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Effects of three‐dimensional virtual reality and traditional training methods on mental workload and training performance

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Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries

Published online on


Industries will implement effective training programs to improve training performance, and an ideal training performance occurs under proper mental workload (MWL). Virtual reality (VR) has recently been widely utilized in training; however, only a few studies have investigated its effects on MWL and training performance simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of VR training and traditional training methods, such as technical manuals (TM) and multimedia films (MF), on training performance and MWL. The results of the performance measurement show that VR training is considered the best training method compared to TM and MF, particularly in the case of complex tasks. The results of physiological measurements (GSR [galvanic skin response], LF% [low frequency], and LF/HF [high frequency] ratio) show a significant difference between reading TM and using computer (MF and VR), wherein the latter has a lower MWL. However, no significant difference in subjective MWL assessment (NASA‐TLX [task load index]) and HF% measurement is found.