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Journal of Applied Gerontology

Impact factor: 0.7 5-Year impact factor: 1.238 Print ISSN: 0733-4648 Publisher: Sage Publications

Subject: Gerontology

Most recent papers:

  • Aging Prisoners Views on Healthcare Services in Swiss Prisons.
    Galli, S., Bretschneider, W., Elger, B. S., Handtke, V., Shaw, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 29, 2016

    Objective: Due to the higher morbidity prevalent in the increasing older population, prisons are facing new challenges on a structural, ethical, and financial level. This study’s goal was to explore older prisoners’ views and experiences regarding the quality of medical services. Method: In this qualitative study, 35 semi-structured interviews were conducted with older inmates aged 50 years and above in 12 different prisons in the German-speaking (23 interviews) and the French-speaking parts (12 interviews) of Switzerland. Results: The majority of older prisoners in this sample expressed concerns about quality of treatment throughout incarceration. Topics addressed reached from quality of the entrance to routine examinations, quality of the treatment received, and delays in care and services provided. Conclusion: This study’s findings suggest that healthcare in prison is often perceived as insufficient and inadequate by older inmates.

    November 29, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816681150   open full text
  • Social Works Participation in the Geriatric Education Centers Educational Evaluation: A Brief Report.
    Hash, K. M., Berg-Weger, M., Stewart, D. B., Elliott, D. P.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 29, 2016

    This study was conducted to determine the level and types of participation of social workers in the activities of the Geriatric Education Centers (GECs). Through an online survey of GECs, the level of participation of social work professionals was compared with those in dentistry, nursing, medicine, and pharmacy, during the years 2010 to 2014. Thirty-one percent (14) of the 45 GECs completed the survey. The results found increases in participation for both social workers and nurses for both GEC activities and involvement in leadership positions within the centers. The GECs also identified caregiver and provider education and continuing education as activities in which social workers have had an increased interest in recent years. Implications from this study can inform the programming efforts of the new Geriatric Workforce Enhancement Program (GWEP) and other geriatric education programs.

    November 29, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816681151   open full text
  • Adult Day Services Outcomes: Delphi Review of an Integrated Participant Assessment System.
    Jarrott, S., Ogletree, A. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 28, 2016

    Adult day services (ADS) aim to help elders age in place, but evidence of impact on participants lags behind caregiver research. To play a larger role in the continuum of care, ADS participant outcomes should regularly be documented with standard measures. We conducted a Delphi review of one integrated participant assessment system. Capturing physical, mental, and cognitive health indicators and activity engagement of typical ADS participants (i.e., frail elders eligible for nursing home placement), experts evaluated the system on instrument validity, relevance, and application. Practitioners and researchers completed multiple assessments of the system’s instruments and alternatives. Finally, panelists addressed the potential benefits and challenges of system adoption by ADS providers. Panelists concurred that such a system would benefit individuals, families, and providers; concerns related to cost and staffing requirements and appropriateness for distinct client populations. A refined system can reveal best practices to enhance ADS service delivery and participant outcomes.

    November 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816675423   open full text
  • "Calm . . . Satisfied . . . Comforting": The Experience and Meaning of Rabbit-Assisted Activities for Older Adults.
    Pitheckoff, N., McLaughlin, S. J., de Medeiros, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 28, 2016

    Animal-assisted activity programs are commonly used in long-term care facilities to enhance the well-being of older residents. Although research suggests that older adults benefit from these programs, little is known about the experience from the perspective of older adults themselves. In this qualitative study, we used direct observation and in-depth interviews to gain an understanding of the experience of participating in a unique rabbit-assisted activity program delivered in a Midwestern residential facility. Several benefits were identified, with no negative experiences articulated by the participants. In addition to finding the rabbits soothing, the rabbits served as a source of social support for some participants and encouraged social interaction. Participants generally felt that rabbits are good animals to use for this type of activity, but expressed a desire for more frequent, longer, and more interactive visits. Facilities considering animal-assisted activities (AAA) programs should consider these factors when designing their programs.

    November 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816680322   open full text
  • The Residential Long-Term Care Role in Health Care Transitions.
    Berish, D. E., Applebaum, R., Straker, J. K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 10, 2016

    The objective of the current study is to describe the activities long-term care facilities are undertaking to reduce hospital admissions and readmissions by working to improve health care transitions. The data were collected via an online survey from 888 nursing facilities (NFs) and 527 residential care facilities (RCFs) that completed the care integration module of the Ohio Biennial Survey of Long-Term Care. Questions focused on partnerships, current work, type of care model, and perceived barriers to reducing hospital readmissions. More than nine in 10 (93.1%) of NFs and 63.6% of RCFs reported being engaged in a program to reduce hospital admissions/readmissions. Evidence-based care models were utilized by two thirds of NFs and one third of RCFs. Financial barriers were the most frequently cited challenges faced by facilities. Long-term care settings are increasingly becoming transitional care stops for short-term stay residents. Ensuring that facilities are well versed in current transition research and practice is critical to improve system outcomes.

    November 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816677188   open full text
  • Outcomes of a Two-Component Intervention on Behavioral Symptoms in Persons With Dementia and Symptom Response in Their Caregivers.
    Robinson, K. M., Crawford, T. N., Buckwalter, K. C., Casey, D. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 08, 2016

    Purpose: This study evaluated the longitudinal influence of an individualized evidence-based psychoeducational intervention for caregivers on frequency of behavioral symptoms in persons with dementia (PWD) and caregiver reaction to these symptoms. The intervention included information about the disease process using Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold (PLST) content and a family meeting based on Mittelman’s New York University Intervention. Method: A quasi-experimental study design was implemented. The Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist was administered to N = 127 caregiver/care recipient dyads at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months follow-up. All caregivers were enrolled in the intervention at baseline and followed over 18 months. Linear mixed models were developed to evaluate effects on frequency of behavioral symptoms in PWD and caregiver response. Results: The most frequently occurring behavior was memory problems, although depressive behaviors produced the most negative caregiver responses. Between baseline and 6-month follow-up, there was a significant decrease in frequency of behavioral symptoms. Overall, there was a significant decrease in caregiver’s reaction to behavioral symptoms from baseline to 18-month follow-up.

    November 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816677549   open full text
  • Social Context of Depressive Distress in Aging Transgender Adults.
    White Hughto, J. M., Reisner, S. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 07, 2016

    This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and mental health in aging transgender adults. Survey responses from 61 transgender adults above 50 (Mage = 57.7, SD = 5.8; 77.1% male-to-female; 78.7% White non-Hispanic) were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the relationship between gender- and age-related discrimination, number of everyday discrimination experiences, and past-week depressive distress, adjusting for social support, sociodemographics, and other forms of discrimination. The most commonly attributed reasons for experiencing discrimination were related to gender (80.3%) and age (34.4%). More than half of participants (55.5%) met criteria for past-week depressive distress. In an adjusted multivariable model, gender-related discrimination and a greater number of everyday discrimination experiences were associated with increased odds of past-week depressive distress. Additional research is needed to understand the effects of aging and gender identity on depressive symptoms and develop interventions to safeguard the mental health of this vulnerable aging population.

    November 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816675819   open full text
  • Disseminating the Otago Exercise Program in the United States: Perceived and Actual Physical Performance Improvements From Participants.
    Shubert, T. E., Smith, M. L., Jiang, L., Ory, M. G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 27, 2016

    The Otago Exercise Program (OEP) is an evidence-based fall prevention program disseminated internationally. Little is known about the implementation or effectiveness of the OEP in the United States. The purposes were to (a) identify characteristics of older adults enrolled in OEP, and (b) examine perceived and actual functional performance changes after participation in 8 weeks of the program. Baseline and 8-week functional and self-report data were collected on 210 older adults from 2013 to 2015. Linear mixed models and general estimating equations logistic regression models adjusted for socio-demographic factors were performed to assess changes. At 8 weeks, scores dramatically improved on self-report and physical performance tests: Timed Up-and-Go (p < .001), 30-Second Chair Rise (p < .001), and Four-Stage Balance (p < .001). Findings support that participation in the U.S. OEP as part of a plan of care can result in significant improvements in objective functional mobility, balance measures, and self-reported ability.

    October 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816675422   open full text
  • Home-Delivered Meals and Risk of Self-Reported Falls: Results From a Randomized Trial.
    Thomas, K. S., Parikh, R. B., Zullo, A. R., Dosa, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 25, 2016

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether home-delivered meals, and the frequency of delivery, reduces self-reported falls among homebound older adults. Data come from a randomized parallel three-arm study of 371 older adults on seven Meals on Wheels programs’ waiting lists. Participants were randomly assigned to receive (a) daily meal delivery (n = 139); (b) once weekly, frozen meal delivery (n = 106); or (c) control, remain on the waiting list for meals (n = 126). Participants were surveyed at baseline and 15 weeks post randomization. At follow-up, 36 (28.6%) in the control group, 29 (27.4%) receiving once weekly delivered meals, and 33 (23.7%) receiving daily delivered meals reported a fall (compared with control, daily meal risk ratio [RR] = 0.83, 95% confidence limits [CL] = [0.55, 1.25]; frozen meal RR = 0.96, 95%CL = [0.63, 1.45]). Our study suggests that daily delivered meals may reduce the risk of falls. Additional work is needed to understand the effect of meals on falls, particularly among previous fallers, a high-risk subgroup.

    October 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816675421   open full text
  • Perceptions of Older Residents and Their Adult Children Regarding Continuing Care Retirement Community Staff.
    Shinan-Altman, S., Ayalon, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 23, 2016

    This study examined the perspectives of continuing care retirement community (CCRC) residents and their adult children regarding services provided by staff in the CCRC. The study is based on semistructured qualitative interviews with 49 residents and their 34 adult children from 11 CCRCs. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three major themes emerged: (a) "Reliance on the CCRC staff," (b) "Dissatisfaction with the CCRC staff," and (c) "Disregard to the CCRC staff." Findings suggest that staff should maintain constant contact with all residents, including those who are not satisfied with staff’s function and those who do not use staff services, to identify and respond to the residents’ changing needs. Attention should be paid in meeting residents’ physical needs prior to meeting their social and emotional needs, as these tend to be the most urgent.

    October 23, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816675420   open full text
  • Falls Risks and Prevention Behaviors Among Community-Dwelling Homebound and Non-Homebound Older Adults.
    Casteel, C., Jones, J., Gildner, P., Bowling, J. M., Blalock, S. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 16, 2016

    The objectives were to examine falls risk factors to determine how the magnitude of risk may differ between homebound and non-homebound older adults, and to describe falls prevention behaviors and participation in falls prevention education. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with convenience samples of community-dwelling older adults recruited through Meals on Wheels programs (homebound, n = 80) and senior centers (non-homebound, n = 84) in North Carolina. Data were collected during home visits and included an interview and medication inventory. Multivariate negative binomial regression with robust variance estimation modeled risk factors for falls. Risk factors for falls observed in both the homebound and non-homebound populations are consistent with what is known in the literature. However, the magnitude of the risk was higher in the homebound than in the non-homebound population with respect to vision impairments, number of high-risk and over-the-counter medications, and use of walking aids .Few participants reported participating in a falls prevention program.

    October 16, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816672043   open full text
  • Pilot Study for Implementing an Osteoporosis Education and Exercise Program in an Assisted Living Facility and Senior Community.
    Nanduri, A. P., Fullman, S., Morell, L., Buyske, S., Wagner, M. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 11, 2016

    Background: Project Healthy Bones (PHB) is a 24-week, peer-led exercise and education program for older adults at risk of osteoporosis. Method: Residents from an assisted living and senior community program were enrolled after medical clearance. Participant demographics, geriatric fitness assessments, exercise logs, quizzes, and surveys were collected at baseline and 24 weeks. Data were analyzed using paired t tests and ANOVA of change scores for the pooled data within the R statistical environment. Results: Forty of the 53 enrolled participants completed the program. Participants improved their strength, balance, posture, and flexibility, resulting in a reduced risk of falls and fractures. In addition, their knowledge of bone health, nutrition, and fall prevention increased. Conclusion: Offering low-cost disease-specific programs such as PHB helps minimize the complications of osteoporosis and improve the overall health of participants. Implementing disease-specific public health programs in assisted living centers can increase access to programs.

    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816672045   open full text
  • Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimers Disease, and Other Dementias in the Lives of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Older Adults and Their Caregivers: Needs and Competencies.
    Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., Jen, S., Bryan, A. E. B., Goldsen, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 10, 2016

    Cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and other dementias are important health concerns for older adults. As a marginalized and growing segment of the older adult population, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults face distinct risk factors related to cognitive impairment and dementias, including social isolation, discrimination, barriers to health care access, limited availability of and support for caregivers, and higher rates of certain chronic illnesses. We examine cognitive impairment and dementias among LGBT older adults, describe their unique risk factors, and outline key competencies for health care and human service providers to ensure culturally relevant care for LGBT older adults experiencing cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, or other dementias, as well as their caregivers, families, and communities. Implications include developing an awareness of the context of LGBT older adults’ lives and relationships, the importance of early detection and support, and the development of policies and practices that promote community-level advocacy and education.

    October 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816672047   open full text
  • Do Villages Promote Aging in Place? Results of a Longitudinal Study.
    Graham, C., Scharlach, A. E., Kurtovich, E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 04, 2016

    Villages are a new, grassroots, consumer-directed model that aims to promote aging in place and prevent unwanted relocations for older adults. In exchange for a yearly membership fee, Villages provide seniors with opportunities for social engagement (social events and classes), civic engagement (member-to-member volunteer opportunities), and an array of support services. In total, 222 Village members were surveyed at intake and 12-month follow-up to examine changes in their confidence aging in place, social connectedness, and health. The strongest positive results were in the domain of confidence, including significantly greater confidence aging in place, perceived social support, and less intention to relocate after 1 year in the Village. As most seniors were in good health and well connected at the time they joined the Village, there were not improvements in health or social connectedness. Authors discuss the importance of longer term, longitudinal studies to examine the effectiveness of Villages in preventing institutionalization over time.

    October 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816672046   open full text
  • Exploring Path Models of Disablement in Residential Care and Assisted Living Residents.
    Phillips, L. J., Petroski, G. F., Conn, V. S., Brown, M., Leary, E., Teri, L., Zimmerman, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 04, 2016

    This study examined the relationships between individual and environmental factors and physical activity, and between physical activity and functional limitations and disability in residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents. Participants completed questionnaires and physical performance tests, and wore the Fitbit Motion Tracker® to capture physical activity. Model fit was analyzed using two-level path models with residents nested within RC/AL settings. Model parameters were estimated using the MPlus robust maximum likelihood method. A multilevel model with good fit (root mean square error of approximation = 0.07, comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.91) showed that persons with greater exercise self-efficacy were more physically active, and persons who were more physically active had better physical function and less disability. Setting-level factors did not significantly correlate with physical activity or disability. Although environmental factors may influence physical activity behavior, only individual factors were associated with physical activity in this sample of RC/AL residents.

    October 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816672048   open full text
  • Double- and Triple-Duty Caregiving Men: An Examination of Subjective Stress and Perceived Schedule Control.
    DePasquale, N., Zarit, S. H., Mogle, J., Moen, P., Hammer, L. B., Almeida, D. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 04, 2016

    Based on the stress process model of family caregiving, this study examined subjective stress appraisals and perceived schedule control among men employed in the long-term care industry (workplace-only caregivers) who concurrently occupied unpaid family caregiving roles for children (double-duty child caregivers), older adults (double-duty elder caregivers), and both children and older adults (triple-duty caregivers). Survey responses from 123 men working in nursing home facilities in the United States were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Results indicated that workplace-only and double- and triple-duty caregivers’ appraised primary stress similarly. However, several differences emerged with respect to secondary role strains, specifically work–family conflict, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intentions. Schedule control also constituted a stress buffer for double- and triple-duty caregivers, particularly among double-duty elder caregivers. These findings contribute to the scarce literature on double- and triple-duty caregiving men and have practical implications for recruitment and retention strategies in the health care industry.

    October 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816641391   open full text
  • Spatial Associations of Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Older Adults.
    Cromley, E. K., Wilson-Genderson, M., Heid, A. R., Pruchno, R. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 02, 2016

    Multimorbidity, the presence of two or more chronic conditions in an individual, presents a major challenge for meeting the health care needs of older adults. This study advances understanding of multiple chronic conditions by using local colocation quotients to reveal spatial associations for five chronic conditions (arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and pulmonary disease) in a statewide panel of older adults in New Jersey. Among adults with three or more conditions, large concentrations of Arthritis-Heart Disease-Pulmonary Disease, Arthritis-Hypertension-Pulmonary Disease, and Diabetes-Heart Disease-Hypertension were observed, each triad located in different regions of the state. Individuals with other triads of conditions, in contrast, were distributed among all older adults in the sample as expected with no areas of local concentration. The study provides gerontologists with a new and effective method for uncovering geographical patterns in combinations of chronic conditions among the populations they serve, thereby enabling more effective interventions.

    October 02, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816672044   open full text
  • Comparison Between Quality of Care Provided by Trained Feeding Assistants and Certified Nursing Assistants During Between-Meal Supplementation in Long-Term Care Settings.
    Hollingsworth, E. K., Long, E. A., Simmons, S. F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 22, 2016

    The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of feeding assistance provided by trained non-nursing staff with care provided by certified nursing assistants (CNAs). Research staff provided an 8-hr training course that met federal and state requirements to non-nursing staff in five community long-term care facilities. Trained staff were assigned to between-meal supplement and/or snack delivery for 24 weeks. Using standardized observations, research staff measured feeding assistance care processes between meals across all study weeks. Trained staff, nurse aides, and upper level staff were interviewed at 24 weeks to assess staff perceptions of program impact. Trained staff performed significantly better than CNAs for 12 of 13 care process measures. Residents also consumed significantly more calories per snack offer from trained staff (M = 130 ± 126 [SD] kcal) compared with CNAs (M = 77 ± 94 [SD] kcal). The majority of staff reported a positive impact of the training program.

    September 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816669806   open full text
  • Caregiving Subgroups Differences in the Associations Between the Resilience Resources and Life Satisfaction.
    Kim, S., Knight, B. G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 20, 2016

    Using a model of resilience, this study compared the direct and indirect associations between resilience resources (sense of mastery, openness to experience, emotion regulation, and social support) and life satisfaction among caregiving subgroups (spouses, adult-children, and parents). Participants were included from the survey of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS II). Estimates of direct and indirect relationships between the resources and life satisfaction were calculated for each subgroup, and differences in the relationships between subgroups were tested. The direct positive relationships between sense of mastery and life satisfaction were significant and stronger for spouses and parents than for adult-children. In contrast, an indirect relationship through social support between the two variables was stronger for adult-children than for spouses. Openness to experience had a direct positive link to life satisfaction among spouses, and emotion regulation was directly related to life satisfaction among parents. We suggested targeted interventions for caregiving subgroups.

    September 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816669804   open full text
  • Do Recipients of an Association-Sponsored Quality Award Program Experience Better Quality Outcomes Compared With Other Nursing Facilities Across the United States?
    Castle, N., Olson, D., Shah, U., Hansen, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 07, 2016

    Background: This study explores the relationship between recipients of an association-sponsored Quality Award Program and select measures of quality in U.S. nursing facilities, examined both cross-sectionally and over time. Method: Data used came from Quality Award Program recipients over 9 years (2003-2011) and a set of quality indicators from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) database. These data were analyzed using a variety of multivariate regression techniques. Results: Cross-sectionally, the award recipients demonstrated higher performance on most of the quality indicators, compared with both the broader field of nursing facilities and also a more stringent comparison group of facilities. Comparing quality from the 4 years before the award was received to the 4 years after the award, the majority of quality indicators demonstrated improvement in those facilities receiving an award. Conclusion: These results indicate that, in general, the nursing facilities that participate in and receive the Silver or Gold American Health Care Association (AHCA) and National Center for Assisted Living (NCAL) National Quality Award perform at a higher level of quality for residents and sustain that heightened performance over a period of time.

    September 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816665205   open full text
  • Work Life Stress and Career Resilience of Licensed Nursing Facility Administrators.
    Myers, D. R., Rogers, R., LeCrone, H. H., Kelley, K., Scott, J. H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 28, 2016

    Career resilience provided a frame for understanding how Licensed Nursing Facility Administrators (LNFAs) sustain role performance and even thrive in stressful skilled nursing facility work environments. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of in-depth interviews with18 LNFAs, averaging 24 years of experience were conducted by a five-member research team. Analysis was informed by evidence-based frameworks for career resilience in the health professions as well as the National Association of Long-Term Care Administrator Boards’ (NAB) five domains of competent administrative practice. Findings included six sources of work stressors and six sources of professional satisfaction. Also, participants identified seven strategic principles and 10 administrative practices for addressing major sources of stress. Recommendations are provided for research and evidence-based application of the career resilience perspective to LNFA practice aimed at reducing role abandonment and energizing the delivery of the quality of care that each resident deserves.

    August 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816665207   open full text
  • Nurses Encounters With Older Adults Engaged in Self-Neglectful Behaviors in the Community: A Qualitative Study.
    Band-Winterstein, T.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 28, 2016

    Objective: Alongside clinical tasks and decision making, there is a growing awareness of the emotions that arise during nurses’ interaction with clients and its significance in relation to meeting the demands of one’s role. This study aims to delve deeper into the experience of community care nurses’ encounters with older adults engaged in self-neglectful behaviors. Method: In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 experienced nurses in Israel, who worked with older adults engaged in self-neglectful behaviors in the community. Results: Three main themes emerged: "Everything is amplified in old age": An age-related decline in functioning produces situations of self-neglect, Self-neglect as an experience imprinted on the nurse’s work: The struggle for treatment, and "What is our role here?"—Nurses’ obligations in cases of self-neglect. Conclusion: The complexity of older adults engaged in self-neglectful behaviors results in feelings of confusion and ambiguity regarding the nurses’ role.

    August 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816665206   open full text
  • Staff Empowerment Practices and CNA Retention: Findings From a Nationally Representative Nursing Home Culture Change Survey.
    Berridge, C., Tyler, D. A., Miller, S. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 25, 2016

    This article examines whether staff empowerment practices common to nursing home culture change are associated with certified nursing assistant (CNA) retention. Data from 2,034 nursing home administrators from a 2009/2010 national nursing home survey and ordered logistic regression were used. After adjustment for covariates, a greater staff empowerment practice score was positively associated with greater retention. Compared with the low empowerment category, nursing homes with scores in the medium category had a 44% greater likelihood of having higher CNA retention (odds ratio [OR] = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.15, 1.81], p = .001) and those with high empowerment scores had a 64% greater likelihood of having higher CNA retention (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = [1.34, 2.00], p < 001). Greater opportunities for CNA empowerment are associated with longer CNA retention. This research suggests that staffing empowerment practices on the whole are worthwhile from the CNA staffing stability perspective.

    August 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816665204   open full text
  • Baby Boomers and the Long-Term Transformation of Retirement and Volunteering: Evidence for a Policy Paradigm Shift.
    Chambre, S. M., Netting, F. E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 22, 2016

    In this article, we analyze two predictions about baby boomers that have contributed to the current policy paradigm: that the boomers will reinvent retirement, and that they have the potential to engage in higher levels of formal volunteering than previous generations. Empirical evidence from various studies and surveys do not support this paradigm. In fact, the data lead to the conclusion that baby boomers are neither initiating the reinvention of retirement, nor are they the initiators of a surge in volunteerism. Instead, they are part of an ongoing evolution of retirement and volunteerism begun by their parents’ generation. We propose several assumptions to construct an alternative policy paradigm: Baby boomers need to be recognized as a diverse age cohort whose engagement is multi-faceted. Volunteer recruitment and oversight require creative approaches which focus on the communal and membership aspects of volunteering rather than focusing on volunteering as unpaid "work."

    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816663552   open full text
  • Understanding Hearing Loss and Barriers to Hearing Health Care Among Korean American Older Adults: A Focus Group Study.
    Choi, J. S., Shim, K. S., Kim, K., Nieman, C. L., Mamo, S. K., Lin, F. R., Han, H.-R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 22, 2016

    Hearing loss is associated with an accelerated decline in social, cognitive, and physical functioning among older adults. However, little is known about its impact and barriers to hearing health care in any ethnic minorities. The aim of this study was to explore experiences related to hearing loss and barriers to hearing health care among older Korean Americans (KAs). We conducted four focus groups with 19 older KAs with hearing loss and four communication partners. Qualitative content analysis revealed four themes: (a) impact of hearing loss, (b) self-perception of hearing loss, (c) coping strategies for hearing loss, and (d) barriers to hearing health care (price, language, lack of collaborative communications, perceptions about hearing aids, and lack of knowledge). Older KAs were significantly impacted by hearing loss but tended not to seek care due to multiple factors. Culturally tailored hearing interventions are urgently needed to promote hearing health in the KA community.

    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816663554   open full text
  • A Secondary Analysis of Sleep Quality Changes in Older Adults From a Randomized Trial of an MBSR Program.
    Gallegos, A. M., Moynihan, J., Pigeon, W. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 10, 2016

    This secondary analysis examined changes in sleep quality associated with participation in a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program among healthy older adults. Data were collected at baseline, 8-weeks post-treatment, and a 6-month follow-up from adults aged ≥ 65 (N = 200), randomly assigned to MBSR or a waitlist control. Group differences were examined using mixed analysis of covariance with repeated measures on the total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score. A small-sized, significant effect was found on overall sleep among MBSR participants with baseline PSQI scores > 5, indicative of a sleep disturbance, F(2, 80) = 4.32, p = .02, p2 = .05. A medium-sized, significant effect was found for MBSR participants with baseline PSQI scores ≥ 10, F(2, 28) = 3.13, p = .04, p2 = .10. These findings indicate that improved sleep quality for older adults who have higher levels of sleep disturbance may be associated with participation in MBSR.

    August 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816663553   open full text
  • The Impact of Community-Based Supports and Services on Quality of Life Among the Elderly in China: A Longitudinal Study.
    Zhang, Y., Yeager, V. A., Hou, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 05, 2016

    Community-based supports and services (CBSS) have been developing rapidly in China as a new way of satisfying the needs of elderly people. However, it is not clear how pervasive these services are or whether the availability of CBSS impacts quality of life. This study examines trends in CBSS and the impact of the perceived CBSS availability on self-reported quality of life among the elderly in China. We found a significant increase in perceived CBSS availability from 2005 to 2011, but the perceived availability of CBSS varies by the type of CBSS. Multivariate analyses show that home medical visits (β = .181, p = .03), psychological support (β = .332, p = .02), social and recreation activities (β = .231, p = .02), and legal consulting services (β = .271, p = .02) were each significantly associated with a good quality of life. Results from this study provide insight that can inform CBSS strategies and the development of new services for the elderly in China.

    August 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816661945   open full text
  • Involving Caregivers of People With Dementia to Validate Booklets on Food-Related Activities: A Qualitative Think-Aloud Study.
    Papachristou, I., Hickeys, G., Iliffe, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 05, 2016

    This study is the first to explore informal dementia caregivers’ perceptions and outlook on written materials about all food-related processes: shopping, food preparation, and eating. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate the content, format, and usefulness of two separate booklets (one newly developed and one existing) on food-related processes. Twenty dementia caregivers were provided with one of the two booklets, and a Think-Aloud method was used to gather information about their views on the booklets. The findings indicated that incorporating all three food processes in a new booklet could be beneficial for the participant. Shopping, purchasing food, driving, and dangers in the kitchen were addressed only in the developed booklet, and participants regarded them as important and useful areas to address. Therefore, this study has shown that tailored information may enhance caregivers’ confidence and support them in making decisions to help them adapt to food-related changes.

    August 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816661946   open full text
  • Resident Aggression and Abuse in Assisted Living.
    Gimm, G., Chowdhury, S., Castle, N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 27, 2016

    This article estimates the prevalence and identifies risk factors of resident aggression and abuse in assisted living facilities. We conducted multivariate analyses of resident-level data from an analytic sample of 6,848 older Americans in the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Nationwide, 7.6% of assisted living residents engaged in physical aggression or abuse toward other residents or staff in the past month, 9.5% of residents had exhibited verbal aggression or abuse, and 2.0% of resident engaged in sexual aggression or abuse toward other residents or staff. Dementia and severe mental illness were significant risk factors for all three types of resident aggression and abuse. Resident aggression and abuse in assisted living facilities is prevalent and warrants greater attention from policy makers, researchers, and long-term care providers. Future research is needed to support training and prevention efforts to mitigate this risk.

    July 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816661947   open full text
  • Health Shocks and Initiation of Use of Preventive Services Among Older Adults.
    Ng, B. P., Jensen, G. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 22, 2016

    This article examines whether adverse changes to health or functioning serve as an impetus to begin using preventive services among older individuals with a history of non-use. Using data from the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, the use of mammograms, pap smears, prostate cancer screenings, cholesterol checks, and flu shots is examined among 2,975 self-reported non-users of such services. Older women who experience a health shock are 1.86, 1.50, 1.79, and 1.46 times more likely to begin getting mammograms, pap smears, cholesterol checks, and flu shots, respectively. Older men who experience a health shock are 2.24, 2.72, and 1.64 times more likely to begin getting prostate cancer screenings, cholesterol checks, and flu shots, respectively. All of these results are statistically significant. Thus, older adults often improve their health behaviors after experiencing an adverse health event.

    July 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816657474   open full text
  • Satisfaction of Discharged Nursing Home Residents.
    Castle, N., Engberg, J., Men, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 12, 2016

    The psychometric properties of The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®) Nursing Home survey: Discharged Resident Instrument (NHCAHPS-D) are examined. A random sample of 550 nursing homes was selected from across the United States and 365 agreed to participate (participation rate = 66%). From 7,020 surveys sent to discharged residents, 4,926 were returned (response rate = 70%). The psychometric properties of the resident responses and the survey items were robust. Confirmatory factor analyses model fit statistics met the criterion for good conformance. Five of the initial NHCAHPS-D instrument domains were identified (environment, care, communication and respect, autonomy, and activities), along with a sixth (transitions) added by the authors. The standardization and reliability that NHCAHPS-D provides could facilitate the same benefits we have seen in other industries for the CAHPS family of instruments (i.e., quality improvement, reimbursement, public reporting, and benchmarking) and also become an industry standard.

    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816656095   open full text
  • Understanding Older Adult Use of Data Visualizations as a Resource for Maintaining Health and Wellness.
    Le, T., Chi, N.-C., Chaudhuri, S., Thompson, H. J., Demiris, G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 10, 2016

    To better understand how older adults use health visualizations and the potential barriers that impact utility, we conducted semistructured interviews with 21 older adults. Within these sessions, we presented participants with two interactive visualizations for exploration. Through an affinity mapping exercise, we extracted five key themes associated with how older adults utilize health visualizations and provide corresponding recommendations as points of consideration for designers developing older adult focused health visualizations. By examining how older adults perceive the utility of health visualizations, we lay the groundwork for design choices that impact eventual use and adoption of systems that generate data for such visualizations.

    July 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816658751   open full text
  • Meaning in Life in Earlier and Later Older-Adulthood: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Correlates of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire.
    Hallford, D. J., Mellor, D., Cummins, R. A., McCabe, M. P.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 08, 2016

    Objective: To validate the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) in earlier and later older-adulthood, and examine its correlates. Method: Participants in earlier (n = 341, M age = 68.5) and later older-adulthood (n = 341, M age = 78.6) completed the MLQ and other measures. Confirmatory multigroup analysis, correlations, and regression models were conducted. Results: A two-factor (presence and search), eight-item model of the MLQ had a good fit and was age-invariant. Presence and search for meaning were largely unrelated. Meaning was associated with life satisfaction, well-being across a range of domains, and psychological resources. Searching for meaning correlated negatively with these variables, but to a lesser degree in later older-adulthood. Discussion: The MLQ is valid in older-adulthood. Meaning in life is psychologically adaptive in older-adulthood. Searching for meaning appears less important, especially in later older-adulthood. Findings are discussed in the context of aging and psychosocial development.

    July 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816658750   open full text
  • A Qualitative Approach to Increasing HIV Prevention in Primary Care Settings for Older Adults: Perspectives From Primary Care Providers.
    Davis, T., Teaster, P. B., Watkins, J. F., Thornton, A. C., Alexander, L., Zanjani, F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 06, 2016

    The purpose of this research was to explore primary care providers’ willingness and ability to increase HIV prevention efforts among older adults and to gain recommendations for improving HIV prevention in primary care settings. Data were collected through 24 semistructured interviews with primary care providers. The results of the study reveal that the majority of providers find it necessary to increase HIV prevention efforts in primary care settings and are willing to do so; however, they cannot do so without assistance. Providers suggested strategies to increase HIV prevention in primary care, for instance, expanding the use of electronic reminders to include HIV prevention and increasing collaboration among providers of different specialties. As a result of the interviews, additional recommendations for increasing HIV prevention have been identified. These findings will aid in improving the quality of care provided to individuals older than 50 in primary care settings.

    July 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816658749   open full text
  • Me & My Wishes: Lessons Learned From Prototyping Resident Centered Videos About Care Preferences.
    Towsley, G. L., Beck, S. L., Ellington, L., Wong, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 05, 2016

    Me & My Wishes are facilitated, resident-centered video-recorded conversations to communicate current and end-of-life care preferences. We describe the video production process of two prototypes in the long-term care (LTC) setting and discuss lessons learned around developing this type of intervention. Partnering with an LTC community allowed us to create videos on-site, document staff time, handle any barriers with video production, and evaluate the process. In this article, we will describe the process of two residents creating Me & My Wishes videos. Both residents responded positively to viewing their edited video (about 20 min), saying the videos would be "good for family or staff to hear feelings about preferences." Staff members also responded positively to the videos. We discuss two key issues to consider: the possibility that resident preferences may change and the resources to produce and view videos.

    July 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816657473   open full text
  • Managing Your Loved Ones Health: Development of a New Care Management Measure for Dementia Family Caregivers.
    Sadak, T., Wright, J., Borson, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 05, 2016

    The National Alzheimer’s Plan calls for improving health care for people living with dementia and supporting their caregivers as capable health care partners. Clinically useful measurement tools are needed to monitor caregivers’ knowledge and skills for managing patients’ often complex health care needs as well as their own self-care. We created and validated a comprehensive, caregiver-centered measure, Managing Your Loved One’s Health (MYLOH), based on a core set of health care management domains endorsed by both providers and caregivers. In this article, we describe its development and preliminary cultural tailoring. MYLOH is a questionnaire containing 29 items, grouped into six domains, which requires <20 min to complete. MYLOH can be used to guide conversations between clinicians and caregivers around health care management of people with dementia, as the basis for targeted health care coaching, and as an outcome measure in comprehensive dementia care management interventions.

    July 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816657472   open full text
  • Smoking Cessation and Changes in Body Mass Index Among Middle Aged and Older Adults.
    Sharma, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 28, 2016

    Objective: This study contributes to the body of literature examining smoking cessation and body mass index (BMI) for adults aged 50 and older. Method: Utilizing the 2004 and 2010 waves of the RAND Health and Retirement Study, this analysis utilized Fixed Effects (FE) regression on a sample of 1,316 adults aged 50 and older. Results: Older adults undergo a small change in BMI after a transition from smoking to nonsmoking during a 6-year period, and this occurs after accounting for individual-level unobserved heterogeneity. More specifically, men experience a BMI gain of 1.24 (p< .01) and women experience a BMI gain of 1.58 (p< .01). Discussion: Gerontologists/health professionals can use these results to inform older adults about the potential for a small increase in BMI and, in the process, assuage any apprehensions about excessive weight gain. This insight may encourage a greater number of older adults to cease smoking.

