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Personnel Psychology

Impact factor: 3.702 5-Year impact factor: 6.045 Print ISSN: 0031-5826 Online ISSN: 1744-6570 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subjects: Applied Psychology, Management

Most recent papers:

  • Built to last: Interactive effects of perceived overqualification and proactive personality on new employee adjustment.
    Lauren S. Simon, Talya N. Bauer, Berrin Erdogan, William Shepherd.
    Personnel Psychology. October 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We integrate relative deprivation and broaden and build theories to develop a process‐based model of perceived overqualification and its relationship with new employee adjustment via “broaden and build” mechanisms (i.e., reciprocal relationships between initial status and change trajectories in work‐related positive affect and perceived job autonomy). Additionally, we examine how new employee proactive personality may influence this process. Analyses of weekly survey responses from 331 new employees of a large financial institution throughout their first 90 days of employment revealed that those who felt overqualified generally experienced less work‐related positive affect and perceived less job autonomy when beginning their jobs (assessed the first week of employment) than their more qualified counterparts. Moreover, initial levels of perceived job autonomy were positively associated with adjustment outcomes (assessed at 90 days of employment) via linear change in positive affect over time (assessed weekly, up to 8 weeks of employment). These findings suggest that perceived overqualification may negatively influence newcomer adjustment by stunting broaden and build processes. However, proactive personality attenuated this effect. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 23, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12297   open full text
  • Supervisors’ work‐related and non‐work information sharing: Integrating research on information sharing, information seeking, and trust using self‐disclosure theory.
    Sushil S. Nifadkar, Wen Wu, Qian Gu.
    Personnel Psychology. October 09, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract While significant scholarly attention has been devoted to understanding subordinates’ information seeking from supervisors, researchers have not paid adequate attention to information sharing by supervisors. Moreover, research on supervisors’ information sharing behavior has focused almost exclusively on work‐related information sharing, disregarding supervisors’ sharing of information not related to work (e.g., that related to family). Drawing on self‐disclosure theory, we argue that supervisors share both work‐related and non‐work information with their subordinates and propose that these two forms of information sharing are conceptually distinct. Furthermore, to unravel the role of supervisors’ non‐work information sharing, we develop an interactive model to test how it may be associated with important employee outcomes. We conducted pilot studies using five samples and, through a sixth study, tested the hypothesized model using a four‐wave data collection design. This study makes three major contributions to research and theory. First, it integrates information sharing and information seeking literatures. Second, it underlines the importance of supervisors’ non‐work information sharing in organizations by testing its direct and interactive effects. Third, it contributes to theory by presenting trust as a mechanism that links information disclosure in dyads. Results obtained using structural equation modeling generally supported the proposed model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved - Personnel Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 09, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12305   open full text
  • LMX in Team‐based contexts: TMX, authority differentiation and skill differentiation as boundary conditions for leader reciprocation.
    Linda C. Wang, John R. Hollenbeck.
    Personnel Psychology. October 05, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The purpose of the current study is to develop an integrated theoretical model based upon Social Exchange Theory focused on the simultaneous interplay of leader‐member exchange (LMX) and team‐member exchange (TMX) in team‐based contexts. We propose a model that extends current theories related to social exchange by integrating currently independent propositions in the literatures on LMX and TMX, showing how these propositions are contingent on the nature of the team in which leaders and followers are embedded. In a sample of 439 employees on 61 teams, the results show that when it comes to predicting individual performance (a) high TMX quality eliminates the otherwise negative effects of low LMX quality, (b) low authority differentiation weakens the otherwise positive effects of LMX, and (c) high skill differentiation weakens the otherwise positive effects of high LMX quality on performance. We discuss how the role of LMX may be changing in contemporary team‐based work contexts relative to what was true in the historical literature when the construct was originally developed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved - Personnel Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 05, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12306   open full text
  • LinkedIn as a new selection method: Psychometric properties and assessment approach.
    Nicolas Roulin, Julia Levashina.
    Personnel Psychology. October 02, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Various surveys suggest LinkedIn is used as a screening and selection tool by many hiring managers. Despite this widespread use, fairly little is known about whether LinkedIn meets established selection criteria, such as reliability, validity, and legality (i.e., no adverse impact). We examine the properties of LinkedIn‐based assessments in two studies. Study 1 shows that raters reach acceptable levels of consistency in their assessments of applicant skills, personality, and cognitive ability. Initial ratings also correlate with subsequent ratings done 1‐year later (i.e., demonstrating temporal stability), with slightly higher correlations when profile updates are taken into account. Initial LinkedIn‐based ratings correlate with self‐reports for more visible skills (leadership, communication, and planning) and personality traits (Extraversion), and for cognitive ability. LinkedIn‐based hiring recommendations are positively associated with indicators of career success. Potential adverse impact is also limited. Profiles that are longer, include a picture, and have more connections are rated more positively. Some of those features are valid cues to applicants’ characteristics (e.g., applicants high on Conscientiousness have longer profiles). In Study 2, we show that an itemized LinkedIn assessment is more effective than a global assessment. Implications of these findings for selection and future research are discussed. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 02, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12296   open full text
  • Fitting in a group: Theoretical development and validation of the Multidimensional Perceived Person–Group Fit scale.
    Christina S. Li, Amy L. Kristof‐Brown, Jordan D. Nielsen.
    Personnel Psychology. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Despite the wide use of groups in organizations, research on individuals’ experiences of fit in their work groups has lagged due to lack of conceptual clarity of person–group (PG) fit and inconsistent measurement. To rectify these issues, we present an integrative definition of PG fit, which incorporates social‐ and task‐related elements of group work, as well as supplementary and complementary conceptualizations of fit. Using this definition, we develop the Multidimensional Perceived Person‐Group Fit (MPPGF) scale and validate it through five phases, across six samples. In Phase 1, we identified dimensions and generated items using a mix of deductive and inductive approaches. In Phase 2, we validated items yielding seven dimensions (value congruence, shared interests, perceived demographic similarity, needs‐supplies match, goal similarity, common workstyle, and complementary attributes). In Phase 3, we examined how the dimensions combine to form an aggregate (formative) PG fit construct. The MPPGF scale showed convergent and discriminant validity with relevant constructs in Phase 4. In Phase 5, the MPPGF exhibited criterion‐related and incremental validity with attitudes and performance beyond existing PG fit scales. Finally, we report dimension‐specific results, demonstrating that MPPGF could be used to study questions regarding overall PG fit perceptions, as well as more narrow dimension‐specific questions. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12295   open full text
  • Employee perceptions of corporate social responsibility: Effects on pride, embeddedness, and turnover.
    Thomas W. H. Ng, Kai Chi Yam, Herman Aguinis.
    Personnel Psychology. August 31, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We examined socioemotional microfoundations of perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) and posited that employees’ perceived CSR triggers a perception‐emotion‐attitude‐behavior sequence. Drawing from appraisal theory of emotion, we hypothesized that perceived CSR relates to emotions (i.e., organizational pride), which relate to job attitudes (i.e., organizational embeddedness) that in turn relate to job behaviors (i.e., decreased turnover). To test this model, we conducted a multistudy investigation involving different samples, designs, and data‐analytic methods. In Study 1, we conducted an experiment and found that participants who envisioned working in a firm that was active regarding CSR activities reported greater pride and organizational embeddedness. We then conducted two field studies using a nonmanagerial sample (Study 2) and a managerial sample (Study 3) and found that participants’ perceived CSR was positively related to their pride, which in turn was related to stronger organizational embeddedness. Stronger organizational embeddedness was related to lower turnover 6 months later in Study 2 but not in Study 3. In Study 4, we conducted a longitudinal four‐wave 14‐month study to test the proposed relationships from a within‐person conceptualization, and the results were also supportive. Thus, the proposed perception‐emotion‐attitude‐behavior framework received broad support and illustrated that stronger microfoundations of CSR research could be constructed through understanding employees’ emotional, attitudinal, and behavioral reactions to their perceptions of their employers’ CSR. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 31, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12294   open full text
  • Payoffs for layoffs? An examination of CEO relative pay and firm performance surrounding layoff announcements.
    F. Scott Bentley, Ingrid S. Fulmer, Rebecca R. Kehoe.
    Personnel Psychology. August 14, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this study, we theorize that chief executive officers’ (CEOs’) peer pay comparisons influence their decisions to engage in layoffs, and we consider the conditions under which layoffs deliver “payoffs” in the form of increases in subsequent CEO relative pay. Our results indicate that CEOs receiving compensation below their peers are significantly more likely to announce layoffs in the subsequent year, relative to those receiving compensation above their peers. Further, we find that the relationship between layoffs and subsequent changes in CEO relative pay depends on postlayoff changes in firm performance, with CEOs in firms with the largest performance gains receiving the largest increases in relative pay. We also show that our results are robust to an alternative operationalization of CEO relative pay. We provide evidence that external social comparisons may have predictable consequences for both CEOs’ propensities to engage in particular strategic actions and future changes in CEOs’ relative pay. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 14, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12293   open full text
  • “I (might be) just that good”: Honest and deceptive impression management in employment interviews.
    Joshua S. Bourdage, Nicolas Roulin, Rima Tarraf.
    Personnel Psychology. August 02, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Applicant use of impression management (IM) tactics plays a central role in employment interviews. IM includes behaviors intended to create an impression of competence and likability, and avoid negative impressions. Applicants can influence interviewers’ impressions using both honest and deceptive IM, but measurement of IM has yet to distinguish these two constructs. The goal of the present research was to develop a self‐report Honest Interview Impression Management (HIIM) measure and use this to investigate differential antecedents and consequences of honest and deceptive IM. We report the results of five independent studies (total N = 1,470 interviewees). Studies 1–3 detail the creation of a self‐report measure of honest IM. Studies 4 and 5 utilize this measure to understand the relations between honest and deceptive IM, and their antecedents and consequences. Results demonstrate that honest and deceptive IM are positively related but distinct constructs that have unique antecedents (i.e., age, individual differences, attitudes, situational, and target characteristics) and differentially impact interview outcomes and ratings. Finally, we present a short measure of honest and deceptive IM to be used for time‐sensitive data collection. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 02, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12285   open full text
  • Helping to reduce fights before flights: How environmental stressors in organizations shape customer emotions and customer–employee interactions.
    Katherine A. DeCelles, Sanford E. DeVoe, Anat Rafaeli, Shira Agasi.
    Personnel Psychology. August 02, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Previous examinations of environmental stressors in organizations have mostly emphasized their dysfunctional effects on individuals’ emotions and behaviors. Extending this work by drawing from the social functional perspective on emotion, we propose that customers’ negative emotional responses to environmental stressors in organizations can exert both dysfunctional and functional effects on customer–employee interactions. Specifically, we theorize that situational and physiological forms of environmental stressors can be dysfunctional by incurring customer anger, precipitating customer aggression, and diminishing employee helpfulness. We further theorize that situational relative to physiological stressors can exert functional effects in inducing customer fear that elicits empathy and helpfulness from employees. We test our model via an archival, observational, and critical incident yoked experimental study set in the airport context. This research contributes to stress theory and its organizational application by integrating theory from the social functional approach to emotion with appraisal‐based theories of stress in organizations. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 02, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12292   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Personnel Psychology. August 01, 2018
    --- - - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 297-298, Autumn 2018.
    August 01, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12240   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Personnel Psychology. August 01, 2018
    --- - - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 479-480, Autumn 2018.
    August 01, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12241   open full text
  • George C. ThortonIII, Rose A. Mueller‐Hanson, and Deborah E. Rupp. Developing Organizational Simulations: A Guide for Practitioners, Students, and Researchers. New York: Routledge, 2017, 238 pages, $110.41 hardback.
    Bharati B. Belwalkar.
    Personnel Psychology. August 01, 2018
    --- - - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 482-484, Autumn 2018.
    August 01, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12288   open full text
  • Silvester Ivanaj and Claire Bozon. Managing virtual teams. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2016, 303 pages, $135 hardback.
    Victoria Buenger.
    Personnel Psychology. August 01, 2018
    --- - - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 486-488, Autumn 2018.
    August 01, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12290   open full text
  • Kevin Kelly. The inevitable: Understanding the 12 technological forces that shape our future. New York: Penguin, 2016, 297 pages, $28 hardback.
    Joel R. Philo.
    Personnel Psychology. August 01, 2018
    --- - - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 485-486, Autumn 2018.
    August 01, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12289   open full text
  • Clive Fullagar and Antonella Delle Fave. Flow at work: Measurement and implications. New York: Routledge, 2017, 206 pages, $160 hardback.
    S. B. Pond III.
    Personnel Psychology. August 01, 2018
    --- - - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 481-482, Autumn 2018.
    August 01, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12287   open full text
  • Books and materials received*.

    Personnel Psychology. August 01, 2018
    --- - - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 489-489, Autumn 2018.
    August 01, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12291   open full text
  • Leaders and followers behaving badly: A meta‐analytic examination of curvilinear relationships between destructive leadership and followers’ workplace behaviors.
