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Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences

Impact factor: 0.75 5-Year impact factor: 0.909 Print ISSN: 0022-5061 Online ISSN: 1520-6696 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)

Subject: History Of Social Sciences

Most recent papers:

  • The ambivert: A failed attempt at a normal personality.
    Ian J. Davidson.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. September 19, 2017
    Recently, attention has been drawn toward an overlooked and nearly forgotten personality type: the ambivert. This paper presents a genealogy of the ambivert, locating the various contexts it traversed in order to highlight the ways in which these places and times have interacted and changed—ultimately elucidating our current situation. Proposed by Edmund S. Conklin in 1923, the ambivert only was meant for normal persons in between the introvert and extravert extremes. Although the ambivert could have been taken up by early personality psychologists who were transitioning from the study of the abnormal to the normal, it largely failed to gain traction. Whether among psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, or applied and personality psychologists, the ambivert was personality non grata. It was only within the context of Eysenck's integrative view of types and traits that the ambivert marginally persisted up to the present day and is now the focus of sales management and popular psychology.
    September 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21868   open full text
  • In between mental evolution and unconscious memory: Lamarckism, Darwinism, and professionalism in late Victorian Britain.
    Cristiano Turbil.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. September 12, 2017
    In 1884 Samuel Butler published a collection of essays entitled Remarks on George Romanes’ Mental Evolution, where he attempted to show how Romanes’ idea of mental evolution presented similarities with his theory of unconscious memory. By looking at Romanes’ work through Butler’s writing, this article will reevaluate some aspects of their works regarding the complex debate about memory, heredity, and instinct. This paper will explore the main differences and similarities between Romanes’ science and Butler’s writing on science both in terms of their ideas and contents. It will then look into their different professional relationships with Darwin and how this determined the professional and public reception of their theories.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21870   open full text
  • Bringing radical behaviorism to revolutionary Brazil and back: Fred Keller's Personalized System of Instruction and Cold War engineering education.
    Atsushi Akera.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. September 12, 2017
    This article traces the shifting epistemic commitments of Fred S. Keller and his behaviorist colleagues during their application of Skinnerian radical behaviorism to higher education pedagogy. Building on prior work by Alexandra Rutherford and her focus on the successive adaptation of Skinnerian behaviorism during its successive applications, this study utilizes sociologist of science Karin Knorr Cetina's concept of epistemic cultures to more precisely trace the changes in the epistemic commitments of a group of radical behaviorists as they shifted their focus to applied behavioral analysis. The story revolves around a self‐paced system of instruction known as the Personalized System of Instruction, or PSI, which utilized behaviorist principles to accelerate learning within the classroom. Unlike Skinner's entry into education, and his focus on educational technologies, Keller developed a mastery‐based approach to instruction that utilized generalized reinforcers to cultivate higher‐order learning behaviors. As it happens, the story also unfolds across a rather fantastic political terrain: PSI originated in the context of Brazilian revolutionary history, but circulated widely in the U.S. amidst Cold War concerns about an engineering manpower(sic) crisis. This study also presents us with an opportunity to test Knorr Cetina's conjecture about the possible use of a focus on epistemic cultures in addressing a classic problem in the sociology of science, namely unpacking the relationship between knowledge and its social context. Ultimately, however, this study complements another historical case study in applied behavioral analysis, where a difference in outcome helps to lay out the range of possible shifts in the epistemic commitments of radical behaviorists who entered different domains of application. The case study also has some practical implications for those creating distance learning environments today, which are briefly explored in the conclusion.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21871   open full text
  • The genesis of victimization surveys and of the realist‐constructionist divide.
    Matthieu Castelbajac.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. September 12, 2017
    The invention of victimization surveys is often presented as a synthesis of the two theoretical attitudes that, supposedly, dominated the 1960s debate over official crime statistics: realism and social constructionism. This paper turns this genesis story on its head. Using original archives, I argue that victimization surveys responded to organizational opportunities in the field of applied research. It was only after the fact that two of their architects seized the debate on crime measurement to broadcast their invention. In so doing they strategically recast the terms of this debate into a binary division between two antithetical social ontologies. This case is used to discuss how social scientists come to reinterpret and misunderstand their history.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21869   open full text
  • Balancing life and work by unbending gender: Early American women psychologists’ struggles and contributions.