    June 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816655438   open full text
  • Development of the Older Adult Prescription Drug Assessment Questionnaire for Case Workers.
    Pope, N. D., Slovak, K. L., Giger, J. T.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 26, 2016

    Instruments assessing geriatric case managers’ perceptions of prescription abuse are limited. Based on a review of current literature and pilot testing feedback, 22 items were initially assembled to form an older adult Prescription Drug Assessment Questionnaire (PDAQ). Case managers (N = 161) at an older adult agency located in a Midwestern state were surveyed using the instrument. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring (PAF) and Promax rotation, and Horn’s parallel analysis determined the number of extracted factors. PAF generated a final 11-item three-factor model accounting for 51% of total variance explained: Standard Assessment (Factor 1; four items; = .83), Assessment Belief (Factor 2; three items; = .74), and Problem Scope (Factor 3; four items; = .62). The older adult PDAQ is a brief, data-driven instrument with acceptable psychometric properties for assessing perceptions of prescription drug abuse and misuse assessment and counseling.

    June 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816655437   open full text
  • Relationships Between Living Arrangements and Health Status Among Older Adults in the United States, 2009-2014: Findings From the National Health Interview Survey.
    Weissman, J. D., Russell, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 26, 2016

    Limited research has examined how health varies across living arrangements among older adults. Adults aged 65 years and older were sampled from National Health Interview Survey 2009-2014. Four indicators of health (serious psychological distress, health status, functional limitations, and number of health conditions) were compared across older adults living alone, living with others related/unrelated, living with a spouse/partner (no children), and living with children (no spouse/partner). Regression models showed older adults living with others have the poorest health; they were less likely to report excellent or very good health, had serious psychological distress and limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs), and a greater number of health conditions compared with older adults living with a spouse/partner. However, older women living alone or with children were more likely to report two or more health conditions compared with women living with a spouse/partner, suggesting that in older age, there are gender variations in health across living arrangements.

    June 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816655439   open full text
  • An Exploratory Survey of Older Womens Post-Fall Decisions.
    Bergeron, C. D., Friedman, D. B., Spencer, S. M., Miller, S. C., Hilfinger Messias, D. K., McKeever, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 08, 2016

    This research examined factors influencing older women’s post-fall decision making. We surveyed 130 independent older women from continuing care retirement communities and non-institutional homes. We categorized women’s post-fall decisions as medical, corrective, and social decisions, and examined the associations between post-fall decision categories, decisional conflict, number of post-fall changes, self-rated health, frequency of falls, severity of falls, health literacy, awareness and openness to long-term care institutional options, and demographics. Older women experienced greater decisional conflict when making medical decisions versus social (p = .012) and corrective (p = .047) decisions. Significant predictors of post-fall decisional conflict were awareness of institutional care options (p = .001) and health literacy (p = .001). Future educational interventions should address knowledge deficits and provide resources to enhance collaborative efforts to lower women’s post-fall decisional conflict and increase satisfaction in the decisions they make after a fall.

    June 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816653361   open full text
  • Perceived Benefits, Barriers, and Drivers of Telemedicine From the Perspective of Skilled Nursing Facility Administrative Staff Stakeholders.
    Driessen, J., Castle, N. G., Handler, S. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 05, 2016

    Potentially avoidable hospitalizations (PAHs) of skilled nursing facility (SNF) patients are common and costly. Telemedicine represents a unique approach to manage and potentially reduce PAHs in SNFs, having been used in a variety of settings to improve coordination of care and enhance access to providers. Nonetheless, broad implementation and use of telemedicine lags in SNFs relative to other health care settings. To understand why, we surveyed SNF administrative staff attending a 1-day telemedicine summit. Participants saw the highest value of telemedicine in improving the quality of care and reducing readmissions. They identified hospital and managed care telemedicine requirements as primary drivers of adoption. The most significant barrier to adoption was the initial investment required. A joint research-policy effort to improve the evidence base around telemedicine in SNFs and introduce incentives may improve adoption and continued use of telemedicine in this setting.

    June 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816651884   open full text
  • "Their Today Is Our Future": Direct Carers Work Experience and Formal Caring Relationships in a Community-Based Eldercare Program in Shanghai.
    Chen, L., Ye, M., Kahana, E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 05, 2016

    The purpose of this study is to explore direct carers’ work experience and formal caring relationships with older adults in a community-based eldercare program in Shanghai. Existing evidence has primarily focused on direct carers’ work experience in residential care settings. However, direct carers’ experiences of caring older adults in the community also deserve exploration. This qualitative study purposively sampled direct carers who worked in government-sponsored programs. Carers participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews (N = 37). Results reveal that despite occasional frustration, direct carers undertook demanding workloads and fostered strong emotional attachments with older adult clients. "Karma" was a critical cultural factor pertaining to their work ethic and motivated their care provision to benefit their future elderly selves. This study recognizes the cultural aspects of caring relationships that contribute to the quality of care of the community-based older adults in urban China.

    June 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816653360   open full text
  • Care Challenges in the Bathroom: The Views of Professional Care Providers Working in Clients Homes.
    King, E. C., Holliday, P. J., Andrews, G. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 29, 2016

    In home care, bathroom activities—particularly bathing and toileting—present a unique set of challenges. In this focus group study, professional home care providers identified factors that increase the danger and difficulty of assisting their clients with bathing and toileting. These included small restrictive spaces, a poor fit between available equipment and the environment, a reliance on manual handling techniques (but insufficient space to use optimal body mechanics), attempts to maintain normalcy, and caring for unsteady and unpredictable clients. Specific elements of each activity that care providers found difficult included multitasking to support client stability while performing care below the waist (dressing/undressing, providing perineal care) and helping clients to lift their legs in and out of a bathtub. Participants did not feel that available assistive devices provided enough assistance to reduce the danger and difficulty of these activities.

    May 29, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816649278   open full text
  • A Systematic Review of Financial Exploitation Measures in Prevalence Studies.
    Jackson, S. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 25, 2016

    The financial exploitation of older adults has garnered the attention of society as well as state and federal governments in a way that elder abuse has never been able to achieve. It is frequently asserted that financial exploitation deserves this attention in part because it is the most prevalent form of elder abuse. This article systematically reviews the measurement of financial exploitation in comparison with other forms of elder abuse and concludes that its measurement is considerably more variable than other forms of abuse. Consequently, improvements in the measurement of financial exploitation are warranted.

    May 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816650801   open full text
  • Trajectories of Leisure Activity and Disability in Older Adults Over 11 Years in Taiwan.
    Yu, H.-W., Chiang, T.-l., Chen, D.-R., Tu, Y.-K., Chen, Y.-M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 25, 2016

    We aimed to identify leisure activity (LA) trajectories and examined the association among baseline characteristics, LA trajectories, and the later disability among older Taiwanese adults. Data were from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging Survey for the years 1996-2007 (N = 3,186). LA trajectories were identified by using latent class growth curve modeling. Regression analyses were applied to predict the relationships among baseline characteristics, LA trajectories, and disability. Four LA trajectories—consistent high, consistent low, increasing, and decreasing—were identified. Lower depressive symptom was related to consistently active in LAs. Younger age and fewer comorbidities were related to develop an increasing LA trajectory. Participants in the consistent-high or increasing LA trajectories were more likely to be functionally independent, but those in the decreasing LA subgroup were more at risk of developing disability. The findings suggested that long-term changes in LA over time have benefits on physical health in older population.

    May 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816650800   open full text
  • Preparations for Old Age and Well-Being in Later Life in Thailand: Gender Matters?
    Pothisiri, W., Quashie, N. T.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 23, 2016

    Data from the 2011 Survey of Older Persons in Thailand examines the association between preparations for old age (financial, health, caregiving, living arrangements, and spiritual) and three measures of well-being: financial satisfaction, life satisfaction, and physical health. The study further explores the role of social stratification and the gendered nature of these relationships. The sample (N = 10,235) is restricted to adults 60 years and above, who are retired and answered the survey independently. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that different forms of preparation are positively associated with post-retirement well-being for men and women but socioeconomic resources are positively associated with all three well-being outcomes. Furthermore, for women, there are significant negative interaction effects of income and financial preparation on life satisfaction, as well as negative interaction effects of disability and caregiver preparation on self-rated health. Implications for long-term care, socioeconomic inequality, and gender inequality in paid labor are discussed.

    May 23, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816649281   open full text
  • Correlates of Worry About Health Care Costs Among Older Adults.
    Choi, N. G., DiNitto, D. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 23, 2016

    Although older adults in the United States incur more health care expenses than younger adults, little research has been done on their worry about health care costs. Using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (n = 7,253 for those 65+ years), we examined factors associated with older adults’ health care cost worries, defined as at least a moderate level of worry, about ability to pay for normal health care and/or for health care due to a serious illness or accident. Bivariate analyses were used to compare worriers and nonworriers. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of income, health status, health care service use, and insurance type with worry status. Older age and having Medicaid and Veterans Affairs (VA)/military health benefits were associated with lower odds of worry, while low income, chronic pain, functional limitations, psychological distress, and emergency department visits were associated with higher odds. Practice and policy implications for the findings are discussed.

    May 23, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816650803   open full text
  • Arthritis, Depression, and Falls Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study.
    Quach, L. T., Burr, J. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 12, 2016

    The aims of this study were to examine the association between different types of arthritis and falls and to investigate whether clinically significant depression symptoms (CSDS) moderate these relationships. The study used nationally representative data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (n = 7,715, M age = 75, 62% female, and 90% White). Among the respondents, 42% experienced at least one fall during the previous 2 years. About one third had some form of arthritis: 22% osteoarthritis (OA), 4.8% rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 2.3% both OA and RA, and 7.9% with other arthritis types. About one fifth of respondents had CSDS. OA and CSDS are associated with the odds of falling (17% and 29%, respectively), adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, health conditions, and psychiatric medications. There was no statistically significant interaction between types of arthritis and CSDS. Health care providers should pay attention to managing arthritis, especially OA, and CSDS to prevent falls among older adults.

    May 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816646683   open full text
  • Auto-Gerontology: A Personal Odyssey.
    Palmore, E. B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 12, 2016

    The four leading theories of optimal aging are activity, continuity, successful aging, and selective optimization with adaptation. All tend to support the slogan, "Use it or lose it." I have tried to continue using my abilities in four key areas: professional, volunteer, personal relationships, and physical fitness. Ageism also has become personal for me because I have made it a personal priority to do what I can to reduce ageism. This includes research and writing, developing a list of 45 advantages to aging, avoiding ageist jokes and language, developing positive slogans about aging, maintaining personal fitness, going on birthday adventures, and being proud of my age (85). I close with answers to some questions about auto-gerontology.

    May 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816648140   open full text
  • Positive Attitudes towards Technologies and facets of Well-being in Older Adults.
    Zambianchi, M., Carelli, M. G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 03, 2016

    The current study investigates the relevance of positive attitudes toward Internet technologies for psychological well-being and social well-being in old age. A sample of 245 elderly people (Mean age = 70; SD =9.1) filled in the Psychological Well-Being Questionnaire, the Social Well-Being Questionnaire, and Attitudes Toward Technologies Questionnaire (ATTQ). Favorable attitudes toward Internet technologies showed positive correlations with overall social well-being and all its components with the exception of social acceptance. Positive correlations with overall psychological well-being and two of its components, namely, personal growth and purpose in life, were also found. Two hierarchical multiple regression models underscored that positive attitudes toward Internet technologies constitute the most important predictor of social well-being, and it appears to be a significant predictor for psychological well-being as well. Results are discussed and integrated into the Positive Technology theoretical framework that sustains the value of technological resources for improving the quality of personal experience and well-being.

    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816647825   open full text
  • Champions of an Older Adult Exercise Program: Believers, Promoters, and Recruiters.
    Miyawaki, C. E., Belza, B., Kohn, M. J., Petrescu-Prahova, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 27, 2016

    Champions, who support, market, and promote programs, are a vital part of successful program adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Enhance®Fitness (EF) is an evidence-based, community-delivered group exercise program for older adults. Using semistructured phone interviews with 20 participants, 17 instructors, and 15 staff, we explored the roles of champions in adopting, implementing, and maintaining EF at YMCA-affiliated sites. Interviews revealed EF champions play critical roles in program dissemination. Champions are outgoing, passionate, and enthusiastic about EF. They believe in the program and its benefits (believers), are "walking advertisements" (promoters), and have magnetic personalities, persuading newcomers to join (recruiters). EF champions were not purposefully selected but naturally arose during the course of program delivery. Community sites adopting evidence-based programs can foster and support champions by engaging with them, and capitalizing on their energy as an emerging resource throughout the adoption, implementation, and maintenance of programs.

    April 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816645921   open full text
  • Design Recommendations for Recreational Systems Involving Older Adults Living With Dementia.
    Lazar, A., Thompson, H. J., Demiris, G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 22, 2016

    As the population ages, an increasing number of people will be diagnosed with dementia. Studies have found that insufficient activities are offered in memory care units to people with dementia, even though people benefit tremendously from participating in recreational activities. Information and communication technologies (ICT) can potentially facilitate activities in this setting, yet there is little guidance for designers to develop systems that can support people with dementia in engaging in recreational activities. To fill this gap, recommendations were generated through fieldwork and refined in two rounds of expert feedback. Areas covered include hardware, content, applications, and navigation. Systems should be usable by people with dementia, in addition to staff, to counter disempowerment by not enabling people to use their full abilities. In addition, a diversity of materials is needed to appeal to individuals with dementia who have widely varying backgrounds, abilities, interests, and preferences.

    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816643880   open full text
  • Developing a Non-Pharmacological Intervention for Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment.
    Rodakowski, J., Reynolds, C. F., Lopez, O. L., Butters, M. A., Dew, M. A., Skidmore, E. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 22, 2016

    The purpose of this study is to describe one potential intervention model that is designed to slow decline to disability for individuals at-risk for dementia due to Mild Cognitive Impairment. Strategy training is a treatment model that focuses on behavioral activation through addressing barriers to daily activities. Strategy training encourages development of goals and plans to address self-identified impaired processes, and it maintains or improves individuals’ ability to perform desired activities. Progression to dementia may be slowed due to the link between engagement in daily activities and production of biological factors associated with neurocognitive health. We demonstrated that an older adult with mild cognitive impairment is able to develop goals, establish effective plans, and engage in daily activities through the strategy training intervention model.

    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816645808   open full text
  • Health Care Use Before and After Entering Long-Term Services and Supports.
    Newcomer, R., Harrington, C., Hulett, D., Kang, T., Ko, M., Bindman, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 17, 2016

    Objective: We examined the health care utilization patterns of Medicare and Medicaid enrollees (MMEs) before and after initiating long-term care in the community or after admission to a nursing facility (NF). Method: We used administrative data to compare hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, and post-acute care use of MMEs receiving long-term care in California in 2006-2007. Results: MMEs admitted to a NF for long-term care had much greater use of hospitalizations, ED visits, and post-acute care before initiating long-term care than those entering long-term care in the community. Post-entry, community service users had less than half the average monthly hospital and ED use compared with the NF cohort. Conclusion: Hospital and ED use prior to and following NF and personal care program entry suggest a need for reassessing the monitoring of these high-risk populations and the communication between health and community care providers.

    April 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816641393   open full text
  • Person-Centered Care Practices in Long-Term Care in the Deep South: Consideration of Structural, Market, and Administrator Characteristics.
    Jacobs, M. L., Snow, A. L., Parmelee, P. A., Davis, J. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 17, 2016

    The purpose of this study was to identify structural, market, and administrator factors of nursing homes that are related to the implementation of person-centered care. Administrators of Medicare/Medicaid-certified nursing homes in the Deep South were invited to complete a standardized survey about their facility and their perceptions and attitudes regarding person-centered care practices (PCCPs). Nursing home structural and market factors were obtained from public websites, and these data were matched with administrator data. Consistent with the resource-based theory of competitive advantage, nursing homes with greater resources and more competition were more likely to implement PCCPs. Implementation of person-centered care was also higher in nursing homes with administrators who perceived culture change implementation to be feasible in their facilities. Given that there is a link between resource availability and adoption of person-centered care, future research should investigate the cost of such innovations.

    April 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816642583   open full text
  • Office for the Study of Aging at the University of South Carolina: Promoting Healthy Aging Through Program Development, Evaluation, Education/Training, and Research for South Carolinas Older Adults.
    Guest, M. A., Miller, M. C., Smith, M. P., Hyleman, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 12, 2016

    The Office for the Study of Aging (OSA) at the University of South Carolina was established in 1988 in conjunction with the founding of the South Carolina Alzheimer’s Disease Registry. Over the last 25 years, the Office for the Study of Aging has furthered its purpose through the development of research and programs for all of South Carolina’s aging population. Examples include the Placemat Strength Training Program, the Dementia Dialogues education program, and the South Carolina Vulnerable Adult Guardian ad Litem program. The work of the office is sustained through a unique government–university–community partnership that supports innovative work and provides direct lines for dissemination, translation, and implementation of programs. The office’s efforts have resulted in two state laws involving aging and older adults as well as recognition through awards and publications. The Office provides a partnership model that offers a dissemination and translation pipeline for programs to be developed, piloted, revised, and enacted into policy.

    April 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816643878   open full text
  • Associations Between Social Support, Social Networks, and Financial Exploitation in Older Adults.
    Beach, S. R., Schulz, R., Sneed, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 11, 2016

    Social support and social networks are important correlates of elder mistreatment. This study tests hypothesized associations between perceived social support, social network size, and financial exploitation (FE). A population-based survey of 903 older adults (60+) in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) found that lower perceived social support and larger social networks were simultaneously associated with higher risk for FE since age 60, controlling for known risk factors. The same associations were found for FE in the last 6 months. Older adults with larger social networks combined with lower perceived social support were most likely to report FE. When it comes to the role of social relationships and risk for FE, "more may not always be better." Encouragement to widen the social network by "making new friends" should be stressed less than making sure these new network members will truly be supportive of the older adult.

    April 11, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816642584   open full text
  • A New Tool for Assessing Mobile Device Proficiency in Older Adults: The Mobile Device Proficiency Questionnaire.
    Roque, N. A., Boot, W. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 11, 2016

    Mobile device proficiency is increasingly required to participate in society. Unfortunately, there still exists a digital divide between younger and older adults, especially with respect to mobile devices (i.e., tablet computers and smartphones). Training is an important goal to ensure that older adults can reap the benefits of these devices. However, efficient/effective training depends on the ability to gauge current proficiency levels. We developed a new scale to accurately assess the mobile device proficiency of older adults: the Mobile Device Proficiency Questionnaire (MDPQ). We present and validate the MDPQ and a short 16-question version of the MDPQ (MDPQ-16). The MDPQ, its subscales, and the MDPQ-16 were found to be highly reliable and valid measures of mobile device proficiency in a large sample. We conclude that the MDPQ and MDPQ-16 may serve as useful tools for facilitating mobile device training of older adults and measuring mobile device proficiency for research purposes.

    April 11, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816642582   open full text
  • The Impact of an Active Lifestyle on the Functional Fitness Level of Older Women.
    Ofei-Dodoo, S., Rogers, N. L., Morgan, A. L., Amini, S. B., Takeshima, N., Rogers, M. E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 01, 2016

    The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that to maintain health, adults should engage in 150 min of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per week. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the lowest MVPA dose possible to maintain functional fitness. Functional fitness was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test in 101 women (75.0 ± 7.2 years) from two Midwestern communities. Accelerometer determined daily activity level was assessed for 7 days as participants went about their normal daily activities. MVPA was determined via proprietary filtering, and time spent in this intensity was calculated. A 5-day average of time spent in MVPA was organized into four groups. ANOVAs revealed significant differences between activity groups on all functional fitness measures except back scratch and sit and reach. Results indicate that to maintain lower body function in older women, a threshold of 20 min/day of MVPA for 5 days is needed.

    April 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816641390   open full text
  • Examining the Influence of Care-Recipient Resistance on Family Caregiver Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Average Frequency Versus Daily Fluctuation.
    Shirai, Y., Koerner, S. S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2016

    Although existing cross-sectional research suggests that dependent older family members’ resistive behavior (care-recipient [CR] resistance: verbal or nonverbal rejection or resistance toward caregiver [CG] assistance) can be challenging for informal family CGs, we know little about the impact of the occurrence patterns of CR-resistance—average frequency versus daily fluctuation—on CG emotional and physical well-being. To document CGs’ daily experiences with CR-resistance and their emotional and physical well-being, the present study applied short-term repeated measures, collecting data on 8 consecutive days from 63 CGs in Southern Arizona, the United States. Multilevel modeling of the daily data revealed that neither average frequency nor daily fluctuation in CR-resistance alone had a significant impact on CG emotional/physical health. However, the combination of experiencing relatively high frequency and high daily fluctuation in CR-resistance was associated with significant increases in CG physical health symptoms (b = .34, p < .01). Specifically, on days when a CG faced more CR-resistance than his or her usual amount, significant increases in physical health symptoms existed for CGs with relatively high average frequency of CR-resistance, but not for CGs with relatively low average frequency of CR-resistance. Based on our results, it appears that monitoring and maintaining a reasonable level of CR-resistance are effective strategies to maintain CG resilience to the negative impact of CR-resistance daily fluctuation. The findings are interpreted in light of Stress Theory, and recommendations for future research and practical interventions are offered.

    March 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816631594   open full text
  • Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Delirium Symptoms in a Sample of Nursing Home Residents.
    Moyo, P., Huang, T.-Y., Simoni-Wastila, L., Harrington, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2016

    Objective: This study examined the latent constructs of delirium symptoms among nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Method: Cross-sectional NH assessment data (Minimum Data Set 2.0) from the 2009 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were used. Data from two independent, randomly selected subsamples of residents ≥65 years were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: There were 367 and 366 individuals in the EFA and CFA, respectively. Assessment of multiple model fit statistics in CFA indicated that the two-factor structure provided better fit for the data than a one-factor solution. The two factors represented cognitive and behavioral latent constructs as suggested by the related literature. A correlation of .72 between these constructs suggested moderate discriminant validity. Conclusion: This finding emphasizes the importance of health care providers to be attentive to both cognitive and behavioral symptoms when diagnosing, treating, and managing delirium.

    March 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816633859   open full text
  • Medical Home Implementation Gaps for Seniors: Perceptions and Experiences of Primary Care Medical Practices.
    Hoff, T., DePuccio, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2016

    Objective: The study objective was to better understand specific implementation gaps for various aspects of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) care delivered to seniors. The study illuminates the physician and staff experience by focusing on how individuals make sense of and respond behaviorally to aspects of PCMH implementation. Method: Qualitative data from 51 in-depth, semi-structured interviews across six different National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)-accredited primary care practices were collected and analyzed. Results: Physicians and staff identified PCMH implementation gaps for their seniors: (a) performing in-depth clinical assessments, (b) identifying seniors’ life needs and linking them with community resources, and (c) care management and coordination, in particular self-management support for seniors. Prior experiences trying to perform these aspects of PCMH care for older adults produced collective understandings that led to inaction and avoidance by medical practices around the first two gaps, and proactive behavior that took strategic advantage of external incentives for addressing the third gap. Conclusion: Greater understanding of physician and staff’s PCMH implementation experiences, and the learning that accumulates from these experiences, allows for a deeper understanding of how primary care practices choose to enact the medical home model for seniors on an everyday basis.

    March 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816637850   open full text
  • Residential Segregation and Hypertension Prevalence in Black and White Older Adults.
    Usher, T., Gaskin, D. J., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Thorpe, R. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2016

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to assess segregation’s role on race differences in hypertension among non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites aged 50 and over. Method: Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg, or self-reported antihypertensive medication use. Segregation measures combined race, neighborhood racial composition, and individual and neighborhood poverty level. Logistic models produced odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each segregation category, adjusting for health-related factors. Results: Blacks in Black (OR = 2.54, CI = [1.61, 4.00]), White (OR = 2.56, CI = [1.24, 5.31]), and integrated neighborhoods (OR = 3.23, CI = [1.72, 6.03]) had greater odds of hypertension compared with Whites in White neighborhoods. Poor Whites in poor neighborhoods (OR = 1.74, CI = [1.09, 2.76]), nonpoor Blacks in nonpoor (OR = 3.03, CI = [1.79, 5.12]) and poor neighborhoods (OR = 4.08, CI = [2.16, 7.70]), and poor Blacks in nonpoor (OR = 4.35, CI = [2.17, 8.73]) and poor neighborhoods (OR = 2.75, CI = [1.74, 4.36]) had greater odds compared with nonpoor Whites in nonpoor neighborhoods. Conclusion: Interventions targeting hypertension among older adults should consider neighborhood compositions.

    March 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816638788   open full text
  • Transition and Adaptation to the Continuing Care Retirement Community From a Life Course Perspective: Something Old, Something New, and Something Borrowed.
    Ayalon, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 16, 2016

    The study examined the accounts of older adults and their adult children concerning the transition to the continuing care retirement community (CCRC) and the adjustment to it, using a life course perspective. Up to three waves of interviews, consisting of a total of 187 interviews with older adults and their adult children, were conducted between 6 months and 6 years from the transition to the CCRC. Thematic analysis was employed using comparisons across groups of interviewees (older adults and adult children) and waves of interviews (up to three waves) to identify core categories of meaning. Time perception was an organizing principle across interviews. Both older adults and their adult children perceived themselves as moving forward and backward in time following the transition to the CCRC and future expectations for deterioration. The study emphasizes the linked-lives of older adults and their adult children.

    March 16, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816637851   open full text
  • Lessons Learned From a Program Evaluation of a Statewide Continuing Education Program for Staff Members Working in Assisted Living and Adult Day Care Centers in Virginia.
    Gendron, T. L., Pryor, J. M., Welleford, E. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 22, 2016

    The number of older adults residing in assisted living facilities (ALF) and utilizing adult day care services is expanding with the increasing population of older adults. Currently, there are no standardized requirements for continuing education for assisted living and adult day care service staff at a national level. Given that 62% of states within the United States require continuing education for ALF staff and/or administrators, a more formalized system is needed that provides evidence-based gerontological training to enhance the quality of care and services provided to older adults. This article describes the challenges and lessons learned from conducting a program evaluation of a Statewide Training and Continuing Education Program for Assisted Living Facility and Adult Day Care Service staff in Virginia. Survey evaluation data from a 6-year period was examined and a formative program evaluation was conducted. The findings from the survey evaluation and formative evaluation are discussed as are the lessons learned.

    February 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816633124   open full text
  • Faith, Family, Filiality, and Fate: Dominican and Puerto Rican Elders Perspectives on End-of-Life Decisions.
    Boucher, N. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 12, 2016

    Objective: What is the characterization of family involvement in health decisions, filial piety, religiosity/spirituality, and fatalism as they relate to attitudes/intentions toward end-of-life (EOL) planning/decision making among elderly Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in East Harlem, New York City? Method: An exploratory study using grounded theory and domain analysis was conducted with 51 elderly Dominicans and Puerto Ricans. Purposive and emerging themes were identified by three coders. Results: Purposive themes were family involvement in health decisions/filial piety and religiosity/spirituality/fatalism and for clinical EOL-related terms; emerging themes were accessing/using EOL care, autonomy, influence of death/dying on own future care decisions, and death/dying is a private matter. Implications: The recommendations for community members are to empower awareness of EOL issues, engage providers regarding cultural needs, and clarification of advance care planning (ACP) function; the recommendations for providers are to engage patients to enhance culturally responsive care, clarify ACP function, and ask patients about preference for roles of family and God in decisions; the recommendations for policy makers are to enhance palliative education/access and immigration status research protections.

    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815627958   open full text
  • Impact of Driving Cessation on Trajectories of Life-Space Scores Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.
    Huisingh, C., Levitan, E. B., Sawyer, P., Kennedy, R., Brown, C. J., McGwin, G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 12, 2016

    The purpose of this study was to examine the trajectories of life-space before and after the transition to driving cessation among a diverse sample of community-dwelling older adults. Life-space scores and self-reported driving cessation were assessed at annual visits from baseline through Year 6 among participants in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging. Approximately 58% of older adults reported having stopped driving during the 6 years of follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders, results from a random intercept model indicate that mean life-space scores decreased about 1 to 2 points every year (p = .0011) and approximately 28 points at the time of driving cessation (p < .0001). The rate of life-space decline post driving cessation was not significantly different from the rate of decline prior to driving cessation. Driving cessation was associated with a precipitous decline in life-space score; however, the driving cessation event did not accelerate the rate of life-space decline.

    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816630637   open full text
  • Computerized Self-Administered Measures of Mood and Appetite for Older Adults: The Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing Toolkit.
    Brown, L. J. E., Adlam, T., Hwang, F., Khadra, H., Maclean, L. M., Rudd, B., Smith, T., Timon, C., Williams, E. A., Astell, A. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 10, 2016

    The "Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing" (NANA) toolkit is a computerized system for collecting longitudinal information about older adults’ health and behavior. Here, we describe the validation of six items for measuring older adults’ self-reported mood and appetite as part of the NANA system. In Study 1, 48 community-living older adults (aged 65-89 years) completed NANA measures of their current mood and appetite alongside standard paper measures, on three occasions, in a laboratory setting. In Study 2, 40 community-living older adults (aged 64-88 years) completed daily NANA measures of momentary mood and appetite in their own homes, unsupervised, alongside additional measures of health and behavior, over three 7-day periods. The NANA measures were significantly correlated with standard measures of mood and appetite, and showed stability over time. They show utility for tracking mood and appetite longitudinally, and for better understanding links with other aspects of health and behavior.

    February 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816630636   open full text
  • "I Wouldnt Mind Trying It. Im in Pain the Whole Time": Barriers to the Use of Complementary Medicines by Older Australians in Residential Aged-Care Facilities.
    Rayner, J.-A., Bauer, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 09, 2016

    Older people living in the community use complementary medicine (CM) to manage the symptoms of chronic illness; however, little is known about CM use by older people living in care settings. Using focus groups and individual interviews, this study explored the use of CM from the perspective of 71 residents, families, and health professionals from six residential aged-care facilities in Victoria, Australia. Residents used CM to manage pain and improve mobility, often covertly, and only with the financial assistance of their families. Facility policies and funding restrictions constrained CM use at the individual and facility level. An absence of evidence to support safety and efficacy coupled with the risk of interactions made doctors wary of CM use in older people. These findings have relevance for the large number of CM using "baby-boomers" as they move into residential aged-care.

    February 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816629852   open full text
  • "That Is So Common Everyday . . . Everywhere You Go": Sexual Harassment of Workers in Assisted Living.
    Burgess, E. O., Barmon, C., Moorhead, J. R., Perkins, M. M., Bender, A. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 09, 2016

    In assisted living (AL) facilities, workers are intimately involved in the lives of residents. Existing research on AL demonstrates the imbalance of this environment, which is a personal home for the residents and a workplace for staff. Using observational and interview data collected from six AL facilities, this grounded theory project analyzes how AL staff define, understand, and negotiate sexual comments, joking, and physical touch. We developed a conceptual model to describe how such harassment was perceived, experienced by AL workers, and how they responded. Sexualized behavior or harassment was experienced by workers of every status. We found that words and actions were contextualized based on resident and worker characteristics and the behavior. Staff members refused to engage residents, redirected them, or reframed the words and gestures to get the job done. Reporting the incidents was less common. We conclude by discussing implications for policy and research.

    February 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816630635   open full text
  • Engagement of Veterans With Dementia in Partners in Dementia Care: An Evidence-Based Care Coordination Program.
    Darlak, L., Bass, D. M., Judge, K. S., Wilson, N., Looman, W., McCarthy, C., Morgan, R., Maslow, K., Kunik, M. E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 01, 2016

    This study describes engagement of veterans with dementia in an evidence-based care coordination intervention called Partners in Dementia Care (PDC). PDC uses a person-centered approach that encourages participation by individuals with dementia (IWDs), despite their cognitive impairment. PDC also targets primary family or friend caregivers, who often are the main user of the program. Of the total 316 IWDs, 202 passed a mental status screening and were considered to have engagement potential. The study of actual engagement was based on data from IWDs’ PDC records, combined with data from structured research interviews. Approximately 80% of IWDs with engagement potential had a minimum level of actual engagement in PDC. A smaller subsample was more actively engaged, as indicated by assigned and/or accomplished action steps. Younger IWDs and those self-reporting more memory difficulties had higher levels of engagement. Results describe one example of the extent and limits of IWD engagement in psychosocial interventions.

    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815624148   open full text
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Therapeutic Intervention for Nursing Home Residents With Dementia and Depressive Symptoms.
    Bailey, E. M., Stevens, A. B., LaRocca, M. A., Scogin, F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 01, 2016

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial of a nursing home intervention to reduce depressive symptoms in residents with dementia. Method: The multicomponent intervention included group activity sessions, which used question-asking-reading (QAR), reminiscence, and cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, as well as environmental supports and individualized behavioral activity programs. Fifty-one residents from five nursing homes participated in the study. Results: A significant difference in depressive symptoms was found, with residents in the QAR-Depression condition showing improvement compared with those in the treatment as usual condition. Residents in the treatment group also exhibited significantly higher levels of expressive verbalizations, engagement with materials, and laughter. Few differences in resident behavior occurring outside of the group activities were noted. Discussion: Findings suggest that structured group activities can positively impact a resident’s psychological well-being. In addition, the QAR structure may be suitable for older adults with cognitive impairment by distributing group tasks and providing external cognitive supports.

    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815627956   open full text
  • Outcome of a Targeted Nutritional Intervention Among Older Adults With Early-Stage Alzheimers Disease: The Nutrition Intervention Study.
    Shatenstein, B., Kergoat, M.-J., Reid, I.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 01, 2016

    A 6-month dietary intervention program was designed for community-dwelling older adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Sixty-seven persons aged 70 years and above were recruited with their caregivers from six hospital memory and geriatric outpatient clinics, and allocated to intervention (n = 34 dyads) or control group (n = 33 dyads). Usual diet was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire and current diet by two nonconsecutive diet recalls or records corroborated by caregivers, at recruitment (T1) and exit from the study (T2). Intervention participants received targeted dietary recommendations; control participants received Canada’s Food Guide leaflets. The program was assessed using paired and independent t tests and nonparametric statistics. Fat intakes increased at T2 within intervention participants (54 ± 16 vs. 67 ± 23 g, p = .013), and there was a tendency for higher energy, protein, and calcium intakes at T2 within this group. Proportions with adequate protein intakes almost doubled from T1 to T2 in intervention group women (p = .028) but decreased in female controls (p = .030). Longer follow-up is necessary to determine persistence of benefits.

    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464816628512   open full text
  • Translating Strong for Life Into the Community Care Program: Lessons Learned.
    Danilovich, M. K., Hughes, S. L., Corcos, D. M., Marquez, D. X., Eisenstein, A. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 20, 2016

    We used a randomized controlled trial to test the implementation of Strong for Life (SFL), a resistance exercise intervention, using 32 home care aides (HCAs) as exercise leaders with their 42 homebound older adult clients enrolled in the Community Care Program, a Medicaid 1915(c) waiver program. Mixed-methods were used to analyze outcomes of program satisfaction rates, training session evaluations, program fidelity, and job descriptive index scores. Results indicate that it is feasible for HCAs to implement SFL safely with clients. Participants viewed SFL as highly satisfactory and HCAs were able to adapt SFL for their clients. HCAs have high job satisfaction, and leading SFL enhances work achievement and pride. Our results show it is possible to train HCAs to implement SFL with their clients in addition to providing usual care services, participation positively affects both care partners, and this is a feasible and practical delivery model to provide exercise for adults receiving home- and community-based services.