    Jeremy D. Mackey, Charn P. McAllister, Liam P. Maher, Gang Wang.
    Personnel Psychology. July 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We draw from social psychological and resource‐based theories to meta‐analytically examine curvilinear relationships between destructive leadership and followers’ workplace behaviors (i.e., job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, and workplace deviance). Overall, our meta‐analytic results demonstrate that relationships between destructive leadership and followers’ workplace behaviors are essentially linear. The limited evidence of curvilinear relationships we did find supports the application of social psychological theories when examining high levels of destructive leadership. Overall, this study's meta‐analytic regression, relative weight, and semipartial correlation results have important implications for how to interpret the conclusions drawn from prior destructive leadership research, how to conduct future studies that examine destructive leadership, and practitioners’ attempts to limit the effects of destructive leadership on followers’ workplace behaviors. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 13, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12286   open full text
  • The benefits and burdens of organizational reputation for employee well‐being: A conservation of resources approach.
    Michael D. Baer, Jonathan Bundy, Niharika Garud, Ji Koung Kim.
    Personnel Psychology. May 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We consider the possibility that a positive organizational reputation brings both benefits and burdens to employees working for those organizations. Drawing from the “Red Queen” notion in competitive strategy and from conservation of resources theory, we argue that although organizational reputation can cause employees to identify more strongly with the organization, it may also pressure employees to commit more of their time to the job. In turn, increased organizational identification and time commitment have contrasting effects on employees’ emotional exhaustion. Following recent theorizing in the reputation literature, we also test the proposal that the effects of organizational reputation—a collective‐level representation—are mediated through employees’ individual‐level perceptions. Taken together, our theoretical model suggests that organizational reputation, through employees’ perceptions of that reputation, simultaneously serves as a benefit that reduces emotional exhaustion via organizational identification, but also as a burden that increases emotional exhaustion via additional time commitment. In turn, we demonstrate that these dynamics have both positive and negative implications for employees’ counterproductive work behavior. Our arguments are confirmed in a multiwave, multisource study of employees from a diverse range of organizations. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 16, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12276   open full text
  • And justice for all: How organizational justice climate deters sexual harassment.
    Cristina Rubino, Derek R. Avery, Patrick F. McKay, Brenda L. Moore, David C. Wilson, Marinus S. Driel, L. Alan Witt, Daniel P. McDonald.
    Personnel Psychology. May 04, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Sexual harassment is hurtful for victims, observers, and the organizations that employ them. Although previous studies have identified numerous gender‐specific antecedents such as sex similarity and climate for sexual harassment, the present study considers the role of a more general contextual construct—organizational justice climate. Beyond examining justice climate as a predictor of sexual harassment, we also assess its potential moderation of well‐established relationships between antecedents (i.e., climate for sexual harassment and sex similarity) and sexual harassment at both the individual and unit levels. In two large military samples (Ns = 26,018 and 8,197), we found that psychological and collective justice climates (a) related negatively to sexual harassment and (b) moderated the effects of sex similarity and sexual harassment climate on sexual harassment. These findings indicate that harassment is less prevalent and established antecedents are less impactful when greater value is perceived to be placed on fairness. Moreover, the attenuating effects of justice climate appear interchangeable with those of harassment climate or sex similarity, suggesting that managing justice climate effectively generally helps to deter sexual harassment. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 04, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12274   open full text
  • Gender and leadership emergence: A meta‐analysis and explanatory model.
    Katie L. Badura, Emily Grijalva, Daniel A. Newman, Thomas Taiyi Yan, Gahyun Jeon.
    Personnel Psychology. April 26, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Research has shown that men tend to emerge as leaders more frequently than women. However, societal role expectations for both women and leaders have changed in the decades since the last empirical review of the gender gap in leader emergence (Eagly & Karau, 1991). We leverage meta‐analytic evidence to demonstrate that the gender gap has decreased over time, but a contemporary gap remains. To understand why this gap in leader emergence occurs, we draw on social role theory to develop a Gender‐Agency/Communion‐Participation (GAP) Model—an integrative theoretical model that includes both trait and behavioral mechanisms. Specifically, we examine a sequence of effects: from gender to agentic and communal personality traits, from these traits to behavioral participation in group activities, and ultimately from participation to leader emergence. The model is tested using original meta‐analyses of the personality and behavioral mechanisms (coding 1,632 effect sizes total). Gender differences in leadership emergence are predominately explained by agentic traits (positive) and communal traits (negative), both directly and through the mechanism of participation in group discussions. In addition, several paths in the theoretical model are moderated by situational contingencies. Our study enhances knowledge of the mechanisms and boundary conditions underlying the gender gap in leader emergence. - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 335-367, Autumn 2018.
    April 26, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12266   open full text
  • Daily mistrust: A resource perspective and its implications for work and home.
    Klodiana Lanaj, Peter H. Kim, Joel Koopman, Fadel K. Matta.
    Personnel Psychology. April 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Mistrust is a daily occurrence at work. Yet little is known about how perceptions of being mistrusted by coworkers may affect employees’ subsequent daily attitudes and behaviors. Indeed, the existing literature on mistrust has overwhelmingly focused on how mistrust affects the trustor (person whose trust is violated) but not the trustee (the mistrusted person). This is problematic because conservation of resources theory (COR) suggests that perceived mistrust is a negative experience likely to affect the mistrusted employees’ subsequent attitudes and behaviors both at work and at home. To investigate this possibility, we conducted an experience sampling study of employees and their significant others over 3 consecutive workweeks. Consistent with COR, day by day perceptions of mistrust increased employees’ emotional exhaustion, consequently leading to withdrawal from colleagues at work and conflict toward their significant other at home. Moreover, supporting self‐enhancement (rather than self‐verification) theory, these effects were stronger when employees perceived mistrust to be high (vs. low) in justification. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of this research. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    April 23, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12268   open full text
  • Stuck between a rock and a hard place: Contrasting upward and downward effects of leaders’ ingratiation.
    Ji Koung Kim, Jeffery A. LePine, Jae Uk Chun.
    Personnel Psychology. April 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Research indicates that leaders who engage in upward ingratiation, a specific form of impression management, develop positive relationships with their bosses, which in turn enhances leaders’ chances of achieving success at work. However, a more complete understanding of leaders’ ingratiation requires recognition that leaders have multiple audiences and that there may be negative unintended consequences of this behavior to at least one of these audiences. Specifically, upward ingratiation may reduce subordinates’ willingness to contribute to the organization through effective performance because it diminishes relationship quality between leaders and subordinates. To explore this issue, we develop and test a multilevel model that contrasts effects of leaders’ upward ingratiation on leader‐ and subordinate‐level outcomes through the quality of social exchange in the corresponding relationship. We test our predictions by conducting a multiwave, multisource field study with a sample of 91 leaders, 91 bosses, and 215 subordinates in South Korea. Our findings reveal that upward ingratiation is positively associated with indicators of leaders’ intrinsic and extrinsic success because it enhances leader–boss exchange quality (LLX). In contrast, leaders’ upward ingratiation negatively influences subordinates’ job performance because it diminishes leader–subordinate exchange quality (LMX). We also find that subordinates’ perceptions of leaders’ political skill mitigate the negative indirect relationship between upward ingratiation and subordinates’ job performance via LMX quality, and that our hypotheses apply to ingratiation but not to other forms of impression management. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings in relation to ingratiation specifically and to impression management more generally. - Personnel Psychology, EarlyView.
    April 17, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12267   open full text
  • The curvilinear effect of benevolent leadership on team performance: The mediating role of team action processes and the moderating role of team commitment.
    Guiquan Li, Alex L. Rubenstein, Weipeng Lin, Mo Wang, Xingwen Chen.
    Personnel Psychology. April 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Leaders are encouraged to show benevolence to followers in paternalistic cultures. Yet, there remains debate about whether the influence of increasingly benevolent leadership on follower outcomes is linearly favorable. Grounded in the too‐much‐of‐a‐good‐thing effect and resource allocation theory, we developed and tested a model considering a potential curvilinear relationship between benevolent leadership and team performance while also examining the mediating role of team action processes. We further reasoned that this curvilinear indirect effect would be moderated by team commitment, which could neutralize the diminishing performance returns resulting from excessive benevolent leadership. To test these ideas, we carried out two studies. In the first study, multisource and time‐lagged data collected from 381 employees working in 104 research and development teams showed that benevolent leadership exhibited an inverted U‐shaped relationship with team performance, but this curvilinear relationship disappeared in teams with high team commitment. In the second study, we replicated and extended our results using a sample of 417 employees from 101 hotel management teams of a large hotel chain. Specifically, we found an inverted U‐shaped relationship between benevolent leadership and team action processes, which mediated the inverted U‐shaped relationship between benevolent leadership and team performance. Moreover, this indirect curvilinear effect only held in teams with low team commitment. We discuss the implications of our findings for both theory and practice. - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 369-397, Autumn 2018.
    April 06, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12264   open full text
  • It's not you, it's them: Social influences on trust propensity and trust dynamics.
    Michael D. Baer, Fadel K. Matta, Ji Koung Kim, David T. Welsh, Niharika Garud.
    Personnel Psychology. April 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Scholars agree that trust primarily has two bases: trustworthiness—the extent to which a trustee is competent, honest, and has goodwill toward the trustor—and trust propensity—a stable trait reflecting the trustor's generalized belief that others can be trusted. Due to this trait characterization, the literature has largely reached a consensus that trust propensity is only an important base of trust in the earliest stage of a relationship—before information on trustworthiness has been gathered. Additionally, the trait conceptualization of trust propensity inhibits it from being modeled as an explanatory mechanism. Drawing on accessibility theory, a theory of trait activation, we argue that trust propensity has state‐like characteristics that are “activated” by the daily treatment an employee receives from coworkers. Our model highlights that the social context—predominantly ignored in prior trust research because of its lack of relevance to dyadic perceptions of trustworthiness—can have a substantial impact on dyadic trust. Across two multisource experience sampling methodology studies, we provide evidence that state trust propensity transmits the effects of citizenship and deviance received to trust in a focal coworker, whether that focal coworker is a source of that treatment or not. We also address how general levels of workplace unfairness—a between‐person construct—influence these dynamics. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these within‐person dynamics for fostering trust within organizations. - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 423-455, Autumn 2018.
    April 06, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12265   open full text
  • Quantifying with words: An investigation of the validity of narrative‐derived performance scores.
    Andrew B. Speer.
    Personnel Psychology. March 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Performance appraisal research has focused almost entirely on traditional numerical ratings despite narrative text comments regularly being collected within appraisals. This study investigated the theory and utility of leveraging narrative comments to better understand employee performance. Narrative sentiment scores were derived using text mining on a large sample of narrative comments. These scores were then applied to an independent set of 2 years of performance data. It was assumed that narrative comments would reflect true performance variance that overlaps with traditional ratings, but also that they would capture incremental variance due to increases in total information and a reduction in rater‐motivated biases in contexts in which narrative data were not explicitly linked to administrative outcomes. The derived narrative scores were reliable across years, converged with traditional numerical ratings and explained incremental variance in future performance outcomes (performance ratings, involuntary turnover, promotions, and pay increases). Collectively, this study highlights how narratives can enhance performance measurement and demonstrates how these data can be economically scored in applied settings. - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 299-333, Autumn 2018.
    March 24, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12263   open full text
  • A meta‐analytic review of tipping compensation practices: An agency theory perspective.
    George C. Banks, Haley M. Woznyj, Sven Kepes, John H. Batchelor, Michael A. McDaniel.
    Personnel Psychology. February 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Tipping represents a form of compensation valued at over $50 billion a year in the United States alone. Tipping can be used as an incentive mechanism to reduce a principal–agent problem. An agency problem occurs when the interests of a principal and agent are misaligned, and it is challenging for the principal to monitor or control the activities of the agent. However, past research has been limited in the investigation of the extent to which tipping is effective at addressing this problem. Following an examination of 74 independent studies with 12,271 individuals, meta‐analytic results indicate that there is a small, positive relation between service quality and percentage of a bill tipped ( = .15 without outliers). Yet, in support of the idea behind tipping, relative weights analyses illustrate that service quality was a stronger predictor of percentage of the bill tipped than food quality, frequency of patronage, and dining party size. Evidence also suggests that racial minority servers tend to be tipped less than White servers (Cohen's d = .17), and women tend to be tipped more than men (Cohen's d = .15). Still, given the magnitude of the effect, one might question if tipping is an effective compensation practice to reduce the principal–agent problem. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for future research. - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 457-478, Autumn 2018.
    February 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12261   open full text
  • Psychological and neurological predictors of abusive supervision.
    David A. Waldman, Danni Wang, Sean T. Hannah, Bradley P. Owens, Pierre A. Balthazard.