    Elizabeth Johnston, Ann Johnson.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. July 19, 2017
    Women's participation in the work force shifted markedly throughout the twentieth century, from a low of 21 percent in 1900 to 59 percent in 1998. The influx of women into market work, particularly married women with children, put pressure on the ideology of domesticity: an ideal male worker in the outside market married to a woman taking care of children and home (Williams, 2000). Here, we examine some moments in the early‐to‐mid‐twentieth century when female psychologists contested established norms of life‐work balance premised on domesticity. In the 1920s, Ethel Puffer Howes, one of the first generation of American women psychologists studied by Scarborough and Furumoto (1987), challenged the waste of women's higher education represented by the denial of their interests outside of the confines of domesticity with pioneering applied research on communitarian solutions to life‐work balance. Prominent second‐generation psychologists, such as Leta Hollingworth, Lillian Gilbreth, and Florence Goodenough, sounded notes of dissent in a variety of forums in the interwar period. At mid‐century, the exclusion of women psychologists from war work galvanized more organized efforts to address their status and life‐work balance. Examination of the ensuing uneasy collaboration between psychologist and library scholar Alice Bryan and the influential male gatekeeper E. G. Boring documents gendered disparities in life‐work balance and illuminates how the entrenched ideology of domesticity was sustained. We conclude with Jane Loevinger's mid‐century challenge to domesticity and mother‐blaming through her questioning of Boring's persistent focus on the need for job concentration in professional psychologists and development of a novel research focus on mothering.
    July 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21862   open full text
  • “Very much in love”: The letters of Magda Arnold and Father John Gasson.
    Elissa N. Rodkey.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. June 09, 2017
    Magda Arnold (1903–2002), best known for her pioneering appraisal theory of emotion, belonged to the second generation of women in psychology who frequently experienced institutional sexism and career barriers. Following her religious conversion, Arnold had to contend with the additional challenge of being an openly Catholic woman in psychology at a time when Catholic academics were stigmatized. This paper announces the discovery of and relies upon a number of previously unknown primary sources on Magda Arnold, including approximately 150 letters exchanged by Arnold and Father John Gasson. This correspondence illuminates both the development of Arnold's thought and her navigation of the career challenges posed by her conversion. I argue that Gasson's emotional and intellectual support be considered as resources that helped Arnold succeed despite the discrimination she experienced. Given the romantic content of the correspondence, I also consider Arnold and Gasson in the context of other academic couples in psychology in this period and argue that religious belief ought to be further explored as a potential contributor to the resilience of women in psychology's history.
    June 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21864   open full text
  • Queer signs: The women of the British projective test movement.
    Katherine Hubbard.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. May 30, 2017
    As queer history is often hidden, historians must look for “signs” that hint at queer lives and experiences. When psychologists use projective tests, the search for queer signs has historically been more literal, and this was especially true in the homophobic practices of Psychology in the mid‐twentieth century. In this paper, I respond to Elizabeth Scarborough's call for more analytic history about the lesser known women in Psychology's history. By focusing on British projective research conducted by lesbian psychologist June Hopkins, I shift perspective and consider, not those who were tested (which has been historically more common), but those who did the testing, and position them as potential queer subjects. After briefly outlining why the projective test movement is ripe for such analysis and the kinds of queer signs that were identified using the Rorschach ink blot test in the mid‐twentieth century, I then present June Hopkins’ (1969, 1970) research on the “lesbian personality.” This work forms a framework upon which I then consider the lives of Margaret Lowenfeld, Ann Kaldegg, and Effie Lillian Hutton, all of whom were involved in the British projective test movement a generation prior to Hopkins. By adopting Hopkins’ research to frame their lives, I present the possibility of this ambiguous history being distinctly queer.
    May 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21863   open full text
  • “Making better use of U.S. women” Psychology, sex roles, and womanpower in post‐WWII America.
    Alexandra Rutherford.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. May 26, 2017
    The relationship between American psychology and gender ideologies in the two decades following World War II was complicated and multivalent. Although many psy‐professionals publicly contributed to the cult of domesticity that valorized women's roles as wives and mothers, other psychologists, many of them women, reimagined traditional sex roles to accommodate and deproblematize the increasing numbers of women at work, especially working mothers. In this article, I excavate and highlight the contributions of several of these psychologists, embedding their efforts in the context of the paradoxical expectations for women that colored the postwar and increasingly Cold War landscape of the United States. By arguing that conflict was inherent in the lives of both women and men, that role conflict (when it did occur) was a cultural, not intrapsychic, phenomenon, and that maternal employment itself was not damaging to children or families, these psychologists connected the work of their first‐wave, first‐generation forebears with that of the explicitly feminist psychologists who would come after them.
