of Coping for African American Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Conceptual Model.
    Sharpe, T. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 26, 2013

    The disproportionate representation of African American survivors of homicide victims places them at greater risk for compromised mental health. However, an examination of factors that influence how this population copes with this traumatic event is absent from the literature. This article elucidates the importance of sociocultural factors that influence coping resources and strategies for African Americans surviving the homicide of a loved one. A socioculturally responsive model of coping is presented that can be utilized in furthering the development of research and practice that is culturally responsive to the needs of African American survivors of homicide victims.

    December 26, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013515760   open full text
  • Economic Empowerment of Impoverished IPV Survivors: A Review of Best Practice Literature and Implications for Policy.
    Hahn, S. A., Postmus, J. L.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 16, 2013

    Best practices in advocating for economic empowerment of impoverished intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors require the comprehensive and holistic organization of program and service delivery systems. This article outlines the best practices literature that addresses IPV in the lives of impoverished women, as well as the literature that specifically examines the interventions to economically empower IPV survivors—whether impoverished or not. This article concludes with suggestions for policy makers on how to incorporate these best practices into the Violence Against Women Act and for practitioners to ensure a comprehensive approach to interventions for impoverished IPV survivors.

    December 16, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013511541   open full text
  • Psychopathology Among Homicidally Bereaved Individuals: A Systematic Review.
    Denderen, M. v., Keijser, J. d., Kleen, M., Boelen, P. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 16, 2013

    In the literature on bereavement, claims are made that homicidal loss is associated with posttraumatic stress reactions, depression, and other severe mental health problems. It is surprising that only a few studies have investigated the nature and prevalence of emotional symptoms following homicidal bereavement and a reference to systematic, empirical research is seldom provided. This article reviews the available literature to investigate whether these claims have empirical evidence. Three databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This approach was supplemented with a bibliography search. Eligible studies included English-language peer-reviewed articles that assessed psychopathology in the homicidally bereaved, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Of the 360 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (13 references) met predefined inclusion criteria. Homicide-related psychopathology among the bereaved assessed in these studies includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, complicated grief, and substance abuse. Prevalence of lifetime homicide-related PTSD varied from 19.1% to 71% across studies. Current PTSD varied between 5.2% and 6%. The reviewed literature was inconclusive regarding the course of symptoms over time and the severity of psychopathology among the homicidally bereaved, compared to individuals bereaved by other causes of death. A comparison of the nature and prevalence of psychopathology between studies was complicated by unequal sample sizes and type, recruitment strategy, study design, and time since loss. Limitations of the included studies are discussed, as well as implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research.

    December 16, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013515757   open full text
  • Using Cognitive Theory and Methodology to Inform the Study of Sexual Victimization.
    Rinehart, J. K., Yeater, E. A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 15, 2013

    Sexual victimization is a prevalent problem among college-aged women. In order to investigate the mechanisms underlying sexual victimization, researchers have focused on the role of cognitive processes such as perception of sexual victimization risk, positing that difficulties with risk perception heighten women’s risk for victimization. However, researchers generally have not conceptualized risk perception in the context of a comprehensive cognitive model or utilized tasks and stimuli that allow them to examine specific cognitive processes linked to increased risk for sexual victimization. This review examines the research on sexual victimization risk perception, citing benefits and limitations to the extant literature, and discusses how a promising hybrid approach using cognitive theory and methodology can be applied to this area to better understand women’s risk for sexual victimization.

