The present study investigates the contextual factors that impact the extent of budget use and performance based on contingency theory. For this purpose, we carried out a questionnaire survey of Turkish firms. In order to analyse the data, confirmatory factor analysis and covariance‐based structural equation modelling were used. We find that the extent of budget use and performance are affected significantly by contextual factors. Size, structure, perceived environmental uncertainty (PEU) and information technology (IT) determine the extent of budget use. The study also finds that performance is significantly affected by the extent of budget use and other contingent factors (i.e., structure, PEU, functionality of IT). Furthermore, there is a mediating role of budget use between contextual factors and performance.