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Journal of Organizational Behavior

Impact factor: 3.626 5-Year impact factor: 4.226 Print ISSN: 0894-3796 Online ISSN: 1099-1379 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)

Subjects: Applied Psychology, Business, Management

Most recent papers:

  • Reorienting job crafting research: A hierarchical structure of job crafting concepts and integrative review.
    Fangfang Zhang, Sharon K. Parker.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Two dominant perspectives of job crafting—the original theory from Wrzesniewski and Dutton () and the job demands resources perspective from Tims, Bakker, and Derks ()—remain separate in research. To synthesize these perspectives, we propose a three‐level hierarchical structure of job crafting, and we identify the aggregate/superordinate nature of each major job crafting construct. The first level of the structure is job crafting orientation, or approach versus avoidance crafting, which we argue is an essential yet often neglected distinction in the literature. We address the debate surrounding cognitive crafting and identify crafting form (behavioral versus cognitive crafting) as the next hierarchical level of constructs. Finally, we concur that job resources and job demands, or crafting content, capture different ways that individuals craft their jobs. Using this integrated hierarchical structure, we were able to review antecedents and outcomes from both perspectives. We show, for example, that approach crafting in its behavioral form is very similar to other proactive behaviors in the way it functions, suggesting a need for closer synthesis with the broader proactive literature, whereas avoidance crafting appears to be less proactive and often dysfunctional. On the basis of our review, we develop a road map for future research. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    October 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2332   open full text
  • On the origins of informal hierarchy: The interactive role of formal leadership and task complexity.
    Jacoba J. Oedzes, Gerben S. Van der Vegt, Floor A. Rink, Frank Walter.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Informal hierarchies are a common and important feature of many groups, yet we know little about the antecedent conditions that determine the strength of such hierarchies. Building on theory that has depicted hierarchy as a mechanism for reducing uncertainty and creating structure, we posit that informal hierarchies emerge most strongly in situations that are ambiguous, ill‐defined, and unstructured. Three independent studies confirm this notion, demonstrating that groups develop particularly strong informal hierarchies in situations characterized by both a lack of strong formal leadership and high task complexity. These findings support the theoretical notion that formal and informal hierarchies are closely related, but only under conditions of high task complexity in which the structuring functions of hierarchies are most crucial. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    October 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2330   open full text
  • Overtime work as the antecedent of employee satisfaction, firm productivity, and innovation.
    Young Jin Ko, Jin Nam Choi.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Overtime work has been blamed for the deterioration of employee satisfaction and productivity. However, the organization‐level implications of overtime work as a normative expectation remain unclear. In this study, such effects were analyzed through human capital theory and a causal attribution approach. Various organizational outcomes and boundary conditions were explored in explaining these implications. The analysis of time lagged data from 273 firms affirmed that a firm's overtime level was related negatively to employee satisfaction. However, it was positively related to the firm's productivity and curvilinearly (inverted U‐shaped) related to innovation. The effects of the firm's overtime level on firm productivity and innovation were also moderated by organizational trust. This study highlights the costs and benefits of overtime work as tools for utilizing human capital and reveals the critical contingency of organizational trust that enables firms to attenuate the costs of the overtime level and accentuate its potential benefits. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    October 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2328   open full text
  • The role of other orientation in reactions to social and economic leader–member exchange relationships.
    Robert Buch, Bård Kuvaas, Anders Dysvik.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary In this study, we investigate, through two study samples, whether relationships between social leader–member exchange (SLMX) and economic leader–member exchange (ELMX) relationships and outcomes differ depending on the followers' level of other orientation or the extent to which they are concerned for the welfare of others. We propose that followers with higher other orientation would respond less negatively to higher levels of ELMX and more positively to higher levels of SLMX because they are less likely to engage in behaviors based on rational and self‐interested calculations. In Study 1 (N = 200), we found that higher other orientation mitigated ELMX's negative relations with affective commitment and turnover intention. In Study 2 (N = 4,518), we both replicated the findings from Study 1 and also found that higher other orientation mitigated ELMX's negative relations with work effort. We also uncovered a weaker positive relationship between SLMX and organizational citizenship behavior for followers with higher other orientation. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    October 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2329   open full text
  • Time‐based differences in the effects of positive and negative affectivity on perceived supervisor support and organizational commitment among newcomers.
    Christian Vandenberghe, Alexandra Panaccio, Kathleen Bentein, Karim Mignonac, Patrice Roussel, Ahmed Khalil Ben Ayed.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Building on the broaden‐and‐build theory and research on the negativity bias, this study examines how trait affectivity, as a stable predisposition predicting the pattern of emotional responding, shapes newcomers' perceptions of supervisor support and experience of organizational commitment. Using latent growth modeling and data collected at four points in time from newcomers (N = 158), we found the initial level of perceived supervisor support to mediate a negative relationship between negative affectivity and the level of commitment. Moreover, although newcomers experienced a general decrease in perceived supervisor support and a related decrease in commitment, those with high positive affectivity experienced a weaker decrease in perceived supervisor support, which led to a weaker decrease in commitment. Incidentally, positive affectivity was also positively related to the initial level of commitment. Two post hoc studies indicated that positive and negative affectivity exerted their effects controlling for state affect and replicated the relationship between change in perceived support and commitment. We discuss how these findings inform our understanding of trait affectivity's influence on newcomers' work attitudes. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    October 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2324   open full text
  • Issue Information Page.

    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 02, 2018
    --- - |2 No abstract is available for this article. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, October 2018.
    October 02, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2231   open full text
  • Differential implications of team member promotive and prohibitive voice on innovation performance in research and development project teams: A dialectic perspective.
    Jian Liang, Rui Shu, Crystal I.C. Farh.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 01, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary How and when does team member voice facilitate team innovation? Integrating research on member voice and a dialectic perspective of innovation, we advance a model in which team member promotive voice enhances team innovation through team knowledge utilization, whereas team member prohibitive voice enhances team innovation through team reflexivity in a nonlinear fashion. We further propose that the differential effects of team member promotive and prohibitive voice will be stronger at different stages (idea generation vs. idea implementation) of the innovation cycle. Survey data from 78 research and development project teams showed a positive indirect effect between team member promotive voice and team innovation through team knowledge utilization, although this relationship was also mediated through team reflexivity. Moreover, the indirect effect of team member promotive voice on team innovation via team knowledge utilization was stronger for teams in the idea generation stage of team innovation. Results also confirmed a nonlinear indirect relationship between team member prohibitive voice and team innovation via team reflexivity such that the positive effects of team member prohibitive voice tapered off at high levels. Contrary to our expectations, the effects of prohibitive voice held regardless of stage. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    October 01, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2325   open full text
  • Disentangling horizontal pay dispersion: Experimental evidence.
    Samantha A. Conroy, Nina Gupta.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 18, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Although horizontal pay dispersion has been explored extensively using cross‐sectional field methods, it has received little attention using the control available through experimental designs. Many of the questions relevant to pay dispersion research can be addressed by taking an individual‐level experimental approach because this allows for clean separation of pay policies and individual effects. In this paper, we hypothesize both the motivation‐based and affect‐based effects of pay dispersion policies and test our hypotheses with a sample of over 400 participants in a real‐pay, real‐effort experiment. Results of the experiment provide support that two pay dispersion‐related pay policies, performance‐based pay dispersion and allocation criteria, have unique effects. Whereas motivation and performance effects are direct, pay satisfaction and interest in continuing work effects are the result of interactions, incorporating the performance level of workers. In follow‐up analyses, we find evidence that the temporal nature of responses to pay dispersion should be incorporated into future studies of pay dispersion. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    September 18, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2323   open full text
  • Proactive career behaviors and subjective career success: The moderating role of national culture.
    Adam Smale, Silvia Bagdadli, Rick Cotton, Silvia Dello Russo, Michael Dickmann, Anders Dysvik, Martina Gianecchini, Robert Kaše, Mila Lazarova, Astrid Reichel, Paula Rozo, Marijke Verbruggen, On behalf of the Cross‐Cultural Collaboration on Contemporary Careers (5C) research collaborative, Ifedapo Adeleye, Maike Andresen, Eleni Apospori, Olusegun Babalola, Jon P. Briscoe, Jong‐Seok Cha, Katharina Chudzikowski, Nicky Dries, Petra Eggenhofer‐Rehart, Zhangfeng Fei, Martin Gubler, Douglas T. Hall, Svetlana Khapova, Najung Kim, Philip Lehmann, Evgenia Lysova, Sergio Madero, Debbie Mandel, Wolfgang Mayrhofer, Biljana Bogićević Milikić, Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Chikae Naito, Emma Parry, Noreen Saher, Richa Saxena, Nanni Schleicher, Florian Schramm, Yan Shen, Pamela Suzanne, Mami Taniguchi, Julie Unite.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 21, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Although career proactivity has positive consequences for an individual's career success, studies mostly examine objective measures of success within single countries. This raises important questions about whether proactivity is equally beneficial for different aspects of subjective career success, and the extent to which these benefits extend across cultures. Drawing on Social Information Processing theory, we examined the relationship between proactive career behaviors and two aspects of subjective career success—financial success and work‐life balance—and the moderating role of national culture. We tested our hypotheses using multilevel analyses on a large‐scale sample of 11,892 employees from 22 countries covering nine of GLOBE's 10 cultural clusters. Although we found that proactive career behaviors were positively related to subjective financial success, this relationship was not significant for work‐life balance. Furthermore, career proactivity was relatively more important for subjective financial success in cultures with high in‐group collectivism, high power distance, and low uncertainty avoidance. For work‐life balance, career proactivity was relatively more important in cultures characterized by high in‐group collectivism and humane orientation. Our findings underline the need to treat subjective career success as a multidimensional construct and highlight the complex role of national culture in shaping the outcomes of career proactivity. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    August 21, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2316   open full text
  • The importance of group‐focused transformational leadership and felt obligation for helping and group performance.
    Natalia M. Lorinkova, Sara Jansen Perry.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 01, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Leaders face a challenge to simultaneously motivate workgroups and the individuals within them. Recent criticisms highlight the need to deconstruct broad leadership constructs to offer better theoretical insight into the effects of specific leadership behaviors on groups versus individuals. We address this call by exploring the effects of group‐focused and individual‐focused aspects of transformational leadership. Applying social identity theory, we theorize that group‐focused transformational leadership is key to fostering felt obligation, motivating helping behavior, and enhancing group performance, whereas individual‐focused leadership may only foster helping when individuals also feel a sense of obligation toward their workgroup. In a field study of 260 employees reporting to 36 supervisors in a skilled trade company, we find support for these predictions using multilevel structural equation modeling and multilevel mixed effects modeling. Thus, group‐focused (vs. individual‐focused) transformational leadership and subsequent felt obligation are important antecedents for encouraging helping and, in turn, workgroup performance. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    August 01, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2322   open full text
  • Does daily proactivity affect well‐being? The moderating role of punitive supervision.
    Francesco Cangiano, Sharon K. Parker, Gillian B. Yeo.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 31, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Proactive behavior (self‐initiated and future‐oriented actions to bring about change) has largely positive consequences for organizationally oriented outcomes such as job performance. Yet the outcomes of proactivity from a well‐being perspective have not been clearly considered. Drawing on self‐determination theory and the stressor‐detachment model, we propose two distinct paths by which proactivity affects individuals' daily well‐being. The first path is an energy‐generating pathway in which daily proactive behavior enhances end‐of‐work‐day vitality via perceived competence. The second is a strain pathway in which daily proactive behavior generates anxiety at work, which undermines the process of detachment from work. We argue that these pathways are shaped by the extent to which supervisors are prone to blaming employees for their mistakes (punitive supervision). We tested this model using a sample of 94 employees who completed surveys three times a day for between 5 and 7 days. Our multilevel analyses provide support for the proposed dual‐pathway model and suggest differential well‐being outcomes of daily proactive work behavior. Overall, when an individual behaves proactively at work, they are more likely to experience higher levels of daily perceived competence and vitality. However, these positive effects can exist in parallel with daily negative effects on end‐of‐workday anxiety, and hence bedtime detachment, but only when the supervisor is perceived to be punitive about mistakes. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    July 31, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2321   open full text
  • Who are the most engaged at work? A meta‐analysis of personality and employee engagement.
    Henry R. Young, David R. Glerum, Wei Wang, Dana L. Joseph.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary In order to identify the employees who are most likely to be engaged in their work, we conducted a meta‐analysis of 114 independent samples (N = 44,224) to provide estimates of the relationship between eight personality traits and employee engagement. Results indicated that these personality traits explained 48.10% of the variance in engagement. Supporting energy management theories, relative weights analysis revealed that positive affectivity was by far the strongest predictor of engagement (31.10% of the explained variance; ρ = .62), followed by proactive personality (19.60%; ρ = .49), conscientiousness (14.10%; ρ = .39), and extraversion (12.10%; ρ = .40), whereas neuroticism, negative affectivity, agreeableness, and openness to experience were the least important. We highlight the importance of positive affectivity for engagement and support personality‐based selection as a viable means for organizations to build a highly engaged workforce. Implications for using personality assessment to select engaged employees are discussed. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    July 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2303   open full text
  • Introducing changes at work: How voice behavior relates to management innovation.
    Felipe A. Guzman, Alvaro Espejo.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary This multistudy research examines the unit‐level relationship between promotive voice behavior and management innovation. Study 1 utilizes multisource data from 62 work units and reports that willingness to discuss ideas mediates the unit‐level relationship between promotive voice and management innovation. The results of Study 1 also show that the unit's available resources make the relationship stronger between promotive voice and willingness to discuss ideas. Study 2 employs a scenario‐based design to constructively replicate and expand the results of Study 1, utilizing a sample of 100 working adults. The results of the second study also show that resource availability positively moderates the relationship between promotive voice and willingness to discuss ideas. Furthermore, Study 2 shows that the indirect effect of promotive voice on management innovation through willingness to discuss ideas is stronger when more resources are made available to the work units. This moderated‐mediation effect is shown to be significant using two different operationalizations of management innovation. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    July 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2319   open full text
  • Do birds of a feather flock, fly, and continue to fly together? The differential and cumulative effects of attraction, selection, and attrition on personality‐based within‐organization homogeneity and between‐organization heterogeneity progression over time.
    In‐Sue Oh, Joo Hun Han, Brian Holtz, You Jin Kim, Seongsu Kim.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary The most fundamental proposition of attraction–selection–attrition (ASA) theory is that organizations progress toward homogeneity of personality over time through the processes of attraction, selection, and attrition. However, critical aspects of that proposition have remained untested, thus limiting a fuller understanding of the ASA theory. To close the gap, this multiwave, multisample, and multi‐inventory study examines the extent to which each of the ASA processes and different personality traits contribute to within‐organization homogeneity progression as well as between‐organization heterogeneity progression over time. Our findings suggest that both within‐organization homogeneity and between‐organization heterogeneity emerge to varying degrees over time and that selection, among the ASA processes, is most responsible for the within‐organization homogenization, whereas attraction contributes most to between‐organization heterogeneity. We also found that within‐organization homogeneity progression overall operates more strongly on extraversion than on the other personality traits, whereas between‐organization heterogeneity progression operates more strongly on neuroticism than on the other personality traits. Overall, this study provides an important extension to the ASA theory and useful insights into the organization‐level emergent process of personality‐based human capital resources. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of this study along with study limitations and future research directions. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    July 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2304   open full text
  • A dyadic model of motives, pride, gratitude, and helping.
    You Jin (YJ) Kim, Linn Van Dyne, Stephanie M. Lee.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Although scholars emphasize the importance of dyadic interactions between helpers and helping recipients, prior studies tend to focus on helpers and investigate why they help and how they feel after helping. Thus, we lack understanding of the role of recipients and how their motive attributions influence their affective responses to receiving help. The purpose of this paper is to draw on the affect theory of social exchange and focus on helpers and recipients of helping. Specifically, we develop and test a dyadic model of helping that emphasizes motives and discrete affective responses of both helpers and recipients to providing and receiving help. The model also goes beyond most prior research by acknowledging repeated acts of helping and demonstrates that helper pride and recipient gratitude interact to predict subsequent helping. Our research contributes to the helping literature by offering a more complete model of helping that simultaneously accounts for motives and pride of helpers and motive attributions and gratitude of recipients. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    July 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2315   open full text
  • Capturing the dynamics of leader–follower interactions: Stalemates and future theoretical progress.
    Joeri Hofmans, Edina Dóci, Omar N. Solinger, Woohee Choi, Timothy A. Judge.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 04, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Despite being based on the premise of a dynamic interpersonal process, studies on leader–member exchange theory often fail to acknowledge its dyadic and dynamic nature. We discuss how the interpersonal affect dynamics literature—and particularly its focus on the emergence of relationship patterns—may advance research on leader–follower interactions. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    July 04, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2317   open full text
  • Understanding dynamic change in perceptions of person–environment fit: An exploration of competing theoretical perspectives.
    Wouter Vleugels, Rein De Cooman, Marijke Verbruggen, Omar Solinger.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary The longstanding assumption in person–environment (PE) fit research is that perceived fit embodies the subjectively experienced match between personal and environmental attributes and hence triggers affect and behavior (i.e., normal causation perspective). This argument is however increasingly debated, with some scholars suggesting that the causal flow may also run from affect and behavior to perceived fit (i.e., reverse causation perspective), and others even arguing that perceptions of PE fit are not substantially different from how people feel and think about their environment (i.e., synchronous relationship perspective). In this research, we propose that these three competing perspectives correspond with different assumptions on how PE fit perceptions dynamically change over time (i.e., by means of comparative reasoning, logical deduction, or heuristic thinking). We empirically validate these three competing perspectives by teasing out the causal ordering of the within‐person relationships between perceptions of fit and workplace affect and performance. In two separate diary studies, one with weekly (N = 153) and one with daily (N = 77) repeated measures, support was found for the synchronous relationship perspective with heuristic thinking as the plausible underlying process. This research contributes to the PE fit literature by providing new insight into the dynamic nature of perceived fit. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    June 29, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2294   open full text
  • Predicting workplace relational dynamics using an affective model of relationships.
    Virginie Lopez‐Kidwell, Karen Niven, Giuseppe Labianca.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Integrating insights from the organizational social networks and workplace affect literatures, the authors propose a dynamic model of relationships, focusing on the affect experienced within dyadic work relationships to predict their trajectory over time: either improving, declining, or static. The feelings each partner typically experiences within an ongoing relationship (trait relational affect) can be distinguished according to their hedonic tone and activation level, and the combination of both dyadic partners' trait relational affect is predictive of the relationship trajectory. Furthermore, the emotions each partner experiences during specific interactional episodes (state relational affect) can alter and disrupt this relationship trajectory, either temporarily or permanently, to the extent that they diverge from the trait relational affect that is typically experienced. A given relationship trajectory over time leads to the development of different types of informal work ties (strong, negative, or weak), which are associated with a wealth of organizational consequences including effort, motivation, performance, and innovation. The model addresses criticisms that organizational social network research neglects the role of affect and views networks as static entities. The model further provides affect researchers with a novel framework that considers affect as a relational rather than individual phenomenon. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    June 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2300   open full text
  • A meta‐analysis of empowerment and voice as transmitters of high‐performance managerial practices to job performance.
    Melissa Chamberlin, Daniel W. Newton, Jeffery A. LePine.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Empowerment offers the predominant explanation for why employee perceptions of high‐performance managerial practices are positively associated with employee job performance. Drawing on social cognitive theory, we propose that high‐performance managerial practices also influence performance because these practices encourage employees to engage in voice. Additionally, we suggest that empowerment and voice together provide a more complete explanation for why high‐performance managerial practices and job performance are linked. In essence, we argue that empowerment transmits the effects of high‐performance managerial practices to job performance because it engenders voice. Using meta‐analysis of primary research consisting of 151 independent samples involving 53,200 employees, we find that not only do empowerment and voice independently transmit the effects of high‐performance managerial practices to job performance, but they sequentially mediate this relationship as well. Further, we distinguish among skill‐enhancing, motivation‐enhancing, and opportunity‐enhancing high‐performance managerial practices to identify when empowerment and voice are more or less effective in explaining associations with job performance. Although empowerment and voice transmit effects of all 3 types of high‐performance managerial practices to employee performance, these mechanisms appear to provide the best explanation for the effects of opportunity‐enhancing practices, and the primary reason why is because employees respond to opportunity‐enhancing practices with voice. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    May 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2295   open full text
  • Information reliability and team reflection as contingencies of the relationship between information elaboration and team decision quality.
    Nicola Breugst, Rebecca Preller, Holger Patzelt, Dean A. Shepherd.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Although previous research has found a positive relationship between information elaboration and team decision quality if team members possess diverse information, we know little about the boundary conditions of this relationship. In this study, we provide a more nuanced understanding of these boundary conditions by focusing on team‐external and team‐internal contingencies. Based on a sample of 52 student teams working on a decision‐making task, we find a complex three‐way interaction between information elaboration, information reliability, and team reflection in explaining team decision quality. The relationship between information elaboration and team decision quality was not significant when teams were confronted with unreliable information independent of their level of reflection. However, for teams confronted with reliable information, the relationship between information elaboration and team decision quality was positive for low levels of reflection but negative for high levels of reflection. Our results provide important implications for our understanding of information elaboration, team reflection, and the context of team decision making. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    May 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2298   open full text
  • Perceived organizational obstruction: A mediator that addresses source–target misalignment between abusive supervision and OCBs.
    Jeremy D. Mackey, Charn P. McAllister, Jeremy R. Brees, Lei Huang, Jack E. Carson.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 21, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary We examine perceived organizational obstruction as a mediator in the relationship between abusive supervision and subordinates' organizational citizenship behaviors directed toward organizations. We seek to provide a nuanced understanding of why subordinates who perceive supervisory mistreatment would target organizations with behavioral responses. Specifically, we study the implications of examining relationships between inconsistent sources of social exchange perceptions (e.g., supervisory perceptions) and targets of social exchange behaviors (e.g., organizational responses), which we refer to as social exchange source–target misalignment. Results from 3 studies (Study 1: n = 109; Study 2: n = 213; Study 3: n = 228) demonstrate evidence that abusive supervision is indirectly and negatively associated with organizational citizenship behaviors directed toward organizations through perceived organizational obstruction and that this conditional indirect effect is stronger for subordinates who perceive higher levels of supervisor organizational embodiment than others. Examining the social exchange tandem of perceived organizational obstruction and supervisor organizational embodiment provides a novel and useful means of aligning sources and targets of negative social exchange relationships across subordinates, supervisors, and organizations in order to advance our understanding of the social exchange antecedents and consequences of perceived organizational obstruction. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    May 21, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2293   open full text
  • The long arm of email incivility: Transmitted stress to the partner and partner work withdrawal.
    YoungAh Park, Verena C. Haun.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 09, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary As email communication becomes increasingly pervasive in the workplace, incivility can be manifested through work email. Integrating conservation of resources theory with spillover–crossover frameworks, the authors propose and test a couple‐dyadic model regarding email incivility's effects on work withdrawal for employees and their domestic partners. Online survey data were collected from 167 dual‐earner couples at multiple time points. Results from actor–partner interdependence mediation and moderation modeling showed that when employees experience more frequent incivility via work email during a week, they withdraw from work the following week. Furthermore, employees transmit their stress to their domestic partner on the weekend, and, as a result, the partner also withdraws from work the next week. More important, employees' negative work reflection during the weekend exacerbates the effects of email incivility on stress transmission to their partner, whereas the partner's negative work reflection during the weekend aggravated the effects of transmitted stress on their work withdrawal. The study sheds light on the stress effects of email incivility that span work and family domains and affect both employees and their partners. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    May 09, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2289   open full text
  • Right versus left: How does political ideology affect the workplace?
    Andrew F. Johnson, Katherine J. Roberto.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Underscored by perceived moral truths and at times punctuated by hypocrisy, political ideology is a deeply held conviction for many individuals, affecting their behavior. In an organizational setting, conflicting political ideologies may lead to a number of undesirable outcomes. This Incubator calls for further study into this important individual trait. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, Page 1040-1043, October 2018.
    April 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2291   open full text
  • Keeping work and private life apart: Age‐related differences in managing the work–nonwork interface.
    Ines Spieler, Susanne Scheibe, Christian Stamov Roßnagel.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Initial evidence suggests that older workers enjoy higher work–life balance than young workers. Yet little is known about the mechanisms of this effect or the robustness of age differences when accounting for differences in life context. We introduce and test the boundary management account of aging and work–life balance, which suggests that older workers maintain stronger work–nonwork boundaries as a pathway toward work–life balance. Both in Study 1 (cross‐sectional; N = 298 bank employees) and in Study 2 (aggregated diary entries; N = 608 workers), older workers reported better work–life balance and stronger boundaries at work than young workers; and stronger boundaries at home (Study 1). In both studies, stronger boundaries were related to better work–life balance, and boundary strength mediated the relationship between age and work–life balance. Study 2 additionally suggests that the use of boundary management strategies is responsible for stronger boundaries at higher age. Analyses accounted for differences in family and work context characteristics (both studies) and boundary preferences (Study 1). The findings corroborate evidence of older workers' enhanced work–life balance and suggest that it results from more successful boundary management with age rather than merely from changes in contextual factors or boundary preferences. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    April 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2283   open full text
  • A dynamic phase model of psychological contract processes.
    Denise M. Rousseau, Samantha D. Hansen, Maria Tomprou.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary In formulating a dynamic model of psychological contract (PC) phases, this paper offers new insights by incorporating a temporal perspective into the study of the PC. Although conceptualized as a dynamic construct, little empirical attention has been directed at how PCs evolve and change over time. Moreover, conceptualization of the PC and its processes has undergone limited revision since the 1990s despite challenges to some of its tenets and advances in related fields that suggest the importance of time to such processes. In this article, we address limitations in existing theory, clarify the conceptualization of the PC, and bring dynamism to the forefront of PC theory building by emphasizing dynamic processes. We propose a phase‐based model of PC processes (intraphase and interphase) wherein the functions of key variables (e.g., promises, inducements, contributions, and obligations) change over time and context. These phases include creation, maintenance, renegotiation, and repair. This model directs attention to the dynamic nature of the PC, drawing on contemporary evidence regarding self‐regulatory mechanisms. Finally, we present the implications of this dynamic phase model for theory and research. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    April 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2284   open full text
  • The effect of economic consequences on social judgment and choice: Reward interdependence and the preference for sociability versus competence.
    Peter Belmi, Jeffrey Pfeffer.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Competence and sociability (warmth) are fundamental dimensions of social judgment in organizations. However, these qualities are frequently seen as negatively related, with mixed evidence on which is more important. In three studies (N = 993), we investigated the effects of reward interdependence on the preference for sociability versus competence. We predicted that reward interdependence would elicit a more instrumental, calculative mindset, which in turn, would lead individuals to value competence more. Study 1 surveyed working adults who were in actual work groups and found that those who worked in more (vs. less) reward interdependent environments were more likely to think instrumentally and calculatively when considering potential colleagues. This mindset, in turn, was associated with a greater tendency to value competence over sociability. Studies 2 and 3 used an experimental design and found that when people imagined or anticipated working in a situation in which their economic outcomes depended in part on others, they were more likely to adopt an instrumental focus and choose a “competent jerk” over a “lovable fool.” These results call into question a vast social judgment literature that has made claims about the importance of sociability and related constructs without considering the context, and particularly the reward interdependence, often inherent in organizational contexts. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, Page 990-1007, October 2018.
    April 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2274   open full text
  • Perceived supervisor remorse, abusive supervision, and LMX.
    Dana L. Haggard, Hee Man Park.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 10, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Abusive supervision is defined by hurtful behaviors and is associated with many negative outcomes. This has made it easy for researchers to overlook the possibility that some supervisors regret their bad behavior and express remorse for their actions. Hence, we know little about how subordinates react to the perception that their supervisor is remorseful and how this perception affects the relationship or other organizational outcomes. We address this possibility by developing a measure of victim perceptions of supervisor remorse (PSR) and examining the consequences PSR might have on complicated supervisor–subordinate relationships. Drawing on the remorse and justice literatures, we maintain that PSR will mitigate the detrimental effects of abusive supervision on various subordinate outcomes. Collective results from 2 multiple‐wave studies indicate that PSR reduces the indirect effects of abusive supervision on turnover intentions and organization‐based self‐esteem (OBSE). This indirect effect operates through leader–member exchange and interactional justice. PSR is also shown to have direct effects on OBSE and subordinates' resistance. Our research contributes to abusive supervision literature by showing the possibility of supervisors regretting their hostile behavior and the importance of PSR's role in decreasing detrimental effects of abusive supervision. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    April 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2285   open full text
  • Multifoci effects of injustice on counterproductive work behaviors and the moderating roles of symbolization and victim sensitivity.
    James J. Lavelle, Christopher M. Harris, Deborah E. Rupp, David N. Herda, Randall F. Young, M. Blake Hargrove, Meghan Ann Thornton‐Lugo, Gary C. McMahan.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 10, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Past research suggests that employees, in response to workplace experiences, selectively engage in targeted counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). Taking a retributive justice and target similarity perspective, we predict that employee perceptions of unfairness from the organization uniquely predict CWB specifically targeted at the organization whereas employee perceptions of supervisory unfairness uniquely predict CWB specifically targeted at the supervisor. We further hypothesized that moral identity‐symbolization would strengthen these target‐similar relationships. Finally, drawing from the sensitivity to mean intentions model, we hypothesized that victim sensitivity would not only strengthen these target‐similar relationships but also lead to cross‐foci effects of multifoci fairness perceptions on targets of CWB. Results from 3 field studies of full‐time employees provided support for most of our hypothesized relationships. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, Page 1022-1039, October 2018.
    April 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2280   open full text
  • Let's get this meeting started: Meeting lateness and actual meeting outcomes.
    Joseph A. Allen, Nale Lehmann‐Willenbrock, Steven G. Rogelberg.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Meeting lateness is pervasive and potentially highly consequential for individuals, groups, and organizations. In Study 1, we first examined base rates of lateness to meetings in an employee sample and found that meeting lateness is negatively related to both meeting satisfaction and effectiveness. We then conducted 2 lab studies to better understand the nature of this negative relationship between meeting lateness and meeting outcomes. In Study 2, we manipulated meeting lateness using a confederate and showed that participants' anticipated meeting satisfaction and effectiveness were significantly lower when meetings started late. In Study 3, participants holding actual group meetings were randomly and blindly assigned to either a 10 min late, 5 min late, or a control condition (n = 16 groups in each condition). We found significant differences concerning participants' perceived meeting satisfaction and meeting effectiveness, as well as objective group performance outcomes (number, quality, and feasibility of ideas produced in the meeting). We also identified differences in negative socioemotional group interaction behaviors depending on meeting lateness. In concert, our findings establish meeting lateness as an important organizational phenomenon and provide important conceptual and empirical implications for meeting research and practice. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, Page 1008-1021, October 2018.
    March 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2276   open full text
  • Dynamic effects of personal initiative on engagement and exhaustion: The role of mood, autonomy, and support.
    Hannes Zacher, Antje Schmitt, Nerina L. Jimmieson, Cort W. Rudolph.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Researchers have neglected dynamic effects of proactive behavior on occupational well‐being. We investigated effects of change in personal initiative over 6 months on changes in emotional engagement and exhaustion over the following 6 months. On the basis of the control‐process theory on affect, we hypothesized that changes in positive and negative moods mediate these effects conditional upon employees' level of perceived organizational support. On the basis of action regulation theory, we assumed that change in job autonomy also acts as a mediator. Data came from 297 employees who responded to 3 surveys separated by 6‐month intervals. Results of latent change score modeling showed that change in personal initiative negatively predicted change in positive mood and, when perceived organizational support was low, positively predicted change in negative mood. In addition, change in personal initiative positively predicted change in job autonomy. Change in personal initiative had negative indirect effects on change in emotional engagement, and positive indirect effects on change in emotional exhaustion through changes in positive and negative moods (but not through change in job autonomy). A reverse causal model did not yield significant indirect effects. Overall, these findings suggest that an increase in proactive behavior can have detrimental effects on occupational well‐being. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    March 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2277   open full text
  • Is being a leader a mixed blessing? A dual‐pathway model linking leadership role occupancy to well‐being.
    Wen‐Dong Li, John M. Schaubroeck, Jia Lin Xie, Anita C. Keller.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 07, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Recent leadership research has drawn greater attention to how the well‐being of leaders influences leadership behaviors, follower performance and well‐being, and overall leadership effectiveness. Yet little attention has been paid to the relationship between occupying leadership positions and job incumbents' well‐being. This research addresses this question by developing and testing a dual‐pathway model. Our model proposes that incumbency in leadership positions is positively related to high levels of both job demands and job control, whereas job demands and job control have offsetting effects on well‐being. Results based on a longitudinal sample revealed that employees who transitioned from nonleadership positions to leadership roles showed trajectories of increasing job demands and job control, whereas such trends were weaker among those who remained in nonleadership positions. Findings from three additional samples generally demonstrated that leadership role occupancy was indirectly related to various indices of psychological and physiological well‐being through job demands and job control. Because the signs of the indirect effects through job demands and job control differed in expected ways, the overall relationship between leadership role occupancy and the well‐being outcomes was generally small and nonsignificant. We discuss research and practical implications of our framework and findings for organizations, employees, and leaders. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, Page 971-989, October 2018.
    March 07, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2273   open full text
  • Fluid and stable: Dynamics of team action patterns and adaptive outcomes.
