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Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being

Impact factor: 1.75 5-Year impact factor: 2.036 Print ISSN: 1758-0846 Online ISSN: 1758-0854 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subject: Applied Psychology

Most recent papers:

  • Physicians’ Interactions with Peers: Empathic Accuracy during Shift Handovers on Intensive‐Care Units.
    Petra L. Klumb, Chantal Wicki, Antje Rauers.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 25, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background We investigated how accurately physicians judge colleagues’ states during shift handovers on intensive‐care units, the role of physician characteristics, and how accuracy is related to handover partners’ satisfaction. Methods Using mobile phones, we assessed momentary judgements during N = 272 shift handovers by 36 physicians of five Swiss clinics. Physicians rated their own and their partner's affective states. We calculated the covariation of the perceiver's judgements of the partner's affect with the partner's self‐reported affect and the perceiver's own self‐reported affect. We then examined the moderation of these covariations by physicians’ roles and experience. Results Overall, resident physicians were moderately successful in taking their counterparts’ perspective: Perceiver's ratings of partner's affect and the latter's self‐ratings were significantly related. Associations between perceivers’ ratings of their own and their partner's affect were also evident. None of the effects varied as a function of physicians’ roles. There was an unexpected effect of job experience; physicians with more experience were more likely to project their own affect into the rating of partner's affect. Physicians’ accuracy in judging the partner's tense arousal was related to the partner's satisfaction with the social interaction. This effect may have been mainly driven by instances in which low tension was accurately judged, however. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    October 25, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12146   open full text
  • Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Self‐Efficacy in First‐Time Mothers: Modelling and Predicting Change across the First Six Months of Motherhood.
    Kwok Hong Law, James Dimmock, Kym J. Guelfi, Thinh Nguyen, Daniel Gucciardi, Ben Jackson.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 22, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background First‐time mothers commonly experience stress and depressive symptoms in the postpartum period. Maternal self‐efficacy has been shown to be an important protective factor against these experiences; however, research on the dynamic nature of stress, depressive symptoms, and maternal self‐efficacy is limited. The aim of this study was to document changes in these psychological factors among first‐time mothers, and determine how early maternal self‐efficacy perceptions may predict change in stress and depressive symptoms over the first 6 months postpartum. Methods Sixty first‐time Australian mothers were recruited during their third trimester of pregnancy. Participants completed a baseline survey during the third trimester of pregnancy (M = 32.87 weeks, SD = 2.62 weeks), and subsequently reported stress, depressive symptoms, and maternal self‐efficacy every 3 weeks postpartum for 6 months. Latent growth curve modelling was used to estimate participants’ change over time for stress and depressive symptoms. Results First‐time mothers’ stress and depressive symptoms peaked, and maternal self‐efficacy was weakest, at 3 weeks postpartum. Maternal self‐efficacy at 3 weeks postpartum was a significant (negative) predictor of 3‐week levels of, and also (positively) predicted later reductions in, stress. Conclusion Future interventions aimed at bolstering early maternal self‐efficacy may protect against postpartum stress for first‐time mothers. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    October 22, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12147   open full text
  • The Influence of Metacognitive Beliefs on Sleeping Difficulties in Older Adults.
    Enrico Sella, Nicola Cellini, Laura Miola, Michela Sarlo, Erika Borella.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 19, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Sleep has a crucial role in physical and mental health across the lifespan. In addition to an excessive intrusive sleep‐related cognitive activity, another factor that may influence sleep quality in old age is sleep‐related metacognitive activity, such as metacognitive beliefs about sleeping difficulties, and night‐time thought control strategies. Here, we aimed to assess the relationship between sleep‐related metacognitive beliefs, thought control strategies, excessive intrusive cognitive activities, such as dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, or objective and/or perceived sleep disruptions in elderly people. Method Sleep‐related metacognitive beliefs, thought control strategies, and dysfunctional beliefs related to sleep and perceived sleeping difficulties were assessed with several questionnaires in 50 older adults with no symptoms of dementia, depression, or insomnia. Objective measures of sleep were also collected over 7 days of actigraphic recordings. Results Regression analyses showed that subjective sleeping difficulties were explained by sleep‐related metacognitive activity, and particularly by metacognitive beliefs about sleeping difficulties. Interestingly, objective sleep measures were not associated with metacognitive activity. In addition, self‐reported poor sleepers had stronger metacognitive beliefs about sleeping difficulties and a longer sleep onset latency than self‐reported good sleepers. Conclusions The present findings underscore the influence of metacognitive activity, and sleep‐related metacognitive beliefs in particular, on the perception of sleeping difficulties in older adults. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    October 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12140   open full text
  • The Impact of Autonomy‐Framed and Control‐Framed Implementation Intentions on Snacking Behaviour: The Moderating Effect of Eating Self‐Efficacy.
    Susan Churchill, Louisa Pavey, Paul Sparks.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 10, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Autonomy‐supportive implementation intention exercises have been shown to facilitate goal‐directed behaviour (Koestner et al., ). The current study explored whether eating self‐efficacy moderated the impact of autonomy‐framed versus control‐framed implementation intentions to reduce high‐calorie snack intake. Methods The study employed a randomised prospective design, involving two waves of data collection conducted in 2016. At Time 1, UK participants (N = 300) completed an online questionnaire which asked them to report their snacking behaviour over the previous 7 days. Participants were subsequently asked to form either an autonomy‐framed implementation intention or a control‐framed implementation intention. Seven days later, participants reported their consumption of high‐calorie snacks and completed a measure of eating self‐efficacy. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that eating self‐efficacy moderated the effects of implementation intention framing. Autonomy‐framed implementation intentions had a greater impact on the avoidance of snacking for high eating self‐efficacy participants than did control‐framed implementation intentions. In contrast, for low eating self‐efficacy participants, control‐framed implementation intentions had more impact than did autonomy‐framed implementation intentions. Conclusions The results suggest that if implementation intentions to promote healthy diet are to be effective, the role of eating self‐efficacy should be considered, and the design of interventions adapted accordingly. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    October 10, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12142   open full text
  • Facing Multiple Barriers to Exercise: Does Stronger Efficacy Help Individuals with Arthritis?
    James D. Sessford, Lawrence R. Brawley, Miranda A. Cary, Parminder K. Flora, Jocelyn E. Blouin, Shaelyn M. Strachan, Nancy C. Gyurcsik.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 05, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Research about exercise adherence amongst adults with arthritis has been largely correlational, and theoretically based causal studies are needed. We used an experimental design to test the social cognitive theory premise that high self‐efficacy helps to overcome challenging barriers to action. Methods Exercising individuals (N = 86; female = 78%; M age = 53; BMI = 27) with differential self‐regulatory efficacy for managing salient, non‐disease barriers were randomly assigned to many or few barrier conditions. Individuals responded about the strength of their anticipated persistence to continue exercise, and their self‐regulatory efficacy to use exercise‐enabling coping strategies. Results In the many barriers condition, higher barriers‐efficacy individuals expressed (a) greater persistence (Cohen's d = 0.75 [−0.029, 1.79]) and (b) more confidence in their coping solutions (Cohen's d = 0.65 [−0.30, 1.60]) than lower barriers‐efficacy counterparts. Conclusion Experimental support was obtained for the theoretical premise that when facing the greatest barrier challenge, individuals highest in self‐regulatory efficacy still view exercise as possible. Findings suggest that identifying lower efficacy exercisers with arthritis to tailor their exercise to increase self‐regulatory efficacy might also improve their adherence. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    October 05, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12144   open full text
  • Gender‐Specific Body Areas Satisfaction and Body Weight Status in Adolescents: Mediating Effects of Physical Activity, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, and Energy‐Dense Food Intake.
    Karolina Zarychta, Carina K.Y. Chan, Magdalena Kruk, Aleksandra Luszczynska.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 05, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Body satisfaction is one of the key modifiable cognitive determinants of eating behaviours, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI). As the sociocultural models suggest, low body satisfaction may explain unhealthy eating and exercise behaviours. Importantly, body satisfaction levels and body areas that individuals focus on vary across genders. This study aims at investigating links between the global index of body areas satisfaction (BAS), gender‐specific BAS, fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake, energy‐dense foods intake, moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and BMI. Methods In all, 1,254 adolescents completed questionnaires and had their weight and height objectively measured with 2‐ and 13‐month follow‐ups. Indirect effects of three indices of BAS were tested in three models (male‐specific BAS amongst boys; female‐specific BAS amongst girls; the global BAS index in the total sample). Results Higher levels of all three BAS indices indirectly predicted lower BMI, with higher MVPA mediating this effect. In addition, higher energy‐dense foods intake mediated higher global BAS–higher BMI relationship in the total sample. Thus, the global index of BAS acts as double‐edged sword, predicting both higher MVPA and energy‐dense foods intake. Conclusion BAS may operate in a complex manner, predicting behaviours which may have opposite effects on BMI. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    October 05, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12145   open full text
  • Clustering of Lifestyle Risk Factors in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Prevalence and Change after the First Event.
    Dario Monzani, Marco D'Addario, Francesco Fattirolli, Cristina Giannattasio, Andrea Greco, Francesco Quarenghi, Patrizia Steca.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. September 19, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Healthy lifestyles are modifiable risk factors for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) onset and recurrence. While unhealthy lifestyles tend to cluster together within the general healthy population, little is known about the prevalence and clustering of these behaviours in people with ACS before and after the first acute event. The aim of this study was to identify lifestyle profiles of patients with ACS and to explore their change after their first coronary event. Methods Three hundred and fifty‐six patients completed self‐report measures of healthy habits at the beginning of cardiac rehabilitation and 6 months later. By adopting a person‐oriented approach, we analysed lifestyle clustering and its change over time. Differences in depression, anxiety, and negative illness perception among lifestyle profiles were assessed. Results We identified seven profiles, ranging from more maladaptive to healthier clusters. Findings showed a strong interrelation among unhealthy habits in patients. We highlighted a moderate individual and group stability of cluster membership over time. Moreover, unhealthier lifestyle profiles were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and negative illness perception. Conclusion These results may have implications for the development and implementation of multimodal interventions addressing wider‐ranging improvement in lifestyles by targeting multiple unhealthy behaviours in patients with ACS. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    September 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12141   open full text
  • Promoting Youth Mental Health via Text‐Messages: A New Zealand Feasibility Study.
    Emily R. Arps, Myron D. Friesen, Nickola C. Overall.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. September 19, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background A growing body of research has documented the positive effects of gratitude programs on participants’ mental health and well‐being. For children and adolescents, these programs typically rely on school‐based group designs tied with a health curriculum, whereas innovative technology‐based programs are relatively understudied. Methods This experiment investigated the feasibility and efficacy of a gratitude text‐messaging program for promoting adolescent mental health relative to a positive reflective control condition. Results Young people showed positive changes over the course of the program in their general sense of gratitude, subjective well‐being, and reduced depressive symptoms, with some evidence that those with higher levels of depressive symptoms benefited more from the gratitude program. However, there were no significant differences across the two groups in the magnitude of these mental health changes. Participants in both conditions valued and were highly engaged with the interactive text‐messaging approach. Conclusion This interactive e‐health promotion strategy seemed to promote strong engagement and showed promising effectiveness with young people, with some challenges to feasibility due to the labor intensive nature of sending and responding to a large number of text‐messages. The importance of carefully considering risk management strategies when developing such programs was also highlighted. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    September 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12143   open full text
  • Loneliness and Self‐Esteem in Children and Adolescents Affected by Parental HIV: A 3‐Year Longitudinal Study.
    Hongfei Du, Xiaoming Li, Peilian Chi, Shenran Zhao, Junfeng Zhao.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. September 10, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Sociometer theory posits that self‐esteem is a subjective monitor of the quality of one's interpersonal relationships. When people feel excluded by others, they may have negative relational evaluation about themselves—low self‐esteem. In the present study, we hypothesised and tested that feelings of loneliness among children and adolescents affected by parental HIV would decrease their self‐esteem over time; moreover, low self‐esteem would intensify feelings of loneliness. Methods We utilised longitudinal data from a sample of children and adolescents affected by parental HIV to estimate the reciprocal effects between self‐esteem and loneliness over time. The sample included 195 children and early adolescents affected by parental HIV (age range 7–15, Mage = 10.62, 82 females) who served as a control group in a large intervention study on psychological well‐being. Seven waves of longitudinal panel data were collected from participants in three years. Results In cross‐lagged panel models that tested the reciprocal effects of loneliness and self‐esteem, loneliness predicted decreased levels of self‐esteem over time; in addition, low self‐esteem predicted increased levels of loneliness over time. Conclusions These findings support sociometer theory and suggest that loneliness is a risk factor for children's and adolescents’ self‐esteem. The implications for improving vulnerable children's and adolescents’ psychological well‐being are discussed. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    September 10, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12139   open full text
  • Self‐Control, Plan Quality, and Digital Delivery of Action Planning for Condom and Contraceptive Pill Use of 14–24‐Year‐Olds: Findings from a Clinic‐Based Online Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial.