    May 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21861   open full text
  • Mental Association: Testing Individual Differences Before Binet.
    Annette Mülberger.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. February 25, 2017
    This paper challenges the historiographical discontinuity established between earlier “anthropometric testing” and the arrival of “psychological testing” with Binet and Simon's intelligence test in 1905. After some conceptual clarifications, it deals with “word association”: a kind of psychological experimentation and testing which became popular over the last two decades of the 19th century. First Galton's exploration are presented, followed by experiments performed at the Leipzig laboratory by Trautscholdt, and then Cattell and Bryant's collective testing. Additionally, I document the use of this method for the study of mental difference through the works of Münsterberg, Bourdon, Jastrow, Nevers and Calkins. The cases I present show how the method gave rise to various measurements and classifications. I conclude that the word association technique triggered reflection on mental “uniqueness”, gender traits and the influence of education, among other topics. Moreover, it prepared the terrain and anticipated some basic attractions and problems intelligence testing would later encounter.
    February 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21850   open full text
    Stefan Bargheer.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. February 15, 2017
    The concept of culture used in American anthropology has fundamentally transformed throughout the first half of the twentieth century. The changing resonance of the work of Robert H. Lowie offers revealing insights into this development. Lowie was part of the first generation of students of Franz Boas that highlighted the importance of individual variation for the study of both primitive and civilized societies. Yet, its initial resonance notwithstanding, the culture concept that prevailed in the discipline went into a different direction as the result of anthropologists’ involvement in the war effort. It was advanced by the second generation of Boas’ students such as Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead, who stressed the homogeneity of cultures. The contrast highlights the diversity of approaches available within anthropology in the first half of the century and the crucial impact of World War II in determining which of these possibilities became institutionalized in the decades after the war.
    February 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21845   open full text
  • Beyond Fields, Networks, And Fame: Lawrence Krader As An “Outsider” Intellectual.
    Sabine Sander, Cyril Levitt, Neil Mcmaughlin.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. February 15, 2017
    This paper investigates the intellectual biography of the American philosopher and anthropologist Lawrence Krader (1919–1998) as a contribution to the sociology of intellectuals and history of ideas. We trace Krader's career trajectory to his intellectual self‐concept, his scholarly and political worldviews, and his financial independence. Krader entertained a self‐concept of a lone pioneer that led him to reject the competition for attention as highlighted in the current literature, dominated as it is by an emphasis on field, habitus, the accumulation and reproduction of power, and symbolic capital. His self‐concept and his happier financial circumstance kept him relatively aloof from key intellectual networks and narrow institutional constraints. Our paper seeks to combine the new sociology of ideas with its focus on institutions and networks with traditional Wissenssoziologie that emphasized the role of class, status, and worldviews to explain the rise and fall of theories and thinkers.
    February 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21846   open full text
  • The Rhetorical Use Of Random Sampling: Crafting And Communicating The Public Image Of Polls As A Science (1935–1948).
    Dominic Lusinchi.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. February 13, 2017
    The scientific pollsters (Archibald Crossley, George H. Gallup, and Elmo Roper) emerged onto the American news media scene in 1935. Much of what they did in the following years (1935–1948) was to promote both the political and scientific legitimacy of their enterprise. They sought to be recognized as the sole legitimate producers of public opinion. In this essay I examine the, mostly overlooked, rhetorical work deployed by the pollsters to publicize the scientific credentials of their polling activities, and the central role the concept of sampling has had in that pursuit. First, they distanced themselves from the failed straw poll by claiming that their sampling methodology based on quotas was informed by science. Second, although in practice they did not use random sampling, they relied on it rhetorically to derive the symbolic benefits of being associated with the “laws of probability.”
    February 13, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21836   open full text
  • Before Attachment Theory: Separation Research At The Tavistock Clinic, 1948–1956.
    Bican Polat.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. December 06, 2016
    This article traces the formation of attachment theory to the pioneering research program of Bowlby and his colleagues at the Tavistock Clinic between 1948 and 1956. Through a discussion of the concepts and practices that informed Bowlby's program, I examine the efforts of his team to reconstruct psychoanalytic objects according to preventive objectives and operational criteria. I discuss how the exploratory techniques that Bowlby and his colleagues were developing during these years ultimately led to the establishment of a hybrid investigative framework, in which the prophylactic requirements of mental hygiene, the psychometric model of personality disturbances, the psychoanalytic theory of object relations, and a direct‐observational methodology were brought to bear on the problem of the psychological consequences of early separation experiences. I further claim that this shift in investigative practice was crucial for the succeeding theoretical developments that eventually gave rise to the statistically validated constructs of attachment theory.