    Personnel Psychology. February 21, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Although the negative effects of abusive supervision are well documented, less is known about the individual differences that drive supervisors to be abusive. We use a self‐control perspective to understand the unique roles of both psychological and neurological characteristics of supervisors in the prediction of abusive behavior. Specifically, we find a positive relationship between narcissism and abusive supervision, whereas political skill and intrinsic neurological connectivity in executive control regions of the brain negatively relate to abusive supervision. Our results further show that the relationship between narcissism and abusive supervision diminishes for those who are strong in terms of political skill. In addition, neurological executive control moderates the relationship between political skill and abusive behavior. When connectivity in executive control regions of the brain is lower, political skill becomes a more important factor in reducing the display of abusive behavior. Overall, we demonstrate how combinations of characteristics (both psychological and neurological) can provide a more in‐depth understanding of the emergence of abusive supervision. - Personnel Psychology, Volume 71, Issue 3, Page 399-421, Autumn 2018.
    February 21, 2018   doi: 10.1111/peps.12262   open full text
  • The experience of being envied at work: How being envied shapes employee feelings and motivation.
    KiYoung Lee, Michelle K. Duffy, Kristin L. Scott, Michaéla C. Schippers.
    Personnel Psychology. October 02, 2017
    We develop and test a theoretical framework delineating the dual affective and motivational experiences arising from perceptions of being envied in the workplace. We theorize that being envied can be pleasantly or unpleasantly experienced with opposite downstream effects on motivation and job performance. We test our model in two field studies using a sample of government employees (Study 1) and a sample of employees in the financial industry (Study 2). Our results indicate that being envied can elicit unpleasant mood and anxiety that influence work engagement and job performance in negative ways. In addition, we found that positive emotional experiences from being envied bolster work engagement and performance through positive mood but not pride. Implications of our findings are discussed.
    October 02, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12251   open full text
  • Predictors and processes related to employees’ change‐related compliance and championing.
    Mel Fugate, Guillaume Soenen.
    Personnel Psychology. September 22, 2017
    This field study of a merger examines the antecedent factors and processes that explain two different forms of employee support for change—compliance and championing. Our overarching goal is to understand why some employees comply and others champion change efforts. We examine the combined effects of context and person factors on both positive and negative employee reactions to change, and then investigate the differential effects of these reactions on employee support for change. Results support our hypotheses and show that change management support (context factor) negatively predicts threat appraisals and positively predicts challenge appraisals. Both compliance and championing are positively predicted by challenge appraisals, and threat appraisals are negatively related to championing. Analyses also reveal that the positive relationship between change management support and challenge appraisal is stronger when dispositional resistance to change (person factor) is high. Moderated‐mediation analyses suggest employees’ compliance and championing for change are differentially affected by management actions, their own dispositional resistance, and that these effects are mediated through positive and negative appraisals.
    September 22, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12235   open full text
  • Who cares about Demands‐Abilities fit? Moderating effects of goal orientation on recruitment and organizational entry outcomes.
    Brian R. Dineen, Don Vandewalle, Raymond A. Noe, Lusi Wu, Daniel Lockhart.
    Personnel Psychology. September 19, 2017
    The authors conduct three studies to systematically examine how avoiding and learning goal orientation (AGO and LGO) influence relationships between perceived demands‐abilities (DA) fit and critical outcomes during three organizational entry stages. Study 1, a multilevel study using a series of mock job advertisements, shows that participant likelihood of applying for jobs for which they perceive higher DA fit increases when AGO is stronger. Study 2 finds a stronger positive relationship between perceived DA fit and internship satisfaction among interns with a stronger AGO. Study 3 finds a stronger positive relationship between perceived DA fit and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) among new organizational entrants with a stronger AGO. Implications and future research directions regarding the importance of goal orientation during job search and organizational entry are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    September 19, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12252   open full text
  • Helping others or helping oneself? An episodic examination of the behavioral consequences of helping at work.
    Allison S. Gabriel, Joel Koopman, Christopher C. Rosen, Russell E. Johnson.
    Personnel Psychology. June 06, 2017
    Scholars have paid an increasing amount of attention to organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), with a particular emphasis on helping others at work. In addition, recent empirical work has focused on how OCB is an intraindividual phenomenon, such that employees vary daily in the extent to which they help others. However, one limitation of this research has been an overemphasis on well‐being consequences associated with daily helping (e.g., changes in affect and mental depletion) and far less attention on behavioral outcomes. In this study, we develop a self‐regulatory framework that articulates how helping others at work is a depleting experience that can lead to a reduction in subsequent acts of helping others, and an increase in behaviors aimed at helping oneself (i.e., engaging in political acts). We further theorize how two individual differences—prevention focus and political skill—serve as cross‐level moderators of these relations. In an experience sampling study of 91 full‐time employees across 10 consecutive workdays, our results illustrate that helping is a depleting act that makes individuals more likely to engage in self‐serving acts and less likely to help others. Moreover, the relation of helping acts with depletion is strengthened for employees who have higher levels of prevention focus.
    June 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12229   open full text
  • Accidents happen: Psychological empowerment as a moderator of accident involvement and its outcomes.
    Berrin Erdogan, Adnan Ozyilmaz, Talya N. Bauer, Onur Emre.
    Personnel Psychology. May 12, 2017
    Research in the occupational safety realm has tended to develop and test models aimed at predicting accident involvement in the workplace, with studies treating accident involvement as the starting point and examining its outcomes being more rare. In this study, we examine the relationship between accident involvement and a series of outcomes drawing upon a learned helplessness theory perspective. Specifically, we predicted that psychological empowerment would moderate the relationship between prior accident involvement and outcomes. We tested our hypotheses on a sample of 392 employees and their 66 supervisors working in an iron and steel manufacturing firm in Southern Turkey, using data collected from employees and their supervisors via four separate surveys. Results suggest that accident involvement was positively related to supervisor‐rated employee withdrawal, production deviance, and sabotage only when psychological empowerment was low. The results illustrate that workplace accidents have indirect costs in the form of higher withdrawal and maladaptive behaviors, and organizations may inoculate employees against some of these outcomes via higher psychological empowerment.
    May 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12228   open full text
  • The study of behavioral ethics within organizations.
    Marie S. Mitchell, Scott J. Reynolds, Linda K. Treviño.
    Personnel Psychology. April 19, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    April 19, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12227   open full text
  • Surveying the forest: A meta‐analysis, moderator investigation, and future‐oriented discussion of the antecedents of voluntary employee turnover.
    Alex L. Rubenstein, Marion B. Eberly, Thomas W. Lee, Terence R. Mitchell.
    Personnel Psychology. March 30, 2017
    Recent narrative reviews (e.g., Hom, Mitchell, Lee, and Griffeth, 2012; Hom, Lee, Shaw, and Hausknecht, 2017) advise that it is timely to assess the progress made in research on voluntary employee turnover so as to guide future work. To provide this assessment, we employed a three‐step approach. First, we conducted a comprehensive meta‐analysis of turnover predictors, updating existing effect sizes and examining multiple new antecedents. Second, guided by theory, we developed and tested a set of substantive moderators, considering factors that might exacerbate or mitigate zero‐order meta‐analytic effects. Third, we examined the holistic pattern of results in order to highlight the most pressing needs for future turnover research. The results of Step 1 reveal multiple newer predictors and updated effect sizes of more traditional predictors, which have received substantially greater study. The results of Step 2 provide insight into the context‐dependent nature of many antecedent–turnover relationships. In Step 3, our discussion takes a bird's‐eye view of the turnover “forest” and considers the theoretical and practical implications of the results. We offer several research recommendations that break from the traditional turnover paradigm, as a means of guiding future study.
    March 30, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12226   open full text
  • Do your high potentials have potential? The impact of individual differences and designation on leader success.
    Lisa M. Finkelstein, David P. Costanza, Gerald F. Goodwin.
    Personnel Psychology. March 20, 2017
    We propose an integrated model of leadership potential, the high‐potential designation process, and leader success that is intended to clarify the theoretical and practical relationships among these concepts. Drawing on research in the areas of social judgment and cognition, cognitive abilities, personality, leadership development, and motivation and on practice‐oriented observations and writings, we propose a process model of potential, the designation of individuals as high potential, and the antecedent and moderating variables that combine to impact success. We conclude that by using this model we can understand better the individual, social, and organizational factors that impact potential and the high‐potential identification process, and help develop more successful leaders and organizations.
    March 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12225   open full text
  • Commuting stress process and self‐regulation at work: Moderating roles of daily task significance, family interference with work, and commuting means efficacy.
    Le Zhou, Mo Wang, Chu‐Hsiang Chang, Songqi Liu, Yujie Zhan, Junqi Shi.
    Personnel Psychology. March 16, 2017
    Based on self‐regulation theories of stress processes, this study proposed a model to examine the within‐person mediation relationship between morning commuting stressors and self‐regulation at work via morning commuting strain. In addition, the study examined the moderating roles of daily task significance, daily family interference with work, and commuting means efficacy in this mediation model. Results from 45 bus commuters’ daily diary data over a period of 15 workdays indicated that the amount of morning commuting stressors experienced by the bus commuters was positively related to their morning commuting strain, which, in turn, had a negative impact on self‐regulation at work. At the within‐person level, daily task significance buffered the negative indirect relationship between morning commuting stressors and self‐regulation at work via morning commuting strain, whereas daily family interference with work in the morning exacerbated this negative indirect relationship. Further, at the between‐person level, commuting means efficacy buffered this negative indirect relationship such that the negative indirect effect was weaker for workers with higher (vs. lower) commuting means efficacy. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
    March 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12219   open full text
  • Are Supervisors and Coworkers Likely to Witness Employee Counterproductive Work Behavior? An Investigation of Observability and Self–Observer Convergence.
    Nichelle C. Carpenter, Bertha Rangel, Gahyun Jeon, Jonathan Cottrell.
    Personnel Psychology. January 25, 2017
    Supervisor and coworker ratings (i.e., “observer ratings”) remain a common manner of measuring counterproductive work behavior (CWB) despite long‐standing doubts that observers have the opportunity to witness the work behaviors they are expected to rate. We conducted 2 studies that evaluated the observability of CWB items and consequences of observability. First, we show that many CWBs are unlikely to be witnessed by supervisors or coworkers—specifically, behaviors such as “spends too much time fantasizing or daydreaming instead of working” and “discussed confidential company information with an unauthorized person” were found to be lowest in observability, whereas “cursed at someone at work” or “acted rudely toward someone at work” were relatively higher in observability (though observability was generally low). Second, a meta‐analysis revealed variability in item‐level relationships (correlations and mean differences) between self‐ratings and observer ratings for specific CWB scale items (i.e., items from Bennett & Robinson, 2,000). Important, this variability was partially explained by observability—behaviors with low self–observer convergence tend to have low levels of observability, whereas behaviors with higher levels of convergence tend to have higher levels of observability. This study demonstrates that supervisor and coworker ratings of CWB may be susceptible to an observability bias resulting from rating behaviors they have not likely witnessed.
    January 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12210   open full text
  • Help Yourself by Helping Others: The Joint Impact of Group Member Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Group Cohesiveness on Group Member Objective Task Performance Change.
    Dong Liu, Xiao‐Ping Chen, Erica Holley.
    Personnel Psychology. January 19, 2017
    This paper examines how a group member's individual‐targeted citizenship behavior (OCBI) and organization‐targeted citizenship behavior (OCBO) interact with a salient group‐level contextual variable, group cohesiveness, to foster positive change for that group member, starting with job self‐efficacy change, and followed by objective task performance change. Over a span of 6 months, we engaged in multilevel, multisource, multistage data collection and surveyed 587 members in 83 work groups. Our results indicate that a group member's OCBI, in comparison with OCBO, is more positively related to his or her job self‐efficacy change. Group cohesiveness was found to attenuate the relationship between a group member's OCBI and job self‐efficacy change, and conversely, to accentuate the relationship between a group member's OCBO and job self‐efficacy change. Furthermore, a group member's job self‐efficacy change mediated the interactive effects of the group member's OCBI and group cohesiveness (as well as the group member's OCBO and group cohesiveness) on his or her objective task performance change.
    January 19, 2017   doi: 10.1111/peps.12209   open full text
  • Feeling Bad and Doing Good: The Effect of Customer Mistreatment on Service Employee's Daily Display of Helping Behaviors.
    Yumeng Yue, Karyn L. Wang, Markus Groth.
    Personnel Psychology. November 25, 2016
    Mistreatment by customers is a common occurrence for many frontline service employees. Although some evidence suggests that employees engage in dysfunctional workplace behaviors as a result of mistreatment, others studies have suggested that employees may cope with such negative experiences by helping others. Drawing on negative state relief theory, we conducted 2 studies to test these relationships and examine whether service employees cope with negative emotions arising from such daily customer mistreatment by engaging in helping others. In Study 1, daily surveys from 70 restaurant employees showed that daily customer mistreatment predicted the experience of negative moods the next morning, which, in turn, led to higher levels of coworker helping the next day. In Study 2, daily surveys from 54 retail employees showed that daily customer mistreatment led to higher customer helping the next day, but only when customer orientation was high. Our results further show that helping behavior was associated with elevated positive affective experiences and that the proposed relationships differ depending on whether customer mistreatment is measured at a daily or a cumulative perspective. Specifically, cumulative customer mistreatment over time decreased general helping. These findings are discussed in relation to employees' coping strategies towards acute and cumulative mistreatment.
