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Regulation of tumor angiogenesis by microRNAs: State of the art

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Journal of Cellular Physiology

Published online on


--- - |2- This review focuses on tumor angiogenesis regulation by microRNAs and the mechanism underlying this regulation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are small (21–25 nucleotides) endogenous and noncoding RNAs involved in many cellular processes such as apoptosis, development, proliferation, and differentiation via binding to the 3′‐untranslated region of the target mRNA and inhibiting its translation. Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer, which provides oxygen and nutrition for tumor growth while removing deposits and wastes from the tumor microenvironment. There are many angiogenesis stimulators, among which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most well known. VEGF has three tyrosine kinase receptors, which, following VEGF binding, initiate proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis of endothelial cells in the tumor environment. One of the tumor microenvironment conditions that induce angiogenesis through increasing VEGF and its receptors expression is hypoxia. Several miRNAs have been identified that affect different targets in the tumor angiogenesis pathway. Most of these miRNAs affect VEGF and its tyrosine kinase receptors expression downstream of the hypoxia‐inducible Factor 1 (HIF‐1). This review focuses on tumor angiogenesis regulation by miRNAs and the mechanism underlying this regulation. - 'Journal of Cellular Physiology, Volume 234, Issue 2, Page 1099-1110, February 2019. '