    January 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815625833   open full text
  • Patterns of Shelter Use Among Men New to Homelessness in Later Life: Duration of Stay and Psychosocial Factors Related to Departure.
    Rothwell, D. W., Sussman, T., Grenier, A., Mott, S., Bourgeois-Guerin, V.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 18, 2016

    People who become homeless for the first time in late life are a growing but understudied population. This study draws on administrative data from one shelter (N = 1,214 first-time homeless) to assess the extent to which age is related to shelter stay and, to examine psychosocial factors that may be associated with shelter departure. Our bivariate and survival analysis results suggest that older homeless men stay in the shelter 2 weeks longer than younger clients. Older men with pending legal issues and mobility concerns were more likely to leave the shelter than those without such concerns. Findings highlight the impact of age and other psychosocial variables on shelter stay, and provide direction from which to address homelessness among men who are new to homelessness in later life.

    January 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815624154   open full text
  • Effect of Long-Term Body-Mass-Based Resistance Exercise on Cognitive Function in Elderly People.
    Ikudome, S., Mori, S., Unenaka, S., Kawanishi, M., Kitamura, T., Nakamoto, H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 18, 2016

    The study examined the effect of a body-mass-based home exercise program on cognitive functioning among 170 male and female elderly people (52-81 years). This program comprised five kinds of resistance exercises that elderly people can perform at home without supervision or specialized equipment using only their body mass for resistance. Various cognitive tasks were used to assess cognitive functioning, including a simple reaction task, Go/No-Go reaction task, Stroop task, serial subtraction task, and coincident timing task. These tasks were performed before and after a 3-month body-mass-based home exercise program. Although there were no significant improvements in the simple reaction and coincident timing tasks, significant improvement was shown in the Go/No-Go reaction task and serial subtraction task. This study shows that even simple resistance exercise, using only body mass for resistance, may be an effective method for preventing age-related cognitive decline of inhibitory control and working memory among elderly people.

    January 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815625834   open full text
  • Food Insecurity and Health Care Utilization Among Older Adults.
    Bhargava, V., Lee, J. S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 18, 2016

    This study examined the relationship between food insecurity and health care utilization (physician, inpatient, emergency room, and home health visits) among older adults. Survey data collected from Georgia Advanced Performance Outcomes Measures Project 6 linked to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (GA Advanced POMP6-CMS) data 2008 (N = 957) were analyzed. Nearly one half of the sample (48.3%) was food insecure. Food insecure individuals were significantly less likely than food secure individuals to have any physician (69.7% vs. 80.2%) and home health visits (24.9% vs. 32.3%) during 2008. However, there were no significant differences in levels of health care utilization by food secure and food insecure older adults. Food secure and food insecure older adults utilized comparable levels of health care services. Public assistance programs such as Medicare and meal services targeted toward older adults may enable economically constrained, food insecure older adults to access needed health care services.

    January 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815625835   open full text
  • Workability and Requests for Flexible Work Arrangements Among Older Adults: The Role of a Time and Place Management Intervention.
    Morelock, J. C., McNamara, T. K., James, J. B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 14, 2016

    This article investigates the effect of an intervention on the workability of older adults (i.e., the competence, health, and other mental and physical characteristics that workers need to meet the demands of their jobs). We used data from health care workers (N = 437) who participated in a "time and place management" (TPM) intervention. Although related to flexible work options that aim to give workers more choice and control over the time and place of their work, TPM is conceptually distinct in that it focuses on the processes and guidelines necessary to the successful management of choice and control rather than the options alone. We focused on how the TPM intervention moderated the relationship between age and workability over time, with a particular focus on variation by baseline workability. Our results indicated that the intervention can benefit older workers with low workability.

    January 14, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815624149   open full text
  • Older Adults Opinions on Fall Prevention in Relation to Physical Activity Level.
    Tuvemo Johnson, S., Martin, C., Anens, E., Johansson, A.-C., Hellstro&#x0308;m, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 14, 2016

    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe older adults’ opinions regarding actions to prevent falls and to analyze differences in the opinions of highly versus less physically active older adults. An open-ended question was answered by 262 individuals aged 75 to 98 years living in the community. The answers were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, and differences in the categories were compared between highly and less physically active persons. Physical activity was measured according to a five-level scale. The content analysis resulted in eight categories: assistive devices, avoiding hazards, behavioral adaptive strategies, being physically active, healthy lifestyle, indoor modifications, outdoor modifications, and seeking assistance. Behavioral adaptive strategies were mentioned to a greater extent by highly active people, and indoor modifications were more often mentioned by less active older adults. Support for active self-directed behavioral strategies might be important for fall prevention among less physically active older adults.

    January 14, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815624776   open full text
  • Feasibility of 24-Hr Urine Collection for Measurement of Biomarkers in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.
    Stuver, S. O., Lyons, J., Coviello, A., Fredman, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 12, 2016

    Biologic markers are becoming a key part of gerontological research, including their measurement at multiple intervals to detect changes over time. This report examined the feasibility and quality of 24-hr urine collection to measure neuroendocrine biomarkers in a community-based sample of older caregivers and non-caregivers. At each interview, participants were instructed on the correct method to collect and store the sample. As incentives, participants selected a day for urine collection within 5 days of the interview, received a reimbursement, and study staff travelled to their home to retrieve the specimen. Between 2008 and 2013, 256 participants were enrolled; all but two participants (99%) provided a baseline urine specimen, of which 93% were considered adequate. Urine collection and quality remained high over three annual follow-up interviews and did not vary by caregiver status or perceived stress level. Our results indicate that 24-hr urine collection is feasible in active, community-dwelling older adults.

    January 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815624153   open full text
  • Older Adults Acceptance of Activity Trackers.
    Preusse, K. C., Mitzner, T. L., Fausset, C. B., Rogers, W. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 11, 2016

    Objective: To assess the usability and acceptance of activity tracking technologies by older adults. Method: First in our multimethod approach, we conducted heuristic evaluations of two activity trackers that revealed potential usability barriers to acceptance. Next, questionnaires and interviews were administered to 16 older adults (Mage = 70, SDage = 3.09, rangeage = 65-75) before and after a 28-day field study to understand facilitators and additional barriers to acceptance. These measurements were supplemented with diary and usage data and assessed whether and why users overcame usability issues. Results: The heuristic evaluation revealed usability barriers in System Status Visibility, Error Prevention, and Consistency and Standards. The field study revealed additional barriers (e.g., accuracy, format) and acceptance-facilitators (e.g., goal tracking, usefulness, encouragement). Discussion: The acceptance of wellness management technologies, such as activity trackers, may be increased by addressing acceptance-barriers during deployment (e.g., providing tutorials on features that were challenging, communicating usefulness).

    January 11, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0733464815624151   open full text
  • Viewing Art on a Tablet Computer: A Well-Being Intervention for People With Dementia and Their Caregivers.
    Tyack, C., Camic, P. M., Heron, M. J., Hulbert, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 16, 2015

    Background: Art-based interventions have been shown to be beneficial for the well-being of people with dementia and their caregivers. This article explored whether such interventions can be delivered via a touchscreen tablet device displaying art images. Method: Twelve pairs of volunteers with dementia and informal caregivers were recruited (N = 24). A quasi-experimental mixed-methods within-subjects study evaluated the well-being impacts of art viewing using visual analogue scales and explored participant experiences with thematic analysis. Findings: Quantitative results before Bonferroni correction showed a significant effect for change in composite well-being from Session 1 to Session 5 but this became non-significant after the correction was applied. Well-being subdomains generally increased with number of sessions. Qualitative findings included changes in cognition, behavior, mood, and relationships. These changes tended to be viewed positively. Conclusion: The results suggest touchscreen-based art interventions could yield well-being benefits for this population. A larger-scale controlled study would help determine whether wider dementia care practice implications can be drawn.

    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815617287   open full text
  • The Effects of an Online Theory-Based Bone Health Program for Older Adults.
    Nahm, E.-S., Resnick, B., Brown, C., Zhu, S., Magaziner, J., Bellantoni, M., Brennan, P. F., Charters, K., Brown, J., Rietschel, M., An, M., Park, B. K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 16, 2015

    An estimated 10 million Americans age 50 and older have osteoporosis, and many experience associated fractures. Although several interventions have been shown to be effective in preventing osteoporosis, their impact on bone health among older adults was limited. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine the effects of a theory-based online bone health program (Bone Power program) for a large number of older adults. The 8-week program included learning modules, discussion boards, and other resources. Participants (N = 866; M age = 62.5 years) were recruited online and randomized into a Bone Power or control group. At the end of the intervention, the Bone Power group showed significantly greater improvement over the control group in osteoporosis knowledge, self-efficacy/outcome expectations for calcium intake and exercise, and calcium intake and exercise behaviors. This study’s findings suggest that online health programs can be effective in improving older adults’ knowledge, beliefs, and health behaviors.

    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815617284   open full text
  • Examining Clinical Predictors of Change in Recreational Preference Congruence Among Nursing Home Residents Over Time.
    Heid, A. R., Van Haitsma, K., Kleban, M., Rovine, M. J., Abbott, K. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 30, 2015

    Objective: There remains a significant gap in the field regarding the measurement of preference-based care over time in nursing homes (NHs). This study discusses the use of a quality indicator that tracks recreational preference congruence (PC; that is, the match between NH residents’ important preferences in recreational activities and their weekly attendance in these preferred activities). Method: Using a sample of 199 older adults, we examine the change in PC over 52 weeks using multilevel-mixed effects regression analyses. Results: PC over time is highly variable and residents with greater functional limitations (vision, language comprehension, incontinence) and no diagnoses of mental health or neurological disorders have lower PC over time. Discussion: Certain clinical characteristics have greater impact on resident PC over time. Particular attention needs to be given to the recreational attendance of residents with incontinence, and visual and language comprehension difficulties.

    November 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815617288   open full text
  • Aging in Place of Vulnerable Older Adults: Person-Environment Fit Perspective.
    Park, S., Han, Y., Kim, B., Dunkle, R. E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 26, 2015

    Based on the premise that the experience of aging in place is different for vulnerable subgroups of older adults compared with less vulnerable subgroups, we focus on low-income older adults as a vulnerable subgroup and senior housing as an alternative to a conventional, private home environment. Using the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health Retirement Study, regression models determined the impact of person–environment (P-E) fit between poverty status and residence in senior housing on self-rated health. Consistent with the environmental docility hypothesis, findings show that, among low-income individuals, the supportive environment of senior housing plays a pronounced compensating role and may be a key to successful adaptation in aging. As the first research effort to empirically demonstrate the positive health effects of senior housing among socioeconomically vulnerable elders, our findings provide a much-needed theoretical and practical underpinning for policy-making efforts regarding vulnerable elders.

    November 26, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815617286   open full text
  • Social Engagement After Nursing Home Admission: Racial and Ethnic Disparities and Risk Factors.
    Bliss, D., Harms, S., Eberly, L. E., Savik, K., Gurvich, O., Mueller, C., Wyman, J. F., Virnig, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 26, 2015

    Older adults admitted to nursing homes (NHs) are at risk for low social engagement, which has associations with medical, psychological, and social well-being. Minorities may be at a disadvantage for social engagement because of their racial or ethnic group identity. This study assessed whether there were racial/ethnic disparities in social engagement among older adults (N = 15,927) at 1 year after their NH admission using multi-level predictors. No racial or ethnic-based disparities in social engagement were found; hence, an analysis of risk factors at NH admission that predicted low social engagement at 1 year for all residents was conducted. Significant risk factors for low social engagement were low social engagement at admission, deficits in activities in daily living and cognition, problems with vision and communication, and residing in an NH in an urban community. Results highlight the importance of initiating interventions to increase social engagement at the time of NH admission.

    November 26, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815617285   open full text
  • Characteristics of Older Adults on Waiting Lists for Meals on Wheels: Identifying Areas for Intervention.
    Thomas, K. S., Smego, R., Akobundu, U., Dosa, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 23, 2015

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the population of seniors on Meals on Wheels’ (MOW) waiting lists and identify their rate of depression, anxiety, falls, and fear of falling. Data come from surveys of 626 seniors on waiting lists across the country and the 2013 National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS). Results suggest that seniors on waiting lists for MOW were more likely to be widowed, less educated, older, Black, Hispanic, and receive Medicaid than the population of community-dwelling older adults. In addition, 31% of seniors on MOW waiting lists were depressed, compared with 12% of seniors in the national population (p < .001), and 28% exhibited signs and symptoms of anxiety, compared with 10% of the national population of seniors (p < .001). Seniors on waiting lists were significantly more likely to have fallen in the last month and be fearful of falling than the national population of seniors (p < .001). Individuals on MOW waiting lists are a vulnerable and high-risk group. By seeking to better understand clients’ needs, appropriate services can be tailored to promote independent living and improve older adults’ well-being.

    November 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815614918   open full text
  • Socio-Spatial Integration of Older Adults in Four Types of Residential Environments in Israel.
    Schorr, A. V., Iecovich, E., Alfasi, N., Shamai, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 23, 2015

    The socio-spatial integration of older people in different types of residential environments is a key factor affecting the well-being of older people. This study, which included a convenience sample of 565 participants, examined the socio-spatial integration of older people living in two different regional areas (central and peripheral) and four different residential environments (metropolitan hub, city, and town and rural settlements) in Israel. Willing participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. Socio-spatial integration was assessed by recognition of their neighbors and sense of belonging to the residential environment. The findings show that older adults who resided in the town and in rural settlements were more socio-spatially integrated in their living environments compared with their counterparts who resided in cities. The best predictors of socio-spatial integration were a combination of personal characteristics and characteristics of the environment (perceived accessibility) except for rural settlements, where none of the variables predicted socio-spatial integration.

    November 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815614917   open full text
  • Social Support and "Playing Around": An Examination of How Older Adults Acquire Digital Literacy With Tablet Computers.
    Tsai, H.-y. S., Shillair, R., Cotten, S. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 21, 2015

    This study examines how older adults learn to use tablet computers. Learning to use new technologies can help older adults to be included in today’s digital society. However, learning to use new technologies is not always easy, especially for older adults. This study focuses on how older adults learn to use a specific technology, tablet computers, and the role that social support plays in this process. Data for this project are from 21 in-depth interviews with individuals who own tablet computers. We examine how older adults engage with tablet devices and increase their digital literacy. The findings suggest that, for older adults to start to use tablets, social support plays an important role. In addition, a key way that many participants report gaining expertise with the technology is through "playing around" with the tablets. Suggestions for how to help older adults learn to use new technologies are detailed.

    October 21, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815609440   open full text
  • Electronic Health Records in Long-Term Care: Staff Perspectives.
    Meehan, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 12, 2015

    As long-term post-acute care (LTPAC) settings continue to increase their adoption of electronic health records (EHRs), it is important to learn from end users currently working with the technology to identify clinical implications and opportunities to improve systems and surrounding processes. This study utilized one-on-one interviews of direct care nurses (n = 20) in a Midwest United States LTPAC setting to describe patterns of use, and areas to improve. The majority of respondents evaluated the EHR as easy to use, with a positive impact on quality of care, through efficiencies gained in communication with the care team. Staff responses outline desired modifications to the software, including fixes to data fields for more accurate medication administration and accurate reports on bowel protocol follow-up. Recommendations for LTPAC organizations are made regarding improved staff training on the EHR, and modifications to the EHR and related processes to improve quality of care and staff retention.

    October 12, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815608493   open full text
  • The Utility of the Family Empowerment Scale With Custodial Grandmothers.
    Hayslip, B., Smith, G. C., Montoro-Rodriguez, J., Streider, F. H., Merchant, W.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 08, 2015

    The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) was developed specifically to assess empowerment in families with emotional disorders. Its relevance to custodial grandfamilies is reflected in the difficulties in grandchildren’s social, emotional, and behavioral functioning, wherein such difficulties may be explained via either reactions to changes in their family structure or in their responses to the newly formed family unit. Utilizing 27 items derived from the 34-item version of the FES, which had represented differential levels of empowerment (family, service system, community) as indexed by one’s attitudes, knowledge, and behavior, we explored the factor structure, internal consistency, construct, and convergent validity of the FES with grandparent caregivers. Three-hundred forty-three (M age = 58.45, SD = 8.22, n Caucasian = 152, n African American = 149, n Hispanic = 38) custodial grandmothers caring for grandchildren between ages 4 and 12 years completed the 27 FES items and various measures of their psychological well-being, grandchild psychological difficulties, emotional support, and parenting practices. Factor analysis revealed three factors that differed slightly from the originally proposed FES subscales: Parental Self-Efficacy/Self-Confidence, Service Activism, and Service Knowledge. Each of the factors was internally consistent, and derived factor scores were moderately interrelated, speaking to the question of convergent validity. The construct validity of these three factors was evidenced by meaningful patterns of statistically significant correlations with grandmothers’ psychological well-being, grandchild psychological difficulties, emotional support, and parenting practices. These factor scores were independent of grandmother age, health, and education. These findings suggest the newly identified FES factors to be valuable in understanding empowerment among grandmother caregivers.

    October 08, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815608492   open full text
  • Pursuing a Desired Future: Continuity and Change in a Long-Term-Care Community.
    Briody, E. K., Briller, S. H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 06, 2015

    New ways of planning, assessing, and measuring cultural change are needed in long-term care. Much effort is focused on person-centered care; less attention is paid to achieving localized change. Long-term-care communities need innovative approaches for identifying local cultural features to preserve and others to reconfigure. This case study involves applied anthropologists working with four stakeholder groups—residents, staff, family members, and volunteers—to document views of their "culture story" and conceptualize a cultural ideal for their community. Based on strengths and weaknesses from their culture story, specific recommendations were made to maintain their strong relationship focus, expand community outreach, and improve staff relations. Incorporating "insider" views of the past, present, and imagined future and building on current "best practices" of the culture-change movement are two distinctive but complementary approaches for motivating and managing cultural change.

    October 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815608496   open full text
  • The Stressors and Coping Strategies of Older Adults With Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Prior to and Following Direct Current Cardioversion.
    Rush, K. L., Hatt, L., Shay, M., Gorman, N., Laberge, C. G., Reid, R. C., Wilson, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 30, 2015

    Objective:The purpose of this study was to explore the stressors and coping strategies of older adults with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) before and after direct current cardioversion. Method: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Sixteen patients were recruited through an AF clinic to participate in individual interviews prior to the cardioversion and at 6 and 12 weeks post procedure. Results: Pre-cardioversion, older adults experienced symptom and health care–related stressors superimposed on existing non-AF stressors. They used a range of emotion and problem-focused coping. Non-AF stressors increased post procedure at the same time that participants perceived less need for coping strategies with a return to regular rhythm. Discussion: There was a shift from AF to non-AF related stressors following the cardioversion but a decrease in coping strategies. Older adults with AF should be encouraged to maintain use of coping strategies to manage ongoing stress and reduce the risk of AF recurrence.

    September 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815608495   open full text
  • Participant-Direction in a Culturally Diverse, Rural Population: The Hawaii Community Living Program.
    Nishita, C., Trockman, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 28, 2015

    The Hawaii Community Living Program was a participant-direction pilot project aimed at rural, multicultural, and community-dwelling older adults at risk of institutionalization. This evaluation examined participant outcomes, and explored the role of culture, health literacy, and rural settings in participant-direction programs. The program enrolled 91 participants and, of these enrollees, helped 84 (92.3%) participants avoid institutionalization and spend down to Medicaid. Findings indicated that Program Coaches needed to be culturally appropriate and creative in arranging for services and the delivery of goods and supplies. Results suggested that participants need to be health literate to direct their care, but further research is needed.

    September 28, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815608494   open full text
  • Views and Expectations of Community-Dwelling Thai Elderly in Reporting Falls to Their Primary Care Physicians: A Mixed-Methods Study.
    Boongird, C., Ross, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 22, 2015

    Fall among older adults is a concern in Thailand. The challenge for primary care physicians is to deliver effective interventions potentially adhered to by older people. This research employed a mixed-methods design to understand factors leading to fall reporting by community-dwelling Thai elders and their expectations regarding fall prevention education. Participants (N = 305) who had fallen in the last year completed a questionnaire in the quantitative phase, and 50 of these were interviewed in-depth in the qualitative phase. Results revealed that only 39% reported their fall. Participants with comorbidities were 1.6 times more likely to report falling than those without (odds ratio = 1.61, confidence interval = [1.01, 2.58]). Post-fall pain (84%) was the strongest reason for reporting. Some participants believed that falling is an inevitable life event. It is crucial to encourage older adults to report falling, to provide targeted education, and to focus on improving the overall health status of older adults.

    September 22, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815606799   open full text
  • Family Involvement in Nursing Homes: Are Family Caregivers Getting What They Want?
    Reid, R. C., Chappell, N. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 31, 2015

    The provision of person-centered care for nursing home residents with dementia suggests the need for family caregiver involvement. In this article, we argue that optimal family involvement differs by family caregiver and therefore depends on the degree to which family caregivers consider their own involvement to be important. In this Canadian study, we compare the importance that 135 family caregivers of residents with dementia place on 20 kinds of involvement with the degree to which they perceive opportunities for involvement. Family Involvement Congruence Scores are calculated in three ways: those for whom involvement is important, those for whom involvement is not important, and an overall congruence score. Congruence scores varied by involvement type. These scores show promise for use in future research on family caregiver involvement and as tools for use by facilities as they endeavor to meet family caregiver expectations for involvement.

    August 31, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602109   open full text
  • Managing Chronic Illness: Nursing Contact and Participant Enrollment in a Medicare Care Coordination Demonstration Program.
    Toles, M., Moriarty, H., Coburn, K., Marcantonio, S., Hanlon, A., Mauer, E., Fisher, P., O'Connor, M., Ulrich, C., Naylor, M. D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 31, 2015

    Models of care coordination can significantly improve health outcomes for older adults with chronic illnesses if they can engage participants. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of nursing contact on the rate of participants’ voluntary disenrollment from a care coordination program. In this retrospective cohort study using administrative data for 1,524 participants in the Health Quality Partners Medicare Care Coordination Demonstration Program, the rate of voluntary disenrollment was approximately 11%. A lower risk of voluntary disenrollment was associated with a greater proportion of in-person (vs. telephonic) nursing contact (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.137, confidence interval [CI] [0.050, 0.376]). A higher risk of voluntary disenrollment was associated with lower continuity of nurses who provided care (HR 1.964, CI [1.724, 2.238]). Findings suggest that in-person nursing contact and care continuity may enhance enrollment of chronically ill older adults and, ultimately, the overall health and well-being of this population

    August 31, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602115   open full text
  • Sensory Functions, Balance, and Mobility in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Without Overt Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Brief Report.
    Deshpande, N., Hewston, P., Aldred, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 30, 2015

    This study examined possible subtle degradation in sensory functions, balance, and mobility in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) prior to overt development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Twenty-five healthy controls (HC group, age = 74.6 ± 5.4) and 35 T2D elderly without DPN (T2D group, age = 70.6 ± 4.7) were recruited. Sensory assessment included vibrotactile sensitivity, bilateral caloric weakness, and visual contrast sensitivity. Self-report measures comprised of Activity-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC), Human Activity Profile–adjusted activity scores (HAP-AAS), falls, and mobility disability. Performance measures included modified Timed-Up and Go (mTUG), Clinical Test of Sensory Integration for Balance (mCTSIB), and Frailty and Injuries (FICSIT-4) balance test. T2D group demonstrated significantly worse bilateral caloric weakness, marginally higher threshold of vibrotactile sensitivity and lower visual contrast sensitivity, and as well as signifcantly lower HAP-AAS. A significantly higher proportion of the T2D group failed mCTSIB Condition 4 than in the HC group. Subtle changes in multiple sensory systems of older adults with T2D may reduce redundancy available for balance control while performing challenging activities much before DPN development.

    August 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602341   open full text
  • Dance as Prevention of Late Life Functional Decline Among Nursing Home Residents.
    Machacova, K., Vankova, H., Volicer, L., Veleta, P., Holmerova, I.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 28, 2015

    Late life deterioration of functional status is associated with adverse health outcomes and increased cost of care. This trial was conducted to determine whether dance-based intervention could reverse functional decline among nursing home (NH) residents. A total of 189 residents of seven NHs in the Czech Republic were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. More detailed data were collected in a subsample of 52 participants. Intervention consisted of 3-month dance-based exercise. Functional status was assessed by the get-up-and-go test, basic activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and senior fitness tests (SFTs). Participants in the control group experienced a significant decline in get-up-and-go test, IADL, and in four of the six SFTs. The intervention proved to be effective in preventing this deterioration and improved chair stand test and chair sit-and-reach test. The findings indicate that a relatively simple dance-based exercise can slow down deterioration of functional status in NH residents.

    August 28, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602111   open full text
  • State Dementia Plans and the Alzheimer's Disease Movement: Framing Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Motivation.
    Arbogast, C. E., Welleford, E. A., Netting, F. E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 28, 2015

    An interpretive analysis of 38 state dementia plans compares similarities and differences in diagnostic framing (problem identification/trends/issues), prognosis framing (addressing the problem), and motivational framing (calls for action) across plans. In framing diagnosis, only 6 plans used dementia alone in their titles. In framing prognosis and the subsequent call to action, state plans were consistent in their dire prognostications about the progressive and fatal consequences of the disease with a primary focus on the cost. Motivational language mirrored that of the Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Movement, from raising awareness to using inflammatory words to incite action. The language used set up the frame for clinical interventions that may not distinguish between types of dementia and could undercut the provision of person-centered care, shifts the victimization focus from persons with AD to caregivers and ultimately the state, and may subintentionally reflect cultural biases.

    August 28, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602112   open full text
  • The Association of Complementary Therapy Use With Prescription Medication Adherence Among Older Community-Dwelling Adults.
    Effoe, V. S., Suerken, C. K., Quandt, S. A., Bell, R. A., Arcury, T. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 28, 2015

    Medication adherence is a major health concern, particularly among older adults who have one or more chronic conditions. We examined the association between complementary therapy use and medication adherence among older community-dwelling adults. In a bi-ethnic sample of 165 adults aged 65 years and older, anthropometric variables, data on chronic medical conditions, and medication use were assessed. Medication adherence was modeled as a score (<50%, 50%-75%, and >75%) and complementary therapy use was categorized as a binary variable. Over half of the participants (50.3%) were female, and 47.3% were African American. Complementary therapy use was prevalent (87.9%) and did not differ by sex, ethnicity, income, and educational attainment. Medication adherence score was >75% in 84.8% of complementary therapy users and 80.0% of non-users (p = .61). Despite a high use of complementary therapy in this population, there was no apparent association with low medication adherence.

    August 28, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602116   open full text
  • Public Attitudes Toward Sexual Expression in Long-Term Care: Does Context Matter?
    Yelland, E., Hosier, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 27, 2015

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine how age and sex of long-term care (LTC) residents influence public attitudes toward sexuality in LTC and (b) understand how, in the absence of cognitive decline, residing in LTC influences the perception of sexuality as a basic human right. Attitudes were examined using a factorial vignette with a probability sample of 325 respondents from a southern state. Results indicate that attitudes were not statistically affected by a vignette character’s age or sex; but respondent education level, parenthood status, and religious affiliation did have direct bearing on attitudes. The notion of sexuality as a basic human right for residents of LTC was ultimately challenged as 19% of respondents said that LTC residents should not be permitted to have sexual relations with their spouse in the facility.

    August 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602113   open full text
  • Painful Choices: A Qualitative Exploration of Facilitators and Barriers to Active Lifestyles Among Adults With Osteoarthritis.
    Stone, R. C., Baker, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 27, 2015

    Research has indicated physical activity and exercise can effectively attenuate biopsychosocial osteoarthritis-related symptoms in adults, more so than other management strategies; however, both leisure and structured physical activity are scarcely recommended by health care providers, and remain rarely adopted and adhered to in this patient population. Using qualitative interviews, the present study investigated potential facilitators and barriers to physical activity for adults with osteoarthritis. Fifteen participants (30-85 years of age) with osteoarthritis engaged in semi-structured interviews, which focused on experiences with physical activity/exercise, daily osteoarthritis management, and experiences with health professionals’ recommendations. Analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that pain relief, clear health-related communication, and social support facilitated physical activity. Physical pain, psychological distress, and inadequate medical support were the most frequently expressed barriers. The present study supports the biopsychosocial nature of osteoarthritis, which may have important implications for advancing exercise as an effective and long-term intervention strategy in aging adults with osteoarthritis.

    August 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602114   open full text
  • Middle-Aged and Older Adult Health Care Selection: Health Care Bypass Behavior in Rural Communities in Montana.
    Sanders, S. R., Erickson, L. D., Call, V. R. A., McKnight, M. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 27, 2015

    This study assesses the prevalence of primary-care physician (PCP) bypass among rural middle-aged and older adults. Bypass is a behavior where people travel beyond local providers to obtain health care. This article applies a precise Geographic Information System (GIS)-based measure of bypass and examines the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass. Our results indicate that bypass behavior among rural middle-aged and older adults is multifaceted. In addition to the perceived quality of local primary care, dissatisfaction with local services, such as shopping, creates an effect that increases the likelihood of bypass, whereas strong community ties decrease the likelihood of bypass. The results suggest that the "outshopping theory," where respondents select services in larger regional economic centers rather than local "mom and pop" providers, now extends to older adult health care selection.

    August 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602108   open full text
  • Does the Volume of Post-Acute Care Affect Quality of Life in Nursing Homes?
    Abrahamson, K., Shippee, T. P., Henning-Smith, C., Cooke, V.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 24, 2015

    Although short-stay, post-acute nursing home stays are increasing, little is known about the impact of volume of post-acute care on quality of life (QOL) within nursing homes. We analyzed data from the 2010 Minnesota QOL and Consumer Satisfaction survey (N = 13,433 residents within 377 facilities) and federal Minimum Data Set to determine the influence of living in a facility with an above-average proportion of post-acute care residents on six domains of resident QOL. In bivariate analyses, an above-average proportion of Medicare-funded post-acute care had a significant negative influence on four domains (mood, environment, food, engagement) and overall facility QOL. However, when resident and facility covariates were added to the model, only the food domain remained significant. Although the challenges of caring for residents with a diverse set of treatment and caregiving goals may negatively affect overall facility QOL, negative impacts are moderated by individual resident and nursing home characteristics.

    August 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815602110   open full text
  • Psychosocial Links Between Internet Use and Mental Health in Later Life: A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence.
    Forsman, A. K., Nordmyr, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 05, 2015

    Research on the role of information and communication technology (ICT) use for active aging is limited. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the link between Internet use and mental health among older adults. The review was conducted based on searches in 9 electronic databases (2002-2014). A meta-synthesis approach was applied, examining quantitative (18) and qualitative (14) studies. The findings from the synthesis of quantitative statistical data indicate an overall positive association between Internet use and mental health and its psychosocial covariates in later life. The psychosocial links between Internet use and mental health identified from the qualitative data were (a) enhanced interpersonal interaction at individual level, (b) increased access to resources within the community, and (c) empowered social inclusion at society level.

    The results highlight the multi-level psychosocial links between Internet use and mental health, which may be applied in initiatives targeting healthy aging in various settings.

    August 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815595509   open full text
  • Barriers and Promoters for Enrollment to a Community-Based Tai Chi Program for Older, Low-Income, and Ethnically Diverse Adults.
    Manson, J. D., Tamim, H., Baker, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 29, 2015

    Background: Low-income, ethnically diverse, older adults may be at greater health risk owing to their lower activity levels and potential cultural barriers to physical activity (PA) programs. To explore the specific barriers and promoters to enrollment to a 16-week Tai Chi (TC) program, we interviewed 87 lower socioeconomic older adults from multiple ethnic backgrounds before the initiation of a TC program. Method: Semistructured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with questions focused on themes of barriers and promoters to enrollment in a TC program that might or might not be culturally or gender related. Results: Important issues emerged that covered six categories. Categories included physical and mental health, time of day, socialization, program pairing, accessibility, and appropriate leadership/teacher. Conclusion: This information may have value for tailoring future PA programming in the community that could lead to improved health outcomes through better enrollment and increased participation in PA and exercise.

    July 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815597315   open full text
  • Home Help Service Staffs' Descriptions of Their Role in Promoting Everyday Activities Among Older People in Sweden Who Are Dependent on Formal Care.
    Cederbom, S., Thunborg, C., Denison, E., Soderlund, A., von Heideken Wagert, P.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 24, 2015

    The study aimed to explore how home help service staff described their role in improving the abilities of older people, in particular, older women with chronic pain who are dependent on formal care, to perform everyday activities. Three focus group interviews were conducted, and a qualitative inductive thematic content analysis was used. The analysis resulted in one theme: struggling to improve the care recipients’ opportunities for independence but being inhibited by complex environmental factors. By encouraging the care recipients to perform everyday activities, the staff perceived themselves to both maintain and improve their care recipients’ independence and quality of life. An important goal for society and health care professionals is to improve older people’s abilities to "age in place" and to enable them to age independently while maintaining their quality of life. A key resource is home help service staff, and this resource should be utilized in the best possible way.

    July 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815595511   open full text
  • Oncologists' End of Life Treatment Decisions: How Much Does Patient Age Matter?
    Bluhm, M., Connell, C. M., Janz, N., Bickel, K., DeVries, R., Silveira, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 21, 2015

    Background: Optimal treatment decisions for older end-stage cancer patients are complicated, and are influenced by oncologists’ attitudes and beliefs about older patients. Nevertheless, few studies have explored oncologists’ perspectives on how patient age affects their treatment decisions. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 oncologists to examine factors that influence their chemotherapy decisions for adults with incurable cancer near death. Transcripts of recorded interviews were coded and content analyzed. Results: Oncologists identified patient age as a key factor in their chemotherapy decisions. They believed older adults were less likely to want or tolerate treatment, and felt highly motivated to treat younger patients. Discussion: Qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews resulted in a nuanced understanding of how patient age influences oncologists’ chemotherapy decisions. Such understanding may inform practice efforts aimed at enhancing cancer care at the end of life for older patients.

    July 21, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815595510   open full text
  • Older Adults' Perceptions of Fall Detection Devices.
    Chaudhuri, S., Kneale, L., Le, T., Phelan, E., Rosenberg, D., Thompson, H., Demiris, G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 24, 2015

    A third of adults over the age of 65 are estimated to fall at least once a year. Perhaps as dangerous as the fall itself is the time spent after a fall if the person is unable to move. Although there are many devices available to detect when a person has fallen, little is known about the opinions of older adults regarding these fall detection devices (FDDs). We conducted five focus groups with 27 older adults. Transcripts from sessions were coded to generate themes that captured participants’ perceptions. Themes were identified that related to two topics of interest: (a) personal influences on the participants’ desire to have a FDD, including perceived need, participant values, and cost, and (b) participant recommendations regarding specific features and functionalities of these devices such as automation, wearable versus non-wearable devices, and device customization. Together, these themes suggest ways in which FDDs may be improved so that they are suitable for their intended population.