    November 25, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12208   open full text
  • Married with children: How family role identification shapes leadership behaviors at work.
    Tracy L. Dumas, Taryn L. Stanko.
    Personnel Psychology. November 10, 2016
    In this paper, we explore the question of how an employee's family role identification, as driven by family structure (marital and parental status combined), affects their leadership behaviors at work. Using survey data from working professionals and executives pursuing a Master of Business Administration degree, we found that, as expected, those respondents who were both married and had children reported higher levels of family role identification relative to other respondents. Also, we found evidence of an indirect effect of family structure on leadership behaviors such that being married with children was indirectly associated with higher supervisor ratings of the respondents’ leadership behaviors via family role identification and the transfer of resources from the family role to the work role. Further, this indirect effect was stronger for women than for men. Contrary to traditional expectations, and consistent with enrichment theorizing, our findings suggest that investment in the family role can enhance employees’ display of valuable leadership behaviors in the workplace.
    November 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12182   open full text
  • A Meta‐Analysis of Voice and Its Promotive and Prohibitive Forms: Identification of Key Associations, Distinctions, and Future Research Directions.
    Melissa Chamberlin, Daniel W. Newton, Jeffery A. Lepine.
    Personnel Psychology. November 08, 2016
    This article reports meta‐analyses intended to clarify and enhance our understanding of voice and its promotive and prohibitive forms. We find that undifferentiated constructive voice is associated with a wide range of antecedents that fit in Morrison's (2014) five categories: (a) dispositions, (b) job and organizational attitudes and perceptions, (c) emotions, beliefs, and schemas, (d) supervisor and leader behavior, and (e) contextual factors. However, relative weight analyses reveal a highly dominant variable within each category (personal initiative, felt responsibility, engagement, leader–member exchange, and positive workplace climate). We also find that undifferentiated constructive voice has a moderate zero‐order association with job performance that is nonsignificant when task performance and organizational citizenship behavior are also considered. Finally, we explore how associations vary as a function of whether voice is promotive or prohibitive. First, there are significant differences in associations with over a third of the antecedents (core self‐evaluations, felt responsibility, organizational commitment, detachment, psychological safety, ethical leadership, and leader openness). Second, although promotive voice has a positive association with job performance, the opposite is true for prohibitive voice. We conclude with suggestions to enhance our understanding of voice, especially with respect to efforts needed to clarify and distinguish promotive and prohibitive voice.
    November 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12185   open full text
  • Worked to Death: The Relationships of Job Demands and Job Control with Mortality.
    Erik Gonzalez‐Mulé, Bethany Cockburn.
    Personnel Psychology. November 02, 2016
    Despite recent calls in the literature to examine the effects of the occupational context on physiological outcomes, such as mortality, little research has accumulated on this front. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the interactive relationship between job demands, control, and death. Drawing from the job design, stress, and epidemiology literatures, we argue that job demands will be positively related to mortality under conditions of low control, and negatively related to mortality under conditions of high control. We tested our hypothesis using a 7‐year time‐lagged design in a sample of 2,363 individuals from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Our results supported our hypothesis, with results showing that for individuals in low control jobs, high job demands are associated with a 15.4% increase in the odds of death compared to low job demands. For those in high control jobs, high job demands are associated with a 34% decrease in the odds of death compared to low job demands. Supplementary analyses revealed a similar pattern predicting body mass index in the group of surviving individuals. We discuss the implications of these findings for theory and practice, while proposing several avenues for future research.
    November 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12206   open full text
  • Dropped on the Way to the Top: Gender and Managerial Derailment.
    Joyce E. Bono, Phillip W. Braddy, Yihao Liu, Elisabeth K. Gilbert, John W. Fleenor, Louis N. Quast, Bruce A. Center.
    Personnel Psychology. October 21, 2016
    We attempt to make sense of ongoing gender disparities in the upper ranks of organizations by examining gender bias in leaders’ assessments of managers’ derailment potential. In a large managerial sample (Study 1: N ∼ 12,500), we found that ineffective interpersonal behaviors were slightly less frequent among female managers but slightly more damaging to women than men when present. Evidence of bias was not found in performance evaluations but emerged when leaders were asked about derailment potential in the future. We replicated this pattern of effects in a second large managerial sample (Study 2: N ∼ 35,500) and in two experimental studies (Studies 3 and 4) in which gender and interpersonal behaviors were manipulated. In Study 4, we also showed that when supervisors believe that a manager might derail in the future, they tend to withdraw mentoring support and sponsorship, which are especially critical for women's career advancement. Our research highlights the importance of leaders’ perceptions of derailment potential—which differ from evaluations of performance or promotability—both because they appear to be subject to stereotype‐based gender bias and because they have important implications for the mentoring and sponsorship that male and female managers receive.
    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12184   open full text
  • Psychological Safety: A Meta‐Analytic Review and Extension.
    M. Lance Frazier, Stav Fainshmidt, Ryan L. Klinger, Amir Pezeshkan, Veselina Vracheva.
    Personnel Psychology. October 14, 2016
    Although psychological safety research has flourished in recent years, and despite the empirical support for the important role of psychological safety in the workplace, several critical questions remain. In order to address these questions, we aggregate theoretical and empirical works, and draw on 136 independent samples representing over 22,000 individuals and nearly 5,000 groups, to conduct a comprehensive meta‐analysis on the antecedents and outcomes of psychological safety. We not only present the nomological network of psychological safety but also extend this research in 4 important ways. First, we compare effect sizes to determine the relative effectiveness of antecedents to psychological safety. Second, we examine the extent to which psychological safety influences both task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors over and beyond related concepts such as positive leader relations and work engagement. Third, we examine whether research design characteristics and national culture alter validities within the nomological network, thus promoting a more accurate and contextualized understanding of psychological safety. Finally, we test the homology assumption by comparing the effect sizes of the antecedents and outcomes of psychological safety across individual and group levels of analysis. We conclude with a discussion of the areas in need of future examination.
    October 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12183   open full text
  • Retracted: The Indirect Relationship Between Learning Climate and Employees’ Creativity and Adaptivity: The Role of Employee Engagement.
    Liat Eldor, Itzhak Harpaz.
    Personnel Psychology. August 02, 2016
    This study examines the indirect relationship between learning climate and employees’ creativity and adaptivity. Utilizing multi‐level modeling analysis techniques and data from a sample of 625 employees from 12 different organizations in Israel, we tested the proposed relationship as mediated by employee engagement and moderated by sector of employment (business versus public). Results were generally consistent with the hypothesized conceptual model in that we found the indirect relationship between learning climate and employees’ creativity and adaptivity to be mediated by employee engagement. In addition, we found that this mediation through engagement is moderated by sector of employment. We conclude that the relationship between learning climate and employee performance behaviors is more complex than previously argued in the learning climate literature. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    August 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12149   open full text
  • Down but not out: Newcomers can compensate for low vertical access with strong horizontal ties and favorable core self‐evaluations.
    Ruolian Fang, Daniel J. McAllister, Michelle K. Duffy.
    Personnel Psychology. July 29, 2016
    We draw upon and extend socialization resources theory to explain how organizational newcomers leverage their social capital resources (i.e., vertical access and horizontal tie strength within their communication networks) and personal resources (i.e., core self‐evaluations) to learn about and assimilate into their work and organizations. The findings of a multiwave study of organizational entrants in China reveal the synergistic effects of relational and personal resources for newcomer adjustment. Newcomers learn and assimilate effectively not only when they have vertical connections to high‐status organization members but also when they can compensate for their lack of high‐status connections by leveraging their strong horizontal ties with peers and favorable core self‐evaluations. These findings provide a practical perspective on how to tailor newcomer onboarding practices to facilitate effective newcomer adjustment.
    July 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12177   open full text
  • The use of snowball sampling for multi source organizational research: Some cause for concern.
    Bernd Marcus, Oliver Weigelt, Jane Hergert, Jochen Gurt, Petra Gelléri.
    Personnel Psychology. June 28, 2016
    In snowball sampling for multisource studies, researchers ask target participants to recruit informants. Despite its widespread use, especially for recruiting informants for multisource research, virtually no published research has addressed possible biases snowball sampling may cause in findings of this type of research. Such potential biases were tested empirically in a multisource study with a sample of 1,058 employed students asked to collect online ratings from their supervisors and coworkers. Informant ratings were obtained for 358 target participants. Objective indicators were employed to identify informant ratings suspicious of being fabricated. Results indicated that target participants who report (a) better relationship quality with informants, (b) fewer organizational constraints, and (c) more favorable self‐evaluations on behaviors to be rated by informants were more likely to be included in multisource data unsuspicious of being fabricated. Inclusion of informant ratings suspicious of being fabricated led to inflated estimates of self‐other consensus and of variance accounted for in criterion measures, to deflated informant rating means, but also to a target sample less restricted in terms of relevant organizational variables. In sum, the present findings suggest that potential biases should be identified in future uses of snowball sampling. Some practical recommendations toward that end are derived.
    June 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12169   open full text
  • “I don't want to be near you, unless…”: The interactive effect of unethical behavior and performance onto relationship conflict and workplace ostracism.
    Matthew J. Quade, Rebecca L. Greenbaum, Oleg V. Petrenko.
    Personnel Psychology. April 29, 2016
    Examined through the lens of moral psychology, we investigate when and why employees’ unethical behaviors may be tolerated versus rejected. Specifically, we examine the interactive effect of employees’ unethical behaviors and job performance onto relationship conflict, and whether such conflict eventuates in workplace ostracism. Although employees’ unethical behaviors typically go against moral norms, high job performance may provide a motivated reason to ignore moral violations. In this regard, we predict that job performance will mitigate the relationship between employee unethical behavior and workplace ostracism, as mediated by relationship conflict. Study 1, a multisource field study, tests and provides support for Hypotheses 1 and 2. Study 2, also a multisource field study, provides support for our fully specified model. Study 3, a time‐lagged field study, provides support for our theoretical model while controlling for employees’ negative affectivity and ethical environment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    April 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12164   open full text
  • Ignored no more: Within‐Person variability enables better understanding of training transfer.
    Jason L. Huang, J. Kevin Ford, Ann Marie Ryan.
    Personnel Psychology. April 20, 2016
    The empirical findings from training transfer research rest on a rather static view of the transfer phenomenon, ignoring potential within‐person change in transfer over time. This study investigates within‐person variability in mastery goal orientation together with variability over time in the application of newly acquired knowledge and skills to the job context. Data from longitudinal surveys of trainees voluntarily attending statistical workshops revealed that trainees varied significantly in 2 characteristics of transfer trajectory: (a) initial attempts to transfer and (b) subsequent rate of change in transfer. Two affective learning outcomes showed differential relationships with transfer trajectories: Whereas posttraining self‐efficacy predicted initial attempt of transfer, motivation to transfer assessed at the end of training predicted subsequent rate of change in transfer. Furthermore, level and variability of trainees’ mastery orientation interacted to influence posttraining self‐efficacy and motivation to transfer, and subsequently transfer trajectories. Specifically, a trainee's mastery orientation level had stronger prediction of these outcomes when his/her mastery orientation distribution was less variable across situations. These findings highlight the importance of attending to within‐person variability in the study of training transfer by (a) considering training transfer as trajectories over time and (b) understanding trainee traits as frequency distributions.
    April 20, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12155   open full text
  • Status Incongruence and Supervisor Gender as Moderators of the Transformational Leadership to Subordinate Affective Organizational Commitment Relationship.
    María Del Carmen Triana, Orlando C. Richard, İlhami Yücel.
    Personnel Psychology. April 19, 2016
    Grounded in role congruity theory, we examine how status incongruence (when the subordinate is older, has more education, work experience, and/or organizational tenure than the supervisor) in subordinate–supervisor dyads affects transformational leaders’ ability to foster affective organizational commitment among their subordinates. Across two field studies, our findings show that the relationship between transformational leadership and subordinate affective organizational commitment is less positive when status incongruence is high. Furthermore, in both field studies we found a 3‐way interaction among transformational leadership, status incongruence, and supervisor gender predicting subordinate affective organizational commitment. Specifically, in Study 1 (pink‐collar employees in Turkey), low status incongruence strengthened the positive relationship between transformational leadership and subordinate affective organizational commitment for male leaders. In Study 2 (pink‐collar employees in the United States), low status incongruence strengthened the positive relationship between transformational leadership and subordinate affective organizational commitment for female leaders. Furthermore, Study 2 also revealed that collective identity was a mediator of both the significant 2‐ and 3‐way interaction effects on subordinate affective organizational commitment.
    April 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12154   open full text
  • Advancing a Richer View of Identity at Work: The Role‐Based Identity Scale.
    Theresa M. Welbourne, Ted A. Paterson.