    Sjir Uitdewilligen, Ramón Rico, Mary J. Waller.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary The current study draws on work in the areas of team adaptation, team compilation, and small groups as complex systems to predict and test relationships between time, taskwork team mental models, team action patterns, and team effectiveness. Three‐person teams performed 9 scenarios of a firefighting simulation distributed over 3 days with discontinuous task changes introduced in the fourth and seventh scenarios (N = 41 teams; 123 individuals). We applied pattern detection algorithm software to the behavioral data to identify emergent performative patterns in the team members' task‐oriented actions. We also used discontinuous growth modeling to track the development of these team action patterns and their dynamic relation to team effectiveness. The results indicate that pattern emergence increased over time. This was particularly true for teams with similar taskwork mental models, and these teams also showed a more acute decrease in action patterns after a task change. In addition, team action patterns became increasingly positively related to team effectiveness over time, but this effect was reset after the occurrence of a task change. Overall, our research provides practical guidance to managers by illustrating the value of teams having highly shared taskwork team mental models and of enhancing the effects of teams' action patterns on team adaptive outcomes. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    February 27, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2267   open full text
  • A time to trust? The buffering effect of trust and its temporal variations in the context of high‐reliability teams.
    Michael J. Burtscher, Bertolt Meyer, Klaus Jonas, Sebastian Feese, Gerhard Tröster.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary This study aims to further clarify the functionality of job resources in the context of high‐reliability teams. Combining extant stress models with theoretical considerations from team research, we address temporal variations in the buffering effect of trust in teammates. We hypothesize that trust buffers the negative effect of objective physical activity on perceived strain and that this buffering effect is more pronounced during later performance episodes (i.e., when employees complete a series of temporally distinguishable tasks). We tested the hypotheses with a sample of professional firefighters who completed a sequence of 3 performance episodes in a high‐fidelity simulation environment. Each participant was equipped with a smartphone capturing individual motion activity, which we used as an indicator of physical activity. In line with our hypotheses, multilevel modeling revealed a buffering effect of trust on the relationship between physical activity and perceived strain. Importantly, this buffering effect was more pronounced in the second performance episode as compared with the first performance episode. Our findings add a temporal perspective to the understanding of the effectiveness of job resources. In addition, the current study illustrates the usefulness of smartphones for obtaining behavioral data in a naturalistic setting. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    February 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2271   open full text
  • From being diverse to becoming diverse: A dynamic team diversity theory.
    Jia Li, Bertolt Meyer, Meir Shemla, Jürgen Wegge.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary On the basis of the literature of open systems and team diversity, we present a new dynamic team diversity theory that explains the effect of change in team diversity on team functioning and performance in the context of dynamic team composition. Building upon the conceptualization of teams as open systems, we describe the enlargement and decline of team variety, separation, and disparity through member addition, subtraction, and substitution. Then, focusing on diversity enlargement, we theorize the contemporaneous and lasting effects of team diversity change on team performance change and on team processes and states leading to them. Dynamic team diversity theory expands the focus of team diversity research from teams' being more diverse than others to teams' becoming more diverse than before. It aims to advance team diversity research to be better aligned with the organizational reality of dynamic team composition. We also discuss methodological considerations in subsequent empirical testing of the theory and highlight how the theory and future research may help to guide organizational practice in recomposing work teams. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, Page 956-970, October 2018.
    February 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2272   open full text
  • How does it feel and how does it look? The role of employee motivation in organizational learning type.
    Olli‐Pekka Kauppila.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Employees' work outcomes vary as a function of their focus on exploring new possibilities versus exploiting current opportunities. But what determines how employees divide their attention between these contrasting work behaviors? Drawing on studies on work motivation and employees' impression management concerns, we examine how intrinsic work motivation and self‐enhancement motivation relate to the exploration–exploitation balance and how environmental dynamism moderates these relationships. Based on the analyses of a sample of 638 employees in 34 organizations in Finland, we find that intrinsic work motivation is positively associated with employees' focus on exploration relative to exploitation. By contrast, self‐enhancement motivation negatively associates with exploration relative to exploitation, but this relationship is nonlinear, such that as self‐enhancement motivation increases, its positive association with exploitation diminishes. The findings also show that the hypothesized nonlinear relationship between self‐enhancement motivation and exploration is particularly pronounced in stable business environments. Our findings contribute to organizational learning research and provide a new theoretical perspective on pursuing exploration and exploitation in organizations. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, Page 941-955, October 2018.
    February 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2270   open full text
  • Examining the interpersonal process and consequence of leader–member exchange comparison: The role of procedural justice climate.
    Herman H. M. Tse, Catherine K. Lam, Jun Gu, Xiao Song Lin.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Individuals are always sensitive to their relative standing in interpersonal comparison processes of leader–member exchanges (LMXs) in teams. Little research, however, has investigated whether coworkers with a higher LMX influence the emotional and behavioral reactions of individuals with a lower LMX in different dyads. Drawing on social comparison theory and the symbolic model of procedural justice (PJ) climate, we conducted 2 independent studies—an experimental study focusing on the self‐perceived upward LMX comparison (i.e., an individual perceives that a coworker's LMX is higher than the LMX that he or she has with the supervisor; N = 203; Study 1: American working adults) and a field survey study focusing on the other‐perceived downward LMX comparison (i.e., a coworker perceives that his or her own LMX is higher than the LMX that the individual has with the supervisor; N = 177; Study 2: Chinese software engineers). Results from these studies consistently revealed that a coworker's higher LMX elicits an individual's hostile emotions when the PJ climate is low but that this relationship is buffered when the PJ climate is high. Results of both studies also showed that the coworker's higher LMX arouses the individual to direct harmful behavior toward that coworker (via the individual's feelings of hostility) when the PJ climate is low but not when it is high. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, Page 922-940, October 2018.
    February 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2268   open full text
  • Feeling insulted? Examining end‐of‐work anger as a mediator in the relationship between daily illegitimate tasks and next‐day CWB.
    Zhiqing E. Zhou, Erin M. Eatough, Danielle R. Wald.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary In this daily diary study, we investigated the within‐person relationship between daily illegitimate tasks and next‐day counterproductive work behavior (CWB). We explored a moderated mediation model where the link between illegitimate tasks and CWB is mediated by daily end‐of‐work anger, with daily time pressure moderating the relationship between illegitimate tasks and end‐of‐work anger. We collected data from 114 full‐time employees across 10 consecutive working days. Results showed that within individuals, daily illegitimate tasks positively predicted next‐day CWB, and the relationship was mediated by daily end‐of‐work anger. Further, daily time pressure moderated the relationship between daily illegitimate tasks and daily end‐of‐work anger with the relationship being stronger when daily time pressure was high. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, Volume 39, Issue 8, Page 911-921, October 2018.
    January 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2266   open full text
  • The dynamic relationship between multiple team membership and individual job performance in knowledge‐intensive work.
    Hendrik J. Brake, Frank Walter, Floor A. Rink, Peter J. M. D. Essens, Gerben S. Vegt.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Many employees in modern, knowledge‐based organizations are concurrently involved in more than one team at the same time. This study investigated whether a within‐person change in such individual multiple team membership (MTM) may precede and may be predicted by changes in an employee's overall job performance. We examined this reciprocal relationship using longitudinal archival data from a large knowledge‐intensive organization, comprising 1,875 employees and spanning 5 consecutive years. A latent change score model demonstrated that an increase in an employee's MTM was associated with a subsequent decrease in his or her overall job performance evaluations. By contrast, an increase in job performance was associated with a subsequent increase in an employee's MTM. Moreover, our results indicated that although an increase in an individual employee's MTM initially decreases his or her job performance, in the long run, this increase in MTM was associated with higher job performance. Together, these results suggest a dynamic association between an individual employee's MTM and his or her overall job performance, such that these variables are mutually connected in a highly complex manner over time. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    January 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2260   open full text
  • Speaking up and moving up: How voice can enhance employees' social status.
    Mona Weiss, Elizabeth W. Morrison.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary A central argument in the literature on employee voice is that speaking up at work carries image risk. Challenging this assumption, we propose that voice can in fact positively affect how employees are viewed by others, thereby enhancing their social status. Using theory on status attainment and the fundamental social perception dimensions of agency and communion, we suggest that employee voice will result in higher status evaluations by increasing the extent to which an employee is judged as confident/competent (agency) and other‐oriented/helpful (communion). We conducted a survey study and two experiments to test these hypotheses. The results supported our predictions. Employees who voiced were ascribed higher status than those who did not, and this effect was mediated by judgments of agency (in all three studies) and communion (in two studies). These results highlight the implications of voice behavior for status enhancement within organizations. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    January 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/job.2262   open full text
  • Igniting and resolving content disagreements during team interactions: A statistical discourse analysis of team dynamics at work.
    Nale Lehmann‐Willenbrock, Ming Ming Chiu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 15, 2017
    --- - |2 Summary Disagreements are integral to fruitful team collaboration but have rarely been studied within actual team interactions. We develop a temporal account of how disagreement episodes begin and are resolved during team interactions, testing explanatory factors at multiple levels: team context (team conflict states and team productivity), individual characteristics and perceptions (individual status and perceptions of team viability), and behavioral patterns (problem solving versus off‐task communication) with a statistical discourse analysis of 32,448 turns of talk by 259 employees during 43 team meetings. As hypothesized, problem‐solving behaviors (e.g., describing problems and proposing solutions) ignited content disagreements, often by participants who perceived greater team viability. In contrast, after off‐task behaviors or talk by higher status team members, participants started fewer content disagreements. Moreover, content disagreements started by higher status individuals were more likely than those started by others to be resolved with agreements, especially via agreements with higher status individuals. Also, problem‐solving behaviors facilitated the resolution of disagreement episodes with agreement, whereas off‐task behaviors hindered them. Contrary to our hypotheses, team conflict states and productivity were not linked to starting or ending disagreements. We discuss the conceptual and methodological importance of capturing team interaction dynamics at work and derive practical implications for managing content disagreement. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    December 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2256   open full text
  • The reciprocal relationship between job insecurity and depressive symptoms: A latent transition analysis.
    Tinne Vander Elst, Guy Notelaers, Anders Skogstad.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 28, 2017
    --- - |2 Summary Previous studies on the relationship between job insecurity and depressive symptoms have mainly focused on the stressor‐to‐strain effect from job insecurity to depressive symptoms, on rather secure and healthy employees, and on rank‐order relationships. This is not entirely in line with stress theories suggesting intraindividual and reciprocal relationships between high levels of stressors and strain. In reply, this study investigated whether high levels of job insecurity were related to subsequent high levels of depressive symptoms, and vice versa. Cross‐lagged dual process latent Markov model analysis with 3‐wave data (time lags of 2 and 3 years) from a representative sample of the Norwegian working force (N = 2,539) revealed 5 latent states of job insecurity and 6 latent states of depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, a reciprocal relationship between the “high job insecurity” state and the “depressed” state was found: Previously highly job‐insecure employees were more likely to be depressed at the next measurement point (OR = 42.54), and employees labeled as depressed were more likely to experience high job insecurity later on (OR = 69.92). This study contributes to stress theory by demonstrating that stressors and strain may relate differently depending on the level of stressor and strain experienced. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    November 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2250   open full text
  • Why is your boss making you sick? A longitudinal investigation modeling time‐lagged relations between abusive supervision and employee physical health.
    Lindie H. Liang, Samuel Hanig, Rochelle Evans, Douglas J. Brown, Huiwen Lian.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 27, 2017
    --- - |2 Summary Although an abundance of cross‐sectional data have linked abusive supervision with employees' experience of health‐related problems, further research accounting for the temporal dynamics of these variables is needed to establish causality. Furthermore, the process by which abusive supervision relates to subordinate health problems requires greater clarification. In a 1‐year longitudinal cross‐lagged investigation, we sought to test the time‐lagged relationship between abusive supervision and employee physical health; additionally, we test rumination as a cognitive process that mediates this time‐lagged relationship while modeling other relevant social and motivational mediators. Our results indicate that subordinate ruminative thinking about their experiences of abusive supervision mediates the time‐lagged association between abusive supervision and physical health problems. These findings suggest that reducing ruminative thinking may limit the long‐term impact of abusive supervision on employees' physical health. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    November 27, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2248   open full text
  • Step by step: Capturing the dynamics of work team process through relational event sequences.
    Aaron Schecter, Andrew Pilny, Alice Leung, Marshall Scott Poole, Noshir Contractor.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 27, 2017
    --- - |2 Summary The emergence of group constructs is an unfolding process, whereby actions and interactions coalesce into collective psychological states. Implicitly, there is a connection between these states and the underlying procession of events. The manner in which interactions follow one another over time describe a group's behavior, with different temporal patterns being indicative of different team characteristics. In this study, we explicitly connect event sequences to the process of emergence. We argue that the temporal relationship between events in a sequence will vary depending on the team's psychological outcome. Further, certain patterns of behavior will be repeated at different rates in teams with varying emergent states. To support this approach, we apply a statistical methodology—relational event modeling—for analyzing sequences of interactions that builds on the foundation of social network analysis. Using a dataset comprised of 55 work teams of military personnel engaged in a tactical scenario, we found that individuals who perceived team process (regarding coordination and information sharing) as having different qualities engaged in significantly different patterns of behavior. Our findings indicate that individuals who had a positive perception of process quality were more likely to initiate communication events in a reciprocal, transitive, and decentralized fashion. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    November 27, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2247   open full text
  • Feeling interrupted—Being responsive: How online messages relate to affect at work.
    Sabine Sonnentag, Leonard Reinecke, Jutta Mata, Peter Vorderer.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 09, 2017
    Being constantly connected to others via e‐mail and other online messages is increasingly typical for many employees. In this paper, we develop and test a model that specifies how interruptions by online messages relate to negative and positive affect. We hypothesize that perceived interruptions by online messages predict state negative affect via time pressure and that perceived interruptions predict state positive affect via responsiveness to these online messages and perceived task accomplishment. A daily survey study with 174 employees (a total of 811 day‐level observations) provided support for our hypotheses at the between‐person and within‐person level. In addition, perceived interruptions showed a negative direct association with perceived task accomplishment. Our study highlights the importance of being responsive to online messages and shows that addressing only the negative effects of perceived interruptions does not suffice to understand the full impact of interruptions by online messages in modern jobs.
    October 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2239   open full text
  • The role of self‐regulation in the relationship between abusive supervision and job tension.
    Charn P. McAllister, Jeremy D. Mackey, Pamela L. Perrewé.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 06, 2017
    Trait and state self‐regulation both have critical influences on workplace behavior, but their influences are thought to operate quite differently. We draw from social exchange and ego depletion theories to investigate the relationship between trait and state self‐regulation, as well as how they differentially affect the relationship between subordinates' perceptions of abusive supervision and job tension. Specifically, we examine (a) how the interaction between abusive supervision and trait self‐regulation affects job tension and (b) how state self‐regulation mediates the relationship between abusive supervision and job tension. Using 3 studies that include an experiment (n = 81) and 2 field studies with cross‐sectional (n = 157) and time‐separated (n = 109) data, we demonstrate that the interaction between abusive supervision and trait self‐regulation increases experienced job tension for subordinates who report higher levels of abusive supervision and trait self‐regulation than others. Also, we provide evidence that abusive supervision is indirectly associated with job tension through state self‐regulation. This study's findings have important implications for abusive supervision and self‐regulation research, as well as social exchange and ego depletion theories, because we extend our understanding of how trait and state self‐regulation affect cognitive responses associated with abusive supervision.
    October 06, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2240   open full text
  • The microlevel actions undertaken by owner‐managers in improving the sustainability practices of cultural and creative small and medium enterprises: A United Kingdom–Italy comparison.
    Manlio Del Giudice, Zaheer Khan, Muthu De Silva, Veronica Scuotto, Francesco Caputo, Elias Carayannis.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 05, 2017
    This article discusses microlevel actions undertaken by owner‐managers, and how such actions affect stakeholders in enhancing the sustainability of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the knowledge on which is lacking in the extant literature. The paper, by adopting an inductive analytical approach, draws key insights from the literature on microfoundations and sustainability and evidence from representatives of 5 Cultural and Creative Industry SMEs in Italy and of 5 in the United Kingdom. The findings suggest that owner‐managers play a crucial role when engaging in sustainability activities jointly with employees and other stakeholders, through which individual‐level actions enhance collective organizational‐level sustainability practices. The U.K. and Italian cases highlight 2 contrasting approaches to dealing with sustainability; thus, the paper contributes to the emerging literature on SME microfoundations and sustainability.
    October 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2237   open full text
  • Personality‐based selection of entrepreneurial borrowers to reduce credit risk: Two studies on prediction models in low‐ and high‐stakes settings in developing countries.
    Thorsten Johannes Dlugosch, Bailey Klinger, Michael Frese, Ute‐Christine Klehe.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 28, 2017
    Small business growth is critical for economic development and poverty reduction in emerging markets, yet there remains an over $2 trillion gap in financing these entrepreneurs. This study explores the potential of personality assessments to help lenders solve this problem and lend to more entrepreneurs and contributes to psychological selection research by examining the effect of high versus low stakes on response distortions and predictive validity in a new area—entrepreneurship with a new dependent variable—paying back credit. Results of Study 1 show that personality assessments are indeed related to credit risk, but response patterns depend significantly on whether or not the assessment is taken as a mandatory part of the credit application (high stakes) or as an optional research survey after the credit has already been provided (low stakes), and predictive relationships do not generalize between these situations. In Study 2, the distributions of personality dimensions relevant for entrepreneurs applying for a credit—conscientiousness, extraversion, and integrity—are shown to be different for applicants when in high‐ versus low‐stakes settings. These findings convey several implications for the research on and practice of lending to entrepreneurs in emerging markets and offer new directions for future research.
    September 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2236   open full text
  • Emotional intelligence and individual differences in affective processes underlying task‐contingent conscientiousness.
    Amirali Minbashian, Nadin Beckmann, Robert E. Wood.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 18, 2017
    --- - |2 Summary Organisational researchers have recently begun to focus on the more dynamic aspects of personality in the workplace. The present study examines individual differences in the affective processes that underlie one such dynamic construct, task‐contingent conscientiousness. Using experience sampling data collected over 3 weeks from 201 managers, we show (a) that individuals differ substantially from each other in the paths that connect task demand, positive and negative affect, and conscientious behaviour; (b) that these individual differences cohere to define person types or classes that represent meaningful differences in the extent to which task‐contingent conscientiousness is mediated affectively; and (c) that emotional intelligence increases the likelihood of membership in classes that are characterised by affectively mediated effects. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed with reference to the cognitive‐affective personality system model, research on the consequences of affect in the workplace, and the literature on emotional intelligence. Practical applications are suggested for managers who wish to use personality assessment for developmental purposes, especially in relation to facilitating behavioural change. - Journal of Organizational Behavior, EarlyView.
    September 18, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2233   open full text
  • When can culturally diverse teams be more creative? The role of leaders' benevolent paternalism.
    Lin Lu, Fuli Li, Kwok Leung, Krishna Savani, Michael W. Morris.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 15, 2017
    The current research examines the conditions under which cross‐cultural teams can realize their creative potential—a consequence of their cultural diversity. We propose that in more culturally diverse teams, team members are less open when communicating with each other, which impairs the team's ability to elaborate on the information contributed by different members, ultimately limiting team creativity. We further theorize that leaders' benevolent paternalism, a leadership style that is particularly prevalent in East Asian contexts, can reduce the negative consequence of intercultural diversity on intercultural communication openness. On the basis of multiwave, multisource data from 48 culturally diverse teams in China, we found that perceived intercultural diversity is negatively related to intercultural communication openness, which, in turn, is positively related to information elaboration, and ultimately, team creativity. Leader benevolent paternalism attenuates the negative relationship between intercultural diversity and intercultural communication openness. These findings enrich the literature on intercultural diversity by calling attention to communication‐related obstacles.
    September 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2238   open full text
  • Why seeking feedback from diverse sources may not be sufficient for stimulating creativity: The role of performance dynamism and creative time pressure.
    Roy B. L. Sijbom, Frederik Anseel, Michiel Crommelinck, Alain De Beuckelaer, Katleen E. M. De Stobbeleir.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 14, 2017
    We explore how the impact of seeking feedback from different sources (i.e., feedback source variety) on employee creativity is shaped by perceptions of the work environment. Specifically, we argue that two contextual factors, namely, performance dynamism (Study 1) and creative time pressure (Study 2), moderate the relationship between feedback source variety and creativity such that under conditions of high performance dynamism and low creative time pressure, individuals benefit from diverse feedback information. In Study 1 (N = 1,031), the results showed that under conditions of high performance dynamism, the relationship between feedback source variety and self‐reported creativity was nonlinear, with employee creativity exponentially increasing as a function of feedback source variety. Similarly, in Study 2 (N = 181), we found that under conditions of low creative time pressure, the relationship between feedback source variety and employee creativity was nonlinear, with supervisor‐rated creative performance exponentially increasing at higher levels of feedback source variety. Such results highlight that the relationship between feedback source variety and creative performance is affected by the perceptions of the work environment in which feedback is sought.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2235   open full text
  • Antecedents of organizational and community embeddedness: The roles of support, psychological safety, and need to belong.
    Barjinder Singh, Margaret A. Shaffer, T.T. Selvarajan.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 13, 2017
    Defining embeddedness as a psychological construct that influences individuals to stay, we draw on conservation of resources theory to develop and test a model of the influence of contextual social support resources on both organizational and community forms of embeddedness. In addition to the direct relationship between support and embeddedness, we also assess the mediating influence of organizational and community psychological safety and the moderating impact of need to belong. Using a multisource sample of employees and coworkers (N = 165), we found support for most of the hypotheses. Social support resources emanating from the organization and the community were positively associated with embeddedness in each domain, and psychological safety mediated these relationships. We also found that need to belong was an important boundary condition in the determination of organizational embeddedness. We discuss the theoretical contributions and practical implications of our findings.
    September 13, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2223   open full text
  • A meta‐analysis of the antecedents of work–family enrichment.
    Laurent M. Lapierre, Yanhong Li, Ho Kwong Kwan, Jeffrey H. Greenhaus, Marco S. DiRenzo, Ping Shao.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 13, 2017
    This study meta‐analytically examined theoretically derived antecedents of both directions of work–family enrichment (sometimes labeled facilitation or positive spillover), namely, work–family enrichment and family–work enrichment. Contextual and personal characteristics specific to each domain were examined. Resource‐providing (e.g., social support and work autonomy) and resource‐depleting (e.g., role overload) contextual characteristics were considered. Domain‐specific personal characteristics included the individuals' psychological involvement in each domain, the centrality of each domain, and work engagement. Results based on 767 correlations from 171 independent studies published between 1990 and 2016 indicate that several contextual and personal characteristics have significant relationships with enrichment. Although those associated with work tend to have stronger relationships with work–family enrichment and those associated with family tend to have stronger relationships with family–work enrichment, several antecedent variables have significant relationships with both directions of enrichment. Resource‐providing contextual characteristics tend to have stronger relationships with enrichment than do resource‐depleting characteristics. There was very little evidence of gender being a moderator of relationships between contextual characteristics and enrichment. Lastly, meta‐analytic structural equation modeling provided evidence that a theoretical path model wherein work engagement mediates between several contextual characteristics and enrichment is largely generalizable across populations.
    September 13, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2234   open full text
  • Sleeping with a broken promise: The moderating role of generativity concerns in the relationship between psychological contract breach and insomnia among older workers.
    Patrick Raymund James M. Garcia, Prashant Bordia, Simon Lloyd D. Restubog, Valerie Caines.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 25, 2017
    This paper examines the relationship between psychological contract breach and insomnia among older workers (aged 40 years and up). Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory, we conceptualize breach as a stressful event characterized by a perceived threat, failure to gain, or actual loss of valued resources, which increases psychological distress and insomnia. Moreover, we hypothesized that older workers' generativity concerns would act as a personal resource that would buffer the negative impact of breach. We tested our proposed model in 2 studies (Study 1 = 123; Study 2 = 168) of employee–spouse dyads. Results revealed that psychological distress mediated the relationship between psychological contract breach and insomnia. These mediated relationships were significant for those with low, but not for those with high levels of generativity concerns. These effects remained significant even after controlling for perceived organizational support (i.e., a social exchange mechanism). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    August 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2222   open full text
  • Taoist leadership and employee green behaviour: A cultural and philosophical microfoundation of sustainability.
    Yijun Xing, Mark Starik.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 25, 2017
    Existing research shows that leadership behaviours can influence the proenvironment beliefs of employees and their green behaviours. However, the mechanisms that nurture the proenvironment attitudes of employees remain unclear. By juxtaposing Taoist philosophy and Aldo Leopold's land ethic, this paper explores how the former can theoretically advance the latter from a cultural and philosophical microfoundational perspective. Taoism, which treats human beings and the natural environment as components of an integral oneness, has important implications for both Taoist leadership behaviours and the management of sustainability. We posit that the attributions of Taoist leadership—rejection of domination, reverse thinking, and selflessness—can nurture employee proenvironment attitudes. Using the narratives of Chinese leaders and employees, our research empirically shows that the proenvironment attitudes and green behaviours of employees can be nurtured through Taoist leadership. Our paper contributes the field of sustainability management by suggesting Taoism as a cultural and philosophical microfoundation for sustainability.
    August 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2221   open full text
  • Empowering leadership: A meta‐analytic examination of incremental contribution, mediation, and moderation.
    Allan Lee, Sara Willis, Amy Wei Tian.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 18, 2017
    The concept of empowering leadership (EL) has seen increasing scholarly interest in recent years. This study reports a meta‐analysis investigating the effects of EL on employee work behavior. On the basis of data from 105 samples, we found evidence for the positive effects of EL on performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and creativity at both the individual and team levels. We further examined these relationships by exploring potential boundary conditions and the incremental contribution of EL over transformational leadership and leader–member exchange. Furthermore, at the individual level, both trust in leader and psychological empowerment mediated the relationships of EL with task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and creativity. We also found evidence that leader–member exchange was a significant mediator between EL and task performance. At the team level, empowerment mediated the effects of EL on team performance, whereas knowledge sharing showed no significant indirect effect. Our results have important theoretical and practical implications and suggest some areas that require further research.
    August 18, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2220   open full text
  • Who gets the benefit of the doubt? The impact of causal reasoning depth on how violations of gender stereotypes are evaluated.
    Steffen Keck, Linda Babcock.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 17, 2017
    A large body of research demonstrates that women encounter severe penalties for violating gender stereotypes. In this paper, we explore the conditions under which the reverse is true—when being subject to a stereotype can actually benefit a woman compared to a man who is not subject to the same stereotype. In particular, we suggest that in situations of causal ambiguity—uncertainty about the reasons that a behavior occurred—differences in how men and women are evaluated will be moderated by the extent to which observers engage in a low or a high level of deliberative causal reasoning. In 3 experimental studies, participants were asked to make judgments about an employee who violated a female gender stereotype by failing to provide help to a coworker when asked to do so, but the reasons for this behavior were unclear. When participants were prompted to engage in deliberative causal reasoning, women were evaluated more positively than men, but not in the absence of such a prompt. Moreover, when participants did engage in deliberative causal reasoning, the more positive evaluations of women compared to men were driven by participants' beliefs that women's behavior was due more to situational constraints than the same behavior by men.
    August 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2218   open full text
  • Recovery from work‐related effort: A meta‐analysis.
    Andrew A. Bennett, Arnold B. Bakker, James G. Field.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 11, 2017
    This meta‐analytic study examines the antecedents and outcomes of four recovery experiences: psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, and control. Using 299 effect sizes from 54 independent samples (N = 26,592), we extend theory by integrating recovery experiences into the challenge–hindrance framework, creating a more comprehensive understanding of how both after‐work recovery and work characteristics collectively relate to well‐being. The results of meta‐analytic path estimates indicate that challenge demands have stronger negative relationships with psychological detachment, relaxation, and control recovery experiences than hindrance demands, and job resources have positive relationships with relaxation, mastery, and control recovery experiences. Psychological detachment after work has a stronger negative relationship with fatigue than relaxation or control experiences, whereas control experiences after work have a stronger positive relationship with vigor than detachment or relaxation experiences. Additionally, a temporally driven model with recovery experiences as a partial mediator explains up to 62% more variance in outcomes (ΔR2 = .12) beyond work characteristics models, implying that both work characteristics and after‐work recovery play an important role in determining employee well‐being.
    August 11, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2217   open full text
  • Innovative work behavior and sex‐based stereotypes: Examining sex differences in perceptions and evaluations of innovative work behavior.
    Aleksandra Luksyte, Kerrie L. Unsworth, Derek R. Avery.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 10, 2017
    Building on role congruity theory, we predict that innovative work behaviors are stereotypically ascribed to men more than to women. Because of this bias, women who innovate may not receive better performance evaluations than those who do not innovate, whereas engaging in innovative work behaviors is beneficial for men. These predictions were supported across 3 complementary field and experimental studies. The results of an experiment (Study 1; N = 407) revealed that innovative work behaviors are stereotypically associated with men more than women. In Studies 2 and 3, using multisource employee evaluation data (N = 153) and by experimentally manipulating innovative work behaviors (N = 232), respectively, we found that favorable performance evaluations were associated with innovative work behaviors for men but not for women. These studies highlight a previously unidentified form of sex bias and are particularly important for those wishing to increase innovative behaviors in the workplace: We need to address this phenomenon of “think innovation‐think male.”
    August 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2219   open full text
  • Inspired to perform: A multilevel investigation of antecedents and consequences of thriving at work.
    Fred O. Walumbwa, Michael K. Muchiri, Everlyne Misati, Cindy Wu, Meiliani Meiliani.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 04, 2017
    Emerging research evidence across multiple industries suggests that thriving at work is critically important for creating sustainable organizational performance. However, we possess little understanding of how factors across different organizational levels stimulate thriving at work. To address this gap, the current study proposes a multilevel model that simultaneously examines contextual and individual factors that facilitate thriving at work and how thriving relates to positive health and overall unit performance. Analysis of data collected from 275 employees, at multiple time periods, and their immediate supervisors, representing 94 work units, revealed that servant leadership and core self‐evaluations are 2 important contextual and individual factors that significantly relate to thriving at work. The results further indicated that thriving positively relates to positive health at the individual level, with this relationship partially mediated by affective commitment. Our results also showed that collective thriving at work positively relates to collective affective commitment, which in turn, positively relates to overall unit performance. Taken together, these findings suggest that work context and individual characteristics play significant roles in facilitating thriving at work and that thriving is an important means by which managers and their organizations can improve employees' positive health and unit performance.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2216   open full text
  • The impact of preventive coping on business travelers' work and private life.
    Cornelia Niessen, Teresa Müller, Sabine Hommelhoff, Mina Westman.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 02, 2017
    Frequent business travel can be a burden for travelers' work and private life. We tested whether preventive coping (the proactive accumulation of resources in advance of potential stressors) makes such trips beneficial despite their potential to be stressful. In a longitudinal three‐wave study, we investigated whether frequent travel relates to an increase or decrease in work–life balance, emotional exhaustion, work engagement, and relationship satisfaction depending on preventive coping. Findings from a sample of 133 frequent business travelers revealed significant indirect effects for emotional exhaustion, work engagement, and relationship satisfaction through work–life balance. Among employees who engaged less in preventive coping, a higher number of business trips was related to a decrease in work–life balance, which, in turn, was related to more emotional exhaustion, less work engagement, and lower relationship satisfaction. Among those who reported higher preventive coping, we found opposing indirect effects: Frequent travel was related to an increase in work–life balance and, in turn, to less emotional exhaustion, more work engagement, and higher relationship satisfaction. These findings advance our knowledge in the field of business travel, future‐oriented coping, and work–life balance. They highlight that travelers and their organizations should resort to preventive coping to make frequent travel more beneficial.
    August 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2215   open full text
  • MNE microfoundations and routines for building a legitimate and sustainable position in emerging markets.
    Ulf Elg, Pervez N. Ghauri, John Child, Simon Collinson.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 31, 2017
    A number of studies have analysed how multinational enterprises (MNEs) develop appropriate strategies for managing the institutionally different contexts of various markets. However, we still know rather little about how MNEs manage different institutional pressures when they operate in emerging markets. These markets have a higher level of uncertainty as their values and structures undergo change. This paper investigates the microfoundations and routines that can be part of developing a firm's capability to achieve a legitimate and environmentally sustainable position in emerging markets. We focus upon the microfoundations and routines for managing regulative, normative, and cultural–cognitive pressures. The paper utilizes an extensive qualitative case study approach. It reports a study at corporate and subsidiary levels of 3 Swedish MNEs in the in 4 markets: Brazil, Russia, India and China. The study identifies a set of routines for managing each of the 3 institutional forces and supporting microfoundations at individual, interactive, and structural levels. We are thus able to offer new insights on how the institutional context interacts with MNE strategies and identify more generic routines and microfoundations behind the capability for developing a sustainable market position.
    July 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2214   open full text
  • Stayers versus movers: Social capital and early career imprinting among young professionals.
    Stanislav D. Dobrev, Jennifer Merluzzi.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 14, 2017
    We investigate what interfirm career mobility patterns would emerge if individuals are motivated by the job rewards they obtain as a function of their experience in organizations. We articulate two career strategies that individuals employ to navigate their early careers—commitment to a single employer and “job hopping” between different employers. Each strategy generates social capital (an individual's structure of social relations) but of a different kind. Embeddedness in the same organization over time develops a strong local identity and reputation within the firm. Boundary spanning through experience in different organizations creates opportunities for connecting people and ideas and for knowledge transfer between firms. We posit and present evidence that the choice between these two strategies is conditioned by social experience at the onset of one's career—the length of tenure with the first employer—which sorts individuals into “stayers” and “movers.”
    July 14, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2210   open full text
  • Two roads to effectiveness: CEO feedback seeking, vision articulation, and firm performance.
    Susan J. Ashford, Ned Wellman, Mary Sully de Luque, Katleen E.M. De Stobbeleir, Melody Wollan.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 10, 2017
    Humble leadership is attracting increased scholarly attention, but little is known about its effects when used in conjunction with less humble leadership behaviors that rely on a perception of the leader as confident and charismatic. This study contrasts the effects on top management team (TMT) potency and organizational performance of a more humble (feedback seeking) and a less humble (vision) CEO leader behavior. We hypothesize that CEO feedback seeking increases TMT potency and firm performance by communicating to TMT members that the organization values their input and encouraging their own feedback seeking, whereas CEO vision articulation influences these outcomes by fostering greater clarity about the firm's direction, and an enhanced ability to coordinate efforts within the TMT. CEOs who have not developed a vision can achieve a similar positive impact on TMT potency and firm performance by seeking feedback. In a sample of CEOs and TMT members from 65 firms, both CEO feedback seeking and vision articulation exhibit positive direct relationships with firm performance. However, only feedback seeking displays an indirect effect on performance via TMT potency. Finally, CEO feedback seeking has its strongest effects on firm performance and TMT potency for CEOs who are not seen as having a vision.
