--- - |2- Abstract The Wnt signaling pathway consists of various downstream target proteins that have substantial roles in mammalian cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. Its aberrant activity can lead to uncontrolled proliferation and tumorigenesis. The posttranslational connection of fatty acyl chains to Wnt proteins provides the unique capacity for regulation of Wnt activity. In spite of the past belief that Wnt molecules are subject to dual acylation, it has been shown that these proteins have only one acylation site and undergo monounsaturated fatty acylation. The Wnt monounsaturated fatty acyl chain is more than just a hydrophobic coating and appears to be critical for Wnt signaling, transport, and receptor activation. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings in Wnt monounsaturated fatty acylation and the mechanism by which this lipid moiety regulates Wnt activity from the site of production to its receptor interactions. - Journal of Cellular Physiology, EarlyView.