    June 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815591211   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Sexual Minority Stigma and Sexual Health Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Positive Older Gay and Bisexual Men.
    Emlet, C. A., Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I., Kim, H.-J., Hoy-Ellis, C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 22, 2015

    This study investigates how internalized sexual minority stigma and enacted sexual minority stigma in health care settings are associated with sexual health risk behaviors (SRBs) and the mediating role of infrequent routine health care and perceived stress among older gay and bisexual (G/B) men living with HIV disease. Survey responses from 135 sexually active older G/B men living with HIV were analyzed using hierarchical linear regression models. Results indicate that one fifth of G/B older adult men living with HIV are engaged in multiple SRBs. Internalized sexual minority stigma and enacted sexual minority stigma in health care settings are significantly associated with SRBs. The relationship between internalized sexual minority stigma and SRBs are mediated by infrequent routine health care and elevated levels of perceived stress. Improved primary and secondary prevention strategies are needed for the growing number of sexually active older G/B men.

    June 22, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815591210   open full text
  • Informing Understandings of Mild Cognitive Impairment for Older Adults: Implications From a Scoping Review.
    Fang, M. L., Coatta, K., Badger, M., Wu, S., Easton, M., Nygard, L., Astell, A., Sixsmith, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 19, 2015

    The development of effective interventions for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older adults has been limited by extensive variability in the conceptualization and definition of MCI, its subtypes, and relevant diagnostic criteria within the neurocultural, pharmaceutical, and gerontological communities. A scoping review was conducted to explore the conceptual development of MCI and identify the resulting ethical, political, and technological implications for the care of older adults with MCI. A comprehensive search was conducted between January and April 2013 to identify English-language peer-reviewed articles published between 1999 and 2013. Our analysis revealed that the MCI conceptual debate remains unresolved, the response to ethical issues is contentious, the policy response is limited, and one-dimensional and technological interventions are scarce. Reflections on the conceptual, ethical, and policy responses in conjunction with the identification of the needs of older adults diagnosed with MCI highlight significant opportunities for technological interventions to effectively reposition MCI in the aging care discourse.

    June 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815589987   open full text
  • Hoping for the Best or Planning for the Future: Decision Making and Future Care Needs.
    Gould, O. N., Dupuis-Blanchard, S., Villalon, L., Simard, M., Ethier, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 18, 2015

    Research has shown that relatively few older adults make plans for future care needs. In this study, we explore the thinking processes involved in planning or failing to plan for the future. Interviews were carried out with 39 older adults (M age = 81 years) who were experiencing disability and illness but who lived in their own home. Guiding questions for the interview focused on present living circumstances, but for the present qualitative analysis, all references to the future, and to future residence changes, were extracted. This approach allowed us to observe how older adults spontaneously address issues of future planning when not constrained to do so. Results supported the use of a positivity bias, as well as a risk-aversive decision-making style. These older adults seemed to be prioritizing present emotional well-being by avoiding thoughts of future risks and thereby eschewing proactive coping.

    June 18, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815591213   open full text
  • Reducing the Digital Divide: Connecting Older Adults to iPad Technology.
    Delello, J. A., McWhorter, R. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 17, 2015

    America’s older adult population is increasing at a dramatic rate due to better health care, technology, and improved living conditions. However, as individuals 65 years and older begin to live longer and experience multiple life changes, there is a larger incidence of social isolation leading to loneliness, depression, and a general decline in health. This mixed-method study aimed to explore whether information and communication technologies, specifically iPads, improved the lives of older adults. Our findings suggest that the use of technology increased knowledge, elicited closer family ties, and led to a greater overall connection to society.

    June 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815589985   open full text
  • Elderly Migration in China: Types, Patterns, and Determinants.
    Dou, X., Liu, Y.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 16, 2015

    We examined the migration patterns of older adults in China and the determinants associated with migration. Using select data from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we conducted a spatial analysis to explore the geographical patterns of different types of older migrants. The relationships between personal, environmental attributes, and migration were examined using logistic-linear modeling techniques. Approximately 6.6% of the Chinese adults aged 60 and older migrated in the past 10 years. Elderly migration occurred primarily in metropolitan areas and frontier provinces in China. Personal attributes, family structure, and housing conditions were associated with migration. The spatial patterns were associated with personal culture background, social policy, and regional development. The implications of elderly migration, with respect to establishing proper social policy and paying attention to the living environment of both migrant and non-migrant elders were discussed.

    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815587966   open full text
  • Quality Dementia Care: Integrating Caregivers Into a Chronic Disease Management Model.
    Noel, M. A., Kaluzynski, T. S., Templeton, V. H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 16, 2015

    Absent a cure or effective disease modifying treatment for dementia, developing cost-effective models of care that address the needs of caregivers alongside the medical management of the disease is necessary to maximize quality of care, address safety issues, and enhance the patient/caregiver experience. MemoryCare, a community-based non-profit organization, has 15 years of experience delivering a medical and care management model for persons with Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. Designed to supplement primary care services, the average annual cost-per-patient is US$1,279. Observational data on 967 patients and 3,251 caregivers served by the program in 2013 reveal high levels of satisfaction, increased dementia-specific knowledge, improved perceived ability to manage challenging behavioral aspects of dementia, and lengthened perceived time in the home setting. Data suggest lower hospitalization rates and related cost savings. These findings warrant a further study of broader integration of caregivers into clinical care models for persons with dementia.

    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815589986   open full text
  • Program Components and Outcomes of Individuals With Dementia: Results From the Replication of an Evidence-Based Program.
    Menne, H. L., Bass, D. M., Johnson, J. D., Kearney, K. R., Bollin, S., Teri, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 16, 2015

    This study examines whether the delivery of three components, (a) exercise training, (b) behavior management skill building, and (c) dementia-related education, in an evidence-based program are differentially associated with changes in outcomes for individuals with dementia (IWDs) after 3 months. Data come from 508 IWDs participating in the community replication of the evidence-based "Reducing Disability in Alzheimer’s Disease" program. Regression results indicate that after 3 months, more exercise sessions are associated with improvements in physical functioning, mobility, minutes exercising, and symptoms of depression; more dementia education sessions are related to fewer restricted activity days; and more behavior management sessions are related to more symptoms of depression. As resource-strapped agencies look to best serve participants, further analysis and consideration is needed to determine the ideal balance of program efficacy, feasibility, and resources, as well as program benefits for IWDs and caregivers.

    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815591212   open full text
  • Neighborhood Influences and BMI in Urban Older Adults.
    Mathis, A. L., Rooks, R. N., Tawk, R. H., Kruger, D. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 13, 2015

    Objective: Increases in body weight and declining physical activity that may accompany aging are linked to a range of problems affecting daily life (i.e., decreased mobility and overall quality of life). This study investigates the actual and perceived neighborhood environment on overweight and obese urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ who answered questions about their neighborhood on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. Using multinomial regression models and geospatial models, we examined relationships between neighborhood environment and BMI. Results: We found that obese older adults were 63% less likely to have a park within their neighborhood (p = .04). Our results also show that older adults who perceive their neighborhood crime as very high are 12 times more likely to be overweight (p = .04). Discussion: Findings suggest that parks may affect BMI in older adults; however, neighborhood perceptions play a greater role.

    May 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815584670   open full text
  • A Qualitative Study of Older Adults and Staff at an Adult Day Center in a Cambodian Community in the United States.
    Dubus, N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 11, 2015

    Purpose: Adult day care programs in the United States are seeing an increase in culturally diverse patients. The purpose of this study was to better understand the subjective experiences of staff and Cambodian refugees attending an adult day center in the United States that provides services focused on the cultural needs of the older adults, such as Cambodian food, activities, and Cambodian staff. Design: This is a qualitative study using grounded theory to analyze 10 individual interviews from staff members and 80 individual interviews from participants who attend an adult day care program for Cambodians in a city in the northeast United States. Findings: Three primary themes emerged: The participants felt respected, there was a generational tension between the young staff and the participants, and the center acted as a cultural liaison between the medical providers and the participants.

    May 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815586060   open full text
  • Clinician Perspectives on Challenges to Patient Centered Care at the End of Life.
    Bardach, S. H., Dunn, E. J., Stein, J. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 08, 2015

    Discussions regarding patient preferences for resuscitation are often delayed and preferences may be neglected, leading to the receipt of unwanted medical care. To better understand barriers to the expression and realization of patients’ end of life wishes, a preventive ethics team in one Veterans Affairs Medical Center conducted a survey of physicians, nurses, social workers, and respiratory therapists. Surveys were analyzed through qualitative analysis, using sorting methodologies to identify themes. Analysis revealed barriers to patient wishes being identified and followed, including discomfort conducting end-of-life discussions, difficulty locating patients’ preferences in medical records, challenges with expiring do not resuscitate (DNR) orders, and confusion over terminology. Based on these findings, the preventive ethics team proposed new terminology for code status preferences, elimination of the local policy for expiration of DNR orders, and enhanced systems for storing and retrieving patients’ end-of-life preferences. Educational efforts were initiated to facilitate implementation of the proposed changes.

    May 08, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815584668   open full text
  • Determinants of Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intent in Home Health Workers: The Role of Job Demands and Resources.
    Jang, Y., Lee, A. A., Zadrozny, M., Bae, S.-H., Kim, M. T., Marti, N. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 08, 2015

    Based on the job demands–resources (JD-R) model, this study explored the impact of job demands (physical injury and racial/ethnic discrimination) and resources (self-confidence in job performance and recognition by supervisor/organization/society) on home health workers’ employee outcomes (job satisfaction and turnover intent). Using data from the National Home Health Aide Survey (N = 3,354), multivariate models of job satisfaction and turnover intent were explored. In both models, the negative impact of demands (physical injury and racial/ethnic discrimination) and the positive impact of resources (self-confidence in job performance and recognition by supervisor and organization) were observed. The overall findings suggest that physical injury and discrimination should be prioritized in prevention and intervention efforts to improve home health workers’ safety and well-being. Attention also needs to be paid to ways to bolster work-related efficacy and to promote an organizational culture of appreciation and respect.

    May 08, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815586059   open full text
  • Variations on the Village Model: An Emerging Typology of a Consumer-Driven Community-Based Initiative for Older Adults.
    Lehning, A. J., Scharlach, A. E., Davitt, J. K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 05, 2015

    Villages, which are community-based initiatives designed to help older adults age in place through a combination of services, participant engagement, and peer support, have expanded rapidly since their initial development in the early 2000s. Using a sample of Villages in the United States, we examined variations from characteristics of the Village model as portrayed by media and organizational leaders. Results indicate there is no uniform Village model that can be implemented and evaluated by policy makers, funders, service providers, and researchers. Based on the extent of member involvement, methods of service provision, and funding sources, we developed a conceptually and empirically informed typology of Villages that reflects the model’s focus on consumer involvement. Descriptive analyses indicate potential differences in member, community, and organizational characteristics. This emerging typology has implications for understanding the implementation and sustainability of Villages, including whether specific Village types are best suited to certain community contexts.

    May 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815584667   open full text
  • Isokinetic Dynamometry in Healthy Versus Sarcopenic and Malnourished Elderly: Beyond Simple Measurements of Muscle Strength.
    Cramer, J. T., Jenkins, N. D. M., Mustad, V. A., Weir, J. P.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 05, 2015

    This study quantified systematic and intraindividual variability among three repetitions of concentric isokinetic knee extension and flexion tests to determine velocity-related differences in peak torque (PT) and mean power (MP) in healthy elderly (HE) versus sarcopenic and malnourished elderly (SME). In total, 107 HE (n = 54 men, n = 53 women) and 261 SME (n = 101 men, n = 160 women) performed three maximal concentric isokinetic knee extension and flexion repetitions at 60°·s–1 and 180°·s–1. PT for Repetition 3 was lower than Repetitions 1 and 2, while MP for Repetition 1 was lower than Repetitions 2 and 3 in SME. Intraindividual variability among repetitions was correlated with strength, but not age, and was greater in SME, during knee flexion, and at 180°·s–1. Velocity-related decreases in PT from 60°·s–1 to 180°·s–1 were more pronounced in SME. In summary, (a) the repetition with the highest PT value may be the best indicator of maximal strength, while the average may indicate strength maintenance in SME; (b) intraindividual variability among repetitions reflects functional decrements from HE to SME; and (c) decreases in PT from 60°·s–1 to 180°·s–1 may reflect greater losses of fast-twitch (type II) fiber function.

    May 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815584669   open full text
  • Resident and Facility Factors Associated With the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections Identified in the Nursing Home Minimum Data Set.
    Castle, N., Engberg, J. B., Wagner, L. M., Handler, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 05, 2015

    Objective: This research examined resident and facility-specific factors associated with a diagnosis of a urinary tract infection (UTI) in the nursing home setting. Method: Minimum Data Set and Online Survey, Certification and Reporting system data were used to identify all nursing home residents in the United States on April 1, 2006, who did not have a UTI (n = 1,138,418). Residents were followed until they contracted a UTI (9.5%), died (8.3%), left the nursing home (33.2%), or the year ended (49.0%). A Cox proportional hazards model was estimated, controlling for resident and facility characteristics and for the state of residence. Result: The presence of an indwelling catheter was the primary predictor of whether a resident contracted a UTI (adjusted incidence ratio = 3.35, p < .001), but only 6.1% of the residents in the sample had such a catheter. Therefore, only one eighth of the UTIs were contracted by residents with a catheter. Thus, subsequent analysis examined the populations with and without catheters separately. Demographic characteristics (such as age) have a much greater association with incidence among residents without catheters. The association with facility factors such as percentage of Medicaid residents, for-profit, and chain status was less significant. Estimates regarding staffing levels indicate that increased contact hours with more highly educated nursing staff are associated with less catheter use. Discussion: Several facility-specific risk factors are of significance. Of significance, UTIs may be reduced by modifying factors such as staffing levels.

    May 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815584666   open full text
  • The Impact of Mental Aerobics Training on Older Adults.
    Hayslip, B., Paggi, K., Caballero, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 01, 2015

    Mental Aerobics (MA) is a cognitively oriented intervention designed to improve older adults’ perceptions of their cognitive ability as well as positively impact their performance. Forty-seven community-residing older adults (M age = 67.39, SD = 5.75) were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 24) or a waiting list control (n = 23) group. Participants in both treatment and control conditions completed measures of depression, self-rated health, cognitive functioning, and cognitive self-efficacy. Findings support the conclusion that MA can be an effective intervention in improving older adults’ affectivity, everyday task self-efficacy, and self-rated health. The impact of MA on measures of generalized fluid ability (Gf) and generalized crystallized ability (Gc) skills was moderated by level of education. The subsequent provision of MA training to controls minimized the performance differences between the treatment and control conditions, as well as the moderating effect of level of education. These findings suggest that MA can be effectively used to enhance older adults’ views of their skills, critical to efforts to maintain cognitive functioning into later life, although some older persons may benefit to a greater extent than others.

    May 01, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815581482   open full text
  • Do Family Proxies Get It Right? Concordance in Reports of Nursing Home Residents' Everyday Preferences.
    Heid, A. R., Bangerter, L. R., Abbott, K. M., Van Haitsma, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 28, 2015

    Limited work has examined how well family proxies understand nursing home residents’ preferences. With 85 dyads of a nursing home resident and relative, we utilize descriptive statistics and multi-level modeling to examine the concordance in reports of importance ratings of 72 everyday preferences for residents. Results reveal significant mean differences at the p < .001 level between proxies and residents on 12 of 72 preferences; yet, perfect agreement in responses is poor and only increases when dichotomizing responses into an important versus not important outcome. Multi-level modeling further indicates that dyads are discrepant on reports of the importance of growth activities for residents, with residents reporting higher levels of importance than proxies. This discrepancy is associated with residents’ hearing impairment and proxies’ perception of resident openness. The findings highlight not only how proxies may be able to inform care for residents in nursing homes but also where further discussions are warranted.

    April 28, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815581485   open full text
  • Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults.
    Miyawaki, C. E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 16, 2015

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon’s assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers (M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers’ high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers’ strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers’ own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnic-specific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers’ culture and level of assimilation.

    April 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815581484   open full text
  • Law and Intergenerational Relationships: Comparing Labor Case Law in the United States, Canada, and Israel.
    Doron, I., Lowenstein, A., Biggs, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 16, 2015

    Background: In any aging society, the sociolegal construction of intergenerational relationships is of great importance. This study conducts an international comparison of a specific judicial issue: whether active labor unions have the legal right to strike for the purpose of improving the benefits given to nonactive workers (specifically, pensioners). Method: A comparative case law methodology was used. The texts of three different Supreme Court cases—in the United States, Canada, and Israel—were analyzed and compared. Findings: Despite the different legal outcomes, all three court rulings reflect a disregard of known and relevant social gerontology theories of intergenerational relationships. Conclusion: Social gerontological theories can play an important role in both understanding and shaping judicial policies and assisting the courts in choosing their sociojudicial narratives.

    April 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815581480   open full text
  • Compensatory Strategies: Prevalence of Use and Relationship to Physical Function and Well-Being.
    Gitlin, L. N., Winter, L., Stanley, I. H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 13, 2015

    We examine prevalence of four compensatory strategies (assistive devices, receiving help, changing frequency, or method of performance) and their immediate and long-term relationship to well-being. A total of 319 older adults (>70 years) with functional difficulties at home provided baseline data; 285 (89%) provided 12-month data. For 17 everyday activities, the most frequently used strategy was changing method of performance (M = 10.27 activities), followed by changing frequency (M = 6.17), assistive devices (M = 5.38), and receiving help (M = 3.37; p = .001). Using each strategy type was associated with functional difficulties at baseline (ps < .0001), whereas each strategy type except changing method predicted functional decline 12 months later (ps < .0001). Changing frequency of performing activities was associated with depressed mood (p < .0001) and poor mastery (p < .0001) at both baseline and 12 months (ps < .02). Findings suggest that strategy type may be differentially associated with functional decline and well-being although reciprocal causality and the role of other factors in these outcomes cannot be determined from this study.

    April 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815581479   open full text
  • Older Adult Strategies for Community Wayfinding.
    Marquez, D. X., Hunter, R. H., Griffith, M. H., Bryant, L. L., Janicek, S. J., Atherly, A. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 13, 2015

    Community wayfinding becomes more challenging with age and decrements in functioning. Given the growth in numbers of older adults, we need to understand features that facilitate or inhibit wayfinding in outdoor settings to enhance mobility and community engagement. This exploratory study of 35 short- (n = 14) and long-term (n = 21) residents in an ethnically diverse neighborhood identified relevant wayfinding factors. Data collection included an interview, map-drawing task, and walk along a previously audited, prescribed route to identify key wayfinding strategies. Most participants sought information from other people as a primary method of route planning. Street signs and landmarks were overwhelming favorites as helpful wayfinding features. When asked to recall the route following the walk, only half of participants gave completely correct directions. Findings reinforce the importance of landmarks and legible, systematic, and consistently available signage, as well as trustworthy person-to-person information sources. Findings also underscore the need for wayfinding research in diverse environments.

    April 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815581481   open full text
  • Adopting Evidence-Based Caregiver Training Programs in the Real World: Outcomes and Lessons Learned From the STAR-C Oregon Translation Study.
    McCurry, S. M., Logsdon, R. G., Mead, J., Pike, K. C., La Fazia, D. M., Stevens, L., Teri, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 13, 2015

    Objectives: This article describes the translation and evaluation of STAR–Community Consultants program (STAR-C), an evidence-based dementia caregiver training program, within the Oregon Department of Human Services. Method: Staff from two regional Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs) were trained to implement all aspects of STAR-C, including screening, recruitment of caregiver/care-receiver dyads, and treatment delivery. Mailed assessments of caregiver depression, burden, and care-receiver mood, behavior, and quality of life were collected at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Results: One hundred fifty-one dyads entered the program; 96 completed the 8-week intervention. Significant positive post-treatment effects were obtained for caregiver depression, burden, and reactivity to behavior problems, and care-receiver depression and quality of life. At 6-month follow-up, improvements in caregiver reactivity and care-receiver depression were maintained. Caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. Discussion: STAR-C was successfully and effectively implemented by participating AAAs. Recommendations for replication, including training, recruitment, and assessment procedures are provided.

    April 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815581483   open full text
  • Housing Satisfaction of Older (55+) Single-Person Householders in U.S. Rural Communities.
    Ahn, M., Lee, S.-J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 06, 2015

    This study aims to understand the housing satisfaction of older (55+) single-person householders in U.S. rural communities using the available variables from a secondary data set, the 2011 American Housing Survey (AHS). In this study, housing satisfaction was considered to be an indicator of quality of life. Based on previous studies, we developed a model to test a hypothesized relationship between older (55+) single-person householders’ (N = 1,017) housing satisfaction and their personal, physical, financial, and environmental characteristics. Multiple regression results showed that the model was supported, indicating that significant variables in housing satisfaction include age, gender, health status, age of house, structure type, and unit location. Among the significant variables, health status was revealed to be the strongest factor in housing satisfaction. Housing satisfaction was discussed as potential indicators of quality of life.

    April 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815577142   open full text
  • Dying With Carolyn: Using Simulation to Improve Communication Skills of Unregulated Care Providers Working in Long-Term Care.
    Kortes-Miller, K., Jones-Bonofiglio, K., Hendrickson, S., Kelley, M. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 29, 2015

    This article examines the development, implementation, and evaluation of a pilot project utilizing high-fidelity simulation (HFS) to improve frontline staff members’ confidence and skills to communicate about death and dying in long-term care homes. The target group was unregulated care providers who provide palliative care for residents and their families. Eighteen participants engaged in the educational intervention and evaluation. Results supported the effectiveness of HFS as an educational tool for unregulated health care providers. Quantitative data showed statistically significant improvements in participants’ self-efficacy scores related to communicating about death and dying and end-of-life care. Qualitative data indicated that the experience was a valuable learning opportunity and helped participants develop insights into their own values, beliefs, and fears providing end-of-life care. HFS is therefore recommended as an innovative training strategy to improve palliative care communication in long-term care homes.

    March 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815577139   open full text
  • The Contribution of Community Singing Groups to the Well-Being of Older People: Participant Perspectives From the United Kingdom.
    Skingley, A., Martin, A., Clift, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 23, 2015

    Current evidence suggests that participatory arts activities, and particularly group singing, may contribute to the well-being of older people. However, there is currently a paucity of prospective research from the participant perspective. This qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial aimed to assess participants’ perspectives of the acceptability and effect on health and well-being of a community singing program for older people. Volunteers recruited to the intervention arm (n = 131) were invited to write comments on their experiences over three data collection points of a 14-week singing program. A subsample (n = 19) participated in a retrospective semi-structured interview. Data were subjected to content and thematic analysis. Comments and interviews from 128 individuals suggested that the singing groups led to specific, incremental benefits to physical, psychological, social, and community well-being. Benefits tended to tail off after the program ended. Suggestions were made for the future running of such groups.

    March 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815577141   open full text
  • Relationship Between the Types of Insurance Coverage and Outpatient Mental Health Treatment Use Among Older Adults.
    Choi, N. G., DiNitto, D. M., Marti, C. N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 23, 2015

    Using the public use data files of the 2008 to 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study examined (a) the payment sources for mental health treatment among those aged 50 to 64 years and those aged 65+ years and (b) the relationship between outpatient mental health treatment use and different types of insurance coverage among members of these two age groups. The results show that 16% of the 50 to 64 age group and 10% of the 65+ age group used inpatient or outpatient mental health treatment in the preceding year. Logistic regression analyses showed that mental health problem severity and public insurance programs (Medicare, Medicaid, and Department of Veterans Affairs [VA]/military insurance) significantly increased the odds of receiving outpatient treatment. Private insurance was not a significant factor for either age group. Older adults with mental health problems must be encouraged to seek treatment and need to be informed about mental health coverage included in their insurance(s).

    March 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815577143   open full text
  • Older Patients' Recall of Lifestyle Discussions in Primary Care.
    Bardach, S. H., Schoenberg, N. E., Howell, B. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 09, 2015

    Despite the known benefits of engaging in healthy diet and physical activity across the life span, suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are pervasive among older adults. While health care providers can promote patients’ engagement in health behaviors, patient recall of recommendations tends to be imperfect. This study sought to better understand older adults’ recall of dietary and physical activity discussions in primary care. One hundred and fifteen adults aged 65 and older were interviewed immediately following a routine primary care visit on whether and what they recalled discussing pertaining to diet and physical activity. Compared against transcripts, most patients accurately recalled their diet and physical activity discussions. The inclusion of a recommendation, and for diet discussions longer duration, increased the likelihood of patient recall for these health behavior discussions. These findings suggest that specific recommendations and an extra minute of discussion, at least for dietary discussions, increase the likelihood of accurate patient recall.

    March 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815574095   open full text
  • Primary Care Providers' HIV Prevention Practices Among Older Adults.
    Davis, T., Teaster, P. B., Thornton, A., Watkins, J. F., Alexander, L., Zanjani, F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 03, 2015

    Purpose: To explore primary care providers’ HIV prevention practices for older adults. Primary care providers’ perceptions and awareness were explored to understand factors that affect their provision of HIV prevention materials and HIV screening for older adults. Design and Method: Data were collected through 24 semistructured interviews with primary care providers (i.e., physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) who see patients older than 50 years. Results: Results reveal facilitators and barriers of HIV prevention for older adults among primary care providers and understanding of providers’ HIV prevention practices and behaviors. Individual, patient, institutional, and societal factors influenced HIV prevention practices among participants, for example, provider training and work experience, lack of time, discomfort in discussing HIV/AIDS with older adults, stigma, and ageism were contributing factors. Furthermore, factors specific to primary and secondary HIV prevention were identified, for instance, the presence of sexually transmitted infections influenced providers’ secondary prevention practices. Implications: HIV disease, while preventable, is increasing among older adults. These findings inform future research and interventions aimed at increasing HIV prevention practices in primary care settings for patients older than 50.

    March 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815574093   open full text
  • Computer Use and Computer Anxiety in Older Korean Americans.
    Yoon, H., Jang, Y., Xie, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 19, 2015

    Responding to the limited literature on computer use in ethnic minority older populations, the present study examined predictors of computer use and computer anxiety in older Korean Americans. Separate regression models were estimated for computer use and computer anxiety with the common sets of predictors: (a) demographic variables (age, gender, marital status, and education), (b) physical health indicators (chronic conditions, functional disability, and self-rated health), and (c) sociocultural factors (acculturation and attitudes toward aging). Approximately 60% of the participants were computer-users, and they had significantly lower levels of computer anxiety than non-users. A higher likelihood of computer use and lower levels of computer anxiety were commonly observed among individuals with younger age, male gender, advanced education, more positive ratings of health, and higher levels of acculturation. In addition, positive attitudes toward aging were found to reduce computer anxiety. Findings provide implications for developing computer training and education programs for the target population.

    February 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815570665   open full text
  • Shifting to Medicaid-Managed Long-Term Care: Are Vulnerable Florida Beneficiaries Properly Informed?
    Peterson, L. J., Hyer, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 19, 2015

    Purpose: To examine and assess the adequacy of informational material provided to Florida long-term care beneficiaries being required to choose a managed care provider as part of a statewide, mandatory shift to Medicaid-managed long-term care (MMLTC). Design and Method: Informational materials provided by the state of Florida to 90,000 Medicaid long-term care beneficiaries via print mailings and a state website were examined using established content, usability, and readability criteria. Results: Overall, the presentation minimized cognitive complexity, but the information was lacking in critical areas, such as providing clear explanations of the change taking place and the significance of beneficiaries’ choices, and enabling beneficiaries to assess their own needs and preferences. Implications: A key feature of managed care is the users’ choice of plans, but amid a significant policy shift toward MMLTC in Florida, vulnerable beneficiaries may not be receiving the information necessary to make choices that best meet their needs. Our analysis offers lessons to other states shifting to MMLTC.

    February 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815570668   open full text
  • Intergenerational Programs in Schools: Prevalence and Perceptions of Impact.
    Cohen-Mansfield, J., Jensen, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 19, 2015

    This study examined the prevalence, types, and perceived impact of intergenerational programs in schools. Programs involving senior volunteers assisting children, or children participating in activities with older people were considered. Of the schools reached, 47% reported intergenerational programming. Thirty-three schools in the Tel-Aviv region participated in the study. Data were collected from 85 seniors, 26 teachers, and 20 coordinators. Assessments included program characteristics, program preparation, and perceived benefits and difficulties. Both programs were reported to have beneficial effects for seniors and to benefit children in the academic, social, and emotional domains. However, programs appeared to attract different types of volunteers and different degrees of volunteer commitment. Findings suggest that there is a need to pay additional attention to both participants’ specific requests and needs and to the allocation of resources to improve the design and implementation of intergenerational programs.

    February 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815570663   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Subjective Falls-Risk Assessment Tools and Functional, Health-Related, and Body Composition Characteristics.
    Smee, D. J., Berry, H. L., Anson, J. M., Waddington, G. S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 19, 2015

    We sought to explore the relationship between two subjective falls-risk assessment tools (Falls Efficacy Scale–International [FES-I] and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence [ABC] Scale) and functional, health-related, and body composition characteristics. A total of 245 community-dwelling people aged 60 to 88 years underwent assessments for subjective falls risk (using the FES-I and ABC Scale), health-related (cognitive; Short-Form Health Survey [SF-12]), functional (physical activity and physical function), and body composition characteristics (measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry). The FES-I and ABC Scale are strongly correlated with each other for females and males (r = –.70, p < .001; r = –.65, p < .001), respectively. There are substantial differences between males and females when they self-assess their risk of falling as well as what characteristics contribute to explaining these self-assessments. Females are potentially more self-aware of their functional, body composition and health-related characteristics to better estimate their own risk of falling. FES-I correlates better with functional, body composition, and health-related characteristics, and thus may be more appropriate for use than the ABC in community-dwelling older adults.

    February 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815570669   open full text
  • Measuring Filial Piety in the 21st Century: Development, Factor Structure, and Reliability of the 10-Item Contemporary Filial Piety Scale.
    Lum, T. Y. S., Yan, E. C. W., Ho, A. H. Y., Shum, M. H. Y., Wong, G. H. Y., Lau, M. M. Y., Wang, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 09, 2015

    The experience and practice of filial piety have evolved in modern Chinese societies, and existing measures fail to capture these important changes. Based on a conceptual analysis on current literature, 42 items were initially compiled to form a Contemporary Filial Piety Scale (CFPS), and 1,080 individuals from a representative sample in Hong Kong were surveyed. Principal component analysis generated a 16-item three-factor model: Pragmatic Obligations (Factor 1; 10 items), Compassionate Reverence (Factor 2; 4 items), and Family Continuity (Factor 3; 2 items). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed strong factor loadings for Factors 1 and 2, while removing Factor 3 and conceptually duplicated items increased total variance explained from 58.02% to 60.09% and internal consistency from .84 to .88. A final 10-item two-factor structure model was adopted with a goodness of fit of 0.95. The CFPS-10 is a data-driven, simple, and efficient instrument with strong psychometric properties for assessing contemporary filial piety.

    February 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815570664   open full text
  • It's a Matter of Trust: Older African Americans Speak About Their Health Care Encounters.
    Hansen, B. R., Hodgson, N. A., Gitlin, L. N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 09, 2015

    Purpose: To examine perceptions of older African Americans’ encounters with health care providers and ways to enhance trust. Method: Transcribed semi-structured interviews with African American senior center members were analyzed, using Pattern Coding method. Results: Four themes emerged: "Added Insult of Ageism," "Alternative Remedies," "Good Providers in a ‘Broken’ System," and "The Foundation of Trust Is Person Recognition." Provider behaviors leading to mistrust included erroneously assuming stereotypical preferences and competence, spending inadequate time listening to patients, disregarding patient preferences, and insufficiently explaining treatments. Discussion: Of importance to improving trust among older African American patients is valuing individual histories and preferences by reallocating scarce time to person-centered listening, individualizing treatments, more completely explaining interventions, and assuring that patients understand and agree with treatment plans.

    February 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464815570662   open full text
  • engAGE in Community: Using Mixed Methods to Mobilize Older People to Elucidate the Age-Friendly Attributes of Urban and Rural Places.
    John, D. H., Gunter, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 21, 2015

    The growing numbers of older adults in the United States will have a significant impact on community resources, which will affect the ability of residents to live and thrive in their local community regardless of age. For this study, we applied explanatory sequential mixed methods and community-based participatory research (CBPR) to discover how attributes of the physical, social, and service environments determine residents’ perceptions of community age-friendliness and conditions for aging-in-place. A population survey measuring county residents’ (n = 387) perceptions and importance of community resources that support community livability are explained by thematic results of the CBPR, that is, emergent proximal and distal age-friendly factors. Our qualitative approach engaged local people (n = 237) in participatory processes to study and share perceptions of environmental attributes in six communities in one Oregon county. Findings are integrated to explain similarities and differences in older residents’ lived experience of rural and urban settings with regard to age-friendly foci.

    January 21, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464814566679   open full text
  • A Review of Self-Management Interventions for People With Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment.
    Quinn, C., Toms, G., Anderson, D., Clare, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 21, 2015

    Self-management offers a way of helping people with dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to play an active role in managing their condition. Barlow, Wright, Sheasby, Turner, and Hainsworth have defined self-management as the "individual’s ability to manage the symptoms, treatment, physical and psychosocial consequences and life style changes inherent in living with a chronic condition." Although commonly used in other chronic health conditions, there has been relatively little exploration of the role of self-management in dementia or MCI. This review aimed to identify group-based psychosocial interventions for people with dementia or MCI that incorporate significant elements of self-management. Fifteen interventions were included in the review: 12 for people with dementia and 3 for participants with MCI. In both the dementia and MCI interventions, the most commonly included self-management components were information, communication, and social support, and skills training. The review findings indicate that components of self-management have been incorporated into group-based interventions for people with dementia and MCI. Further studies are needed to address the methodological limitations of the included studies and to determine the effectiveness of self-management interventions with these populations.

    January 21, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464814566852   open full text
  • Physical and Cognitive Impacts of Digital Games on Older Adults: A Meta-Analytic Review.
    Zhang, F., Kaufman, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 13, 2015

    The purpose of this study is to examine the physical and cognitive impacts of digital games on older adults. We conducted five independent meta-analyses by reporting 58 effect sizes generated from 36 studies. Results suggested that playing digital games is effective in improving older adults’ physical balance (g = 0.67), balance confidence (g = 0.46), functional mobility (g = 0.53), executive function (g = 0.76), and processing speed (g = 0.54). Based on the results of heterogeneity analysis, we conducted moderator analyses for physical balance and processing speed. Key findings included the following: Playing digital games can not only improve the physical balance of older adults living in community but also those living in nursing homes; the relationship between age of participants or amount of time of gameplay and effect size is weak and the direction of the relationship is not definitive.

    January 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464814566678   open full text
  • Social Supports as Enabling Factors in Nursing Home Admissions: Rural, Suburban, and Urban Differences.
    Cohen, A., Bulanda, J. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 11, 2015

    This study investigates differences in social support and nursing home admission by rurality of residence. We use discrete-time event history models with longitudinal data from seven waves (1998-2010) of the Health and Retirement Study to prospectively examine the risk of spending 30 or more days in a nursing home (n = 5,913). Results show that elders with a health problem who live in rural areas of the South or Midwest have approximately 2 times higher odds of nursing home entry than elders living in urban areas in the Northeast. Rural elders report somewhat higher social support than non-rural elders, and controlling for these forms of social support does not explain the higher risk of a nursing home stay for Southerners and Midwesterners living in rural areas. Results suggest that social support has a similar association with nursing home entry for rural, suburban, and urban elders.