    July 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2211   open full text
  • Work as good‐minded undertakings and effortless assignments: Chinese meaning of working for hospitality workers and its motivational implications.
    Ryan Shuwei Hsu, James O. Stanworth.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 10, 2017
    Meaning of working (MOW) or the understanding of the purpose of working is a cornerstone in organizational behavior. This study answers the call to explain the MOW in Eastern contexts characterized by interdependent identities. We collect our data from hospitality workers in Taiwan, where Chinese Confucian and Taoist cultural precepts are strong. Our findings reveal that our informants use 25 typical vocabularies of motive in establishing and maintaining five salient identities that gain significance through two Chinese work meanings (i.e., good‐minded undertakings and effortless assignments). These meanings demonstrate the theoretical contributions of our findings to the MOW literature. We also explore the interplay between our emic findings (grounded in Taoism and Confucianism Chinese cultures) with etic motivation theory to advance understanding of prevention and promotion foci.
    July 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2209   open full text
  • What matters for work engagement? A diary study on resources and the benefits of selective optimization with compensation for state work engagement.
    Laura Venz, Alexander Pundt, Sabine Sonnentag.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 28, 2017
    This diary study addresses the benefits of employees' daily use of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) for state work engagement. We hypothesized that day‐level SOC not only directly fosters work engagement but that SOC also reveals its beneficial effects for work engagement in interaction with both external and internal resources. Specifically, we proposed SOC substitutes for job control, role clarity, and state of being recovered, thus helping employees manage low daily levels of these resources. We tested our hypotheses with a sample of 138 employees who completed two daily surveys over a total of 545 workdays. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that SOC benefits work engagement in both proposed ways. First, day‐level SOC was positively related to state work engagement. Additionally, day‐level role clarity and state of being recovered predicted state work engagement, but day‐level job control did not. Second, SOC benefitted state work engagement by offsetting low levels of role clarity and being recovered, and by boosting job control in their respective relationships with work engagement. The results suggest that by using SOC at work, employees can actively enhance their own work engagement on a given workday. This knowledge provides promising starting points for the development of interventions.
    June 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2207   open full text
  • Making sense of organizational change: Is hindsight really 20/20?
    Laura Gover, Linda Duxbury.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 27, 2017
    This qualitative study explores the conceptual links between 2 different approaches to managerial cognition, sensemaking and cognitive bias, in the context of organizational change. A longitudinal case study utilizing both real‐time assessments and retrospective sensemaking data from interviews with 26 hospital employees at 3 points in time was undertaken. Patterns related to individuals' retrospective accounts and real‐time assessments were identified and used to construct 4 prototypical narratives. Data analysis revealed that organizational change was not a markedly negative experience for most informants, which is contrary to the prevailing theme in the literature. This and other findings are discussed in terms of sensemaking and cognitive bias. This study makes 2 contributions to our understanding of how individual's experience and make sense of organizational change over time as (a) little is known about how the process of change unfolds over time at the individual level and (b) extant research has not investigated the extent to which individuals' retrospective sensemaking about organizational change reflects or diverges from their real‐time assessments over the course of the change. More broadly, the study provides insights and focused advice for management researchers regarding the use of retrospective data to understand individuals' perceptions of situations that have already occurred.
    June 27, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2208   open full text
  • Does homesickness undermine the potential of job resources? A perspective from the work–home resources model.
    Danyang Du, Daantje Derks, Arnold B. Bakker, Chang‐qin Lu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 27, 2017
    Rapid economic development in recent decades has resulted in a considerable increase in the number of people working far away from their home locations. Homesickness is a common reaction to the separation from home. Our research uses the work–home resources model to explain how the experience of homesickness can undermine the positive effect of job resources on job performance (i.e., task performance and safety behavior). In addition, we hypothesize that emotional stability and openness are key resources that can buffer the negative interference of homesickness with the job resources–performance relationship. We conducted two studies to test our hypotheses. Study 1 was a two‐wave longitudinal study using a migrant manufacturing worker sample. In this study, homesickness was measured at the between‐person level, and performance was measured three months later. Study 2 was a daily diary study conducted in a military trainee sample. In this study, homesickness was measured at the within‐person level to capture its fluctuations over 20 days, and daily job performance was assessed using supervisor ratings. Both studies showed evidence of the hypothesized moderating effect of homesickness and three‐way interaction effects of job resources, homesickness, and key resources (i.e., emotional stability and openness) on task performance and safety behavior.
    June 27, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2212   open full text
  • Antecedents and consequences of satisfaction with work–family balance: A moderating role of perceived insider status.
    Jaepil Choi, Andrea Kim, Kyongji Han, Seongmin Ryu, Jong Gyu Park, Bora Kwon.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 22, 2017
    This study developed a moderated mediation model to investigate how family‐supportive paid leave and supervision affect employees' satisfaction with work–family balance and in turn their affective organizational commitment and supervisor‐directed organizational citizenship behavior depending on their perceived insider status in the organization. Our analysis of data collected from 118 employee–supervisor dyads in Korean organizations revealed that satisfaction with work–family balance mediated the linkages from family‐supportive supervision to affective organizational commitment and supervisor‐directed organizational citizenship behavior, and the linkage from family‐supportive paid leave to affective organizational commitment. Results further showed that the entire mediational process for family‐supportive supervision was more pronounced for those who perceived themselves to be an insider of their organizations, while the same pattern was not found for the meditational process related to family‐supportive paid leave. Our findings provide theoretical implications for work–family balance research and offer practical suggestions to make employees satisfied with work–family balance.
    June 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2205   open full text
  • Self‐protective reactions to peer abusive supervision: The moderating role of prevention focus and the mediating role of performance instrumentality.
    Ping Shao, Andrew Li, Mary Mawritz.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 19, 2017
    Across 3 studies, we apply a self‐protection perspective of observed mistreatment to examine a moderated mediation model on “when” and “why” third parties are motivated by peer abusive supervision. We hypothesize that prevention‐focused third parties will increase their performance effort as a response to peer abusive supervision, and this effect is mediated by performance instrumentality. In a field study of working adults (Study 1) and an experimental study that manipulated peer abusive supervision (Study 2), we found that peer abusive supervision interacted with third parties' prevention focus to predict their performance effort such that peer abuse was positively related to third parties' performance effort only for those high on prevention focus. Results were replicated in a second field study of working adults (Study 3). Further, we found support for the mediating effect of performance instrumentality. The theoretical and practical implications of our results are discussed.
    June 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2206   open full text
  • How do flexibility i‐deals relate to work performance? Exploring the roles of family performance and organizational context.
    Mireia Las Heras, Yasin Rofcanin, P. Matthijs Bal, Jakob Stollberger.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 01, 2017
    Drawing on the work–home resources model and conservation of resources theory, in this study, we explore how flexibility idiosyncratic deals (i‐deals) relate to employees' work performance through their family performance. In line with the work–home resources model, we introduce 2 contextual conditions to explain when our proposed associations may unfold. One is a facilitator: perceived organizational support; and the other is a stressor: perceived hindering work demands. The results of a matched sample of employees and their supervisors working in 2 companies in El Salvador support our hypotheses. Our findings show that the benefits of flexibility i‐deals to the work domain (i.e., work performance) extend only through the family domain (i.e., family performance). Our findings also emphasize that flexibility i‐deals do not unfold in a dyadic vacuum: For employees who perceive organizational support to be higher, the association between flexibility i‐deals and family performance is stronger, whereas for employees who perceive hindering work demands to be lower, the association between family performance and employee work performance is also stronger. We contribute to i‐deals research by (a) exploring a relevant mechanism through which flexibility i‐deals influence work performance, (b) integrating the role of social context to emphasize the social aspects of i‐deals, and (c) enriching the i‐deals literature by introducing a resource perspective.
    June 01, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2203   open full text
  • Are two cynics better than one? Toward understanding effects of leader–follower (in‐)congruence in social cynicism.
    Olivia A.U. Byza, Sebastian C. Schuh, Stefan L. Dörr, Matthias Spörrle, Günter W. Maier.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 22, 2017
    Prior research suggests that leaders' social cynicism can undermine important follower outcomes such as followers' motivation and performance. However, these studies have exclusively focused on leaders' social cynicism and neglected that followers' views on the social world might also influence the leadership process. On the basis of theories of social beliefs and person–supervisor fit, we offer an integrative perspective and predict that it is the congruence between leaders' and followers' social cynicism that shapes leadership dynamics. Data from 116 leader–follower dyads from a broad range of organizations and industries support our model: Polynomial regression and response surface analyses show significant congruence effects of leaders' and followers' social cynicism on followers' extra‐role behaviors and followers' proactive work behaviors. These positive effects of congruence on follower outcomes are transmitted by leader–member exchange quality. Finally, congruence effects are stronger when leaders' and followers' social cynicism is low rather than high. Overall, our study suggests that it is the correspondence between leaders' and followers' social cynicism that influences followers' leader–member exchange, extra‐role, and proactive behavior. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for designing functional leader–follower dyads in organizations.
    May 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2200   open full text
  • Congruence work in stigmatized occupations: A managerial lens on employee fit with dirty work.
    Blake E. Ashforth, Glen E. Kreiner, Mark A. Clark, Mel Fugate.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 18, 2017
    Although research has established that it is often difficult for individuals engaged in dirty work to adjust to stigma and the attributes giving rise to stigma, little theory or empirical work addresses how managers may help workers adjust to dirty work. Interviews with managers across 18 dirty work occupations—physically tainted (e.g., animal control), socially tainted (e.g., corrections), and morally tainted (e.g., exotic entertainment)—indicate that managers engage in “congruence work”: behaviors, sensemaking, and sensegiving that they perceive as helping individuals adjust and develop a stronger sense of person–environment fit. Specifically, congruence work focuses on 3 phases of managerial practices that correspond to individuals' growing experience in the occupation. First, recruitment/selection involves overcoming individuals' aversion to dirty work by selecting individuals with an affinity for the work and providing a realistic stigma preview. Second, socialization involves helping newcomers adjust to distasteful tasks and to stigma by using targeted divestiture, developing perspective taking, helping newcomers manage external relationships, and utilizing desensitization or immersion. Third, ongoing management roles involve cementing individuals' fit by fostering social validation, protecting workers from dirty work hazards, and negotiating the frontstage/backstage boundary. The practices identified as congruence work highlight the important role that managers can play in facilitating adjustment for both “dirty workers” and presumably their less stigmatized counterparts.
    May 18, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2201   open full text
  • Assessing the not‐invented‐here syndrome: Development and validation of implicit and explicit measurements.
    David Antons, Mathieu Declerck, Kathleen Diener, Iring Koch, Frank T. Piller.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 15, 2017
    The not‐invented‐here (NIH) syndrome has been called one of the largest obstacles in innovation management, preventing effective knowledge transfer between organizational units and individuals. NIH is defined as a negatively shaped attitude towards knowledge that has to cross a disciplinary, spatial, or organizational boundary, resulting in either its suboptimal utilization or its rejection. Our goal is to equip scholars with appropriate measurement instruments for the phenomenon. On the basis of 4 studies with 1,238 subjects overall, we developed an implicit measure based on the implicit‐association test as well as an explicit (survey) measure of NIH, taking into account theoretical insights on attitude structure. We provide evidence for reliability as well as construct and criterion validity. We want to facilitate further research on NIH and knowledge transfer (a) by providing a better theoretical framework for NIH on the basis of the tripartite componential model of attitudes, (b) by demonstrating the application of association‐based implicit measures for management research, and (c) by providing a validated multidimensional survey scale to measure NIH explicitly. We also provide recommendations on how managers can utilize the NIH measurement instruments to investigate NIH and potential countermeasures in detail and they can test the behavioral outcomes postulated by previous research.
    May 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2199   open full text
  • Rested, friendly, and engaged: The role of daily positive collegial interactions at work.
    Eugenia McGrath, Helena D. Cooper‐Thomas, Eva Garrosa, Ana I. Sanz‐Vergel, Gordon W. Cheung.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 10, 2017
    This diary study examined within‐person effects of positive work and off‐work experiences on daily work engagement. Assessing the gain cycle assumption of conservation of resources theory, we investigated the relationship of nighttime recovery experiences and subsequent resources including elevated sleep quality and morning positive affect; the relationship of morning positive affect with positive collegial interactions and subsequent work engagement; and the relationship of work engagement with nighttime recovery experiences. Sixty‐nine employees completed 3 daily questionnaires over 5 consecutive working days. Multilevel analyses revealed that sleep quality positively predicted morning positive affect, which in turn predicted work engagement directly and also indirectly through having positive interactions with colleagues. Work engagement positively predicted nighttime recovery experiences, whereas nighttime recovery experiences were not related to sleep quality or morning positive affect the next day. Overall, on days after a good night's sleep, individuals feel more positive, bring this positivity to their workplace, reach out to their workplace colleagues, and are in turn more likely to be engaged in their work. Additionally, on days when individuals experience higher levels of positive collegial interactions at work and in turn higher work engagement, they are likely to enjoy better recovery experiences.
    May 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2197   open full text
  • Why dual leaders will drive innovation: Resolving the exploration and exploitation dilemma with a conservation of resources solution.
    Samuel T. Hunter, Lily D. Cushenbery, Bradley Jayne.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 26, 2017
    Using conservation of resources theory, we challenge traditional unity of command models of leadership and propose that a dual‐leadership framework can serve as a potential solution to the inherent challenges of innovation. Leading for innovation demands are depicted as uniquely disparate from other forms of leadership, resulting in several types of conflict and resource depletion for individual leaders. We contend that this exploration–exploitation role conflict and the resulting need to manage incongruent role identities produce stress, strain, and resource depletion that in turn hamper innovative goal achievement for both a single leader directly and via subordinates more indirectly. We propose, however, that as an extension of the resource investment tenet of the conservation of resources theory, a dual‐leadership approach may alleviate many of these challenges for innovation. Specifically, the addition of a second leader can add resources to innovation and in turn decrease the role conflict inherent in managing the generation and implementation of creative ideas. Limitations and areas for future research are offered.
    April 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2195   open full text
  • When expressions of fake emotions elicit negative reactions: The role of observers' dialectical thinking.
    Ivona Hideg, Gerben A. Kleef.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 26, 2017
    Fake displays of emotions are common in social and organizational settings. It is therefore important to understand their consequences. To reconcile mixed previous findings, we develop a model in which the consequences of expressing fake emotions depend on the observers' level of dialectical thinking, a cognitive style characterized by acceptance of inconsistencies. We propose that observers lower, but not higher, on dialectical thinking may infer that interaction partners who fake emotions are untrustworthy and, in turn, react negatively. We found support for our model in 2 studies. In a field fundraising experiment (Study 1), fundraisers who displayed fake (vs. genuine) happiness received smaller monetary donations and elicited lower intentions to volunteer from donors lower, but not higher, on dialectical thinking. In a laboratory negotiation experiment (Study 2), negotiators who displayed fake anger (vs. genuine anger or no emotion) were trusted less and received higher demands from counterparts lower, but not higher, on dialectical thinking. Trust mediated the moderating effect of dialecticism on the relation between fake anger (vs. genuine anger and no emotion) and demands. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
    April 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2196   open full text
  • Loyal rebels? A test of the normative conflict model of constructive deviance.
    Jason J. Dahling, Melissa B. Gutworth.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 17, 2017
    Constructive deviance is a voluntary behavior that violates organizational rules but is conducted with honorable intentions to benefit the organization or its stakeholders. Despite emerging interest in this behavior, the antecedents of constructive deviance remain unclear, with particular ambiguity concerning the relationship between organizational identity and constructive deviance. In this article, we address this ambiguity with the normative conflict model, which posits that organizational identity drives constructive deviance in the workplace only when people perceive normative conflict with organizational rules. In Studies 1a and 1b, we develop and validate a measure of normative conflict. In Study 2, we conduct a preliminary test of the model with employed students and find that identity is positively related to constructive deviance only when normative conflict is high. In Study 3, we replicate and extend the model to show that the moderating effect of normative conflict is mediated by experienced psychological discomfort and that organizational identity is positively related to constructive deviance among working adults only when discomfort is high. In total, our findings demonstrate the utility of the normative conflict model for explaining when constructive deviance is mostly likely to occur in the workplace.
    April 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2194   open full text
  • Supervisors' emotional exhaustion and abusive supervision: The moderating roles of perceived subordinate performance and supervisor self‐monitoring.
    Catherine K. Lam, Frank Walter, Xu Huang.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 11, 2017
    Drawing from conservation of resources theory, this study aims to create new knowledge on the antecedents of abusive supervision. Results across 2 independent field studies within a manufacturing context (Study 1) and a customer service context (Study 2) consistently demonstrated a 3‐way interaction pattern, such that supervisors' experiences of emotional exhaustion, perceived subordinate performance, and self‐monitoring were jointly associated with subordinates' abusive supervision perceptions. A supplementary scenario experiment further corroborated this pattern. Together, the present studies illustrate a contingency model of abusive supervision's origins, highlighting emotional exhaustion as an important risk factor that is particularly likely to trigger abusive behavior among supervisors with lower (rather than higher) self‐monitoring who are faced with a relatively underperforming subordinate. As such, this research advances the abusive supervision literature by offering new insights into the complex resource conservation processes that may give rise to subordinates' abuse perceptions.
    April 11, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2193   open full text
  • Tired of innovations? Learned helplessness and fatigue in the context of continuous streams of innovation implementation.
    Goo Hyeok Chung, Jin Nam Choi, Jing Du.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 03, 2017
    The business environment faced by contemporary organizations is highly uncertain and constantly changing. Thus, organizations have adopted and implemented a continuous stream of innovations to achieve sustainable growth and survival. Considering the demand for additional resources to implement innovations, the present study explores organizational conditions that may lead to innovation‐targeted burnout and fatigue among employees, which impede their active participation in a subsequent innovation. To this end, we propose a theoretical framework that elucidates the effects of previous innovations on the subsequent implementation behavior of employees. We identify two dimensions of the cognitive appraisal of previous innovations (i.e., intensity and failure) that shape employees' beliefs regarding innovations, such as innovation‐targeted helplessness, which ultimately results in innovation fatigue. Data collected from 84 managers and 397 employees of Chinese and Korean organizations prove the significant role of employee perceptions of previous innovations in shaping the innovation‐targeted helplessness and fatigue of employees, which ultimately affect employee behavior toward a subsequent innovation. The present conceptual and empirical analyses suggest that given continuous streams of innovation implementation, managers should carefully consider employee's perceptions of previous innovations (i.e., intensity and failure) for successful implementation of a subsequent innovation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2191   open full text
  • Isms and schisms: A meta‐analysis of the prejudice‐discrimination relationship across racism, sexism, and ageism.
    Kristen P. Jones, Isaac E. Sabat, Eden B. King, Afra Ahmad, Tracy C. McCausland, Tiffani Chen.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 07, 2017
    Racism, sexism, and ageism persist in modern day organizations and may translate into workplace discrimination, which can undermine organizational effectiveness. We provide the first meta‐analysis comparing the relationships between these three types of prejudice (racism, sexism, and ageism) and three types of workplace discrimination (selection, performance evaluation, and opposition to diversity‐supportive policies). Across outcomes, racism was associated with workplace discrimination, whereas sexism was not. Ageism was associated with discriminatory selection and opposition to organizational policies supporting older workers; however, ageism was not related to discriminatory performance evaluation. Consistent with prior research and theory, Implicit Association Test measures were related to subtle discrimination (opposition to diversity‐supportive policies) but not deliberate discrimination (selection and performance evaluation). Finally, prejudice was more strongly associated with discrimination against real as compared with hypothetical targets. Implications for organizational researchers and practitioners are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2187   open full text
  • Getting away from them all: Managing exhaustion from social interaction with telework.
    Jaime B. Windeler, Katherine M. Chudoba, Rui Z. Sundrup.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 28, 2017
    Drawing on the conservation of resources and recovery literatures, we examine how social job characteristics—interpersonal interaction, job interdependence, and external interaction—relate to work exhaustion. We then explore the efficacy of a part‐time telework (PTT) practice in alleviating work exhaustion associated with social interaction. Study 1 is a within‐subject assessment of work exhaustion before and after a PTT practice; participants are 51 information technology professionals in a financial services firm. Study 2 is a between‐subject assessment of work exhaustion among part‐time teleworkers and non‐teleworkers; participants are 258 U.S. workers spanning a variety of industries. Study 2 replicated the model tested in Study 1, and we extended the conceptualization of interpersonal interaction to examine both quantity and quality of interaction. In both studies, PTT provided a recovery opportunity, attenuating the relationship between interpersonal interaction and work exhaustion; however, after PTT but not before, work exhaustion increased as external interaction increased. In Study 2, work exhaustion decreased as interaction quality increased; in contrast, work exhaustion increased as interaction quantity increased and PTT attenuated this relationship. Our recommendations aim to help balance telework practices in light of social job characteristics and their opposing effects on work exhaustion. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2176   open full text
  • Fifty shades of green: How microfoundations of sustainability dynamic capabilities vary across organizational contexts.
    Karoline Strauss, Jan Lepoutre, Geoffrey Wood.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 24, 2017
    Because making progress on sustainability‐related challenges will require organizational change for most organizations, understanding sustainability dynamic capabilities is of utmost importance. In this theoretical paper, we aim to identify the microfoundations of such sustainability dynamic capabilities on the one hand but, consistent with recent work in this research stream, we do so in a way that is sensitive to the dynamism of the organizational environment. We propose that the microfoundations of sustainability dynamic capabilities will take different forms in different contexts. We contrast moderately dynamic contexts characterized by frequent yet relatively predictable change with highly dynamic contexts in which changes are rapid and not predictable. Achieving sustainability in these different types of contexts poses different types of challenges, relies on different forms of employee behaviors, and is consequently enabled by different individual‐level characteristics and different organizational practices and processes. Our paper calls for a more serious consideration of context in investigating how employees' behaviors can affect sustainability at the organizational level, and outlines the implications for organizational policy and practice. We explore directions for future interdisciplinary research on sustainability that focuses on individuals and their interactions while also taking the environment within which organizations operate into account.
    February 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2186   open full text
  • Encouraging environmental sustainability through gender: A micro‐foundational approach using linguistic gender marking.
    Amir Shoham, Tamar Almor, Sang Mook Lee, Mohammad F. Ahammad.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 23, 2017
    While studies show that organizational diversity is beneficial to their practice of environmental sustainability, we know very little about the effect that the gender of an individual director can have on sustainability practice. In this empirical paper, we employ a micro‐foundational approach to examine whether the number of women on an organization's board of directors has a direct effect on its attitude towards environmental sustainability, regardless of the national culture in which the organization is located. Culture in this study is measured through grammatical gender marking, a unique approach to measuring women‐oriented cultural effects. Previous studies show that certain cultures have more gender roles than others do, which in turn affect general and organizational behavior in that society. Grammatical gender marking enables us to study the impact of gender of the individual director on the organization's attitude towards environmental sustainability across cultures, by empirically examining data from 71 countries, sampling 4500 organizations for multiple years and industries. Our findings show that organizations become significantly more proactive in environmental sustainability with the appointment of even one woman to the board of directors, regardless of the local culture. We further show that the organization's level of disclosure regarding its sustainability activities increases with the number of women on the board of directors. Our data also show a significantly negative relationship between various gender‐based language indices and the presence of women on the board of directors. In cultures defined by a language that has clear grammatical gender markings, there is a tendency to appoint fewer women to boards of directors, thereby influencing indirectly the organization's attitude towards environmental sustainability.
    February 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2188   open full text
  • The effects of managerial and employee attributions for corporate social responsibility initiatives.
    Pavlos A. Vlachos, Nikolaos G. Panagopoulos, Daniel G. Bachrach, Frederick P. Morgeson.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 23, 2017
    Although corporate social responsibility (CSR) can affect employees, we know little about how it affects them. Employees' interpretation of CSR is important because of the paradoxical nature of CSR. When firms operate in ways that seem counter to their nature (i.e., pursuit of social good rather than profit), the causal attributions of affected employees are crucial to understanding their work‐related behavior, as is the role of contextual factors such as leadership processes in shaping these attributions. Drawing from attribution and social learning theories, we develop a multilevel social influence theory of how CSR affects employees. We integrate managers as second observers in the baseline actor (i.e., firm)—observer (i.e., employee) dyad, whereas most attribution theory research has focused on single actor–observer dyads. Multisource field data collected from 427 employees and 45 managers were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Managers' genuine (self‐serving) CSR attributions are positively related to employees' genuine (self‐serving) CSR attributions; and the strength of the relationship between managers' and employees' genuine CSR attributions depends on managers' organizational tenure. Employees' genuine CSR attributions also are positively related to employee advocacy, whereas—interestingly—employees' self‐serving CSR attributions do not appear to harm employee advocacy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2189   open full text
  • Work–family conflict and mindfulness: Investigating the effectiveness of a brief training intervention.
    Kaitlin M. Kiburz, Tammy D. Allen, Kimberly A. French.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 15, 2017
    This experimental switching replications design study examined the effectiveness of a brief mindfulness‐based training intervention that included a one‐hour mindfulness‐based workshop followed by 13 days of behavioral self‐monitoring (BSM) in an attempt to reduce work–family conflict. The intervention increased participants' mindfulness and decreased work‐to‐family conflict, but did not reduce family‐to‐work conflict. In addition, those who participated in BSM reported greater mindfulness, less work‐to‐family conflict, and less family‐to‐work conflict than did those who did not participate in BSM. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research directions, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2181   open full text
  • An organizational ethic of care and employee involvement in sustainability‐related behaviors: A social identity perspective.
    Abraham Carmeli, Stephen Brammer, Emanuel Gomes, Shlomo Y. Tarba.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 09, 2017
    We expand on the emergent research of an ethic of care (EoC) to theorize why and how an organizational EoC fosters employee involvement in sustainability‐related behaviors at work. Across two studies, we explore the socio‐psychological mechanisms that link an EoC and involvement in sustainability‐related behaviors. The results of Study 1, in which we applied an experimental design, indicate that an EoC is significantly related, through employees' affective reaction towards organizational sustainability, to involvement in sustainability‐related behaviors. In Study 2, in which we used time‐lagged data, we further drew on social identity theory to suggest that an EoC is both directly and indirectly, through enhanced organizational identification, related to employees' satisfaction with organizational sustainability. Through these two mechanisms, we explain the process by which an EoC can drive employee involvement in sustainability‐related behaviors. These theoretical developments and empirical findings help to better understand the micro‐foundations of organizational sustainability by building upon the moral theorizing of care.
    February 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2185   open full text
  • Targeted workplace incivility: The roles of belongingness, embarrassment, and power.
    M. Sandy Hershcovis, Babatunde Ogunfowora, Tara C. Reich, Amy M. Christie.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 07, 2017
    Research to date has largely been unclear about whether a single perpetrator is sufficient to instigate the well‐documented negative consequences of workplace incivility. In the current research, we examine the extent to which perceived belongingness and embarrassment mediate the relationship between incivility from a single perpetrator and two important outcomes (job insecurity and somatic symptoms), and the extent to which the perpetrator's power moderates these relationships. Across two studies using different methods, we find that incidents of single perpetrator incivility are associated with target feelings of isolation and embarrassment, which in turn relate to targets' perceived job insecurity and somatic symptoms (Studies 1 and 2) both the same day and three days later (Study 2). Moreover, we find that perpetrator power moderates the relationship between incivility and embarrassment, such that targets are more embarrassed when the perpetrator is powerful. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2183   open full text
  • Picture this: A field experiment of the influence of subtle affective stimuli on employee well‐being and performance.
    Xiaoxiao Hu, Yujie Zhan, Xiang Yao, Rebecca Garden.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 26, 2017
    Prior literature examining the antecedents of employee affect has largely ignored subtle affective influences in the workplace and their impact on employees' affective experiences and behaviors. A substantial body of evidence from basic psychology research suggests that individuals' affect can be influenced by minimal stimulus input. The primary objective of this research is to take an initial step towards understanding the “real‐world” impact of subtle affective stimuli in the workplace. Specifically, in a field experiment with a within‐subjects design, we collected data from 68 sales representatives and examined the effect of a subtle affective stimulus (i.e., a black‐and‐white picture of a woman smiling printed on the backdrop of paper–pencil surveys) on employees' affect, well‐being, and performance. Results showed that the smiling picture significantly enhanced participants' positive affect, which in turn influenced employees' extra‐role performance and emotional exhaustion. The smiling picture also indirectly influenced employees' in‐role performance and emotional exhaustion via negative affect. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed at the end of the paper. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2177   open full text
  • Best practice recommendations for scale construction in organizational research: The development and initial validation of the Character Strength Inventory (CSI).
    Thomas A. Wright, James Campbell Quick, Sean T. Hannah, M. Blake Hargrove.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 24, 2017
    Proper scale development and validation provide the necessary foundation to facilitate future quantitative research in the organizational sciences. Using the framework provided by the Researcher's Notebook, the purpose of this study is twofold. First, we present a modern summary of best practice procedures for scale development, reliability analysis, and validity analysis. Second, we explain and illustrate these best practice procedures by describing each procedure in the context of developing and psychometrically analyzing a new Character Strength Inventory (CSI). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2180   open full text
  • Does job insecurity threaten who you are? Introducing a social identity perspective to explain well‐being and performance consequences of job insecurity.
    Eva Selenko, Anne Mäkikangas, Christopher B. Stride.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 22, 2017
    This paper introduces a social identity perspective to job insecurity research. Worrying about becoming jobless, we argue, is detrimental because it implies an anticipated membership of a negatively evaluated group—the group of unemployed people. Job insecurity hence threatens a person's social identity as an employed person. This in turn will affect well‐being and job performance. A three‐wave survey study amongst 377 British employees supports this perspective. Persons who felt higher levels of job insecurity were more likely to report a weaker social identity as an employed person. This effect was found to be stable over time and also held against a test of reverse causality. Furthermore, social identity as an employed person influenced well‐being and in‐role job performance and mediated the effect of job insecurity on these two variables over time. Different to the expectations, social identity as an employed person and organisational proactivity were not connected. The findings deliver interesting evidence for the role of social identity as an employed person in the relationships between job insecurity and its consequences. Theoretically, this perspective illustrates the individual and group‐related nature of job insecurity and offers a novel way of connecting work situations with individual well‐being, behaviour and attitudes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2172   open full text
  • Using a pattern‐oriented approach to study leaders: Implications for burnout and perceived role demand.
    Kara A. Arnold, Catherine E. Connelly, Ian R. Gellatly, Megan M. Walsh, Michael J. Withey.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 22, 2017
    Using a pattern‐oriented approach, we identified clusters of leaders who shared theoretically meaningful combinations of transformational, contingent reward, management by exception active, management by exception passive, and laissez‐faire leadership styles. Drawing upon conservation of resources theory, we examined whether leaders who shared a similar pattern of leadership styles differed from leaders who belonged to other profile groups, with respect to felt burnout and perceived role demands. Hypotheses were tested using a time‐lagged field study involving 183 leaders. Using latent profile analyses, we found four theoretically interpretable patterns. Leaders who belonged to the comprehensive cluster (elevated scores on the transformational, contingent reward, and the passive styles; 14.2%) experienced the highest levels of burnout and role demands, whereas those who were disengaged (low scores on all styles; 33.3%) reported the lowest levels. Leaders who exhibited a passive behavioral pattern (elevated scores on management by exception active, management by exception passive, and laissez‐faire relative to the other styles; 27.3%) experienced more burnout and role demands than did leaders who exhibited an optimal pattern (elevated scores on transformational and contingent reward styles relative to the passive styles; 25.1%). The theoretical and practical implications of a pattern‐oriented approach to leadership research were discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2182   open full text
  • Good marriage at home, creativity at work: Family–work enrichment effect on workplace creativity.
    Yipeng Tang, Xu Huang, Yongli Wang.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 19, 2017
    To advance the understanding of socio‐relational sources of employee creativity, we investigate the effect of a good marriage on workplace creativity. Drawing on family–work enrichment theory, we propose and test the idea that a satisfying marriage boosts a spillover of psychological resources from family to work that enhances employees' workplace creativity. Using survey data collected from 548 spouse–employee–supervisor triads, we find an indirect positive relationship between employees' marital satisfaction and workplace creativity through a spillover of psychological resources from family to work. We also find that this spillover is most pronounced when both employees and their spouses are satisfied with their marriage. The results further demonstrate that the indirect effect of marital satisfaction on workplace creativity through the spillover of psychological resources is significant for employees with a low creative personality, but not for those with a high creative personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2175   open full text
  • Whether power holders construe their power as responsibility or opportunity influences their tendency to take advice from others.
    Frank R.C. De Wit, Daan Scheepers, Naomi Ellemers, Kai Sassenberg, Annika Scholl.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 19, 2017
    Empirical evidence suggests that power elicits a generic tendency to disregard advice. We examined different responses power holders may show in their tendency to take advice depending on the construal of power. We report a field study and an experiment among managers and other powerful professionals (Studies 1 and 2) and an experiment in which participants were assigned to a powerful role (Study 3). Across studies, we found a higher tendency to take advice among those who construed their power as a responsibility rather than as an opportunity. This effect of the construal of power on advice taking was mediated by a heightened perceived value of advice, not by decreased confidence in own judgments or sense of power. Accordingly, the increase in advice taking when power was construed as a responsibility was observed regardless of whether the advice came from subordinates (Study 1), expert advisors (Study 2), or a less powerful teammate (Study 3). This highlights the relevance of considering how power holders construe their power in order to understand their tendency to take advice from others. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2171   open full text
  • Bridging the gap between green behavioral intentions and employee green behavior: The role of green psychological climate.
