The purpose of the present study was to identify the differential proteins that synchronously change in urine and glomeruli and could be used to monitor glomerular lesions of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The proteomes of urine and glomeruli from four IgAN patients who were graded III/IV according to the grading system of Lee et al. were compared to the urine proteomes of four healthy volunteers and the glomeruli proteomes of adjacent normal tissue from four patients with renal tumors, respectively. Western blot, enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay were applied to verify the results of the proteomic analysis. In the proteomic analysis of urine from IgAN patients and healthy volunteers, 714 proteins were identified, with 246 proteins identified as differential proteins. In the proteomic analysis of glomeruli from renal biopsy tissue of IgAN patients and from adjacent normal tissue of patients with renal tumors, 161 proteins were identified altogether, and 20 proteins of these were recognized as differential proteins. After comparatively analyzing the differential proteins identified in the urine and glomeruli, five synchronously changed differential proteins were found: complement C9, Ig kappa chain C region and three cytoskeleton proteins. In summary, our findings indicate that certain immunological indices in urine appear to be associated with glomerular lesions of IgAN.