    December 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21834   open full text
  • Back To The Origins Of The Repudiation Of Wundt: Oswald Külpe And Richard Avenarius.
    Chiara Russo Krauss.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. November 29, 2016
    This essay provides a fresh account of the break between Oswald Külpe and his master Wilhelm Wundt. Kurt Danziger's reconstruction of the “repudiation” of Wundt, which has become the canon for this significant episode of history of psychology, focused on the supposed influence of Ernst Mach on this set of events, overshadowing the other exponent of Empiriocriticism: Richard Avenarius. Analyzing archival documents and examining anew the primary sources, the paper shows that Avenarius was himself a member of Wundt's circle, and that his “repudiation” of the master paved the way for Külpe. The essay points out the original anti‐Wundtian aspects of Avenarius' notion of psychology, thus showing how they were then adopted by Külpe.
    November 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21833   open full text
  • Monkeys, Mirrors, And Me: Gordon Gallup And The Study Of Self‐Recognition.
    Katja Guenther.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. November 29, 2016
    This article explores the work of psychologist Gordon Gallup, Jr., during the 1960s and 1970s on mirror self‐recognition in animals. It shows how Gallup tried to integrate the mental “self‐concept” into an otherwise strictly behaviorist paradigm. By making an argument from material culture, the article demonstrates how Gallup's adoption of a self‐concept is best understood as a product of his sustained analysis of the workings of the mirror as a piece of experimental apparatus. In certain situations, the stimulus properties of the mirror changed dramatically, a shift that Gallup thought legitimated the positing of a self‐concept. For this reason, Gallup supposed he could use a mirror to provide an operationalized concept of the self, that is, produce a definition that was compatible with behaviorist experimental norms. The article argues that behaviorism was more supple and productive than is often assumed, and contained resources that could align it with the “cognitive revolution” to which it is most often opposed.
    November 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21832   open full text
  • Bringing Things Together: Developing The Sample Survey As Practice In The Late Nineteenth Century.
    Peter Gundelach.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. November 07, 2016
    The first sample surveys in the latter parts of the 19th century were an intellectual social movement. They were motivated by the intention to improve the economic and political conditions of workers. The quantitative survey was considered an ideal because it would present data about the workers as facts, i.e. establish a scientific authoritative truth. In a case study from Denmark, the paper shows how the first survey – a study of seamstresses – was carried out by bringing several cognitive and organizational elements together: a network of researchers, a method for sampling, the construction of a questionnaire, a procedure for coding, and analyzing the data. It was a trial and error process where the researchers lacked relevant concepts and methods but relied on their intuition and on inspiration from abroad.
    November 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21831   open full text
  • Documenting Human Nature: E. Richard Sorenson And The National Anthropological Film Center, 1965–1980.
    Adrianna Link.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. August 30, 2016
    This article analyzes the development of the National Anthropological Film Center as an outgrowth of the Smithsonian's efforts to promote a multidisciplinary program in “urgent anthropology” during the 1960s and 1970s. It considers how film came to be seen as an ideal tool for the documentation and preservation of a wide range of human data applicable to both the behavioral and life sciences. In doing so, it argues that the intellectual and institutional climate facilitated by the Smithsonian's museum structure during this period contributed to the Center's initial establishment as well its eventual decline. Additionally, this piece speaks to the continued relevance of ethnographic film archives for future scientific investigations within and beyond the human sciences.
    August 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21813   open full text
  • Walking The Tightrope: The Committee On The Behavioral Sciences And Academic Cultures At The University Of Chicago, 1949–1955.
    Philippe Fontaine.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. August 25, 2016
    The Chicago Committee on the Behavioral Sciences occupies a special place in the eponymous movement. Involving prominent figures such as psychologist James G. Miller and neurophysiologist Ralph W. Gerard, this committee embodied the common belief among behavioral scientists that a cross‐disciplinary approach using natural science methods was key to understanding major issues facing mid‐century American society. This interdivisional committee fell under the jurisdiction of both the natural and social sciences. As such, its flagship project, an institute of mental sciences, had to face the reluctance both of natural scientists who thought it inadequately scientific and of social scientists who regard its efforts as too narrow in scope and too biological in orientation. Though it failed in its main objective to create an institute, the committee was a formidable instrument of intellectual stimulation and socialization for its members. It provided them with an opportunity to familiarize themselves with each other's scientific backgrounds, practices and jargons, realize the significance of academic cultural differences and learn ways to accommodate them.
