--- - |2- Abstract The molecular mechanism of liver fibrosis caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is not clear. The aim of this study is to understand the molecular mechanism of liver fibrosis induced by HCV and to identify potential therapeutic targets for hepatic fibrosis. We analyzed gene expression patterns between high liver fibrosis and low liver fibrosis samples, and identified genes related to liver fibrosis. We identified TAF1, HNF4A, and CALM2 were related to the development of liver fibrosis. HNF4A is important for hepatic fibrogenesis, and upregulation of HNF4A is an ideal choice for treating liver fibrosis. The gene expression of CALM2 is significantly lower in liver fibrosis samples than nonfibrotic samples. TAF1 may serve as a biomarker for liver fibrosis. The results were further validated by an independent data set GSE84044. In summary, our study described changes in the gene expression during the occurrence and development of liver fibrosis. The TAF1, HNF4A, and CALM2 may serve as novel targets for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Journal of Cellular Physiology, EarlyView.