    Thomas A. Norton, Hannes Zacher, Stacey L. Parker, Neal M. Ashkanasy.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 12, 2017
    How do employees' perceptions and interpretations of organizational policies, practices, and procedures affect the enactment of their behavioral intentions? In a daily diary study, we examined the between‐persons relationship of corporate environmental strategy and pro‐environmental or “green” psychological climate; and whether green psychological climate moderates the within‐person relationship of employees' daily green behavioral intentions and their green behavior on the following day. To test our hypotheses, we collected survey data from 74 employees across 10 workdays. Results showed that corporate environmental strategy is positively related to green psychological climate that, in turn, moderates the relationship between green behavioral intentions and next‐day employee green behavior. Specifically, we found the relationship to be positive only when employees perceive a positive green psychological climate. We discuss implications of our findings for future research on employee green behavior and for organizations interested in encouraging employee green behavior. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2178   open full text
  • Post‐acquisition integration processes in publicly owned professional service companies: Senior professional behaviour and company performance.
    Mark Edward Pickering.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 12, 2017
    The client relationships and tacit knowledge of professionals are professional service firms' (PSFs') major value creating resources producing challenges in generating post‐merger and acquisition value and risks of reducing the productivity or losing key professionals and their clients. The recent emergence of publicly owned PSFs and rapid growth through consolidating smaller privately owned firms potentially increases this risk by integrating small firms and their professionals into large public companies that may be governed very differently. This study explores post‐acquisition integration processes: professional behaviours and associated performance implications in two highly acquisitive publicly owned accounting companies. In one company, the integration process was rapid and heavily directed by senior management, while in the second company, integration was more gradual, initially undirected but then facilitated by senior management. The findings suggest that integration processes can impact the behaviour of professionals and acquiring firm performance. This research contributes to the understanding of post‐acquisition integration processes in PSFs and decision‐making and professional behaviour in recently emerged publicly owned PSFs. The study contributes to knowledge‐based theory by identifying factors that can affect the decision authority of executives and how organisational behaviour can constrain the implementation of executive integration decisions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/job.2173   open full text
  • The ripple effect: A spillover model of the detrimental impact of work–family conflict on job success.
    Sandy J. Wayne, Grace Lemmon, Jenny M. Hoobler, Gordon W. Cheung, Morgan S. Wilson.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 28, 2016
    Exploring the role of both the employee and supervisor, we tested a model of how cognition‐based work‐to‐family conflict manifests itself in the workplace, impacting employee job success. Based on conservation of resources theory and the concept of loss spirals, we hypothesized that when an employee's work interferes with family demands, the resulting work‐to‐family conflict spills over to the work domain via employee emotional exhaustion. We further argued that the behavioral manifestation of employee emotional exhaustion in the workplace is low employee engagement, as assessed by the supervisor. Drawing on signaling theory, we proposed that supervisor assessments of employee engagement are related to promotability, performance ratings, and salary. Work scheduling autonomy, as a boundary condition, is examined as a resource that attenuates these relationships. Data collected from 192 employee–supervisor dyads of a Fortune 1000 company, as well as performance ratings and salary obtained from company records 9 months later, indicated support for our conceptual model. Future research examining employee work–family conflict and job outcomes is discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2174   open full text
  • Knowledge management behavior and individual creativity: Goal orientations as antecedents and in‐group social status as moderating contingency.
    Young Won Rhee, Jin Nam Choi.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 14, 2016
    Creativity is an increasingly important domain of performance largely based on knowledge held and exchanged among employees. Despite the necessity of knowledge exchange, individual employees tend to experience mixed motivation caused by the inherent social dilemma of knowledge sharing. To pragmatically explain how individuals deal with this motivational dilemma, we propose an expanded framework of knowledge management behavior (KMB) that includes knowledge sharing, hiding, and manipulation. Individual choices among these KMBs may be driven by dispositional goal orientations. We also propose that the effects of KMB on creativity of employees vary depending on their social status in a work group. Our analyses based on 214 employees from 37 teams reveal that (i) learning goal orientation increases knowledge sharing and decreases knowledge manipulation; (ii) avoiding goal orientation increases knowledge sharing and manipulation; and (iii) proving goal orientation increases knowledge hiding and manipulation. Knowledge hiding is negatively related to employee creativity, particularly for employees with high social status. Knowledge manipulation is positively related to creativity, particularly for those with high social status. This study develops and validates a theoretical framework explaining the formative process and distinct outcomes of the multifaceted and strategic approaches to KMB at the individual level. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2168   open full text
  • Workplace ostracism and deviant and helping behaviors: The moderating role of 360 degree feedback.
    Ann Chunyan Peng, Wei Zeng.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 14, 2016
    Drawing on sociometer theory, we argue that when 360 degree feedback is used in a work setting, being ostracized by coworkers has a stronger negative influence on employees' state self‐esteem, which promotes interpersonal deviance and demotivates helping directed toward coworkers, as compared to settings in which 360 feedback is not used. We tested our hypotheses using data collected from North American employees (Study 1) and a two‐wave survey of employees in China (Study 2). Results from both studies support the hypothesized interaction between workplace ostracism and 360 degree feedback on interpersonal deviance and helping behavior. Results from Study 2 further show that lower state self‐esteem accounts for the stronger negative association of ostracism with helping behavior among employees who are exposed to 360 degree feedback. Ostracism is not related to subsequent state self‐esteem or behavior when 360 degree feedback is absent. We discuss the implications for theory and research concerning employee exclusion. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2169   open full text
  • Building work engagement: A systematic review and meta‐analysis investigating the effectiveness of work engagement interventions.
    Caroline Knight, Malcolm Patterson, Jeremy Dawson.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 13, 2016
    Low work engagement may contribute towards decreased well‐being and work performance. Evaluating, boosting and sustaining work engagement are therefore of interest to many organisations. However, the evidence on which to base interventions has not yet been synthesised. A systematic review with meta‐analysis was conducted to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of work engagement interventions. A systematic literature search identified controlled workplace interventions employing a validated measure of work engagement. Most used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). Studies containing the relevant quantitative data underwent random‐effects meta‐analyses. Results were assessed for homogeneity, systematic sampling error, publication bias and quality. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were categorised into four types of interventions: (i) personal resource building; (ii) job resource building; (iii) leadership training; and (iv) health promotion. The overall effect on work engagement was small, but positive, k = 14, Hedges g = 0.29, 95%‐CI = 0.12–0.46. Moderator analyses revealed a significant result for intervention style, with a medium to large effect for group interventions. Heterogeneity between the studies was high, and the success of implementation varied. More studies are needed, and researchers are encouraged to collaborate closely with organisations to design interventions appropriate to individual contexts and settings, and include evaluations of intervention implementation. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Organizational Behavior published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2167   open full text
  • Organization‐specific prosocial helping identity: Doing and belonging as the basis of “being fully there”.
    Steven M. Farmer, Linn Van Dyne.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 07, 2016
    Identity theory and social identity theory focus on doing and belonging, respectively, but neither provides a complete picture of being “fully there” at work (Kahn, ). This three‐wave lagged field study links these two perspectives by proposing that beneficiary‐specific prosocial helping identity, met expectations for prosocial helping, and their interaction predict the strength of a contextualized, organization‐specific prosocial helping identity (OSPHI) targeted at those same beneficiaries and that OSPHI leads to positive employee work outcomes. Results provide strong support for the model and demonstrate that beneficiary‐specific prosocial helping identity had indirect relationships with intent to stay with the organization, experienced work meaning, and emotional exhaustion (negative), via OSPHI, only when met expectations for prosocial helping were weak. We discuss the value of OSPHI as an important construct that reflects the psychological state of “being fully there” at work and predicts subsequent employee work outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2166   open full text
  • Under what conditions does job control moderate the relationship between time pressure and employee well‐being? Investigating the role of match and personal control beliefs.
    Barbara Stiglbauer.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 29, 2016
    Drawing upon the concept of match, this two‐wave study of 206 employees investigated job control (facets of autonomy) and personal control beliefs (locus of control, LOC) as moderators of time pressure–work engagement (WE) and the time pressure–general subjective well‐being (SWB) relationships. It was hypothesized that autonomy would accentuate the positive relationship of time pressure with WE and attenuate the negative relationship with SWB and that these moderations would occur only for employees with an internal LOC. Additionally, it was expected that a facet of job control (timing autonomy) that matched the specific demand (time pressure) would be more likely to act as a moderator than “less‐matching” facets (decision making or method autonomy). The results revealed that the interaction between time pressure, autonomy, and LOC for WE was strongest and for SWB only significant when the timing facet of autonomy served as the moderator (thus, when the autonomy facet matched the demand). However, the pattern of moderation was contrary to that expected. When time pressure increased, high autonomy became beneficial for the WE of employees with an external LOC but detrimental for the WE and SWB of employees with an internal LOC. Explanations for the unexpected findings are provided. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2165   open full text
  • Analyzing if and how international organizations contribute to the sustainable development goals: Combining power and behavior.
    Ben Cormier.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 22, 2016
    Can International Organizations (IOs) such as the World Bank, United Nations, and International Labor Organization contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? This article argues that this is best analyzed by simultaneously considering two sets of factors: the international political constraints external to IOs and the organizational processes and structures internal to IOs. More specifically, this article suggests that such analyses can take place by combining scholarship on International Relations (IR) and Organizational Behavior (OB). The article defines international power, outlines various constraints on IO autonomy, and suggests that OB and IR are well positioned to jointly improve the study of IO employment practices, organizational structures, bureaucratic politics, and inter‐organizational effects. The core aim is to provide justification and material for combining IR and OB in further research on IOs.
    November 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2163   open full text
  • Intra‐individual variability in job complexity over time: Examining the effect of job complexity trajectory on employee job strain.
    Junchao (Jason) Li, Tyler C. Burch, Thomas W. Lee.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 10, 2016
    Drawing on gestalt characteristics theory, we advance the literature on the effect of job complexity on employee well‐being by considering intra‐individual variability of job complexity over time. Specifically, we examine how the trend, or trajectory, of job complexity over time can explain unique variance of employee job strain. Across two longitudinal data sets, we consistently find that, with the average level of job complexity during a given period held constant, a positive job complexity trajectory (i.e., an increasing trend in complexity) is associated with higher employee job strain. Based on job‐demand‐control theory and the exposure‐reactivity model, we further establish that job autonomy and employee emotional stability jointly moderate the relationship between job complexity trajectory and employee job strain. Specifically, for employees with high emotional stability, job autonomy mitigates the job strain brought by positive job complexity trajectory, whereas for employees with low emotional stability, job autonomy does not help to reduce the adverse effect of the increasing trend. These findings not only contribute to extend the understanding of the job complexity – strain relationship, but also suggest a promising, dynamic avenue to study the effects of work characteristics on employee well‐being as well as other outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2158   open full text
  • Transformational leadership and employee voice behavior: A Pygmalion mechanism.
    Jinyun Duan, Chenwei Li, Yue Xu, Chia‐huei Wu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 07, 2016
    We theorized and examined a Pygmalion perspective beyond those proposed in past studies in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee voice behavior. Specifically, we proposed that transformational leadership influences employee voice through leaders' voice expectation and employees' voice role perception (i.e., Pygmalion mechanism). We also theorized that personal identification with transformational leaders influences the extent to which employees internalize leaders' external voice expectation as their own voice role perception. In a time‐lagged field study, we found that leaders' voice expectation and employees' voice role perception (i.e., the Pygmalion process) mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and voice behavior. In addition, we found transformational leadership strengthens employees' personal identification with the leader, which in turn, as a moderator, amplifies the proposed Pygmalion process. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2157   open full text
  • The different paths to post‐merger identification for employees from high and low status pre‐merger organizations.
    Jukka Lipponen, Barbara Wisse, Jolanda Jetten.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 02, 2016
    A well‐known downside of organizational mergers is that employees fail to identify with the newly formed organization. We argue that developing an understanding of factors that affect post‐merger identification requires taking the pre‐merger status of the merger partners relative to each other into account. This is because relative pre‐merger status determines employees' susceptibility to different aspects of the merger process. Specifically, for employees of a high status pre‐merger organization, we expected post‐merger identification to be strongly influenced by (i) pre‐merger identification and (ii) the perceived change in the status. In contrast, we expected post‐merger identification of employees of a low status pre‐merger organization to be strongly affected by the perceived justice of the merger event. Longitudinal data were obtained from a merger of two public sector organizations and the results supported our hypotheses. Our study shows that the extent to which pre‐merger identification, status change, and justice are important determinants of post‐merger identification depends on the relative pre‐merger status of the merger partners. Our discussion focuses on theoretical implications and managerial ramifications of these findings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2159   open full text
  • Understanding trust development in negotiations: An interdependent approach.
    Jingjing Yao, Zhi‐Xue Zhang, Jeanne M. Brett.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 21, 2016
    What affects the way that trust develops in negotiations? In two studies, we used an actor–partner interdependence model to investigate how both negotiators' trust propensity prior to the negotiation and two types of behavior during the negotiation affect negotiators' trust development. Study 1 demonstrated that both focal negotiators' (actors') and their counterparts' (partners') trust propensity were positively associated with negotiators' trust development. Study 2 showed that actors' and partners' trust propensity had an indirect effect on trust development via both actors' and partners' negotiation behaviors. Negotiators' trust propensity positively affected their use of Q&A (questions and answers about interests) and negatively affected their use of S&O (substantiation about positions and single‐issue offers). Actors and partners' negotiation behaviors in turn affected their own and their partners' trust development. Our studies propose and test a model to understand how negotiators' trust propensity and negotiation behaviors affect the development of trust in negotiation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2160   open full text
  • The effect of change in supervisor support and job control on change in vigor: Differential relationships for immigrant and native employees in Israel.
    Annekatrin Hoppe, Sharon Toker, Vivian Schachler, Matthias Ziegler.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 10, 2016
    Building on the premises of the conservation of resources theory, the aim of this study was to investigate long‐term effects of job resources on vigor among native and immigrant employees in Israel. More specifically, we investigated the effects of baseline and change in job control and supervisor support on change in vigor levels, as well as the degree to which these effects differ among educated native and immigrant employees in Israel. We surveyed 235 white‐collar Eastern European and Russian immigrants and 235 white‐collar native Israelis matched on occupational and demographic characteristics at two points of measurement with a 30‐month time lag. Latent change score modeling revealed that among both immigrants and natives, change in job control was related to change in vigor. Multiple group analyses further revealed that among immigrant employees only, baseline levels of supervisor support were associated with change in vigor. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the utilization of resources as a means of acquiring new resources may be influenced by immigrant background. Managerial implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2151   open full text
  • How negative social interactions at work seep into the home: A prosocial and an antisocial pathway.
    Petra L. Klumb, Manuel C. Voelkle, Sebastian Siegler.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 10, 2016
    We combined Bakker and Demerouti's spillover–crossover model with Taylor's biobehavioral perspective, tested the comprehensive model, and pursued a set of gender‐related research questions. Negative work interactions were expected to entail two strain responses, high‐ and low‐arousal negative affect. Both should be related to cortisol secretion but transmitted via different social pathways, a positive and a negative one. During a 7‐day ambulatory assessment with 56 couples, we assessed daily variations in the severity of negative social interactions at work and at home along with participants' affect and cortisol levels. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, we found evidence for the three hypothesized processes: strain at work as a consequence of social stress, spillover of strain into the home, and crossover to the partner. On socially more stressful days, participants showed increased high‐ and low‐arousal negative affect at work. Low‐arousal negative affect spilled over into the home. Only for men, high‐arousal negative affect spilled over, and only women showed a tendency for slowed decline of cortisol levels on more socially stressful days (i.e., slower recovery). Surprisingly, high‐arousal negative affect at work tended to be negatively related to partners' high‐arousal negative affect. Commonalities predominated differences between men and women. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2154   open full text
  • Leadership behaviors and follower performance: Deductive and inductive examination of theoretical rationales and underlying mechanisms.
    Ryan K. Gottfredson, Herman Aguinis.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 05, 2016
    There are competing theoretical rationales and mechanisms used to explain the relation between leadership behaviors (e.g., consideration, initiating structure, contingent rewards, and transformational leadership) and follower performance (e.g., task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors). We conducted two studies to critically examine and clarify the leadership behaviors–follower performance relation by pitting the various theoretical rationales and mechanisms against each other. We first engaged in deductive (Study 1) and then inductive (Study 2) theorizing and relied upon 35 meta‐analyses involving 3327 primary‐level studies and 930 349 observations as input for meta‐analytic structural equation modeling. Results of our dual deductive–inductive approach revealed an unexpected yet surprisingly consistent explanation for why leadership behaviors affect follower performance. Specifically, leader–member exchange is a mediating mechanism that was empirically determined to be involved in the largest indirect relations between the four major leadership behaviors and follower performance. This result represents a departure from current conceptualizations and points to a common underlying mechanism that parsimoniously explains how leadership behaviors relate to follower performance. Also, results lead to a shift in terms of recommendations for what leaders should focus on to bring about improved follower performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 05, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2152   open full text
  • Boundary control and controlled boundaries: Organizational expectations for technology use at the work–family interface.
    Matthew M. Piszczek.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 29, 2016
    Some studies have argued that information and communication technologies such as smartphones can pressure employees to work more from home, while others argue that they help employees manage transitions between work and family role domains. Leveraging boundary theory and the job demands–resources model, the present study examines the conditions under which work–family technology use is associated with greater boundary control. Findings show that technology use is associated with higher boundary control for those who prefer role integration and lower boundary control for those who prefer role segmentation. Findings also show that boundary control is linked to emotional exhaustion and that organizational after‐hours electronic communication expectations can compel work–family technology use despite individual preferences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2153   open full text
  • Managers' practice of managing diversity revealed: A practice‐theoretical account.
    Jane O'Leary, Jörgen Sandberg.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 21, 2016
    Despite the centrality of managing diversity effectively in contemporary organizations, existing literature gives disparate and incomplete accounts of how managers actually manage diversity in practice. The prevailing managerial literature focuses on what diversity activities should be involved in managing diversity but does not identify how managers actually undertake these activities in practice. The growing interpretive/critical literature focuses on how people's understandings define managing diversity, but is silent on how managers translate their understandings into specific diversity activities in practice. We applied a practice perspective in conjunction with phenomenography as a methodological approach to investigate how managers actually manage diversity in practice in the empirical context of professional services firms. The results show that managers' practice of managing diversity is constituted by four understandings of managing diversity that distinguish and organize diversity activities into four different and progressively more comprehensive ways of managing diversity. This practice‐theoretical account transcends the existing literature's partial accounts in significant ways by offering a new and considerably broader and more precise conceptualization of managers' practice of managing diversity, including which ways of managing diversity may be more effective than others. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2132   open full text
  • Enhancing employee creativity via individual skill development and team knowledge sharing: Influences of dual‐focused transformational leadership.
    Yuntao Dong, Kathryn M. Bartol, Zhi‐Xue Zhang, Chenwei Li.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 14, 2016
    Addressing the challenges faced by team leaders in fostering both individual and team creativity, this research developed and tested a multilevel model connecting dual‐focused transformational leadership (TFL) and creativity and incorporating intervening mechanisms at the two levels. Using multilevel, multisource survey data from individual members, team leaders, and direct supervisors in high‐technology firms, we found that individual‐focused TFL had a positive indirect effect on individual creativity via individual skill development, whereas team‐focused TFL impacted team creativity partially through its influence on team knowledge sharing. We also found that knowledge sharing constituted a cross‐level contextual factor that moderated the relationship among individual‐focused TFL, skill development, and individual creativity. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this research and offer suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2134   open full text
  • Injunctive and descriptive logics during newcomer socialization: The impact on organizational identification, trustworthiness, and self‐efficacy.
    Laura G. E. Smith, Nicole Gillespie, Victor J. Callan, Terrance W. Fitzsimmons, Neil Paulsen.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 13, 2016
    Failure to adjust to a new organization has major personal, team, and organizational costs. Yet, we know little about how newcomers' pre‐entry institutional assumptions influence and shape their subsequent socialization. To address this issue, we propose and test a model examining whether the discrepancy between newcomers' injunctive logics (pre‐entry beliefs about what institutional practices ought to be) and their descriptive logics (actual experience of these institutional practices) influences the development of organizational identification, perceived organizational trustworthiness, and self‐efficacy. We examined the impact of discrepant logics in a healthcare context by surveying new staff on their first day of employment and then again six weeks later (N = 264). We found that when there was a negative discrepancy between injunctive and descriptive logics (that is, when the prevailing logics did not match what newcomers thought they ought to be), organizational identification and perceived organizational trustworthiness decreased over time and consequently so did self‐efficacy. The results highlight the important role of institutional logics in shaping socialization processes and outcomes soon after organizational entry. We conclude that histories and personal and professional moral codes provide a background against which newcomers evaluate their new institutional, social, and work context. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2131   open full text
  • Younger supervisors, older subordinates: An organizational‐level study of age differences, emotions, and performance.
    Florian Kunze, Jochen I. Menges.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 04, 2016
    Younger employees are often promoted into supervisory positions in which they then manage older subordinates. Do companies benefit or suffer when supervisors and subordinates have inverse age differences? In this study, we examine how average age differences between younger supervisors and older subordinates are linked to the emotions that prevail in the workforce, and to company performance. We propose that the average age differences determine how frequently older subordinates and their coworkers experience negative emotions, and that these emotion frequency levels in turn relate to company performance. The indirect relationship between age differences and performance occurs only if subordinates express their feelings toward their supervisor, but the association is neutralized if emotions are suppressed. We find consistent evidence for this theoretical model in a study of 61 companies with multiple respondents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 04, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2129   open full text
  • Interactional justice, leader–member exchange, and employee performance: Examining the moderating role of justice differentiation.
    Wei He, Ryan Fehr, Kai Chi Yam, Li‐Rong Long, Po Hao.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 01, 2016
    Past research suggests that interactional justice plays a pivotal role in facilitating high‐quality leader–member exchange (LMX), with downstream implications for employee performance. However, the broader context in which these effects unfold has received scarce attention. Drawing from deontic justice and social exchange theories, we suggest that interactional justice differentiation is an important contextual moderator of the link between interactional justice and LMX. Specifically, we argue that high interactional justice differentiation attenuates the link between interactional justice and LMX, in turn influencing the effects of interactional justice on employee task and creative performance. Results from two studies employing both experimental and multisource, multilevel survey designs provide convergent support for the hypothesized model. We conclude by highlighting several key theoretical and practical implications of our findings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2133   open full text
  • Differentiating HR systems' impact: moderating effects of age on the HR system–work outcome association.
    Jörg Korff, Torsten Biemann, Sven C. Voelpel.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 31, 2016
    Combining the macro perspective of strategic human resource (HR) management with applied psychology's micro approaches, this paper helps to differentiate the effects of HR practices on individual‐level outcomes by introducing two distinct HR practice bundles. We draw on social exchange theory to hypothesize (i) main effects of both growth‐enhancing and maintenance‐enhancing bundles on affective organizational commitment and in‐role behavior and (ii) moderating effects of age and maintenance‐enhancing practices on work outcomes, such that increasing employee age attenuates the positive impact of HR practices. The results of a multilevel study comprising 600 employees and their direct supervisors in 64 business units provide support for the hypothesized main effects on affective commitment and the interaction between age and maintenance‐enhancing practices on work outcomes. We discuss the results, theoretical contributions, and practical implications of the study, as well as future research directions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 31, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2130   open full text
  • Exploring the activation dimension of affect in organizations: A focus on trait‐level activation, climate‐level activation, and work‐related outcomes.
    Hakan Ozcelik.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 23, 2016
    This study explores the activation dimension of affect in organizations by focusing on both individual employees and their work climate. Drawing on affect research and demands‐abilities fit perspective, I have developed a model predicting that climate‐level activation would deplete employees' emotional resources and trait‐level action would function as an inner resource helping employees buffer themselves from their work demands. The results of a cross‐level study, conducted in a sample of 257 employees and their supervisors within 40 work units across 11 organizations, supported all but one of the hypotheses. Employees whose trait‐level activation was lower than the activation level of their work climate experienced higher levels of emotional exhaustion and thus were more likely to disengage from their work in forms of increased surface acting with their coworkers and psychological withdrawal, and reduced affective commitment to and intention to remain in their organization. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 23, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2127   open full text
  • The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.
    Kevin M. Kniffin, Jubo Yan, Brian Wansink, William D. Schulze.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 09, 2016
    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision‐making groups. Based on results from two extended 20‐round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2128   open full text
  • Leadership, followers' mental health and job performance in organizations: A comprehensive meta‐analysis from an occupational health perspective.
    Diego Montano, Anna Reeske, Franziska Franke, Joachim Hüffmeier.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 21, 2016
    The present meta‐analysis investigates the associations between leadership, followers' mental health, and job performance by taking into account different groups of leadership constructs including transformational leadership, relations‐oriented leadership, task‐oriented leadership, destructive leadership, and leader–member exchange. Six categories of mental health‐related outcomes are considered representing both negative and positive mental health states of followers, namely, affective symptoms, burnout, stress, well‐being, psychological functioning, and health complaints. Meta‐analytic models are used to estimate the association between these categories of leadership and mental health. Our results reveal that transformational leadership, a high quality of relations‐oriented and task‐oriented leadership behavior, as well as a high quality of leader–follower interaction are positively associated with mental health. In contrast, destructive leadership is strongly negatively associated with mental health. In addition, the mediation effects of leadership on job performance via mental health are estimated. Results partially support the mediating role of mental health concerning the relationship between leadership and job performance. Our results emphasize the importance of leadership as an occupational health factor, and they may serve as basis for the planning and designing of occupational health policies and interventions despite existing research limitations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2124   open full text
  • Supervisor role overload and frustration as antecedents of abusive supervision: The moderating role of supervisor personality.
    Gabi Eissa, Scott W. Lester.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 15, 2016
    The current research explores supervisor‐level antecedents of abusive supervision in the workplace. Specifically, this study introduces affective events theory to the abusive supervision literature to suggest that supervisor role overload, a work‐related event, leads to supervisor frustration. As an intense negative emotional reaction, frustration, in turn, triggers supervisors to exhibit abusive behaviors in the workplace. Supervisor personality traits—namely, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness—are also posited to moderate these hypothesized relationships. Specifically, neuroticism is expected to moderate the relationship between role overload and frustration while conscientiousness and agreeableness are expected to moderate the relationship between frustration and abusive supervision. Ultimately, we propose and examine a moderated‐mediation model. Multisource field data demonstrate general support for the hypothesized relationships. We conclude with theoretical and practical implications as well as future research avenues. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 15, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2123   open full text
  • The Workplace Intergenerational Climate Scale (WICS): A self‐report instrument measuring ageism in the workplace.
    Scott P. King, Fred B. Bryant.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 14, 2016
    The Workplace Intergenerational Climate Scale (WICS) is designed to measure employees' attitudes and perceptions about workers of different ages in the workplace. In Study 1, an initial 18‐item measure was developed, reflecting five subscales: Intergenerational Contact, Workplace Intergenerational Retention, Positive Intergenerational Affect, Workplace Generational Inclusiveness, and Lack of Generational Stereotypes. Scores on the five WICS subscales were linked to workplace mentoring, opinions about older workers, and job satisfaction. In Study 2, the WICS items and subscales were further refined, and subscale relationships with similar constructs were explored via structural equation modeling. In Study 3, a more occupationally diverse sample was used to support criterion, incremental, discriminant, and external validity. Evidence supports the use of the WICS as a valid and reliable multidimensional measure of an organization's intergenerational climate. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2118   open full text
  • Thriving on challenge stressors? Exploring time pressure and learning demands as antecedents of thriving at work.
    Roman Prem, Sandra Ohly, Bettina Kubicek, Christian Korunka.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 30, 2016
    In the conceptualization of thriving at work, it is emphasized that employees' learning and vitality are two equally important components of thriving and that thriving is facilitated by contextual features and available resources. In this study, we examined the effects of two challenge stressors (time pressure and learning demands) on thriving at work. Based on the literature on challenge and hindrance stressors, we proposed that challenge stressors positively affect learning and negatively affect vitality. To uncover underlying mechanisms, we measured challenge appraisal and hindrance appraisal of work situations in a diary study. A sample of 124 knowledge workers responded to three daily surveys (before the lunch break, during the afternoon, and at the end of the workday) for a period of five workdays. Results indicate that the indirect effects of learning demands and time pressure on learning are mediated by challenge appraisal, whereas indirect effects of learning demands on vitality are mediated by hindrance appraisal. Overall, our study shows that challenge stressors have a positive total effect on learning but no total effect on vitality. These differential relationships call for a finer distinction between the two components of thriving at work in future research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    June 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2115   open full text
  • Personal need for structure as a boundary condition for humor in leadership.
    Alexander Pundt, Laura Venz.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 20, 2016
    Recent research has established a positive relationship between humor in leadership and organizational behavior variables. However, neither the mechanisms nor the boundary conditions of the positive effects of humor in leadership are completely understood. In this study, we contribute to these questions by investigating the relationship between humor in leadership and follower commitment and burnout in more detail. We propose that these relationships unfold via a relational process and specified this relational process in terms of leader–member exchange. Moreover, we assume that these relationships depend on followers' personal need for structure. We tested the hypothesized moderated‐mediation model in a two‐wave survey study with 142 employees. Our results support the proposed model. We found the predicted indirect effect of humor on commitment and disengagement to be stronger for followers low in need for structure. However, we did not find the proposed effects for emotional exhaustion. We discuss implications for leadership theory, humor theory, and for leadership training and practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2112   open full text
  • Human resource management systems and work attitudes: The mediating role of future time perspective.
    Jörg Korff, Torsten Biemann, Sven C. Voelpel.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 18, 2016
    This paper examines the role of employees' future time perspective (FTP) in the association between human resource management (HRM) systems and work‐related attitudes. Drawing on social exchange theory, signaling theory, and affective events theory, we hypothesize HRM systems' indirect effects on individual‐level job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment as mediated by FTP. The results of this multilevel study, comprising 913 employees of 76 business units, provide evidence that HRM systems have (i) direct effects on employees' FTP and (ii) indirect effects on job satisfaction and organizational commitment via FTP. In addition, three HRM bundles' (i.e., knowledge, skills, and abilities enhancing; motivation enhancing; and opportunity enhancing) corresponding indirect effects are explored. We discuss the results, theoretical contributions, and practical implications of the study, as well as future research directions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 18, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2110   open full text
  • When perceived innovation job requirement increases employee innovative behavior: A sensemaking perspective.
    Shung Jae Shin, Feirong Yuan, Jing Zhou.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 11, 2016
    Building on the sensemaking perspective, we theorize and test conditions under which perceived innovation job requirement increases employee innovative behavior. Using data consisting of 311 employee–supervisor pairs from two companies in China, we found that perceived innovation job requirement had a more positive relation with innovative behavior for employees with low intrinsic interest in innovation than for those with high intrinsic interest. In addition, this positive effect for low‐intrinsic‐interest employees was achieved only when these employees interpreted the job requirement as important either because performance‐reward expectancy was high or because perceived value for the organization was high. We discuss the implications of these results for research and practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2111   open full text
  • Micro‐break activities at work to recover from daily work demands.
    Sooyeol Kim, YoungAh Park, Qikun Niu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 02, 2016
    Recovery literature has focused predominantly on recovery processes outside the workplace during nonwork times. Considering a lack of research on momentary recovery at work, we examined four categories of micro‐break activities—relaxation, nutrition‐intake, social, and cognitive activities—as possible recovery mechanisms in the workplace. Using effort recovery and conservation of resources theories, we hypothesized that micro‐break activities attenuate the common stressor–strain relationship between work demands and negative affect. For 10 consecutive workdays, 86 South Korean office workers (842 data points) reported their specific daily work demands right after their lunch hour (Time 1) and then reported their engagement in micro‐break activities during the afternoon and negative affective state at the end of the workday (Time 2). As expected, relaxation and social activities reduced the effects of work demands on end‐of‐workday negative affect. Nutrition intake of beverages and snacks did not have a significant moderating effect. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed that only caffeinated beverages reduced work demands effects on negative affect. Unexpectedly, cognitive activities aggravated the effects of work demands on negative affect. The findings indicate not only the importance of taking micro‐breaks but also which types of break activities are beneficial for recovery. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2109   open full text
  • When control becomes a liability rather than an asset: Comparing home and office days among part‐time teleworkers.
    Michal Biron, Marc Veldhoven.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 04, 2016
    Past research has mainly examined differences between employees working under conventional versus teleworking arrangements or high‐intensity versus low‐intensity teleworking. Yet because many workers combine days worked from the office with days worked from home (part‐time telework), it may be more appropriate to examine within‐individual variation in office versus home days. Accordingly, we compare diary data from 77 employees on three home days and three office days. This setup enables us to contribute to the theoretical debate on the duality of control and accountability. Specifically, by comparing job locations (home versus office), we identify conditions under which job control (worktime control) is more likely to act as an asset or as a liability. Results suggest that ability to concentrate is higher and need for recovery is lower, on home days than on office days. However, on home days, generally high level of worktime control amplifies the association between job demands and need for recovery—whereas this association is reversed when worktime control is generally moderate. No similar differences are observed on office days. Finally, whereas employees experiencing high job demands are more able to concentrate during home days than during office days, worktime control has no differential effect in this respect. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 04, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2106   open full text
  • On the relationship between intragroup conflict and social capital in teams: A longitudinal investigation in Taiwan.
    Man‐Ling Chang.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 04, 2016
    In response to the prevalent deployment of teams in organizations, there is a need to jointly consider conflict and social capital within the teams to offer novel ways to understand group process. This study proposes that the association between intragroup conflict and group social capital may be dynamic and reciprocal. Specifically, this study investigates longitudinally how intragroup conflict influences group social capital within cross‐functional teams and recognizes whether the teams with high group social capital can further produce intragroup conflict. The two‐year longitudinal study sampled 527 individuals in 90 teams across two time periods. This study finds that when teams are formed (Time 1), task conflict relates positively to structural social capital, and relationship conflict relates negatively to cognitive social capital. There is an inverted U‐type relationship between task conflict at Time 1 and social capital at Time 2. Established teams (Time 2) with higher levels of social capital experience higher levels of task conflict and lower levels of relationship conflict than teams with lower levels of social capital. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 04, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2107   open full text
  • The challenge of being a young manager: The effects of contingent reward and participative leadership on team‐level turnover depend on leader age.
