Objective Smoking cessation treatment should be an important aspect of cancer care. In this study, we evaluated whether cancer‐related disease factors adversely influence smoking cessation treatment. Methods Smokers with cancer (within 5 years of diagnosis, any tumor site) were recruited for an ongoing trial of varenicline for smoking cessation. Disease factors, assessed at baseline, included tumor site, cancer treatment, time since diagnosis, and health‐related quality of life. Medication adherence was defined by 132 of 165 pills taken and counseling adherence was defined by 4 of 4 behavioral counseling sessions attended. Abstinence was bioverified at Week 12. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the relationship between disease factors and 12‐week medication adherence, counseling adherence, and abstinence. Results Of 144 participants, 56% were medication adherent, 74% were counseling adherent, and 39% were abstinent. Health‐related quality of life predicted medication adherence (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.01‐1.16, P = .019, d = 0.20) but not counseling adherence or 12‐week abstinence. Tumor site, cancer treatment, and time since diagnosis did not predict any smoking cessation treatment outcomes. Conclusions Cancer‐related disease factors did not predict cancer survivors' engagement or success in smoking cessation treatment. Findings support National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice guidelines that recommend smoking cessation treatment for all smokers with cancer, regardless of time since diagnosis.