--- - |2- 1. TNF‐like ligand 1A (TL1A) gene polymorphisms correlated with RA. 2. TL1A protein concentrations were elevated in RA patients. 3. TL1A may play important roles in RA. Abstract Recent findings showed elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‐like ligand 1A (TL1A) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and arthritis mice. However, whether TL1A gene polymorphisms may correlate with RA susceptibility needs to be discussed. This case‐control study was performed on 350 RA patients and 556 healthy subjects to identify TL1A genetic variants (rs3810936, rs6478109, and rs7848647) and their possible association with TL1A levels, susceptibility to and severity of RA. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated to represent the correlation between TL1A polymorphisms and RA. The TL1A serum levels were evaluated. Results showed that frequencies of TC, TT + TC genotypes of rs3810936, rs7848647 in RA patients were significantly lower in RA patients compared with controls. Patients with C allele showed more severe disease course (disease activity index: erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor) than in carriers of T allele. However, the allele or genotype frequencies of rs6478109 were not associated with RA. In addition, TL1A genetic variants conferred higher TL1A levels in RA patients compared with controls. In conclusion, these findings indicated an association between TL1A rs3810936, rs7848647 variation and the susceptibility of RA in a sample of Chinese individuals, and TL1A may correlate with severity of RA. - 'Journal of Cellular Physiology, EarlyView. '