    Claudia Buengeler, Astrid C. Homan, Sven C. Voelpel.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 29, 2016
    Effective leadership requires a leader claiming as well as team members granting the leadership position. Contingent reward and participative leadership may both facilitate this mutual process. However, these behaviors differ in the degree to which they require a leader to have status and be prototypical. Their effectiveness might thus depend on the status‐related characteristics of the leader. In this respect, we propose that younger leaders, by deviating from the leader prototype in terms of age, lack a natural status cue, which will determine the effectiveness of these two leadership behaviors in shaping turnover. Two pilot studies (N = 113 and 121 individuals) confirm that younger leaders are perceived as less prototypical and to have lower status than older leaders. Examining 83 work teams, we show that leader age differently moderates the effects of contingent reward and participative leadership on time‐lagged team turnover. For younger (compared with older) leaders, contingent reward was effective as illustrated by decreased voluntary turnover and increased involuntary turnover, whereas participative leadership, which was associated with increased voluntary turnover and decreased involuntary turnover, was ineffective. These findings point to the importance of incorporating natural status cues of leaders for understanding the effectiveness of different leadership behaviors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2101   open full text
  • The multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) and the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART): two novel evaluation methods for developing optimal training programs.
    Matt C. Howard, Rick R. Jacobs.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 29, 2016
    Current methodologies in training evaluation studies largely employ a single method entitled random confirmatory trials, prompting several concerns. First, practitioners and researchers often analyze the effectiveness of their entire omnibus training, rather than the individual elements or identifiable components of the training program. This slows the testing of theory and development of optimal training programs. Second, a common training is typically administered to all employees within an organization or workgroup; however, certain factors may cause individualized training to be more effective. Given these concerns, the current paper presents two training evaluation methodologies to overcome these problems: the multiphase optimization strategy and sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. The multiphase optimization strategy is a method to evaluate a standard training, which emphasizes the importance of a multi‐stage training evaluation process to analyze individual training elements. In contrast, sequential multiple assignment randomized trial is used to evaluate an adaptive training that varies over time and/or trainees. These methodologies jointly overcome the problems noted earlier, and they can be integrated to address several of the key challenges facing training researchers and practitioners. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2102   open full text
  • A multilevel perspective of interpersonal trust: Individual, dyadic, and cross‐level predictors of performance.
    Naina Gupta, Violet Ho, Jeffrey M. Pollack, Lei Lai.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 29, 2016
    While it is generally known that interpersonal trust facilitates individual functioning, few studies have examined the role of specific features of the interpersonal trust network — individual, dyadic, third‐party, and network‐level features — on individual performance. We adopt a multilevel perspective of interpersonal trust to examine how individuals' performance is not only predicted by their individual‐level centrality in the interpersonal trust network but also moderated, at the network level, by the overall centralized nature of that network. Further, we examine whether mutual trust relationships at the dyadic level, as well as shared trust ties to common third parties, can predict individuals' performance. We test our hypotheses with 206 members in 15 professional networking groups and find that interpersonal trust operates at multiple levels to predict members' performance in terms of generating income from business referrals. These findings provide theoretical and practical implications on how interpersonal trust relationships operate and can be managed for performance gains. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2104   open full text
  • Daily shifts in regulatory focus: The influence of work events and implications for employee well‐being.
    Jaclyn Koopmann, Klodiana Lanaj, Joyce Bono, Kristie Campana.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 28, 2016
    Although theory suggests that regulatory focus fluctuates within person and such fluctuations impact employee well‐being, there is little empirical investigation of such propositions. These are important research questions to address because work events may elicit within‐person fluctuations in regulatory focus, which can then affect well‐being. The primary purpose of this study is to examine specific predictors of daily regulatory focus at work and the foci's impact on employee well‐being at work and home as indicated by mood and psychosomatic complaints, respectively. We present and test an overarching theoretical framework that integrates conservation of resources theory, the cognitive‐affective processing system framework, and regulatory focus theory to delineate why and when work events affect regulatory focus and how the foci affect well‐being. Consistent with our expectations, we found that positive work events positively predicted daily promotion focus, but this effect was weaker when employees had high‐quality relationships with leaders. Furthermore, daily regulatory focus was associated with employee well‐being (mood and psychosomatic complaints) such that (i) promotion focus improved well‐being; (ii) prevention focus reduced well‐being; and (iii) the effects of promotion focus on well‐being were strongest when prevention focus was low. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and offer directions for future research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2105   open full text
  • Navigating uneven terrain: The roles of political skill and LMX differentiation in prediction of work relationship quality and work outcomes.
    Olga Epitropaki, Ilias Kapoutsis, B. Parker Ellen, Gerald R. Ferris, Konstantinos Drivas, Anastasia Ntotsi.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 22, 2016
    Drawing from social/political influence, leader–member exchange (LMX), and social comparison theories, the present two‐study investigation examines three levels of LMX differentiation (i.e., individual‐level, meso‐level, and group‐level LMX differentiation) and further tests a model of the joint effects of political skill and LMX differentiation on LMX, relative LMX, and employee work outcomes. In Study 1, we used data from 231 employees and found support for the interactive effect of political skill and individual perceptions of LMX differentiation on LMX quality. We also found partial support for the moderating role of individual‐level LMX differentiation on the indirect effects of political skill on self‐rated task performance and job satisfaction via LMX. In Study 2, we used data from 185 supervisor–subordinate dyads and examined both meso‐level and group‐level LMX differentiation via a multilevel moderated mediation model. Results supported the moderating role of group‐level LMX differentiation and group mean LMX on the indirect effects of political skill on supervisor‐rated task performance and contextual performance/citizenship behavior as well as job satisfaction via relative LMX. Overall, the results suggest that politically skilled employees reap the benefits of LMX differentiation, as they enjoy higher absolute LMX and relative (i.e., to their peers) LMX quality. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2100   open full text
  • Emotional appeal in recruitment advertising and applicant attraction: Unpacking national cultural differences.
    Jing Han, Juan Ling.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 22, 2016
    We investigated the impact of the type of emotional appeal (ego‐focused vs. other‐focused) used in recruiting advertisements on applicant attraction to firms through two experimental studies across three countries (the United States, China, and Singapore). In Study 1, we made a traditional cultural comparison between the United States and China, whose dominant cultural values are characterized by individualism and collectivism, respectively. We found applicants in the United States were more strongly attracted to firms whose recruiting advertisements were based on an ego‐focused emotional appeal, while applicants in China were more attracted to firms that used ads with an other‐focused emotional appeal. Study 2 was conducted in bicultural Singapore. We primed bicultural applicants to be either the individualistic or collectivistic aspect of their cultural heritage. Applicants with individualist priming were attracted to recruiting advertisements with an ego‐focused emotional appeal, whereas applicants with collectivist priming were attracted to advertisements with an other‐focused emotional appeal. In addition, both studies revealed that a job applicant's regulatory focus (promotion vs. prevention) mediated the influence of national culture on the relationship between type of emotional appeal and applicant attraction to firms. Practical implications and suggestions for future research also are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2099   open full text
  • Going beyond work and family: A longitudinal study on the role of leisure in the work–life interplay.
    Michaela Knecht, Bettina S. Wiese, Alexandra M. Freund.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 04, 2016
    Going beyond the relation of work and family, the present three‐wave longitudinal study spanning one year assessed different forms of conflict and facilitation between leisure and the life domains work and family and their relation to subjective well‐being. A sample of N = 277 employed men and women reported their perceived conflict and facilitation between leisure, work, and family and subjective well‐being. Results suggest that leisure is a source of facilitation for work and family, and, at the same time, a major recipient of conflict from work and family. Moreover, leisure conflict was negatively correlated and leisure facilitation was positively associated with concurrent subjective well‐being. Both conflict and facilitation between all three life domains remained highly stable over the course of one year. Only few and non‐systematic lagged effects were found, indicating that the variance of the stability of the constructs and their relations over time leave little room for longitudinal predictions. Taken together, the study demonstrates that, similar to work–family relations, conflict and facilitation with the leisure domain are also associated with subjective well‐being and remain highly stable over the course of a year in the lives of young and middle‐aged adults. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 04, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2098   open full text
  • Assumptions beyond the science: encouraging cautious conclusions about functional magnetic resonance imaging research on organizational behavior.
    Karen Niven, Luke Boorman.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 01, 2016
    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is likely to become the major tool for studying the neural underpinnings of organizational behavior. It is a technique for brain imaging that, according to advocates, provides information about which areas of the brain are activated during organizational processes (e.g., leadership and decision‐making). In this article, we take a critical look at this tool from a technical perspective. In particular, we take the reader through the assumptions that must be made at the three main steps of the research process (study design, data capture, and interpretation of results) in order to draw conclusions about organizational phenomena from fMRI research. Applying this analysis to three case studies demonstrates the gap between what fMRI can actually tell us and the claims often made about the contribution of fMRI to understanding and improving organizational behavior. Our discussion provides researchers with a series of recommendations oriented toward optimizing the use of fMRI to help it live up to its potential in the field of organizational behavior and consumers with a means of evaluating fMRI research in order to draw appropriate and warranted conclusions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2097   open full text
  • Which factors make the difference for explaining growth in newcomer organizational commitment? A latent growth modeling approach.
    Leticia Gomes Maia, Antônio Virgílio Bittencourt Bastos, Omar Nathanaël Solinger.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 24, 2016
    Previous studies on newcomer socialization have evidenced quite consistently that newcomers' affective commitment tends to decline in the first years of employment. In this paper, we attempt to explain why a minority of Brazilian newcomers in a governmental organization (N = 194) display growth in commitment (33 per cent) in the first 3 years of employment, despite the fact that the odds are clearly in favor of decline (62 per cent). We reasoned that the minority displaying growing commitment may have had qualitatively different work experiences or would have different personal characteristics. We used latent growth modeling and post hoc tests to analyze the hypotheses. Concerning individual differences, newcomers with growing commitment were on average older but did not have higher work centrality. Concerning work experiences, newcomers whose training matched the job (high person–job fit) and whose tasks were challenging were more prevalent in the growing commitment group. The newcomers who showed declining commitment were more likely to feel overwhelmed by the amount of work in the new role (high role overload) and were typically not promoted to higher ranks. Change in commitment also predicted self‐reported performance (productivity and initiative) 3 years after organizational entry. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2096   open full text
  • When “It depends” amounts to more than simple contingent relationships: Three canonical forms of inversions.
    Fabrice L. Cavarretta, Laura Trinchera, Dong Ook Choi, Sean T. Hannah.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 23, 2016
    Organizational behavior theories can be subject to potential inversions in the nature of the effects expected or described (i.e. an effect inverts from positive to negative or vice versa). Yet, inversions are rarely considered or assessed. We explore three possible canonical inversions: the maximum or minimum point in a quadratic regression model, the point of intersection in disordinal interactions, and the change of slope in a moderated regression model. We describe both the motivation for, and the theoretical and empirical importance of, considering such inversions in theory‐building and testing. We consider common situations in which inversions are misinterpreted empirically and present methods to conduct explorations for potential inversions. Two different cases of errors concerning inversions can occur. In the first case entailing omission, an inversion is occurring but is not observed in the sample. In the second case, researchers wrongly assume an inversion is occurring in their model, yet the prospective inversion would actually occur out of the range of possible values on the focal variable(s), and is thus not significant. We illustrate different types of inversions using simulated examples. Ultimately, we seek to encourage and equip management researchers to identify important theoretical boundary conditions imposed by inversions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 23, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2093   open full text
  • How affective commitment to the organization changes over time: A longitudinal analysis of the reciprocal relationships between affective organizational commitment and income.
    Xiaohan Gao‐Urhahn, Torsten Biemann, Stephen J. Jaros.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 19, 2016
    Despite many investigations concerning the outcomes of affective organizational commitment (AC) in the workplace, very few studies so far have analyzed the long‐term development of AC within individuals over time. Existing research either focused on individuals' initial employment stage or was restricted to a specific organizational context. To provide supplemental evidence, we examined the development of AC over 6 years in a group of employees that had passed their initial year of employment. Results from a factorial‐invariant latent change score model with 1004 individuals from different organizations in Korea indicated an overall increase of AC over time. To further explore why individuals differ in their growth patterns, we related intra‐individual changes of AC to individuals' income in two aspects: levels and changes. Cross‐lagged regression models firstly revealed positive reciprocal relationships between AC level and income level, showing an individual accumulation of AC over time. Furthermore, the study showed a significantly positive impact of income changes on AC changes, but not vice versa, illustrating the transition of AC at the individual level. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed, revealing future research on the development of commitment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2088   open full text
  • Dignity, face, and honor cultures: A study of negotiation strategy and outcomes in three cultures.
    Soroush Aslani, Jimena Ramirez‐Marin, Jeanne Brett, Jingjing Yao, Zhaleh Semnani‐Azad, Zhi‐Xue Zhang, Catherine Tinsley, Laurie Weingart, Wendi Adair.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 18, 2016
    This study compares negotiation strategy and outcomes in countries illustrating dignity, face, and honor cultures. Hypotheses predict cultural differences in negotiators' aspirations, use of strategy, and outcomes based on the implications of differences in self‐worth and social structures in dignity, face, and honor cultures. Data were from a face‐to‐face negotiation simulation; participants were intra‐cultural samples from the USA (dignity), China (face), and Qatar (honor). The empirical results provide strong evidence for the predictions concerning the reliance on more competitive negotiation strategies in honor and face cultures relative to dignity cultures in this context of negotiating a new business relationship. The study makes two important theoretical contributions. First, it proposes how and why people in a previously understudied part of the world, that is, the Middle East, use negotiation strategy. Second, it addresses a conundrum in the East Asian literature on negotiation: the theory and research that emphasize the norms of harmony and cooperation in social interaction versus empirical evidence that negotiations in East Asia are highly competitive. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 18, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2095   open full text
  • Location, location, location: Contextualizing workplace commitment.
    S. Arzu Wasti, Mark F. Peterson, Heiko Breitsohl, Aaron Cohen, Frances Jørgensen, Ana Carolina Aguiar Rodrigues, Qingxiong Weng, Xiaohong Xu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 11, 2016
    The purpose of the present commentary is to discuss the nature and correlates of workplace commitment across cultures. We asked six organizational behavior scholars, who are intimately familiar with Brazil, China, Denmark, Germany, or Israel as their country of origin or extended residence, to “contextualize” workplace commitment. They did so by explicating institutional and cultural characteristics of their context on the emergence, meaning, and evolution of commitment by reference to their own research and extant local research. Their responses not only supported the utility of three‐component model of commitment but also revealed the differential salience of various commitment constructs (e.g., components and foci of commitment) as well as possible contextual moderators on the development and outcomes of commitment. The commentators also described changes including the growing prevalence of multicultural workforces within national borders and changes in employment relationships and cultural values in their national contexts and considered future research directions in culture and commitment research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2094   open full text
  • Employees' self‐efficacy and perception of individual learning in teams: The cross‐level moderating role of team‐learning behavior.
    Jeewhan Yoon, D. Christopher Kayes.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 09, 2016
    Despite the importance of employee learning for organizational effectiveness, scholars have yet to identify the factors that influence employees' perception of individual learning. This paper identified employees' self‐efficacy as a potential antecedent to their perception of individual learning in the context of teamwork. We also hypothesized that team‐learning behavior had a moderating effect on the relationship between employees' self‐efficacy and their perception of individual learning. We conducted a study of 236 teams working in a retail firm, comprising 236 team supervisors and 1397 employees, and analyzed the data using hierarchical linear modeling. This study revealed that employees' individual‐level self‐efficacy was positively associated with their perception of individual learning in teams. Additionally, team‐learning behaviors moderated the positive relationship between employees' self‐efficacy and the perception of individual learning. This study has theoretical and practical implications for a more nuanced understanding of the perception of individual learning in the context of teamwork. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2092   open full text
  • The path(s) to employee trust in direct supervisor in nascent and established relationships: A fuzzy set analysis.
    M. Lance Frazier, Christina Tupper, Stav Fainshmidt.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 01, 2016
    While many of the propositions advanced by Mayer, Davis, and Schoorman's (1995) integrative model of interpersonal trust have been supported empirically, we still know little about how time impacts the relative importance of the model's elements. In addition, there may be situations in which trust can develop with lesser degrees of any of the trustworthiness facets or propensity to trust. Hence, we apply a configurational set‐theoretic perspective to examine what combinations will be sufficient to produce the presence of trust in a direct supervisor across nascent and established relationships. We find three distinct configurations associated with trust in supervisor, which allows us to elaborate theory and provide novel insights to trust research. In particular, we find that in both nascent and established relationships, perceptions of high supervisor ability, benevolence, and integrity constitute a sufficient configuration for high trust in supervisor. In established relationships, however, there were two paths to high trust in supervisor: (i) perceptions of high supervisor ability and integrity, or (ii) perceptions of high supervisor ability and benevolence, accompanied by high propensity to trust. As such, in established relationships, perceptions of high supervisor benevolence and high propensity to trust may be substitutable with perceptions of high supervisor integrity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2091   open full text
  • Energy's role in the extraversion (dis)advantage: How energy ties and task conflict help clarify the relationship between extraversion and proactive performance.
    Kristin L. Cullen‐Lester, Hannes Leroy, Alexandra Gerbasi, Lisa Nishii.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 27, 2016
    While academic and practitioner literatures have proposed that extraverts are at an advantage in team‐based work, it remains unclear exactly what that advantage might be, how extraverts attain such an advantage, and under which conditions. Theory highlighting the importance of energy in the coordination of team efforts helps to answer these questions. We propose that extraverted individuals are able to develop more energizing relationships with their teammates and as a result are seen as proactively contributing to their team. However, problems in coordination (i.e., team task conflict) can reverse this extraversion advantage. We studied 27 project‐based teams at their formation, peak performance, and after disbandment. Results suggest that when team task conflict is low, extraverts energize their teammates and are viewed by others as proactively contributing to the team. However, when team task conflict is high, extraverts develop energizing relationships with fewer of their teammates and are not viewed as proactively contributing to the team. Our findings regarding energizing relationships and team task conflict clarify why extraversion is related to proactive performance and in what way, how, and when extraverts may be at a (dis)advantage in team‐based work. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2087   open full text
  • When do you procrastinate? Sleep quality and social sleep lag jointly predict self‐regulatory failure at work.
    Jana Kühnel, Ronald Bledow, Nicolas Feuerhahn.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 27, 2016
    This study investigates antecedents of procrastination, the tendency to delay the initiation or completion of work activities. We examine this phenomenon from a self‐regulation perspective and argue that depleted self‐regulatory resources are an important pathway to explain why and when employees procrastinate. The restoration of self‐regulatory resources during episodes of non‐work is a prerequisite for the ability to initiate action at work. As sleep offers the opportunity to replenish self‐regulatory resources, employees should procrastinate more after nights with low‐quality sleep and shorter sleep duration. We further propose that people's social sleep lag amplifies this relationship. Social sleep lag arises if individuals' preference for sleep and wake times, known as their chronotype, is misaligned with their work schedule. Over five consecutive workdays, 154 participants completed a diary study comprising online questionnaires. Multilevel analyses showed that employees procrastinated less on days when they had slept better. The more employees suffered from social sleep lag, the more they procrastinated when sleep quality was low. Day‐specific sleep duration, by contrast, was not related to procrastination. We discuss the role of sleep for procrastination in the short run and relate our findings to research highlighting the role of sleep for well‐being in the long run. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2084   open full text
  • A rigorous test of a model of employees' resource recovery mechanisms during a weekend.
    Jennifer M. Ragsdale, Terry A. Beehr.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 26, 2016
    Employees' recovery from the effects of occupational stress can be affected by their actions during time away from work. Conservation of resources theory argues that a key to an effective stress recovery process is the replenishment of resources during off‐work time (a weekend in the present study). We test a model of the stress recovery process during a weekend whereby two recovery mechanisms (weekend activities and recovery experiences) improve two personal resources (self‐regulatory capacity and state optimism), subsequently affecting psychological outcomes (work engagement and burnout) at the start of the next workweek. Employees (n = 233) from various jobs responded to online surveys before and after a weekend. Controlling for pre‐weekend resource levels and psychological outcomes assessed on Friday, the two weekend stress recovery mechanisms (weekend activities and recovery experiences) contributed to improving or maintaining self‐regulatory and optimism resources on Monday. Of note, psychological detachment may result in less rather than more of the resource of state optimism on Monday. Monday resource levels were linked to improved work engagement and burnout. As proposed by conservation of resources theory, employees can benefit from participating in activities that replenish resources necessary to meet work demands upon returning to work after a weekend. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2086   open full text
  • A person‐centered approach to commitment research: Theory, research, and methodology.
    John P. Meyer, Alexandre J.S. Morin.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 22, 2016
    There has been a recent increase in the application of person‐centered research strategies in the investigation of workplace commitments. To date, research has focused primarily on the identification, within a population, of subgroups presenting different cross‐sectional or longitudinal configurations of commitment mindsets (affective, normative, and continuance) and/or targets (e.g., organization, occupation, and supervisor), but other applications are possible. In an effort to promote a substantive methodological synergy, we begin by explaining why some aspects of commitment theory are best tested using a person‐centered approach. We then summarize the results of existing research and suggest applications to other research questions. Next, we turn our attention to methodological issues, including strategies for identifying the best profile structure, testing for consistency across samples, time, culture, and so on, and incorporating other variables in the models to test theory regarding profile development, consequences, and change trajectories. We conclude with a discussion of the practical implications of taking a person‐centered approach to the study of commitment as a complement to the more traditional variable‐centered approach. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2085   open full text
  • Justice and job engagement: The role of senior management trust.
    Jeffrey J. Haynie, Kevin W. Mossholder, Stanley G. Harris.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 19, 2016
    We examined whether job engagement mediated the effects of organizational justice dimensions on work behaviors and attitudes. Considering distributive and procedural justice from a motivational perspective, we proposed that job engagement would mediate these two dimensions' relations with the work outcomes of task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and job satisfaction. We also expected this mediation effect would be magnified when senior management trust (SMT) was high. Our results showed that the simple mediation model was supported only for distributive justice. Alternatively, the indirect effect of procedural justice on work outcomes through job engagement was significant only when SMT was high. Implications of our findings and areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2082   open full text
  • It is also in our nature: Genetic influences on work characteristics and in explaining their relationships with well‐being.
    Wen‐Dong Li, Zhen Zhang, Zhaoli Song, Richard D. Arvey.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 15, 2016
    Work design research typically views employee work characteristics as being primarily determined by the work environment and has thus paid less attention to the possibility that the person may also influence employee work characteristics and in turn accounts for the work characteristics–well‐being relationships through selection. Challenging this conventional view, we investigated the role of a fundamental individual difference variable—people's genetic makeup—in affecting work characteristics (i.e., job demands, job control, social support at work, and job complexity) and in explaining why work characteristics relate to subjective and physical well‐being. Our findings based on a national US twin sample show sizable genetic influences on job demands, job control, and job complexity, but not on social support at work. Such genetic influences were partly attributed to genetic factors associated with core self‐evaluations. Both genetic and environmental influences accounted for the relationships between work characteristics and well‐being, but to varying degrees. The results underscore the importance of the person, in addition to the work environment, in influencing employee work characteristics and explaining the underlying nature of the relationships between employee work characteristics and their well‐being. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 15, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2079   open full text
  • Perceived organizational support and affective organizational commitment: Moderating influence of perceived organizational competence.
    Kyoung Yong Kim, Robert Eisenberger, Kibok Baik.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 10, 2016
    Perceived organizational support (POS), involving employees' perception that the organization values their contributions and cares about their well‐being, has been found to be the work experience most strongly linked to their emotional bond to the organization (affective organizational commitment, or AC). We suggest that employees' perception concerning the organization's ability to achieve its goals and objectives (perceived organizational competence, or POC) may enhance this relationship by more effectively fulfilling socio‐emotional needs. We conducted three studies with employees in the United States and South Korea to assess the interactive relationship between POS and POC and their distinctive antecedents. Our hierarchical linear modeling and ordinary least squared regression results showed that POC strengthened the relationship between POS and AC and that this association carried over to extra‐role performance. Further, leader initiating structure contributed more to POC than to POS, whereas leader consideration contributed more to POS than to POC. These findings suggest POC plays an important role in moderating the relationship between POS and AC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2081   open full text
  • The more I want, the less I have left to give: The moderating role of psychological entitlement on the relationship between psychological contract violation, depressive mood states, and citizenship behavior.
    Manuela Priesemuth, Regina M. Taylor.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 05, 2016
    Research has emphasized the negative effects of organizations' broken promises and failed obligations on employee attitudes and behaviors. However, not all employees respond in the same manner. This paper integrates research on psychological contracts and psychological entitlement to examine how individuals with exceedingly high demands and expectations react to a perceived letdown by the organization. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we argue that a psychological contract violation is associated with employee depressive mood states, which, in turn, influence the amount of citizenship behavior displayed. We further posit that psychological entitlement moderates the link between contract violation and depressive mood states. Using Hayes' PROCESS macro to assess a moderated mediation model, findings from a multi‐source field study support our predictions. This research contributes to the work on psychological contracts and psychological entitlement on multiple fronts. Suggestions for future research and practical implications for managers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 05, 2016   doi: 10.1002/job.2080   open full text
  • A new look at the psychological contract during organizational socialization: The role of newcomers' obligations at entry.
    Nathalie Delobbe, Helena D. Cooper‐Thomas, Roxane De Hoe.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 27, 2015
    Previous studies have demonstrated that the psychological contract is largely shaped during socialization. This study adopts a complementary perspective and analyzes how the psychological contract at the start of employment shapes the subsequent socialization process. Drawing upon social exchange theory, we propose that newcomers with a higher sense of their personal obligations at entry will perceive orientation training as more useful and develop better relationships with their supervisors and peers, which in turn will facilitate their work adjustment. Results of a longitudinal survey on a sample of 144 recruits from a European Army show that newcomers with a higher initial sense of their employee obligations toward their employer report higher perceived training utility, higher leader–member exchange (LMX) with their instructors, and higher team–member exchange (TMX) with their platoon peers. Moreover, perceived training utility and LMX predict the fulfillment of employers' obligations; and training utility predicts the level of newcomers' employee obligations. Finally, training utility, LMX, and TMX predict some of three indicators of newcomers' adjustment, namely, role clarity (training utility and LMX), group integration (TMX), and organizational values understanding (training utility). These results highlight how newcomers' obligations at the start of employment contribute to the social exchange dynamic underlying organizational socialization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 27, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2078   open full text
  • Job engagement, perceived organizational support, high‐performance human resource practices, and cultural value orientations: A cross‐level investigation.
    Lifeng Zhong, Sandy J. Wayne, Robert C. Liden.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 16, 2015
    Drawing on social exchange theory, we developed and tested a cross‐level model of organizational‐level predictors of job engagement. Specifically, we examined the impact of high‐performance human resource (HR) practices on employee engagement and work outcomes. Based on a sample of 605 employees, their immediate supervisors, and HR managers from 130 companies, our results indicated that high‐performance HR practices were directly related to job engagement as well as indirectly related through employees' perceived organizational support. In turn, job engagement was positively related to in‐role performance and negatively related to intent to quit. Culture was found to act as a critical contextual factor, as our results also revealed that the relationship between HR practices and perceived organizational support was stronger when collectivism was high and when power distance orientation was low. Overall, the findings shed new light on the processes and conditions through which employee work‐related outcomes are enhanced owing to high‐performance HR practices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2076   open full text
  • Can self‐sacrificial leadership promote subordinate taking charge? The mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of risk aversion.
    Rui Li, Zi‐Yuan Zhang, Xiao‐Ming Tian.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 14, 2015
    The extant literature on the relationship between self‐sacrificial leadership and subordinate behavioral outcomes has primarily focused on the influence of this leadership on subordinate affiliative behaviors. Our research proposed a theoretical model explaining why and when self‐sacrificial leadership might promote taking charge, an exemplar of challenging behaviors. We tested this model across two studies conducted in China. In addition, we also examined the differences in the boundary conditions for self‐sacrificial leadership to influence taking charge and affiliative behaviors (cooperation in Study 1 and helping in Study 2). Our results revealed that (i) self‐sacrificial leadership was positively related to subordinate taking charge, with organizational identification acting as a mediator for this relationship, and (ii) risk aversion moderated both the self‐sacrificial leadership–subordinate taking charge relationship and the mediating effect of organizational identification, such that the relationship and its mediating mechanism were weaker for subordinates high rather than low in risk aversion. These moderating effects, however, could not generalize to cooperation and helping. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications of our results and directions for future research were discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 14, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2068   open full text
  • Contextualizing leaders' interpretations of proactive followership.
    Alex J. Benson, James Hardy, Mark Eys.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 14, 2015
    Although proactive followership behavior is often viewed as instrumental to group success, leaders do not always respond favorably to the actions of overly eager followers. Guided by a constructivist perspective, we investigated how interpretations of followership differ across the settings in which acts of leadership and followership emerge. In thematically analyzing data from semi‐structured interviews with leaders of high‐performing teams, we depict how the construal of follower behaviors relates to various contextual factors underscoring leader–follower interactions. Prototypical characteristics were described in relation to ideal followership (i.e., active independent thought, ability to process self‐related information accurately, collective orientation, and relational transparency). However, proactive followership behaviors were subject to the situational and relational demands that were salient during leader–follower interactions. Notably, the presence of third‐party observers, the demands of the task, stage in the decision‐making process, suitability of the targeted issue, and relational dynamics influenced which follower behaviors were viewed as appropriate from the leader's perspective. These findings provide insight into when leaders are more likely to endorse proactive followership, suggesting that proactive followership requires an awareness of how to calibrate one's actions in accordance with prevailing circumstances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 14, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2077   open full text
  • The place and role of (moral) anger in organizational behavior studies.
    Dirk Lindebaum, Deanna Geddes.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 07, 2015
    The aim of this article is to conceptually delineate moral anger from other related constructs. Drawing upon social functional accounts of anger, we contend that distilling the finer nuances of morally motivated anger and its expression can increase the precision with which we examine prosocial forms of anger (e.g., redressing injustice), in general, and moral anger, in particular. Without this differentiation, we assert that (i) moral anger remains theoretically elusive, (ii) that this thwarts our ability to methodologically capture the unique variance moral anger can explain in important work outcomes, and that (iii) this can promote ill‐informed organizational policies and practice. We offer a four‐factor definition of moral anger and demonstrate the utility of this characterization as a distinct construct with application for workplace phenomena such as, but not limited to, whistle‐blowing. Next, we outline a future research agenda, including how to operationalize the construct and address issues of construct, discriminant, and convergent validity. Finally, we argue for greater appreciation of anger's prosocial functions and concomitant understanding that many anger displays can be justified and lack harmful intent. If allowed and addressed with interest and concern, these emotional displays can lead to improved organizational practice. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    December 07, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2065   open full text
  • Juggling work and family responsibilities when involuntarily working more from home: A multiwave study of financial sales professionals.
    Laurent M. Lapierre, Elianne F. Steenbergen, Maria C. W. Peeters, Esther S. Kluwer.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 07, 2015
    Using multiwave survey data collected among 251 financial sales professionals, we tested whether involuntarily working more from home (teleworking) was related to higher time‐based and strain‐based work‐to‐family conflict (WFC). Employees' boundary management strategy (integration vs. segmentation) and work–family balance self‐efficacy were considered as moderators of these relationships. Data were collected one month before, three months after, and 12 months after the implementation of a new cost‐saving policy that eliminated employees' access to office space in a centralized work location. The policy resulted in employees being forced to work more from home. A voluntary telework program had been in effect before the new policy, implying that working more from home as a result of the new policy was involuntary in nature. Results revealed that involuntarily working more from home was associated with higher strain‐based WFC but not higher time‐based WFC. However, moderator analyses revealed that the positive association between involuntarily working more from home and both types of WFC was significantly stronger among employees with weaker self‐efficacy in balancing work and family. Boundary management strategy had no detectable moderating effect. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 07, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2075   open full text
  • An experimental study of the interaction effects of incentive compensation, career ambition, and task attention on Chinese managers' strategic risk behaviors.
    Daniel Han Ming Chng, Joyce Cong Ying Wang.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 10, 2015
    Building on the person–pay interaction model, we developed and tested a model for the influence of managers' career ambition and task attention on their responses to incentive compensation under different conditions of firm performance. We argued that managers with greater career ambition and task attention will be more responsive to incentive compensation, thereby engaging in more strategic risk behaviors, such as strategic risk taking and strategic change. Results of our experiment using a managerial decision‐making game with a sample of Chinese managers partially supported this contingency perspective. Under the condition of performance decline, managers' career ambition only accentuated the positive relationship between incentive compensation and strategic change. By contrast, task attention strengthened the positive relationships between incentive compensation and both strategic risk taking and strategic change. However, under the condition of performance growth, neither managers' career ambition nor their task attention influenced their responses to incentive compensation. We discuss the implications for how organizational leaders can use incentive compensation to influence the strategic risk behaviors of managers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 10, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2062   open full text
  • An empirical examination of personal learning within the context of teams.
    Yuan Jiang, Susan E. Jackson, Saba Colakoglu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 05, 2015
    Using a sample of 588 employees in 59 work teams, we tested a model that situates personal learning within the context of teams, viewing it as a joint function of teams' leadership climate (i.e., transformational leadership) and task characteristics (i.e., task routineness and task interdependence). Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that the positive relationships between transformational leadership climate and the two dimensions of personal learning (relational job learning and personal skill development) were moderated by the nature of the teams' tasks. Specifically, transformational leadership climate was more strongly associated with personal learning for members of teams working on tasks that were less routine, rather than more routine. However, no significant moderation was found for leadership climate and task interdependence. Our findings underscore the importance of taking into account the contextual conditions within which leadership influence occurs while also demonstrating the potential role that leaders can play in promoting employees' personal learning. Overall, our study bolsters theories that conceptualize adult learning as a transaction between people and their social environments and points to a practical need to match leadership styles with team task characteristics to unleash transformational leadership effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 05, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2058   open full text
  • Got milk? Workplace factors related to breastfeeding among working mothers.
