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Situational factors and police use of force across micro‐time intervals: A video systematic social observation and panel regression analysis

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["Criminology, Volume 61, Issue 1, Page 74-102, February 2023. ", "\nAbstract\nThe current study analyzes police use of force as a series of time‐bound transactions between officers, civilians, and bystanders. The research begins with a systematic social observation of use‐of‐force events recorded on police body‐worn cameras in Newark, New Jersey. Researchers measure the occurrence and time stamps for numerous participant physical and verbal behaviors. Data are converted into a longitudinal panel format measuring all observed behaviors in 5‐second intervals. Panel logistic regression models estimate the effect of each behavior on use of force in immediate and subsequent temporal periods. Findings indicate certain variables influence use of force at a distinct point in time, whereas others exert influence on use of force across multiple time periods. The most influential variables relate to authority maintenance theoretical constructs. This finding supports prior perspectives arguing that police use of force largely results from officer attempts to maintain constant authority over civilians during face‐to‐face encounters. Nonetheless, a range of additional variables reflecting procedural justice, civilian resistance, and bystander presence significantly affect when police use force during civilian encounters. Results provide nuance to theoretical frameworks considering use of force as resulting from the interplay between officer and civilian actions and reactions.\n"]