    December 15, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013515761   open full text
  • A Comparison of the Types of Screening Tool Administration Methods Used for the Detection of Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    Hussain, N., Sprague, S., Madden, K., Hussain, F. N., Pindiprolu, B., Bhandari, M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. December 15, 2013

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with significant health consequences for victims, including acute/chronic pain, depression, trauma, suicide, death, as well as physical, emotional, and mental harms for families and children. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the rate of IPV disclosure in adult women (>18 years of age) with the use of three different screening tool administration methods: computer-assisted self-administered screen, self-administered written screen, and face-to-face interview screen. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, and the Cochrane library databases. We identified 746 potentially relevant articles; however, only 6 were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and included for analysis. No significant differences were observed when women were screened in face-to-face interviews or with a self-administered written screen (Odds of disclosing: 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.77, 1.35]); however, a computer-assisted self-administered screen was found to increase the odds of IPV disclosure by 37% in comparison to a face-to-face interview screen (odds ratio: 0.63, 95% CI: [0.31, 1.30]). Disclosure of IPV was also 23% higher for computer-assisted self-administered screen in comparison to self-administered written screen (Odds of disclosure: 1.23, 95% CI: [0.0.92, 1.64]). The results of this review suggest that computer-assisted self-administered screens leads to higher rates of IPV disclosure in comparison to both face-to-face interview and self-administered written screens.

    December 15, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013515759   open full text
  • Unseen Battles: The Recognition, Assessment, and Treatment Issues of Men With Military Sexual Trauma (MST).
    Morris, E. E., Smith, J. C., Farooqui, S. Y., Suris, A. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 13, 2013

    While there is increasing attention on sexual violence in the military, the focus has been primarily on women. There is very little information regarding the effects of and treatment for men who experience military sexual trauma (MST). The aim of this article is to consolidate the known information about men with MST including prevalence rates, factors that affect those rates, gender differences, medical and psychiatric sequelae, and finally a review of two experimental studies. Implications for future research, practice, and policy are also discussed.

    November 13, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013511540   open full text
  • Should Child Obesity be an Issue for Child Protective Services?: A Call for More Research on this Critical Public Health Issue.
    Jones, D. J., Gonzalez, M., Ward, D. S., Vaughn, A., Emunah, J., Miller, L., Anton, M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 13, 2013

    Given the lasting effects on adolescent and adult health, childhood obesity is a major public health issue. The relatively slow progress toward the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, however, has prompted leaders in both academic and practice sectors to advocate for what may be considered a radical intervention approach, to conceptualize extreme child obesity as an issue of child maltreatment. Advocates of this approach suggest that this conceptualization affords a new angle for intervention—the involvement of child protective services (CPS) in mandating family-focused lifestyle changes aimed at reducing child overweight and, in the most extreme cases, the removal of the obese child from the home. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to inform policies or practices consistent with this recommendation, which is already being implemented in some states. This article aims to provide an overview of the challenges to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity that have motivated the call for CPS involvement in extreme cases and to review the existing research related to this approach. Given that relatively little data are currently available to support or refute the merits of CPS involvement, recommendations for future research that would better inform public policy and decision making regarding this and other intervention strategies are also highlighted.

    November 13, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013511544   open full text
  • Multi-Perpetrator Domestic Violence.
    Salter, M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. November 10, 2013

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care.

    November 10, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013511542   open full text
  • An Expanded Approach to Batterer Intervention Programs Incorporating Neuroscience Research.
    Siegel, J. P.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. August 26, 2013

    Batterer Intervention Programs have been critiqued for failing to incorporate treatment strategies that are supported by neurobiology research. This article reviews findings that have informed the treatment of disorders that are strongly represented among perpetrators of intimate violence, such as addiction, posttraumatic stress disorder, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders. The article argues for an expanded perspective that recognizes the relationships among childhood trauma, emotional regulation impairment, and intimate partner violence. Recommendations and ways to draw on emerging knowledge to invigorate existing programs are provided.

