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Sex differences in ischaemia/reperfusion‐induced acute kidney injury depends on the degradation of noradrenaline by monoamine oxidase

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Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology

Published online on


Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a leading killer of both sexes; however, resistance to this injury is higher among women than men. We found that renal venous noradrenaline (NAd) overflow after reperfusion played important roles in the development of ischaemic AKI, and that the attenuation of AKI observed in female rats may be dependent on depressing the renal sympathetic nervous system with endogenous oestrogen. In the present study, we used male and female Sprague‐Dawley rats to investigate whether sex differences in the pathogenesis of ischaemic AKI are related to the degradation of NAd by monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the kidney. Ischaemic AKI was achieved by clamping the left renal artery and vein for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion 2 weeks after contralateral nephrectomy. Renal injury was more severe in male rats than in female rats and renal venous plasma NAd levels after reperfusion were markedly elevated in males, but not in females. These sex differences were eliminated by a treatment with isatin, a non‐selective MAO inhibitor, and moclobemide, a selective MAOA inhibitor, but not by selegiline, a selective MAOB inhibitor. Ischaemia decreased the mRNA expression levels of both MAOs in the kidney 1 day after reperfusion; however, MAOA mRNA expression levels were higher in female rats than in male rats. These results suggest that the degradation of NAd by MAOA in the kidney contributes to sex differences in the pathogenesis of ischaemia/reperfusion‐induced AKI.