    January 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0733464814566677   open full text
  • Understanding Service Utilization in Cases of Elder Abuse to Inform Best Practices.
    Burnes, D., Rizzo, V. M., Gorroochurn, P., Pollack, M. H., Lachs, M. S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 18, 2014

    Elder abuse (EA) case resolution is contingent upon victims accepting and pursuing protective service interventions. Refusal/underutilization of services is a major problem. This study explored factors associated with extent of EA victim service utilization (SU). Data were collected from a random sample of EA cases (n = 250) at a protective service program in New York City. In cases involving financial abuse, higher SU was associated with females, poor health, perceived danger, previous help-seeking, and self or family referral. In physical abuse cases, higher SU was associated with family referral and previous help-seeking; lower SU was related to Hispanic race/ethnicity, being married, and child/grandchild perpetrator. In emotional abuse cases, higher SU was associated with self or family referral, victim–perpetrator gender differential, perceived danger, and previous help-seeking; lower SU was related to child/grandchild perpetrator. Findings carry implications for best practices to retain and promote service use among elder victims of abuse.

    December 18, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814563609   open full text
  • Social Network and Nutritional Value of Congregate Meal Programs: Differences by Sexual Orientation.
    Porter, K., Keary, S., VanWagenen, A., Bradford, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 06, 2014

    This study explored the associations between sexual orientation and the perceived social network and nutritional value of congregate meal programs (CMPs) in Massachusetts (N = 289). Descriptives, t tests, and chi-square tests analyzed sexual orientation differences. Linear regression tested the effects of sexual orientation on the value of CMPs. Sexual minorities (SMs) were more likely to have non-kin-based social networks and reported higher levels of loneliness compared with heterosexuals. Heterosexuals, fewer of whom have non-kin-based networks, place a stronger value on access to a social network via CMPs. Nutritional value is important for people of all sexual orientations. SMs traveled seven times the distance to attend CMPs, highlighting the need for greater access to such sites. Results of this study support the specification of SMs as a population of "greatest social need" under the Older Americans Act and the expansion of services that are tailored for their social support needs.

    November 06, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814546042   open full text
  • Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.
    Amin, I.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 22, 2014

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults’ unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults.

    September 22, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814547048   open full text
  • "Move or Suffer": Is Age-Segregation the New Norm for Older Americans Living Alone?
    Portacolone, E., Halpern, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 02, 2014

    Despite ethical claims that civic societies should foster intergenerational integration, age-segregation is a widespread yet understudied phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to understand the reasons that led community-dwelling older Americans to relocate into senior housing. Qualitative data were collected through participant observation and ethnographic interviews with 47 older adults living alone in San Francisco, California. Half of study participants lived in housing for seniors, the other half in conventional housing. Data were analyzed with standard qualitative methods. Findings illuminate the dynamics that favor age-segregation. Senior housing might be cheaper, safer, and offer more socializing opportunities than conventional housing. Yet, tenants of senior housing may also experience isolation, crime, and distress. Findings suggest that rather than individual preference, cultural, political, and economic factors inform the individual decision to relocate into age-segregated settings. Findings also call for an increased awareness on the ethical implications of societies increasingly segregated by age.

    September 02, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814538118   open full text
  • Health Risk Perceptions and Exercise in Older Adulthood: An Application of Protection Motivation Theory.
    Ruthig, J. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 02, 2014

    Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) was applied to explore the relationship between perceived risk of acute health crises and intent to exercise. Interviews of 351 community-living older adults assessed prior physical activity (PPA), all PMT components, and exercise intent. A multi-group structural equation model revealed gender differences in PMT predictors of exercise intent. PPA, age, self-efficacy, and response efficacy directly predicted men’s intent. Women’s PPA and age predicted PMT components of self-efficacy and response costs, which predicted intent. Findings have implications for devising interventions to enhance physical activity in later life by targeting different PMT components for older men and women.

    September 02, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814544214   open full text
  • Spousal Caregiving for Partners With Dementia: A Deductive Literature Review Testing Calasanti's Gendered View of Care Work.
    Hong, S.-c., Coogle, C. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 17, 2014

    Spousal caregiving allows stressed couples to continue living in the community rather than seeking institutional solutions. Dr. Toni Calasanti has postulated that there are gender differences in the care work styles and coping strategies used by spousal caregivers dealing with dementia. While caregiving husbands tend to adopt task-oriented (masculine) approaches, caregiving wives are more likely to take an emotionally focused (feminine) orientation. These differences result in the need for varied interventions. Male caregivers tend toward a managerial approach, whereas female caregivers generally adopt a relational approach. This distinction was examined in the course of a literature review through the deductive process. It was determined that the core thesis of such a gender-based view of care work as a tiered entity threaded with masculinity/femininity remains quite plausible in contrast to models based on self-perceived gender identity of caregivers that require more exploration. Recommendations for future investigations are offered as new questions arise.

    July 17, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814542246   open full text
  • Service-Enriched Housing: The Staying at Home Program.
    Castle, N., Resnick, N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 09, 2014

    Introduction: The purpose of this research was to determine whether service-enriched housing (i.e., the Staying at Home [SAH] program) in publicly subsidized buildings for low-income older adults influenced resident outcomes. Method: Eleven elderly high-rise buildings were used. Seven buildings had the SAH program and four did not. Information was collected from resident questionnaires, housing managers data, and medical information. A total of 10 desired outcomes were proposed as part of SAH (e.g., health improvements, receive more non-institutional services, receive more preventive services, and be less likely to be institutionalized). Information was collected over the course of the SAH program every 6 months from December 2008 through June 2011. Results: Overall, 736 surveys were completed by SAH program participants and 399 were completed by control group participants. Seven of the ten desired outcomes were achieved, and in 3 of the ten cases, no differences between the SAH group and control group were identified. The program was also beneficial with respect to cost savings. Conclusion: On the basis of these findings, the SAH program should be viewed as a success. In this case, service-enriched housing for elders in high-rise buildings would appear to be beneficial.

    July 09, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814540049   open full text
  • Family Caregivers' Knowledge of Delirium and Preferred Modalities for Receipt of Information.
    Bull, M. J., Boaz, L., Sjostedt, J. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 18, 2014

    Delirium is a life-threatening, frequently reversible condition that is often a sign of an underlying health problem. In-hospital mortality alone for older adults with delirium ranges from 25% to 33%. Early recognition of delirium is critical because prolonged duration poses a greater risk of poor functional outcomes for older adults. Family caregivers, who are familiar with the older adult’s usual behaviors, are most likely to recognize delirium symptoms but might dismiss them as due to aging. It is important to learn what family caregivers know about delirium to ascertain their need for education. The aims of this study were to describe family caregivers’ knowledge of delirium and preferred modalities for receipt of information about delirium. A cross-sectional design was used for this study and a survey distributed to family caregivers for older adults. Analysis of 134 usable surveys indicated that family caregivers need and want information about delirium. The preferred modalities for receipt of information included Internet, in-person classes, and newsletters.

    June 18, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814535484   open full text
  • Municipality and Neighborhood Influences on Volunteering in Later Life.
    Dury, S., Willems, J., De Witte, N., De Donder, L., Buffel, T., Verte, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 26, 2014

    This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people’s health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals’ engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework.

    May 26, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814533818   open full text
  • A Qualitative Exploration of Factors Associated With Walking and Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Latino Adults.
    Marquez, D. X., Aguinaga, S., Campa, J., Pinsker, E. C., Bustamante, E. E., Hernandez, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 15, 2014

    Background: Ethnic/racial minorities often live in neighborhoods that are not conducive to physical activity (PA) participation. We examined perceived factors related to walking/PA among Spanish- and English-speaking older Latinos in a low-income, multi-ethnic neighborhood. Method: Exploratory focus group study was conducted with Latinos stratified by preferred language and gender: English-speaking women (n = 7, M age = 74.6); English-speaking men (n = 3, M age = 69.3); Spanish-speaking women (n = 5, M age = 66.4); Spanish-speaking men (n = 5, M age = 74.0). Focus group audio files were transcribed, and qualitative research software was used to code and analyze documents. Results: At the individual level, reasons for exercising (improved health) and positive health outcome expectancies (weight loss and decreased knee pain) were discussed. Neighborhood/environmental factors of safety (fear of crime), neighborhood changes (lack of jobs and decreased social networks), weather, and destination walking were discussed. Discussion: Individual and environmental factors influence PA of older, urban Latinos, and should be taken into consideration in health promotion efforts.

    May 15, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814533819   open full text
  • Recruiting Community-Based Dementia Patients and Caregivers in a Nonpharmacologic Randomized Trial: What Works and How Much Does It Cost?
    Morrison, K., Winter, L., Gitlin, L. N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 04, 2014

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and cost of three recruitment strategies—direct mail, newspaper advertisements, and community outreach—for identifying and enrolling dementia caregivers into a randomized trial testing a nonpharmacologic approach to enhancing quality of life of patients and caregivers (dyads). Method: Enrollment occurred between 2006 and 2008. The number of recruitment inquiries, number and race of enrollees, and costs for each recruitment strategy were recorded. Results: Of 284 inquiries, 237 (83%) dyads enrolled. Total cost for recruitment across methodologies was US$154 per dyad. Direct mailings resulted in the most enrollees (n = 135, 57%) and was the least costly method (US$63 per dyad) compared with newspaper ads (US$224 per dyad) and community outreach (US$350 per dyad). Although enrollees were predominately White, mailings yielded the highest number of non-Whites (n = 37). Discussion: Direct mailings was the most effective and least costly method for enrolling dyads in a nonpharmacologic dementia trial.

    May 04, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814532012   open full text
  • Socioeconomic Status, Comorbidity, Activity Limitation, and Healthy Life Expectancy in Older Men and Women: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study in Japan.
    Yang, S., Hoshi, T., Wang, S., Nakayama, N., Kong, F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 28, 2014

    This study aimed to explore the structural contributions of socioeconomic status (SES), comorbidity, and activity limitation to the healthy life expectancy (HALE) of Japanese suburban elderly. A questionnaire survey was distributed to all residents aged 65 years and older in Tama City, Tokyo, in 2001; a follow-up study was conducted in 2004; and individual vital status data from the municipal residents’ registry were tracked until 2007. In all, 7,905 respondents were included for analysis. Data analysis was performed by structural equation modeling (SEM). The data were well fit by the models, and HALE was found to be well explained by SES, comorbidity, and activity limitation (R2 = .59 for men and R2 = .71 for women). In conclusion, elderly people with higher SES were more likely to live longer with good self-rated health, via living with less chronic diseases and better performance in daily living activities, especially for elderly women.

    April 28, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464813503041   open full text
  • Expressed Sense of Self by People With Alzheimer's Disease in a Support Group Interpreted in Terms of Agency and Communion.
    Hedman, R., Hansebo, G., Ternestedt, B.-M., Hellstrom, I., Norberg, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 28, 2014

    The self is constructed in cooperation with other people and social context influences how people perceive and express it. People with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) often receive insufficient support in constructing their preferred selves, but little is known about how they express themselves together with other people with AD. In accordance with Harré’s social constructionist theory of self, this study aimed to describe how five people with mild and moderate AD express their Self 2 (i.e., their personal attributes and life histories) in a support group with a facilitator experienced in communicating with people with AD. The participants’ expressions of their Self 2 were analyzed with qualitative abductive content analysis and interpreted in terms of agency and communion and a lack of agency and communion. The findings highlight the importance of supporting a sense of agency and communion when assisting people with AD in constructing their self.

    April 28, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814530804   open full text
  • Quality of Life and Psychological Distress Among Older Adults: The Role of Living Arrangements.
    Henning-Smith, C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 28, 2014

    This study asks (a) What are the relationships between types of living arrangements and psychological well-being for older adults? and (b) How do these relationships differ by gender? Data come from the 2010 wave of the National Health Interview Survey and include non-institutionalized adults aged 65 and older (N = 4,862). Dependent variables include self-rated quality of life and psychological distress. The study finds that older adults living alone or with others fare worse than those living with a spouse only. Yet, the outcomes of different types of living arrangements for older adults vary by gender. Women living with others are at greater risk of worse quality of life and serious psychological distress than men. Programs and policies must be responsive to the diverse needs of this population, rather than attempting a "one-size-fits-all" approach to housing and community-based services designed to promote older adults’ psychological well-being and independence.

    April 28, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814530805   open full text
  • "The Red Dress or the Blue?": How Do Staff Perceive That They Support Decision Making for People With Dementia Living in Residential Aged Care Facilities?
    Fetherstonhaugh, D., Tarzia, L., Bauer, M., Nay, R., Beattie, E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 24, 2014

    Respect for a person’s right to make choices and participate in decision making is generally seen as central to quality of life and well-being. When a person moves into a residential aged care facility (RACF), however, decision making becomes more complicated, particularly if the person has a diagnosis of dementia. Little is known about how staff in RACFs perceive that they support decision making for people with dementia within their everyday practice, and this article seeks to address this knowledge gap. The article reports on the findings of a qualitative study conducted in the states of Victoria and Queensland, Australia with 80 direct care staff members. Findings revealed that the participants utilized a number of strategies in their intention to support decision making for people with dementia, and had an overall perception that "a little effort goes a long way."

    April 24, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814531089   open full text
  • "If I Don't Like the Way I Feel With a Certain Drug, I'll Tell Them.": Older Adults' Experiences With Self-Determination and Health Self-Advocacy.
    Ruggiano, N., Whiteman, K., Shtompel, N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 21, 2014

    Health self-advocacy is associated with positive health outcomes, though existing research indicates that older adults may be at a disadvantage when self-advocating within the health care and disability support systems. This study examined perceptions of older adults’ health self-advocacy behaviors and the context under which they self-advocate for their chronic conditions. The study involved in-depth interviews with 37 older adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities and 9 geriatric case managers in South and Central Florida. Data were systematically analyzed for themes. Thematic findings revealed that concerns over quality of life is the most common motivator for older adults to engage in health self-advocacy and that self-advocacy involves gathering information to prepare for decision-making and confronting providers about the information gathered. The findings suggest that providers may help facilitate self-determination by framing health communication within the context of quality of life.

    April 21, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814527513   open full text
  • What Factors Influence the Relationship Between Feedback on Cognitive Performance and Subsequent Driving Self-Regulation?
    Ackerman, M. L., Vance, D. E., Ball, K. K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 21, 2014

    Recent research indicates that providing feedback about cognitive abilities (i.e., UFOV® test performance) may change driving self-regulation; however, 42% of participants who received negative feedback failed to increase driving self-regulation (Ackerman, Ball, Crowe, Owsley, Vance, & Wadley, 2011). The current study extends those findings, using the same sample (N = 129) to investigate factors that may influence the relationship between feedback regarding cognitive abilities and driving self-regulation. Feedback by age and feedback by number of eye conditions showed significant interactions, and feedback by baseline driving exposure interaction approached significance. Older participants (80-94; n = 38) who received negative feedback significantly increased subsequent avoidance of challenging driving conditions relative to baseline. Participants with no reported eye conditions (n = 36) who received negative feedback significantly increased subsequent driving avoidance, and participants below median baseline driving exposure (n = 66) tended to increase subsequent driving avoidance. These results identify individual level factors that may influence the relationship between feedback regarding cognitive abilities and self-regulation and have implications for encouraging older adults to make informed decisions about appropriate driving behavior.

    April 21, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814529473   open full text
  • Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.
    Tartaglia, A., Dodd-McCue, D., Myer, K. A., Mullins, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 21, 2014

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

    April 21, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814529843   open full text
  • The Effect of Adult Day Services on Delay to Institutional Placement.
    Kelly, R., Puurveen, G., Gill, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 02, 2014

    Delays to institutionalization were compared between elderly individuals who differed in the amounts ("dosages") of adult day services (ADS) they attended. A Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed higher dosages of ADS to be associated with greater delays to institutionalization. Retrospective data from financial and service utilization systems and from the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care (RAI-HC) were then used to fit a Cox regression model that was adjusted for potential selection biases. This model also found systematically lower hazards for institutionalization at higher ADS dosages. The ADS effect did not appear to be an artifact of increased utilization of additional home health services. Results suggest a beneficial effect of ADS on delay to institutionalization that cannot be attributed to home support, respite, or case management services.

    April 02, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814521319   open full text
  • Environmental Predictors of Unmet Home-and Community-Based Service Needs of Older Adults.
    Ferris, R. E., Glicksman, A., Kleban, M. H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 02, 2014

    Home- and community-based services (HCBS) for many older adults are an essential component of aging-in-place. Andersen developed the contemporary model used to predict service use. Researchers have modified the model to examine need. Studies that attempt to predict unmet needs have explained only 10% to 15% of the variance. This study is based on the supposition that lack of accounting for environmental factors has resulted in such small explanatory power. Through the use of 2008 Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey data, this exploratory study modeled predictors of unmet HCBS needs. Findings reveal that lack of access to healthy foods and poor housing quality have a significant relationship to unmet HCBS needs. This model predicted 54% of the variance. Results reveal environmental questions to ask, a way to identify older adults with unmet HCBS needs and environmental barriers that if addressed may reduce older adults’ eventual need for health services and HCBS.

    April 02, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814525504   open full text
  • The Impact of Family Visitation on Feeding Assistance Quality in Nursing Homes.
    Durkin, D. W., Shotwell, M. S., Simmons, S. F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 18, 2014

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the frequency of family visitation during mealtime and (b) whether the presence of family during meals had an impact on the quality of feeding assistance care and resident intake. Participants included 74 nursing home residents from two Veterans Affairs (VA) and four community facilities in one geographic region. Mealtime periods in which family was present were compared with mealtime periods when family was not present for the same resident. Results showed that family visitation was infrequent during mealtime; however, feeding assistance time was significantly higher when visitors were present. Despite the increase in assistance time, there was not a significant difference in intake. Strategies that encourage the involvement of family in mealtime assistance may have additional benefits not directly associated with meal consumption, including providing family members with meaningful activity during a visit and enhancing residents’ quality of life and well-being.

    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814522126   open full text
  • Driving Cessation Anno 2010: Which Older Drivers Give Up Their License and Why? Evidence From Denmark.
    Siren, A., Haustein, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 12, 2014

    This study focuses on the decision to either stop or continue driving among a cohort of Danish seniors whose driving licenses expire, for the first time, at the age of 70. Based on 1,537 standardized telephone interviews with licensed drivers, we compared persons who intended to renew or not to renew their licenses. The results partly recapture the findings of earlier studies. However, in contrast to former cohorts, a much higher percentage of older drivers intended to keep their licenses. The strongest factors predicting the intention to renew were active car use, feeling safe as a driver, and not having illnesses that impaired driving ability. Three of these factors were strongly correlated with gender, indicating that efforts to prevent premature driving cessation should especially focus on increasing women’s confidence and experience in driving.

    February 12, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464814521690   open full text
  • Assessing the Educational and Support Needs of Nursing Staff Serving Older Adults: A Case Study of a Community Coalition/University Partnership.
    Perry, T. E., Ziemba, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. February 09, 2014

    Given the expected changes in demography and dependent care ratios, communities are preparing for the needs of older populations. Sometimes, communities form coalitions to address health-care needs. This case study evaluates a coalition/university partnership formed to assess the educational and support needs of nursing staff who are taking care of older adults across all service settings in one geographically defined community. A 17-member community-based coalition contracted with researchers from an external university to determine the perceptions of three key stakeholder groups: older adults and their families, all levels of nursing staff, and agency administrators. By applying principles of Participatory Action Research (PAR), this case study presents the challenges faced in the community-based coalition/university research team partnership. This coalition/research partnership is unique, differing from most academic examples of PAR because nursing professionals initiated the partnership.

    February 09, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464813520571   open full text
  • Factor Analysis of the 12-Item Zarit Burden Interview in Caregivers of Persons Diagnosed With Dementia.
    Branger, C., O'Connell, M. E., Morgan, D. G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 30, 2014

    The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) is commonly used to measure dementia caregiver burden, but its factor structure is unclear. A two-factor structure for the 12-item ZBI, "personal strain" and "role strain," has been shown, but recent data suggest that an additional factor of "guilt" is embedded in the "role strain" items. The 12-item ZBI administered to 194 informal rural and urban caregivers of persons diagnosed with dementia was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. A two-factor structure, with item loadings consistent with previously conceptualized constructs of "personal strain" and "role strain," was found. Moreover, this factor structure was invariant to caregiver subgroups. When the predictive value of these factors was explored, only "personal strain" was important in predicting caregiver psychological distress, measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory. However, "role strain," which included the hypothesized "guilt" items, did not appear to be an important predictor of caregiver distress.

    January 30, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464813520222   open full text
  • Rural Caregivers for a Family Member With Dementia: Models of Burden and Distress Differ for Women and Men.
    Stewart, N. J., Morgan, D. G., Karunanayake, C. P., Wickenhauser, J. P., Cammer, A., Minish, D., O'Connell, M. E., Hayduk, L. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 26, 2014

    Forecasts of increasing prevalence of dementia in rural settings, coupled with reliance on family caregiver support, indicate that a greater understanding of caregiver distress in these contexts is necessary. The purpose of this study was to examine family caregiver burden and severity of distress on the day that a family member was diagnosed with dementia at a memory clinic that serves a rural population. Participants in this retrospective study were 231 primary family caregivers of a rural community-dwelling person with dementia. On the diagnostic day, women reported more burden and severity of distress than men and spouses reported more severity of distress than adult children. A structural equation model was not supported for the entire sample, but was supported for women caregivers only (n = 161). Caregiver distress related to dementia-specific behaviors explained both global distress and burden. Patients’ functional decline was related to caregiver burden.

    January 26, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464813517547   open full text
  • Differing Perspectives on Older Adult Caregiving.
    Brank, E. M., Wylie, L. E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 17, 2014

    Informal older adult caregiving allows older adults to stay in their homes or live with loved ones, but decisions surrounding older adult care are fraught with complexities. Related research and case law suggest that an older adult’s need for and refusal of help are important considerations; the current study is the first to examine these factors experimentally. Two samples (potential caregivers and care recipients) provided responses regarding anticipated emotions, caregiver abilities, and allocation of daily caregiving decision making based on a vignette portraying an older adult who had a high or low level of autonomy and who accepted or refused help. Study findings suggest differing views about caregiving; potential caregivers may not be as well prepared to take on caregiving as the potential care recipients anticipate and potential caregivers may allocate more decisional responsibility to older adults than the care recipients expect. Implications for older adult abuse are discussed.

    January 17, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464813517506   open full text
  • Feasibility and Utility of Experience Sampling to Assess Alcohol Consumption Among Older Adults.
    Sacco, P., Smith, C. A., Harrington, D., Svoboda, D. V., Resnick, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 17, 2014

    In the literature on alcohol use and aging, drinking has often been conceptualized as a means of coping with negative feelings, such as stress, yet much of the literature on older adults and drinking has utilized cross-sectional or other data ill-suited for exploring dynamic processes. Experience sampling methods have the ability to measure and analyze dynamic processes in real time, such as relations between alcohol use and mood states. Nonetheless, these approaches are intensive and may burden respondents. Therefore, this study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and validity of a modified daily diary to measure alcohol use and explored alternate methods of collecting diary data. Findings suggest that a modified diary was acceptable and not burdensome. Respondents were reluctant to consider technology (e.g., cellphone)-based means of data collection. Measures of alcohol use showed little within-person variation suggesting that for those who drink at all, drinking is a daily habit.

    January 17, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464813519009   open full text
  • The Attitudes and Perceptions of Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment Toward an Assistive Robot.
    Wu, Y.-H., Cristancho-Lacroix, V., Fassert, C., Faucounau, V., de Rotrou, J., Rigaud, A.-S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 09, 2014

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceived difficulties and needs of older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and their attitudes toward an assistive robot to develop appropriate robot functionalities. Twenty subjects were recruited to participate in either a focus group or an interview. Findings revealed that although participants reported difficulties in managing some of their daily activities, they did not see themselves as needing assistance. Indeed, they considered that they were capable of coping with difficulties with some compensatory strategies. They therefore declared that they did not need or want a robot for the moment but that they considered it potentially useful either for themselves in the future or for other older adults suffering from frailty, loneliness, and disability. Factors underlying unwillingness to adopt an assistive robot were discussed. These issues should be carefully addressed in the design and diffusion processes of an assistive robot.

    January 09, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464813515092   open full text
  • The Impact of Age Stereotypes on Older Adults' Hazard Perception Performance and Driving Confidence.
    Chapman, L., Sargent-Cox, K., Horswill, M. S., Anstey, K. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 09, 2014

    This study examined the effect of age-stereotype threat on older adults’ performance on a task measuring hazard perception performance in driving. The impact of age-stereotype threat in relation to the value participants placed on driving and pre- and post-task confidence in driving ability was also investigated. Eighty-six adults aged from 65 years of age completed a questionnaire measuring demographic information, driving experience, self-rated health, driving importance, and driving confidence. Prior to undertaking a timed hazard perception task, participants were exposed to either negative or positive age stereotypes. Results showed that age-stereotype threats, while not influencing hazard perception performance, significantly reduced post-driving confidence compared with pre-driving confidence for those in the negative prime condition. This finding builds on the literature that has found that stereotype-based influences cannot simply be understood in terms of performance outcomes alone and may be relevant to factors affected by confidence such as driving cessation decisions.

    January 09, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464813517505   open full text
  • Addressing Spiritual Needs and Overall Satisfaction With Service Provision Among Older Hospitalized Inpatients.
    Hodge, D. R., Salas-Wright, C. P., Wolosin, R. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 06, 2014

    Little research has examined the relationship between addressing older adults’ spiritual needs and overall satisfaction with service provision during hospitalization, despite the importance of spirituality and religion to most older adults. This study examined this relationship, in tandem with the effects of eight potential mediators. Toward this end, structural equation modeling was used with a sample of 4,112 adults age 65 and older who were consecutively discharged over a 12-month period from hospitals in California, Texas, and New England. As hypothesized, addressing spiritual needs was positively associated with overall satisfaction. The relationship between spiritual needs and satisfaction was fully mediated by seven variables: nursing staff, the discharge process, visitors, physicians, the admissions process, room quality, and the administration of tests and treatments. The diverse array of mediating pathways identified highlights the importance of health care practitioners working collaboratively to address older adults’ spiritual needs.

    January 06, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0733464813515090   open full text
  • Transitions to Long-Term Care: How Do Families Living With Dementia Experience Mealtimes After Relocating?
    Henkusens, C., Keller, H. H., Dupuis, S., Schindel Martin, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 30, 2013

    Food and mealtimes play a central role in our lives and often hold great meaning. This study is a secondary analysis of a subset of data collected from a 6-year longitudinal qualitative study called Eating Together (ET), which sought to better understand the experiences around food and mealtimes for community dwelling persons with dementia (PWD) and their primary care partners (CP). Several PWD and, in some cases, their spousal CP, relocated to long-term care (LTC) during the conduct of the ET study. To understand how this relocation influenced the meaning of meals, a subset of those who experienced this transition were selected and analysis specific to this issue was undertaken. Seven families were included in this thematic inductive analysis. Findings revealed five themes related to the different mealtime experience in the LTC home, including systemizing the meal, adjusting to dining with others, holding on to home, evolving mealtime roles, and becoming "at home." Understanding how families adapt to commensal dining in LTC may be relevant to successful relocation. This work furthers this understanding and provides a basis for person-centered mealtime practices that promote adaptation.

    December 30, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813515091   open full text
  • Older Adults' Coping With the Stress Involved in the Use of Everyday Technologies.
    Yagil, D., Cohen, M., Beer, J. D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 30, 2013

    This study was conducted to examine the frequency of reported use of everyday technologies (EDT) and its associations with self-efficacy, stress appraisal, and coping strategies.

    Design and Methods:

    Cross-sectional data were collected from 150 participants (aged ≥65 years), measuring use of EDT by means of self-report questionnaires and a computerized simulator of an automatic teller machine (ATM), and EDT-related self-efficacy, stress appraisal, and coping strategies questionnaires.


    Structured equation modeling analysis showed that EDT-related self-efficacy was related to higher use of EDT, through the mediation of EDT-related stress and coping strategies. Logistic regression showed that use of ATM simulator was predicted by self-efficacy, younger age, and female gender.


    Enhancing EDT-self efficacy is suggested to increase the use of EDT among elder adults. The use of simulators may be an efficient mean to promote EDT self-efficacy and use.

    December 30, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813515089   open full text
  • Hand Hygiene Practices Reported by Nurse Aides in Nursing Homes.
    Castle, N., Handler, S., Wagner, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 19, 2013

    Information from nurse aides describing their opinions of hand hygiene practices in nursing homes including perceived barriers to hand hygiene is presented. The information comes from a questionnaire developed for this investigation, with items addressing compliance, facility guidelines and protocols, training, hand washing facilities and materials, and hand washing barriers. Information from 4,211 nurse aides (response rate of 56%) working in a nationally representative sample of 767 nursing homes (participation rate = 51%) is used. We find that 57.4% of nurse aides comply with hand washing when caring for residents most of the time, while 21.7% always comply. With facilities, 43.3% sometimes check that hand washing is performed. In summary, self-reported compliance was poor, and facilities and materials were often lacking. These findings are useful in identifying issues and interventions, including the need for further initiatives to address hand hygiene practices.

    December 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813514133   open full text
  • Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and Air Displacement Plethysmography in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.
    Smale, K. B., McIntosh, E. I., Vallis, L. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 19, 2013

    Clinicians and researchers use body composition measurements to identify individuals who may be at risk of adverse health complications. This study compared two commonly used two-compartmental anthropometric models (bioelectrical impedance analysis [BIA] and air displacement plethysmography [ADP]) to determine whether these two cost-effective methods would provide similar fat free mass index (FFMI) values in a mixed and sex-separated sample population of healthy older adults. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 37, 18 men) aged 74.5 ± 5.2 years participated. FFMIBIA was correlated with FFMIADP (r = .916); however, these correlations were markedly reduced when the population was split by sex (r < .60). The level of agreement between the difference values (FFMIBIA – FFMIADP) fluctuated ± 2.1 kg/m2 (illustrated via Bland-Altman plots), but these differences were not statistically different from 0. Findings from the current work suggest that clinicians must be cautious when using portable devices such as BIA to assess FFMI in an older adult population.

    December 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813515088   open full text
  • Identifying Mobility Types in Cognitively Heterogeneous Older Adults Based on GPS-Tracking: What Discriminates Best?
    Wettstein, M., Wahl, H.-W., Shoval, N., Auslander, G., Oswald, F., Heinik, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 11, 2013

    Heterogeneity in older adults’ mobility and its correlates have rarely been investigated based on objective mobility data and in samples including cognitively impaired individuals. We analyzed mobility profiles within a cognitively heterogeneous sample of N = 257 older adults from Israel and Germany based on GPS tracking technology. Participants were aged between 59 and 91 years (M = 72.9; SD = 6.4) and were either cognitively healthy (CH, n = 146), mildly cognitively impaired (MCI, n = 76), or diagnosed with an early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (DAT, n = 35). Based on cluster analysis, we identified three mobility types ("Mobility restricted," "Outdoor oriented," "Walkers"), which could be predicted based on socio-demographic indicators, activity, health, and cognitive impairment status using discriminant analysis. Particularly demented individuals and persons with worse health exhibited restrictions in mobility. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of heterogeneity in mobility in old age.

    December 11, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813512897   open full text
  • Low-Intensity Walking Activity Is Associated With Better Health.
    Varma, V. R., Tan, E. J., Wang, T., Xue, Q.-L., Fried, L. P., Seplaki, C. L., King, A. C., Seeman, T. E., Rebok, G. W., Carlson, M. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 11, 2013

    Recommended levels of physical activity may represent challenging targets for many older adults at risk for disability, leading to the importance of evaluating whether low-intensity activity is associated with health benefits. We examined the cross-sectional association between low-intensity walking activity (<100 steps/min) and health and physical function in a group of older adults. Participants (N = 187; age = 66.8; 91.4% African American; 76.5% female) wore a StepWatch Activity Monitor to measure components of low-intensity walking activity. Only 7% of participants met physical activity guidelines and moderate-intensity activity (≥100 steps/min) contributed only 10% of the total steps/day and 2% of the total min/day. Greater amount, frequency, and duration of low-intensity activity were associated with better self-report and performance-based measures of physical function, better quality of life, and fewer depressive symptoms (ps < .05). The cross-sectional relationship between low-intensity activity and health outcomes important to independent function suggests that we further explore the longitudinal benefits of low-intensity activity.

    December 11, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813512896   open full text
  • Impact of 6-Month Aerobic Exercise on Alzheimer's Symptoms.
    Yu, F., Thomas, W., Nelson, N. W., Bronas, U. G., Dysken, M., Wyman, J. F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 11, 2013

    Little is known about how aerobic exercise affects Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The purpose of this pilot study was to test the impact of 6-month cycling on AD symptoms in community-dwelling older adults with mild-to-moderate AD, using a single-group, repeated-measures design (n = 26). AD symptoms were measured with the AD Assessment Scale–Cognitive (ADAS-Cog), Disability in AD (DAD), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory–Caregiver (NPI-Q) scales at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Data were analyzed using mixed linear models. The ADAS-Cog, DAD, and NPI-Q severity scores remained unchanged over the 6-month period, while caregiver distress decreased 40% (p < .05). We conclude that aerobic exercise may reduce AD symptoms and appears effective in decreasing caregiver distress. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of aerobic exercise in AD.

    December 11, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813512895   open full text
  • Religious Coping in Caregivers of Family Members With Dementia.
    Rathier, L. A., Davis, J. D., Papandonatos, G. D., Grover, C., Tremont, G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 28, 2013

    The degree of depression experienced by caregivers of individuals with dementia was examined in relation to religious coping strategies, religious practice, and spirituality in the framework of the stress and coping model. Caregivers of 191 persons with dementia completed the Religious Coping Scale, self-report measures of religious practices and spirituality, burden, and depression. There was no evidence that any religious coping strategy or religious practice moderated the relationship between caregiving stress and depression. Certain types of religious coping strategies had a direct effect on depression. Higher levels of religious coping working with God were associated with decreased depression, whereas higher levels of religious coping working through God were associated with increased depression. Higher burden, lower overall caregiver health rating, and worse reactions to memory and behavior problems were associated with higher levels of depression. Frequency of prayer and the importance of spirituality were weakly associated with lower levels of depression.

    November 28, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813510602   open full text
  • Changing Prevalence of Diabetes for Texas Nursing Home Residents, 1999-2009.
    Coxe, L. M., Lennertz, K., McCullough, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 28, 2013

    This article examines change in the composition of the Texas nursing home population between 1990 and 2009 in relation to the changing prevalence of diabetes. Data from the federal Minimum Data Set for Texas for 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for change in proportion of age groups by the Two-Sample Proportion Test. Change by gender within age groups while controlling for race/ethnicity was analyzed by the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test. The percentage of nursing home residents aged 50 to 64 years increased from 8% in 1999 to 12% in 2009, and the change was statistically significant for each race/ethnic group and both genders. The percentage reporting diabetes increased among all groups with more pronounced change for minorities. These results point to a need for closer examination of the impacts of changing diabetes prevalence on nursing homes.

