--- - |2- The study shows the power of functional proteomic analysis in the delineation of cell signal transduction. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying the diabetes‐associated centrosome amplification is beneficial for the development of intervention protocols for the control of centrosome amplification and its consequences (ie., cancer development) in diabetes. Abstract We have recently reported that type 2 diabetes promotes centrosome amplification via enhancing the expression, biding, and centrosome translocation of rho‐associated coiled‐coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1)/14‐3‐3σ complex in HCT116 cells. In the functional proteomic study, we further investigated the molecular pathways underlying the centrosome amplification using HCT116 cells. We found that treatment of HCT116 cells with high glucose, insulin, and palmitic acid triggered the centrosome amplification and increased the expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), nucleophosmin (NPM), and 14‐3‐3σ. Individual knockdown of PCNA, NPM, or 14‐3‐3σ inhibited the centrosome amplification. Knockdown of PCNA inhibited the treatment‐increased expression of ROCK1, whereas knockdown of ROCK1 did not affect the PCNA expression. High glucose, insulin, and palmitic acid also increased the expressions of c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase‐1 (JNK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), individual knockdown of which upregulated the treatment‐increased expression of 14‐3‐3σ and promoted the centrosome amplification. In contrast, overexpression of JNK1 inhibited the centrosome amplification. Knockdown of Stat3 enhanced the centrosome translocation of 14‐3‐3σ. Moreover, we showed that knockdown of JNK1 inhibited the treatment‐increased expression of Stat3. Knockdown of PCNA, JNK1, or Stat3 did not have an effect on NPM and vice versa. In conclusion, our results suggest that PCNA and JNK1‐Stat3 pathways respectively promotes and feedback inhibits the centrosome amplification by targeting at the ROCK1/14‐3‐3σ complex, and NPM serves as an independent signal for the centrosome amplification. - 'Journal of Cellular Physiology, EarlyView. '