    August 26, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013495982   open full text
  • Dowry in 21st-Century India: The Sociocultural Face of Exploitation.
    Banerjee, P. R.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 29, 2013

    The World Health Organization (2009) implicates deep-rooted cultural and social norms as influential contributing factors toward physical and intimate partner violence against women. The dowry system is a social practice that perpetuates the oppression, torture, and murder of women in India. The practice of dowry is an expected part of marriage in cultures where arranged marriages are the norm. Violence can occur when the dowry or bride-price is deemed unsatisfactory by the recipient. In India, in spite of laws prohibiting the practice, not much has changed over the last 30 years. The National Crime Records Bureau of India, recorded a total of 8,618 female deaths related to dowry disputes in 2011, and the Asian Women’s Human Rights Council (2009) estimates that the practice of dowry is implicated in 25,000 deaths and maiming of women between the ages of 15–34 in India every year. The current review of literature reveals that despite efforts on the part of the Indian government, social activists and feminists organizations in India, not much has changed over the past decade, in fact, the problem has increased, resulting in an unprecedented amount of mortality and morbidity among women in India.

    July 29, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013496334   open full text
  • Disclosure of Intimate Partner Violence to Informal Social Support Network Members: A Review of the Literature.
    Sylaska, K. M., Edwards, K. M.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 24, 2013

    This article presents a review of the published literature to date on rates, experiences, and correlates of victims’ disclosure of or help seeking for intimate partner violence to informal social support network members (e.g., friends, family, classmates, and coworkers). Research indicates that the majority of individuals disclose to at least one informal support and that victims’ disclosure is associated with a number of demographic (e.g., victims’ sex, age, race), intrapersonal (e.g., victims’ feelings of shame/embarrassment, perception of control over abuse), and situational (e.g., violence frequency and severity, if abuse is witnessed) factors. Following disclosure, victims experience a wide range of positive (e.g., believing the victim’s reports, validating the victim’s experiences) and negative (e.g. disbelieving, blaming the victim) social reactions, with positive reactions rated as the most common and most helpful forms of support by victims. Finally, a review of psychological correlates associated with reactions to disclosure indicates that positive social reactions are associated with more psychological health benefits and fewer negative health symptoms, whereas negative social reactions were associated with increased negative psychological health symptoms. Future research methodologies and implications for violence prevention, intervention, and policy are discussed.

    July 24, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013496335   open full text
  • Examining Marital Violence in India: Review and Recommendations for Future Research and Practice.
    Bhat, M., Ullman, S. E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 24, 2013

    Marital violence has been recognized globally as a grave public health concern with devastating consequences affecting the physical, reproductive, sexual and psychological health of women. This article is a narrative review about marital violence in India, an understudied subtype of domestic violence. We include both theoretical and empirical studies of legal definitions, incidence and prevalence, correlates of marital violence and the consequences of such violence on survivors (N = 18). In addition to examining the sociocultural context and correlates of marital violence in India, we discuss the implications of current knowledge and recommendations for reducing and responding to marital violence.

    July 24, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013496331   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Cigarette Smoking: A Meta-Analytic Review.
    Crane, C. A., Hawes, S. W., Weinberger, A. H.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 22, 2013

    The current meta-analytic review represents the first comprehensive empirical evaluation of the strength of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and cigarette smoking. Thirty-nine effect sizes, drawn from 31 peer-reviewed publications, determined the existence of a small to medium composite effect size for the victimization–smoking relationship (d = .41, 95% confidence interval = [.35, .47]). Results indicate that victims of IPV are at greater smoking risk than nonvictims. Subsequent moderator analyses indicated that the association between victimization and smoking is moderately stronger among pregnant compared to nonpregnant victims. The strength of the victimization–smoking relationship did not differ by relationship type or ethnicity. More research is needed on the smoking behavior of male victims, victims of psychological violence, and victims who identify as Latino/Latina. It would be useful for professionals working with IPV victims to assess for smoking and incorporate smoking prevention and cessation skills in intervention settings.