    Katherine E. Brown, Kerrie Beasley, Satyajit Das.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. September 10, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Inconsistent use of the contraceptive pill and condoms contributes significantly to poor sexual health outcomes for young people. There is evidence that action planning interventions may improve pill and condom use, but this approach is not systematically used in sexual healthcare. This study is the first to assess acceptability and feasibility of evaluating a digital intervention to support action plan formation for three sexual health behaviours with clinic attendees. It also considered the role of trait self‐control and whether the intervention supported production of quality plans. Methods Eighty‐eight integrated sexual health clinic attendees aged 14–24 years (M = 20.27 years) were recruited to a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT). Of these, 67 also completed three‐month follow‐up. Measures included self‐reported contraceptive or condom “mishaps”, theory of planned behaviour variables, and a measure of self‐control. Results Descriptive analyses supported study acceptability and feasibility. The intervention supported pill and condom users to produce quality plans, though potential improvements were identified. Bivariate correlations suggested that high levels of trait self‐control may negatively influence plan quality. Data suggest that the intervention may reduce pill or condom “mishaps”. Conclusions A future full RCT is likely feasible and brief digital action planning interventions may usefully be incorporated within sexual healthcare. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    September 10, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12138   open full text
  • A Mindfulness‐Based Intervention: Differential Effects on Affective and Processual Evolution.
    Pascal Antoine, Anne Congard, Eva Andreotti, Bruno Dauvier, Johan Illy, Rollon Poinsot.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. September 06, 2018
    --- - |2+ Objectives A 20‐minutes‐a‐day, self‐help, mindfulness‐based intervention was conducted for 6 weeks with a French community sample. First, the intervention effects on affective and functioning variables were evaluated. Then, a differential approach was used to examine improvement potentiality and the perceived benefits of mindfulness according to the participants’ baseline mindfulness competencies. Method Participants were non‐randomly assigned to a control group on the waiting list (n = 44) or a mindfulness group (n = 47). Self‐report measures assessed anxiety, depression, psychological distress, mindfulness, negative self‐oriented cognition, and experiential avoidance. Results Improvements in the variables were observed for the mindfulness group but not for the control group, with effect sizes ranging between .53 and .88. Low baseline levels of mindfulness predicted greater improvement in mindfulness (r = −0.55, p < .001) than high baseline levels. Conclusions Mindfulness practice elicited several positive outcomes regarding affective variables, highlighting emotional functioning changes. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    September 06, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12137   open full text
  • Physical Activity, Well‐Being, and the Basic Psychological Needs: Adopting the SDT Model of Eudaimonia in a Post‐Cardiac Rehabilitation Sample.
    Chelsey Saunders, Veronika Huta, Shane N. Sweet.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 20, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background The theoretical conceptualisation of hedonic (HWB; pleasure) and eudaimonic (EWB; meaning) well‐being has rarely been examined among cardiac rehabilitation (CR) graduates, including its relationship with moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity (MVPA). First, this study examined the potential bidirectional relationship between MVPA and HWB/EWB. Second, this study tested the self‐determination theory (SDT) model of eudaimonia where MVPA was set to predict the model's pathway between eudaimonic motives (seeking meaning), the basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), and both types of well‐being. Methods Individuals who completed a CR program within the last five years (N = 57) answered well‐being and basic psychological needs questionnaires and wore an accelerometer to measure MVPA at baseline and three months later. Results MVPA predicted changes in both HWB (β = .13) and EWB (β = .13) three months later. Only the EWB–MVPA relationship (β = .16) approached significance, hinting at a bidirectional relationship. The SDT model of eudaimonia was supported and MVPA had a moderate to small relationship with eudaimonic motives. Conclusion This study showed a potential bidirectional relationship between MVPA and EWB and tested the SDT model of eudaimonia with MVPA in post‐cardiac rehabilitation. Future interventions could look to simultaneously promote eudaimonia and MVPA among this population. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    July 20, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12136   open full text
  • Clarifying the Associations between Mindfulness Meditation and Emotion: Daily High‐ and Low‐arousal Emotions and Emotional Variability.
    Dusti R. Jones, Jennifer E. Graham‐Engeland, Joshua M. Smyth, Barbara J. Lehman.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 11, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Research examining the effects of mindfulness meditation (MM) on emotion seldom considers differences by arousal level or emotion variability. Methods In the present study, 115 participants (64% Female, 72% White, Mage = 19.03) were randomly assigned to a brief MM intervention condition (n = 60) or a wait‐list control condition (n = 51). Participants in the MM condition were trained in MM and instructed to practice MM daily for one week. All participants provided daily diary reports of both higher‐ and lower‐arousal positive (PE) and negative (NE) emotions. Emotions were weighted by valence and arousal. Multilevel modeling was used to examine valence, arousal, and their interaction; multivariate regression was used to examine emotional variability. Results More time spent meditating (but not the MM condition itself) was associated with increased lower arousal emotions, and exhibited a significant effect on the interaction between valence and arousal. Examination of individual emotion items suggested that more time meditating significantly predicted increased feelings of quiet and calm and marginally increased relaxation and sleepiness among participants, but did not predict any other emotions assessed in daily life. MM was not associated with emotional variability. Conclusion These results may suggest that PE should be separated by arousal when examining the effects of MM interventions. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    July 11, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12135   open full text
  • The Value of Being Discrete: The Differential and Causal Effects of Positive Affect and Discrete Positive Emotions on Organ Donor Registration Outcomes.
    Danielle R. Blazek, Jason T. Siegel.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 10, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background The current studies examined how positive affect (i.e. the blend of several positive feelings over time) and discrete positive emotions (i.e. a specific set of momentary thoughts and feelings) influence organ donor registration outcomes. Methods In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to a writing task intended to elicit positive or negative affect. In Study 2, participants received a discrete positively valenced emotion induction (i.e. elevation, humor, hubristic pride), or were in a control condition. Results Study 1 (N = 503) indicated a causal relationship between general positive affect and registration attitudes. An indirect effect beginning with general positive affect, going through attitudes, and then intentions, to influence behavior was also indicated. Study 2a (N = 394) demonstrated that elevation, humor, and hubristic pride can be influenced using an online platform. Study 2b (N = 1,046) indicated a causal relationship between elevation and increased registration intentions and behavior. The humor recall task caused marginally significant greater registration intentions, but no significant behavioral differences. The hubristic pride task did not influence registration outcomes. Conclusion Organ donor practitioners and scholars could benefit from increased focus on the emotional states likely to be experienced at different venues when considering intervention contexts. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    July 10, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12134   open full text
  • The Brief Intervention Effect of Metaphorical Cognitive Restructuring on Alleviating Mental Distress: A Randomised Controlled Experiment.
    Jinghan Hu, Wencai Zhang, Jianxin Zhang, Fei Yu, Xiaoyu Zhang.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 10, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Metaphors may provide clarity or identify hidden similarities between two ideas, and their use in cognitive restructuring can help maximise the effect of therapy information. This study aimed to determine whether metaphorical cognitive restructuring would produce a greater intervention effect in targeted mood and cognition than non‐metaphorical restructuring. Methods Eighty‐eight participants chose 25 problems of interest and wrote a self‐report distress problem and were then randomly divided into a metaphorical restructuring group (N = 29), a literal restructuring group (N = 30), or a no restructuring problem restating group (N = 29). Participants first read a description of psychological distress (“problem”) and then read a solution within one micro‐counseling scenario. They were asked to evaluate their insightfulness during the intervention and evaluated mental distress and self‐efficacy before and after the intervention. Results The mental distress of the metaphorical restructuring group significantly decreased after the intervention. Further, this group had greater insightfulness during the intervention, and this insightfulness could predict the reduction of negative affect after the intervention. Conclusions The use of metaphors can be of great value in eliciting a salient cognitive restructuring process and in alleviating mental distress. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, EarlyView.
    July 10, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12133   open full text
  • Table of Contents.

    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 05, 2018
    --- - - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 191-192, July 2018.
    July 05, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12101   open full text
  • Experiences of Reframing during Self‐Directed Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance: Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies.
    Jamie Hartmann‐Boyce, Rebecca Nourse, Anne‐Marie Boylan, Susan A. Jebb, Paul Aveyard.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. June 01, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Reframing means changing the way that a person thinks or feels about a weight loss attempt or weight loss maintenance to enhance its experience or facilitate its success. Although participants have described this, it has not been explored in the academic literature. Here, we set out to systematically review qualitative studies to examine the ways in which people use and experience reframing in self‐directed weight loss. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched to January 2017 for qualitative studies of adults with overweight or obesity attempting to lose weight or maintain weight loss through self‐directed behavior change. Studies must have contained some information pertinent to reframing. Thematic synthesis was used to identify descriptive and analytical themes from the available data. Results We included 23 studies, representing 723 participants. No study focused specifically on reframing. Most studies involved people who had tried to lose weight previously. In the most common examples of reframing, participants spoke of construing previous weight management attempts as “dieting”, whereas in current attempts they used reframing to move away from this concept. Participants spoke of finding reframing helpful because it removed the sense of depriving themselves and instead allowed them to construe the food choices as healthful. Likewise, the language of dieting created a sense of temporary effort, while construing this as a way of life allowed continuation of conscious control over energy balance without the feeling of undue effort. In some cases, these changes were bolstered by change in self‐identity. Conclusions Some people construe deliberate weight loss as a form of deprivation and cognitively reframe to avoid the negative emotions this creates and to prevent relapse. Reframing the dietary regimen as about healthy eating and a new way of life made weight control seem less burdensome for these participants and they felt able to maintain their efforts. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 309-329, July 2018.
    June 01, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12132   open full text
  • Long‐Term Health Implications of Students’ Friendship Formation during the Transition to University.
    Patrick Klaiber, Ashley V. Whillans, Frances S. Chen.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. May 09, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background The transition to university is a major life change wherein young adults’ primary support system shifts from the family to peers. Can change in social integration (operationalised as number of friends) during the first term at university contribute to students’ health years later, and if so, how? Methods The friendship formation of 67 students at a large Canadian university was assessed during their first term. These data were used to predict self‐reported health and health behaviors (physical exercise, diet, tobacco, alcohol and marijuana consumption) at a follow‐up assessment that occurred near the end of their time at university (2 or 3 years later). Results Linear regression models showed that students who made more friends in their first term reported better health and a healthier diet at the follow‐up (2 or 3 years later). Perceived social support at the follow‐up mediated the relationship between friendship formation and self‐reported health but not diet. Conclusions This study provides evidence for both (1) an indirect effect of friendship formation on self‐reported health via perceived social support, and (2) a direct effect of friendship formation on a healthy diet. Broadly, these results highlight the importance of friendship formation and social integration for the long‐term well‐being of university students. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 290-308, July 2018.
    May 09, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12131   open full text
  • Why and for Whom May Coping Planning Have Adverse Effects? A Moderated Mediation Analysis.
    Jennifer Inauen, Andrea Stocker, Urte Scholz.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. May 09, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Coping planning, the formation of plans to overcome behavioral barriers is assumed to promote health behavior maintenance, but the literature on this is inconsistent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of a coping planning intervention that adversely affected maintained safe water consumption. We also explored perceived behavioral difficulty as a potential moderator of coping planning interventions. Methods In the second phase of a cluster‐randomised trial, households (N = 177 analyzed) were randomly allocated to a coping planning intervention or a comparison group (repetition of interventions from first intervention phase). Safe water consumption, the mechanisms of coping planning, and perceived difficulty were measured pre‐post. The data were analyzed using mediation and moderated mediation analysis. Results Changes in behavioral intention mediated the intervention effects on behavioral maintenance (b = −0.36, 95% CI [−0.91, −0.03]). Changes in perceived coping planning (b = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.12, 0.34]), and maintenance self‐efficacy (b = −0.13, 95% CI [−0.45, 0.01]) did not mediate the effects. Prior perceived difficulty moderated the coping planning intervention effects on maintenance via intention. Conclusions Coping planning may decrease motivation for health behavior maintenance for persons who experienced few barriers prior to the planning intervention. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 272-289, July 2018.
    May 09, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12130   open full text
  • Stopping the Train of Thought: A Pilot Study Using an Ecological Momentary Intervention with Twice‐Daily Exposure to Natural versus Urban Scenes to Lower Stress and Rumination.
    Femke Beute, Yvonne A.W. Kort.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. May 03, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Stress, and specifically perseverative cognition, is considered to have considerable detrimental effects on mental and physical health. Interventions that can offer temporary stress relief could, therefore, bring considerable health benefits. Previous research has pointed to stress‐reducing effects of exposure to nature after acute stressors, but has not yet investigated effects in the realm of everyday life. The present pilot study explores whether an ecological momentary intervention using exposure to natural images could be effective in lowering stress and improve mood. Methods Fifteen participants (12 females) scoring above threshold on stress, depression, or anxiety completed two study periods of 6 days. They watched an urban (control) or natural slideshow twice daily. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, effects on mood, and stress‐related complaints were measured in everyday life. Results Compliance to the study protocol was high, especially in the first week, with slightly more videos watched in the morning than in the evening. We found indications of improvements in mood, self‐reported worrying (but not stress levels), and heart rate. Conclusions The results suggest that twice‐daily exposure to restorative visual content could be a viable Ecological Momentary Intervention, with the potential to reduce self‐reported worry, lower autonomic activity, and increase positive affect. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 236-253, July 2018.
    May 03, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12128   open full text
  • Comparing Types of Financial Incentives to Promote Walking: An Experimental Test.
    Rachel J. Burns, Alexander J. Rothman.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 19, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Offering people financial incentives to increase their physical activity is an increasingly prevalent intervention strategy. However, little is known about the relative effectiveness of different types of incentives. This study tested whether incentives based on specified reinforcement types and schedules differentially affected the likelihood of meeting a walking goal and explored if observed behavioural changes may have been attributable to the perceived value of the incentive. Methods A 2 (reinforcement type: cash reward, deposit contract) × 2 (schedule: fixed, variable) between‐subjects experiment with a hanging control condition was conducted over 8 weeks (n = 153). Results Although walking was greater in the incentive conditions relative to the control condition, walking did not differ across incentive conditions. Exploratory analyses indicated that the perceived value of the incentive was associated with the likelihood of meeting the walking goal, but was not affected by reinforcement type or schedule. Conclusions The reinforcement type and schedule manipulations tested in this study did not differentially affect walking. Given that walking behaviour was associated with perceived value, designing incentive strategies that optimise the perceived value of the incentive may be a promising avenue for future research. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 193-214, July 2018.
