Chemotherapy regimen containing oxaliplatin is often the first‐line treatment for patient with advanced colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin binds to DNA, leading to the formation of crosslinks and bulky adducts. Approximately 50% of patients with CRC benefit from treatment with oxaliplatin. It is possible that genetic variants in biological pathways involved in drug transportation, drug metabolism, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle modulation might affect the activity, or efficacy of oxaliplatin. Because oxaliplatin resistance may be related to these genetic variants and may therefore be an important reason for treatment failure, we have summarized the genetic variations that have been reported to be predictive markers of the response to oxaliplatin based therapy in patients with advanced CRC.