    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013495962   open full text
  • Academy on Violence and Abuse: Highlights of Proceedings From the 2011 Conference, "Toward a New Understanding".
    Cronholm, P. F., Ismailji, T., Mettner, J.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 22, 2013

    In April 2011, the Academy on Violence Abuse ( convened a network of experts for its second annual conference, "Developing the Science of Violence and Abuse: Toward a New Understanding." The conference served as a forum for highlighting the growing body of research regarding the biological consequences and adverse health consequences of abuse. In doing so, it underscored an important scientific premise: By evaluating the impact of violence and abuse from birth to death, one can better evaluate the social, behavioral, psychological, and biological context and pathways that result in the morbidity, mortality, and quality of life of all affected individuals and communities. In this article, we summarize content presented by the conference's keynote speakers and provide citations that speakers have submitted to support their statements.

    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013495961   open full text
  • A Review on the Prevalence and Measurement of Elder Abuse in the Community.
    Sooryanarayana, R., Choo, W.-Y., Hairi, N. N.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 22, 2013

    Aging is a rising phenomenon globally and elder abuse is becoming increasingly recognized as a health and social problem. This review aimed to identify the prevalence of elder abuse in community settings, and discuss issues regarding measurement tools and strategies to measure elderly abuse by systematically reviewing all community-based studies conducted worldwide.


    Articles on elder abuse from 1990 to 2011 were reviewed. A total of 1,832 articles referring to elders residing at home either in their own or at relatives' houses were searched via CINAHL and MEDLINE electronic databases, in addition to a hand search of the latest articles in geriatric textbooks and screening references, choosing a total of 26 articles for review.


    Highest prevalence was reported in developed countries, with Spain having 44.6% overall prevalence of suspicion of abuse and developing countries exhibiting lower estimates, from 13.5% to 28.8%. Physical abuse was among the least encountered, with psychological abuse and financial exploitation being the most common types of maltreatment reported. To date, there is no single gold standard test to ascertain abuse, with numerous tools and different methods employed in various studies, coupled with varying definitions of thresholds for age.


    Current evidences show that elder abuse is a common problem in both developed and developing countries. It is important that social, health care, and legal systems take these findings into consideration in screening for abuse or reforming existing services to protect the health and welfare of the elderly.

    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013495963   open full text
  • Bridging Intimate Partner Violence and the Human Brain: A Literature Review.
    Wong, J. Y.-H., Fong, D. Y.-T., Lai, V., Tiwari, A.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 22, 2013

    Past studies mainly focused on the physical and structural brain injuries in women survivors with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), but little attention has been given to the biological impact and cognitive dysfunction resulting from such psychological stress. In this article, we aim to establish the connection between IPV and the brain by reviewing current literature examining (1) the biological mechanisms linking IPV, stress, and the brain; (2) the functional and anatomical considerations of the brain in abused women; and (3) the abused women’s behavioral responses to IPV, including fear, pain, and emotion regulation, by utilizing functional neuroimaging. The major significance of this study is in highlighting the need to advance beyond self-reports and to obtain scientific evidence of the neurological impact and cognitive dysfunction in abused women with a history of IPV, an area in which current literature remains at a descriptive level.

    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013496333   open full text
  • The Role of Trauma Symptoms in Nonsuicidal Self-Injury.
    Smith, N. B., Kouros, C. D., Meuret, A. E.
    Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. July 22, 2013

    Reports of traumatic events by individuals who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) are common; yet, evidence for the relation between traumatic events and NSSI is inconclusive. This review explores the thesis that trauma symptoms, rather than the experience of a traumatic event per se, underlie this relation, specifically suggesting that trauma symptoms might serve as a mediator. The literature indicates that self-injury plays an important functional role in coping with trauma symptoms such that self-injury can provide an escape from intrusive thoughts and aversive emotional states, as well as end dissociation and periods of numbness through the generation of feelings. Additionally, trauma symptoms have been shown to mediate the relation between the occurrence of traumatic events and NSSI. Taken together, trauma symptoms may play an important role in the development and maintenance of NSSI. The review concludes with treatment implications and future directions for research.

    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1524838013496332   open full text