    April 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12126   open full text
  • Is Perceived Growth Associated with Momentary Indicators of Health and Well‐Being in People with Asthma or Rheumatoid Arthritis?
    Dusti R. Jones, Jillian A. Johnson, Jennifer E. Graham‐Engeland, Crystal L. Park, Joshua M. Smyth.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 19, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Perceived growth (PG) refers to perceptions of positive changes that unfold over time after experiencing trauma. Higher PG is often associated with positive long‐term health, but the processes through which PG may influence health are unclear. The present study examines two potential pathways among individuals living with asthma or RA: (1) by promoting momentary indicators of health and well‐being in everyday life, and (2) by buffering against stress. Method In a micro‐longitudinal design, 128 participants with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) reported perceived growth using the Post‐Traumatic Growth (PTG) Inventory and subsequently completed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) for one week. Participants were signaled five times a day to report on health‐related indicators, including affect, disease interference, social interactions, and stress. Results Multilevel modeling revealed that higher PTG was associated with significantly less negative affect and greater positive affect in everyday life. There were no significant associations between PTG and momentary disease interference, pleasantness of social interactions, or stress, nor evidence that PTG buffered against effects of stress on health‐related outcomes. Conclusions This research highlights the utility of examining PG in everyday life. Results suggest that closer examination of momentary affect as a process by which PG may facilitate positive health outcomes is warranted. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 254-271, July 2018.
    April 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12129   open full text
  • Mechanisms of Change in the Relationship between Self‐Compassion, Emotion Regulation, and Mental Health: A Systematic Review.
    Elisa Inwood, Madeleine Ferrari.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 19, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background Research suggests that self‐compassion may improve mental health by promoting emotion regulation (Berking & Whitley, ). This review aimed to identify studies which investigated the relationship between self‐compassion, emotion regulation, and mental health in order to examine the role of emotional regulation as a mechanism of change. Methods Searches were conducted in PsycINFO, CINAHL, Medline complete, Web of Science and Scopus databases. Inclusion criteria required publications to be: peer reviewed, published in English, contain validated measures of self‐compassion and emotion regulation, and report a direct analysis on the relationship between these constructs. Results The search yielded five studies which met inclusion criteria. Emotion regulation significantly mediated the relationship between self‐compassion and mental health. This pattern was consistent across community and clinical samples, for a range of mental health symptoms including stress, depression, and post‐traumatic stress disorder. A critical limitation of the review was that all included studies used cross‐sectional data, limiting interpretations regarding causation. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence that emotion regulation may be a mechanism of change in the relationship between self‐compassion and mental health. Self‐compassion may be a pertinent preliminary treatment target for individuals who avoid experiences of emotions. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 215-235, July 2018.
    April 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12127   open full text
  • Greater University Identification—But not Greater Contact—Leads to More Life Satisfaction: Evidence from a Spanish Longitudinal Study.
    Juliet R.H. Wakefield, Fabio Sani, Marina Herrera.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 06, 2018
    --- - |2+ Background A growing body of literature has highlighted the relationship between group identification (a subjective sense of belonging to one's social group, coupled with a subjective sense of commonality with the group's members) and well‐being. However, little of this work is longitudinal, and few studies address reciprocal causality or control for intensity of contact with fellow group members. Method We investigated the effect of university identification on satisfaction with life (SWL) over time (and vice versa) in 216 Spanish undergraduates, with seven months between T1 and T2. Results While greater university identification T1 predicted higher SWL T2, SWL T1 did not predict university identification T2. University contact T1 was unrelated to SWL T2. Conclusions These results show that university identification impacts positively on SWL over time (rather than SWL impacting positively on university identification over time), and this is not reducible to the effects exerted by university contact. The implications for those who work with students are discussed. - 'Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Volume 10, Issue 2, Page 330-344, July 2018.
    April 06, 2018   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12125   open full text
  • Health Behavior Change in Older Adults: Testing the Health Action Process Approach at the Inter‐ and Intraindividual Level.
    Walter Bierbauer, Jennifer Inauen, Sabine Schaefer, Maike Margarethe Kleemeyer, Janina Lüscher, Claudia König, Robert Tobias, Matthias Kliegel, Andreas Ihle, Lukas Zimmerli, Barbara M. Holzer, Klarissa Siebenhuener, Edouard Battegay, Christian Schmied, Urte Scholz.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 12, 2017
    Background Health behavior change theories usually claim to be universally and individually applicable. Most research has tested behavior change theories at the interindividual level and within young‐to‐middle‐aged populations. However, associations at the interindividual level can differ substantially from associations at the intraindividual level. This study examines the applicability of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) at the inter‐ and the intraindividual level among older adults. Methods Two intensive longitudinal studies examined the HAPA model covering two different health behaviors and two different time spans: Study 1 (physical activity, N = 52 × 6 monthly observations) and Study 2 (medication adherence, N = 64 × 30 daily observations). The HAPA constructs (risk awareness, outcome expectancy, self‐efficacy, intention, action planning, action control), and self‐reported behaviors were assessed. Results Overall, at the interindividual level, results of both studies largely confirmed the associations specified by the HAPA. At the intraindividual level, results were less in line with the HAPA. Only action control emerged as consistent predictor of behavior. Conclusions This study emphasises the importance of examining health behavior change theories at both, the inter‐ and the intraindividual level.
    October 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12094   open full text
  • Using Smartphone‐Based Support Groups to Promote Healthy Eating in Daily Life: A Randomised Trial.
    Jennifer Inauen, Niall Bolger, Patrick E. Shrout, Gertraud Stadler, Melanie Amrein, Pamela Rackow, Urte Scholz.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. September 25, 2017
    Background Although many people intend to eat healthily, they often fail to do so. We report the first randomised trial testing whether smartphone‐based support groups can enhance healthy eating. Methods Adults (N = 203) were randomised to the support or control condition (information), and to one of two eating goals (increasing fruit and vegetable/decreasing unhealthy snack consumption). After baseline, participants received information on their assigned eating goal, and completed a 13‐day electronic diary. During Days 4–10, support participants were asked to support each other in achieving their eating goal in smartphone‐based groups. The primary outcome was daily servings of fruit/vegetables or unhealthy snacks. Maintenance of intervention effects was assessed on Days 11–13, and at 1‐month and 2‐month follow‐ups. Results Support participants showed a gradual increase in healthy eating over time, and ate 1.4 fruits and vegetables more, 95% CI [0.3, 2.6], or 0.8 unhealthy snacks less, 95% CI [−1.4, −0.2] than controls on Day 10. Most effects were not maintained at follow‐ups. Conclusions Smartphone‐based groups can promote fruit and vegetable consumption and decrease unhealthy snack intake. This study extends previous findings of the benefits of support groups, and sheds light on the temporal dynamics of behavior change.
    September 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12093   open full text
  • Benefits of Well‐Being Training in Healthy Older Adults.
    Alessandra Cantarella, Erika Borella, Cinzia Marigo, Rosanna De Beni.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. September 06, 2017
    Introduction Several studies have shown that psychological well‐being (PWB) can be promoted through positive psychological interventions (PPIs). Although these interventions have shown promising results in clinical settings, only a few studies have investigated their effectiveness in older adults, and they have rarely considered an active control group. In addition, generalisation effects of the PWB training to quality of life (QoL) and to untrained cognitive abilities have never been considered. Objective In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a six‐session PWB intervention aiming specifically to improve PWB, and sought any transfer effects on an aspect related to PWB, QoL. Transfer effects on a high‐level cognitive process, working memory (WM), were also investigated. Methods Thirty‐two older adults (61–82 years old) volunteered to take part in the study and were randomly assigned to either a training group or an active control group. Results Only the trained group, once controlled for variability, reported larger gains in PWB and in WM performance after the training. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that PWB training can be effective in older adults, with a positive generalisation effect on cognition (WM). The discussion focuses on the need to develop PPIs tailored to older adults’ needs and resources.
    September 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12091   open full text
  • Self‐Regulatory Efficacy Encourages Exercise Persistence Despite Arthritis Flare Symptoms.
    James D. Sessford, Lawrence R. Brawley, Miranda A. Cary, Parminder K. Flora, Jocelyn E. Blouin, Laura Meade, Shaelyn M. Strachan, Nancy C. Gyurcsik.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. August 31, 2017
    Background The study of exercise adherence during an arthritis flare is recommended by arthritis researchers. Studies to date have been correlational. Methods Social cognitions of exercising individuals with arthritis who consider exercise adherence under different levels of challenge of an arthritis flare were examined using an experimental design. Exercising individuals with differential self‐regulatory efficacy for managing arthritis flare symptoms (SRE‐flare) were randomly assigned to conditions where flare symptoms were perceived as either many or few. Individuals in each condition responded about the strength of their anticipated persistence to continue exercise, and their self‐regulatory efficacy to use coping strategies to enable exercise. Results Higher SRE‐flare individuals expressed significantly (a) greater persistence (Cohen's d = 1.17) and (b) more confidence to use their flare coping solutions (Cohen's d = 1.44). Conclusion Main findings were as hypothesised. When exposed to the condition with more limiting flare symptoms (i.e. greater challenge), high SRE participants were the most confident in dealing with flare symptoms and exercising. Identifying lower SRE‐flare individuals less likely to persist with exercise during arthritis flares may improve tailored exercise counselling.
    August 31, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12092   open full text
  • If, Why, and When Subjective Well‐Being Influences Health, and Future Needed Research.
    Ed Diener, Sarah D. Pressman, John Hunter, Desiree Delgadillo‐Chase.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 14, 2017
    We review evidence on whether subjective well‐being (SWB) can influence health, why it might do so, and what we know about the conditions where this is more or less likely to occur. This review also explores how various methodological approaches inform the study of the connections between subjective well‐being and health and longevity outcomes. Our review of this growing literature indicates areas where data are substantial and where much more research is needed. We conclude that SWB can sometimes influence health, and review a number of reasons why it does so. A key open question is when it does and does not do so—in terms of populations likely to be affected, types of SWB that are most influential (including which might be harmful), and types of health and illnesses that are most likely to be affected. We also describe additional types of research that are now much needed in this burgeoning area of interest, for example, cross‐cultural studies, animal research, and experimental interventions designed to raise long‐term SWB and assess the effects on physical health. This research area is characterised both by potentially extremely important findings, and also by pivotal research issues and questions.
    July 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12090   open full text
  • A Diary Study of Self‐Compassion, Upward Social Comparisons, and Body Image‐Related Outcomes.
    Cecilie Thøgersen‐Ntoumani, Louisa Dodos, Nikos Chatzisarantis, Nikos Ntoumanis.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. June 09, 2017
    Background Self‐compassion may protect individuals experiencing poor body image and associated maladaptive outcomes. The purpose of the study was to examine within‐person associations (whilst controlling for between‐person differences) between appearance‐related self‐compassion, appearance‐related threats (operationalised as upward appearance comparisons), and body image‐related variables, namely, social physique anxiety, drive for thinness, and body dissatisfaction. Methods A diary methodology was used whereby young women (n = 126; Mage = 21.26) responded to brief online surveys three times per day (11am, 3pm, and 7pm) every second day for one week (i.e. a total of 12 measurement points). Results Results of mixed linear modeling revealed that both state appearance‐related upward comparisons and self‐compassion independently predicted all three outcomes in a positive and negative fashion, respectively. No significant interaction effects between state appearance‐related upward comparisons and self‐compassion were found. Conclusions The results suggested that appearance‐based self‐compassion was important, not just when there was a potential threat to body image via upward appearance comparisons. The findings highlight the importance of fostering self‐compassion on a daily level.
    June 09, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12089   open full text
  • The Role of Friendship Reciprocity in University Freshmen's Alcohol Consumption.
    Helge Giese, F. Marijn Stok, Britta Renner.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. May 26, 2017
    Background The similarity of friends in the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption is explored. Method During their first semester, 57 psychology freshmen indicated weekly drinking frequency and quantity and nominated the three peers of this group they liked most. These nominations were then used to derive the weekly alcohol consumption of friends that either did or did not reciprocate a nomination. Results Multilevel modeling of weekly variations showed that individuals' drinking frequency was similar to peers who reciprocated a friendship (b = 0.15, p = .001), but not to non‐reciprocating peers (b = −0.01, p = .720). In contrast, weekly variation in quantity of individual students' drinking was similar to both reciprocating (b = 0.11, p = .018) and non‐reciprocating peers’ drinking (b = 0.10, p = .014). Yet across all weeks, quantity tended only to be similar to non‐reciprocating peers (b = 0.49, p = .020). Conclusions Freshmen might spend drinking time with peers who reciprocate a friendship, but are similar regarding the quantity of drinks consumed to all people they find interesting. Thus, alcohol consumption is used strategically for social purposes. This social purpose should also be acknowledged in alcohol‐reduction interventions.
    May 26, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12088   open full text
  • Does Personality Matter in Diabetes Adherence? Exploring the Pathways between Neuroticism and Patient Adherence in Couples with Type 2 Diabetes.