    August 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21812   open full text
  • On The Pragmatics Of Social Theory: The Case Of Elias's “On The Process Of Civilization”.
    Filipe Carreira Da Silva, Marta Bucholc.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. August 22, 2016
    This paper proposes a new approach to the study of sociological classics. This approach is pragmatic in character. It draws upon the social pragmatism of G. H. Mead and the sociology of texts of D. F. McKenzie. Our object of study is Norbert Elias's On the Process of Civilization. The pragmatic genealogy of this book reveals the importance of taking materiality seriously. By documenting the successive entanglements between human agency and nonhuman factors, we discuss the origins of the book in the 1930s, how it was forgotten for 30 years, and how in the mid‐1970s it became a sociological classic. We explain canonization as a matter of fusion between book's material form and its content, in the context of the paperback revolution of the 1960s, the events of May 1968, and the demise of Parsons’ structural functionalism, and how this provided Elias with an opportunity to advance his model of sociology.
    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21814   open full text
  • William Mcdougall, American Psychologist: A Reconsideration Of Nature‐Nurture Debates In The Interwar United States.
    Anne C. Rose.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. August 22, 2016
    The British‐born psychologist William McDougall (1871–1938) spent more than half of his academic career in the United States, holding successive positions after 1920 at Harvard and Duke universities. Scholarly studies uniformly characterize McDougall's relationship with his New World colleagues as contentious: in the standard view, McDougall's theory of innate drives clashed with the Americans’ experimentation into learned habits. This essay argues instead that rising American curiosity about inborn appetites—an interest rooted in earlier pragmatic philosophy and empirically investigated by interwar scientists—explains McDougall's migration to the United States and his growing success there. A review of McDougall's intellectual and professional ties, evolving outside public controversy, highlights persistent American attention to natural agency and complicates arguments voiced by contemporaries in favor of nurture.
    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21811   open full text
  • Bridge Over Troubled Waters? The Most “Central” Members Of Psychology And Philosophy Associations Ca. 1900.
    Christopher D. Green, Crystal Heidari, Daniel Chiacchia, Shane M. Martin.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. May 10, 2016
    There are many different ways to assess the significance of historical figures. Often we look at the influence of their writings, or at the important offices they held with disciplinary institutions such as universities, journals, and scholarly societies. In this study, however, we took a novel approach: we took the complete memberships, ca. 1900, of four organizations—the American Psychological Association, the Western Philosophical Association, the American Philosophical Association, and the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology—and visualized them as a network. We then identified individuals who “bridged” between two or more of these groups and considered what might be termed their “centrality” to the psychological‐philosophical community of their time. First, we examined these figures qualitatively, briefly describing their lives and careers. Then we approached the problem mathematically, considering several alternative technical realizations of “centrality” and then explaining our reasons for choosing eigenvector centrality as the best for our purposes. We found a great deal of overlap among the results of the qualitative and quantitative approaches, but also some telling differences. J. Mark Baldwin, Edward Buchner, Christine Ladd Franklin, and Frank Thilly consistently emerged as highly central figures. Some more marginal figures such as Max Meyer, and Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, Edward A. Pace, Edward H. Griffin played interesting roles as well.
    May 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21792   open full text
  • The Importance Of Instrument Makers For The Development Of Experimental Psychology: The Case Of Alfred Binet At The Sorbonne Laboratory.
    Serge Nicolas.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. May 09, 2016
    The importance of instrument firms in the development of psychology, and science in general, should not be underestimated since it would not have been possible for various leading psychologists at the turn of the twentieth century to conduct certain experiments without the assistance of instrument makers, as is often the case today. To illustrate the historical perspective introduced here, the example of Alfred Binet is taken, as he is an interesting case of a psychologist working in close collaboration with various French instrument designers of the time. The objective of this article is twofold: (1) to show the considerable activity carried out by early psychologists to finalize new laboratory instruments in order to develop their research projects; (2) to reassess the work of a major figure in French psychology through his activity as a designer of precision instruments. The development of these new instruments would certainly have been difficult without the presence in Paris of numerous precision instrument manufacturers such as Charles Verdin, Otto Lund, Henri Collin, and Lucien Korsten, on whom Binet successively called in order to develop his projects in the field of experimental psychology.
    May 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21790   open full text
  • Instructional Manuals Of Boundary‐Work: Psychology Textbooks, Student Subjectivities, And Disciplinary Historiographies.