    Christiane Spitzmueller, Zhuxi Wang, Jing Zhang, Candice L. Thomas, Gwenith G. Fisher, Russell A. Matthews, Lane Strathearn.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 04, 2015
    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that women breastfeed because of improved health outcomes for mothers and children. Because maternal employment during the first year of the child's life has been identified as a reason for breastfeeding cessation, we develop and test a role‐theory‐based framework to explain women's continuation of breastfeeding after return to work (Study 1) and report results of an exploratory study linking breastfeeding at work with job attitudes and well‐being (Study 2). Applying survival analysis to a longitudinal dataset gathered by the Centers for Disease Control (Study 1), we identify pregnant women's perceived employer support for breastfeeding as a predictor of women's breastfeeding goal intentions. Supervisors' negative workplace remarks about breastfeeding related to an eightfold increase of women's likelihood to discontinue exclusive breastfeeding and perceived support for breastfeeding after return to work predicted exclusive breastfeeding continuation. Results of Study 2 suggest that women who return to work and continue breastfeeding experience more family‐to‐work conflict and overload than women who do not reconcile work and breastfeeding. Further, results of Study 2 provide preliminary evidence suggesting that perceptions of supervisor and coworker support for breastfeeding relate positively to general perceptions of organizational support and negatively to depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 04, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2061   open full text
  • Good relationships at work: The effects of Leader–Member Exchange and Team–Member Exchange on psychological empowerment, emotional exhaustion, and depression.
    Carsten C. Schermuly, Bertolt Meyer.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 02, 2015
    Emotional exhaustion and depression pose a threat to employees' psychological health. Social relationships at work are important potential buffers against these threats, but the corresponding psychological processes are still unclear. We propose that the subjective experience of high‐quality relationships with supervisors (i.e., Leader–Member Exchange [LMX]) is one of the protective factors against psychological health issues at work and that this effect is mediated by psychological empowerment. We tested these assumptions with two studies (one cross‐sectional and one time lagged) on diverse samples of employees from different organizations. The first study employed emotional exhaustion as the outcome measure; the second used depression. Results from both studies support the proposed process by showing that LMX positively affects empowerment, which negatively affects emotional exhaustion (Study 1) and depression (Study 2). Additionally, Study 2 also showed that Team–Member Exchange is as important as LMX for preventing psychological health issues among employees. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 02, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2060   open full text
  • Frequency versus time lost measures of absenteeism: Is the voluntariness distinction an urban legend?
    Gary Johns, Raghid Al Hajj.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 07, 2015
    We investigate a long‐standing methodological rule of thumb, the idea that the frequency of absenteeism from work approximates an expression of voluntary behavior while total time lost better reflects involuntary behavior and ill health. Conducting original meta‐analyses and using results from existing meta‐analyses, we determine that time lost and frequency are equally reliable, that the relationship between them approximates unity when corrections for measurement artifacts are applied, and that there is very little evidence for differential criterion‐related validity predicated on the voluntariness distinction. We supply new meta‐analytic estimates of the reliability of absenteeism adjusted for aggregation period and determine that most extant meta‐analyses of the correlates of absenteeism have markedly under‐corrected for unreliability. Our results question the basic construct validity of the time lost–frequency distinction, and they contradict the practice of using “trigger points” that factor absence frequency into attendance monitoring and associated discipline systems so as to discourage short‐term absenteeism, assumed to be volitional. We conclude that the idea that time lost and frequency reflect different degrees of voluntariness is an unsupported urban research legend. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 07, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2055   open full text
  • Perceived social impact, social worth, and job performance: Mediation by motivation.
    Filipa Castanheira.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 06, 2015
    This study was designed to test the relationship between perceived social impact, social worth, supervisor‐rated job performance (1 month later), and mediating effects by commitment to customers and work engagement. The hypotheses were tested with structural equation modeling analysis in a field study with 370 customer‐service employees from bank, retail, and sales positions. Results confirm that perceived social impact is associated with better job performance and that this relationship is mediated by work engagement. Furthermore, results support a second mediating mechanism in which perceived social impact and social worth are associated with engagement through affective commitment to customers. Finally, it was found that engaged employees are rated as better performers by supervisors 1 month later. This study supports the motivational approach to performance and highlights the role that interactions with customers may play in motivating service employees. Practical implications are discussed by highlighting the need to consider the social dynamics in service contexts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 06, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2056   open full text
  • When are overqualified employees creative? It depends on contextual factors.
    Aleksandra Luksyte, Christiane Spitzmueller.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 28, 2015
    The research on perceived overqualification has mainly examined its negative consequences. Defined, employees who feel overqualified have surplus talent and thus can be excellent workers if managed properly; yet, empirical evidence in this domain is lacking. Building on person–environment fit theory, this research explored whether, when, and how employees who feel overqualified can engage in creative performance. The results of a multi‐source field study (N = 113 employees and 19 supervisors) supported theoretical predictions. Perceived overqualification was related positively to supervisor‐rated creative performance when these workers felt supported and appreciated and successfully negotiated developmental idiosyncratic deals. Opportunities to mentor others had an impact on the relationship between perceived overqualification and supervisor‐rated creativity, although the simple slopes were non‐significant. This study is novel in that it unpacked actionable steps that organizations can utilize to motivate this large segment of workforce to use their surplus qualifications constructively by, for example, engaging in creative performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 28, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2054   open full text
  • Statistical control in correlational studies: 10 essential recommendations for organizational researchers.
    Thomas E. Becker, Guclu Atinc, James A. Breaugh, Kevin D. Carlson, Jeffrey R. Edwards, Paul E. Spector.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 25, 2015
    Statistical control is widely used in correlational studies with the intent of providing more accurate estimates of relationships among variables, more conservative tests of hypotheses, or ruling out alternative explanations for empirical findings. However, the use of control variables can produce uninterpretable parameter estimates, erroneous inferences, irreplicable results, and other barriers to scientific progress. As a result, methodologists have provided a great deal of advice regarding the use of statistical control, to the point that researchers might have difficulties sifting through and prioritizing the available suggestions. We integrate and condense this literature into a set of 10 essential recommendations that are generally applicable and which, if followed, would substantially enhance the quality of published organizational research. We provide explanations, qualifications, and examples following each recommendation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 25, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2053   open full text
  • A process model of employee engagement: The learning climate and its relationship with extra‐role performance behaviors.
    Liat Eldor, Itzhak Harpaz.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 18, 2015
    Employee engagement has recently been introduced as a concept advantageous to organizations. However, little is known about the value of employee engagement in explaining work performance behaviors compared with similar concepts. The learning climate, defined as the organization's beneficial activities in helping employees create, acquire, and transfer knowledge, has also been proposed as an antecedent of employee engagement. Using data from a sample of 625 employees and their supervisors in various occupations and organizations throughout Israel, we investigated employee engagement as a key mechanism for explaining the relationship between perceptions of the organization's learning climate and employees' proactivity, knowledge sharing, creativity, and adaptivity. We also tested whether employee engagement explained the relationship more thoroughly than similar concepts such as job satisfaction and job involvement. Multilevel regression analyses supported our hypotheses that employee engagement mediates the relationship between the perceived learning climate and these extra‐role behaviors. Moreover, engagement provides a more thorough explanation than job satisfaction or job involvement for these relationships. The implications for organizational theory, research, and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 18, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2037   open full text
  • Mediating effects of psychological safety in the relationship between team affectivity and transactive memory systems.
    Anthony C. Hood, Daniel G. Bachrach, Suzanne Zivnuska, Elliot Bendoly.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 02, 2015
    In this research, we develop a framework for understanding the emergence of transactive memory systems (TMS) in project‐based teams characterized by different levels of group level positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA). With a focus on enhancing understanding of the means of transmission, we test the mediating role played by group level psychological safety (PS) in the relationship between team affectivity and TMS. From a sample of 107 software implementation project teams, in a lagged field study, we find support for a mediated model in which high group NA, but not group PA, promotes environments psychologically unsafe for interpersonal risk‐taking (low PS) and which are negatively associated with TMS. This study extends prior research on the differential effects of PA and NA, by contributing to the limited research on group affectivity, environmental antecedents of TMS, and the mediating role of PS for predicting group level transactive processes and structures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 02, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2050   open full text
  • The role of hindrance stressors in the job demand–control–support model of occupational stress: A proposed theory revision.
    Kevin M. Dawson, Kimberly E. O'Brien, Terry A. Beehr.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 02, 2015
    Previous research on the job demand–control–support (JDCS) model of occupational stress has generally been inconsistent at best regarding a key issue: the interaction of demands, control, and support in predicting employee health and well‐being. However, the model continues to be tested in a variety of studies and academic journals owing to its intuitive appeal. By incorporating conservation of resources theory with knowledge from the challenge–hindrance stressor framework, we proposed that hindrance stressors, not the challenge stressors commonly assessed when testing JDCS theory, will provide validation for the model. A two‐wave panel study of 228 employees in a variety of occupations provided support for three‐way interactions between hindrance demands, control, and support predicting job‐related anxiety and physical symptoms. Three‐way interactions using a challenge demand (forms of workload) were not significant, consistent with our propositions. In summary, this study supports the buffering effect of control and support on the relationship between job demands and strain only when job demands reflect hindrance stressors, thereby proposing to alter the JDCS model by specifying that it applies primarily to hindrance stressors in a job hindrance–control–support model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 02, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2049   open full text
  • The undermining effect revisited: The salience of everyday verbal rewards and self‐determined motivation.
    Rebecca Hewett, Neil Conway.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 02, 2015
    Self‐determination theory suggests that some rewards can undermine autonomous motivation and related positive outcomes. Key to this undermining is the extent to which rewards are perceived as salient in a given situation; when this is the case, individuals tend to attribute their behavior to the incentive, and the intrinsic value of the task is undermined. The role of salience has yet to be explicitly tested with respect to work motivation; we know little about whether undermining occurs in relation to verbal rewards, which characterize everyday work. We examine this in a field‐based quantitative diary study of 58 employees reporting 287 critical incidents of motivated behavior. When considering simple direct effects, the undermining effect was not supported; highly salient verbal rewards associated positively with introjected and external motivation, but at no cost to autonomous motivation. However, moderator analysis found support for the undermining effect for complex tasks; highly salient verbal rewards associated positively with external motivation while associating negatively with intrinsic and identified motivation. The findings suggest that verbal reward salience is an important characteristic of verbal reward perceptions and that salient verbal rewards are not advisable for more complex tasks but can have a valuable motivational impact for simple tasks. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 02, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2051   open full text
  • Being trusted: How team generational age diversity promotes and undermines trust in cross‐boundary relationships.
    Michele Williams.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 01, 2015
    We examine how demographic context influences the trust that boundary spanners experience in their dyadic relationships with clients. Because of the salience of age as a demographic characteristic as well as the increasing prevalence of age diversity and intergenerational conflict in the workplace, we focus on team age diversity as a demographic social context that affects trust between boundary spanners and their clients. Using social categorization theory and theories of social capital, we develop and test our contextual argument that a boundary spanner's experience of being trusted is influenced by the social categorization processes that occur in dyadic interactions with a specific client and, simultaneously, by similar social categorization processes that influence the degree to which the client team as a whole serves as a cooperative resource for demographically similar versus dissimilar boundary spanner–client dyads. Using a sample of 168 senior boundary spanners from the consulting industry, we find that generational diversity among client team members from a client organization undermines the perception of being trusted within homogeneous boundary spanner–client dyads while it enhances the perception of being trusted within heterogeneous dyads. The perception of being trusted is an important aspect of cross‐boundary relationships because it influences coordination and the costs associated with coordination. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2045   open full text
  • A multilevel study of group‐focused and individual‐focused transformational leadership, social exchange relationships, and performance in teams.
    Jae Uk Chun, Kyoungmin Cho, John J. Sosik.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 18, 2015
    Using matched reports from 73 team leaders and 359 of their members across 23 companies in Korea, we examined a multilevel model where group‐ and individual‐focused transformational leadership and their influence processes operate at the team and dyadic levels independently and interactively to be associated with team and member performance. Results indicated that group‐focused transformational leadership was positively associated with team performance through team member exchange (TMX), whereas individual‐focused transformational leadership positively related to team members' in‐role and extra‐role performance through leader–member exchange (LMX). TMX not only positively mediated the relationships between group‐focused transformational leadership and member performance after controlling for LMX but also positively moderated LMX–performance relationships. Moreover, the indirect effect of individual‐focused transformational leadership through LMX on member performance was contingent upon the level of TMX. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 18, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2048   open full text
  • Bouncing back from psychological contract breach: How commitment recovers over time.
    Omar N. Solinger, Joeri Hofmans, P. Matthijs Bal, Paul G. W. Jansen.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 18, 2015
    The post‐violation model of the psychological contract outlines four ways in which a psychological contract may be resolved after breach (i.e., psychological contract thriving, reactivation, impairment, and dissolution). To explore the implications of this model for post‐breach restoration of organizational commitment, we recorded dynamic patterns of organizational commitment across a fine‐grained longitudinal design in a sample of young academics who reported breach events while undergoing job changes (N = 109). By tracking organizational commitment up until 10 weeks after the first reported breach event, we ascertain that employees may indeed bounce back from a breach incidence, albeit that some employees do so more successfully than others. We further demonstrate that the emotional impact of the breach and post‐breach perceived organizational support are related to the success of the breach resolution process. Additionally, we reveal a nonlinear component in post‐breach trajectories of commitment that suggests that processes determining breach resolution success are more complex than currently assumed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 18, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2047   open full text
  • Development of a new scale to measure subjective career success: A mixed‐methods study.
    Kristen M. Shockley, Heather Ureksoy, Ozgun Burcu Rodopman, Laura F. Poteat, Timothy Ryan Dullaghan.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 11, 2015
    Career success is a main focus of career scholars as well as organizational stakeholders. Historically, career success has been conceptualized and measured in an objective manner, mainly as salary, rank, or number of promotions. However, the changing nature of work has also necessitated a change in the way many employees view success, adding a more subjective component. Although there has been theoretical discussion and calls to develop a comprehensive measure of subjective career success, no contemporary comprehensive quantitative measure exists. The goal of this study was to create and validate a measure of subjective career success, titled the Subjective Career Success Inventory (SCSI). The SCSI includes 24 items that address subjective career success via eight dimensions. The scale was developed and validated through four phases of data collection, beginning with interviews and focus groups, followed by item sorting tasks, then item refinement through confirmatory factor analysis, and finally convergent and discriminant validity quantitative analysis. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 11, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2046   open full text
  • Religious harassment in the workplace: An examination of observer intervention.
    Sonia Ghumman, Ann Marie Ryan, Jin Suk Park.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 11, 2015
    Religious harassment claims in the United States have risen sharply over the past decade. However, victims of religious harassment may not always report harassment, and true rates may be higher. Hence, actions taken by third parties present (observers) are important in combating harassment in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to extend a previous model of observer intervention and related research by testing it empirically in the context of religious harassment and identify factors that influence observers' decision to intervene (intervention), when they intervene (level of immediacy), and how much they intervene (level of involvement). Across two studies, we find evidence that verbal harassment, ambiguity of intent, relationship to target/harasser, recurrence belief, religious commitment, pro‐social orientation, and the interactive effect of shared religion and religious commitment predict intervention. Furthermore, individuals show higher levels of involvement and immediacy in intervention when costs are low and emotional reactions are high. Implications of these findings for engaging observers in combatting harassment are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 11, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2044   open full text
  • Social identity and applicant attraction: Exploring the role of multiple levels of self.
    George C. Banks, Sven Kepes, Mahendra Joshi, Anson Seers.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 04, 2015
    Applicant attraction is a critical objective of recruitment. Common predictor variables of applicant attraction are limited in that they do not provide a comprehensive understanding of the process that shapes the perceptions and beliefs of job applicants about the firms for which they aspire to work for. Because individuals have the inherent desire to expand and enhance their social identities (e.g., personal, relational, and collective identities), they are likely to be attracted to organizations that allow them to do so. Building on recent work on levels of self, our paper suggests that social identities mediate the relation between currently established predictor variables of applicant attraction (e.g., compensation, type of work, and organizational image) and important applicant attraction outcomes. Common predictor variables of applicant attraction can lead to the activation, evaluation, and identification processes described by social identity theory. A theoretical framework is presented that illustrates the mediating influence of social identity on the relations between common predictor variables and applicant attraction outcomes. This framework may lead to more effective recruitment strategies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 04, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2043   open full text
  • The effect of positive work reflection during leisure time on affective well‐being: Results from three diary studies.
    Laurenz L. Meier, Eunae Cho, Soner Dumani.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 04, 2015
    Previous research showed that psychological detachment from work during leisure time is beneficial and that reflecting on negative aspects of work is detrimental for employees' well‐being. However, little is known about the role of positive reflection about work during leisure time. In the present research, we examined the effects of positive work reflection on affective well‐being. Additionally, we tested the effectiveness of an intervention to increase positive work reflection and to improve well‐being with a randomized controlled field experiment. Findings from three diary studies showed that positive work reflection was related to an increase in affective well‐being with regard to both positive and negative moods. The results further indicated that the benefits of positive work reflection were incremental to that of psychological detachment and the absence of negative work reflection. Contrary to our expectation, no evidence was found for the effectiveness of the intervention. Theoretical implications of main findings as well as supplementary findings are further discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 04, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2039   open full text
  • Who takes the lead? A multi‐source diary study on leadership, work engagement, and job performance.
    Kimberley Breevaart, Arnold B. Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti, Daantje Derks.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 08, 2015
    Transformational leadership is associated with a range of positive outcomes. Yet, according to substitutes for leadership theory, there may be circumstances under which it is difficult, if not impossible, for leaders to inspire and challenge their employees. Therefore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors as well as employee self‐leadership strategies contribute to employee work engagement and job performance. Furthermore, we hypothesize that transformational leadership behaviors are more effective when employees have a high need for leadership, whereas self‐leadership strategies are more effective when employees have a low need for leadership. A sample of 57 unique leader–employee dyads filled out a quantitative diary survey at the end of each week, for a period of five weeks. The results of multilevel structural equation modeling showed that employees were more engaged in their work and received higher performance ratings from their leader when leaders used more transformational leadership behaviors, and when employees used more self‐leadership strategies. Furthermore, we showed that transformational leadership behaviors were more effective when employees had a high (vs. low) need for leadership and that the opposite was true for employee self‐leadership. These findings contribute to our understanding of the role of employees in the transformational leadership process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 08, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2041   open full text
  • When the dark ones become darker: How promotion focus moderates the effects of the dark triad on supervisor performance ratings.
    Mickey B. Smith, J. Craig Wallace, Patti Jordan.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 03, 2015
    The current study adds to a growing body of research on dark personality traits by investigating the moderating role of promotion focus on the relationships among dark triad traits and facets of job performance. Specifically, we investigated the effects of the dark triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) on supervisor ratings of performance, and the moderating effect promotion focus has on those effects. Using field data, we surveyed 549 employees from a manufacturing company in the USA and obtained supervisor ratings of task performance and helping behavior for each employee. We found support for multiple hypotheses, which suggests that managers rated narcissistic and psychopathic employees as having poorer task performance and psychopathic employees as engaging in fewer helping behaviors than employees low in those traits. Furthermore, promotion focus strengthened these negative relationships. We did not find these effects for Machiavellianism. Implications of these findings for future dark personality research as well as the practical implications for managers and organizations are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 03, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2038   open full text
  • You want me to do what? Two daily diary studies of illegitimate tasks and employee well‐being.
    Erin M. Eatough, Laurenz L. Meier, Ivana Igic, Achim Elfering, Paul E. Spector, Norbert K. Semmer.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 01, 2015
    Illegitimate tasks, a recently introduced occupational stressor, are tasks that violate norms about what an employee can reasonably be expected to do. Because they are considered a threat to one's professional identity, we expected that the daily experience of illegitimate tasks would be linked to a drop in self‐esteem and to impaired well‐being. We report results of two daily diary studies, one in which 57 Swiss employees were assessed twice/day and one in which 90 Americans were assessed three times/day. Both studies showed that illegitimate tasks were associated with lowered state self‐esteem. Study 1 demonstrated that high trait self‐esteem mitigated that relationship. Study 2 showed that illegitimate tasks were associated with not only lowered state self‐esteem but also lower job satisfaction and higher anger and depressive mood, but not anger or job satisfaction remained elevated until the following morning. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2032   open full text
  • When is female leadership an advantage? Coordination requirements, team cohesion, and team interaction norms.
    Corinne Post.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 24, 2015
    This study seeks to understand to what extent and in what contexts women leaders may be advantageous for teams. More specifically, this study examines how team leader gender relates to team cohesion, cooperative learning, and participative communication. Furthermore, the study argues that advantages derived from female leadership may be contingent on teams' coordination requirements. I propose that as teams' coordination requirements increase (i.e., with functional diversity, size, and geographic dispersion), teams with women leaders report more cohesion and more cooperative and participative interaction norms than those with men leaders. I aggregated survey responses from the members of 82 teams in 29 organizations at the team level. Findings from hierarchical linear modeling analyses suggest that female leadership is more positively associated with cohesion on larger and more functionally diverse teams and more positively associated with cooperative learning and participative communication on larger and geographically dispersed teams. These results call for more research on boundary conditions on the relationship between leader gender and team outcomes, on the role of relational leadership on complex and diverse teams and, ultimately, on the potential mediating role of cohesion and team interaction norms on the relationship between leader gender and team performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 24, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2031   open full text
  • Employees' surface acting in interactions with leaders and peers.
    Xiaoxiao Hu, Junqi Shi.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 24, 2015
    Surface acting has been widely studied in organizational research owing to its impact on organizational behaviors and outcomes. Past research almost exclusively has focused on employees' interactions with external parties such as customers, clients, and patients. This study sought to extend this literature by examining the effects of employees' surface acting in interactions with parties internal to the organization (i.e., leaders and peers). Data were collected from 40 work groups (129 focal participants, 40 leaders, and 40 peers) from a large real estate agency company located in Beijing, China. Results showed that employees' surface acting influenced various emotional, relational, and behavioral outcomes. In addition, the present findings revealed that the consequences of employees' surface acting differed across leaders versus peers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 24, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2015   open full text
  • Unraveling the impact of workforce age diversity on labor productivity: The moderating role of firm size and job security.
    Kim De Meulenaere, Christophe Boone, Tine Buyl.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 23, 2015
    Previous literature has suggested both positive and negative effects of age diversity on labor productivity: positive because of the potential knowledge complementarities between employees of different ages and negative because of the age‐related value differences that might reduce cohesion and cooperation, hampering firm performance. Using a Belgian sample of 5892 organizational observations (2008–2011), we unraveled these countervailing effects in two ways. First, we built on prior studies to suggest that the effect of age diversity depends on the particular shape of the age distribution: positive when it is heterogeneous (i.e., variety) and negative when it is polarized (i.e., polarization). This was supported by our findings. Second, we explored the moderating impact of two contextual contingencies, firm size and job security. As expected, the positive effect of age variety is reinforced in large firms and in firms where job security is high. Although firm size also emphasizes the negative effect of age polarization on productivity, job security, unexpectedly, does not moderate this relationship. Our study offers a valuable contribution to the literature as it reveals the boundary conditions of the competing implications of age diversity and, thus, allows one to account for the inconclusive findings reported in previous literature. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 23, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2036   open full text
  • Supervisor monitoring and subordinate innovation.
    Eko Yi Liao, Hui Chun.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 19, 2015
    This study introduces a new and parsimonious classification of supervisor monitoring (observational monitoring and interactional monitoring) and examines the effects of these two monitoring styles on subordinate innovation. Guided by social exchange theory, we propose that the two monitoring styles influence subordinate job attitudes (trust and distrust in their supervisor), relationship quality (leader–member exchange), and work behaviors (feedback‐seeking behaviors), which, in turn, affect their innovation. The pilot study developed the scales for the two monitoring styles and tested their content validity among 189 undergraduate students. Using a sample of 385 subordinates, Study 1 assessed the construct validity of the two monitoring styles. In Study 2, the results of a survey of 388 supervisor–subordinate dyads show support for the proposed theoretical model. Specifically, observational monitoring and interactional monitoring were related to subordinates' trust and distrust in their supervisor. Trust and distrust in the supervisor, in turn, were related to the quality of the leader–member exchange, feedback‐seeking behaviors, and ultimately, supervisor‐rated innovation. These findings suggest that supervisors' monitoring styles have both positive and negative effects on their subordinates' innovation, which depends on the type of monitoring supervisors engage in. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 19, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2035   open full text
  • Using self‐determination theory to understand the relationship between calling enactment and daily well‐being.
    Neil Conway, Michael Clinton, Jane Sturges, Ali Budjanovcanin.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 03, 2015
    This paper contributes to the calling literature by using self‐determination theory—a theory that makes distinctions between different types of motivation—in order to gain a better understanding of how enacting a calling may relate both positively and negatively to well‐being. We use a daily diary method novel to the calling field and a sample with a distinctive calling, Church of England clergy. We expect daily calling enactment to relate positively to daily well‐being via more autonomous forms of motivation (intrinsic and identified motivation) and negatively via less autonomous forms (introjected motivation). Furthermore, we consider how the relationship between calling enactment and motivation may be moderated by perceived competence. The hypotheses were tested using multi‐level structural equation modeling. There was strong support for calling enactment relating positively to well‐being, and this relationship was fully mediated by intrinsic and identified motivation; the hypothesized negative pathway, from calling enactment, to introjected motivation, to well‐being, was not supported. However, perceived competence was found to moderate some of the relationships between calling and the motivation types, where calling enactment is linked to lower introjected motivation at high levels of competence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 03, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2014   open full text
  • Goal striving, idiosyncratic deals, and job behavior.
    Thomas W. H. Ng, Lorenzo Lucianetti.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 23, 2015
    Two important gaps remain to be filled in the idiosyncratic deals (i‐deals) literature. First, it is unclear which employees are predisposed to seek and receive i‐deals. Second, it is unclear how employees' perceptions of whether their coworkers are receiving i‐deals affect their own i‐deal experiences. This study proposed a theoretical model suggesting that (a) three key motivational goals identified in human development research, that is, achievement, status, and communion striving, predispose employees to seek and receive i‐deals; (b) employees' perceptions of whether their coworkers are receiving i‐deals moderate these relationships; and (c) employees' i‐deals are related to their job behavior. Data collected from more than 400 working adults in Italy showed that employees' motivational goals (particularly achievement and status striving) were positively related to the levels of i‐deals they received, and that these i‐deals were in turn positively related to supervisors' assessments of their in‐role job performance, voice behavior, and interpersonal citizenship behavior. High perceptions of the extent to which coworkers received i‐deals further strengthened the relationship between status striving and employees' perceptions of their own i‐deals, highlighting a trait‐situation interactionist perspective on employees' i‐deal experiences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 23, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2023   open full text
  • You think you are big fish in a small pond? Perceived overqualification, goal orientations, and proactivity at work.
    Melody Jun Zhang, Kenneth S. Law, Bilian Lin.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 23, 2015
    Overqualification denotes situations in which job incumbents have higher qualifications than those required for the job. Drawing on the self‐regulatory perspective, we proposed that employees' perception of overqualification positively affects their proactive behavior through the mechanism of role‐breadth self‐efficacy and that this indirect effect is moderated by employees' goal orientations. We tested our hypotheses through two studies. In Study 1, we found that perceived overqualification had a positive indirect effect on employees' proactive behavior through role‐breadth self‐efficacy using a sample of 323 salespeople with a cross‐lagged panel design. In Study 2, the multi‐wave and multi‐source data from 302 teachers confirmed the indirect effect and indicated that performance goal orientation and learning goal orientation moderated the indirect relationship. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 23, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2024   open full text
  • How to dissolve fixed‐pie bias in negotiation? Social antecedents and the mediating effect of mental‐model adjustment.
    Wu Liu, Leigh Anne Liu, Jian‐Dong Zhang.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 21, 2015
    Fixed‐pie bias, defined as the erroneous belief that the other negotiation party's interest is directly opposite to one's own, has been a consistent hurdle that negotiators must overcome in their efforts to achieve optimal negotiation outcomes. In this study, we explore the underlying cognitive mechanism and the social antecedents of fixed‐pie bias reduction in negotiation. Using data from a negotiation simulation with 256 participants, we found that mental‐model adjustments made by negotiators could effectively decrease fixed‐pie bias. More interestingly, we also found that negotiators were less likely to reduce fixed‐pie bias when negotiating with an in‐group member than with an out‐group member but only under a high accountability condition. Finally, we found that mental‐model adjustment mediated the effects of the aforementioned social antecedents (in‐groupness and accountability) on reduced fixed‐pie bias. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2025   open full text
  • Reciprocation wary employees discount psychological contract fulfillment.
    Gökhan Karagonlar, Robert Eisenberger, Justin Aselage.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 19, 2015
    The present study examined the moderating role of reciprocation wariness in the association of employees' psychological contract fulfillment with psychosomatic strain and voluntary turnover, as mediated by perceived organizational support. To study these relationships longitudinally, 169 graduating college seniors were surveyed upon job acceptance and again 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 18 months following the start of employment. The findings showed that psychological contract fulfillment was positively related to perceived organizational support. However, this positive relationship was eliminated by reciprocation wariness, and this influence was carried over to psychosomatic strain and voluntary turnover. Thus, it appears that reciprocation wariness leads employees to discount psychological contract fulfillment as an indication of the organization's valuation and caring. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 19, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2016   open full text
  • Episodes of incivility between subordinates and supervisors: examining the role of self‐control and time with an interaction‐record diary study.
    Laurenz L. Meier, Sven Gross.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 28, 2015
    Scholars have hypothesized that experiencing incivility not only negatively affects well‐being, but may even trigger further antisocial behavior. Previous research, however, has focused mainly on the relation between incivility and well‐being. Thus, little is known about the behavioral consequences of incivility. With this in mind, we conducted an interaction‐record diary study to examine whether supervisor incivility causes retaliatory incivility against the supervisor. Using the self‐control strength model as a framework, we further examined whether the target's trait (trait self‐control) and state (exhaustion) self‐regulatory capacities moderate this effect. In addition, we examined the role of time by testing the duration of the effect. When we analyzed the full data set, we found no support for our hypotheses. However, using a subset of the data in which the subsequent interaction happened on the same day as the prior interaction, our results showed that experiencing incivility predicted incivility in the subsequent interaction, but only when the time lag between the two interactions was short. Furthermore, in line with the assumption that self‐regulatory capacities are required to restrain a target from retaliatory responses, the effect was stronger when individuals were exhausted. In contrast to our assumption, trait self‐control had no effect on instigated incivility. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 28, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2013   open full text
  • Mentoring with(in) care: A co‐constructed auto‐ethnography of mutual learning.
    Miranda M. W. C. Snoeren, Ragna Raaijmakers, Theo J. H. Niessen, Tineke A. Abma.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 23, 2015
    Research into workplace mentoring is principally focussed on predictors and psychosocial and instrumental outcomes, while there is scarcely any in‐depth research into relational characteristics, outcomes and processes. This article aims to illustrate these relational aspects. It reports a co‐constructed auto‐ethnography of a dyadic mentoring relationship as experienced by mentor and protégé. The co‐constructed narrative illustrates that attentiveness towards each other and a caring attitude, alongside learning‐focussed values, promote a high‐quality mentoring relationship. This relationship is characterised, among other things, by person centredness, care, trust and mutual influence, thereby offering a situation in which mutual learning and growth can occur. Learning develops through and in relation and is enhanced when both planned and unplanned learning takes place. In addition, the narrative makes clear that learning and growth of both those involved are intertwined and interdependent and that mutual learning and growth enrich and strengthen the relationship. It is concluded that the narrative illustrates a number of complex relational processes that are difficult to elucidate in quantitative studies and theoretical constructs. It offers deeper insight into the initiation and improvement of high‐quality mentoring relationships and emphasises the importance of further research into relational processes in mentoring relationships. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 23, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2011   open full text
  • A process perspective on psychological contract change: Making sense of, and repairing, psychological contract breach and violation through employee coping actions.
    Sarah Bankins.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 10, 2015
    Psychological contracts are dynamic, but few studies explore the processes driving change and how employees influence them. By adopting a process approach with a teleological change lens, and drawing upon the sensemaking and coping literatures, this study positions individuals as active and adaptive agents driving contract change. Employing a mixed methodology, with a four‐wave longitudinal survey (n = 107 graduate newcomers) and qualitative interviews (n = 26 graduate newcomers), the study focuses on unfolding events and develops an “adaptive remediation” process model aimed at unraveling contract dynamics. The model demonstrates how breach or violation events trigger sensemaking, resulting in initially negative employee reactions and a “withdrawal” of perceived contributions, before individuals exercise their agency and enact coping strategies to make sense of, and adapt and respond to, these discrepancies. A process of contract “repair” could then occur if the coping actions (termed “remediation effects”) were effective, with individuals returning to positive exchange perceptions. These actions either directly addressed the breach and repaired both it and the psychological contract (termed “remedies”) or involved cognitive reappraisal of the broader work environment and repaired the contract but not the breach (termed “buffers”). The results highlight the unfolding, processual nature of psychological contracting. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 10, 2015   doi: 10.1002/job.2007   open full text
  • Tracking managerial conflict adaptivity: Introducing a dynamic measure of adaptive conflict management in organizations.