    November 28, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813512180   open full text
  • Does Empowering Resident Families or Nursing Home Employees in Decision Making Improve Service Quality?
    Hamann, D. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 19, 2013

    This research examines how the empowerment of residents’ family members and nursing home employees in managerial decision making is related to service quality. The study was conducted using data from 33 nursing homes in the United States. Surveys were administered to more than 1,000 employees on-site and mailed to the primary-contact family member of each resident. The resulting multilevel data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. The empowerment of families in decision making was positively associated with their perceptions of service quality. The empowerment of nursing staff in decision making was more strongly related to service quality than the empowerment of nonnursing staff. Among nursing staff, the empowerment of nursing assistants improved service quality more than the empowerment of nurses.

    November 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813508650   open full text
  • Targeting Socially Isolated Older Adults: A Process Evaluation of the Senior Centre Without Walls Social and Educational Program.
    Newall, N. E. G., Menec, V. H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 19, 2013

    The Seniors Centre Without Walls (SCWOW) program provides free social and educational programming for older adults via telephone. The target population for SCWOW is socially isolated older adults, a hard to reach population. The aim of this process evaluation was to examine whether SCWOW was reaching its target population and to gather participant feedback about program implementation and the perceived satisfaction and impact of the program. Telephone interviews were conducted with 26 participants (92% females; aged 57-85 years). Forty-two percent of the sample was socially isolated and more than half reported being lonely. Participants reported having no difficulty using the telephone system. On average, participants were very satisfied with the program and reported that SCWOW had several positive effects (e.g., connecting to the larger community, affecting mental well-being). Importantly, no barriers to participation were identified. The study suggests that telephone-based programs can successfully reach socially isolated older adults.

    November 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813510063   open full text
  • Measuring Empathetic Care: Development and Validation of a Self-Report Scale.
    Lamberton, C. M., Leana, C. R., Williams, J. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 12, 2013

    This study describes the development of a self-report survey measure of empathetic care. Empathetic care is defined as caregiving that supports clients’ socioemotional capabilities and addresses their emotional needs. It is distinct from instrumental care, which involves assisting with physical needs such as activities of daily living.

    Design and Method:

    Based on a literature review, structured interviews, and focus groups, we identify three dimensions of empathetic care: extra-role behavior, emotional support, and relational richness. We then developed a large pool of items that could tap into these dimensions and administered versions of the survey to nearly 300 health care paraprofessionals.


    After performing exploratory factor analyses on a larger survey of 138 paraprofessionals, a 10-item, three-factor measure, the Empathetic Care Scale (ECS), was developed that predicts decisions on consequential allocation scenarios. A second sample of 125 paraprofessionals provided data for a confirmatory factor analysis; results suggested that the ECS has desirable psychometric properties and evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Further samples demonstrated acceptable levels of test-retest reliability and no social desirability bias.


    This study provides a short self-report measure that can be used to gauge care workers’ individual levels of empathetic care. Future research can use this measure to explore relationships between ECS responses and previously proposed but untested outcomes such as patient well-being and employee burnout or turnover rates.

    November 12, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813507131   open full text
  • Evidence-Based Program Replication: Translational Activities, Experiences, and Challenges.
    Primetica, B., Menne, H. L., Bollin, S., Teri, L., Molea, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 11, 2013

    With a growing number of evidence-based programs, it is necessary to understand the translation activities, experiences, and challenges of program replication in a community setting. This article reviews the implementation tasks necessary for agencies to implement the Reducing Disability in Alzheimer’s Disease (RDAD) intervention. It presents the importance of using original evidence-based program protocols and enhancing them to best fit service settings by reviewing the translation and implementation activities of (a) selecting and training program and supervisory staff; (b) recruiting, screening, and consenting participants to enroll in the program; and (c) developing a manual to guide community-based program replication. Furthermore, the process revealed that the replication of an evidence-based program can take place within the realities of a community setting with input from program oversight, implementation, and evaluation staff and the original researcher.

    November 11, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813508888   open full text
  • More Caregiving, Less Working: Caregiving Roles and Gender Difference.
    Lee, Y., Tang, F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 05, 2013

    This study examined the relationship of caregiving roles to labor force participation using the nationally representative data from the Health and Retirement Study. The sample was composed of men and women aged 50 to 61 years (N = 5,119). Caregiving roles included caregiving for spouse, parents, and grandchildren; a summary of three caregiving roles was used to indicate multiple caregiving roles. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests and binary logistic regression models were applied. Results show that women caregivers for parents and/or grandchildren were less likely to be in the labor force than non-caregivers and that caregiving responsibility was not related to labor force participation for the sample of men. Findings have implication for supporting family caregivers, especially women, to balance work and caregiving commitments.

    November 05, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813508649   open full text
  • The Effect of an 8-Week Tai Chi Exercise Program on Physical Functional Performance in Middle-Aged Women.
    Zacharia, S., Taylor, E. L., Hofford, C. W., Brittain, D. R., Branscum, P. W.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 16, 2013

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program on physical functional performance (PFP) among women aged 45 to 65 years. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent comparison group was used. Forty-one healthy inactive women were assigned to either an intervention group (n = 19) or a comparison group (n = 19). A 60-min Tai Chi Chih exercise class was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. PFP was measured at baseline and postintervention using the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance–10 (CS-PFP 10). Between-group differences were analyzed using one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). After participating in the 8-week program, intervention group participants showed greater improvement in the CS-PFP measures (p < .05, 2 > .06). However, the comparison group had little changes. The findings from this study suggest that participation in an 8-week Tai Chi Chih exercise program can improve PFP in healthy, community-dwelling middle-aged women.

    October 16, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813504491   open full text
  • Dementia in Relation to Family Caregiver Involvement and Burden in Long-Term Care.
    Cohen, L. W., Zimmerman, S., Reed, D., Sloane, P. D., Beeber, A. S., Washington, T., Cagle, J. G., Gwyther, L. P.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 16, 2013

    To better understand the process and outcomes of family involvement for long-term care residents with varying stages of dementia, we analyzed family and staff data for 467 residents of 24 residential care/assisted living and nursing-home settings. Adjusted analyses found that although the amount of family visitation did not significantly vary by resident cognitive status (15 versus 20 visits/month to persons with and without dementia, respectively), the nature of the visit did. Families of cognitively intact residents spent more time in activities related to social and community engagement, such as taking residents on trips and calling and writing letters (p < .001), while families of more impaired residents spent more time on care-related activities, including tasks related to nutrition (p < .027), mobility (p = .001), and discussing care with staff (p = .007), the latter of which was associated with greater burden (p < .001). Staff identified similar patterns but perceived less family involvement.

    October 16, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813505701   open full text
  • Canadian Nursing Students and the Care of Older Patients: How Is Geriatric Nursing Perceived?
    Gould, O. N., Dupuis-Blanchard, S., MacLennan, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 30, 2013

    The aim of this research was to contribute to an understanding about the professionalization of gerontological nursing. The specific objective was to explore attitudes about older people among undergraduate nursing students. Three focus groups were carried out with 3rd-year nursing students in a generalist program in a small Canadian city and discussions focused on experiences and attitudes surrounding the care of older patients. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Results indicated that students had positive reactions to caring for older patients, at least when dementia is not present, but they received a strong message from their mentors that this type of nursing is neither prestigious nor valued. Discussions surrounding the care of older adults highlighted students’ perceptions of conflicts between the art and science of nursing, and their concerns regarding the divisions of tasks between nursing students, registered nurses, and licensed practical nurses.

    September 30, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813500585   open full text
  • Validation of Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility: Exploration of an Activity-Based Approach.
    Helle, T., Iwarsson, S., Brandt, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 23, 2013

    The aim was to explore the use of an activity-based approach to determine the validity of a set of housing standards addressing accessibility. This included examination of the frequency and the extent of accessibility problems among older people with physical functional limitations who used no mobility device (n = 10) or who used a wheelchair (n = 10) or a rollator (n = 10). The setting was a kitchen designed according to present housing standards. The participants prepared lunch in the kitchen. Accessibility problems were assessed by observation and self-report. Differences between the three participant groups were examined. Performing well-known kitchen activities was associated with accessibility problems for all three participant groups, in particular those using a wheelchair. The overall validity of the housing standards examined was poor. Observing older people interacting with realistic environments while performing real everyday activities seems to be an appropriate method for assessing accessibility problems.

    September 23, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813503042   open full text
  • Patient and Provider Perspectives on the Relationship Between Multiple Morbidity Management and Disease Prevention.
    Schoenberg, N. E., Tarasenko, Y. N., Bardach, S. H., Fleming, S. T.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 17, 2013

    Despite competing demands of multiple morbidity (MM) management and disease prevention, our recent survey of 1,153 Appalachian residents aged 50 to 76 documented that individuals with MM were more likely to obtain colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) than those without MM. Nearly two thirds of respondents obtained CRCS, and the more MM, the greater the likelihood of screening. To gain insight into this relationship, we conducted nine focus groups, six with providers and three with patients. Three main explanations emerged: (a) patients’ MM increases providers’ vigilance for other health vulnerabilities; (b) having MM increases patients’ own vigilance; and (c) patients’ vigilance may stem from experiencing more symptoms, having a family history of cancer, and having successfully obtained health care. More frequent contact with health care providers appears to encourage preventive referral, especially in low-income populations that otherwise may not receive such counselling. We highlight participant recommendations to improve MM management and prevention.

    September 17, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813499641   open full text
  • Screening for Alzheimer's Disease: Inspiration and Ideas From Breast Cancer Strategies.
    Lundquist, T. S., Ready, R. E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 17, 2013

    Screening rates for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and memory impairment are low. There is misinformation, fear, and stigma associated with memory loss and aging. Physicians are slow or reluctant to screen for memory impairment in older adults. The challenges to effective screening for AD are not unique. Thirty years ago, screening for breast cancer also suffered from low participation, fear, stigma, and misinformation. Targeted public health strategies increased disease awareness and early detection for breast cancer, and today, breast cancer screening is generally accepted by health care providers and the public. Strategies used to increase breast cancer screening can serve as examples for the promotion of screening and early detection for AD.

    September 17, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813500711   open full text
  • Later Life Care Planning Conversations for Older Adults and Families.
    Stolee, P., Zaza, C., Sharratt, M. T.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 13, 2013

    While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning.

    September 13, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813500712   open full text
  • The Different Facets of Work Stress: A Latent Profile Analysis of Nurses' Work Demands.
    Jenull, B. B., Wiedermann, W.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 09, 2013

    Work-related stress has been identified as a relevant problem leading to negative effects on health and quality of life. Using data from 844 nurses, latent profile analyses (LPA) were applied to identify distinct patterns of work stress. Several sociodemographic variables, including nurses’ working and living conditions, as well as nurses’ reactions to workload, were considered to predict respondents’ profile membership. LPA revealed three distinct profiles that can be distinguished by a low, moderate, and higher stress level. Being financially secure is positively related to the low stress profile, whereas working in an urban area and having low job satisfaction increases the chance of belonging to the higher stress profile. Our results can be used as a basis to develop interventions to create a healthy nursing home environment by supporting the balance between family and work, providing access to job resources and optimizing recovery opportunities.

    September 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813495472   open full text
  • Examining the Validity and Reliability of the ABC-6 in Underserved Older Adults.
    Skipper, A., Ellis, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 09, 2013

    Losing confidence in the ability to maintain balance can be more debilitating than a fall; therefore, the accurate measurement of balance confidence is critical. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the ABC-6, a shortened version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC), among underserved older adults. The final sample included 251 older adults (M age = 71.2 years, SD = 8.9; 72.1% African Americans, 62.5% low-income, 61% low-education). Participants completed assessments of multiple falls risk factors, physical activity, and balance confidence. The ABC-6 had excellent internal consistency reliability, substantial intraclass correlations, and significant moderate to large correlations with physical activity, mobility, balance, and total falls risk. It also demonstrated the ability to discriminate between fallers and nonfallers, and it was a significant predictor of total falls risk. The ABC-6 was a valid and reliable measure of balance confidence among underserved older adults.

    September 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813495711   open full text
  • What Community Characteristics Help or Hinder Rural Communities in Becoming Age-Friendly? Perspectives From a Canadian Prairie Province.
    Spina, J., Menec, V. H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 09, 2013

    Age-friendly initiatives are increasingly promoted as a policy solution to healthy aging, The primary objective of this article was to examine older adults’ and key stakeholders’ perceptions of the factors that either help or hinder a community from becoming age-friendly in the context of rural Manitoba, a Canadian prairie province. Twenty-four older adults and 17 key informants completed a qualitative interview. The findings show that contextual factors including size, location, demographic composition, ability to secure investments, and leadership influence rural communities’ ability to become age-friendly. Government must consider the challenges these communities face in becoming more age-friendly and develop strategies to support communities.

    September 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813496164   open full text
  • Musculoskeletal Discomfort, Physical Demand, and Caregiving Activities in Informal Caregivers.
    Darragh, A. R., Sommerich, C. M., Lavender, S. A., Tanner, K. J., Vogel, K., Campo, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 09, 2013

    To characterize the burden of care and musculoskeletal discomfort associated with caring for adults with chronic physical disability among informal caregivers and to describe the most physically demanding caregiving activities and contributing factors, as perceived by informal caregivers of adults with physical disabilities.


    A mixed methods approach was used for the study. Forty-six informal caregivers of adults with physical disability participated.


    Most caregivers were classified as "high burden" caregivers. They reported high levels of physical strain and musculoskeletal discomfort. Caregivers identified several activities related to mobility and self-care as the most physically demanding. Factors affecting physical demand included caregiver and care-recipeint characteristics, activity requirements, and the physical environment.


    Interventions that target high-demand caregiving activities, including all three aspects of caregiving activity performance, are necessary to support adults with disabilities in the home and their caregivers.

    September 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813496464   open full text
  • Mental Representation for Action in the Elderly: Implications for Movement Efficiency and Injury Risk.
    Gabbard, C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 09, 2013

    Recent research findings indicate that with older adulthood, there are functional decrements in spatial cognition and more specially, in the ability to mentally represent and effectively plan motor actions. A typical finding is a significant over- or underestimation of one’s actual physical abilities with movement planning—planning that has implications for movement efficiency and physical safety. A practical, daily life example is estimation of reachability—a situation that for the elderly may be linked with fall incidence. A strategy used to mentally represent action is the use of motor imagery—an ability that also declines with advancing older age. This brief review highlights research findings on mental representation and motor imagery in the elderly and addresses the implications for improving movement efficiency and lowering the risk of movement-related injury.

    September 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813497255   open full text
  • The Impact of the REACH II Intervention on Caregivers' Perceived Health.
    Basu, R., Hochhalter, A. K., Stevens, A. B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 09, 2013

    The primary goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a caregiving support program on caregivers’ perceived health at 6 months following baseline assessment in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Health II (REACH II) intervention. A composite measure of perceived health was established and incorporated self-rated health, change in self-rated health, and improvement in physical health. A total of 494 participants receiving the REACH II intervention or an education-only intervention were included in this study. Mixed effect linear regression analysis was performed to examine the effect of the intervention and the factors that mediate this relationship. Findings suggest that the enhanced supportive intervention led to significant improvement in caregivers’ overall perceived health at 6 months. This effect remains significant after controlling for positive satisfaction with caregiving. Improving caregivers’ stress and burden while fostering positive rewards and appraisals may provide indirect health benefits and maintain overall health in dementia caregivers.

    September 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813499640   open full text
  • Risk for Work-Related Fatigue Among the Employees on Semiconductor Manufacturing Lines.
    Lin, Y.-C., Chen, Y.-C., Hsieh, H.-I., Chen, P.-C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 19, 2013

    To examine the potential risk factors for work-related fatigue (WRF) among workers in modern industries, the authors analyzed the records of need-for-recovery questionnaires and health checkup results for 1545 employees. Compared with regular daytime workers, and after adjusting for confounders, the workers adapting to day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) had a 4.0-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7-5.9) increased risk for WRF, higher than the 2.2-fold risk (95% CI = 1.5-3.3) for persistent shift workers. Based on highest education level, the male employees with university degrees had the highest adjusted odds ratio (a-OR) 2.8 (95% CI = 1.0-7.8) for complaining of WRF versus compulsory education group. For female workers, currently married/cohabiting status was inversely associated with WRF (a-OR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2-0.9), and child-rearing responsibility moderately increased WRF risk (a-OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0-3.7). Day-and-night RSW and the adaptation, educational levels of males, and domestic factors for females contributed to WRF among semiconductor manufacturing employees.

    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1010539513490788   open full text
  • Developing and Evaluating a Website to Guide Older Adults in Their Health Information Searches: A Mixed-Methods Approach.
    Fink, A., Beck, J. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 19, 2013

    This mixed-methods study developed and evaluated an online program to improve older adults’ skills in identifying high-quality web-based health information. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews to collect data on older adults’ preferences for online instruction and information. We used the findings to develop, pilot test, and evaluate an interactive website which was grounded in health behavior change models, adult education, and website construction. Sixty four participants were randomly assigned to Your Health Online: Guiding eSearches or to an analogous slide-based-tutorial and compared in their knowledge, self-efficacy, and program assessment. Experimental participants assigned significantly higher ratings of usability and learning to the new site than controls did to their tutorial although no differences were found in self-efficacy or knowledge. Experimental participants reported that participation was likely to improve future searches. Information is now needed to examine if such programs actually improve health searches, ehealth literacy, and health outcomes.

    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813486961   open full text
  • Why and How Do Nursing Homes Implement Culture Change Practices? Insights From Qualitative Interviews in a Mixed Methods Study.
    Shield, R. R., Looze, J., Tyler, D., Lepore, M., Miller, S. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 19, 2013

    To understand the process of instituting culture change (CC) practices in nursing homes (NHs). NH Directors of Nursing (DONs) and Administrators (NHAs) at 4,149 United States NHs were surveyed about CC practices. Follow-up interviews with 64 NHAs were conducted and analyzed by a multidisciplinary team which reconciled interpretations recorded in an audit trail. Results: The themes include: (a) Reasons for implementing CC practices vary; (b) NH approaches to implementing CC practices are diverse; (c) NHs consider resident mix in deciding to implement practices; (d) NHAs note benefits and few costs to implementing CC practices; (e) Implementation of changes is challenging and strategies for change are tailored to the challenges encountered; (f) Education and communication efforts are vital ways to institute change; and (g) NHA and other staff leadership is key to implementing changes. Diverse strategies and leadership skills appear to help NHs implement reform practices, including CC innovations.

    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813491141   open full text
  • Explaining the Success or Failure of Quality Improvement Initiatives in Long-Term Care Organizations From a Dynamic Perspective.
    Etheridge, F., Couturier, Y., Denis, J.-L., Tremblay, L., Tannenbaum, C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 19, 2013

    The purpose of this study was to better understand why change initiatives succeed or fail in long-term care organizations. Four case studies from Québec, Canada were contrasted retrospectively. A constipation and restraints program succeeded, while an incontinence and falls program failed. Successful programs were distinguished by the use of a change strategy that combined "let-it happen," "help-it happen," and "make-it happen" interventions to create senses of urgency, solidarity, intensity, and accumulation. These four active ingredients of the successful change strategies propelled their respective change processes forward to completion. This paper provides concrete examples of successful and unsuccessful combinations of "let-it happen," "help-it happen," and "make-it happen" change management interventions. Change managers (CM) can draw upon these examples to best tailor and energize change management strategies in their own organizations.

    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813492582   open full text
  • Elder Abuse in Residential Long-Term Care: An Update to the 2003 National Research Council Report.
    Castle, N., Ferguson-Rome, J. C., Teresi, J. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 19, 2013

    A synthesis of the last decade of literature on elder abuse in residential long-term care (i.e., Nursing Homes and Assisted Living) is discussed. Presented are definitions of abuse, theoretical and conceptual models, prevalence rates of abuse, outcomes and costs, and sources of abuse. The synthesis represents an update to the literature in the influential 2003 National Research Council report. We identify many of the same issues and concerns exist that were surfaced in this prior report. Many theoretical and conceptual models need further elaboration. Conflicting definitions of abuse are pervasive. Rates of abuse are generally inaccurate, and probably under-reported. However, we also identify progress in many areas. An increase in empirical studies that exist in this area (although very few in Assisted Living). Other forms and types of abuse have also been identified as important, such as resident-to-resident abuse. These areas are discussed, along with potential suggestions for additional research.

    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813492583   open full text
  • "Another Day in Paradise": A Photovoice Journey of Rural Older Adults Living With Diabetes.
    Yankeelov, P. A., Faul, A. C., D'Ambrosio, J. G., Collins, W. L., Gordon, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 19, 2013

    This article provides the results of a photovoice project conducted with older adults affected by diabetes living in three rural counties in the southern region of the United States. Photovoice is a community-based participatory action methodology that puts the tools of research in the hands of participants. This project was an initial community engagement activity that promoted trust-building and formed part of a larger comprehensive community needs assessment. The process revealed themes of personal and community resilience focused on the daily living with diabetes, formal and informal supports, barriers to taking care of their diabetes, accessibility to fruits and vegetables, changes to food preparation and consumption, and exercise supports and barriers. The impact of the photovoice project on the participants and the implications for practice are discussed.

    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813493136   open full text
  • Comparing the Future Concerns of Early Wave Baby Boomers With the Concerns of Young-Old Adults.
    Adams-Price, C. E., Turner, J. J., Warren, S. T.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 19, 2013

    Using data from a statewide needs assessment survey, this study examines and compares the self-reported future concerns of two age groups in Mississippi: Early wave Baby Boomers (age 55 to 64; n = 383) and the young-old (age 65 to 75; n = 349). Items under analysis focus on issues related to future concerns surrounding financial resources, health, and employment. Results from multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) indicate that Early wave Baby Boomers have higher levels of future concern than the young-old group in all three areas. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the financial and employment concerns of the Baby Boomers were higher than the concerns of the older group even after subjective well-being and income were taken into account. However, age differences in health concerns disappeared after controlling for current health and well-being. These findings suggest that the financial concerns of the Baby Boomers extend to the whole cohort and not just to the most financially stressed.

    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813493135   open full text
  • Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults.
    Arcury, T. A., Nguyen, H. T., Sandberg, J. C., Neiberg, R. H., Altizer, K. P., Bell, R. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Lang, W., Quandt, S. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. July 19, 2013

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures.

    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813495109   open full text
  • Integrating Assessment and Evaluation Into Partnership Initiatives: Lessons From the Community Partnerships for Older Adults.
    Giunta, N., Thomas, M. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 11, 2013

    Communities nationwide have formed cross-sector partnerships to face the needs of an aging population, particularly for the purpose of improving long-term supportive service systems. Research is limited on how evaluation strategies are incorporated into partnership work, especially in the field of aging. This retrospective qualitative study reviewed administrative and key informant interview data to examine how 15 community partnerships (CPs) within the Community Partnerships for Older Adults (CPFOA) national program incorporated evaluation into their work. The four overarching lessons drawn from our inquiry suggest that effective CPs: (a) incorporate both formative and summative methods into evaluation, (b) use and develop the knowledge and skills of its members, (c) support flexible and creative evaluation methods and strategies, and (d) use internal and external resources to support evaluation efforts, particularly with nontraditional partners. There is a need for continued research to capture the methodological complexity of partnership evaluation.

    June 11, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813487587   open full text
  • Autonomy, Choice, Patient-Centered Care, and Hip Protectors: The Experience of Residents and Staff in Long-Term Care.
    Sims-Gould, J., McKay, H. A., Feldman, F., Scott, V., Robinovitch, S. N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 11, 2013

    The purpose of this study was to examine long-term care (LTC) resident and staff perceptions on the decision to use hip protectors and identify the factors that influence attitudes toward hip protector use. Staff (N = 39) and residents (N = 27) at two residential care facilities in British Columbia, Canada were invited to participate in focus groups on fall prevention and hip protector use. A total of 11 focus groups were conducted. Using framework analysis results show that residents and staff shared concerns on aesthetic and comfort issues with hip protectors. Residents also generally felt they did not need, or want to use, hip protectors. However, they also had desire to be cooperative within the LTC environment. Staff underscored their role in advocating for hip protector use and their desire to protect residents from harm. Practice considerations for facilities wishing to promote hip protectors within a patient centered framework are highlighted.

    June 11, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813488658   open full text
  • Correlates of Health-Related Quality of Life Among Korean Immigrant Elders.
    Lee, J.-E., Kim, M. T., Han, H.-R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 11, 2013

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a key clinical outcome, particularly for individuals with chronic conditions such as hypertension (HTN). While no previous research has examined contributors to HRQOL among Asian Americans in the United States, this study was conducted to identify correlates of HRQOL in hypertensive Korean immigrant elders (≥ 60 years of age) to address the gap. A total of 440 Korean elders with HTN participated in the study. The hierarchical regression model for HRQOL explained 32.8% of the variance. Female gender (β = .109, p = .036), a greater number of comorbid conditions (β = .183, p = .000), lower social support (β = –.240, p = .000), and greater depressive symptoms (β = .402, p = .000) were associated with poorer HRQOL. Depression was the most potent correlate of HRQOL among elderly Korean Americans (KA) with HTN. Future intervention should consider managing depression as an essential component of comprehensive HTN care for this minority population.

    June 11, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813490247   open full text
  • The influence of Driving Status on Transportation Challenges Experienced by Older Adults.
    Weeks, L. E., Stadnyk, R., Begley, L., MacDonald, D. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 31, 2013

    We explored the severity, number, and reasons for transportation challenges experienced by older adult drivers, nondrivers who live with a driver, and nondrivers who do not live with a driver. A random sample of 1,670 Atlantic Canadian community-dwelling older adults completed a mailed survey. Drivers comprised 80% of the participants. Just more than one fifth of participants experienced at least occasional transportation challenges. Two thirds of nondrivers who lived with a driver reported having no transportation challenges. Almost half of the nondrivers who did not live with a driver indicated never experiencing transportation challenges, and 84% of drivers had no transportation challenges. Nondrivers who did not live with a driver experienced greater frequency and severity of transportation challenges. This research contributes to our understanding of the characteristics of older adults with different driving statuses and their transportation challenges, which can contribute to providing appropriate transportation supports for older adults in the future.

    May 31, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813487255   open full text
  • Results of a Community Translation of the "Women Take PRIDE" Heart Disease Self-Management Program.
    Gallant, M. P., Pettinger, T. M., Coyle, C. L., Spokane, L. S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 21, 2013

    This article reports the results of a community demonstration of an evidence-based heart disease self-management program for older women. Women Take PRIDE (WTP) is a group-based education and behavior modification program, based on social cognitive theory, designed to enhance heart disease self-management among older women. We implemented the program in community settings with 129 participants. Evaluation data was collected at baseline and at 4- and 12-month follow-ups. Outcomes included general health status, functional health status, and knowledge. Results showed significant improvements in self-rated health, energy, social functioning, knowledge of community resources, and number, frequency, and bother of cardiac symptoms. These results demonstrate that an evidence-based heart disease self-management program can be effective at improving health and quality of life among older women with heart disease when implemented in community settings.

    May 21, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813483552   open full text
  • Measuring Functional Recovery in Older Patients Discharged From Intensive Care Units: Is Advanced Technology an Option?
    Balas, M. C., Bonasera, S. J., Cohen, M. Z., Hertzog, M., Sisson, J. H., Potter, J. F., Fitch, A., Burke, W. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 02, 2013

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine if older patients discharged from intensive care units (ICU) would be willing to use mobile phone and sensor technology (aka "mobile monitoring") to measure their functional recovery in the posthospitalization period. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 older ICU patients and/or their surrogates 24 to 48 hr prior to hospital discharge. While 11 respondents reported they would agree to participate in a future study involving mobile monitoring, an equal number reported they would not participate. Numerous contextual factors were found to affect older adults’ willingness to participate including the belief the research would ultimately benefit themselves or other older adults, concerns about loss of privacy, perception that the research is feasible and valuable, and lack of skills using the technology. Future studies using the mobile monitoring technique with older survivors of a serious illness will require substantial recruitment and educational efforts.

    May 02, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813480267   open full text
  • Contributions of Social Desirability to Self-Reported Ageism.
    Cherry, K. E., Allen, P. D., Denver, J. Y., Holland, K. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 02, 2013

    The authors examined the role of social desirability in 445 participants’ responses to self-reported measures of ageism across two studies. In Study 1, college students and community adults completed the Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE) and a short form of the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-C SDS). Study 2 was a conceptual replication that included the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA). Correlation analyses confirmed a small but significant relationship between scores on the positive ageist items and the social desirability scale in both studies. Ageist attitudes were correlated with negative ageist behaviors in Study 2. Implications for current views on ageism and strategies for reducing ageist attitudes and behaviors in everyday life are discussed.

    May 02, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813484984   open full text
  • The Impact of Age on the Reservation Wage: The Role of Employment Efficacy and Work Intention: A Study in the Belgian context.
    De Coen, A., Forrier, A., Sels, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 15, 2013

    This study explores the relationship between age and reservation wage. The authors investigate whether individuals’ attitudes toward employment, that is, their "employment efficacy" and "work intention," mediate this relationship. The authors examine this in the Belgian labor market, where substantial differences exist between blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, and civil servants regarding payment systems, employment protection, and pension benefits. Path analysis on a sample of 22,796 Belgian workers aged 18 to 60 years reveals a reverse U-shaped relationship between age and the reservation wage via employment efficacy and a U-shaped relationship via work intention. In addition, study analyses also show a direct relationship between age and the reservation wage. The effects vary with employment status. The authors discuss implications for theory, practice, and future research.

    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812473201   open full text
  • The Moderating Effects of Ethnicity and Employment Type on Insurance Coverage: Four Asian Subgroups in California.
    Nguyen, D., Choi, S., Park, S. Y.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 15, 2013

    Despite nearly universal insurance coverage for older Americans over the age of 65, the preretirement age cohort is susceptible to gaps in coverage. Related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), this study investigated heterogeneity in insurance status for preretirement Asian immigrants by examining the interacting effects of Asian ethnicity and employment type, which is a major factor that determines an individual’s insurance status in the U.S. Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, which included 1,024 Asians between the ages of 50 and 64, were analyzed. Our findings indicate significant moderating effects of employment type and Asian ethnicity. However, regardless of employment type, Koreans had the highest rate of being uninsured. To effectively reach the ACA’s goal of reducing the number of uninsured individuals, targeted interventions specific to Asian subgroups are essential.

    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813481849   open full text
  • Socioeconomic Correlates of Gender Differential in Poor Health Status Among Older Adults in India.
    Pandey, A., Ladusingh, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 15, 2013

    Assessment of the health status of the older adults can go a long way in controlling the disease burden and monitoring the path to healthy aging in India. In the absence of a population-based clinical survey to collect data on morbidities and other health conditions through biomarkers, self-rated health by nationally representative older population is used for understanding factors contributing to the gender differential in health status. Socioeconomic status is the most important factor explaining 59% of the gender gap in self-assessed health among older adults. The vulnerability of older women in terms of educational attainment, occupational status, and economic dependency is responsible for the higher level of poor self-assessed health. The gender gap in self-assessed poor health among older Indian adults, which perpetuates over the life course resulting in severe health disadvantages at old age can be reduced considerably through social empowerment and gender sensitive public policies.

    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813481850   open full text
  • Independent Living Oldest Old and Their Primary Health Provider: A Mixed Method Examination of the Influence of Patient Personality Characteristics.
    Stadtlander, L. M., Giles, M. J., Sickel, A. E., Brooks, E., Brown, C., Cormell, M., Ewing, L., Hart, D., Koons, D., Olson, C., Parker, P., Semenova, V., Stoneking, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 15, 2013

    This convergent mixed methods study examined 35 healthy, independent living individuals’ (above 85 years) perceptions of their relationship with their primary health provider (PHP) and health practices. The relationship between PHP relationship perceptions and locus of control (LOC), resilience, and self-efficacy was explored through surveys and interviews. The majority indicated they visited their PHP just for preventative care; the number of PHP visits per year was significantly lower than reported for individuals above 85 by the CDC, possible reasons for this finding are provided. A positive relationship between LOC, resiliency, and self-efficacy for the oldest old was found. Few participants indicated their PHP had discussed normal changes with aging. This study has deepened understanding of the complexity inherent to the healthy oldest olds’ relationship with their PHP. The findings suggest this relationship relates to the PHP’s personal characteristics, the older adult patients’ personality, and the influence of the accompanying patient escort.

    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813482182   open full text
  • Do Age-Friendly Characteristics Influence the Expectation to Age in Place? A Comparison of Low-Income and Higher Income Detroit Elders.
    Lehning, A. J., Smith, R. J., Dunkle, R. E.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 15, 2013

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place.

    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813483210   open full text
  • Exploring the Quality of Life of Younger Residents Living in Long-Term Care Facilities.
    Hay, K., Chaudhury, H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 15, 2013

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the characteristics of "quality of life" of younger residents in long-term care facilities. This multimethod study employed in-depth interviews with younger residents, focus groups with staff members and interviews with management team members at two care facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Data analysis revealed three themes: (a) a new chapter in life, (b) experiencing quality of life, and (c) nature of social life. These themes highlight the characteristics of younger residents’ quality of life and provide insights into the salient contributing factors. Findings of this study are useful in better understanding aspects of younger residents’ quality of life and their psychosocial needs and consequently can guide decision making to provide an appropriate care environment for this population segment in long-term care settings.

    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813483209   open full text
  • Family Involvement in the Care of Hospitalized Elderly Patients.
    Dehghan Nayeri, N., Gholizadeh, L., Mohammadi, E., Yazdi, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 15, 2013

    Family participation in caregiving to elderly inpatients is likely to improve the quality of care to older patients. This qualitative design study applied semi-structured interviews to elicit experiences from nurses, families, and patients on the notion of family participation in the care of elderly patients in two general teaching hospitals in Iran. Data were gathered using individual interviews, field notes, and participant observations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest and latent content analysis. The following main themes emerged through the data analysis process: (a) safety and quality in patient care and (b) unplanned and unstructured patient care participation. The study concludes that family involvement in caregiving to elderly patients is important, yet the participation should be based upon a planned and structured framework to ensure a safe and satisfying experience for patients, families, and health care team.

    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813483211   open full text
  • Predictors of Retention Among African American and Hispanic Older Adult Research Participants in the Well Elderly 2 Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Carlson, M., Jackson, J., Mandel, D., Blanchard, J., Holguin, J., Lai, M.-Y., Marterella, A., Vigen, C., Gleason, S., Lam, C., Azen, S., Clark, F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 21, 2013

    The purpose of this study was to document predictors of long-term retention among minority participants in the Well Elderly 2 Study, a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention for community-dwelling older adults. The primary sample included 149 African American and 92 Hispanic men and women aged 60 to 95 years, recruited at senior activity centers and senior residences. Chi-square and logistic regression procedures were undertaken to examine study-based, psychosocial and health-related predictors of retention at 18 months following study entry. For both African Americans and Hispanics, intervention adherence was the strongest predictor. Retention was also related to high active coping and average (vs. high or low) levels of activity participation among African Americans and high social network strength among Hispanics. The results suggest that improved knowledge of the predictors of retention among minority elders can spawn new retention strategies that can be applied at individual, subgroup, and sample-wide levels.