    Personnel Psychology. April 12, 2016
    Identity has been studied extensively in several fields including organizational behavior, sociology, and psychology. Even though there have been significant advances, 2 areas of work deserve more attention. First, most empirical investigations have looked only at 1 or 2 identities at a time despite theoretical perspectives that indicate a need to address multiple identities simultaneously. Second, limited work using identity theory has been done in the human resource management (HRM) domain. The purpose of our research is to serve as a catalyst for future work by identifying 5 work‐relevant role‐based identities and creating a parsimonious measure for each. These metrics were tested, and initial evidence of their validity is provided using 6 independent samples. The empirical results suggest that the new measures in the role‐based identity scale can be useful in representing a more realistic and richer view of identity at work by simultaneously assessing 5 distinct role‐based identities.
    April 12, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12150   open full text
  • Spillover Effects of Emotional Labor in Customer Service Encounters Toward Coworker Harming: A Resource Depletion Perspective.
    Hong Deng, Frank Walter, Catherine K. Lam, Helen H. Zhao.
    Personnel Psychology. April 05, 2016
    This research examines how the implications of emotional labor can transfer from customer encounters to coworker interactions using temporally lagged data from a sample of frontline service employees. The results show that surface acting in customer service encounters is positively, and deep acting is negatively, related to ego depletion. Employees’ ego depletion, in turn, is positively associated with their interpersonally harmful behavior toward coworkers. Hence, ego depletion appears as a mediating variable that translates the implications of distinct emotional labor strategies into coworker harming. Moreover, emotion regulation self‐efficacy moderates the role of surface acting. The positive indirect relationship between surface acting and coworker harming, via ego depletion, is buffered among employees with higher emotion regulation self‐efficacy. These findings shed new light on the complex and far‐reaching consequences of emotional labor. We demonstrate the relevance of emotional labor to third parties not directly involved in customer service encounters and highlight important mediators and boundary conditions of these indirect relations.
    April 05, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12156   open full text
  • Linking Developmental Experiences to Leader Effectiveness and Promotability: The Mediating Role of Leadership Self‐Efficacy and Mentor Network.
    Scott E. Seibert, Leisa D. Sargent, Maria L. Kraimer, Kohyar Kiazad.
    Personnel Psychology. March 10, 2016
    We developed and tested a model linking developmental experiences to leadership effectiveness and promotability through 2 mediating processes based on social cognitive and social capital theories. We hypothesized that a manager's exposure to 3 types of developmental experiences (formal development programs, developmental job challenges, and developmental supervision) would positively relate to supervisor's assessment of the manager's leadership effectiveness in the current job role and promotability within the organization through the manager's leadership self‐efficacy and size and quality of the manager's mentor network. Results based on a sample of 235 retail managers showed that leadership self‐efficacy and mentor network fully mediated the relationship between job challenges and promotability, whereas leadership self‐efficacy also fully mediated the relationship between job challenges and leadership effectiveness. Developmental supervision was indirectly related to promotability through mentor network. In addition, a 3‐way interaction analysis revealed that participation in formal development activities had a positive indirect relationship with leadership effectiveness and promotability mediated by leadership self‐efficacy when a manager experienced either lower levels of job challenge and developmental supervision, or higher levels of both. Our findings contribute to leadership knowledge by examining how both formal and informal developmental experiences relate to leadership effectiveness and promotability through social processes.
    March 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12145   open full text
  • Using a Computational Model to Understand Possible Sources of Skews in Distributions of Job Performance.
    Jeffrey B. Vancouver, Xiaofei Li, Justin M. Weinhardt, Piers Steel, Justin D. Purl.
    Personnel Psychology. March 09, 2016
    The typical assumption that performance is distributed normally has come under question in recent years (e.g., O'Boyle & Aguinis, 2012). This paper uses a dynamic, computational model of performance‐as‐results to examine possible sources of such distributions. That is, building off the classic model of job performance (Campbell & Pritchard, 1976), components of a dynamic model are examined in 4 separate experiments using Monte Carlo simulations. The experiments indicate that positively skewed distributions can arise from pure luck, multiplicative combinations of factors where 1 of those factors has a zero origin, Matthew effects associated with learning, and feedback effects of performance on resource allocation policies by external agents. The results are discussed in terms of explanations for positively skewed performance distributions and the use and expansion of the computational model for examining dynamic performance more generally.
    March 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12141   open full text
  • Anchoring Relationships at Work: High‐Quality Mentors and Other Supportive Work Relationships as Buffers to Ambient Racial Discrimination.
    Belle Rose Ragins, Kyle Ehrhardt, Karen S. Lyness, Dianne D. Murphy, John F. Capman.
    Personnel Psychology. March 07, 2016
    Applying a unifying theoretical framework of high‐quality work relationships, we conducted a set of 3 complementary studies that examined whether high‐quality mentoring relationships can buffer employees from the negative effects of ambient discrimination at work. Integrating relational mentoring with relational systems theory, we first examined whether the presence of a high‐quality mentoring relationship buffers employees in a sample of 3,813 workers. In support of the “mentors‐as‐buffers” hypothesis, we found that employees who witnessed or were aware of racial discrimination at work had lower organizational commitment than those not exposed, but employees with high‐quality mentoring relationships experienced less loss of commitment than those lacking mentors. We then examined the specific buffering behaviors used by mentors in high‐quality relationships and whether these behaviors were effective for other work relationships and outcomes. Applying Kahn's typology, we developed and validated a measure of high‐quality relational holding behaviors in a sample of 262 workers. Using this measure in a third sample of 557 workers, we found that mentors buffer by providing holding behaviors, but we did not find this buffering effect when supervisors or coworkers provided holding behaviors. This potent mentor buffering effect held across a range of outcomes, including organizational commitment, physical symptoms of stress, insomnia, and stress‐related absenteeism. These studies suggest that mentoring may be a singularly effective relationship that offers a safe harbor for employees faced with ambient discrimination at work.
    March 07, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12144   open full text
  • Do CEOs Matter to Firm Strategic Actions and Firm Performance? A Meta‐Analytic Investigation Based on Upper Echelons Theory.
    Gang Wang, R. Michael Holmes, In‐Sue Oh, Weichun Zhu.
    Personnel Psychology. March 01, 2016
    What roles do CEOs play in firm performance? To address this question, the management field has accumulated a substantial amount of research over the past 3 decades built on upper echelons theory (UET), which posits that CEO characteristics manifest in firm strategic actions and, in this way, future firm performance. Hence, there is a need to systematically amass and take stock of prior empirical findings for UET testing and development. We use meta‐analytic techniques to synthesize prior UET research on the relationships among commonly studied CEO characteristics, firm strategic actions, and future firm performance. Based on 308 studies, meta‐analytic results generally support UET's predictions with a few exceptions: CEO characteristics (i.e., tenure, formal education, prior career experience, and positive self‐concept) are significantly associated with firm strategic actions, which in turn are significantly related to future firm performance. Moreover, CEO characteristics (i.e., age, tenure, formal education, and prior career experience) are positively related to future firm performance. In addition, fine‐grained analyses have revealed interesting and important relationships between specific measures of CEO characteristics (e.g., CEO prior task experience) and firm outcomes (e.g., firm strategic actions that match with CEO prior task experience). Implications for theory, future research, and practice are discussed.
    March 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12140   open full text
  • In Search of Balance: A Conceptual and Empirical Integration of Multiple Meanings of Work–Family Balance.
    Julie Holliday Wayne, Marcus M. Butts, Wendy J. Casper, Tammy D. Allen.
    Personnel Psychology. February 28, 2016
    This paper provides a framework that elaborates on four conceptualizations of work‐family balance: additive spillover (unique effects of bi‐directional conflict and enrichment), multiplicative spillover (interactive effects of lower conflict with higher enrichment), balance satisfaction (one's attitude toward resource allocation across work and family roles) and balance effectiveness (one's interdependent self‐evaluation of meeting shared expectations across work and family roles). We describe the conceptual differences among these approaches and hypothesize how they operate differently in predicting work and family attitudes and performance. Relative weights analyses showed that additive spillover was the most important predictor of work attitudes (organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intent), followed by balance satisfaction and effectiveness. However, balance satisfaction and effectiveness together were the most important predictors of family satisfaction and job and family performance. Mediation tests revealed that unique and interactive effects of bidirectional conflict and enrichment related to work and family attitudes and performance indirectly through balance satisfaction and effectiveness. We discuss implications of these findings and offer suggestions to guide future research and theory on work‐family balance.
    February 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12132   open full text
  • Boundaryless LMX: Examining LMX's Impact on External Career Outcomes and Alumni Goodwill.
    Sumita Raghuram, Ravi Shanker Gajendran, Xiangmin Liu, Deepak Somaya.
    Personnel Psychology. February 26, 2016
    Research has convincingly shown that leader–member exchange (LMX) is associated with a range of beneficial outcomes for employees within organizations. As employees increasingly pursue boundaryless careers that straddle multiple organizations, it is important to ask: Do advantages from LMX extend beyond the current organization and persist even after employees have left it? We propose that employees in higher quality LMX relationships with their managers benefit from stronger professional development, which can pay off in the form of better career outcomes on the external job market. Further, after leaving, whether or not ex‐employees (i.e., alumni) harbor goodwill toward their former organizations is likely to depend on their LMX quality prior to leaving. Alumni goodwill matters because organizations can potentially reap important strategic benefits from their alumni. Using time separated data including alumni interviews conducted by third‐party consultants, we find that, among employees who quit, pre‐turnover LMX is positively related to higher salaries and greater responsibility in their next jobs and is also positively related to alumni goodwill. Moreover, the strength of the LMX–alumni goodwill relationship depends on whether managers made robust retention efforts after employees communicated their decisions to quit.
    February 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12143   open full text
  • Enhancing Cultural Intelligence: The Roles of Implicit Culture Beliefs and Adjustment.
    Melody Manchi Chao, Riki Takeuchi, Jiing‐Lih Farh.
    Personnel Psychology. February 26, 2016
    Although international experience has been proposed as an important factor contributing to the development of cultural intelligence (CQ), its effect on CQ has often been assumed. Through a contact hypothesis framework, this study advances our understanding of CQ. It examines the process through which CQ changes occur against the backdrop of international exchanges. University students who were enrolled in an international exchange program with partners worldwide participated in this study. Using a 3‐wave time‐lagged design, we found that implicit culture beliefs (the beliefs about fixedness or malleability of cultural attributes) influenced intercultural rejection sensitivity, which impacted the cross‐cultural adjustment of sojourning students and their subsequent CQ. Specifically, we found that cross‐cultural adjustment experiences, particularly in the social domain, play an important role in influencing CQ. Findings from this study raise novel research questions and underscore the need for more empirical work in this area. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    February 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12142   open full text
  • Internal and External Networking Differentially Predict Turnover Through Job Embeddedness and Job Offers.
    Caitlin M. Porter, Sang Eun Woo, Michael A. Campion.
    Personnel Psychology. February 01, 2016
    Although the career benefits associated with professional networking are relatively well established, the repercussions of this highly regarded career management activity for voluntary turnover have rarely been examined. Given the potential costs associated with voluntary turnover, this study sought to clarify the roles of networking behaviors in relation to voluntary turnover by focusing on the distinction between internal and external networking. Based on survey responses of industrial and organizational psychology professionals, we found that internal and external networking behaviors differentially predicted decisions to voluntarily leave employers 2 years later: The likelihood of voluntary turnover was negatively predicted by internal networking and positively predicted by external networking. Furthermore, to shed light on the reasons why employee networking behaviors differentially predicted turnover decisions, this study also examined 4 turnover antecedents (job satisfaction, job embeddedness, perceived employment opportunities, and job offers) as potential mediating mechanisms. Results revealed that the relationships of internal and external networking with voluntary turnover were mediated by job embeddedness and job offers, respectively. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding and managing employee networking and retention.
    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12121   open full text
  • Misalignment and Misperception in Preferences to Utilize Family‐Friendly Benefits: Implications for Benefit Utilization and Work–Family Conflict.
    Ashley Mandeville, Jonathon Halbesleben, Marilyn Whitman.
    Personnel Psychology. January 13, 2016
    Despite their increasing popularity, family‐friendly benefits are frequently underutilized. Drawing on literatures concerning social norms and pluralistic ignorance, this study examines the role of personal preference, group norm misalignment, and misperception of group norms on employees’ utilization of family‐friendly benefits. In 2 samples (154 firefighters and 440 nurses) across 3 data collection periods, we found that when employees’ preferences for benefit utilization were misaligned with the perceived group norm, they adjusted their family‐friendly benefit utilization in a manner congruent with the norm, even when that norm was misperceived. Further, we found that family‐friendly benefit utilization was negatively associated with work–family conflict. Together, our findings suggest that misperceived social norms regarding family‐friendly benefit utilization can lead to situations whereby employees do not utilize family‐friendly benefits because they mistakenly perceive utilization is not socially accepted and, as a result, experience higher work–family conflict.