    Joshua R. Novak, Jared R. Anderson, Matthew D. Johnson, Nathan R. Hardy, Ann Walker, Allison Wilcox, Virginia L. Lewis, David C. Robbins.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 12, 2017
    Background Personality has received some attention in the Type 2 diabetes literature; however, research has not linked personality and diabetes adherence behaviors (diet and exercise), identified pathways through which they are associated, nor taken into consideration important contextual factors that influence behavior (the patient's partner). Methods Dyadic data from 117 married, heterosexual couples in which one member is diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes was used to explore associations between each partner's neuroticism and patient dietary and exercise adherence through the pathways of negative affect, depression symptoms, and couple‐level diabetes efficacy (both patient and spouse report of confidence in the patient's ability to adhere to diabetes management regimens). Results Results revealed that higher levels of neuroticism were associated with lower patient dietary and exercise adherence through (1) higher levels of depression symptoms (for patients' neuroticism) and negative affect (for spouses' neuroticism), and (2) lower levels of couple‐level diabetes efficacy. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence that both patient and spouse personality traits are associated with patient dietary and exercise adherence through increased emotional distress—albeit different emotional pathways for patients and spouses—and lower couple confidence in the patients' ability to manage their diabetes.
    April 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12087   open full text
  • Can Self‐Compassion Promote Healthcare Provider Well‐Being and Compassionate Care to Others? Results of a Systematic Review.
    Shane Sinclair, Jane Kondejewski, Shelley Raffin‐Bouchal, Kathryn M. King‐Shier, Pavneet Singh.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 10, 2017
    Background This meta‐narrative review, conducted according to the RAMESES (Realist And Meta‐narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) standards, critically examines the construct of self‐compassion to determine if it is an accurate target variable to mitigate work‐related stress and promote compassionate caregiving in healthcare providers. Methods PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science databases were searched. Studies were coded as referring to: (1) conceptualisation of self‐compassion; (2) measures of self‐compassion; (3) self‐compassion and affect; and (4) self‐compassion interventions. A narrative approach was used to evaluate self‐compassion as a paradigm. Results Sixty‐nine studies were included. The construct of self‐compassion in healthcare has significant limitations. Self‐compassion has been related to the definition of compassion, but includes limited facets of compassion and adds elements of uncompassionate behavior. Empirical studies use the Self‐Compassion Scale, which is criticised for its psychometric and theoretical validity. Therapeutic interventions purported to cultivate self‐compassion may have a broader effect on general affective states. An alleged outcome of self‐compassion is compassionate care; however, we found no studies that included patient reports on this primary outcome. Conclusion We critically examine and delineate self‐compassion in healthcare providers as a composite of common facets of self‐care, healthy self‐attitude, and self‐awareness rather than a construct in and of itself.
    April 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12086   open full text
  • Profiles of Physical Function, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior and their Associations with Mental Health in Residents of Assisted Living Facilities.
    Saengryeol Park, Cecilie Thøgersen‐Ntoumani, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Sally A.M. Fenton, Jet J.C.S. Veldhuijzen van Zanten.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. March 23, 2017
    Background The current study used latent profile analyses to identify classes of older participants based on physical health, physical function, light physical activity, moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity, and sedentary behavior, and then examined differences in mental health between these classes. Methods Eighty‐five residents (M = 77.5 years old, SD = 8.2) from assisted living facilities participated. Light physical activity, moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity, and sedentary behavior were assessed by accelerometers, physical function was measured using different tasks (mobility, grip strength, and spirometry), and body mass index was calculated. Mental and physical health (i.e. anxiety, depression, fatigue, vitality, and subjective mental and physical health) were assessed by questionnaires. Results Latent profile analyses revealed three classes: “Class 1: Low physical function and physical activity with a highly sedentary lifestyle” (27.1%), “Class 2: Moderate physical function and physical activity with a moderate sedentary lifestyle” (41.2%), “Class 3: High physical function and physical activity with an active lifestyle” (31.8%). The results revealed that the latter class reported better mental health than the other two classes. Conclusions This study suggests that health promotion for older adults might benefit from identifying profiles of movement‐related behaviors when examining the links between physical activity and mental health. Future study should test the intervention potential of this profiling approach.
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12085   open full text
  • Goal Disengagement, Well‐Being, and Goal Achievement in Romantic Couples Pursuing Health Behavior Change: Evidence from Two Daily Diary Studies.
    Janina Lüscher, Corina Berli, Urte Scholz.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. March 23, 2017
    Background Withdrawing effort and commitment from important goals (i.e. goal disengagement) has been discussed as an effective aspect of goal adaption. However, studies have focused especially on between‐person differences. The present studies aimed to investigate within‐person differences in goal disengagement within a dyadic context of romantic couples. Across two different health behaviors, we specifically tested whether goal disengagement would be associated with better well‐being, but lower goal achievement in everyday life. Methods In two dyadic daily diary studies (Study 1: 61 overweight couples aiming to become physically active; Study 2: 83 dual‐smoker couples aiming to quit smoking), both partners independently reported on goal disengagement, positive and negative affect. Behavioral goal achievement was measured via accelerometer (Study 1) and self‐report (Study 2). Results Analyses based on the Actor‐Partner Interdependence Model revealed that across both studies, one's own goal disengagement was related to lower well‐being and a lower likelihood for goal achievement on a daily level (actor effects). Only in Study 1 were partner effects on negative affect and goal achievement found. Conclusions In daily life, goal disengagement may not be as adaptive for well‐being and goal achievement in health behavior change. Dyadic associations were not consistent, and might be more context‐sensitive.
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12084   open full text
  • Predicting the Intention to Use Condoms and Actual Condom Use Behaviour: A Three‐Wave Longitudinal Study in Ghana.
    Enoch Teye‐Kwadjo, Ashraf Kagee, Hermann Swart.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. December 07, 2016
    Background Growing cross‐sectional research shows that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is robust in predicting intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour. Yet, little is known about the TPB's utility in explaining intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour over time. Methods This study used a longitudinal design and latent variable structural equation modelling to test the longitudinal relationships postulated by the TPB. School‐going youths in Ghana provided data on attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions, and behaviour regarding condom use at three time points, spaced approximately three months apart. Results As predicted by the TPB, the results showed that attitudes were significantly positively associated with intentions to use condoms over time. Contrary to the TPB, subjective norms were not significantly associated with intentions to use condoms over time. Perceived control did not predict intentions to use condoms over time. Moreover, intentions to use condoms were not significantly associated with self‐reported condom use over time. Conclusion These results suggest that school‐going youths in Ghana may benefit from sex education programmes that focus on within‐subject attitude formation and activation. The theoretical and methodological implications of these results are discussed.
    December 07, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12082   open full text
  • CEOS Theory: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding Hard to Maintain Behaviour Change.
    Ron Borland.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. December 07, 2016
    This paper provides a brief introduction to CEOS theory, a comprehensive theory for understanding hard to maintain behaviour change. The name CEOS is an acronym for Context, Executive, and Operational Systems theory. Behaviour is theorised to be the result of the moment by moment interaction between internal needs (operational processes) in relation to environmental conditions, and for humans this is augmented by goal‐directed, executive action which can transcend immediate contingencies. All behaviour is generated by operational processes. Goal‐directed behaviours only triumph over contingency‐generated competing behaviours when operational processes have been sufficiently activated to support them. Affective force can be generated around executive system (ES) goals from such things as memories of direct experience, vicarious experience, and emotionally charged communications mediated through stories the person generates. This paper makes some refinements and elaborations of the theory, particularly around the role of feelings, and of the importance of stories and scripts for facilitating executive action. It also sketches out how it reconceptualises a range of issues relevant to behaviour change. CEOS provides a framework for understanding the limitations of both informational and environmental approaches to behaviour change, the need for self‐regulatory strategies and for taking into account more basic aspects of human functioning.
    December 07, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12083   open full text
  • A Randomised Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of Planning Strategies to Improve Medication Adherence in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease.
    Carine Meslot, Aurélie Gauchet, Martin S. Hagger, Nikos Chatzisarantis, Audrey Lehmann, Benoît Allenet.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 25, 2016
    Background Low levels of adherence to medication prescribed to treat and manage chronic disease may lead to maladaptive health outcomes. Theory‐based, easy‐to‐administer interventions that promote patients’ effective self‐regulation of their medication‐taking behaviour are needed if adherence is to be maximised. We tested the effectiveness of an intervention adopting planning techniques to promote medication adherence. Methods Outpatients with cardiovascular disease (N = 71) were allocated to either an experimental condition, in which participants were asked to form implementation intentions and coping plans related to their treatment, or to a no‐planning control condition, in which participants received no treatment. Patients also completed self‐report measures of medication adherence, self‐efficacy, and beliefs in medication necessity and concerns. Measures were administered at baseline and at 6‐week follow‐up. Results Results revealed no overall main effect for the intervention on medication adherence. Post‐hoc moderator analyses revealed that the intervention was effective in patients with lower necessity beliefs compared to those with higher necessity beliefs. Conclusion While current findings have promise in demonstrating the conditional effects of planning interventions, there is a need to replicate these findings by manipulating planning and beliefs independently and testing their direct and interactive effects on medication adherence.
    October 25, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12081   open full text
  • Too Depleted to Try? Testing the Process Model of Ego Depletion in the Context of Unhealthy Snack Consumption.
    Ashleigh Haynes, Eva Kemps, Robyn Moffitt.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 19, 2016
    Background The process model proposes that the ego depletion effect is due to (a) an increase in motivation toward indulgence, and (b) a decrease in motivation to control behaviour following an initial act of self‐control. In contrast, the reflective‐impulsive model predicts that ego depletion results in behaviour that is more consistent with desires, and less consistent with motivations, rather than influencing the strength of desires and motivations. The current study sought to test these alternative accounts of the relationships between ego depletion, motivation, desire, and self‐control. Methods One hundred and fifty‐six undergraduate women were randomised to complete a depleting e‐crossing task or a non‐depleting task, followed by a lab‐based measure of snack intake, and self‐report measures of motivation and desire strength. Results and Conclusions In partial support of the process model, ego depletion was related to higher intake, but only indirectly via the influence of lowered motivation. Motivation was more strongly predictive of intake for those in the non‐depletion condition, providing partial support for the reflective‐impulsive model. Ego depletion did not affect desire, nor did depletion moderate the effect of desire on intake, indicating that desire may be an appropriate target for reducing unhealthy behaviour across situations where self‐control resources vary.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12080   open full text
  • Pre‐Feedback Risk Expectancies and Reception of Low‐Risk Health Feedback: Absolute and Comparative Lack of Reassurance.
    Martina Gamp, Britta Renner.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 14, 2016
    Background Personalised health‐risk assessment is one of the most common components of health promotion programs. Previous research on responses to health risk feedback has commonly focused on the reception of bad news (high‐risk feedback). The reception of low‐risk feedback has been comparably neglected since it is assumed that good news is reassuring and readily received. However, field studies suggest mixed responses to low‐risk health feedback. Accordingly, we examine whether pre‐feedback risk expectancies can mitigate the reassuring effects of good news. Methods In two studies (N = 187, N = 565), after assessing pre‐feedback risk expectancies, participants received low‐risk personalised feedback about their own risk of developing (the fictitious) Tucson Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (TCFS). Study 2 also included peer TCFS risk status feedback. Afterwards, self‐ and peer‐related risk perception for TCFS was assessed. Results In both studies, participants who expected to be at high risk but received good news (unexpected low‐risk feedback) showed absolute lack of reassurance. Specifically, they felt at significantly greater TCFS risk than participants who received expected good news. Moreover, the unexpected low‐risk group even believed that their risk was as high as (Study 1) or higher (Study 2) than that of their peers (comparative lack of reassurance). Conclusion Results support the notion that high pre‐feedback risk expectancies can mitigate absolute and comparative reassuring effects of good news.
    July 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12076   open full text
  • Improved Mood State and Absence of Sex Differences in Response to the Stress of Army Basic Combat Training.
    Harris R. Lieberman, J. Philip Karl, James P. McClung, Kelly W. Williams, Sonya Cable.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 12, 2016
    Background It is reported that women are more susceptible to stress than men but they have not been compared in stressful, real‐world, team‐centered, occupational/training environments. This study investigated effects of Army Basic Combat Training (BCT), a structured military training program, on the mood of young adult men and women. Methods Using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire, 169 soldiers (98 men and 71 women) were assessed prior to starting BCT and after each phase of training. Results Significant improvements were found in five of six subscales over the course of BCT. Men and women responded positively and similarly to BCT. POMS scores attributable to an interaction of time and each factor of sex, age group, education level, ethnicity, and race were not significantly different. Conclusions When studied in the same environment and exposed to the same stressors, men and women in this study responded similarly. The positive changes in mood in both sexes during BCT appear to result from the interaction of a structured physical and cognitive training program conducted in a team‐oriented environment, and indicate that BCT enhances soldier mood similarly regardless of sex.
    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12075   open full text
  • Loving‐Kindness Meditation Effects on Well‐Being and Altruism: A Mixed‐Methods Online RCT.
