--- - |2 Abstract Recombinant human endostatin (rhES) can inhibit multiple myeloma, while its clinical efficacy in treating relapsed refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) has not been assessed. One hundred eleven RRMM patients were treated with four different regimens: combination of VD (velcade+dexamethasone) and rhES (n=25), Thalidomide (Tha) and VD (VTD, n=22) combination, rhES and conventional chemotherapy combination (n=32), and combination of conventional chemotherapy and Tha (n=32). Significant differences were found in progression‐free survival (PFS) between rhES combination groups and conventional chemotherapy combination groups. No statistical difference was found in overall response rate, overall survival, or incidences of adverse effects. The combination of rhES with VD or conventional chemotherapy is active in patients with RRMM and prolongs the PFS to improve the quality of life. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.