    January 13, 2016   doi: 10.1111/peps.12124   open full text
  • Correction for Range Restriction in Meta‐Analysis Revisited: Improvements and Implications for Organizational Research.
    Huy Le, In‐Sue Oh, Frank L. Schmidt, Colin D. Wooldridge.
    Personnel Psychology. December 16, 2015
    In this study, we present a more accurate method for correcting for range restriction (Case V) that expands upon Bryant and Gokhale's (1972) method. We further present detailed steps to incorporate the Case V method into Schmidt and Hunter's (2015) psychometric meta‐analysis methods (both individual correction and artifact distribution approaches). We then evaluate the accuracy of the Case V method vis‐à‐vis existing methods. Monte‐Carlo simulation results indicate that the Case V method provides very accurate estimates for the mean true score correlation and reasonably accurate estimates for the true standard deviation. More important, Case V almost always provides more accurate results than alternative methods (particularly, Case IV). To illustrate how the Case V method works with real data, we conduct a reanalysis of Judge, Heller, and Mount's (2002) meta‐analysis examining the relationships between the Big 5 personality traits and job satisfaction. Results indicate that the true score correlations between the Big 5 traits and job satisfaction have been underestimated, whereas their true standard deviations have been overestimated. Implications for range restriction corrections in organizational research are discussed.
    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12122   open full text
  • Does Coaching Matter? A Multilevel Model Linking Managerial Coaching Skill and Frequency to Sales Goal Attainment.
    Jason J. Dahling, Samantha Ritchie Taylor, Samantha L. Chau, Stephen A. Dwight.
    Personnel Psychology. December 16, 2015
    Managerial coaching is a process of feedback provision, behavioral modeling, and goal setting with subordinates to improve their performance and address their personal challenges. Despite the popularity of coaching as a management practice, the impact of coaching on objective measures of performance remains unclear. To this end, we tested a multilevel model linking managerial coaching frequency and skill to the sales goal attainment of 1,246 sales representatives in 136 teams within a pharmaceuticals organization over a year. Managers’ coaching skill, which was evaluated in the context of a training exercise, was directly related to the annual sales goal attainment of the sales representatives that they supervised. This effect was partially mediated by team‐level role clarity, as predicted by feedback intervention theory and goal setting theory. In addition, coaching skill had a cross‐level moderating effect on the relationship between coaching frequency and sales goal attainment; coaching frequency had a negative effect on goal attainment when coaching skill was low. We discuss the implications of this finding for coaching research and practice. Overall, our results demonstrate the clear theoretical and practical importance of effective managerial coaching by drawing on multisource and multilevel measurements with a predictive design.
    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12123   open full text
  • Champions, Converts, Doubters, and Defectors: The Impact of Shifting Perceptions on Momentum for Change.
    Karen J. Jansen, Abbie J. Shipp, Judd H. Michael.
    Personnel Psychology. November 20, 2015
    Maintaining momentum is a key influence on the ultimate success of large‐scale change. In this paper, we develop theory to explain how stable versus shifting change‐supportive perceptions over time differentially influence the perceived momentum associated with goal‐directed change (i.e., change‐based momentum). We use cross‐level polynomial regression and data obtained early and 1 year later within an organization implementing a lean manufacturing transformation to model changes in individual perceptions. Results suggest that momentum perceptions are higher for “Champions” (stable and high perceptions over time) as compared to “Converts” (increasing perceptions over time), but momentum perceptions are lower for “Defectors” (decreasing perceptions over time) as compared to “Doubters” (stable and low perceptions over time). We find that even if participants converge upon change‐supportive perceptions later in the change process, early divergent perceptions influence subsequent momentum for the change. These findings highlight the important role of temporal shifts in perceptions for organizational change processes.
    November 20, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12120   open full text
  • Embedding Employees Early On: The Importance of Workplace Respect.
    Thomas W. H. Ng.
    Personnel Psychology. November 13, 2015
    This study examines workplace respect as an important condition that promotes increases in perceived organizational embeddedness (POE). I especially focus on young, educated employees’ perceptions of organizational embeddedness, as these employees strongly desire being respected and valued. Guided by social exchange theory, I propose that increases in perceived respect promote increases in gratitude toward the organization, which in turn promote increases in POE over time. Increases in POE are in turn related to lower turnover. Data collected from a young, college‐graduate sample (average age = 25) at five points over an 18‐month period demonstrated that (a) within‐person increases in perceived respect were associated with within‐person increases in gratitude over 12 months, (b) within‐person increases in gratitude were associated with within‐person increases in POE over 12 months, and (c) employees who reported greater increases in POE over 12 months were less likely to leave their organizations 6 months afterward. In summary, this study illustrates that even workers in the early stages of their careers can feel increasingly embedded in their organizations when they feel increasingly respected by their colleagues.
    November 13, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12117   open full text
  • Are Workplace Friendships a Mixed Blessing? Exploring Tradeoffs of Multiplex Relationships and their Associations with Job Performance.
    Jessica R. Methot, Jeffery A. Lepine, Nathan P. Podsakoff, Jessica Siegel Christian.
    Personnel Psychology. November 05, 2015
    Theory and research note the ubiquity of multiplex workplace friendships—multifaceted relationships that superimpose friendship with work‐focused interactions—but it is unclear how they compel or hinder job performance. In a study of insurance company employees (n = 168), we found that the number of multiplex workplace friendships in one's social network is positively associated with supervisor ratings of job performance. However, we also found that there is a negative indirect effect on job performance through emotional exhaustion, which is offset, in part, through enhanced positive affect. Results of a second study of restaurant and retail sales employees (n = 182) provide greater insight into the positive and negative effects of multiplex workplace friendships. Specifically, these relationships enhanced job performance through trust but detracted from job performance through maintenance difficulty. Collectively, our results illustrate that having a large number of multiplex friendships at work is a mixed blessing. Although the provision and restoration of resources fostered by multiplex relationships benefits employee job performance, these benefits are muted somewhat by the personal resources they deplete.
    November 05, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12109   open full text
  • When and How Does LMX Differentiation Influence Followers’ Work Outcomes? The Interactive Roles of One's own LMX Status and Organizational Context.
    Olli‐Pekka Kauppila.
    Personnel Psychology. November 02, 2015
    The fundamental premise of the leader–member exchange (LMX) theory is that leaders’ relationships with their followers vary in quality. Although LMX differentiation (i.e., within‐group variation in the quality of LMX) is generally considered a sound leadership practice, its effects on group members’ work outcomes remain poorly understood. Drawing on LMX and upper echelons theories, this study suggests that employees’ reactions to LMX differentiation depend on the personal LMX status of employees and the characteristics of the organizational context. Analyses of multilevel data collected from 502 employees organized into 135 work groups in 34 firms show that the impact of LMX differentiation on work outcomes is more positive (or less negative) for employees with lower rather than higher LMX. The findings highlight the importance of organizational boundary conditions for these interactions: The negative moderation by one's own LMX status is stronger when top managers decentralize responsibilities to lower hierarchical levels and weaker when top managers impose a shared vision to guide the organization.
    November 02, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12110   open full text
  • Understanding The Curvilinear Relationships between LMX Differentiation and Team Coordination and Performance.
    Yang Sui, Hui Wang, Bradley L. Kirkman, Ning Li.
    Personnel Psychology. October 26, 2015
    The leader–member exchange (LMX) literature argues that leaders develop different quality dyadic relationships with members in the same team (i.e., LMX differentiation). Research has generally not found support for a linear (i.e., main effect) relationship between LMX differentiation and team performance; rather, moderators typically determine whether the relationship is significantly positive or negative. Examining linear effect moderators alone, however, does not account for (a) potential curvilinear (i.e., inverted U‐shaped) effects, (b) explanatory mechanisms of how LMX differentiation influences team performance, or (c) moderators of curvilinear effects. Integrating social identity theory with LMX differentiation research, we propose inverted U‐shaped relationships between LMX differentiation and both team coordination (as a mediator) and team performance (as an outcome), and we examine both team size and team power distance orientation as moderators. Using data from 928 employees in 145 teams in 3 organizations, we found an inverted U‐shaped relationship between LMX differentiation and team coordination, which, in turn, partially mediated LMX differentiation's inverted U‐shaped relationship with team performance. Larger teams, or those with higher team power distance orientation, benefit more from LMX differentiation. By integrating social identity theory with LMX differentiation research, we enhance the understanding of the processes by, and conditions under, which LMX differentiation affects team performance both positively and negatively.
    October 26, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12115   open full text
  • Interpersonal Process of Emotional Labor: The Role of Negative and Positive Customer Treatment.
    Yujie Zhan, Mo Wang, Junqi Shi.
    Personnel Psychology. October 23, 2015
    Emotional labor refers to the process of regulating both feelings and expressions in response to the display rules for promoting organizational goals. Existing literature has provided strong evidence for the impact of emotional labor (i.e., surface acting and deep acting) on service employees’ emotional exhaustion. However, the empirical examination of the mechanisms underlying this association is largely missing from prior research. Drawing on the social interaction model of emotion regulation, this article reported 2 daily diary studies examining the role of customer treatment toward employees in channeling emotional labor's impact on employee emotional well‐being. Specifically, Study 1 measured emotional labor at the between‐person level as habitual emotional regulation strategies used by service employees, and Study 2 measured emotional labor at the within‐person level to capture its fluctuations. Results showed that employees engaging in more surface acting were more likely to receive negative treatment from customers, which in turn increased their negative affect and emotional exhaustion. Further, employees engaging in more deep acting were more likely to receive positive treatment from customers, which in turn increased their positive affect. Implications and limitations of these findings were discussed.
    October 23, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12114   open full text
  • HARKing's Threat to Organizational Research: Evidence From Primary and Meta‐Analytic Sources.
    Frank A. Bosco, Herman Aguinis, James G. Field, Charles A. Pierce, Dan R. Dalton.
    Personnel Psychology. September 16, 2015
    We assessed presumed consequences of hypothesizing after results are known (HARKing) by contrasting hypothesized versus nonhypothesized effect sizes among 10 common relations in organizational behavior, human resource management, and industrial and organizational psychology research. In Study 1, we analyzed 247 correlations representing 9 relations with individual performance in 136 articles published in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology and provide evidence that correlations are significantly larger when hypothesized compared to nonhypothesized. In Study 2, we analyzed 281 effect sizes from a meta‐analysis on the job satisfaction–job performance relation and provide evidence that correlations are significantly larger when hypothesized compared to nonhypothesized. In addition, in Study 2, we documented that hypothesized variable pairs are more likely to be mentioned in article titles or abstracts. We also ruled out 13 alternative explanations to the presumed HARKing effect pertaining to methodological (e.g., unreliability, publication year, research setting, research design, measure contextualization, publication source) and substantive (e.g., predictor–performance pair, performance measure, satisfaction measure, occupation, job/task complexity) issues. Our results suggest that HARKing seems to pose a threat to research results, substantive conclusions, and practical applications. We offer recommended solutions to the HARKing threat.
    September 16, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12111   open full text
  • Depletion from Self‐Regulation: A Resource‐based Account of the Effect of Value Incongruence.
    Hong Deng, Chia‐Huei Wu, Kwok Leung, Yanjun Guan.
    Personnel Psychology. June 25, 2015
    Value incongruence between employees and organizations has been identified as a negative work condition. An attitude‐based account suggests that value incongruence gives rise to negative attitudes toward organizations and thus causes low performance. To complement this mechanism, we propose a resource‐based account based on ego‐depletion theory, which suggests that value incongruence consumes an individual's regulatory resources and leads to low work performance. In support of this view, results from 2 survey studies and a vignette experiment reveal that value incongruence is positively associated with ego depletion, which in turn is negatively related to work performance. The mediation effect of ego depletion is independent of the attitude‐based mechanism as represented by job satisfaction and affective commitment. Consistent with the affective consistency perspective, the relationship between value incongruence and ego depletion is stronger among employees high in positive affectivity and weaker among employees high in negative affectivity. The corresponding moderated mediation analysis shows that the indirect effects of value incongruence on work performance through ego depletion vary as a function of positive and negative affectivity. This investigation unravels the self‐regulatory consequence of value incongruence and shows that the resource‐based mechanism of value incongruence operates differentially as a function of dispositional affectivity.
    June 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12107   open full text
  • Does Pay‐for‐Performance Strain the Employment Relationship? The Effect of Manager Bonus Eligibility on Nonmanagement Employee Turnover.
    Dionne Pohler, Joseph A. Schmidt.
    Personnel Psychology. June 25, 2015
    We tested the organization‐level effects of manager pay‐for‐performance practices on nonmanagement employee turnover within the context of agency theory and equity theory—two frameworks commonly applied to understand compensation policy and practice. We also propose an alternative theoretical perspective that predicts that managerial pay‐for‐performance policies may strain the employment relationship and increase nonmanagement employee turnover, unless there are HR practices that train and incentivize managers to treat employees well. We compare these alternative models to establish how well each framework explains the observed effects. Agency theory and equity theory receive limited empirical support in our lagged panel data set of organizations, whereas broader empirical support is established for the strain effect of manager pay‐for‐performance on the employment relationship. We discuss the implications of our findings for compensation theory, research, and practice.