    March 21, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812471444   open full text
  • Clarifying the Positive Association Between Education and Prostate Cancer: A Monte Carlo Simulation Approach.
    Pudrovska, T., Anishkin, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 21, 2013

    Using the 1993-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 5,218), we examine prostate cancer screening, mortality after the diagnosis, and health behaviors as potential mechanisms explaining the paradoxical association between men’s higher education and higher prostate cancer risk. Our study combines within-cohort longitudinal hazard models predicting a prostate cancer diagnosis with Monte Carlo simulations estimating the joint effects of socioeconomic differences in prostate cancer screening and mortality after the diagnosis. Our findings strongly suggest that higher utilization of prostate cancer screening and lower mortality after the diagnosis are important explanations for higher prostate rates among more educated men. In addition to applying an innovative method to the issues of prostate cancer incidence and survival, our results have potentially important implications for the current debate about the utility of prostate cancer screening as well as for accurate predictions of future mortality and morbidity trends in the expanding older population.

    March 21, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812473798   open full text
  • Health Care Provision for Older Persons: The Interplay Between Ageism and Elder Neglect.
    Band-Winterstein, T.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 21, 2013

    The aim of this study was to explore the link between neglect and ageism in health care provision for older persons. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 registered nurses with at least 2 years’ experience in 10 long-term care facilities in Israel. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was performed according to the qualitative method. Three main themes emerged: ageism and neglect as the everyday routine (neglect is built into institution life on the platform of ageism); how the institutional system promotes neglect—between institutional and personal ageism (the ways institutions promote neglect in the shadow of ageism); from vision to reality—how neglect can be prevented in an ageist reality. The attempt to demonstrate the link between ageism and neglect and suggesting how to include them as interrelated phenomena in health care provision programs could promote older persons’ quality of life.

    March 21, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812475308   open full text
  • Older Adults' Use of Care Strategies in Response to General and Upper Respiratory Symptoms.
    Sandberg, J. C., Grzywacz, J. G., Suerken, C. K., Altizer, K. P., Quandt, S. A., Nguyen, H. T., Bell, R. A., Lang, W., Arcury, T. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 21, 2013

    This study examined the use of complementary and medical treatments, both individually and in combination, to address common general and upper respiratory symptoms. Data for the analysis were collected from a series of 18 daily diary questionnaires administered to community-living older African American and white adults living in rural counties in North Carolina. Participants reported symptoms experienced on each diary day and the treatment strategies they used each day in response to the particular symptom(s). Older adults used diverse categories of strategies to treat symptoms; treatment strategies were used inconsistently across symptoms. Use of only complementary strategies, only medical conventional strategies, or both complementary and medical strategies to treat any one symptom rarely corresponded to the use of the same strategy to address other symptoms. Future research would benefit from analyzing how older adults use health care strategies across symptom categories.

    March 21, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813478689   open full text
  • A Pilot Study Using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Devices and Surveys to Ascertain Older Adults' Travel Patterns.
    Yen, I. H., Leung, C. W., Lan, M., Sarrafzadeh, M., Kayekjian, K. C., Duru, O. K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 21, 2013

    Some studies indicate that older adults lead active lives and travel to many destinations including those not in their immediate residential neighborhoods. We used global positioning system (GPS) devices to track the travel patterns of 40 older adults (mean age: 69) in San Francisco and Los Angeles. Study participants wore the GPS devices for 7 days in fall 2010 and winter 2011. We collected survey responses concurrently about travel patterns. GPS data showed a mean of four trips/day, and a mean trip distance of 7.6 km. Survey data indicated that older adults commonly made trips for four activities (e.g., volunteering, work, visiting friends) at least once each week. Older adults regularly travel outside their residential neighborhoods. GPS can document the mode of travel, the path of travel, and the destinations. Surveys can document the purpose of the travel and the impressions or experiences in the specific locations.

    March 21, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813479024   open full text
  • Leaving Home: How Older Adults Prepare for Intensive Volunteering.
    Cheek, C., Piercy, K. W., Grainger, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 21, 2013

    Using the concepts in the Fogg Behavioral Model, 37 volunteers aged 50 and older described their preparation for intensive volunteering with faith-based organizations. Their multistage preparation process included decision points where respondents needed to choose whether to drop out or continue preparation. Ability was a stronger determinant of serving than motivation, particularly in terms of health and finances. This model can facilitate understanding of the barriers to volunteering and aid organizations in tailoring support at crucial points for potential older volunteers in intensive service.

    March 21, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464813480268   open full text
  • Impact of Race and Diagnostic Label on Older Adults' Emotions, Illness Beliefs, and Willingness to Help a Family Member With Osteoarthritis.
    Mingo, C. A., McIlvane, J. M., Haley, W. E., Luong, M.-L. N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 18, 2013

    To examine how race and the diagnostic label of Osteoarthritis (OA) affects older adults’ emotions, illness beliefs, and willingness to help a family member.


    African American and White older adults were randomly assigned to read vignettes describing a sister suffering from chronic pain and disability, either with or without the OA label. Race x diagnostic label ANOVAs were conducted.


    Compared to Whites, African Americans were more optimistic that OA could improve with health care, and showed greater willingness to help their sister. The OA label had little impact on emotions, beliefs, or willingness to help. African Americans rated the sister as having more control of their problem than Whites without the OA label, but providing the diagnosis eliminated this difference.


    The diagnostic label of OA had little effect on these older adults, but racial differences indicate that cultural values regarding family caregiving are important in arthritis care.

    January 18, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812471893   open full text
  • Gaming for Health: A Systematic Review of the Physical and Cognitive Effects of Interactive Computer Games in Older Adults.
    Bleakley, C. M., Charles, D., Porter-Armstrong, A., McNeill, M. D. J., McDonough, S. M., McCormack, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 17, 2013

    This systematic review examined the physical and cognitive effects of physically based interactive computer games (ICGs) in older adults. Literature searching was carried out from January 2000 to June 2011. Eligible studies were trials involving older adults (>65 years) describing the effects of ICGs with a physical component (aerobic, strength, balance, flexibility) on physical or cognitive outcomes. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects, compliance, and enjoyment. Twelve trials met the inclusion criteria. ICG interventions varied in terms of software, game type, and nature of the computer interaction. Although there was preliminary evidence that ICG is a safe and effective exercise intervention for older adults, the dearth of high-quality evidence limits this finding. No major adverse effects were reported and two studies reported minor events. ICG could be improved further by tailoring interventions for older adults; in particular, they should aim to optimize participant safety, motivation, and enjoyment for this population.

    January 17, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812470747   open full text
  • Assessment of Elder Mistreatment in Two American Indian Samples: Psychometric Characteristics of the HS-EAST and the Native Elder Life-Financial Exploitation and -Neglect Measures.
    Jervis, L. L., Fickenscher, A., Beals, J., the Shielding American Indian Elders Project Team.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 17, 2013

    Although elder mistreatment among ethnic minorities is increasingly gaining attention, our empirical knowledge of this phenomenon among American Indians remains quite limited, especially with respect to measurement. The Shielding American Indian Elders (SAIE) Project used a collaborative approach to explore culturally informed measurement of elder mistreatment in two American Indian elder samples (a Northern Plains reservation and a South Central metropolitan area). The project sought to investigate the performance characteristics of the commonly used Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (HS-EAST), as well as to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure developed to capture culturally salient aspects of mistreatment in American Indian contexts—the Native Elder Life Scale (NELS). Using methods and samples comparable to those in the literature, the HS-EAST performed adequately in these Native samples. The NELS also shows promise for use with this population and assesses different aspects of elder mistreatment than does the HS-EAST.

    January 17, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812470748   open full text
  • Improving the Validity of Activity of Daily Living Dependency Risk Assessment.
    Clark, D. O., Stump, T. E., Tu, W., Miller, D. K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 17, 2013

    Efforts to prevent activity of daily living (ADL) dependency may be improved through models that assess older adults’ dependency risk. We evaluated whether cognition and gait speed measures improve the predictive validity of interview-based models.


    Participants were 8,095 self-respondents in the 2006 Health and Retirement Survey who were aged 65 years or over and independent in five ADLs. Incident ADL dependency was determined from the 2008 interview. Models were developed using random 2/3rd cohorts and validated in the remaining 1/3rd.


    Compared to a c-statistic of 0.79 in the best interview model, the model including cognitive measures had c-statistics of 0.82 and 0.80 while the best fitting gait speed model had c-statistics of 0.83 and 0.79 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively.


    Two relatively brief models, one that requires an in-person assessment and one that does not, had excellent validity for predicting incident ADL dependency but did not significantly improve the predictive validity of the best fitting interview-based models.

    January 17, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812471894   open full text
  • Staff-Family Relationships in Residential Aged Care Facilities: The Views of Residents' Family Members and Care Staff.
    Bauer, M., Fetherstonhaugh, D., Tarzia, L., Chenco, C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 06, 2013

    The aim of the study was to examine staff and family members’ perceptions of each other’s roles and responsibilities in the Australian residential aged care setting. Data was collected by interview and focus group from 27 staff and 14 family members at five residential aged care facilities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlight "communication" as the core category supporting the formation of constructive staff–family relationships, as described by three main themes; "building trust," "involvement," and "keeping the family happy." Staff attitudes, mutual cooperation, meaningful engagement, and shared expectations lay the foundation for relationships. Findings suggest that further efforts to establish and sustain good relationships with families are required by facilities. Characteristics, roles, and expectations of staff and family that can both promote and hinder the formation of constructive staff–family relationships are discussed.

    January 06, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812468503   open full text
  • "You Don't Want to Ask for the Help" The Imperative of Independence: Is It Related to Social Exclusion?
    Bell, S., Menec, V.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 06, 2013

    Independence is highly valued in Western society. The emphasis on independence and consequent fear of dependence may, however, have a downside, potentially leading to social exclusion. Through photovoice methodology, we explored what older adults say about the importance of independence in their lives and how independence may relate to social exclusion. Data consisted of photographs, journals, interviews, and focus group transcripts from 30 participants residing in Manitoba, Canada, collected as part of a larger program of research on "age-friendly" communities. Findings highlighted the importance of resources and supports to help older adults remain independent and feel included and that fear of dependence and being perceived as "old" can lead to social exclusion. Policy initiatives designed to make communities more age-friendly are one way to enhance older adults’ independence and, ultimately, quality of life. It is equally important, however, that such initiatives go hand-in-hand with reimaging aging and old age.

    January 06, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812469292   open full text
  • Aerobic Versus Resistance Training Effects on Health-Related Quality of Life, Body Composition, and Function of Older Adults.
    Wanderley, F. A. C., Oliveira, N. L., Marques, E., Moreira, P., Oliveira, J., Carvalho, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. January 02, 2013

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of training on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), body composition, and function in older adults. Fifty participants were randomized into aerobic training (AT—70%-80% HRreserve), resistance training (RT—80% 1RM), or controls. They had HRQoL, body composition, and function assessed before and after 8 months. Training groups reduced body fat, increased performance in the stair ascent, 8-ft up-and-go and sit-to-stand five-times tests, and improved their physical component score (PCS; p ≤ .03). AT increased performance in the 6MWT test, and improved general and mental health (MH) domains when compared to controls (p < .01). Finally, changes in stair ascent were associated with changes in bodily pain, MH, and mental component score (p ≤ .04), while changes in handgrip strength were associated with changes in physical role and MH (p = .03). AT and RT were effective interventions for decreasing body fat and improving functionality and the PCS in older adults.

    January 02, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0733464812468502   open full text
  • The Effects of EnhanceFitness (EF) Training on Dual-Task Walking in Older Adults.
    Agmon, M., Kelly, V. E., Logsdon, R. G., Nguyen, H., Belza, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 11, 2012

    Decline in dual-task walking performance is associated with increased risk of falls among older adults. The objective of this study is to determine whether 18 hr of participation in EnhanceFitness (EF), an evidence-based group exercise program, improves dual-task walking performance among community-dwelling older adults. Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated before participating in EF and after 18 hr of participation. Gait speed was evaluated under single task and dual tasks using the TUG (Timed Up and Go) and 1-min walk tests. Dual-task costs (DTC), the relative cost of dual-task performance compared to single-task performance, were calculated for both cognitive and motor tasks. Postural control and executive functions were evaluated as well. After 18 hr of EF, dual-task walking performance improved. Single-task performance improved as well as postural control and executive function. There was no significant change in DTC across all measurements, except for the cognitive task of the TUG.

    December 11, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812465921   open full text
  • Developing and Testing a Decision Aid for Use by Providers in Making Recommendations: About Mammography Screening in Older Women.
    Tisnado, D. M., Moore, A. A., Levin, J. R., Rosen, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. December 11, 2012

    Breast cancer incidence increases with age, but many older women do not receive appropriate mammography screening. A tool to support provider decision making holds potential to help providers and patients reach the best-informed decisions possible. We developed and tested a decision aid (DA) for healthcare providers to use in mammography screening recommendations in older women. Literature review, expert opinion, focus groups, and pilot testing of the DA were conducted in a university ambulatory geriatrics practice. Provider evaluations of the DA after piloting were collected and analyzed. Geriatricians reported important factors in decision making included patient life-expectancy, preferences, cognitive function, and individualization. Geriatricians reported the DA would have helped them make recommendations for mammography screening in 66% of pilot cases. It was less helpful when there was more certainty regarding decision making.

    December 11, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812467397   open full text
  • Medical Staff Involvement in Nursing Homes: Development of a Conceptual Model and Research Agenda.
    Shield, R., Rosenthal, M., Wetle, T., Tyler, D., Clark, M., Intrator, O.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 28, 2012

    Medical staff (physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians’ assistants) involvement in nursing homes (NH) is limited by professional guidelines, government policies, regulations, and reimbursements, creating bureaucratic burden. The conceptual NH Medical Staff Involvement Model, based on our mixed-methods research, applies the Donabedian "structure–process–outcomes" framework to the NH, identifying measures for a coordinated research agenda. Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews conducted with medical directors, administrators and directors of nursing, other experts, residents and family members and Minimum Data Set, the Online Certification and Reporting System and Medicare Part B claims data related to NH structure, process, and outcomes were analyzed. NH control of medical staff, or structure, affects medical staff involvement in care processes and is associated with better outcomes (e.g., symptom management, appropriate transitions, satisfaction). The model identifies measures clarifying the impact of NH medical staff involvement on care processes and resident outcomes and has strong potential to inform regulatory policies.

    November 28, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812463432   open full text
  • Daily Mood and Out-of-Home Mobility in Older Adults: Does Cognitive Impairment Matter?
    Kaspar, R., Oswald, F., Wahl, H.-W., Voss, E., Wettstein, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 28, 2012

    This study explores the relationship between out-of-home behavior and daily mood of community-dwelling older adults with different levels of cognitive impairment across four consecutive weeks. The sample included 16 persons with early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 30 persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 95 cognitively healthy persons (CH). Using a multi-method approach, GPS tracking and daily-diary data were combined on a day-to-day basis. AD and MCI adults showed lower mood than the CH group. Whereas stronger positive links between mood and out-of-home behavior were found for AD compared to the total sample on an aggregate level, predicting daily mood by person (i.e., cognition) and occasion-specific characteristics (i.e., mobility and weekday), using multilevel regression analysis revealed no corresponding effect. In conclusion, cognitive status in old age appears to impact on mobility and mood as such, rather than on the mood and out-of-home behavior connection.

    November 28, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812466290   open full text
  • The Effect of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Balance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Pilot Study.
    Homnick, T. D., Henning, K. M., Swain, C. V., Homnick, D. N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 28, 2012

    Equine assisted activities (hippotherapy and therapeutic riding) improve balance in patients with disabilities such as cerebral palsy, but have not been systematically studied in older adults, at risk of falls due to balance deficits. We conducted a 10-week, single blind, controlled trial of the effect of a therapeutic horseback riding course on measures of balance in community-dwelling adults 65 years and older. Nine riders and six controls completed the trial. Controls were age matched to riders and all participants were recruited from the local community. Both groups showed improvements in balance during the trial, but did not reach statistical significance. Sample size was small, participants had relatively high initial balance scores, and controls tended to increase their physical activities, likely influencing outcomes. No adverse events occurred and the supervised therapeutic riding program appeared to be a safe and effective form of exercise to improve balance in older adults. A power analysis was performed to estimate numbers of participants needed for a larger study.

    November 28, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812467398   open full text
  • Aging in Community: Mobilizing a New Paradigm of Older Adults as a Core Social Resource.
    Black, K., Dobbs, D., Young, T. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 20, 2012

    Dignity and independence are widely considered as core concepts to aging well, yet little research has explored how older adults perceive these issues in the context of community life. Moreover, little is known regarding the ways in which the broader public views and enhances aging with dignity and independence with their older residents. Using participatory action research, multiple methods of qualitative inquiry, and tenets of appreciative inquiry, this article reports on a community-based initiative aimed to better understand the positive aspects of aging with dignity and independence. Synthesized findings yielded 6 "actionable themes": (1) meaningful involvement, (2) aging in place, (3) respect and inclusion, (4) communication and information, (5) transportation and mobility, and (6) health and well-being. The findings invoke a new paradigm for community aging that highlights the unique contributions of older adults as a core social resource. Implications for mobilizing community action to promote aging with dignity and independence are discussed.

    November 20, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812463984   open full text
  • Older Drivers' Reasons for Reducing the Overall Amount of Their Driving and for Avoiding Selected Driving Situations.
    Meng, A., Siren, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 05, 2012

    Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 840 older drivers to explore their reasons for self-regulating their driving. The main reason for reduced driving was having fewer activities to drive to, and for avoidance of driving situations, reasons also included not liking or feeling insecure about driving in the situation. The lower-functioning participants, but still only a minority, were more likely to indicate decline in vision and reaction time as reasons for avoidance. Women were more likely to indicate lack of confidence as a reason for avoidance. The results suggest that the reduction in driving and avoidance of driving situations are separate types of self-regulatory behavior; that self-regulation of driving is an automatic process, in which older drivers are not aware that they are compensating for functional loss; and that it is important to acknowledge gender differences when designing interventions aimed at enhancing safe mobility.

    November 05, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812463433   open full text
  • The Needs and Use of Programs by Service Providers Working With Grandparents Raising Grandchildren.
    Fruhauf, C. A., Pevney, B., Bundy-Fazioli, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 01, 2012

    Grandparents who raise grandchildren often need support services. Yet, little is known about what service providers' need in order to better serve grandparents. As a result, qualitative methods were used to understand service providers’ views about programs and services they use when assisting grandparents raising grandchildren. We conducted telephone interviews with professional service providers (N = 16) from agencies serving grandparents. Data were transcribed verbatim and transcripts were analyzed using an inductive, constant comparison approach. Findings revealed two themes reflecting the types of services and support mechanisms providers’ use with grandparent caregivers and providers’ needs and recommendations to better serve grandparent caregivers. Participants fully supported continual funding for the Kinship Care System Navigator position and discussed the importance of community providers sharing a common voice and working together. It is important that professionals who serve grandparent caregivers are knowledgeable and willing to collaborate with other providers to meet grandparents’ needs.

    November 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812463983   open full text
  • Direct Care Worker's Perceptions of Job Satisfaction Following Implementation of Work-Based Learning.
    Lopez, C., White, D. L., Carder, P. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 01, 2012

    The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of a work-based learning program on the work lives of Direct Care Workers (DCWs) at assisted living (AL) residences. The research questions were addressed using focus group data collected as part of a larger evaluation of a work-based learning (WBL) program called Jobs to Careers. The theoretical perspective of symbolic interactionism was used to frame the qualitative data analysis. Results indicated that the WBL program impacted DCWs’ job satisfaction through the program curriculum and design and through three primary categories: relational aspects of work, worker identity, and finding time. This article presents a conceptual model for understanding how these categories are interrelated and the implications for WBL programs. Job satisfaction is an important topic that has been linked to quality of care and reduced turnover in long-term care settings.

    November 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812463982   open full text
  • Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Central Obesity in the Korean Elderly Population.
    So, E. S., Yoo, K. S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. November 01, 2012

    The aim is to determine the appropriate cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome in the Korean elderly population. We analyzed the WC cutoff values of four groups divided according to sex and age with a total of 2,224 elderly participants aged 65 years old and above from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using the receiver operating characteristic curve and multiple logistic regression. The WC cutoff values associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome were 89.6 cm for men and 90.5 cm for women for those who were 65 to 74 years old, and 89.9 cm for men and 87.9 cm for women for those who were 75 years old or older. WC cutoff points for estimating metabolic risk are similar in elderly men and women. Age-specific optimal WC cutoff points should be considered especially for elderly women in screening for metabolic syndrome.

    November 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812464428   open full text
  • Perceived Benefits, Motives, and Barriers to Aqua-based Exercise Among Older Adults With and Without Osteoarthritis.
    Fisken, A., Keogh, J. W. L., Waters, D. L., Hing, W. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 30, 2012

    This study aimed to (a) identify factors that motivate older adults to participate in aqua-based exercise; (b) identify potential barriers; and (c) compare perceptions between older adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA). Fifteen adults above 60 years of age participated in one of three focus groups during which they discussed perceived benefits, motives, and barriers to aqua exercise. Pain reduction was considered a major benefit among those with OA, improved health and fitness was a principal benefit for those without OA. All participants felt that the instructor could act as both a motivator and barrier; the most significant barrier was cold changing facilities in winter. With the exception of pain reduction, perceived benefits, motivators, and barriers to aqua-based exercise are similar among older adults with and without OA. A greater understanding of these factors may help us to facilitate older adults with OA to initiate and adhere to aqua-based exercise.

    October 30, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812463431   open full text
  • Chinese Older Adults' Internet Use for Health Information.
    Wong, C. K. M., Yeung, D. Y., Ho, H. C. Y., Tse, K.-P., Lam, C.-Y.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 30, 2012

    Technological advancement benefits Internet users with the convenience of social connection and information search. This study aimed at investigating the predictors of Internet use to search for online health information among Chinese older adults. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied to examine the predictiveness of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitudes toward Internet use on behavioral intention to search for health information online. Ninety-eight Chinese older adults were recruited from an academic institute for older people and community centers. Frequency of Internet use and physical and psychological health were also assessed. Results showed that perceived ease of use and attitudes significantly predicted behavioral intention of Internet use. The potential influences of traditional Chinese values and beliefs in health were also discussed.

    October 30, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812463430   open full text
  • Use of Adult Day Care Service Centers in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Seniors.
    Brown, E. L., Friedemann, M.-L., Mauro, A. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. October 01, 2012

    Our nation is aging and unprepared to meet the needs of community-dwelling seniors and their caregivers. This study explored the perceived need for and use of adult day care services (ADS) in a low-income population. A random sample of 537 patient–caregiver dyads were recruited in home care agencies, and separate in-home surveys were conducted. Patients and caregivers were primarily women and 50.2% were of Hispanic origin. Although half (n = 267/537, 49.7%) of the caregivers had a perceived need for using ADS, only 19.1% of these caregivers used these services, mostly in the context of severe patient cognitive impairment. There were no racial or ethnic differences among ADS users and nonusers. The overall low use of ADS in a growing ethnically diverse senior population with a perceived need for services warrants further investigation and action as states seek to decrease nursing home placement and find solutions for our looming caregiving crisis.

    October 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812460431   open full text
  • Out-of-Home Behavior and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: Findings of the SenTra Project.
    Wettstein, M., Wahl, H.-W., Shoval, N., Oswald, F., Voss, E., Seidl, U., Frolich, L., Auslander, G., Heinik, J., Landau, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 24, 2012

    This study explores differences in the out-of-home behavior of community-dwelling older adults with different cognitive impairment. Three levels of complexity of out-of-home behavior were distinguished: (a) mostly automatized walking behavior (low complexity), (b) global out-of-home mobility (medium complexity), and (c) defined units of concrete out-of-home activities, particularly cognitively demanding activities (high complexity). A sample of 257 older adults aged 59 to 91 years (M = 72.9 years, SD = 6.4 years) included 35 persons with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 76 persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 146 cognitively healthy persons (CH). Mobility data were gathered by using a GPS tracking device as well as by questionnaire. Predicting cognitive impairment status by out-of-home behavior and a range of confounders by means of multinomial logistic regression revealed that only cognitively demanding activities showed at least a marginally significant difference between MCI and CH and were highly significant between AD and CH.

    September 24, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812459373   open full text
  • Factors Buffering Against the Effects of Job Demands: How Does Age Matter?
    Besen, E., Matz-Costa, C., James, J. B., Pitt-Catsouphes, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 24, 2012

    Given the increasing role that paid work is likely to play in older adulthood in the coming decades, the goal of this study was to understand the circumstances under which work is related to mental health for older adults and whether these circumstances differ by age. Using a multiworksite sample of 1,812 U.S. workers age 18 to 81, we use the life-span theory of control to hypothesize that older and younger workers may benefit differentially from job and personal control in the context of high job demands. Results suggest that for younger workers with high personal control, job control buffers the impact of job demands on mental health. For older workers, personal control alone buffers the impact of job demands on mental health. This study adds to previous research by addressing how the factors thought to buffer against the effects of job demands differ cross-sectionally by age.

    September 24, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812460430   open full text
  • Validation of a Self- Administered Computerized System to Detect Cognitive Impairment in OlderAdults.
    Brinkman, S. D., Reese, R. J., Norsworthy, L. A., Dellaria, D. K., Kinkade, J. W., Benge, J., Brown, K., Ratka, A., Simpkins, J. W.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 18, 2012

    There is increasing interest in the development of economical and accurate approaches to identifying persons in the community who have mild, undetected cognitive impairments. Computerized assessment systems have been suggested as a viable approach to identifying these persons. The validity of a computerized assessment system for identification of memory and executive deficits in older individuals was evaluated in the current study. Volunteers (N = 235) completed a 3-hr battery of neuropsychological tests and a computerized cognitive assessment system. Participants were classified as impaired (n = 78) or unimpaired (n = 157) on the basis of the Mini Mental State Exam, Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Trail Making Test (TMT), Part B. All six variables (three memory variables and three executive variables) derived from the computerized assessment differed significantly between groups in the expected direction. There was also evidence of temporal stability and concurrent validity. Application of computerized assessment systems for clinical practice and for identification of research participants is discussed in this article.

    September 18, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812455099   open full text
  • How Case Characteristics Differ across Four Types of Elder Maltreatment: Implications for Tailoring Interventions to Increase Victim Safety.
    Jackson, S. L., Hafemeister, T. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 18, 2012

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether case characteristics are differentially associated with four forms of elder maltreatment. Method: Triangulated interviews were conducted with 71 APS caseworkers, 55 victims of substantiated abuse whose cases they managed, and 35 third party persons. Results: Pure financial exploitation (PFE) was characterized by victim unawareness of financial exploitation and living alone. Physical abuse (PA) was characterized by victim’s desire to protect the abusive individual. Neglect was characterized by isolation and victim’s residing with the abusive individual. Hybrid financial exploitation (HFE) was mutual dependency. Implications: These differences indicate the need for tailoring interventions to increase victim safety. PFE requires victims to maintain financial security and independence. PA requires services to meet the needs of abusive individuals. Neglect requires greater monitoring when elderly persons reside with another person. HFE requires the provision of services to both members of the dyad.

    September 18, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812459370   open full text
  • An Exploratory Study of the Effectiveness of Memory Aids for Older People Living in Supported Accommodation.
    Collerton, D., Forster, E., Packham, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 17, 2012

    There is increasing evidence that electronic and other aids can support older people’s memory. In an effectiveness study, we explored whether assistive technologies could benefit 200 potential beneficiaries in a naturalistic setting. We first interviewed 50 participants to assess needs and preferences for memory aids, then researched, developed and trialled specific aids, and finally administered a follow-up questionnaire assessing future use of aids. Matching aids to needs was not easy. Relatively few people were interested in trailing aids. Simpler aids were most successful. Participants were curious about electronic aids, but found them too complicated and not adapted enough to their needs. Assistance from other people was necessary to prompt use of all types of aids. Future effectiveness studies should focus on longer trials with greater training and support for participants, a wider range of technologies, and more promotion of possible benefits.

    September 17, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812456904   open full text
  • Sleep and Everyday Functioning in Older Adulthood.
    Parsey, C. M., Schmitter-Edgecombe, M., Belenky, G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 17, 2012

    As individuals age they report increasing numbers of sleep problems (e.g., increased nighttime wakings) and this poorer sleep quality has been associated with increased risk for various medical conditions; however limited research has focused on the implications of sleep quality on everyday functioning in older adulthood. We compared three methods of sleep data collection (wrist actigraphy, self-report questionnaires, and sleep diary) and evaluated their relationships with three approaches to assessing everyday functioning (direct observation, self-report, and paper-and-pencil-based problem-solving tasks) in cognitively healthy older adults. Consistent with previous research, subjective sleep measures correlated significantly with each other but did not correlate with objective sleep measures. Multiple regression analyses revealed neither objective nor subjective sleep measures predicted everyday functioning. Individual variability in sleep may affect prediction of everyday functioning using a cross-sectional sample. Future research should investigate the combined influence of sleep and cognitive factors on everyday functioning in older adults.

    September 17, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812458364   open full text
  • A Population-Based Study of Physical Function and Risk for Elder Abuse Reported to Social Service Agency: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.
    Dong, X., Simon, M., Evans, D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 17, 2012

    We examined the association between physical function and the risk for reported elder abuse. In the Chicago Health and Aging Project (N = 8,932), 238 participants had reported elder abuse. The independent variable was objectively assessed physical function using both directly observed physical performance testing and self-reported physical function (Katz activity of daily living scale, Nagi physical activity scale, and Rosow Breslau mobility scales). Outcomes were elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse. After adjusting for confounders, lower levels of physical performance testing (OR, 2.71[1.58-4.64]), Katz impairment (OR, 1.84[1.29-2.59]), Nagi impairment (OR, 1.65[1.15-2.37]) and Rosow Breslau (OR, 1.76[1.26-2.47]) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Lowest levels of physical performance testing were associated with increased risk for psychological abuse (OR, 2.69[1.27-5.71]), caregiver neglect (OR, 2.66[1.22-5.79]), and financial exploitation (OR, 2.35 [1.21-4.55]). Our results may have important implications to healthcare professional, social services and other disciplines to prevent and treat elder abuse.

    September 17, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812459371   open full text
  • A Characterization of Pain in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Older Adults: A Review of the Literature.
    Lavin, R., Park, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. September 17, 2012

    This article presents a critical review of the influence of interracial and ethnic variation on pain prevalence, intensity, interference/function/disability, and treatment in older adults. A search of scientific databases published from 1900 to 2011, using key words associated with pain, geriatrics, and race/ethnicity, identified 180 articles, of which 27 empirical studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the retained articles, 17 reported that race/ethnicity was a statistically significant factor at p < .05. Minority older adults reported a higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, and variable responses regarding function/disability compared with responses by non-Hispanic White older adults. Minority older adults were less likely to receive prescription pharmacologic treatments and surgery, and they were more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine treatments. There are interracial/ethnic differences in pain assessment and treatment interventions among older adults.

    September 17, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812459372   open full text
  • Consideration of Forgiveness to Enhance the Health Status of Older Male Prisoners Confronting Spiritual, Social, or Emotional Vulnerability.
    Bishop, A. J., Randall, G. K., Merten, M. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 30, 2012

    Participants in this study included 261 men, aged 45 and older, residing within state-managed correctional facilities in Oklahoma. Path analysis was used to examine an integrated mediation model. Spiritual ambivalence, loneliness, and depressive affect had direct negative associations with forgiveness, controlling for age, race, education, and type of crime. Forgiveness also maintained a direct positive association with perceived health status, whereas depressive affect maintained a direct negative association with perceived health status. In addition, a significant indirect effect of depressive affect on perceived health through forgiveness emerged. Overall, the model explained 38% of the variance in forgiveness and 23% in perceived health. Greater spiritual ambivalence, loneliness, and depressive affect diminish forgiveness among older male prisoners, yet higher levels of forgiveness, are associated with greater perceived health.

    August 30, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812456632   open full text
  • Top Nurse-Management Staffing Collapse and Care Quality in Nursing Homes.
    Hunt, S. R., Corazzini, K., Anderson, R. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 22, 2012

    Director of nursing turnover is linked to staff turnover and poor quality of care in nursing homes; however the mechanisms of these relationships are unknown. Using a complexity science framework, we examined how nurse management turnover impacts system capacity to produce high quality care. This study is a longitudinal case analysis of a nursing home (n = 97 staff) with 400% director of nursing turnover during the study time period. Data included 100 interviews, observations and documents collected over 9 months and were analyzed using immersion and content analysis. Turnover events at all staff levels were nonlinear, socially mediated and contributed to dramatic care deficits. Federal mandated, quality assurance mechanisms failed to ensure resident safety. High multilevel turnover should be elevated to a sentinel event for regulators. Suggestions to magnify positive emergence in extreme conditions and to improve quality are provided.

    August 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812455096   open full text
  • A Longitudinal Examination of Sleep Quality and Physical Activity in Older Adults.
    Holfeld, B., Ruthig, J. C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 22, 2012

    The relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is bidirectional, yet prior research on older adults has mainly focused on investigating whether increasing levels of physical activity leads to improvements in sleep quality. The current longitudinal study examined both directional relationships by assessing sleep quality and physical activity twice over a two-year period among 426 community-dwelling older adults (ages 61-100). A cross-lagged panel analysis that included age, gender, perceived stress, functional ability, and severity of chronic health conditions as covariates, revealed that better initial sleep quality predicted higher levels of later physical activity beyond the effects of prior physical activity; whereas initial physical activity did not predict later sleep quality after accounting for prior sleep quality. These findings highlight sleep quality as an important contributor to a physically active lifestyle among older adults.

    August 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812455097   open full text
  • Volunteers Supporting Older People in Formal Care Settings in England: Personal and Local Factors Influencing Prevalence and Type of Participation.
    Hussein, S., Manthorpe, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 22, 2012

    In the UK context of financial austerity and the promotion of the social responsibility through the concept of the "Big Society," volunteers are becoming a more important part of the labor workforce. This is particularly so in the long-term care (LTC) sector, where both shortages of staff and demands for support are particularly high. This article investigate the levels and profile of contribution of volunteers in the LTC sector using a large national data set, National Minimum Data Set for Social Care, linked to local area levels of rurality and socio-economic status. The analysis shows that volunteer activity in formal care services varies between sectors and service types, with no strong relationship between local area deprivation, unemployment levels, and levels of volunteering. However, some significant association was found with level of rurality. The contribution of volunteers is most evident in provision of counseling, support, advocacy, and advice.

    August 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812455098   open full text
  • Responding to Home Maintenance Challenge Scenarios: The Role of Selection, Optimization, and Compensation in Aging-in-Place.
    Kelly, A. J., Fausset, C. B., Rogers, W., Fisk, A. D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 22, 2012

    This study examined potential issues faced by older adults in managing their homes and their proposed solutions for overcoming hypothetical difficulties. Forty-four diverse, independently living older adults (66-85) participated in structured group interviews in which they discussed potential solutions to manage difficulties presented in four scenarios: perceptual, mobility, physical, and cognitive difficulties. The proposed solutions were classified using the Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) model. Participants indicated they would continue performing most tasks and reported a range of strategies to manage home maintenance challenges. Most participants reported that they would manage home maintenance challenges using compensation; the most frequently mentioned compensation strategy was using tools and technologies. There were also differences across the scenarios: Optimization was discussed most frequently with perceptual and cognitive difficulty scenarios. These results provide insights into supporting older adults’ potential needs for aging-in-place and provide evidence of the value of the SOC model in applied research.