    Peter T. Coleman, Katharina G. Kugler.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 14, 2014
    Since Darwin, adaptation to change has been associated with survival and fit. Yet, despite this, leaders and managers often get stuck in dominating approaches to conflict, and few scholars have examined the role of adaptation in managing conflicts effectively over time and across changing situations. The goal of this paper is threefold. First, we develop a new measure for assessing conflict adaptivity of managers [the Managerial Conflict Adaptivity Assessment (MCAA)], based on a situated model of conflict in social relations. We define conflict adaptivity as the capacity to respond to different conflict situations in accordance with the demands specified by the situation. The measure consists of 15 distinct work‐conflict scenarios and provides five behavioral response options, which represent five primary strategies employed in conflict. Individuals who tend to respond to the conflicts in a manner consistent with the situations provided are considered to be more adaptive. Second, we test and find that managerial conflict adaptivity is related to higher levels of satisfaction with conflict processes at work as well as higher levels of well‐being at work. Third, we test the MCAA's construct validity and provide evidence that the MCAA is positively related to behavioral flexibility and self‐efficacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 14, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1935   open full text
  • Significant work events and counterproductive work behavior: The role of fairness, emotions, and emotion regulation.
    Fadel K. Matta, H. Tuğba Erol‐Korkmaz, Russell E. Johnson, Pinar Bıçaksız.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 13, 2014
    In this diary study, we investigated multi‐level predictors of daily counterproductive work behavior (CWB) relying on the theoretical frameworks of affective events theory and the emotion‐centered model of CWB. We assessed significant work events, event‐based fairness perceptions, negative emotional reactions to work events, and employee CWB over a 10‐day period. We tested within‐person relations predicting CWB, and cross‐level moderating effects of two emotion regulation strategies (suppression and reappraisal). Results from a multi‐level path analysis revealed that significant work events had both direct and indirect effects on negative emotional reactions. Further, negative emotional reactions in turn mediated the relationships between significant work events and all forms of daily CWB as well as the relationship between event‐based fairness perceptions and daily CWB‐O. Results also supported the moderating role of reappraisal emotion regulation strategy on relations between significant work events and negative emotional reactions. Less support, however, was found for the moderating influence of suppression on the link between negative emotional reactions and CWB. Among the broad work event categories we identified, our supplemental analyses revealed that negative work events involving interactions with supervisors elicited the highest levels of employee negative emotional reactions. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 13, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1934   open full text
  • Pre‐training perceived social self‐efficacy accentuates the effects of a cross‐cultural coping orientation program: Evidence from a longitudinal field experiment.
    Jinyan Fan, Lei Lai.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 29, 2014
    Analyzing additional data from a longitudinal field experiment, the present research investigate whether pre‐training perceived social self‐efficacy (PSSE) may moderate cross‐cultural training effectiveness. On the basis of the interactionist perspective, we hypothesized that sojourners with high pre‐training PSSE would benefit more from a cross‐cultural coping orientation program, called “Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress” (ROPES), than sojourners with low pre‐training PSSE. As a result, the treatment effects (the ROPES program over the control program—a traditional cross‐cultural orientation program) would be more positive for high‐PSSE sojourners than for low‐PSSE sojourners. Seventy‐two incoming graduate students from East Asia entering a large US public university were randomly assigned to either a ROPES program or a control program, and were assessed pre‐entry and multiple times post‐entry. The results strongly supported our predictions, as the hypothesized PSSE × Treatment interactions were observed on a comprehensive set of training outcomes based on multisource data. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 29, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1932   open full text
  • Multiple dimensions of human resource development and organizational performance.
    Sun Young Sung, Jin Nam Choi.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 28, 2014
    Building on strategic human resource management literature, this study investigates the effects of various human resource development (HRD) dimensions on organizational performance. We identify four distinct dimensions of HRD that reflect either quantitative or qualitative approaches from either managerial or employee perspectives. Furthermore, we propose that HRD affects organizational performance by shaping employee outcomes, a prevailing but rarely tested assumption. Multi‐source data collected from 207 manufacturing companies at three time points over a 5‐year period largely support our theoretical propositions. A series of structural path analyses confirm that HRD improves employee commitment and competence, which in turn determine the financial performance of the organization. The quantitative dimensions of HRD (resource investment in HRD) predict only employee commitment. By contrast, the qualitative dimensions of HRD (management support for, and perceived benefits of, HRD) enhance both employee commitment and competence. Our analysis also demonstrates synergistic interactions between the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of HRD in predicting employee outcomes. This study elaborates the distinct values of different dimensions of HRD and highlights the significance of employee outcomes as the mediating mechanism between HRD and firm performance. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 28, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1933   open full text
  • What makes affirmative action‐based hiring decisions seem (un)fair? A test of an ideological explanation for fairness judgments.
    Jun Gu, Brent McFerran, Karl Aquino, Tai Gyu Kim.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 24, 2014
    Studies show that Whites tend to show the lowest level of support for affirmative action (AA) policies. Opponents of AA often argue that this is because it violates principles of meritocracy. However, self‐interest (based on social identification with those adversely affected) could also explain their opposition. In three studies, we varied whether an Asian or White male is adversely affected by AA to test another explanation; namely, that Whites' fairness judgments are based on both the adversely affected person's race and the fairness evaluator's ideological beliefs. Although we found some support for the meritocratic explanation, this was not sufficient to explain why Whites view AA as (un)fair. Instead, we found strong support for our prediction that Whites who are opposed to equality perceive more unfairness when a White (vs. Asian) was harmed by AA, whereas Whites who endorse egalitarian ideologies perceive the opposite. This finding suggests that neither self‐interest nor meritocratic explanations can fully account for Whites' opposition to AA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1927   open full text
  • Employee responses to employment‐relationship practices: The role of psychological empowerment and traditionality.
    Ann Yan Zhang, Lynda Jiwen Song, Anne S. Tsui, Ping Ping Fu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 22, 2014
    In studying the effect of employment‐relationship practices on employees, research has largely ignored individual differences, both cross‐culturally and within cultures. In this study, the authors examine the moderating effect of middle managers' traditionality, a within‐culture value orientation regarding submission to authority and endorsement of hierarchical role relationships, on their responses to an organization's employee–organization relationship practices. Based on social learning and social exchange theories, the authors expect the more traditional middle managers to respond less positively in terms of their performance and commitment to high levels of expected contributions and the associated psychological empowerment but respond more positively to high levels of offered inducements. Using a sample of 535 middle managers from 40 companies in China, the authors find support for all hypotheses except the moderating effect of traditionality on the relationship between offered inducements and performance. Additional analysis reveals that less‐traditional managers responded to economic rewards (but not developmental rewards) with higher job performance. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research and the practice of employment relationships. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 22, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1929   open full text
  • Strengthening the employment relationship: The effects of work‐hours fit on key employee attitudes.
    Michael C. Sturman, Kate Walsh.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 11, 2014
    Today's hourly workers are facing revised work schedules and shifting hours, which may have critical implications for employment relationships. This study considers the impact of work‐hours fit on key attitudes of hourly employees—perceived organizational support, job stress, work–family conflict, intent to turnover, and life satisfaction. We define work‐hours fit as the difference between an employee's desired number of hours and the actual hours worked, and we examine both the congruence of work‐hours fit and the degree of misfit. We also examine the moderating impact of the type of misfit, defined as working too many versus too few hours. Results indicate that, in our sample, hourly employees are typically not working the hours they prefer. As predicted, work‐hours fit impacts the attitudes we examined, and, when considering the type of misfit, congruence matters more for life satisfaction and intent to turnover. Results also indicate working too few hours impacts job stress and life satisfaction, whereas working too many effects work–family conflict. This paper demonstrates the importance of preferences, as a reflection of time/money resource trade‐offs, and offers ways for employers to improve work–family facilitation and strengthen their employment relationships. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 11, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1925   open full text
  • Parsing organizational culture: How the norm for adaptability influences the relationship between culture consensus and financial performance in high‐technology firms.
    Jennifer A. Chatman, David F. Caldwell, Charles A. O'Reilly, Bernadette Doerr.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 11, 2014
    The relationship between organizational culture and financial performance remains elusive even though researchers have studied it for some time. Early research suggested that a strong culture that aligns members' behavior with organizational objectives boosts financial performance. A more recent view is that, because strong cultures promote adherence to routines and behavioral uniformity, they are less effective in dynamic environments. We suggest that the relationship between culture and performance can be reconciled by recognizing that culture encompasses three components: (1) the content of norms (norm content); (2) how widely members agree about norms (culture consensus); and (3) how intensely organizational members hold particular norms (norm intensity). We hypothesize that “strong cultures”—where a high consensus exists among members across a broad set of culture norms—can contribute to better financial performance even in dynamic environments if norm content intensely emphasizes adaptability. We test this hypothesis in a sample of large firms in the high‐technology industry. Firms characterized by higher culture consensus and intensity about adaptability performed better three years later than did those characterized by lower consensus, lower intensity about adaptability, or both. We discuss how parsing culture into content, consensus, and intensity advances theoretical and empirical understanding of the culture–performance relationship. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 11, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1928   open full text
  • Social context: Key to understanding culture's effects on creativity.
    Rikki Nouri, Miriam Erez, Cynthia Lee, Jian Liang, Brendan D. Bannister, Warren Chiu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 01, 2014
    This paper proposes that the social context moderates the effect of culture on creativity by drawing on the constructivist dynamic approach. We assess creativity by the level of fluency, originality, and elaboration on the usefulness and appropriateness of ideas in three contexts: working under a supervisor, in a group, and alone. We hypothesized that in high power distance cultures, working under a supervisor inhibits creativity, whereas in individualistic cultures, the presence of peers attenuates creativity. Results from two parallel experiments, one in the United States (N = 79) and the other in China (N = 83), partially support the hypotheses. The Chinese originality level was significantly lower when working under a supervisor than when working alone. American subjects generated fewer ideas and elaborated less when working in the presence of peers and elaborated less in the presence of peers than when under a supervisor. We conclude that the social context moderates the culture–creativity relationship by making consensual cultural values more accessible in a social context than when working alone. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 01, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1923   open full text
  • The effects of passive leadership on workplace incivility.
    Crystal M. Harold, Brian C. Holtz.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. March 24, 2014
    In this article, we examine the effects of passive leadership on workplace incivility across two studies. Study 1 examines passive leadership–incivility relationships in a sample of employee–supervisor dyads, and Study 2 examines these relationships in a sample of employee–coworker dyads. Results from these studies suggest that passive leadership has a significant direct effect on behavioral incivility and an indirect effect through experienced incivility. Moreover, our results suggest that the relationship between experienced incivility and behavioral incivility is conditional on the level of passive leadership, such that the effect of experienced incivility on behavioral incivility is stronger at higher levels of passive leadership. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1926   open full text
  • Experimental evidence for the effects of task repetitiveness on mental strain and objective work performance.
    Jan Alexander Häusser, Stefan Schulz‐Hardt, Thomas Schultze, Anne Tomaschek, Andreas Mojzisch.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 11, 2014
    People frequently have to work in high repetitive jobs. Previous research has focused exclusively on the effects of task repetitiveness on well‐being, while neglecting effects on work performance. In the present study, we aimed to fill this void by conducting two workplace simulations with experimental manipulations of task repetitiveness. Participants worked for about 5 hours at either a computer workstation, compiling computer hardware packages according to customer requests (Experiment 1, N = 160), or at an assembly line, piecing together equipment sets for furniture (Experiment 2, N = 213). Both experiments provide consistent evidence that high repetitiveness has a detrimental effect on well‐being, whereas work performance increases under conditions of high repetitiveness. On a practical level, our study hence shows that high task repetitiveness is a double‐edged sword for both employees and organizations. On a conceptual level, our findings emphasize the necessity to account for both mental strain and work performance when examining the effects of task repetitiveness. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 11, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1920   open full text
  • Applying models of employee identity management across cultures: Christianity in the USA and South Korea.
    Brent Lyons, Jennifer Wessel, Sonia Ghumman, Ann Marie Ryan, Sooyeol Kim.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 10, 2014
    Identity management refers to the decisions individuals make about how they present their social identities to others. We examined cross‐cultural differences in distancing and affirming identity management strategies of Christian‐identified employees utilizing samples from the USA and South Korea. Religious centrality, risks of disclosure, pressure to assimilate to organizational norms, and nation were key antecedents of chosen identity management strategies. Risks of disclosure and pressure to assimilate related to more distancing and less affirming strategies when religious centrality was low, but nation served as a boundary condition for the moderating effects of religious centrality. Distancing strategies related to negative outcomes regardless of religious centrality, but affirming strategies only related to positive outcomes when religious centrality was low. We discuss how this work contributes to theoretical and practical understanding of identity management in the workplace and across cultures. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/job.1917   open full text
  • Leader self‐awareness: An examination and implications of women's under‐prediction.
    Rachel E. Sturm, Scott N. Taylor, Leanne E. Atwater, Phillip W. Braddy.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 17, 2013
    Self‐awareness represents an important aspect of leadership. However, past research on leader self‐awareness has focused on one component of self‐awareness, self versus others' ratings, leaving the second component, the ability to anticipate the views of others, largely neglected. We examined this second component of self‐awareness by focusing on women leaders who have been found to under‐predict how others rate them. In two studies, we measured how women leaders anticipate the views of their bosses in regard to their leadership. In Study 1, 194 leaders rated their leadership, were rated by their bosses, and then predicted how their bosses rated their leadership. While we found that women under‐predict their boss ratings compared with men, we did not find that boss gender or feedback played a role in this under‐prediction. In Study 2, 76 female leaders identified (via open‐ended questions) possible reasons and consequences of under‐prediction for women in organizations. Results from Study 2 reveal the following: (1) the reasons for women's under‐prediction include a lack of self‐confidence, differences in feedback needs, learned gender roles, and self‐sexism; and (2) the perceived consequences of under‐prediction are negative for both women and the organization. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 17, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1915   open full text
  • Involuntary retirement, bridge employment, and satisfaction with life: A longitudinal investigation.
    Ellen Dingemans, Kène Henkens.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 17, 2013
    The increased popularity of bridge employment has raised questions about its consequences for well‐being in late adult life. This research explored the consequences of bridge employment for the level of life satisfaction of older adults during the retirement transition period. Changes in life satisfaction were considered to be a function of the different intentions and motives for taking bridge jobs. Furthermore, the impact of bridge employment was empirically examined conditional on the voluntariness of the exit from the career job. Panel data on Dutch retirees (N = 1248) were investigated using conditional change models. The results demonstrate that older adults willing to prolong their work careers but unable to find bridge jobs reported lower levels of life satisfaction compared with full retirees not considering bridge employment. In addition, participation in bridge employment for financial motives was associated with decreases in life satisfaction compared with postretirement working based on intrinsic motives. Moreover, compared with voluntary retirement, involuntary retirement was detrimental to life satisfaction, but participation in a bridge job was found to mitigate this negative shock. These findings contribute to the understanding of the consequences of various postretirement employment trajectories for older individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 17, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1914   open full text
  • A meta‐analytic comparison of self‐reported and other‐reported organizational citizenship behavior.
    Nichelle C. Carpenter, Christopher M. Berry, Lawrence Houston.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 06, 2013
    Given the common use of self‐ratings and other‐ratings (e.g., supervisor or coworker) of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), the purpose of this meta‐analysis was to evaluate the extent to which these rating sources provide comparable information. The current study's results provided three important lines of evidence supporting the use and construct‐related validity of self‐rated OCB. The meta‐analysis of mean differences demonstrated that the mean difference in OCB ratings is actually quite small between self‐ and other‐raters. Importantly, the difference between self‐ and other‐raters was influenced by neither the response scale (i.e., agreement vs. frequency) nor the use of antithetical/reverse‐worded items on OCB scales. The meta‐analysis of correlations showed that self‐ and other‐ratings are moderately correlated but that self–other convergence is higher when antithetical items are not used and when agreement response scales are used. In addition, self‐ratings and supervisor‐ratings showed significantly more convergence than self‐ratings and coworker‐ratings. Finally, an evaluation of self‐rated and other‐rated OCB nomological networks showed that although self‐rated and other‐rated OCBs have similar patterns of relationships with common correlates, other‐rated OCB generally contributed negligible incremental variance to correlates and only contributed appreciable incremental variance to other‐rated behavioral variables (e.g., task performance and counterproductive work behavior). Implications and future research directions are discussed, particularly regarding the need to establish a nomological network for other‐rated OCB. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1909   open full text
  • Thriving at work: Impact of psychological capital and supervisor support.
    Ted A. Paterson, Fred Luthans, Wonho Jeung.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 14, 2013
    Thriving at work is a positive psychological state characterized jointly by learning and vitality. Conventional wisdom and some initial research indicate that such thriving benefits both employees themselves and their organizations. This study specifically tests thriving at work by linking it to a theoretically important personal outcome variable (self‐development), refining its relationship with agentic work behaviors (task focus and heedful relating), and proposing and testing two new antecedent variables (psychological capital and supervisor support climate). Using structural equation modeling on a sample of 198 dyads (employees and their supervisors), strong support was found for the theory‐driven hypothesized relationships. The results contribute to a better understanding of positive organizational scholarship and behavior in general and specifically to the recently emerging positive construct of employees' thriving at work. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 14, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1907   open full text
  • Too much of a good thing: Curvilinear effect of positive affect on proactive behaviors.
    Chak Fu Lam, Gretchen Spreitzer, Charlotte Fritz.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 06, 2013
    Current organizational theory and research affirm the beneficial effects of experiencing positive affect at work. In recent years, researchers have begun to question the popular notion that the more positive affect at work, the better—that more positive affect is desirable for work‐related outcomes. In this article, we propose a rationale for why more positive affect may not be better for proactive behaviors at work. Findings from two field studies using two unique data sources demonstrate support for our hypothesis, suggesting that intermediate levels of positive affect are most beneficial for proactive behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1906   open full text
  • Maturation of work attitudes: Correlated change with big five personality traits and reciprocal effects over 15 years.
    Bart Wille, Joeri Hofmans, Marjolein Feys, Filip De Fruyt.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 04, 2013
    As employees grow older, do their attitudes regarding work change over time? Can such long‐term changes be understood from a personality development perspective? The present study addressed these fundamental questions by tracking 504 young professionals' work attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and work involvement) and Big Five personality traits over the first 15 years of their professional career. We specifically investigated whether trait changes drive peoples' changing attitudes, a mechanism we called maturation of work attitudes. Latent change models first indicated significant associations between traits and attitudes at the beginning of the career, and mean‐level changes in Big Five traits (i.e., increases in Agreeableness and Conscientiousness and decreases in Neuroticism) in the direction of greater functional maturity. Although no significant mean‐level changes in work attitudes were observed, results regarding correlated change indicated that variability in attitude change was related to variability in trait change and that this indeed signaled a maturational process. Finally, reciprocal effect estimates highlighted bidirectional relations between personality and attitudes over time. It is discussed how these results (i) provide a better understanding of potential age effects on work‐related attitudes and (ii) imply a revision of the traditional dispositional approach to attitudes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 04, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1905   open full text
  • Transformational leadership, psychological empowerment, and the moderating role of mechanistic–organic contexts.
    Scott B. Dust, Christian J. Resick, Mary Bardes Mawritz.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 25, 2013
    The current study examines the empowering effects of transformational leaders and the extent to which these effects differ across mechanistic–organic organizational contexts. Psychological empowerment is hypothesized to provide a comprehensive motivational mechanism explaining the relationships between transformational leadership and employee job‐related behaviors. In addition, the relationships between transformational leadership, employee psychological empowerment, and job‐related behaviors are hypothesized to be stronger in organizations with more organic as opposed to mechanistic structures. Results based on a cross‐organizational sample of employees and their immediate supervisors provide support for the hypothesized relationships. Psychological empowerment mediated relationships between transformational leadership and employee task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. The mediating role of psychological empowerment was then found to be conditional upon mechanistic–organic contexts. More specifically, organic structures enhanced, whereas mechanistic structures constrained, the empowering influence of transformational leaders. In highly mechanistic contexts, the indirect effects were no longer statistically significant. Implications for theory, research, and organizational management are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 25, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1904   open full text
  • Adjusting to new work teams: Testing work experience as a multidimensional resource for newcomers.
    Jeremy M. Beus, Steven M. Jarrett, Aaron B. Taylor, Christopher W. Wiese.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 16, 2013
    The successful performance adjustment of team newcomers is an increasingly important consideration given the prevalence of job‐changing and the uncertainty associated with starting work in a new team setting. Consequently, using sensemaking and uncertainty reduction theories as a conceptual basis, the present study tested work experience as a potential resource for newcomer performance adjustment in teams. Specifically, we tested work experience as a multidimensional predictor of both initial newcomer performance and the rate of performance change after team entry. We tested hypotheses using longitudinal newcomer performance data in the context of professional basketball teams. Although the traditional quantitative indicators of the length and amount of work experience were not meaningfully associated with newcomer performance adjustment, their interaction was. In addition, the qualitative indicator of newcomers' past transition experience revealed a significant, positive association with the rate of newcomer performance improvement following team entry. These results suggest that work experience is a meaningful facilitator of newcomer adjustment in teams and emphasize the dual consideration of both quantitative and qualitative work experiences. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 16, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1903   open full text
  • What signals does procedural justice climate convey? The roles of group status, and organizational benevolence and integrity.
    Xiaowan Lin, Kwok Leung.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 16, 2013
    We propose and test a theoretical framework to explore why and how procedural justice climate influences individual behaviors after controlling for the influence of individual justice perception. Two types of symbolic information conveyed by procedural justice climate are considered. We argue that procedural justice climate reflects the status of or respect for a justice recipient, a work unit within an organization in our context, which then influences the identification of its members with the work unit. Procedural justice climate also reflects the moral attributes of a justice actor, herein an organization, which then influences organizational identification and perceived job security. Consistent with these arguments, results showed that perceived respect for the work unit mediated the relationship between procedural justice climate and identification with the work unit, and both perceived organizational benevolence and integrity mediated the relationship of procedural justice climate with organizational identification and job security. The two types of social identification and perceived job security were related to several outcome variables differently. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 16, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1899   open full text
  • Learning disability and leadership: Becoming an effective leader.
    Gil Luria, Yuval Kalish, Miriam Weinstein.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 10, 2013
    This study investigates learning disability (LD) as an individual‐differences variable predicting leadership emergence, role occupancy, and effectiveness. We hypothesize that individuals with LD are less likely to occupy leadership roles, and that informal group processes (leadership emergence) will mediate the relationship between LD and leadership role occupancy. We also hypothesized that, among leaders promoted and selected for leadership training, there would be a negative relationship between LD and effective leadership. We first checked for LD in a sample of 1076 soldiers, measuring cognitive ability with a geometric‐analogies test as a control. Some months later, during the soldiers' basic training, we measured leadership emergence. We then identified those who were selected for leadership training, recording, and measuring their effectiveness according to supervisory and peer evaluations. Leadership emergence was found to mediate the negative relationship between LD and leadership role occupancy. There were no significant differences among leaders (n = 308) with and without LD in regard to leadership effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 10, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1896   open full text
  • Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations.
    Sun Young Sung, Jin Nam Choi.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 09, 2013
    The present study examines the effects of training and development on organizational innovation. We specifically suggest that the training and development investments of an organization affect its innovative performance by promoting various learning practices. We empirically tested our hypothesis by using time‐lagged, multi‐source data collected from 260 Korean companies that represent diverse industries. Our analysis showed that corporate expenditure for internal training predicts interpersonal and organizational learning practices, which, in turn, increase innovative performance. The data also revealed that the positive relationship between interpersonal and organizational learning practices and innovative performance is stronger within organizations that have stronger innovative climates. By contrast, investment in employee development through financial support for education outside an organization poses a significant negative effect on its innovative performance and no significant effect on learning practices. The present study provides a plausible explanation for a mechanism through which the investment of an organization in employees enhances its innovative performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Organizational Behavior published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 09, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1897   open full text
  • What does team–member exchange bring to the party? A meta‐analytic review of team and leader social exchange.
    George C. Banks, John H. Batchelor, Anson Seers, Ernest H. O'Boyle, Jeffrey M. Pollack, Kim Gower.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 31, 2013
    Both leader–member exchange (LMX) and team–member exchange (TMX) measure the quality of reciprocal exchange among employees in the workplace. Although LMX focuses on supervisor–subordinate relationships while TMX examines the relationships among team members, both have theory‐based and empirically proven relations with workplace outcomes such as job performance, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. However, it is not yet known which has more of an impact on such workplace outcomes—specifically, it is not clear if an employee's time is best spent developing vertical relationships among supervisors and subordinates (LMX) or on the horizontal relationships among team members (TMX). Accordingly, this meta‐analysis explores the incremental validity and relative importance of these two social exchange‐based constructs. The theoretical logic underlying LMX and TMX is clarified, and the parameter estimates between LMX, TMX, and work outcomes are reported. Results demonstrate that TMX shows incremental validity above and beyond LMX for some outcomes (organizational commitment and job satisfaction), but not others (job performance and turnover intentions). Also, LMX shows greater relative importance across all four outcomes. In sum, the clarification of the theoretical and empirical landscape lays a foundation for recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 31, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1885   open full text
  • How transformational leadership influences follower helping behavior: The role of trust and prosocial motivation.
    Yue Zhu, Syed Akhtar.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 26, 2013
    We proposed and tested a moderated mediation model that jointly examines affect‐based and cognition‐based trust as the mediators and prosocial motivation as the moderator in relationships between transformational leadership and followers’ helping behavior towards coworkers. Data were collected from 348 sales and servicing employees and their supervisors in four private retail companies and five private manufacturing companies located in Southeast China. The results showed that both affect‐based trust and cognition‐based trust mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ helping behavior towards coworkers. Furthermore, moderated mediation analyses showed that affect‐based trust mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and followers’ helping behavior towards coworkers only among employees with high prosocial motivation, whereas cognition‐based trust mediated this relationship among only those with low prosocial motivation. Implications for the theory and practice of leadership are then discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 26, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1884   open full text
  • Examining the influence of climate, supervisor guidance, and behavioral integrity on work–family conflict: A demands and resources approach.
    Samantha C. Paustian‐Underdahl, Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 26, 2013
    In this study, we assess a multilevel approach to work interference with family (WIF) by examining the influence of unit‐level work–family climate, as well as the importance of supervisors' spoken guidance and their behavioral integrity in helping employees process social information about work–family issues. We propose that there are two important ways in which supervisors may influence their subordinates' WIF—through their spoken guidance regarding managing work–family conflict and through their behavioral integrity—employee perceptions of the degree to which supervisors' spoken work–family guidance aligns with their behaviors to help employees manage work and family on the job. Results from a sample of 628 employees of a health system, using path analytic tests of moderated mediation, provide support for the mediated effect of family‐supportive climate on employee work–family conflict (through supervisory work–family guidance) and for a second‐stage moderation in which the effect of guidance on WIF is stronger (weaker) when employees perceive high (low) levels of supervisor work–family behavioral integrity. We discuss the implications of these findings for the study of family‐supportive work environments and work–family conflict. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are also presented. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 26, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1883   open full text
  • Supervisors' exceedingly difficult goals and abusive supervision: The mediating effects of hindrance stress, anger, and anxiety.
    Mary B. Mawritz, Robert Folger, Gary P. Latham.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 24, 2013
    This study examined a contextual predictor of abusive supervision. Specifically, we hypothesized that job goals that are judged by supervisors to be exceedingly difficult to attain is a predictor of subordinate‐rated abusive supervisory behavior. Drawing on the cognitive theory of stress, we hypothesized that exceedingly difficult job goals assigned to supervisors predict abusive behavior directed at their subordinates, as mediated by the supervisors' hindrance stress and emotions (e.g., anger and anxiety). We collected data from employees and their immediate supervisors to test this theoretical model (N = 215 matched pairs). The results of this multisource field study provided support for the hypothesized relationships. In particular, assigned job goals that were appraised by supervisors as exceedingly difficult to attain predicted their hindrance stress. Also, hindrance stress was positively related to anger and anxiety, which in turn predicted abusive supervision. Theoretically, these findings contribute to research on goal setting, stress, and abusive supervision. In addition, these findings are practically important in that they provide suggestions on how to minimize abusive supervision in organizations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 24, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1879   open full text
  • Reflections of Cross‐Cultural Collaboration Science.
    Maritza Salazar, Eduardo Salas.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 23, 2013
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1881   open full text
  • Cultural contingencies of mediation: Effectiveness of mediator styles in intercultural disputes.
    Elizabeth D. Salmon, Michele J. Gelfand, Ayşe Betül Çelik, Sarit Kraus, Jonathan Wilkenfeld, Molly Inman.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 23, 2013
    The difficulties of intercultural negotiations are well established, yet few studies have examined the factors that facilitate the successful resolution of these disputes. This research took a dynamic approach and examined the types of mediation tactics that are most effective in intercultural disputes given specific disputant characteristics. One hundred and ten participants from the United States and Turkey negotiated a community‐based dispute in real time from their respective countries using a newly developed virtual lab. Dyads were randomly assigned to negotiate with a formulative computer mediator, a manipulative computer mediator, or in an unmediated control condition. As predicted, the results showed a significant interaction between manipulative mediation and markers of disputant difficulty on Pareto efficiency. Manipulative mediation produced agreements of higher Pareto efficiency in intercultural dyads with more difficult disputants (low openness to mediation, low motivational cultural intelligence (CQ), low trust, and low willingness to concede) but lower Pareto efficiency in dyads with more favorable disputant factors (high openness to mediation, high motivational CQ, high trust, and high willingness to concede). The results for subjective value also partially supported the hypotheses. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of intercultural disputes are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1870   open full text
  • The psychological structure of aggression across cultures.
    Laura Severance, Lan Bui‐Wrzosinska, Michele J. Gelfand, Sarah Lyons, Andrzej Nowak, Wojciech Borkowski, Nazar Soomro, Naureen Soomro, Anat Rafaeli, Dorit Efrat Treister, Chun‐Chi Lin, Susumu Yamaguchi.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 23, 2013
    To date, the vast majority of the research on aggression has been conducted on Western samples. This research expands the culture‐bound understanding of aggression by examining universal and culture‐specific dimensions that underlie the psychological structure of aggression. Drawing on cultural logics of honor, dignity, and face, we examine the construal of aggression across Pakistan, Israel, Japan, and the United States. Multidimensional scaling analyses revealed potentially universal dimensions of aggression. In all four nations, dimensions of damage to self‐worth and direct versus indirect aggression emerged, and a physical versus verbal aggression emerged in Pakistan, Israel, and Japan. In addition, an infringement to personal resources dimension emerged in the United States and Israel, and a degree of threat dimension emerged in Pakistan. Further, results demonstrated cultural specificity in terms of (i) where aggressive behaviors fell along each dimension and (ii) meanings that defined each dimension across cultures. These findings have implications for the prevention and attenuation of intercultural conflicts as well as the advancement of the cross‐cultural psychology and the aggression literatures. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1873   open full text
  • Interactive effects of levels of individualism–collectivism on cooperation: A meta‐analysis.
    Justin Marcus, Huy Le.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 23, 2013
    We examined the interactive effects of levels of individualism–collectivism (I–C) on cooperation at work by meta‐analytically combining results obtained from 201 studies, representing 225 independent samples. I–C was operationalized at the individual, organizational, and societal levels of analyses. Cooperation was conceptualized at both individual and group levels of analysis. Both cooperative behavior and performance were included as outcomes. The correlation between individual‐level I–C and cooperation/performance was stronger in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic societies. Similarly, the correlation between organizational‐level I–C and cooperation was stronger in collectivistic societies. Results also indicated that individual‐level and organizational‐level I–C, but not societal‐level I–C, were moderately related to study outcomes. Examination of other potential moderators indicated that neither study setting, I–C dimensionality, nor performance measurement type (objective vs subjective measures) altered these relations. However, a conceptual match between I–C and cooperation was a moderator such that effect sizes were generally larger when I–C and outcomes were both measured at the same level of analysis. Overall, our results indicate that I–C is both theoretically and empirically distinct across the various levels of analyses and that it may be a better predictor of outcomes in collectivistic as opposed to individualistic societies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1875   open full text
  • Family–work conflict and job performance: A diary study of boundary conditions and mechanisms.
    Christoph Nohe, Alexandra Michel, Karlheinz Sonntag.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 16, 2013
    In this study, we used a within‐person daily research paradigm to examine the relationship between daily family–work conflict (FWC) and daily job performance. On the basis of theory on dynamic behavior, we hypothesized that concentration serves as a mechanism through which daily FWC impairs daily job performance. We further predicted that psychological detachment from work during time‐off (i.e., mentally switching off) buffers the negative relationship between daily FWC and daily job performance. Ninety‐five employees completed daily surveys over one workweek. Multilevel modeling results showed that daily FWC was negatively associated with daily job performance and that concentration mediated this relationship. Furthermore, general psychological detachment, but not daily psychological detachment, buffered the negative relationship between daily FWC and daily job performance. The current findings suggest that daily FWC has negative performance implications and that the general level rather than the daily level of psychological detachment from work helps alleviate the negative implications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 16, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1878   open full text
  • Making sense of cultural distance for military expatriates operating in an extreme context.
    Kelly Fisher, Kate Hutchings.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. July 04, 2013
    This research examines the relationship between cultural distance (CD) and intercultural adjustment for Australian military advisers who trained and lead foreign soldiers during the Vietnam War. Situated cognition is used to identify six salient attributes of CD for the military advisers, and a conceptual framework is proposed on the basis of shared mental models (schemata) that illustrate the relationship between CD and expatriate adjustment in an extreme context. The findings highlight the significance of professional and ethical differences between the Australians and Vietnamese, foreignness, language, political and social milieu, and face management. The research is significant in the following: extending the literature on CD and expatriate adjustment from an erstwhile overwhelming focus on adjustment in a mundane environment to the extreme context in which poor intercultural collaboration can have potentially life‐threatening effects; highlighting the role of “boundary spanners” in intercultural collaborations and negotiations; and providing insights into human behavior in a complex, dynamic context for other organizations operating in an extreme context. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 04, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1882   open full text
  • The supervisor POS–LMX–subordinate POS chain: Moderation by reciprocation wariness and supervisor's organizational embodiment.
