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Prevention: Necessary But Insufficient? A 2‐Year Follow‐Up of an Effective First‐Grade Mathematics Intervention

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Child Development

Published online on


--- - |2 We present first‐grade, second‐grade, and third‐grade impacts for a first‐grade intervention targeting the conceptual and procedural bases that support arithmetic. At‐risk students (average age at pretest = 6.5) were randomly assigned to three conditions: a control group (n = 224) and two variants of the intervention (same conceptual instruction but different forms of practice: speeded [n = 211] vs. nonspeeded [n = 204]). Impacts on all first‐grade content outcomes were significant and positive, but no follow‐up impacts were significant. Many intervention children achieved average mathematics achievement at the end of third grade, and prior math and reading assessment performance predicted which students will require sustained intervention. Finally, projecting impacts 2 years later based on nonexperimental estimates of effects of first‐grade math skills overestimates long‐term intervention effects. - Child Development, EarlyView.