    Julieta Galante, Marie‐Jet Bekkers, Clive Mitchell, John Gallacher.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. June 23, 2016
    Background Evidence suggests that facilitating empathy could improve individuals' well‐being. Loving‐kindness meditation (LKM) could be a facilitator, and online delivery a cost‐effective format. Methods We conducted an internet‐based randomised controlled trial recruiting 809 adults to test whether an LKM course improves well‐being through evoking pleasant emotions, psychological resources, and altruism compared to a light physical exercise course (LE). Participants in both arms followed video‐based instructions, completed post‐intervention questionnaires, and used online diaries and forums. To measure altruism £10/$10 were offered to participants with a choice of donating all/half to charity. Thematic analysis was applied to diary/forum entries. Results Both courses increased well‐being without significant differences. LKM participants were less anxious than LE participants (ß = −0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) [−0.43, −0.02], p = .03), and more likely to donate £5/$5 (Relative Risk = 3.57, 95%CI [0.82, 15.50], p = .09). Attrition was high (82%). Participants engaged in diary/forum usage. LKM was an emotionally intense experience, generating deep reflections and increased connectedness but difficult for some to process. LE led to gentle increases in relaxation, generating a sense of achievement. Conclusions Future research needs to confirm findings and devise ways of delivering online LKM effectively to diverse populations.
    June 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12074   open full text
  • Self‐Efficacy and Planning as Predictors of Physical Activity in the Context of Workplace Health Promotion.
    Jan Keller, Paul Gellert, Nina Knoll, Michael Schneider, Anna Ernsting.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. June 14, 2016
    Background Fostering self‐efficacy and planning in individuals can support the uptake and maintenance of regular physical activity. This study examined self‐efficacy and planning as mechanisms of an online‐delivered workplace health promotion intervention to enhance employees' physical activity. A special focus lay on reciprocal interrelations among self‐efficacy and planning over time, as previous work predominantly accounted for only one predictive direction at a time. Methods Data from N = 1,063 employees of a pharmaceutical company who reported an intention to increase their physical activity levels were assessed at three measurement points up to 12 weeks following the intervention. Cross‐lagged panel analyses were performed to examine effects of self‐efficacy and planning on physical activity as well as reciprocal interrelations between self‐efficacy and planning. Results Findings indicated an increase in self‐efficacy, planning, and physical activity following the intervention. Planning was consistently linked to subsequent physical activity, whereas self‐efficacy was not associated. Also, reciprocal interrelations among self‐efficacy and planning were found across both measurement lags. Conclusions Planning was confirmed as a predictor of physical activity, whereas self‐efficacy was not. However, cross‐lagged interrelations indicated reciprocal reactivation among self‐efficacy and planning over time, suggesting beneficial effects of including strategies that foster both volitional constructs in interventions.
    June 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12073   open full text
  • Art‐of‐Living Training: Developing an Intervention for Students to Increase Art‐of‐Living.
    Jessica Lang, Bernhard Schmitz.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. June 06, 2016
    Background Art‐of‐living describes a mindful and self‐determined way of dealing with one's self and way of life. It is related to measures of well‐being. Art‐of‐living is based on strategies and attitudes which can be learned and therefore can be changed. Two types of training for students to increase art‐of‐living were developed and tested in two studies to determine the effects on art‐of‐living measures. Methods Study 1 dealt with the initial examination of whether it is possible to enhance the art‐of‐living by training selected art‐of‐living strategies. Therefore, training with three conditions was developed and conducted with secondary school students (ages 16–19). In Study 2, a second art‐of‐living training was developed and conducted with children from primary school (ages 8–11). Results In Study 1, the art‐of‐living measures increased significantly for the training conditions compared to a control group. In addition, Study 2 showed that higher levels of the art‐of‐living lead to a better quality of life. Conclusions In summary, the training successfully enhanced art‐of‐living. Limitations on and benefits of utilising the art‐of‐living training are discussed.
    June 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12072   open full text
  • “You Can't Always Get What You Want”: A Novel Research Paradigm to Explore the Relationship between Multiple Intentions and Behaviours.
    Falko F. Sniehotta, Justin Presseau, Julia Allan, Vera Araújo‐Soares.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. May 27, 2016
    Objective Research investigating cognitive moderators of the intention–behaviour relationship and psychological consequences of failure to enact intentions is usually conducted in a single‐behaviour paradigm. A multiple‐behaviour paradigm is introduced which overcomes bias inherent to single‐behaviour designs and allows testing of novel hypotheses. Two exploratory studies illustrate the utility of this new paradigm by investigating the role of cognitive predictors and psychological correlates of intention–behaviour relationships. Method The proposed method involves measuring multiple intentions across common areas of life activity at baseline and corresponding behaviours at follow‐up. In two studies, 51 intentions and behaviours were assessed (49 by self‐report, 2 objectively). In Study 1, participants (n = 126) also completed self‐reported measures of everyday cognitive failures and dysexecutive behaviours, crystallised intelligence (Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale) at baseline and Quality of Life (QoL; follow‐up). In Study 2, objective executive function measures (Stroop, Go/NoGo task and Word Fluency test) were completed by N = 30 participants. Results The total number of intentions, cognitive, and QoL measures were unrelated to the percentage of intentions enacted. Crystallised intelligence was related to successful intention implementation and problems with emotion regulation were associated with forming fewer intentions and with fewer failed intentions. QoL was strongly related with more intentions, regardless of whether or not these were implemented. Study 2 showed that cognitive flexibility (word fluency) and task errors, rather than Stroop effect and Go/No‐Go performance were related, to intention–behaviour congruence. Conclusion Intention–behaviour relationships might be better understood when considering the multiple intentions and behaviours that people are engaged in at once at any one point in time. A multiple‐behaviour paradigm suggests novel hypotheses. Preliminary findings reported here require replication. Anticipated applications of the paradigm are outlined and discussed.
    May 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12071   open full text
  • Food for Thought: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Emotional Freedom Techniques and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Treatment of Food Cravings.
    Peta Stapleton, Amy Jean Bannatyne, Keri‐Charle Urzi, Brett Porter, Terri Sheldon.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. May 03, 2016
    Addressing the internal determinants of dysfunctional eating behaviours (e.g. food cravings) in the prevention and treatment of obesity has been increasingly recognised. This study compared Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for food cravings in adults who were overweight or obese (N = 83) in an 8‐week intervention. Outcome data were collected at baseline, post‐intervention, and at 6‐ and 12‐months follow‐up. Overall, EFT and CBT demonstrated comparable efficacy in reducing food cravings, one's responsiveness to food in the environment (power of food), and dietary restraint, with Cohen's effect size values suggesting moderate to high practical significance for both interventions. Results also revealed that both EFT and CBT are capable of producing treatment effects that are clinically meaningful, with reductions in food cravings, the power of food, and dietary restraint normalising to the scores of a non‐clinical community sample. While reductions in BMI were not observed, the current study supports the suggestion that psychological interventions are beneficial for food cravings and both CBT and EFT could serve as vital adjunct tools in a multidisciplinary approach to managing obesity.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12070   open full text
  • Invisible Support: Effects on the Provider's Positive and Negative Affect.
    Claudia König, Gertraud Stadler, Nina Knoll, Sibylle Ochsner, Rainer Hornung, Urte Scholz.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 28, 2016
    Background Social support that goes unnoticed by receivers (i.e. invisible support) seems to be most beneficial for the receivers' well‐being. The providers' well‐being, however, has been neglected so far. This study examines how invisible support is related to the providers' well‐being and whether this association is dependent on the providers' relationship satisfaction. Methods Overall, 97 non‐smoking partners of smokers who were about to quit smoking were examined. Invisible support was assessed dyadically: partners' reports on smoking‐specific provided social support together with smokers' reports on received support were assessed at baseline. Partners' relationship satisfaction was also assessed at baseline. Partners' positive and negative affect were measured at baseline and six‐week follow‐up. Results No main effects of invisible instrumental or emotional support occurred. However, partners' relationship satisfaction moderated the association between invisible instrumental support and change in partners' negative and positive affect: For partners with lower relationship satisfaction more invisible instrumental support was related to increased negative affect and decreased positive affect, whereas for partners with higher relationship satisfaction the inverse effects occurred. Conclusions The study's results emphasise that invisible instrumental support might have emotional costs for the providers. Relationship satisfaction seems to serve as a protective factor.
    April 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12067   open full text
  • Effects of Variety Support on Exercise‐Related Well‐Being.
    Benjamin D. Sylvester, David R. Lubans, Narelle Eather, Martyn Standage, Svenja A. Wolf, Desmond McEwan, Geralyn R. Ruissen, Megan Kaulius, Peter R.E. Crocker, Mark R. Beauchamp.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 21, 2016
    Background The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine the extent to which variety support in a resistance exercise program influences exercise‐related well‐being among inactive adults. Methods A sample of 121 inactive university students were randomly assigned and participated in either a high or low variety support 6‐week exercise program. Measures of exercise‐related perceived variety, positive affect, negative affect, and subjective vitality were completed at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks (i.e. post‐test). Results Through use of structural equation modelling, the results showed that for those who completed measures at post‐test (i.e. n = 55), and for all participants who received variety support (i.e. a modified intention‐to‐treat analysis; N = 121), exercise‐related variety support indirectly explained higher levels of exercise‐related positive affect, and subjective vitality, and lower levels of negative affect, through the mediating role of perceived variety. Conclusions The provision of variety support in a resistance exercise program influences exercise‐related well‐being through perceptions of variety. Results are discussed in relation to the potential utility of providing variety support to promote exercise‐related well‐being in people who are physically inactive.
    April 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12069   open full text
  • Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.
    Jessica Kansky, Joseph P. Allen, Ed Diener.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 14, 2016
    Background Subjective well‐being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well‐being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well‐being as a long‐term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self‐worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi‐informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self‐reported and partner‐reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self‐worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well‐being by having an earlier assessment of well‐being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well‐being distinct from negative affect.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12068   open full text
  • Adding Perspective: Predicting Adolescent Sunscreen Use with an Extended Health Action Process Approach.
    Natalie Schüz, Benjamin Schüz, Michael Eid.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 03, 2016
    Background Diseases such as skin cancer often have a very long latency period. For adolescents, especially, it may be difficult to grasp that current risk behavior is related to future health outcomes. This study examines the role of health‐related time perspective (i.e. the degree to which short‐term outcomes are discounted over long‐time health benefits) within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA). More specifically, based on expectancy*value theory, we tested whether time perspective interacts with self‐efficacy, the central variable in this approach. Methods A longitudinal study with three measurement points across one year assessed 156 high school students. Data were analyzed using structural equation models. Results While time perspective had no direct association with sunscreen use intentions, there was an interaction effect with self‐efficacy; the shorter the time perspective, the smaller the association of self‐efficacy with intention. Intention in turn predicted planning and sunscreen use at Time 3 (one year later). Conclusions In order to maximise the impact of early onset measures for skin cancer prevention targeting the motivation for sunscreen use in adolescents, time perspective should be addressed in comprehensive sun protection interventions.
    April 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12066   open full text
  • Predicting Physical Activity‐Related Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Health Action Process Approach.
    Anne Hattar, Sebely Pal, Martin S. Hagger.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. March 11, 2016
    Background We tested the adequacy of a model based on the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in predicting changes in psychological, body composition, and cardiovascular risk outcomes with respect to physical activity participation in overweight and obese adults. Methods Measures of HAPA constructs (action and maintenance self‐efficacy, outcome expectancies, action planning, risk perceptions, intentions, behaviour), psychological outcomes (quality of life, depression, anxiety, stress symptoms), body composition variables (body weight, body fat mass), cardiovascular risk measures (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein), and self‐reported physical activity behaviour were administered to participants (N = 74) at baseline, and 6 and 12 weeks later. Results Data were analysed using variance‐based structural equation modelling with residualised change scores for HAPA variables. The model revealed effects of action self‐efficacy and outcome expectancies on physical activity intentions, action self‐efficacy on maintenance self‐efficacy, and maintenance self‐efficacy and intentions on action planning. Intention predicted psychological and body composition outcomes indirectly through physical activity behaviour. Action planning was a direct predictor of psychological, cardiovascular, and body composition outcomes. Conclusions Data supported HAPA hypotheses in relation to intentions and behaviour, but not the role of action planning as a mediator of the intention–behaviour relationship. Action planning predicted outcomes independent of intentions and behaviour.
    March 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12065   open full text
  • Oops I Did it Again: Examining Self‐Licensing Effects in a Subsequent Self‐Regulation Dilemma.
    Sosja Prinsen, Catharine Evers, Denise Ridder.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. March 11, 2016
    Background Previous studies have mainly examined the immediate effects of self‐licensing on self‐regulation failure. The present vignette studies examined what happens when a second self‐regulation dilemma is encountered. Methods In Studies 1 (N = 52) and 2 (N = 166), participants read a vignette in which the protagonist chooses to buy a treat while being on a diet, which was preceded by a license (License condition) or not (Control condition). The self‐reported likelihood of indulging again when a second dilemma was presented in the same situation served as the dependent variable. Study 2 included measures of self‐regulatory ability (motivation and self‐efficacy) and also presented the dilemma in a new situation. Results Study 1 showed that participants were more likely to indulge again after an initial indulgent choice with a license. This was replicated in Study 2, which also showed that self‐licensing had no effect on goal re‐engagement in a new situation. A marginally significant positive effect of self‐licensing was found for self‐efficacy. Conclusions The results obtained suggest that self‐licensing negatively affects goal re‐engagement in the same situation, but not in a new situation. Whether self‐licensing maintains or increases feelings of self‐efficacy needs to be validated in future studies.
    March 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12064   open full text
  • Effects of a Mindfulness Intervention on Sports‐Anxiety, Pessimism, and Flow in Competitive Cyclists.