    Ivan Flis.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. May 06, 2016
    This article aims to provide an overview of the historiography of psychology textbooks. In the overview, I identify and describe in detail two strands of writing histories of introductory textbooks of psychology and juxtapose them to provide an integrated historiography of textbooks in psychology. One strand is developed by teachers of psychology—first as a general approach for investigating textbooks in a pedagogical setting, and then later upgraded into a full history of psychology textbooks in America. The other strand follows a more familiar perspective of historians of science and historians of psychology who build on various post‐Kuhnian and post‐Foucauldian perspectives on textbooks. I make an argument for integrating these two views for a more comprehensive historiography of textbooks in psychology, recasting textbooks as objects of research and sources that are interesting sui generis for historians of psychology in their investigations.
    May 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21791   open full text
  • Discovering Palladino's Mediumship. Otero Acevedo, Lombroso And The Quest For Authority.
    Andrea Graus.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. April 28, 2016
    In 1888, the spiritist Ercole Chiaia challenged Cesare Lombroso to go to Naples and study a brilliant though still unknown medium: Eusapia Palladino. At that time Lombroso turned down the challenge. However, in 1891 he became fascinated by the medium's phenomena. Despite the abundant literature on Palladino, there is still an episode that needs to be explored: in 1888, the Spanish doctor Manuel Otero Acevedo accepted the challenge rejected by Lombroso, spent three months in Naples studying the medium and invited the Italian psychiatrist to join his investigations. This unexplored episode serves to examine the role of scientific authority, testimony, and material evidence in the legitimization of mediumistic phenomena. The use Otero Acevedo made of the evidence he obtained in Naples reveals his desire to proclaim himself an authority on psychical research before other experts, such as Lombroso, Richet, and Aksakof.
    April 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21789   open full text
  • “Propagandists For The Behavioral Sciences”: The Overlooked Partnership Between The Carnegie Corporation And Ssrc In The Mid‐Twentieth Century.
    Emily Hauptmann.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. March 03, 2016
    The Carnegie Corporation's role as a patron of the behavioral sciences has been overlooked; its support for the behavioral sciences not only began earlier than the Ford Foundation's but was also at least equally important to their success. I show how the close postwar collaboration between the Carnegie Corporation and the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) to promote the behavioral sciences emerged after a strugglebetween Carnegie and the Rockefeller Foundation over the direction and leadership of the SSRC. I then focus on three postwar projects Carnegie helped conceive and fund that were publicized as the work of the SSRC: Chase's The Proper Study of Mankind (1948), Stouffer et al.'s The American Soldier (), and the Michigan's Survey Research Center 1952 election study. In each of these projects, Carnegie deliberately muted its own role and promoted the remade SSRC as a major advocate for the behavioral sciences.
    March 03, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21786   open full text
  • Blots And All: A History Of The Rorschach Ink Blot Test In Britain.
    Katherine Hubbard, Peter Hegarty.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. February 28, 2016
    Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft‐ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the ‘projective hypothesis’ according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of ‘others’ throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology.
    February 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21776   open full text
  • “My Resisting Getting Well”: Neurasthenia And Subconscious Conflict In Patient‐Psychiatrist Interactions In Prewar America.
    Susan Lamb.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. February 24, 2016
    This study examines experiences of individual patients and psychiatrists in the Henry Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917. The dynamics of these patient‐psychiatrist interactions elucidate the well‐known conceptual shift in explanations of mental illness during the twentieth century, from somatic models rooted in the logic of “neurasthenia” and damaged nerves to psychodynamic models based on the notion of “subconscious conflict.” A qualitative analysis of 336 cases categorized as functional disorders (a catchall term in this period for illnesses that could not be confirmed as organic diseases), shows that patients explained their symptoms and suffering in terms of bodily malfunctions, and, particularly, as a “breakdown” of their nervous apparatus. Psychiatrists at the Phipps Clinic, on the other hand, working under the direction of its prominent director, Adolf Meyer, did not focus their examinations and therapies on the body's nervous system, as patients expected. They theorized that the characteristic symptoms of functional disorders—chronic exhaustion, indigestion, headaches and pain, as well as strange obsessive and compulsive behaviors—resulted from a distinct pathological mechanism: a subconscious conflict between powerful primal and social impulses. Phipps patients were often perplexed when told their physical symptoms were byproducts of an inner psychological struggle; some rejected the notion, while others integrated it with older explanations to reconceptualize their experiences of illness. The new concept also had the potential to alter psychiatrists' perceptions of disorders commonly diagnosed as hysteria, neurasthenia, or psychoneuroses. The Phipps records contain examples of Meyer and his staff transcending the frustration experienced by many doctors who had observed troubling but common behaviors in such cases: morbid introspection, hypochondria, emotionalism, pity‐seeking, or malingering. Subconscious conflict recast these behaviors as products of “self‐deception,” which both absolved the sufferer and established an objective clinical marker by which a trained specialist could recognize functional disorder. Using individual case studies to elucidate the disjunction between patients' and psychiatrists' perspectives on what all agreed were debilitating illnesses, this analysis helps to illuminate the origins of a radical transformation in psychiatric knowledge and popular culture in the twentieth century—from somatic to psychodynamic explanations of mental illness.