    August 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812456631   open full text
  • Hand Hygiene Deficiency Citations in Nursing Homes.
    Castle, N., Wagner, L., Ferguson, J., Handler, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 07, 2012

    Hand hygiene (HH) is recognized as an effective way to decrease transmission of infections. Little research has been conducted surrounding HH in nursing homes (NHs). In this research, deficiency citations representing potential problems with HH practices by staff as identified in the certification process conducted at almost all US NHs were examined. The aims of the study were to identify potential relationships between these deficiency citations and characteristics of the NH and characteristics of the NH environment. We used a panel of 148,900 observations with information primarily coming from the 2000 through 2009 Online Survey, Certification, And Reporting data (OSCAR). An average of 9% of all NHs per year received a deficiency citation for HH. In the multivariate analyses, for all three caregivers examined (i.e., nurse aides, Licensed Practical Nurses, and Registered Nurses) low staffing levels were associated with receiving a deficiency citation for HH. Two measures of poor quality (i.e., [1] Quality of care deficiency citations and [2] J, K, or L deficiency citations, that is deficiency citations with a high extent of harm and/or more residents affected) were also associated with receiving a deficiency citation for HH. Given the percentage of NHs receiving deficiency citations for potential problems with HH identified in this research, more attention should be placed on this issue.

    August 07, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812449903   open full text
  • Identifying At-Risk Dementia Caregivers Following Institutionalization: The Nursing Home Admission- Burden and Nursing Home Admission-Depression Prognostic Tools.
    Gaugler, J. E., Mittelman, M. S., Hepburn, K., Newcomer, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 07, 2012

    The current study developed prognostic tools to identify dementia caregivers at-risk for clinically relevant burden or depressive symptoms following nursing home admission (NHA) of their family members. A retrospective, longitudinal design was used that included 1,610 dementia caregivers who provided data prior to and up to 6 months following nursing home admission. Response operant characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to test and validate two prognostic tools: the NHA-Burden and NHA-Depression tools. An ROC curve yielded a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 62.5% at a cutoff score of 5.41 for the NHA-Burden Prognostic tool. A second ROC curve indicated a sensitivity of 75.4% and a specificity of 62.5% at a cutoff score of 7.45 for the NHA-Depression tool. Clinicians may wish to utilize cutpoints on the NHA-Burden and NHA-Depression tools to ensure that more persons who are at-risk for clinically significant burden or depression during NHA are identified.

    August 07, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812454008   open full text
  • Relationship Between Nonprescribed Therapy Use for Illness Prevention and Health Promotion and Health-Related Quality of Life.
    Altizer, K. P., Nguyen, H. T., Neiberg, R. H., Quandt, S. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Lang, W., Bell, R. A., Arcury, T. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 01, 2012

    Objectives: This study describes the nonprescribed therapy use (prayer, over-the-counter medications [OTC’s], home remedies, vitamins, herbs and supplements, and exercise) for health promotion among rural elders. It also delineates the association of such therapy use with physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

    Method: The sample (N = 200) consisted of African American and White elders from south-central North Carolina. Participants completed baseline interviews and repeated measures of nonprescribed therapy use over a 6-month follow-up.

    Results: Prayer had the highest percentage (80.7%) of use for health promotion followed by OTC (54.3%); vitamins only (49.3%); herbs and supplements (40.5%); exercise (31.9%); and home remedies (5.2%). Exercise was significantly associated with better physical HRQoL (p < .05). However, elders who used nonprescribed therapies had poorer mental HRQoL than nonusers, adjusting for potential confounders.

    Conclusion: This analysis suggests that use of some nonprescribed therapies for health promotion is associated with poorer mental HRQoL.

    August 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812453518   open full text
  • Going Digital: Adoption of Electronic Health Records in Assisted Living Facilities.
    Holup, A. A., Dobbs, D., Temple, A., Hyer, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 01, 2012

    This pilot study examines the associations between structural characteristics and the adoption and subsequent use of electronic health records (EHR; resident demographics, clinical notes, medication lists, problem lists, discharge summaries, and advance directives) as a process characteristic in assisted living facilities (ALFs). The study is guided conceptually by Donabedian’s Structure-Process-Outcome (SPO) model. Primary survey data were collected from a randomly selected sample (N = 76) in Florida during 2009-2010. Analysis included descriptive and bivariate statistics. Descriptive results indicated that ALFs most frequently used an EHR to record medication lists. Characteristics, including size, profit status, resident case mix, and staffing, were associated at the bivariate level with the use of one or more functional domains of an EHR. Thus, the use of EHRs in ALFs is correlated with facility characteristics.

    August 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812454009   open full text
  • Risk Factors for Hospitalization in a National Sample of Medicare Home Health Care Patients.
    Fortinsky, R. H., Madigan, E. A., Sheehan, T. J., Tullai-McGuinness, S., Kleppinger, A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 01, 2012

    Acute care hospitalization during or immediately following a Medicare home health care (HHC) episode is a major adverse outcome, but little has been published about HHC patient-level risk factors for hospitalization. The authors determined risk factors at HHC admission associated with subsequent acute care hospitalization in a nationally representative Medicare patient sample (N = 374,123). Hospitalization was measured using Medicare claims data; risk factors were measured using Outcome Assessment and Information Set data. Seventeen percent of sample members were hospitalized. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that the most influential risk factors (all p < .001) were skin wound as primary HHC diagnosis, clinician-judged guarded rehabilitation prognosis, congestive heart failure as primary HHC diagnosis, presence of depressive symptoms, dyspnea severity, and Black, compared to White. HHC initiatives that minimize chronic condition exacerbations and actively treat depressive symptoms might help reduce Medicare patient hospitalizations. Unmeasured reasons for higher hospitalization rates among Black HHC patients deserve further investigation.

    August 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812454007   open full text
  • The Value of Resident Choice During Daily Care: Do Staff and Families Differ?
    Simmons, S. F., Durkin, D. W., Rahman, A. N., Schnelle, J. F., Beuscher, L. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 01, 2012

    Allowing long-term care (LTC) residents to make choices about their daily life activities is a central tenet of resident-centered care. This study examined whether staff and family rated care episodes involving choice differently from care episodes not involving choice. Seventeen nurse aide and 15 family participants were shown paired video vignettes of care interactions. Participants were asked to rate their preferred care vignette using a standardized forced-choice questionnaire. Focus groups were held separately for staff and family members following this rating task to determine reasons for their preferences. Both staff and family rated the vignettes depicting choice as "strongly" preferred to the vignettes without choice. Reasons provided for the preference ratings during the focus group discussions related to resident well-being, sense of control, and respondents’ own personal values. These findings have implications for LTC staff training related to resident-centered care to promote choice.

    August 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812454010   open full text
  • Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Older People.
    Manty, M., Rantanen, T., Era, P., Avlund, K.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 01, 2012

    Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known how different measures of fatigue are associated with depressive symptoms among general older populations. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults reporting mobility-related or general feelings fatigue. The study population consisted of 75-year-old community-living individuals (n = 561). Both, mobility-related and general fatigue, were associated in a stepwise relationship with depressive symptoms: a higher level of fatigue was related to higher level of depressive symptoms. Especially major general fatigue was strongly associated with high level of depressive symptoms. It is important for professionals of the field to be aware of the associations between different measures of fatigue and depressive symptoms.

    August 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812454011   open full text
  • The Development and Evaluation of Mutual Support Groups in Long- Term Care Homes.
    Theurer, K., Wister, A., Sixsmith, A., Chaudhury, H., Lovegreen, L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 25, 2012

    This article describes the development of a new mutual support group intervention for long-term care homes (LTCH); evaluates the processes, structure, and content of the intervention; and addresses replication and sustainability. Tom Kitwood’s model of personhood is used as the basis for developing a weekly discussion group using themes chosen by participants and theme-associated music, readings, and photographs. A mixed-methods qualitative process evaluation design encompasses focus groups, systematic observation of six resident groups, individual resident interviews (N = 65), and staff interviews (N = 7) in three LTCH in British Columbia, Canada. Resident reports and observations indicate positive benefits including a decrease in loneliness, the development of friendships, and increased coping skills, understanding, and support. Participating staff reported numerous benefits and described how the unique group structure fosters active participation of residents with moderate-severe cognitive impairment. This preliminary study suggests that mutual support groups have potential to offset loneliness, helplessness, and depression within LTCH.

    June 25, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812446866   open full text
  • State Long-Term Care Ombudsmen's Perceptions of Their Program's Disaster Preparedness Roles and Readiness.
    Nelson, H. W., Agley, D., Netting, F. E., Borders, K. W., Huber, R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 25, 2012

    A telephone survey of 43 state long-term care ombudsmen (LTCO) assessed their familiarity with relevant long-term care disaster resources, their provision of disaster aids and training to staff, and their perceived preparedness to lead their programs during public crises. Thirty-four directors (78%) reported being fairly well to fully prepared to support their local programs during public emergencies. However, ANOVAs showed that the 27 disaster experienced ombudsmen felt no better prepared to help their local paid and volunteer staff deal with public emergencies than disaster inexperienced ombudsmen. Those directly involved with emergency planners felt better prepared to help their substate staff to know where to start helping residents during a public crisis than ombudsmen who had no involvement with disaster planners. Familiarity with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Emergency Planning Checklist for LTC Ombudsmen (2007) was strongly associated with the ombudsmen’s familiarity with emergency resources and regulations.

    June 25, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812446865   open full text
  • The State of Adult Day Services: Findings and Implications From the MetLife National Study of Adult Day Services.
    Anderson, K. A., Dabelko-Schoeny, H., Johnson, T. D.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 25, 2012

    With approximately 4,600 centers serving over 260,000 persons each day, adult day services (ADS) continues to be a growing sector within the long-term care industry. However, due to the absence of national data, a full and detailed understanding of the ADS industry has been limited. In the first national study since 2002, researchers collected descriptive and programmatic data on a randomly selected sample (N = 557) of ADS facilities across the United States. Results indicated substantial changes in facility characteristics (e.g., size, staffing), participant characteristics (e.g., age, care needs), service provision (e.g., psychosocial, nursing, and medical services), and financing and funding (e.g., rates, reimbursement). Data suggested that the ADS industry has an increased capacity to serve as a provider of comprehensive health care for families and as a platform for chronic disease management. Implications for public policy makers, providers, and researchers are discussed in light of the current health care environment.

    June 25, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812447284   open full text
  • Older Adults' Driving Reduction and Cessation: Perspectives of Adult Children.
    Connell, C. M., Harmon, A., Janevic, M. R., Kostyniuk, L. P.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 25, 2012

    Purpose of the Study. Adult children are often directly affected by aging parents’ decision to limit or stop driving. This qualitative study examined the process of driving reduction and cessation (DRC) from the perspective of adult children, with a focus on family communication.

    Design and Methods. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 37 adult children (29/37 female; mean age = 45.5) of older parents using a structured protocol. Transcripts were analyzed by two independent coders to identify major themes.

    Results. Themes represented three aspects of the DRC process: family communication and dynamics (i.e., discussion, negotiation, and planning; avoidance and side stepping; resignation and refusal), taking action to end a parent’s driving career (i.e., engaging a third party; taking away the car), and post-cessation reflection (i.e., relief; social benefits; resentment and guilt).

    Implications. Despite the potential benefits of planning for DRC, families are unsure about how best to approach this topic. Adult children worry about assuming responsibility for their parents’ transportation needs and their parents’ reactions to restricted mobility. Despite a reluctance to communicate openly about DRC, adult children and their parents share similar and significant concerns that merit increased attention.

    June 25, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812448962   open full text
  • Degree of Rurality is Not Related to Dementia Caregiver Distress, Burden, and Coping in a Predominantly Rural Sample.
    O'Connell, M. E., Germaine, N., Burton, R., Stewart, N., Morgan, D. G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 25, 2012

    Earlier research suggests that geographic location matters for informal caregivers of persons with dementia: rural caregivers tend to rely on more informal supports and may report more psychological distress and burden than urban caregivers. Differential access to services may underlie these findings, but degree of rurality is typically measured with population size. In contrast, the current article measured degree of rurality with standardized scale of access to metropolitan centers. In a large sample we found nonsignificant and trivial associations between metropolitan access with self-reported caregiver distress, (N = 272; Brief Symptom Inventory), burden (N = 234; Zarit Burden Interview), and coping (n = 46; Jalowiec Coping Scale). The null findings were likely related to the use of a proxy variable for dementia-related caregiver supports (i.e., degree of access to metropolitan centers). In future research, direct measures of access to appropriate dementia related services should be used to study caregiver outcomes.

    June 25, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812450071   open full text
  • Psychometric Properties of the Index of Relocation Adjustment.
    Bekhet, A. K., Zauszniewski, J. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 25, 2012

    More and more American older adults are relocating to retirement communities, and they experience challenges in adjusting to new surroundings that may increase their depression and mortality. An instrument not previously tested in the United States, the Index of Relocation Adjustment (IRA), may help in early identification of poor relocation adjustment. This study examined the psychometric properties of the IRA using secondary data from a convenience sample of 104 older adults who relocated to 6 retirement communities in Northeast Ohio. Cronbach’s alpha was .86. The IRA was correlated with measures of positive cognitions (r = .48, p < .01) and relocation controllability (r = –.62, p < .01), suggesting construct validity. Results indicated a single factor reflecting relocation adjustment with loadings for all items ranging from .62 to .83. The IRA is potentially useful as a screening measure for early detection of poor adjustment among relocated older adults.

    June 25, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812450072   open full text
  • In-Hospital Mortality and Unintentional Falls Among Older Adults in the United States.
    Moudouni, D. K. M., Phillips, C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 07, 2012

    Purpose of the Study: To estimate the odds of death associated with documented unintentional falls and acute care hospitalization among older adults in the United States.

    Design and Method: Data were abstracted from the 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and odds of death were modeled using logistic regression.

    Results: The age 65 and older fall rate per 1,000 discharges was 53.0 while the mortality rate for those who fell was 33.2. Older-old (odds ration [OR] = 2.93; confidence interval [CI] = [2.50, 3.43]), men (OR = 1.64, CI = [1.54, 1.75]), and non-White (OR = 1.09; CI = [1.01, 1.19]) had higher odds of death compared to younger-old, women, and Whites. Additional comorbidity (OR = 3.41, CI = [3.05, 3.82]), dehydration (OR = 1.14; CI = [1.05, 1.25]) and intracranial fractures (OR = 4.46; CI = [4.02, 4.95]) resulted in greater odds of death.

    Implications: Among older adults who experienced a fall and hospitalization, odds of mortality appear influenced by factors beyond injury severity related to falling. Additional research is necessary to delineate the mechanisms behind these phenomena to inform the public about falls-prevention programs.

    June 07, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812445615   open full text
  • Effect of an Interdisciplinary Educational Program on Antipsychotic Prescribing Among Residents With Dementia in Two Long-Term Care Centers.
    Monette, J., Monette, M., Sourial, N., Vandal, A. C., Wolfson, C., Champoux, N., Fletcher, J., Savoie, M. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 04, 2012

    The effect of an educational program on antipsychotic prescribing was assessed in two Canadian long-term care centers (LTCC). In each center (Center A residents, n = 258 and Center B residents, n = 191, with dementia at program inception), the rate of change in the odds of using antipsychotics in residents was estimated using mixed-effects logistic regression during a 6-month program period and a 4-month postprogram period, with baseline proportions of use estimated during the 6 months prior to the program. Preprogram proportions of antipsychotic use were 41.6% and 46.2%, respectively. Antipsychotic use decreased during the program in both centers: (odds ratio with 95% CI: 0.943 per week [0.921, 0.965] and 0.969 per week [0.944, 0.994], respectively). During the postprogram period, antipsychotic use increased in Center A (1.039 per week [1.007, 1.072]) but decreased progressively in Center B. The study results suggest the need to implement an ongoing educational program in LTCC.

    June 04, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812440042   open full text
  • Aging Without Driving: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study, 1993 to 2008.
    Choi, M., Mezuk, B.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 04, 2012

    This study characterized older adults who do not drive (former and never drivers) and examined how this group of elders has changed over the past 15 years. Sample included community-living adults aged 70 to 85 who do not drive from the 1993 Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old Study (N = 1,979) and 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 1,119). Chi-square and t tests were used to assess differences between never and former drivers and between cohorts. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of having never driven. The driving status among older adults has improved over the past 15 years as the proportion of never drivers declined from 11% to 2%. However, nondriving has become more concentrated among ethnic minority women, and the gaps in education and net worth between former and never drivers widened over the 15 years.

    June 04, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812441502   open full text
  • The Effectiveness of Adult Day Services for Older Adults: A Review of the Literature From 2000 to 2011.
    Fields, N. L., Anderson, K. A., Dabelko-Schoeny, H.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 04, 2012

    Adult Day Service (ADS) centers offer a variety of services to meet the needs of older adults and their caregivers. During the last decade, ADS has received increased attention due to shifts in policy toward home and community-based services for an aging population. This article reviews the effectiveness of ADS from 2000 to the present, with particular attention given to caregiver and participant outcomes, health care utilization, and future directions in ADS research. Multiple databases were searched to identify relevant research and 61 articles were selected for review based on inclusion criteria. The results of this review emphasize the need to implement and test more specific interventions targeting the needs of the ADS population.

    June 04, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812443308   open full text
  • Use of a Dementia Training Designed for Nurse Aides to Train Other Staff.
    Irvine, A. B., Beaty, J. A., Seeley, J. R., Bourgeois, M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 04, 2012

    Problematic resident behaviors may escalate in long-term care facilities (LTCs). If nurse aides (NAs) are not nearby, the nearest staff to intervene may be nondirect care workers (NDCWs), who have little or no dementia training. This pilot research tested Internet dementia-training program, designed for NAs, on NDCWs in a LTC setting. Sixty-eight NDCWs participated, filling out two baseline surveys at 1-month intervals and a posttest survey after training. The surveys included video-situation testing, items addressing psychosocial constructs associated with behavior change, and measures training-acceptance. Paired t tests showed significant positive effects on measures of knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions, with small-moderate effect sizes. Nursing staff as well as non–health care workers showed improved scores, and the website training program was well received by all participants. These results suggest that Internet training may allow staff development coordinators to conserve limited resources by cross-training of different job categories with the same program.

    June 04, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812446021   open full text
  • Examining the Perceptions, Preferences, and Practices That Influence Healthy Aging for African American Older Adults: An Ecological Perspective.
    Waites, C.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 04, 2012

    This study explored the healthy aging and health promotion perceptions, preferences, and practices of a purposive sample of African American older adults who resided in two communities in the south. An ecological framework was used to capture environmental factors, perceptions regarding access to health promotion resources, and health behavior preferences and practices. A mixed-method approach was used. Health supporting amenities were mapped, focus groups were conducted, and demographic information was obtained. The data were merged to create consolidated themes. The results indicated that health promotion amenities were available, but with some limitations. Convenient access to transportation strongly affected ability to use resources. Older adults were interested in preserving their health and independence, but some had difficulty staying motivated to maintain a healthy lifestyle. They wanted easier access to amenities. Implications for best practice include attention to culturally responsive outreach, motivating with social support and incentives, and developing community-based culturally compatible programming.

    June 04, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812446020   open full text
  • The Impact of Numeracy Ability and Technology Skills on Older Adults' Performance of Health Management Tasks Using a Patient Portal.
    Taha, J., Sharit, J., Czaja, S. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 04, 2012

    Patient portals, which allow patients to access their health record via the Internet, are becoming increasingly widespread and are expected to be used by diverse consumer populations. In addition to technology skills, numeracy skills are also likely to be critical to performing health management tasks, as much of the data contained in the portal are numeric. This study examined how factors such as Internet experience, numeracy, and education impacted the performance of common tasks using a simulated patient portal among a sample of older adults. In addition, information was gathered on the ability of older adults to estimate their numeracy skills. Results indicated that numeracy and Internet experience had a significant impact on their ability to perform the tasks and that older adults tended to overestimate their numeracy skills. Results from this study can help to identify interventions that may enhance the usability of patient portals for older adults.

    June 04, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812447283   open full text
  • Social Capital and Self-Rated Health Among Older Korean Immigrants.
    Kim, B. J., Harris, L. M.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 04, 2012

    Purpose of the Study: The objective of this article is to investigate determinants of self-rated health and describe their association with social capital and socioeconomic characteristics among older Korean immigrants.

    Method: A cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants (aged 60 years and older) was conducted in Los Angeles county. Independent variables included age, gender, marital status, income of the older Koreans, and social capital included social norms, trust, partnership with the community, information sharing, and political participation. Self-rated health was the dependent variable.

    Results: Descriptive analyses were done to show group differences in self-rated health and logistic regression analyses to identify determinants of self-rated health. Gender (male), high income, and high levels of information sharing were significant determinants of high self-rated health status among older Korean immigrants.

    Implications: This population-based study provides empirical evidence that gender, income, and information sharing are directly associated with the self-rated health status of older Korean immigrants.

    June 04, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812448528   open full text
  • Latino Alzheimer's Disease Caregivers and Depression: Using the Stress Coping Model to Examine the Effects of Spirituality and Religion.
    Sun, F., Hodge, D. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. May 15, 2012

    This study used stress coping theory to examine the effects of spirituality and religion on depression among a sample of Latino family members caring for a person with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in the United States. Participants consisted of 209 Latino caregivers (CGs) drawn from baseline data from the Resource for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregivers Health (REACH) II clinical trial. The findings indicate that church attendance moderates the relationship between subjective forms of stress and depression in tandem with exhibiting direct effects on depression. Consistent with the central role religion plays in Latino culture, the results imply that religious involvement may play an important role in mitigating depression through indirect and direct pathways.

    May 15, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812444462   open full text
  • Older Adults' Fears About Diabetes: Common Sense Models of Disease to Understand Fear Origins and Implications for Self-Management.
    Quandt, S. A., Reynolds, T., Chapman, C., Bell, R. A., Grzywacz, J. G., Ip, E. H., Kirk, J. K., Arcury, T. A.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 23, 2012

    This study examines older adults’ fears of diabetes complications and their

    effects on self-management practices. Existing models of diabetes self-management posit

    that patients’ actions are grounded in disease beliefs and experience, but there is

    little supporting evidence. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a

    community-based sample of 74 African American, American Indian, and White older adults

    with diabetes. Analysis uses Leventhal’s Common Sense Model of Diabetes to link

    fears to early experience and current self-management. Sixty-three participants identify fears

    focused on complications that could limit carrying out normal activities: amputation,

    blindness, low blood glucose and coma, and disease progression to insulin use and

    dialysis. Most focus self-management on actions to prevent specific complications, rather

    than on managing the disease as a whole. Early experiences focus attention on the

    inevitability of complications and the limited ability of patients to prevent them. Addressing

    older adults’ fears about diabetes may improve their diabetes self-management


    April 23, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464811435506   open full text
  • Be Well: Results of a Nutrition, Exercise, and Weight Management Intervention Among At-Risk Older Adults.
    Kogan, A. C., Gonzalez, J., Hart, B., Halloran, S., Thomason, B., Levine, M., Enguidanos, S.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 23, 2012

    The objective of this article is to test the effectiveness of a multifaceted exercise and nutritional education intervention for chronically ill, community-dwelling older adults. A pre/post cohort design was implemented with measures of physical activity, fitness, depression, and anthropometry collected via 4-month in-person interview and telephone follow-up. The study was conducted at two community-based senior centers in the Los Angeles area and participants (n=62) were older adults aged 60 or older, with multiple chronic conditions, with one or more emergency department visits or hospital admissions in the previous 6 months, and at nutritionally moderate to high risk. The intervention was a fitness program providing nutritional counseling, low-impact exercise, and weight management. Results revealed significant improvements for hours of weekly exercise (Z = –4.3, p < .001), daily walking distance (Z = –5.7, p < .001), performance on fitness tests, depression (Z = 3.9, p < .001), and body measurements were observed. Findings speak to the healthy benefits of exercise and good nutrition as possible alternatives or adjuncts to pharmacotherapy for weight loss and depression.

    April 23, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812440043   open full text
  • Relationships Among Employees' Working Conditions, Mental Health, and Intention to Leave in Nursing Homes.
    Zhang, Y., Punnett, L., Gore, R., The CPH-NEW Research Team.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. April 23, 2012

    Employee turnover is a large and expensive problem in the long-term care environment. Stated intention to leave is a reliable indicator of likely turnover, but actual predictors, especially for nursing assistants, have been incompletely investigated. This quantitative study identifies the relationships among employees’ working conditions, mental health, and intention to leave. Self-administered questionnaires were collected with 1,589 employees in 18 for-profit nursing homes. A working condition index for the number of beneficial job features was constructed. Poisson regression modeling found that employees who reported four positive features were 77% less likely to state strong intention to leave (PR = 0.23, p < .001). The strength of relationship between working conditions and intention to leave was slightly mediated by employee mental health. Effective workplace intervention programs must address work organization features to reduce employee intention to leave. Healthy workplaces should build better interpersonal relationships, show respect for employee work, and involve employees in decision-making processes.

    April 23, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812443085   open full text
  • Home Care Workers: Interstate Differences in Training Requirements and Their Implications for Quality.
    Kelly, C. M., Morgan, J. C., Jason, K. J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2012

    Home care workers, the fastest growing segment of the U.S. direct care workforce, provide nonmedical services that are not reimbursed by Medicare; consequently, requirements for training and supervision are left to the states. The purposes of this study are to compare these state requirements and to identify core competencies for home care workers. Our content analysis of relevant state laws determined that 29 states require a license for home care providers. Of these 29 states, 26 require orientation and 15 require in-service training for home care workers; the duration and content of these programs vary widely across the states. Fifteen states require on-site supervision of home care workers. We believe that in addition to current state training requirements (e.g., activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) assistance; infection control), other core competencies (e.g., basic medication information; behavioral management) should also be mandatory. More frequent on-site supervision is also necessary to improve home care quality.

    March 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812437371   open full text
  • Age Differential Effects of Severity of Visual Impairment on Mortality Among Older Adults in China.
    Gu, D., Zhou, J., Yong, V., Sautter, J., Saito, Y.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2012

    We use a population-based longitudinal survey in China from 2002 to 2005 to examine age differentials in the association between severity of visual impairment and mortality risk in older adults. Controlling for numerous factors and baseline health, a substantial age difference is found. Young-old women and men aged 65 to 79 with severe visual impairments have 161% (hazard ratio = 2.61) and 52% (hazard ratio = 1.52) higher risk of death respectively as compared to their unimpaired counterparts. Mild impairment does not increase mortality risk among young-old adults, while both mild and severe impairment increase mortality risk by 33% and 32% for women and 24% and 34% for men among the oldest-old as a whole when all factors are controlled for. We conclude that visual impairment is an independent predictor of mortality and severe visual impairment likely plays a stronger role in determining mortality risk among young-old adults than among the oldest-old.

    March 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464812438634   open full text
  • The Perception of Meaningfulness and Performance of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living From the Perspectives of the Medically At-Risk Older Adults and Their Caregivers.
    Dickerson, A. E., Reistetter, T., Gaudy, J. R.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2012

    The purpose of the study was to understand the impact of chronic disability on the functional ability of older adults. Thirty older adult participants and their caregivers were asked to identify which instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are most meaningful and how their disability affected performance. Data collected through individual analysis indicated that the most important IADL tasks were driving and managing medication. Both older adult participants and their caregivers similarly perceived the health condition as significantly affecting the performance of all of the IADLs. However, there was a difference in the perception of the prior level of functioning for managing medication (z = 2.45, p = .024) and phone use (z = 2.26, p = .014). Results arrived at, and to be discussed, were in agreement with previous research findings indicating that complex tasks of daily living, particularly driving, are significant to the older adult’s quality of life.

    March 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464811432455   open full text
  • Caregiver Burden and Depression in Mild Cognitive Impairment.
    Springate, B., Tremont, G.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2012

    Little is known about contributors to burden and depression in caregivers of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) even though these patients experience cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. We examined caregiver burden and depression in 43 caregivers for patients with MCI as well as their associations with patients’ neuropsychological status and behavioral symptoms. Almost 30% of caregivers reported clinically significant burden, whereas <5% reported significant depression. Increased caregiver burden was associated with greater disinhibited behaviors by patients, whereas increased caregiver depressive symptoms were associated with greater disinhibited behaviors as well as instrumental activity of daily living (ADL) impairments. Caregiver burden and depression were not associated with patients’ neuropsychological performance. Results suggest these caregivers would benefit from interventions addressing both practical methods to provide ADL assistance and behavioral methods to address inappropriate behaviors in patients in the predementia stages.

    March 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464811433486   open full text
  • The Quality of Feeding Assistance Care Practices for Long-Term Care Veterans: Implications for Quality Improvement Efforts.
    Simmons, S. F., Sims, N., Durkin, D. W., Shotwell, M. S., Erwin, S., Schnelle, J. F.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2012

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the quality of feeding assistance care and identify areas in need of improvement for a sample of long-term care veterans. A secondary purpose was to compare these findings with the results of previous studies in community facilities to determine ways in which the VA sample might differ. A repeated measures observational study was conducted in two VA facilities with 200 long-stay residents. Research staff conducted standardized observations during and between meals for 3 months. There was a trend for better feeding assistance care quality during meals in the VA sample, but there were still multiple aspects of care in need of improvement both during and between meals. Higher licensed nurse staffing levels in the VA should enable effective supervision and management, but observation-based measures of care quality are necessary for accurate information about daily feeding assistance care provision.

    March 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464811433487   open full text
  • Development and Reliability of the Mealtime Social Interaction Measure for Long-Term Care (MSILTC).
    Keller, H. H., Laurie, C. B., McLeod, J., Ridgeway, N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2012

    Mealtimes are important social events in retirement (RH) and long term care homes (LTC). This manuscript describes the development, refining and scaling of the MSILTC as well as inter-observer reliability. Two facilities provided access to their RH (n~100) and LTC (n~30-45) dining rooms. This observation-based tool captures both frequency and nature of interactions. Mealtime observations were carried out by trained researchers for development (n=13 tables), refinement (n=12 tables) scaling (n=17 tables) and reliability (n= 30 tables). Tablemate and staff level sub scores are calculated considering number of residents at the table and duration of the meal. Statistical analysis using Cohen’s kappa demonstrated that the tool possesses adequate reliability for capturing frequency of interaction among residents and staff [kappa 0.712 and 0.790 respectively]; reliability for nature of interaction was lower [kappa 0.590 and 0.441 respectively]. Construct validity testing is planned to complete the development of the MSILTC.

    March 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464811433841   open full text
  • Local Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program Effectiveness and the Measurement of Program Resources.
    Hollister, B. A., Estes, C. L.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. March 22, 2012

    Local Long-Term Care Ombudsman Programs (LLTCOPs) protect the health, safety, welfare, and rights of residents in long-term care (LTC) facilities. This study examines the (a) existing resources available to LLTCOPs in Georgia, California, and New York, (b) relationship of resources to LLTCOP’s reported effectiveness in meeting its federal mandates, and (c) state-specific mediating factors influencing LLTCOPs’ resources and reported effectiveness. Quantitative and qualitative data from the National Ombudsman Reporting System (NORS) and a telephone survey of LLTCOPs in Georgia, California, and New York were collected and analyzed. Resource adequacy, as measured by beds per full-time equivalent staff (beds/FTE), is inconsistently associated with effectiveness in meeting federal mandates across and within the states studied. Analysis of alternate resource measures suggests a threshold of LLTCOP size, under which program effectiveness may be lower. LLTCOPs report the changing LTC environment and additional state mandates as factors influencing resource adequacy.

    March 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0733464811434144   open full text
  • Aging and Mobility in Rural and Small Urban Areas: A Survey of North Dakota.
    Mattson, J. W.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 25, 2010

    To investigate issues of aging and mobility in rural and small urban areas, this study analyzes the results from a survey AARP conducted of its North Dakota members. Specific objectives are to estimate the impact of age and other demographic and geographic characteristics on various measures of mobility, including ability to drive, use of public transportation, trip frequency for both discretionary and nondiscretionary travel, unmet travel demand, barriers to using public transportation, and satisfaction with available transportation options. Although most surveyed still drive, results show decreased mobility with increases in age and for people with disabilities due to decreases in driving and an increased likelihood of lack of transportation limiting the number of trips taken. People with disabilities were also significantly more likely to experience problems with public transportation. Women were found to be less likely to drive and more likely to use public transportation.

    August 25, 2010   doi: 10.1177/0733464810378107   open full text
  • The Evolution of Nursing Home Report Cards.
    Castle, N., Diesel, J., Ferguson, J.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 25, 2010

    Nursing home report cards can be potentially key tools for disseminating information to consumers. However, few accounts of state-based nursing home report cards are available. In the research presented here, the scale, scope, utility, and changes over time in these nursing home report cards are described. This article finds that the number of report cards has increased from 24 in 2003 to 29 in 2009. The quality information presented varies considerably; however, deficiency citations are still the most frequently reported quality indicators. The utility of report cards varies considerably. The authors present their opinions of features that seem most conducive for consumer use of these report cards.

    August 25, 2010   doi: 10.1177/0733464810378263   open full text
  • Nursing Home Deficiency Citations for Abuse.
    Castle, N.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 04, 2010

    Deficiency citations for resident abuse from U.S. nursing homes from 2000 to 2007 are examined. Deficiency citations are given to nursing homes that are in violation of Medicare/Medicaid regulations and four specific deficiency citations (representing, abuse; neglect by staff; criminal screening investigating and reporting; and, abuse prevention and policy development and implementation) were examined. The data came from the Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting (OSCAR) system data (N = 173,219) and the analyses used generalized estimating equations. Abuse deficiency citation rates were relatively stable (from 2000 to 2007), with approximately 20% of facilities per year receiving any one of these citations. For the factors of interest, few significant findings were identified for staffing levels; whereas, a high number of deficiency citations related to quality of care, high number of the most severe deficiency citations, high Medicaid reimbursement rates, and the Medicaid occupancy/reimbursement rate interaction were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of receiving a deficiency citation for abuse.

    August 04, 2010   doi: 10.1177/0733464810378262   open full text
  • Rural Residents' Perspectives on Multiple Morbidity Management and Disease Prevention.
    Bardach, S. H., Schoenberg, N. E., Tarasenko, Y. N., Fleming, S. T.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. August 02, 2010

    Middle-aged and older adults often experience several simultaneously occurring chronic conditions or "multiple morbidity" (MM). The task of both managing MM and preventing chronic conditions can be overwhelming, particularly in populations with high disease burdens, low socioeconomic status, and health care provider shortages. This article sought to understand Appalachian residents’ perspectives on MM management and prevention. Forty-one rural Appalachian residents aged 50 and above with MM were interviewed about disease management and colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. Transcripts were examined for overall analytic categories and coded using techniques to enhance transferability and rigor. Participants indicate facing various challenges to prevention due, in part, to conditions within their rural environment. Patients and providers spend significant time and energy on MM management, often precluding prevention activities. This article discusses implications of MM management for CRC prevention and strategies to increase disease prevention among this rural, vulnerable population burdened by MM.

    August 02, 2010   doi: 10.1177/0733464810378106   open full text
  • Retraction: Effects of a Telephone-Based Exercise Intervention for Dementia Caregiving Wives: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Journal of Applied Gerontology. June 18, 2009

    This article has been retracted

    June 18, 2009   doi: 10.1177/0733464808327455   open full text