    June 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12106   open full text
  • Transparency of Assessment Centers: Lower Criterion‐related Validity but Greater Opportunity to Perform?
    Pia V. Ingold, Martin Kleinmann, Cornelius J. König, Klaus G. Melchers.
    Personnel Psychology. June 12, 2015
    Assessment centers (ACs) are popular selection devices in which assessees are assessed on several dimensions during different exercises. Surveys indicate that ACs vary with regard to the transparency of the targeted dimensions and that the number of transparent ACs has increased during recent years. Furthermore, research on this design feature has put conceptual arguments forward regarding the effects of transparency on criterion‐related validity, impression management, and fairness perceptions. This study is the first to examine these effects using supervisor‐rated job performance data as the criterion. We conducted simulated ACs with transparency as a between‐subjects factor. The sample consisted of part‐time employed participants who would soon be applying for a new job. In line with our hypothesis, results showed that ratings from an AC with nontransparent dimensions were more criterion valid than ratings from an AC with transparent dimensions. Concerning impression management, our results supported the hypothesis that transparency moderates the relationship between self‐promotion and job performance, such that self‐promotion in the nontransparent AC was more positively related to job performance than self‐promotion in the transparent AC. The data lent no support for the hypothesis that participants’ perceptions of their opportunity to perform are higher in the transparent AC.
    June 12, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12105   open full text
  • Cohen's d Corrected for Case IV Range Restriction: A More Accurate Procedure for Evaluating Subgroup Differences in Organizational Research.
    Johnson Ching‐Hong Li.
    Personnel Psychology. April 07, 2015
    Organizational and staffing researchers are often interested in evaluating whether subgroup differences exist (e.g., between Caucasian and African‐American individuals) on predictors of job performance. To investigate subgroup differences, researchers often will collect data from current employees to make inferences about subgroup differences among job applicants. However, the magnitude of subgroup differences (i.e., Cohen's d) within incumbent samples may be different (i.e., smaller) than the magnitude of subgroup differences in applicant samples because selection of applicants typically reduces the variance of scores on the predictors (i.e., because lower scoring applicants are not selected). If researchers seek to generalize a d value in an incumbent sample to the applicant population, they may use Bobko, Roth, and Bobko's (correcting the effect size of d for range restriction and unreliability, 2001) Case II or III correction. By extension, Hunter, Schmidt, and Le (implications of direct and indirect range restriction for meta‐analysis methods and findings, 2006) have proposed a Case IV correction, which is more realistic than Bobko et al.'s approach. Therefore, this paper develops a Case IV correction for d (i.e., dc4). The simulation results showed that the dc4 was generally accurate across 6,000 simulation conditions. Moreover, 2 published datasets were reanalyzed to show the influence of the Case IV correction on d. In addition, implications and future directions of the dc4 are discussed.
    April 07, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12096   open full text
  • Executive Attention: An Alternative Perspective on General Mental Ability, Performance, and Subgroup Differences.
    Frank Bosco, David G. Allen, Kulraj Singh.
    Personnel Psychology. March 13, 2015
    The validity‐adverse impact tradeoff associated with the relationships among general mental ability (GMA), ethnicity, and employee performance represents one of the most pressing concerns in organizational staffing. We conducted 4 studies with 273 bank employees and 197 university students designed to assess the extent to which executive attention (EA) and GMA predict simulation performance and supervisory ratings of performance. We also assess the extent to which measures of EA and GMA are associated with subgroup differences. Results indicate that, like GMA, EA positively predicts managerial simulation and supervisory ratings of performance. In addition, although reaching statistical significance in only 1 of our 4 studies, EA was generally associated with smaller subgroup differences than GMA, and meta‐analysis across our samples supports this reduced subgroup difference. Moreover, advantages of EA tend to increase as studies move from the laboratory with undergraduate students to a concurrent validation organizational setting with employees. We discuss implications for a theory‐based view of cognitive ability in employee selection and implications for managerial practice.
    March 13, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12099   open full text
  • Uncovering the Nuances of Referral Hiring: How Referrer Characteristics Affect Referral Hires’ Performance and Likelihood of Voluntary Turnover.
    Jenna R. Pieper.
    Personnel Psychology. March 05, 2015
    The literature on employee referral hiring gives little attention to referrers. Synthesizing 2 theories in the literature (the better match and social enrichment accounts), through the lens of social resources theory, I provide a conceptual and empirical breakdown of the effects of referrer quality (referrer performance at hire and referrer tenure at hire) and posthire accessibility (referrer employment and referrer–referral hire job congruence) on referral hire performance and likelihood of voluntary turnover. I tested my hypotheses with longitudinal data from 386 referrer–referral hire pairs at the same job level in a U.S. call center over a 2‐year period. Across analyses of 2 performance criteria (calls/hour and quality) and likelihood of leaving, I found a nuanced mix of benefits and liabilities that illuminate potential boundary conditions of the revised theories. Referral hires from high‐performing referrers performed better but had higher turnover propensities than those from lower performing referrers. Longer‐tenured employees also produced better performing referral hires, up to a point. Referral hires were less likely to leave, provided their referrer remained employed, but they performed less effectively under this condition. Similarly, referral hires performed worse when their job was congruent with their referrer's job. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    March 05, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12097   open full text
  • Synchrony Preference: Why Some People Go With the Flow and Some Don't.
    Sophie Leroy, Abbie J. Shipp, Sally Blount, John‐Gabriel Licht.
    Personnel Psychology. February 18, 2015
    As work in organizations becomes more fluid and fast paced the effective execution of tasks often requires people to be temporally adaptable in working with others. This paper brings to light the importance of understanding how people relate to time in the context of social interactions. By integrating the research on time and social motives, we develop a relational perspective about time. We introduce the construct of synchrony preference, an individual difference that describes a willingness to adapt one's pace and rhythm within social interactions for the purpose of creating synchrony with others. We develop a measure of synchrony preference that we validate using multiple methods across 4 studies and 7 samples, which include over 1,400 individuals. In particular, we establish a nomological network and show that synchrony preference predicts flexible pacing behaviors, interpersonal facilitation, contribution to team synchrony, contribution to team performance, and job dedication. Our results reveal that both scholars and practitioners can benefit from considering people's preference for synchrony when working with others.
    February 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12093   open full text
  • On The Exchange of Hostility With Supervisors: An Examination of Self‐Enhancing and Self‐Defeating Perspectives.
    Bennett J. Tepper, Marie S. Mitchell, Dana L. Haggard, Ho Kwong Kwan, Hee‐man Park.
    Personnel Psychology. January 30, 2015
    We invoke competing theoretical perspectives to examine the consequences for subordinates of involvement in relationships that vary in terms of downward hostility (i.e., hostility enacted by supervisors against direct reports) and upward hostility (i.e., hostility enacted by subordinates against immediate supervisors). Consistent with the perspective that targets of downward hostility are less likely to see themselves as victims when they perform acts of upward hostility, analysis of 2‐wave data from a sample of supervised employees suggested that upward hostility weakens the deleterious effects of downward hostility on subordinates’ job satisfaction, affective commitment, and psychological distress. Study 2 directly examined the presumed mechanism that underlies the effects observed in Study 1. In a 3‐wave sample, support was found for a moderated‐indirect effect framework in which the indirect effects of downward hostility on subordinates’ attitudes and psychological distress (through victim identity) were weaker when upward hostility was higher. Study 2 results also suggested that the enhancing effect of upward hostility generalizes to subjective indicators of career satisfaction and future career expectations.
    January 30, 2015   doi: 10.1111/peps.12094   open full text
  • Deciding Between Work And Family: An Episodic Approach.
    Kristen M. Shockley, Tammy D. Allen.
    Personnel Psychology. March 18, 2014
    This study examined work‐family conflict decision‐making based on a within‐person, episodic approach. Based on 274 episodes across 78 individuals, we investigated the frequency of decisions that result in work interference with family (WIF) versus family interference with work (FIW), as well as the relation of work and family situational variables and previous work‐family conflict episodes on those decisions. No difference in the frequency with which participants reported WIF episodes versus FIW episodes was observed. Results indicated that work/family role sender pressure, work/family instrumental support, work/family activity importance, work emotional support, and the direction of the previous work‐family conflict decision each predicted work‐family conflict decisions. Dominance analysis indicated that role sender pressure was the most important predictor. In addition, we compare and discuss within‐person variation with between‐person variation. Contributions of the study to work‐family research and practice are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    March 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12077   open full text
  • Double Jeopardy Upon Resume Screening: When Achmed Is Less Employable Than Aïsha.
    Eva Derous, Ann Marie Ryan, Alec W. Serlie.
    Personnel Psychology. March 18, 2014
    Applicants belong to multiple categories (male, ethnic minority) and a complex set of factors affects category activation and inhibition when making hiring decisions. Two field experiments with recruiters who regularly engage in resume screening showed that the role of multiple categories (applicants’ ethnicity and sex) in discrimination depended on job type and prejudice. Specifically, in both low and high demand (i.e., complex) jobs, Arab females were rated more favorably than Arab males, particularly when considering levels of client contact. Across both studies, recruiters high in explicit ethnic prejudice were discriminatory only when applicants’ job qualifications fit the job position less, lending support for the attributional‐ambiguity effect. Implicit attitudes did not play a strong role. Our study findings point to the complex nature of multiple categorization effects in the hiring process. Implications are considered as to how to avert hiring discrimination during resume screening. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    March 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12078   open full text
  • Honest And Deceptive Impression Management In The Employment Interview: Can It Be Detected And How Does It Impact Evaluations?
    Nicolas Roulin, Adrian Bangerter, Julia Levashina.
    Personnel Psychology. March 18, 2014
    Applicants use honest and deceptive impression management (IM) in employment interviews. Deceptive IM is especially problematic since it can lead organizations to hire less competent but deceptive applicants if interviewers are not able to identify the deception. We investigated interviewers’ capacity to detect IM in five experimental studies using real‐time video coding of IM (N = 246 professional interviewers and 270 novice interviewers). Interviewers’ attempts to detect applicants’ IM were often unsuccessful. Interviewers were better at detecting honest than deceptive IM. Interview question type affected IM detection, but interviewers’ experience did not. Finally, interviewers’ perceptions of IM use by applicants were related to their evaluations of applicants’ performance in the interview. Interviewers’ attempts to adjust their evaluations of applicants they perceive to use deceptive IM may fail because they cannot correctly identify when applicants actually engage in various IM tactics. Helping interviewers to better identify deceptive IM tactics used by applicants may increase the validity of employment interviews. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    March 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12079   open full text
  • Contingent Punishment as a Double‐Edged Sword: A Dual‐Pathway Model from a Sense‐Making Perspective.
    Hong Deng, Kwok Leung.
    Personnel Psychology. March 17, 2014
    A sense‐making perspective is adopted to explore how and when contingent punishment is related to job performance. Results from Study 1 support the prediction that contingent punishment is positively related to job performance through affective commitment and negatively related to job performance through self‐regulation impairment. Interpersonal justice on the part of supervisors strengthens the positive pathway, such that contingent punishment is more related to affective commitment when interpersonal justice is high. Core self‐evaluation of employees weakens the negative pathway, such that contingent punishment is less related to self‐regulation impairment when core self‐evaluation is high. Moderated mediation effects also show that the positive indirect effect of contingent punishment on job performance through affective commitment exists only when interpersonal justice is high and that the negative indirect effect of contingent punishment on job performance through self‐regulation impairment occurs only when core self‐evaluation is low. The results associated with the novel pathway mediated by self‐regulation impairment are replicated in Study 2.
    March 17, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12074   open full text
  • Deeds that Help and Words that Hurt: Helping and Gossip as Moderators of the Relationship Between Leader–Member Exchange and Advice Network Centrality.
    Berrin Erdogan, Talya N. Bauer, Jorge Walter.
    Personnel Psychology. March 17, 2014
    We examine the relationship between leader–member exchange (LMX) quality and advice network centrality using multisource data from a sample of 250 retail employees and their respective managers in Turkey to test our hypothesized model of value and costs of being sought out for advice. Drawing upon the tenets of network generation theory (Nebus, ), we predict that the tendency of focal actors to help others and their own tendency to gossip would be behavioral moderators of the relationship between LMX quality and their advice network centrality. Consistent with network generation theory, our results reveal that LMX quality is positively related to centrality only for those actors with a high tendency to help coworkers and a low tendency to gossip about coworkers, suggesting that behaviors indicating helpfulness and discretion are necessary for high LMX members to maintain a central position in their work group's advice network. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
    March 17, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12075   open full text
  • Narcissism and Leadership: A Meta‐Analytic Review of Linear and Nonlinear Relationships.
    Emily Grijalva, Peter D. Harms, Daniel A. Newman, Blaine H. Gaddis, R. Chris Fraley.