    John Scott‐Hamilton, Nicola S. Schutte, Rhonda F. Brown.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. March 11, 2016
    Background This study investigated whether mindfulness training increases athletes’ mindfulness and flow experience and decreases sport‐specific anxiety and sport‐specific pessimism. Methods Cyclists were assigned to an eight‐week mindfulness intervention, which incorporated a mindful spin‐bike training component, or a wait‐list control condition. Participants completed baseline and post‐test measures of mindfulness, flow, sport‐anxiety, and sport‐related pessimistic attributions. Results Analyses of covariance showed significant positive effects on mindfulness, flow, and pessimism for the 27 cyclists in the mindfulness intervention condition compared with the 20 cyclists in the control condition. Changes in mindfulness experienced by the intervention participants were positively associated with changes in flow. Conclusions Results suggest that mindfulness‐based interventions tailored to specific athletic pursuits can be effective in facilitating flow experiences.
    March 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12063   open full text
  • A Randomised Trial of a Positive Intervention to Promote Well‐Being in Cardiac Patients.
    Pilar Sanjuán, Tomás Montalbetti, Ana M. Pérez‐García, José Bermúdez, Henar Arranz, Almudena Castro.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. February 15, 2016
    Background Negative emotions are linked to the onset and development of coronary heart diseases (CHD), whereas positive emotions are associated with better health and lower mortality rates among patients with these diseases. The objective of this randomised trial was to improve cardiac patients' emotional states using a Programme to Improve Well‐being (PIW) based exclusively on positive interventions (those that promote intentional behaviours and thoughts to improve well‐being). Methods Cardiac patients (n = 108) were randomly assigned to two parallel groups. In the control group, they participated in only a Cardiac Rehabilitation Programme (CRP group), whereas the intervention group also participated in the PIW (CRP+PIW group). Physical functional capacity, depressive symptoms, hostility, and negative and positive affect were assessed at T1 (baseline) and T2 (8 weeks later). Results At T2, after controlling for functional capacity, the CRP+PIW group reported a significantly less negative affect than the CRP group. Moreover, the CRP group did not change from T1 to T2, whereas the CRP+PIW group reported more positive emotions and fewer negative emotions and hostility at T2 than at T1. Conclusions Positive interventions effectively improve the emotional state of cardiac patients. We suggest that specific modules should be included in the CRP to improve well‐being.
    February 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12062   open full text
  • Online Self‐Affirmation Increases Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Groups at High Risk of Low Intake.
    Amy L. Fielden, Elizabeth Sillence, Linda Little, Peter R. Harris.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. January 26, 2016
    Background This study tested the efficacy of self‐affirmation in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in a sample of participants comprising two groups at high risk of low consumption: young adults and mothers of school‐aged children with low social economic status (SES). Methods Baseline fruit and vegetable consumption was recorded for 85 participants (n = 26 mothers with low SES). Following randomisation to condition (Self‐Affirmed or Non‐Affirmed), participants viewed targeted, online, health recommendations about fruit and vegetable consumption. Fruit and vegetable intake was reported online every day for the following seven days. Results Self‐affirmed participants reported consuming significantly more portions of fruit and vegetables (SA M = 3.96, NA M = 2.81). Analyses of simple slopes indicated that the effect was greatest amongst lowest baseline consumers. Conclusions The findings demonstrate the efficacy of self‐affirmation in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in individuals who are at risk of having a low intake and whose consumption put them at the greatest risk of negative health outcomes. Application of these findings could help to reduce health care costs, through the use of cost‐effective online interventions and reductions in treatment costs. Further research is needed to capitalise on the increased tailoring that online intervention allows in order to optimise the effects of self‐affirmation.
    January 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12059   open full text
  • Within‐Person Link between Depressed Affect and Moderate‐to‐Vigorous Physical Activity in Adolescence: An Intensive Longitudinal Approach.
    Nadine Langguth, Johanna Schmid, Caterina Gawrilow, Gertraud Stadler.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. January 11, 2016
    Background During adolescence, young women and men frequently show low physical activity and elevated depressed affect. This study aimed to examine the within‐person link between moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and depressed affect in everyday life. Methods Within an intensive longitudinal approach, adolescents (N = 72; 37% young women; M age = 17.36 years; age range: 12–26 years; mid‐90% age range: 13–22 years) wore accelerometers to assess their daily MVPA and reported next‐morning and same‐evening depressed affect in diaries over eight consecutive days. The within‐person link between MVPA and depressed affect on the next morning (time‐lagged prediction) and the same evening (same‐day link) was analyzed with mixed‐effects models. Results More‐than‐usual MVPA significantly predicted less next‐morning depressed affect on weekdays in young women, to the extent that a 60‐min increase in MVPA over the person mean significantly predicted 50 per cent lower next‐morning depressed affect. Conclusions This study encourages the development of individually tailored physical activity interventions that could help adolescents enhance their daily amount of unstructured, self‐initiated MVPA to reduce depressed affect. This approach may be particularly suitable for young women who have the highest risk for an inactive lifestyle and elevated depressed affect.
    January 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12061   open full text
  • Age, Action Orientation, and Self‐Regulation during the Pursuit of a Dieting Goal.
    Marie Hennecke, Alexandra M. Freund.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. December 29, 2015
    Two studies tested the hypotheses that (1) action orientation (vs. state orientation) is positively correlated with age across adulthood and (2) action orientation aids the self‐regulation of one's feelings, thoughts, and behavior during the pursuit of a dieting goal. Hypotheses were partly confirmed. In Study 1, N = 126 overweight women (age: 19–77 years) intended to lose weight by means of a low‐calorie diet. In Study 2, N = 322 adults (age: 18–82 years) reported on their action orientation to replicate the association of age and action orientation found in Study 1. Study 2 corroborated only the expected positive association of age and decision‐related action orientation. In Study 1, decision‐related action orientation predicted higher affective well‐being during the diet as well as less self‐reported deviations from the diet; failure‐related action orientation predicted lower levels of rumination in response to dieting failures. Action orientation partially mediated the negative effects of age on deviations and rumination (see Hennecke & Freund, ). Weight loss was not predicted by action orientation. We discuss action orientation as one factor of increased motivational competence in older adulthood.
    December 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12060   open full text
  • Are People Living in Walkable Areas Healthier and More Satisfied with Life?
    Shigehiro Oishi, Masao Saeki, Jordan Axt.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 22, 2015
    Are people who live in more walkable areas healthier and more satisfied with life? This study investigates that question by using the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, the largest telephone survey on health in the US (302,841 respondents from 989 metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas [MSA]; 177,524 respondents from 703 MSAs had complete data). Using multilevel random coefficient modeling, we found that people living in walkable areas reported being generally healthier than people living in less walkable areas. In addition, aside from higher self‐reported health, people living in walkable areas also had a lower body mass index (BMI). However, contrary to our prediction, people in more walkable areas were less satisfied with their lives than people in less walkable areas after controlling for various individual‐level variables (age, gender, race, education, marital status, income, and unemployment). People who live in walkable areas are healthier but not happier than those living in less walkable areas.
    October 22, 2015   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12058   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Self‐Compassion and Well‐Being: A Meta‐Analysis.
    Ulli Zessin, Oliver Dickhäuser, Sven Garbade.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. August 26, 2015
    Background Self‐compassion describes a positive and caring attitude of a person toward her‐ or himself in the face of failures and individual shortcomings. As a result of this caring attitude, individuals high in self‐compassion are assumed to experience higher individual well‐being. The present meta‐analysis examines the relationship between self‐compassion and different forms of well‐being. Method The authors combined k = 79 samples, with an overall sample size of N = 16,416, and analyzed the central tendencies of effect sizes (Pearson correlation coefficients) with a random‐effect model. Results We found an overall magnitude of the relationship between self‐compassion and well‐being of r = .47. The relationship was stronger for cognitive and psychological well‐being compared to affective well‐being. Sample characteristics and self‐esteem were tested as potential moderators. In addition, a subsample of studies indicated a causal effect of self‐compassion on well‐being. Conclusions The results clearly highlight the importance of self‐compassion for individuals’ well‐being. Future research should further investigate the relationship between self‐compassion and the different forms of well‐being, and focus on the examination of possible additional moderators.
    August 26, 2015   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12051   open full text
  • Effects of Distress and Eustress on Changes in Fatigue from Waking to Working.
    Kelsey N. Parker, Jennifer M. Ragsdale.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 30, 2015
    Background As a potential indicator of strain, fatigue is an important outcome in occupational health research. The current study examined the influence of positive (eustress) and negative (distress) work experiences on changes in fatigue from morning to at‐work. It was expected that within‐person changes in fatigue from waking to working would be moderated by employees' experiences of stress, pain, happiness, and meaningfulness at work. Methods Data on 1,195 full‐time working adults were collected through the Bureau of Labor Statistics' 2010 American Time Use Study (ATUS) using a day reconstruction method to assess fatigue at two time points (morning and during work) and employees' eustress and distress experiences during work. Results Multilevel modeling showed that the indicators of distress, stress and pain, predicted higher morning fatigue and stronger increases in fatigue during the workday. The indicators of eustress, happiness and meaningfulness, predicted lower fatigue at both time points but not temporal changes. Conclusions These results contribute to understanding changes in employees' fatigue and suggest that the differential effects of distress and eustress experiences at work may be important to consider in fatigue management interventions.
    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12049   open full text
  • Changes in Dietary Behavior among Coronary and Hypertensive Patients: A Longitudinal Investigation Using the Health Action Process Approach.
    Patrizia Steca, Luca Pancani, Andrea Greco, Marco D'Addario, Maria Elena Magrin, Massimo Miglioretti, Marcello Sarini, Marta Scrignaro, Luca Vecchio, Francesca Cesana, Cristina Giannattasio, Francesco Fattirolli, Renzo Zanettini.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 28, 2015
    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Nutrition plays an important role in the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of CVDs. The present longitudinal study used the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) to investigate changes in dietary behavior in coronary patients (CPs) affected by acute coronary syndrome and hypertensive patients (HPs) affected by essential arterial hypertension. Methods CPs (N = 250) and HPs (N = 246) completed a questionnaire during three measurement points (baseline, 6‐month follow‐up, and 12‐month follow‐up). Statistical analyses included a repeated measures ANOVA and a multi‐sample structural equation model. Results HPs showed no changes in dietary behavior, whereas CPs improved their nutrition at 6 months and then maintained the healthier diet. The multi‐sample analysis indicated equivalence of the HAPA model for both patient populations. Conclusions These findings provide further evidence for the generalisability of the HAPA model, shedding light on dietary behavior among CVD patients and particularly on hypertensive patients which has received little attention. Moreover, the equivalence of the model suggests that the process of change is almost identical for individuals who are at high risk for a coronary event (i.e. HPs) and individuals who have already had the event (i.e. CPs).
    July 28, 2015   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12050   open full text
  • The Effects of Emotional Competences Training among Unemployed Adults: A Longitudinal Study.
    Sabina Hodzic, Pilar Ripoll, Consuelo Bernal, Franck Zenasni.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 14, 2015
    Background The present study aimed at analyzing whether training in emotional competences (EC) would increase the level of perceived EC among unemployed adults, whether the unemployment duration would moderate the effects of the training and whether the changes in EC would predict changes in the levels of perceived stress, somatic complaints, mental health, and mood states. Methods Seventy‐five participants were randomly allocated to an EC training program, or a control group. Following a controlled experimental design, the participants completed all the measures prior to the intervention (T1), one month later (T2) and six months after the first data collection (T3). Results The results showed that change in EC after the training depended on the duration of unemployment. The difference between the experimental and control groups in EC after the training was significant when the participants had been unemployed for less time. In addition, the results indicated that changes in EC were found to be significant predictors of changes in perceived stress, mental health, somatic complaints, and vigor and confusion (mood dimensions) six months after the intervention. Conclusion The data suggest that unemployment duration plays a crucial role in determining the range and intensity of intervention effects.
    July 14, 2015   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12048   open full text
  • Mixed Expectations: Effects of Goal Ambivalence during Pregnancy on Maternal Well‐Being, Stress, and Coping.
    Svenja H. Koletzko, Pearl La Marca‐Ghaemmaghami, Veronika Brandstätter.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. June 23, 2015
    Background We hypothesised that experiencing ambivalence toward the childbearing goal would be related to indicators of well‐being, stress, and coping among women with planned pregnancies. Methods Study 1 (N = 208) tested cross‐sectional associations between goal ambivalence and measures of well‐being, stress, and coping. It also included a postpartum measurement point (N = 71) to examine prospective effects of goal ambivalence. Study 2 (N = 109) extended the investigation to within‐person effects in a three‐week daily diary assessment. Results In Study 1, goal ambivalence in pregnant women was positively associated with depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and pregnancy‐specific avoidance‐oriented coping, and negatively associated with coping self‐efficacy. Goal ambivalence also predicted changes in life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and coping self‐efficacy postpartum. Study 2 revealed within‐person effects of daily fluctuations in goal ambivalence on day‐to‐day changes in positive emotions, negative activation, and avoidance‐oriented coping. Conclusions Ambivalence towards the childbearing goal is a source of significant distress to pregnant women with planned pregnancies and its effects seem to extend into the postpartum period. These findings may have important clinical implications for maternal and child well‐being. Future studies should examine whether goal ambivalence during pregnancy affects the maternal–child relationship in the long term.
    June 23, 2015   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12047   open full text
  • How Norms Work: Self‐Identification, Attitude, and Self‐Efficacy Mediate the Relation between Descriptive Social Norms and Vegetable Intake.
