--- - |2- The differentiated phenotype of renal tubular epithelial cell exerts significant effect on crystal adherence. Peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to be critical for the regulation of cell transdifferentiation in many physiological and pathological conditions; however, little is known about its role in kidney stone formation. In the current study, we found that temporarily high oxalate concentration significantly decreased PPARγ expression, induced Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell dedifferentiation, and prompted subsequent calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal adhesion in vitro. Furthermore, cell redifferentiation after the removal of the high oxalate concentration, along with a decreasing affinity to crystals, was an endogenic PPARγ‐dependent process. In addition, the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, which can depress total‐PPARγ expression and activity, enhanced cell dedifferentiation induced by high oxalate concentration and inhibited cell redifferentiation after removal of the high oxalate concentration. These effects were partially reversed by the PPARγ agonist 15d‐PGJ2. Similar results were observed in animals that suffered from temporary hyperoxaluria followed by a recovery period. The active crystal‐clearing process occurs through the transphenotypical morphology of renal tubular epithelial cells, reflecting cell transdifferentiation during the recovery period. However, GW9662 delayed cell redifferentiation and increased the secondary temporary crystalluria‐induced crystal retention. This detrimental effect was partially reversed by 15d‐PGJ2. Taken together, our results revealed that endogenic PPARγ activity plays a vital regulatory role in crystal clearance, subsequent crystal adherence, and CaOx stone formation via manipulating the transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells. - Journal of Cellular Physiology, EarlyView.