    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21777   open full text
  • V. M. Bekhterev In Russian Child Science, 1900 S–1920 S: “Objective Psychology”/“Reflexology” As A Scientific Movement.
    Andy Byford.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. February 22, 2016
    In the early 20th century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled “objective psychology” and from the 1910s renamed “reflexology.” The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's “objective psychology” and “reflexology” occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20th century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that “objective psychology” and “reflexology” had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, “experimental pedagogy” in the pre‐revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet “pedology” during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned “objective psychology”/“reflexology” as a transformative scientific movement.
    February 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21775   open full text
  • The Emergence and Development of Bekhterev's Psychoreflexology in Relation to Wundt's Experimental Psychology.
    Saulo Freitas Araujo.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. March 10, 2014
    After its foundation, the Laboratory for Experimental Psychology at Leipzig University became an international center for psychological research, attracting students from all over the world. The Russian physiologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Bekhterev (1857–1927) was one of Wilhelm Wundt's students in 1885, and after returning to Russia he continued enthusiastically his experimental research on mental phenomena. However, he gradually distanced himself from Wundt's psychological project and developed a new concept of psychology: the so‐called Objective Psychology or Psychoreflexology. The goal of this paper is to analyze Bekhterev's position in relation to Wundt's experimental psychology, by showing how the former came to reject the latter's conception of psychology. The results indicate that Bekhterev's development of a philosophical program, including his growing interest in establishing a new Weltanschauung is the main reason behind his divergence with Wundt, which is reflected in his conception of scientific psychology. Despite this, Wundt remained alive in Bekhterev's mind as an ideal counterpoint.
    March 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21653   open full text
  • “Picturesque Incisiveness”: Explaining the Celebrity of James's Theory of Emotion.
    Claudia Wassmann.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. March 10, 2014
    William James is the name that comes to mind when asked about scientific explanations of emotion in the nineteenth century. However, strictly speaking James's theory of emotion does not explain emotions and never did. Indeed, James contemporaries pointed this out already more than a hundred years ago. Why could “James’ theory” nevertheless become a landmark that psychologists, neuroscientists, and historians alike refer to today? The strong focus on James and Anglo‐American sources in historiography has overshadowed all other answers given to the question of emotion at the time of James. For that reason, the article returns to the primary sources and places James's work back into the context of nineteenth century brain research in which it developed.
    March 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21651   open full text
  • Turning Men into Machines? Scientific Management, Industrial Psychology, and the “Human Factor”.
    Maarten Derksen.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. March 10, 2014
    In the controversy that broke out in 1911 over Frederick W. Taylor's scientific management, many critics contended that it ignored “the human factor” and reduced workers to machines. Psychologists succeeded in positioning themselves as experts of the human factor, and their instruments and expertise as the necessary complement of Taylor's psychologically deficient system. However, the conventional view that the increasing influence of psychologists and other social scientists “humanized” management theory and practice needs to be amended. Taylor's scientific management was not less human than later approaches such as Human Relations, but it articulated the human factor differently, and aligned it to its own instruments and practices in such a way that it was at once external to them and essential to their functioning. Industrial psychologists, on the other hand, at first presented themselves as engineers of the human factor and made the human mind an integral part of management.
    March 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21650   open full text
  • Hermannsburg, 1929: Turning Aboriginal “Primitives” into Modern Psychological Subjects.