    F. Marijn Stok, Kirsten T. Verkooijen, Denise T.D. Ridder, John B.F. Wit, Emely Vet.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. May 20, 2014
    Background: The current studies aim to show that descriptive social norms influence vegetable intake and to investigate three potentially underlying processes (self‐identification, attitude, and self‐efficacy). Methods: In two studies, descriptive social norms regarding vegetable intake were manipulated (majority vs. minority norm). Study 1 investigated both the relation between baseline vegetable intake and self‐identification, attitude, and self‐efficacy, as well as the effect of the norm manipulation on vegetable intake over a one‐week period. Study 2 investigated potential mediation of the effect of the manipulation on vegetable intake intentions through self‐identification, attitude, and self‐efficacy. Results: Study 1 showed that the proposed mediators were related to a baseline measure of vegetable intake. Moreover, in participants identifying strongly with the norm referent group, majority norms led to higher vegetable consumption than minority norms. Study 2 showed that the direct effect of the social norm manipulation on vegetable intake intentions was partly mediated by self‐identification, attitude, and self‐efficacy. Conclusions: These studies shed first light on processes underlying the effect of descriptive social norms on health behavior. A norm describing the behavior of a salient social group leads people to identify more with, have more positive attitudes toward, and feel more self‐efficacious regarding that behavior.
    May 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12026   open full text
  • Planning Predicts Dental Service Attendance and the Effect is Moderated by Dental Anxiety and Educational Status: Findings from a One‐Year Prospective Study.
    Amir H. Pakpour, Paul Gellert, Saeed Asefzadeh, Falko F. Sniehotta.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. May 15, 2014
    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether planning a dental appointment is a predictor of actual dental visits over a one‐year period when controlling for past attendance, demographic factors, and dental health beliefs. In addition, the planning–attendance association was explored to determine whether dental anxiety and educational status moderated this relationship. Methods: A total of N = 1,422 adults with a mean age of M = 44.4 (SD = 11.0) years and resident in Iran participated in a prospective study over a one‐year period. The primary outcome was self‐reported dental appointment attendance at one‐year follow‐up, which was validated using clinical records. Action planning, coping planning, health beliefs, age, dental insurance, income, dental health status, dental anxiety, and years of education were assessed at baseline by self‐report questionnaire. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Action planning and coping planning were significantly associated with dental appointment attendance at one‐year follow‐up. Planning a dental appointment was more predictive of dental appointment attendance for people with higher levels of education and lower dental anxiety. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that implementation of the behaviour change technique planning into routine dental practice may have the potential to increase dental appointment attendance rates.
    May 15, 2014   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12025   open full text
  • Undermining Optimistic Denial Reactions to Domestic and Campus Emergency Warning Messages.
    Suzanne C. Thompson, Michele M. Schlehofer.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 18, 2014
    Background: Individuals who prepare for public emergencies can mitigate the effects of an incident, but denial of personal susceptibility may reduce the likelihood of preparation. Some denial may be due to a positive self‐image that is at odds with being “at risk”. The potential for an enhanced warning message that included a positive image of a protector to circumvent this denial was tested in two studies. Methods: Optimistic denial threat orientation was measured. Then participants received either a traditional or a positive protector warning message about terrorism (Study 1; nationally representative sample of US adults; N = 587) or campus emergency preparation (Study 2; US college students; N = 179). Results: As predicted, in the enhanced image condition optimistic denial was no longer related to stronger denial reactions and lower intentions to protect oneself. In addition, Study 2 tested explanatory mediators and found that negative perceptions of and low similarity to a protector partially explained the denial of those higher in optimistic denial and why their denial was dampened in the positive image condition. Conclusions: An enhanced message including a positive image of protector may be an effective way to encourage protection for those prone to optimistic denial.
    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12024   open full text
  • Group vs. Single Mindfulness Meditation: Exploring Avoidance, Impulsivity, and Weight Management in Two Separate Mindfulness Meditation Settings.
    Michail Mantzios, Kyriaki Giannou.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. February 28, 2014
    Recent research has identified that mindfulness meditation in group settings supports people who are trying to lose weight. The present research investigated mindfulness meditation in group and individual settings, and explored the potential impact on weight loss and other factors (i.e. mindfulness, impulsivity, and avoidance) that may assist or hinder weight loss. Specifically, the hypotheses tested were that the group setting assisted dieters more than the individual setting by reducing weight, cognitive‐behavioral avoidance, and impulsivity and by increasing mindfulness. Participants (n = 170) who were trying to lose weight were randomly assigned to practice meditation for 6 weeks within a group or independently. Measurements in mindfulness, cognitive‐behavioral avoidance, impulsivity, and weight occurred twice (pre‐ and post‐intervention). Results indicated that participants in the group setting lost weight and lowered their levels of cognitive‐behavioral avoidance, while impulsivity and mindfulness remained stable. On the other hand, participants in the individual condition lost less weight, while there was an increase in cognitive‐behavioral avoidance and mindfulness scores, but a decrease in impulsivity. Seeing that benefits and limitations observed in group settings are not replicated when people meditate alone, this study concluded that mindfulness meditation in individual settings needs to be used with caution, although there are some potential benefits that could aid future weight loss research.
    February 28, 2014   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12023   open full text
  • Conflict between Women's Physically Active and Passive Leisure Pursuits: The Role of Self‐Determination and Influences on Well‐Being.
    Tamara Williams, Eva Guerin, Michelle Fortier.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. February 13, 2014
    Background: Evidence in support of both physically active and passive leisure as significant contributors to well‐being has surfaced around the world. However, for physically active, working mothers, fitting leisure into an already busy schedule can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of time resources and self‐determination for active and passive leisure on conflict between these two leisure domains and the influence of this conflict on well‐being. Methods: A total of 66 working mothers completed validated questionnaires measuring satisfaction with time and motivation at baseline followed by two weeks of computerized diary capture to evaluate leisure engagement with final measures of goal conflict and well‐being at the end of the two weeks. Results: Results indicated that dissatisfaction with time resources is associated with increased goal conflict as are non‐self‐determined motivation for physically active leisure and self‐determined motivation for passive leisure. Controlling for engagement in physically active and passive leisure, well‐being is negatively influenced by goal conflict. Conclusions: Time resources, goal conflict, and motivation are important factors to consider in efforts to increase well‐being among physically active working mothers. Further research is required to understand the influence of opposing motivational orientations on goal conflict.
    February 13, 2014   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12022   open full text
  • Salutogenic Effects of the Environment: Review of Health Protective Effects of Nature and Daylight.
    Femke Beute, Yvonne A.W. Kort.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. November 21, 2013
    Both nature and daylight have been found to positively influence health. These findings were, however, found in two separate research domains. This paper presents an overview of effects found for daylight and nature on health and the health‐related concepts stress, mood, and executive functioning and self‐regulation. Because of the overlap in effects found and the co‐occurrence of both phenomena, the paper points to the need to consider daylight factors when investigating effects of nature and vice versa. Furthermore, the existence of possibly shared underlying mechanisms is discussed and the need to unify the research paradigms and dependent variables used between the two research fields. Last, in view of the beneficial effects of both phenomena on health, our objective is to raise awareness amongst the general public, designers, and health practitioners to use these naturally available phenomena to their full potential.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12019   open full text
  • Identifying Success on the Process Level Reduces Negative Effects of Prior Weight Loss on Subsequent Weight Loss During a Low‐Calorie Diet.
    Marie Hennecke, Alexandra M. Freund.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. November 21, 2013
    Background: Dieters often show weight cycling, i.e. prior successful weight loss is followed by weight gain. The current study examined how goal progress during a diet (i.e. weight loss) impacts subsequent weight loss depending on whether success is identified on the process level or the outcome level of dieting. Methods: A short‐term longitudinal study examined lagged effects of weight loss and identifications of success in one week on weight loss in the subsequent week. Across 6 weeks, N = 126 overweight women reported their weekly weight and the degree to which they considered themselves as successful regarding the process of dieting (e.g. changing eating behavior) and the desired dieting outcomes (e.g. improving appearance). Results: Successful weight loss in one week negatively affected weight loss in the subsequent week. However, identifying success on the process level reduced this negative effect. Discussion: Although people might feel generally that goal progress licenses subsequent goal‐inconsistent behavior, identifying successful goal‐pursuit on the process rather than the outcome level of a goal may counteract the subsequent loss of dieting motivation.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12021   open full text
  • Intrinsic Rewards, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, and Habit Strength: A Three‐Wave Study Testing the Associative‐Cybernetic Model.
    Amelie U. Wiedemann, Benjamin Gardner, Nina Knoll, Silke Burkert.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. November 14, 2013
    Background: Habit formation is thought to lead to long‐term maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption. Habits develop through context‐dependent repetition, but additional variables such as intrinsic reward of behaviour may influence habit strength. Drawing upon the Associative‐Cybernetic Model, this exploratory study tested different pathways by which intrinsic reward may influence fruit and vegetable consumption habit strength. Methods: In a three‐wave study of fruit and vegetable intake in adults (N = 127) from the general population, intrinsic reward, intention, and self‐efficacy were assessed at baseline, fruit and vegetable consumption and intrinsic reward two weeks later, and habit strength another two weeks later. Direct, indirect, and moderation effects of intrinsic reward on habit strength were tested simultaneously in a moderated mediation model. Results: Intrinsic reward had a positive indirect effect on habit strength through its influence on the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption. Further, the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and habit was stronger where consumption was considered more intrinsically rewarding. Conclusions: Findings highlight the potential relevance of intrinsic reward to habit. We suggest that intrinsic rewards from behaviour may not only facilitate habit via behaviour frequency, but also reinforce the relationship between behavioural repetition and habit strength.
    November 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12020   open full text
  • Evidence‐Based Tailoring of Behavior‐Change Campaigns: Increasing Fluoride‐Free Water Consumption in Rural Ethiopia with Persuasion.
    Alexandra C. Huber, Robert Tobias, Hans‐Joachim Mosler.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. November 11, 2013
    Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Since medical treatment of the disease is difficult and mostly ineffective, preventing fluoride uptake is crucial. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, a fluoride‐removal community filter was installed. Despite having access to a fluoride filter, the community used the filter sparingly. During a baseline assessment, 173 face‐to‐face interviews were conducted to identify psychological factors that influence fluoride‐free water consumption. Based on the results, two behavior‐change campaigns were implemented: a traditional information intervention targeting perceived vulnerability, and an evidence‐based persuasion intervention regarding perceived costs. The interventions were tailored to household characteristics. The campaigns were evaluated with a survey and analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in changing behavior and targeted psychological factors. While the intervention targeting perceived vulnerability showed no desirable effects, cost persuasion decreased the perceived costs and increased the consumption of fluoride‐free water. This showed that altering subjective perceptions can change behavior even without changing objective circumstances. Moreover, interventions are more effective if they are based on evidence and tailored to specific households.
    November 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12018   open full text
  • Exercise and Sleep Predict Personal Resources in Employees' Daily Lives.
    Inga J. Nägel, Sabine Sonnentag.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 08, 2013
    The present study investigates the interaction of exercise and sleep on state‐like personal resources in employees' daily lives. Further, the study examines the association between state‐like personal resources and emotional exhaustion. We conducted a diary study over five consecutive working days (total of 443 days) with 144 employees who answered daily online surveys after work and before bedtime. Multilevel modeling showed that exercise after work was positively related to the next day's personal resources when sleep duration during the night time was longer compared to other nights. Furthermore, personal resources positively related to lower emotional exhaustion after work on the next day. This study demonstrates that exercise and sleep may help to renew personal resources. Results stress the importance of balancing exercise and sleep in daily life.
    October 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12014   open full text
  • Implementation Intention and Action Planning Interventions in Health Contexts: State of the Research and Proposals for the Way Forward.
    Martin S. Hagger, Aleksandra Luszczynska.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 08, 2013
    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature on two planning intervention techniques in health behaviour research, implementation intentions and action planning, and to develop evidence‐based recommendations for effective future interventions and highlight priority areas for future research. We focused our review on four key areas: (1) definition and conceptualisation; (2) format and measurement; (3) mechanisms and processes; and (4) design issues. Overall, evidence supports the effectiveness of planning interventions in health behaviour with advantages including low cost and response burden. There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the effects across studies and relatively few registered randomised trials that include objective behavioural measures. Optimally effective planning interventions should adopt “if–then” plans, account for salient and relevant cues, include examples of cues, be guided rather than user‐defined, and include boosters. Future studies should adopt randomised controlled designs, report study protocols, include fidelity checks and relevant comparison groups, and adopt long‐term behavioural follow‐up measures. Priority areas for future research include the identification of the moderators and mediators of planning intervention effects. Future research also needs to adopt “best practice” components of planning interventions more consistently to elucidate the mechanisms and processes involved.
    October 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12017   open full text
  • A Brief Self‐Affirmation Study to Improve the Experience of Minority Patients.
    Diana J. Burgess, Brent C. Taylor, Sean Phelan, Michele Spoont, Michelle Ryn, Leslie R.M. Hausmann, Tam Do, Howard S. Gordon.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 04, 2013
    Background: There is evidence that Black patients may experience stereotype threat—apprehension about being negatively stereotyped—in healthcare settings, which might adversely affect their behavior in clinical encounters. Recent studies conducted outside of healthcare have shown that a brief self‐affirmation intervention, in which individuals are asked to focus on and affirm their valued characteristics and sources of personal pride, can reduce the negative effects of stereotype threat on academic performance and on interpersonal communication. Methods: This randomised controlled trial examined whether a self‐affirmation (SA) intervention would decrease the negative effects of stereotype threat (negative mood, lower state self‐esteem, greater perceptions of racial discrimination) and increase communication self‐efficacy among Black primary care patients. Self‐affirmation was induced by having patients complete a 32‐item values affirmation questionnaire. Results: Patients in the SA condition had lower levels of performance self‐esteem and social self‐esteem than patients in the control. There were no differences between the SA and the control groups on negative mood, communication self‐efficacy, and perceptions of discrimination. Conclusions: Our SA intervention lowered state self‐esteem among Black patients. Future research is needed to determine the type of SA task that is most effective for this population.
