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GLUT12 expression and regulation in murine small intestine and human Caco‐2 cells

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Journal of Cellular Physiology

Published online on


--- - "\nAbstract\nGLUT12 was cloned from the mammary cancer cell line MCF‐7, but its physiological role still needs to be elucidated. To gain more knowledge of GLUT12 function in the intestine, we investigated GLUT12 subcellular localization in the small intestine and its regulation by sugars, hormones, and intracellular mediators in Caco‐2 cells and mice. Immunohistochemical methods were used to determine GLUT12 subcellular localization in human and murine small intestine. Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated for western blot analyses. Functional studies were performed in Caco‐2 cells by measuring α‐methyl‐d‐glucose (αMG) uptake in the absence of sodium. GLUT12 is located in the apical cytoplasm, below the brush border membrane, and in the perinuclear region of murine and human enterocytes. In Caco‐2 cells, GLUT12 translocation to the apical membrane and α‐methyl‐\nd‐glucose uptake by the transporter are stimulated by protons, glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α), protein kinase C, and AMP‐activated protein kinase. In contrast, hypoxia decreases GLUT12 expression in the apical membrane. Upregulation of \nTNF‐α and hypoxia‐inducible factor‐1α (\nHIF‐1α) genes is found in the jejunal mucosa of diet‐induced obese mice. In these animals, GLUT12 expression in the brush border membrane is slightly decreased compared with lean animals. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection of insulin does not induce GLUT12 translocation to the membrane, as it occurs in lean animals. GLUT12 rapid translocation to the enterocytes’ apical membrane in response to glucose and insulin could be related to GLUT12 participation in sugar absorption during postprandial periods. In obesity, in which insulin sensitivity is reduced, the contribution of GLUT12 to sugar absorption is affected." - Journal of Cellular Physiology, EarlyView.