    Warwick Anderson.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. March 10, 2014
    In 1929, the Lutheran mission at Hermannsburg (Ntaria), central Australia, became an extraordinary investigatory site, attracting an array of leading psychologists wishing to define the “primitive” mentality of the Arrernte, who became perhaps the most studied people in the British Empire and dominions. This is a story of how scientific knowledge derived from close encounters and fraught entanglements on the borderlands of the settler state. The investigators—Stanley D. Porteus, H. K. Fry, and Géza Róheim—represent the major styles of psychological inquiry in the early‐twentieth century, and count among the vanguard of those dismantling rigid racial typologies and fixed hierarchies of human mentality. They wanted to evaluate “how natives think,” yet inescapably they found themselves reflecting on white mentality too. They came to recognise the primitive as an influential and disturbing motif within the civilised mind—their own minds. These intense interactions in the central deserts show us how Aboriginal thinking could make whites think again about themselves—and forget, for a moment, that many of their research subjects were starving.
    March 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21649   open full text
  • Cultivating a “Chairside Manner”: Dental Hypnosis, Patient Management Psychology, and the Origins of Behavioral Dentistry in America, 1890–1910.
    John M. Andrick.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. May 29, 2013
    Discussions regarding the use of hypnotism in dentistry featured prominently in dental journals and society proceedings during the decades around the turn of the twentieth century. Many dentists used hypnotic suggestion either as the sole anesthetic for extractions or in conjunction with local and general anesthetics for excavation and cavity filling. With the heralding of humanitarian dentistry and improved local anesthesia around 1905, a number of dentists advocated using suggestion psychology to calm nervous patients and increase their comfort and satisfaction levels while undergoing dental procedures. The practice of hypnotic suggestion with local and general anesthesia in providing patients with increasingly painless procedures constituted the earliest variety of behavioral dentistry, a discipline not fully developed until the closing decades of the twentieth century. Hypnosis and suggestion became driving forces for psychological applications in the formative years of behavioral dentistry.
    May 29, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21605   open full text
  • “Voices of the People”: Linguistic Research Among Germany's Prisoners of War During World War I.
    Judith Kaplan.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. May 21, 2013
    This paper investigates the history of the Royal Prussian Phonographic Commission, a body that collected and archived linguistic, ethnographic, and anthropological data from prisoners‐of‐war (POWs) in Germany during World War I. Recent literature has analyzed the significance of this research for the rise of conservative physical anthropology. Taking a complementary approach, the essay charts new territory in seeking to understand how the prison‐camp studies informed philology and linguistics specifically. I argue that recognizing philological commitments of the Phonographic Commission is essential to comprehending the project contextually. My approach reveals that linguists accommodated material and contemporary evidence to older text‐based research models, sustaining dynamic theories of language. Through a case study based on the Iranian philologist F. C. Andreas (1846–1930), the paper ultimately argues that linguistics merits greater recognition in the historiography of the behavioral sciences.
    May 21, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21607   open full text
  • From the EEL to the EGO: Psychoanalysis and the Remnants of Freud's Early Scientific Practice.
    Martin Wieser.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. May 21, 2013
    While numerous historiographical works have been written to shed light on Freud's early theoretical education in biology, physiology, and medicine and on the influence of that education on psychoanalysis, this paper approaches Freud's basic comprehension of science and methodology by focusing on his early research practice in physiology and neuranatomy. This practice, taking place in the specific context of Ernst Brücke's physiological laboratory in Vienna, was deeply concerned with problems of visuality and the revelation of hidden organic structures by use of proper preparation techniques and optical instruments. The paper explores the connection between such visualizing practices, shaped by a physiological context as they were, and Freud's later convictions of the scientific status of psychoanalysis and the function of its method as means to unveil the concealed structure of the “psychical apparatus”.
    May 21, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21606   open full text
  • Public Science of the Savage Mind: Contesting Cultural Anthropology in the Cold War Classroom.
    Erika Lorraine Milam.
    Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences / Journal for the History of the Behavioral Sciences. May 17, 2013
    “What is human about human beings? How did they get that way? How can they be made more so?” These three questions formed the basis of a fifth‐grade social studies curriculum project developed in the 1960s called Man: A Course of Study, or MACOS. In the years between the curriculum's development in the 1960s and its controversial implementation in the 1970s, two separate sets of concerns served to problematize the use of anthropological materials in public school classrooms. On the one hand, MACOS designers were wary of the possibly racist interpretations of exploring so‐called “primitive” cultures in the classroom. On the other, conservative textbook reformers objected to claims that all cultural solutions to biological problems were morally equivalent. Once MACOS earned a place in national news, it came to embody both hopes for the redemption of American democratic society and fears about the violent nature of humans, depending on one's political perspective. These mixed messages eventually undermined the long‐term success of the program as public science.
    May 17, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jhbs.21608   open full text