    October 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12015   open full text
  • Physical Activity and Psychological Health in Breast Cancer Survivors: An Application of Basic Psychological Needs Theory.
    Diane E. Mack, Lindsay S. Meldrum, Philip M. Wilson, Catherine M. Sabiston.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. October 04, 2013
    Objective: The role of psychological need satisfaction in terms of understanding the mechanisms through which leisure‐time physical activity (LTPA) is associated with psychological health in breast cancer survivors who have recently completed treatment was examined. Methods: Adopting a longitudinal two‐wave design, female breast cancer survivors (N = 144) completed self‐report instruments of LTPA, psychological need satisfaction, and psychological health at two points separated by 3 months. The first test administration period was 6 months following the completion of primary treatment. Results: Change score analyses demonstrated that greater LTPA across the 3‐month period was associated with greater perceptions of well‐being (rs ranged from .17 to .20) and lower ill‐being (rs ranged from −.06 to −.21). Results of multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological need fulfillment underpinned the LTPA–well‐being relationship only. Conclusions: Collectively these findings indicate that increased engagement in LTPA represents one factor associated with greater psychological health in breast cancer survivors, with fulfilling the psychological need for relatedness most salient in understanding this relationship. Continued investigation into the mechanisms associated with reductions in ill‐being in breast cancer survivors appear justified.
    October 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12016   open full text
  • Changing Outcome Expectancies, Drinking Intentions, and Implicit Attitudes toward Alcohol: A Comparison of Positive Expectancy‐Related and Health‐Related Alcohol Warning Labels.
    Sabine Glock, Sabine Krolak‐Schwerdt.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. July 29, 2013
    Background: Although alcohol consumption is a leading risk factor for major illnesses, warning labels are still not being used. Alcohol consumption is related to positive and negative outcome expectancies, which both play a crucial role. This study compared the effectiveness of warning labels that contradicted positive outcome expectancies with health‐related warning labels among a college‐aged German sample (N = 40). Method: Half of the participants received health‐related warning labels while half received positive‐related warning labels. Implicit attitudes were assessed before and after warning‐label exposure. Explicit attitudes and outcome expectancies were assessed after exposure. Participants’ usual drinking behavior was assessed before exposure to warning labels, and their drinking intentions were measured afterwards. Results: Participants exposed to positive‐related warning labels had marginally more negative implicit attitudes compared to their own prior attitudes. They tended to perceive lower social and higher negative outcome expectancies than the health‐related warning labels group. Importantly, the positive‐related warning labels group's drinking intentions tended to be lower than those of the health‐related warning labels group. Conclusions: This first test of warning labels that contradict positive alcohol outcome expectancies provided promising results; thus warning labels could be considered as means to influence college‐aged people.
    July 29, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12013   open full text
  • Does Flow Experience Lead to Risk? How and for Whom.
    Julia Schüler, Jeanne Nakamura.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. June 06, 2013
    Background: Previous research has focused on the positive consequences of flow, an intrinsically rewarding state of deep absorption. In contrast, the present research links flow to impaired risk awareness and to risky behaviour. We expected flow to enhance self‐efficacy beliefs, which in turn were hypothesised to result in low risk awareness and risky behaviour in sports. In addition, we predicted that individuals' level of experience in the activity would moderate the expected effects. Methods: One study with kayakers (Study 1) and two studies with rock climbers (Studies 2 and 3) were conducted. Kayakers completed a survey while still on the river; climbers responded during and upon completion of a climb. Results: In all studies flow was related to risk awareness. Study 2 additionally showed its association with risky behaviour. Studies 2 and 3 revealed that these relationships were mediated by self‐efficacy. The mediations were moderated by level of experience (Study 3). Conclusions: The results indicated that inexperienced but not experienced participants respond to self‐efficacy beliefs evoked by flow with impaired risk awareness and with risky behaviour. Theoretical implications for flow and risk research as well as practical implications for risk prevention are discussed.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12012   open full text
  • Predicting Psychological Needs and Well‐Being of Individuals Engaging in Weight Management: The Role of Important Others.
    Johan Y.Y. Ng, Nikos Ntoumanis, Cecilie Thøgersen‐Ntoumani, Kyle Stott, Linda Hindle.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. May 28, 2013
    Background: Using the self‐determination theory (SDT) framework, we examined how significant others might support or thwart psychological needs of people with weight management goals, and in turn might affect their psychological well‐being and weight control behaviors. Design: Longitudinal design with three sets of questionnaires administered over a 6‐month period. Methods: One hundred and fifty‐six eligible participants (age = 31.01 ± 13.21 years) were asked to complete questionnaires of SDT‐based constructs, weight management behaviors, and psychological well‐being. Hypotheses were tested using Bayesian path analysis. Results: Perceived autonomy support from significant others was related to psychological need satisfaction, while controlling behaviors by others were associated with need thwarting. In turn, need satisfaction was associated with some beneficial outcomes such as life satisfaction, and need thwarting was related to some maladaptive outcomes such as higher levels of depressive symptoms and increases in unhealthy diet behaviors. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the quality of interactions between individuals engaged in weight management and their significant others matters in terms of predicting the psychological needs and well‐being of the former.
    May 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12011   open full text
  • Does Social Support Really Help to Eat a Low‐Fat Diet? Main Effects and Gender Differences of Received Social Support within the Health Action Process Approach.
    Urte Scholz, Sibylle Ochsner, Rainer Hornung, Nina Knoll.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 29, 2013
    Background: Most theories of health‐behavior change focus exclusively on individual self‐regulation without taking social factors, such as social support, into account. This study's first aim was to systematically test the added value of received instrumental and emotional social support within the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) in the context of dietary change. In the social support literature, gender effects emerge with regard to the effectiveness of social support. Thus, a second aim was the examination of gender differences in the association of social support with dietary behavior. Methods: Participants were 252 overweight and obese individuals. At baseline and 12 months later, participants completed questionnaires on HAPA variables; diet‐specific received social support and low‐fat diet. Results: For the prediction of intentions 12 months later, instrumental support was more beneficial for men than for women over and above individual self‐regulation. In terms of dietary behavior at T2, a moderate main effect of instrumental support emerged. Moreover, received emotional social support was beneficial for men, but not for women in terms of a low‐fat diet 12 months later. Conclusions: Effects of received instrumental social support found in this study provide new evidence for the added value of integrating social support into the HAPA.
    April 29, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12010   open full text
  • The Association between Controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation and Resource Depletion.
    David Martínez‐Íñigo, Giulia Lara Poerio, Peter Totterdell.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 29, 2013
    Background: This investigation focuses on what occurs to individuals' self‐regulatory resource during controlled Interpersonal Affect Regulation (IAR) which is the process of deliberately influencing the internal feeling states of others. Combining the strength model of self‐regulation and the resources conservation model, the investigation tested whether: (1) IAR behaviors are positively related to ego‐depletion because goal‐directed behaviors demand self‐regulatory processes, and (2) the use of affect‐improving strategies benefits from a source of resource‐recovery because it initiates positive feedback from targets, as proposed from a resource‐conservation perspective. Method: To test this, a lab study based on an experimental dual‐task paradigm using a sample of pairs of friends in the UK and a longitudinal field study of a sample of healthcare workers in Spain were conducted. Results: The experimental study showed a depleting effect of interpersonal affect‐improving IAR on a subsequent self‐regulation task. The field study showed that while interpersonal affect‐worsening was positively associated with depletion, as indicated by the level of emotional exhaustion, interpersonal affect‐improving was only associated with depletion after controlling for the effect of positive feedback from clients. Conclusion: The findings indicate that IAR does have implications for resource depletion, but that social reactions play a role in the outcome.
    April 29, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12009   open full text
  • Believe, and You Will Achieve: Changes over Time in Self‐Efficacy, Engagement, and Performance.
    Else Ouweneel, Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Pascale M. Le Blanc.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. April 24, 2013
    In order to answer the question whether changes in students' self‐efficacy levels co‐vary with similar changes in engagement and performance, a field study and an experimental study were conducted among university students. In order to do this, we adopted a subgroup approach. We created “natural” (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) subgroups based upon their change in self‐efficacy over time and examined whether these subgroups showed similar changes over time in engagement and performance. The results of both studies are partly in line with Social Cognitive Theory, in that they confirm that changes in self‐efficacy may have a significant impact on students' changes in cognition and motivation (i.e. engagement), as well as behavior (i.e. performance). More specifically, our results show that students' increases/decreases in self‐efficacy were related to corresponding increases/decreases in their study engagement and task performance over time. Examining the consequences of changes in students' self‐efficacy levels seems promising, both for research and practice.
    April 24, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12008   open full text
  • Self‐Reported Quality of Life Before and After Aerobic Exercise Training in Individuals with Hypertension: A Randomised‐Controlled Trial.
    Fatai A. Maruf, Aderonke O. Akinpelu, Babatunde L. Salako.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. March 25, 2013
    Background The Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training (AET) on self‐reported Quality of Life (QoL) in people with hypertension have been previously documented. However, data on black populations, especially from Africa, seem not to be available. This study investigated the effects of AET on QoL and exercise capacity in Nigerians on treatment for essential hypertension. Method This randomised‐controlled trial involved newly diagnosed individuals, with mild‐to‐moderate essential hypertension randomly assigned to antihypertensive drugs (ADs) alone (control: n = 60) and AET+ADs (exercise: n = 60) groups. The study lasted for 12 weeks. QoL was measured using the World Health Organization QoL Short Form (WHOQoL‐BREF) and exercise capacity was assessed using the Rockport Fitness Walk Test pre‐ and post‐study. Results Physical health, psychological health, and social relationships domains of QoL improved significantly in the exercise and control groups post‐intervention. The environment domain of QoL and exercise capacity improved significantly in only the exercise group. There were larger improvements in the physical health, psychological health, and environment domains of QoL, and exercise capacity in the exercise group. Conclusion Aerobic exercise improves QoL and exercise capacity in individuals with essential hypertension.
    March 25, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12005   open full text
  • Economic and Labor Market Forces Matter for Worker Well‐Being.
    Louis Tay, James K. Harter.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. February 18, 2013
    In light of recent interest in societal subjective well‐being, policies that seek to improve the economy and labor markets need to address the question of whether economic factors matter for worker well‐being, specifically job satisfaction. In a worldwide representative poll of 136 nations, economic factors are associated with job satisfaction beyond demographic and job factors. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that higher national GDP and job optimism was associated with job satisfaction, whereas higher unemployment was associated with job dissatisfaction. Mediational analyses revealed that economic variables (GDP and job optimism) were partially mediated by job satisfaction in predicting life satisfaction; full mediation was found for unemployment. In a second study, time series regression of monthly data from a nationally representative poll in the United States from 2008 to 2011 revealed that unemployment rate was significantly associated with job dissatisfaction over time. There was some evidence that prior unemployment rates predicted job satisfaction at a higher level than job satisfaction predicted unemployment rates, suggesting that economic factors lead to job (dis)satisfaction rather than the converse. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    February 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12004   open full text
  • The Interplay of Matching and Non‐Matching Job Demands and Resources on Emotional Exhaustion among Teachers.
    Nicolas Feuerhahn, Silja Bellingrath, Brigitte M. Kudielka.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. January 18, 2013
    Background: We investigated how matching and non‐matching demands and resources are related to emotional exhaustion (EE) in teachers. Theoretically, we draw on the Demand‐Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) model that proposes that demands, resources, and strains are multidimensional and comprise emotional, cognitive, and physical components. We first tested whether resources compensate aversive effects of demands. Second, as proposed by the triple‐match principle, we tested whether interaction effects between job demands and resources are most likely if demands, resources, and outcomes relate to the same dimension. Methods: We retrieved data from 177 school teachers; a subsample was re‐examined after a time lag of about 21 month (N = 56). Results: Linear regression analyses reveal concurrent and longitudinal main and interaction effects of teacher‐specific emotional and cognitive job demands and resources on EE. Conclusion: Results support the compensation principle and triple‐match principle. Therefore, the DISC model seems to provide a valuable framework for the study of interaction effects in job stress research and, in particular, for interventions to reduce job strain in teachers.
    January 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12002   open full text
  • Intentional Growth Training: Developing an Intervention to Increase Personal Growth Initiative.
    Megan A. Thoen, Christine Robitschek.
    Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being. January 04, 2013
    Background: A one‐week intervention (Intentional Growth Training; IGT) to increase personal growth initiative (PGI) was created and tested in a series of studies to determine its effect on PGI level. Because PGI predicts psychological well‐being and depression, IGT has potential to have considerable benefit on a person's mental health. Methods: Study 1 was the initial assessment of whether IGT increased PGI greater than various control conditions. Study 2 employed an enhanced version of IGT and utilised the singular components of IGT determining which components were most impactful at increasing PGI. Study 3 was a narrative analysis of writing samples from Study 2 determining whether participant language varied by condition in use of negative or positive emotion, or personal growth‐related words. Results: In Study 1, PGI increased significantly across conditions. In Study 2, the growth activity only condition, and PGI education coupled with the growth activity, produced significant increases in PGI. In Study 3, those receiving only PGI education used more growth‐related words than control conditions. Conclusion: The most effective IGT format appears to include both education about PGI and a growth activity. The benefits of utilising IGT are discussed.
    January 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/aphw.12001   open full text