    Robert Eisenberger, Mindy Krischer Shoss, Gökhan Karagonlar, M. Gloria Gonzalez‐Morales, Robert E. Wickham, Louis C. Buffardi.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 20, 2013
    We present three studies providing an increased understanding of the interdependence between perceived organizational support (POS) and leader–member exchange (LMX). Using employees from a social service agency and new hires from a variety of organizations, we report evidence for a relational chain leading from supervisors' perceptions of support by the organization (supervisor POS) to the formation of high‐quality LMX relationships with their subordinates (first link), who interpret high‐quality LMX as support from the organization (subordinate POS, second link) and, ultimately, repay the organization with increased dedication and effort (examined here in terms of reduced withdrawal behavior). The relationship between supervisor POS and LMX with subordinates was strongly moderated by supervisor fear of exploitation in exchange relationships (reciprocation wariness), holding only for supervisors with low reciprocation wariness. Consistent with the view that employees perceive the organization as partly responsible for treatment received from supervisors, LMX was found to be more strongly related to POS when employees highly identified their supervisors with the organization (supervisor's organizational embodiment), and this interaction extended to reduced withdrawal behavior. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 20, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1877   open full text
  • Acting professional: An exploration of culturally bounded norms against nonwork role referencing.
    Eric Luis Uhlmann, Emily Heaphy, Susan J. Ashford, Luke [Lei] Zhu, Jeffrey Sanchez‐Burks.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 17, 2013
    This article presents three studies examining how cross‐cultural variation in assumptions about the appropriateness of referencing nonwork roles while in work settings creates consequential impressions that affect professional outcomes. Study 1 reveals a perceived norm limiting the referencing of nonwork roles at work and provides evidence that it is a U.S. norm by showing that awareness of it varies as a function of tenure living in the United States. Studies 2 and 3 examine the implications of the norm for evaluations of job candidates. Study 2 finds that U.S. but not Indian participants negatively evaluate job candidates who endorse nonwork role referencing as a strategy to create rapport and shows that this cultural difference is largest among participants most familiar with norms of professionalism, those with prior recruiting experience. Study 3 finds that corporate job recruiters from the United States negatively evaluate candidates who endorse nonwork role referencing as a means of building rapport with a potential business partner. This research underlines the importance of navigating initial interactions in culturally appropriate ways to facilitate the development of longer‐term collaborations and negotiation success. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1874   open full text
  • Collaboration for the common good: An examination of challenges and adjustment processes in multicultural collaborations.
    Rebekah Dibble, Cristina Gibson.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 17, 2013
    Multicultural collaborations are temporary entities that are not embedded in a single organizational context but yet complete tasks such as building a house or making a film with the involvement of people from multiple cultures. Although they share characteristics of multicultural teams, they lack many of the mechanisms that teams embedded in organizations have at the ready to enable navigation of key challenges. Not much is known about how they cope. Using an inductive approach, this study addresses four critical questions with respect to multicultural collaborations. First, we sought to identify the most common challenges that multicultural collaborations face. Second, we wanted to understand how multicultural collaborations react to those challenges. Third, we examined the role of collaboration heterogeneity in the adjustment process. Finally, we wanted to know whether adjustment facilitates collaboration performance. We examined these issues using comprehensive field data from 16 multicultural humanitarian home‐building collaborations that ranged in their degree of cultural heterogeneity. Our analysis highlights many important aspects of multicultural collaborative work. First, adjustment processes were critical in coping with their lack of organizational embeddedness. Second, collaborations utilize a range of both internal and external strategies for adjusting. Third, when collaborations experience challenges related to the way members work with each other, cultural differences may contribute to the ability to make important adjustments. Finally, when significant challenges existed, adjustment processes were related to performance in multicultural collaborations, yet overadjustment was detrimental, suggesting the importance of careful calibration of adjustment strategies to the magnitude and nature of challenges that exist. Our findings have implications for theories of team processes and culture, as well as practical implications for working across cultures. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1872   open full text
  • Taking the bite out of culture: The impact of task structure and task type on overcoming impediments to cross‐cultural team performance.
    Rikki Nouri, Miriam Erez, Thomas Rockstuhl, Soon Ang, Lee Leshem‐Calif, Anat Rafaeli.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. June 06, 2013
    Research on the effect of cultural diversity on team performance remains inconclusive. We propose to resolve the competing predictions of the information/decision making versus the social categorization theories by integrating two task‐related theories, the situational strength theory and the circumplex model of group tasks. We propose that high task specificity enables similar interpretations and shared understanding among team members, which is needed for effective “execute” (convergent) tasks, is characterized by team cooperation and interdependence. Low task specificity, in contrast, is beneficial for “generate” (creative) tasks, because it does not place constraints on generating original ideas and does not require tight coordination among the team members. We tested the effects of situational strength and task type on the relationship between cultural diversity and team performance in two experiments with 86 and 96 dyads in the first and second experiments, respectively. In both experiments, heterogeneous (Israeli–Singaporean) and homogeneous dyads (Israeli–Israeli and Singaporean–Singaporean) worked under low or high task specificity. In Study 1, dyads performed convergent execution tasks, and in Study 2, they performed creative idea‐generation tasks. The impediment of multiculturalism was reduced in execute (convergent) tasks under high task specificity and in generate (divergent) tasks under low task specificity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1871   open full text
  • Toward an Understanding of the Development of Ownership Feelings.
    Graham Brown, Jon L. Pierce, Craig Crossley.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 28, 2013
    Psychological ownership is increasingly recognized as a core feeling in the experience of work. Within jobs and the work context, there is a wide range of opportunities to experience psychological ownership. Yet empirical work on how feelings of ownership develop is lacking, and thus ways to develop psychological ownership in the workplace are not well understood. We explore the routes traveled to feelings of ownership by using job complexity as one example of work environment structure that affects the formation of psychological ownership. In two studies, we develop measures of the routes and confirm that perceived differences in one's work meaningfully predict psychological ownership. Collectively, the two studies provide insight into and offer suggestions for how ownership develops and ways in which managers might foster employee feelings of ownership toward their work. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 28, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1869   open full text
  • Is humor the best medicine? The buffering effect of coping humor on traumatic stressors in firefighters.
    Michael Sliter, Aron Kale, Zhenyu Yuan.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 14, 2013
    Although our understanding of workplace stressors has grown across the past 30 years, this research has generally ignored traumatic workplace stressors. This is a serious omission, given that many occupations (e.g., firefighters, emergency medical technicians, and police) are frequently exposed to traumatic stressors. As such, the first purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of exposure to traumatic stressors in firefighters. Post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), burnout, and absenteeism were investigated as cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. Additionally, we sought to investigate coping humor as a mechanism for dealing with traumatic stressors. We frame these expectations by discussing humor from a transactional theory of emotion/coping perspective, as well as through humor's social bonding feature and its ability to combat the physiological impact of stressors. We surveyed 179 firefighters at two time points on relevant variables, with dependent variables collected at Time 2. The results indicated that traumatic events significantly predicted burnout, PTSD, and absenteeism and that coping humor buffered this relationship for burnout and PTSD. We discuss the implications of these findings and call for more research investigating occupations in which traumatic stressors are a concern, as well as for more integration of humor into the workplace literature. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 14, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1868   open full text
  • The role of weekly high‐activated positive mood, context, and personality in innovative work behavior: A multilevel and interactional model.
    Hector P. Madrid, Malcolm G. Patterson, Kamal S. Birdi, Pedro I. Leiva, Edgar E. Kausel.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 09, 2013
    This article proposed and tested a multilevel and interactional model of individual innovation in which weekly moods represent a core construct between context, personality, and innovative work behavior. Adopting the circumplex model of affect, innovative work behavior is proposed as resulting from weekly positive and high‐activated mood. Furthermore, drawing on the Big Five model of personality and cognitive appraisal theory, openness to experience and support for innovation are proposed as individual and contextual variables, respectively, which interplay in this process. Openness to experience interacts with support for innovation leading to high‐activated positive mood. Furthermore, openness interacts with these feelings leading to greater levels of innovative work behavior. Overall, the model entails a moderated mediation process where weekly high‐activated positive mood represents a crucial variable for transforming contextual and individual resources into innovative outcomes. These propositions were tested and supported using a diary methodology and multilevel structural equation modeling, on the basis of 893 observations of innovative work behavior and moods nested in 10 weekly waves of data. This information was collected from 92 individuals of diverse occupations employed in 73 distinct companies. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 09, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1867   open full text
  • Strategic alignment with organizational priorities and work engagement: A multi‐wave analysis.
    Amanda Biggs, Paula Brough, Jennifer P. Barbour.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. May 09, 2013
    This study advances the limited research on work alignment and work engagement by investigating how perceived alignment of job tasks and organizational strategic priorities (strategic alignment) influences work engagement. Measures of job control and work social support were also included to enable comparisons between strategic alignment and other well‐established job resources. A total of 1011 employees of an Australian state police service responded to three electronic, self‐report surveys. A reciprocal model was assessed over three waves of data, with varying time lags: 18 (Time 1 to Time 2), 12 (Time 2 to Time 3), and 30 months (Time 1 to Time 3). Longitudinal, reciprocal relationships were observed for work engagement and job control, strategic alignment, and colleague support. Work engagement also predicted supervisor support over time (reverse effect). This study demonstrated that, in addition to job resources, perceived alignment of job tasks and organizational priorities plays an important role in maintaining high levels of work engagement over time. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 09, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1866   open full text
  • Episodic envy and counterproductive work behaviors: Is more justice always good?
    Abdul Karim Khan, Samina Quratulain, Chris M. Bell.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 29, 2013
    The authors examined how perceived event‐specific procedural and distributive justice about own and envied others' outcomes interacts with episodic envy to predict counterproductive work behaviors. Our results were consistent with the attribution model of justice, finding that episodic envy significantly predicted counterproductive work behaviors aimed at envied others in the workplace and that this relationship was more pronounced when perceptions of procedural, but not distributive, justice about own or envied others' outcomes were high rather than low. We tested a moderated‐mediation model in which self‐attributions for the outcome mediated the effect of episodic envy on counterproductive work behaviors and that the effect of envy was stronger when perceptions of own or others' procedural justice were high rather than low. This research contributes to the literature on envy processes in the workplace and is the first to use a specific emotion, envy, as a proxy for a negative outcome in a demonstration of the attribution model of justice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 29, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1864   open full text
  • The role of supervisor political skill in mentoring: Dual motivational perspectives.
    Li‐Yun Sun, Wen Pan, Irene Hau Siu Chow.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 25, 2013
    Drawing on self‐determination and self‐concept‐based theories, this study investigated the mediating effects of psychological empowerment and organization‐based self‐esteem on the relationship between supervisory mentoring and employee performance and the moderating effect of supervisor political skill on the direct and first stage of the indirect effects. Data were obtained from a sample of 330 subordinate–supervisor dyads from the People's Republic of China. Using PROCESS of conditional indirect effect, we found support for the moderated direct and indirect effects of supervisory mentoring. First, supervisor political skill moderates the direct effect of supervisory mentoring on employee promotability. Second, supervisor political skill moderates the indirect effect of supervisory mentoring on the following: (i) employee promotability via both psychological empowerment and organization‐based self‐esteem and (ii) contextual performance only via psychological empowerment. These direct and indirect effects of supervisory mentoring are stronger when supervisors demonstrate a higher level of political skill. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 25, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1865   open full text
  • Examining the effects of feeling trusted by supervisors in the workplace: A self‐evaluative perspective.
    Dora C. Lau, Long W. Lam, Shan S. Wen.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 19, 2013
    Trusting and feeling trusted are related but unique components of a trusting relationship. However, we understand relatively little about the effects of felt trust on work performance and organizational citizenship behavior. From a self‐evaluative perspective, this study argued that when employees perceive that their supervisors trust them, their organization‐based self‐esteem is enhanced, leading them to perform better in the workplace. We tested our hypotheses on a sample of 497 teachers using two trust measures, that is, reliance and disclosure, and found support for them on the basis of the reliance (but not the disclosure) measure. The effect of felt trust especially reliance on the employees' work performances were mediated by their organization‐based self‐esteem. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 19, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1861   open full text
  • Workplace racial/ethnic similarity, job satisfaction, and lumbar back health among warehouse workers: Asymmetric reactions across racial/ethnic groups.
    Annekatrin Hoppe, Kaori Fujishiro, Catherine A. Heaney.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 19, 2013
    Racial and ethnic minority employees constitute a significant proportion of the U.S. workforce. The literature on demographic similarity in the workplace suggests that the proportion of co‐workers who share the same racial/ethnic background (racial/ethnic similarity) can influence job attitudes and employee well‐being and that the reactions to racial/ethnic similarity may differ between the racially dominant and subordinate groups. This study applies status construction theory to examine the extent to which racial/ethnic similarity is associated with job satisfaction and lumbar back health among warehouse employees. We surveyed 361 warehouse workers (204 whites, 94 African‐Americans, and 63 Latino workers) in 68 jobs in nine distribution centers in the United States. Multilevel analyses indicate that white and racial/ethnic minority groups react differently to racial/ethnic similarity. For job satisfaction, white employees experience higher job satisfaction when they are highly racially/ethnically similar to their colleagues, whereas Latino employees experience higher job satisfaction when they are racially/ethnically dissimilar to others. As for lumbar back health, among Latino and African‐American employees, higher racial/ethnic similarity is associated with better lumbar back health whereas for white employees, the association is the opposite. Across all groups, moderate levels of racial/ethnic similarity were associated with the best lumbar back health. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 19, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1860   open full text
  • How does spouse career support relate to employee turnover? Work interfering with family and job satisfaction as mediators.
    Ann H. Huffman, Wendy J. Casper, Stephanie C. Payne.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. April 15, 2013
    Employee turnover is a major concern because of its cost to organizations. Although theory supports the influence of nonwork factors on turnover, our understanding of the degree to which nonwork factors relate to actual turnover behavior is not well developed. Using a sample of 5505 U.S. Army officers, we assessed the extent to which spouse career support related to reduced turnover four years later through work interfering with family (WIF) and job satisfaction as mechanisms. Results revealed that spouse career support decreased the odds of turnover, and WIF and job satisfaction sequentially mediated this relationship, with lower WIF and higher job satisfaction reducing the odds of turnover. Practical implications of using family support systems as retention interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1862   open full text
  • How career orientation shapes the job satisfaction–turnover intention link.
    Cécile Tschopp, Gudela Grote, Marius Gerber.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 04, 2013
    This study examined the impact of career orientation on the static and dynamic relationships between job satisfaction and turnover intention. Longitudinal data of 255 employees were collected at three waves of measurement 1 year apart. Results for career orientations as a moderator differed between the static and dynamic job satisfaction–turnover links. The static relationship was found to be similar and less negative for employees with independent and loyalty‐focused career orientations than for promotion‐focused and disengaged employees. Regarding the dynamic relationship between job satisfaction change and turnover intention change, however, independent and loyalty‐focused employees differed: An increase (decline) in job satisfaction was more strongly related to a decline (increase) in turnover intention for independent employees than for loyalty‐focused employees. These findings provide new insights into the differential dynamics involved in assessing work situations and responding to them based on different career aspirations and interests. Consequences for research and practice regarding more effective human resource management are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 04, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1857   open full text
  • Human capital diversity in the creation of social capital for team creativity.
    Jing Han, Jian Han, Daniel J. Brass.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. February 01, 2013
    We highlight the social aspects of team creativity by proposing that team creativity is influenced by two types of team social capital: bridging and bonding social capital. Going beyond the structural perspective, we posit that team‐level human capital diversity is one of the potential antecedents of social capital for team creativity. We suggest that network structures are formed by teammates' interactions, which are largely the result of differences in their individual characteristics. The results of an empirical study using 36 teams of MBA students showed that the interaction of team‐bridging social capital with team‐bonding social capital was positively and significantly related to team creativity. Knowledge variety and knowledge disparity had a joint effect on team‐bridging social capital, and knowledge separation was negatively related to team‐bonding social capital. Moreover, team social capital mediated the effects of knowledge diversity on team creativity. Our study has several important implications for team creativity, social networks, and diversity research. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 01, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1853   open full text
  • The two faces of high self‐monitors: Chameleonic moderating effects of self‐monitoring on the relationships between personality traits and counterproductive work behaviors.
    In‐Sue Oh, Steven D. Charlier, Michael K. Mount, Christopher M. Berry.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 22, 2013
    This study examines whether and how self‐monitoring moderates the relationships between two personality traits (agreeableness and conscientiousness) and counterproductive work behavior directed toward the organization (CWB‐O) and toward other employees (CWB‐I). High self‐monitors strive to attain personal goals related to status and prestige enhancement by adjusting their behavior to what the situation requires or allows for. We propose that the status enhancement motive can take on two different yet related forms—impression management (interpersonal potency) and opportunism (win‐at‐all‐costs)—depending on relevant situational cues. We hypothesize that in public, interpersonal settings where their behavior is visible to others, high self‐monitors' desire to enhance their status by looking good to others suppresses the natural expression of low agreeableness via increased engagement in CWB‐I. Conversely, we hypothesize that in private, non‐interpersonal settings where their behavior is rarely visible to others, high self‐monitors' desire to enhance their status by doing whatever it takes to get what they want intensifies the natural expression of low conscientiousness via increased engagement in CWB‐O. On the basis of two independent samples of participants, results of moderated multiple regression analyses provided support for the hypotheses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1856   open full text
  • When mentors feel supported: Relationships with mentoring functions and protégés' perceived organizational support.
    Changya Hu, Sheng Wang, Chun‐Chi Yang, Tsung‐yu Wu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 10, 2013
    We surveyed full‐time employees of ongoing mentoring relationships to investigate relationships among mentors' perceived organizational support (POS), the extent of mentoring functions protégés received, and protégés' POS. Moreover, we examined the moderating role of mentors' altruistic personality in the relationship between mentors' POS and mentoring functions received. Results showed that mentors' POS was positively related to the extent of mentoring protégés reported receiving, which was then related positively to protégés' POS. Furthermore, the extent of mentoring received partially mediated the relationship between mentors' POS and protégés' POS. We also found that mentors' altruistic personality moderated the positive relationship between mentors' POS and the extent of mentoring received such that this relationship was stronger for low altruistic mentors. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 10, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1851   open full text
  • A longitudinal examination of role overload and work–family conflict: The mediating role of interdomain transitions.
    Russell A. Matthews, Doan E. Winkel, Julie Holliday Wayne.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. January 03, 2013
    Through the lens of boundary theory, we examine whether the relationship between role overload and work–family conflict is explained by the use of interdomain transitions. With a sample of 250 working adults, we examined whether individuals respond to role overload by engaging in interdomain transitions and how the frequency of these transitions influences work–family conflict both concurrently and over time. Results support our expectation that at a given time, interdomain transitions function as an episodic coping mechanism with short‐term costs (greater work–family conflict) and benefits (less role overload). Also, engaging in interdomain transitions was an explanatory variable linking role overload and work–family conflict. We expected that, over time, engaging in interdomain transitions would function as a preventive coping mechanism, serving to reduce role overload. Interestingly though, several of the longitudinal hypotheses were counter to prediction. Our findings provide further evidence for the use of boundary theory in examinations of the work–family interface. Insights on areas within the literature that require further theoretical development are discussed, along with a consideration of the application of emerging methodologies within our empirical designs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 03, 2013   doi: 10.1002/job.1855   open full text
  • Abusive supervision and feedback avoidance: The mediating role of emotional exhaustion.
    Marilyn V. Whitman, Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben, Oscar Holmes.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 27, 2012
    The occurrence of abusive supervision is steadily rising. Extant literature continues to expand the number of destructive consequences linked to such improper workplace behavior. This study tested a model linking abusive supervision to feedback avoidance through emotional exhaustion. We invoked conservation of resources theory in our examination of the role that the loss of valued resources plays in instances where abuse is perceived. Results from three rounds of matched data from 460 nurses and 220 working adults demonstrated support for our model, suggesting a mediating effect for exhaustion on the relationship between abuse and feedback avoidance. Findings also revealed that feedback avoidance was associated with subsequent exhaustion, representing a loss spiral. These findings are important as they reveal the link between a subordinate's reactions (exhaustion) and coping behavior (feedback avoidance) when supervisory abuse is perceived. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and directions for future research are offered. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 27, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1852   open full text
  • Capitalizing on proactivity for informal mentoring received during early career: The moderating role of core self‐evaluations.
    Jian Liang, Yaping Gong.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 21, 2012
    This paper examines the role of proactive personality in the receipt of informal mentoring received (i.e., psychosocial and career‐related mentoring) among a sample of 174 early career employees in China. The regression results indicated that networking behavior mediated the relationship between proactive personality and career‐related mentoring, whereas voice behavior mediated the relationship between proactive personality and psychosocial mentoring. Furthermore, core self‐evaluations moderated the aforementioned two indirect relationships such that they were stronger at higher levels of core self‐evaluations. Our analyses also showed that the moderating effects occurred at the first stage of the indirect relationships. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 21, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1849   open full text
  • Impact of authentic leadership on performance: Role of followers' positive psychological capital and relational processes.
    Hui Wang, Yang Sui, Fred Luthans, Danni Wang, Yanhong Wu.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 14, 2012
    Authentic leadership has received considerable attention and research support over the past decade. Now the time has come to refine and better understand how it impacts performance. This study investigates the moderating role followers' positive psychological capital (PsyCap) and the mediating role that leader–member exchange (LMX) may play in influencing the relationship between authentic leadership and followers' performance. Specifically, we tested this mediated moderation model with matched data from 794 followers and their immediate leaders. We found that authentic leadership is positively related to LMX and consequently followers' performance, and to a larger degree, among followers who have low rather than high levels of PsyCap. Our discussion highlights the benefits of understanding the roles of relational processes and followers' positive psychological resources involved in the effectiveness of authentic leadership and how they can be practically implemented. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 14, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1850   open full text
  • The interactive effects of conscientiousness, openness to experience, and political skill on job performance in complex jobs: The importance of context.
    Gerhard Blickle, James A. Meurs, Andreas Wihler, Christian Ewen, Andrea Plies, Susann Günther.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 11, 2012
    Caveats concerning the ability of personality to predict job performance have been raised because of seemingly modest criterion‐related validity. The goal of the present research was to test whether narrowing the context via the type of job (i.e., jobs with complex task demands) and adding a social skill‐related moderator (i.e., political skill) would improve performance prediction. Further, along with political skill, the broad factor of personality demonstrated in prior research to have the strongest criterion validity (i.e., conscientiousness) was joined with a narrow construct closely related to openness to experience (i.e., learning approach) in a three‐way interactive prediction of supervisor‐rated task performance. With the employee–supervisor dyads among professionals, but not with the control group of non‐professional employees, task performance was predicted by the three‐way interaction, such that those high on all three received the highest performance ratings. Implications, strengths and limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 11, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1843   open full text
  • We're all in this together…except for you: The effects of workload, performance feedback, and racial distance on helping behavior in teams.
    María Triana, Christopher O. L. H. Porter, Sandra W. DeGrassi, Mindy Bergman.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 11, 2012
    We draw from social categorization theory and the actor–observer hypothesis to extend previous research regarding receiving high levels of help from team members. Specifically, we explore how a team member's performance feedback on how they handled a disproportionately heavy share of the team's workload and how their racial distance from the rest of their teammates affect the amount of helping that person receives from their teammates. Results from a laboratory study in which 79 teams worked on a computerized, decision‐making task demonstrated a three‐way interaction between workload, performance feedback, and the racial distance between the feedback recipient and the rest of their teammates. Racially distant negative feedback recipients who had a disproportionately heavy share of their team's workload received less help from teammates than their racially similar counterparts. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 11, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1842   open full text
  • When the abuse is unevenly distributed: The effects of abusive supervision variability on work attitudes and behaviors.
    Babatunde Ogunfowora.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 07, 2012
    The present study examined the consequences of a dispersion‐based conceptualization of unit‐level abusive supervision or abusive supervision variability. Abusive supervision variability was proposed to negatively affect a number of employee attitudes and behaviors through the mediating effects of interpersonal justice climate strength. The results revealed significant cross‐level effects such that abusive supervision variability was negatively related to individual perceptions of leader ethicality, organizational ethicality, leader satisfaction, and affective organizational commitment. These effects remained robust after controlling for individual‐level abusive supervision. Abusive supervision variability was also positively related to the frequency with which unit members as a whole engaged in counterproductive work behaviors. Last, the results revealed partial support for the mediating effects of interpersonal justice climate strength. In sum, the findings highlight the importance of examining abusive supervision at both the individual and unit levels of analyses. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 07, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1841   open full text
  • Explaining task performance and creativity from perceived organizational support theory: Which mechanisms are more important?
    Chongxin Yu, Stephen J. Frenkel.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. December 06, 2012
    Perceived organizational support (POS) theory specifies three mechanisms—felt obligation, group identification, and outcome expectancy—to explain the effects of organizational support on employee work outcomes. These mechanisms have usually been examined in isolation so that it is not possible to assess their relative explanatory power. The present study aims to remedy this problem by examining the three mechanisms simultaneously using structural equation modeling. On the basis of a sample of 206 bank employees in China, we focus on two types of employee performance—task performance and creativity—as dependent variables. Drawing on self‐determination theory and characteristics of the research context, we propose that task performance is more strongly predicted by felt obligation than by the other two mechanisms, whereas identification and expectancy more strongly predict creativity than felt obligation. We conclude by discussing our contribution to POS and creativity research, and highlight some important implications of our findings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 06, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1844   open full text
  • Organizational citizenship behavior in work groups: A team cultural perspective.
    Jennifer Y. M. Lai, Long W. Lam, Simon S. K. Lam.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 06, 2012
    Although researchers have often found positive relationships between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and performance rating, very few studies have scrutinized the team contexts in which such relationships exist. This study examines how OCB influences job performance ratings within different team cultures, as measured by team collectivism and individualism. On the basis of multilevel data collected from 81 teams working at a multinational bank in Hong Kong, team collectivism and individualism were found to moderate the OCB–performance rating relationship such that OCB targeting individuals improved rated performance in highly collectivistic teams only, whereas only organizational OCB produced a significant improvement in highly individualistic teams. The implications of these findings and directions for future research directions are discussed here. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 06, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1840   open full text
  • A meta‐analytic evaluation of diversity training outcomes.
    Zachary T. Kalinoski, Debra Steele‐Johnson, Elizabeth J. Peyton, Keith A. Leas, Julie Steinke, Nathan A. Bowling.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. November 05, 2012
    The purpose of this meta‐analysis was to use theory and research on diversity, attitudes, and training to examine potential differential effects on affective‐based, cognitive‐based, and skill‐based outcomes, to examine potential moderators of those effects with a focus on affective‐based outcomes, and finally, to provide quantitative estimates of these posited relationships. Results from 65 studies (N = 8465) revealed sizable effects on affective‐based, cognitive‐based, and skill‐based outcomes as well as interesting boundary conditions for these effects on affective‐based outcomes. This study provides practical value to human resources managers and trainers wishing to implement diversity training within organizations as well as interesting theoretical advances for researchers. Practitioners have quantitative evidence that diversity training changes affective‐based, cognitive‐based, and skill‐based trainee outcomes. This study also supports and addresses future research needs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 05, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1839   open full text
  • The dynamics of strike votes: Perceived justice during collective bargaining.
    Julie Cloutier, Pascale L. Denis, Henriette Bilodeau.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 25, 2012
    Why do workers decide to go on strike or change their mind during a strike? This field study aims to determine to what extent employees' perceptions of justice formed during the collective bargaining process influence their strike vote. Data were collected from a North American university faculty that went on strike 21 months after the expiration of its collective agreement. The results show that perceived justice about collective bargaining is a determinant of the strike vote. The role played by the employer and the union as a source of (in)justice and the importance of the four types of justice perceptions (procedural, distributive, interpersonal, and informational) vary depending on the context of ballots (initiate, continue, or end the strike). This suggests that the reduction of uncertainty leads to the activation of three different mechanisms: judgmental heuristics (salience), social comparison, and cognitive dissonance. The results also suggest that employees attempt to be as rational as possible when they decide to go on strike. Nevertheless, the decision to join strikers and to continue the strike is partly based on an emotional process: employees use the strike to punish the employer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 25, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1838   open full text
  • When creativity enhances sales effectiveness: The moderating role of leader–member exchange.
    Ieva Martinaityte, Claudia A. Sacramento.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 24, 2012
    This study extends research on creativity by exploring the boundary conditions of the creativity–job effectiveness relationship. Building on social exchange theory, we argue that the extent to which employee creativity is related to sales—an objective work effectiveness measure—depends on the quality of leader–member exchange (LMX). We hypothesize that the relationship between creativity and sales is significant and positive when LMX is high, but not when LMX is low. Hierarchical linear modelling analysis provided support for the interaction hypothesis in a sample of 151 sales agents and 26 supervisors drawn from both pharmaceutical and insurance companies. Results showed that sales agents who were more creative generated higher sales only when they had high‐quality LMX. An ad hoc qualitative study provided a more detailed understanding of the moderator role played by LMX. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 24, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1835   open full text
  • How do leadership motives affect informal and formal leadership emergence?
    Gil Luria, Yair Berson.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 10, 2012
    To what extent and in what ways do leadership motives of potential leaders predict their informal and formal leadership assignments? To address these questions, we conducted two studies in a military setting. In the first study (n = 215), we examined a mediated‐moderation model in which we hypothesized that the motivation to lead (MTL) of candidates to an elite unit would predict their teamwork behaviors and their tendency to emerge as leaders of their peers. We further hypothesized that cognitive ability would interact with MTL to predict teamwork behaviors and that teamwork behaviors would mediate the relationship between this interaction and leadership emergence. In Study 2, we followed up 60 candidates who were selected to the unit and examined whether MTL would predict the extent to which they achieved formal leadership roles. The findings of Study 1 supported the hypotheses included in the moderated mediation model. In Study 2, as expected, MTL predicted formal leadership emergence. We discuss several theoretical implications of these findings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 10, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1836   open full text
  • Positive affectivity neutralizes transformational leadership's influence on creative performance and organizational citizenship behaviors.
    Phillip L. Gilmore, Xiaoxiao Hu, Feng Wei, Lois E. Tetrick, Stephen J. Zaccaro.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. October 02, 2012
    This study uses an interactionist approach to examine the moderating effect of follower trait positive affectivity (trait PA) on the relation between transformational leadership and both follower creative performance and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). On the basis of responses from 212 employees and their direct supervisors from the research and development department of a company in Mainland China, results support the hypothesized moderation effect. Specifically, the positive influence of transformational leadership on creative performance was significantly reduced for followers who were higher on trait PA (ΔR2 = .02, p < .05). The same pattern, in which followers' trait PA appeared to substitute for the influence of transformational leadership, generalized to the outcome of follower OCB as well (ΔR2 = .04, p < .01). We discussed theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 02, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1833   open full text
  • Organizational predictors and health consequences of changes in burnout: A 12‐year cohort study.
    Michael P. Leiter, Jari J. Hakanen, Kirsi Ahola, Salla Toppinen‐Tanner, Aki Koskinen, Ari Väänänen.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 20, 2012
    We investigated job burnout and job characteristics, including decision authority, skill discretion, predictability, and information flow, among Finnish forestry workers (N = 4356) in a longitudinal study. We linked these responses individually with data on the participants' subsequent prescriptions for psychotropic drugs including antidepressants. We aim to study the antecedents of changes in burnout levels over four years time and their health‐related consequences in an eight‐year follow‐up. The results showed that inconsistency among the levels of the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales (e. g., high scores in exhaustion and low cynicism or vice versa) at baseline identified patterns that were prone to change in burnout four years later. Information flow predicted the direction of this change for the exhaustion and cynicism aspects of burnout, whereas skill discretion and predictability did so for reduced professional efficacy. Change toward burnout predicted future risk of psychotropic drug use. It seems that adverse changes in burnout are influenced by poor organizational resources, and change toward burnout is likely to elevate the risk of poor mental health. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 20, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1830   open full text
  • Antecedents and outcomes of employee perceptions of intra‐organizational mobility channels.
    Jennica R. Webster, Terry A. Beehr.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. September 14, 2012
    Employees' beliefs about how promotions are awarded within their organizations can have important consequences. We conducted two studies that focus on perceptions of the criteria used to make promotion decisions. In Study 1, we identified two types of perceived promotion criteria, performance‐based and nonperformance‐based. Then we use justice and social exchange theories to develop a model linking employee perceptions of promotion criteria to performance via their relationships with promotional justice and organizational commitment. In a sample of 305 employee–supervisor pairs, we found that both promotional justice and organizational commitment mediated between perceptions of promotion criteria and supervisor rated in‐role and extra‐role performance, and that having received a promotion in the past predicted attributions that promotions were based relatively more on performance or nonperformance criteria. Study 2 further examined the role of promotions themselves in the formation of perceptions of promotion criteria. Drawing from image and attribution theories, we hypothesized that the relationship between having received a promotion or not and perceptions of promotion criteria depends on ego defensiveness. In a sample of 145 employees, we found that those who scored high on ego defensiveness and who had not been promoted were especially likely to attribute promotion decisions to nonperformance criteria. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 14, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1823   open full text
  • Transformational leadership, relationship quality, and employee performance during continuous incremental organizational change.
    Min Z. Carter, Achilles A. Armenakis, Hubert S. Feild, Kevin W. Mossholder.
    Journal of Organizational Behavior. August 30, 2012
    Although transformational leadership has been investigated in connection with change at higher levels of organizations, less is known about its “in‐the‐trenches” impact. We examined relations among transformational leadership, explicit change reactions (i.e., relationship quality), change frequency, and change consequences (i.e., task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)) during continuous incremental organizational change at lower hierarchical levels. In a sample of 251 employees and their 78 managers, analyses revealed that the quality of relationships between leaders and employees mediated the influence of transformational leadership on employee task performance and OCB. We also found that change frequency moderated the positive association of relationship quality with task performance and OCB, such that associations were stronger when change frequency was high. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 30, 2012   doi: 10.1002/job.1824   open full text