    Personnel Psychology. February 19, 2014
    Past empirical studies relating narcissism to leadership have offered mixed results. This study integrates prior research findings via meta‐analysis to make 4 contributions to theory on narcissism and leadership, by (a) distinguishing between leadership emergence and leadership effectiveness, to reveal that narcissism displays a positive relationship with leadership emergence, but no relationship with leadership effectiveness; (b) showing narcissism's positive effect on leadership emergence can be explained by leader extraversion; (c) demonstrating that whereas observer‐reported leadership effectiveness ratings (e.g., supervisor‐report, subordinate‐report, and peer‐report) are not related to narcissism, self‐reported leadership effectiveness ratings are positively related to narcissism; and (d) illustrating that the nil linear relationship between narcissism and leadership effectiveness masks an underlying curvilinear trend, advancing the idea that there exists an optimal, midrange level of leader narcissism.
    February 19, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12072   open full text
  • Personality and Charismatic Leadership in Context: The Moderating Role of Situational Stress.
    Shaul Oreg, Yair Berson.
    Personnel Psychology. February 19, 2014
    We adopt an interactionist perspective and extend previous work on personality and charismatic leadership by considering the relationship between them across contexts. Based on Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory, we expected the relationships between approach‐oriented dispositions and charisma to diminish under conditions of high workload‐induced stress. In a large‐scale lab study with 201 groups (Study 1, N = 721 participants), we manipulated conditions of stress and tested the interaction of stress with leaders’ extraversion and openness to experience in predicting their charismatic behaviors. We then tested, in a field study of 71 executives (Study 2, N = 256 participants), the interaction of employees’ reported stress with leaders’ stimulation values in predicting their charismatic behavior. In support of our hypotheses, the relationships between approach‐oriented dispositions and charisma were significantly weaker when stress was high. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of this finding, in particular given that it is in stressful conditions under which charismatic leadership is said to be most important.
    February 19, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12073   open full text
  • How Do Leaders and their Teams Bring about Organizational Learning and Outcomes?
    Yair Berson, Rima'a Da'as, David A. Waldman.
    Personnel Psychology. February 17, 2014
    How do leaders generate a learning climate that yields favorable organizational outcomes? To address this question, we offer and test a model linking charismatic leadership with the team‐emergent states of shared vision and trust within the team, as predicting organizational learning climate, and long‐term assessments of organizational outcomes by key stakeholders. We examined this model in a sample of 69 Arab elementary schools in Israel using multiple sources of raters, predicting long‐term assessments by key stakeholders of respective schools (parents and superintendents) at 2 points in time: 1 year and 3 years following the survey of the teachers. In line with our expectations, we obtained an overall, indirect effect between charismatic leadership and organizational learning climate. We also found support for both the direct and indirect effects of leader charisma through trust within the team on organizational learning climate and school outcomes. Although charismatic leadership predicted shared vision among team members, shared vision did not predict organizational learning climate, and hence, our proposed mediating effects of shared vision on organizational learning climate and outcomes were not supported. We discuss both theoretical and practical implications for the effects of leaders on learning processes and outcomes.
    February 17, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12071   open full text
  • The Global Context and People at Work: Special Issue Introduction.
    Maria L. Kraimer, Riki Takeuchi, Michael Frese.
    Personnel Psychology. February 06, 2014
    Although considerable research has been conducted on a variety of cross‐cultural management topics, we still know very little about how organizations can effectively manage people involved in global work or how cross‐cultural differences impact individuals and groups at work. To address this gap, we edited a special issue of Personnel Psychology that presents scholarly research contributing to understanding how global experiences and contexts impact people at work. We identified 3 research themes: cross‐cultural comparisons, the different types of global workers, and theoretical perspectives that underlie the accepted articles’ contributions to this special issue. We conclude with specific theoretical and methodological recommendations for research on human resource management and organizational behavior topics incorporating the global context.
    February 06, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12067   open full text
  • Life Spillovers: The Spillover of Fear of Home Foreclosure to the Workplace.
    Belle Rose Ragins, Karen S. Lyness, Larry J. Williams, Doan Winkel.
    Personnel Psychology. January 20, 2014
    Work–life research has focused on the spillover of family experiences to the workplace but has neglected other life experiences that may also be brought to work. Addressing this shortcoming, we present a conceptual framework for the study of life spillovers. We offer the idea that life experiences can include shocks and that the fear associated with nonwork shocks can spill over to the workplace. The national shock of the collapse of the U.S. financial and housing markets in 2008 offered an opportunity to test these ideas and build an empirical foundation for the study of life spillovers. Using a sample of 2,135 organizationally employed homeowners, we examined the spillover of fear of home foreclosure to the workplace. In support of our moderated mediation model, employees with greater fear of losing their homes to foreclosure reported more physical stress‐related symptoms at work, and their acknowledgment of home‐to‐work spillover fully mediated this relationship. Fear of foreclosure also directly predicted job search behaviors and negatively affected employees’ organizational commitment and turnover intentions through multiple mediators involving home‐to‐work spillover and stress. Resources and demands from the home and, to a lesser extent, work domains amplified the spillover of fear of foreclosure to the workplace. Taken together, these findings support widening the work–life lens to include a broader array of nonwork experiences. Practical implications are presented as well as new directions for future research using the life spillover framework.
    January 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12065   open full text
  • Is Being a Good Learner Enough? An Examination of the Interplay Between Learning Goal Orientation and Impression Management Tactics on Creativity.
    Dong Liu, Sheng Wang, Sandy J. Wayne.
    Personnel Psychology. January 16, 2014
    This study explores how protégés’ learning goal orientation (LGO) and impression management (IM) tactics interact to explain mentors’ provision of mentoring functions and ultimately, protégés’ creativity. Using longitudinal data from 917 mentor–protégé dyads participating in an 8‐month mentoring program, we found that protégés’ mentor‐focused and self‐focused IM tactics strengthened the relationship between protégés’ LGO and the extent of mentoring provided by mentors, whereas job‐focused IM tactics weakened this relationship. Moreover, these IM tactics moderated the indirect effect of protégés’ LGO on protégés’ creativity through the extent of mentoring provided by mentors. Implications for organizational theory and practice are discussed.
    January 16, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12064   open full text
  • Political Skill and Work Outcomes: A Theoretical Extension, Meta‐Analytic Investigation, and Agenda for the Future.
    Timothy P. Munyon, James K. Summers, Katina M. Thompson, Gerald R. Ferris.
    Personnel Psychology. January 13, 2014
    This quantitative review explored the political skill construct and its predictive ability across a number of organizational outcomes. First, we extended the Ferris et al. meta‐theoretical framework of political skill. Next, incorporating meta‐analysis, we found political skill is positively related to self‐efficacy, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, work productivity, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), career success, and personal reputation, and negatively related to physiological strain. Political skill was not significantly related to psychological strain or perceptions of organizational politics. Using meta‐regression and dominance analyses, political skill predicted task performance after controlling for the Big Five personality characteristics and general mental ability. In a test of indirect relationships, our results suggest that personal reputation and self‐efficacy partially mediate the political skill–task performance relationship. Finally, in a post hoc test of political skill dimensions, we found that networking ability, interpersonal influence, and apparent sincerity (but not social astuteness) predicted task performance. Our findings provide a comprehensive assessment of theory and research to date on political skill and extend theoretical foundations to stimulate new inquiry into the operation of this important construct.
    January 13, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12066   open full text
  • The Role of Leadership and Trust in Creating Structural Patterns of Team Procedural Justice: A Social Network Investigation.
    Dong Liu, Morela Hernandez, Lei Wang.
    Personnel Psychology. January 08, 2014
    We adopt a social network perspective to investigate the distinct structural patterns (i.e., centralization and density) of procedural justice (PJ) in teams and the antecedent factors that create them. Across 2 longitudinal field studies in which we gathered social network data from 1,008 workers on 138 teams (Study 1) in China and 672 workers on 125 teams (Study 2) in the United States, we found that differentiation in leader–member exchange relationships significantly influenced the centralization and density of PJ within a team by affecting the level of intrateam trust. Specifically, the more differentiated leader treatment team members received, the lower the level of trust within a team, which resulted in more concentrated (high centralization) and fewer (low density) social interactions among members regarding team PJ. Furthermore, differentiated leader treatment of team members was especially damaging to intrateam trust and, in turn, the structural patterns of team PJ when team members were in close proximity and highly sensitive to equity issues.
    January 08, 2014   doi: 10.1111/peps.12062   open full text
  • On the Distribution of Job Performance: The Role of Measurement Characteristics in Observed Departures from Normality.
    James W. Beck, Adam S. Beatty, Paul R. Sackett.
    Personnel Psychology. December 17, 2013
    In a recent article, O'Boyle and Aguinis () argued that job performance is not distributed normally but instead is nonnormal and highly skewed. However, we believe the extreme departures from normality observed by these authors may have been due to characteristics of performance measures used. To address this issue, we identify 7 measurement criteria that we argue must be present for inferences to be made about the distribution of job performance. Specifically, performance measures must: (a) reflect behavior, (b) include an aggregation of multiple behaviors, (c) include the full range of performers, (d) include the full range of performance, (e) be time bounded, (f) focus on comparable jobs, and (g) not be distorted by motivational forces. Next, we present data from a wide range of sources—including the workplace, laboratory, athletics, and computer simulations—that illustrate settings in which failing to meet one or more of these criteria led to a highly skewed distribution providing a better fit to the data than a normal distribution. However, measurement approaches that better align with the 7 criteria listed above resulted in a normal distribution providing a better fit. We conclude that large departures from normality are in many cases an artifact of measurement.
    December 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12060   open full text
  • I Cannot Afford to Have a Life: Employee Adaptation to Feelings of Job Insecurity.
    Wendy R. Boswell, Julie B. Olson‐Buchanan, T. Brad Harris.
    Personnel Psychology. December 17, 2013
    This study examines the links between employee perceptions of job insecurity, the work–nonwork interface, and stress‐related outcomes. Drawing on an adaptation perspective, we expect employees feeling greater job insecurity to engage in adaptive work behaviors including less use of work–nonwork support programs and greater willingness to let work permeate into one's personal life, which in turn will associate with greater work–nonwork conflict and emotional exhaustion. Data were collected from employees within a large energy company at 2 points in time. Results support the model, offering important insights into employee behavioral responses to job insecurity and key mechanisms through which insecurity may foster diminished employee well‐being.
    December 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12061   open full text
  • On the Limitations of Using Situational Judgment Tests to Measure Interpersonal Skills: The Moderating Influence of Employee Anger.
    Jerel E. Slaughter, Michael S. Christian, Nathan P. Podsakoff, Evan F. Sinar, Filip Lievens.
    Personnel Psychology. November 06, 2013
    Many authors have suggested that situational judgment tests (SJTs) are useful tools for assessing applicants because SJT items can be written to assess a number of job‐related knowledges, skills, abilities and other characteristics (KSAOs). However, SJTs may not be appropriate for measuring certain KSAOs for some applicants. We posit that using SJTs to measure interpersonal skills may lead to invalid inferences about applicants with higher levels of angry hostility (AH), and thus, AH should moderate the relation between interpersonally oriented SJTs and job performance. Three studies, using samples of healthcare workers (n = 225), police officers (n = 54), and medical doctors (n = 92), provided support for hypotheses in that that relations between SJT scores and performance criteria were significantly weaker among employees higher in AH compared to those lower in AH. In addition, none of the other facets of neuroticism tested (self‐consciousness, anxiety, depression, immoderation, or vulnerability to stress) consistently moderated SJT validity, providing support for the uniqueness of AH. Implications for practice, and for future research studying the relations between interpersonal skills as measured by SJTs and job performance, are discussed.
    November 06, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12056   open full text
  • Does Family Life Help to be a Better Leader? A Closer Look at Crossover Processes From Leaders to Followers.
    Lieke L. Ten Brummelhuis, Jarrod M. Haar, Maree Roche.
    Personnel Psychology. October 24, 2013
    Although research on family‐to‐work processes is accumulating, not many studies have looked at how the leader's family issues spillover to work and what the consequences are for their followers. We investigate whether leaders’ family‐to‐work conflict (FWC) and enrichment (FWE) influence first their own well‐being at work (i.e., job burnout and work engagement) and consequently the well‐being of their followers due to crossover processes. We test whether crossover is due to the transfer of emotions from the leader to followers (affective crossover) or due to diminished or enhanced support from the leader (behavioral crossover). Using a sample of 199 leaders and 456 followers, we found that leader FWC (Time 1) was positively related to leader feelings of burnout 4 weeks later (Time 2), consequently enhancing follower feelings of burnout 5 weeks after Time 1 (Time 3). Similarly, leader FWE had a positive relationship with follower engagement, through leader enhanced engagement. Our findings fully supported the affective crossover mechanism. In addition, leader burnout was negatively related to leader supportive behavior, indirectly increasing burnout among followers. Our results underscore that leaders’ family life matters at work, influencing not only their own well‐being but also how they motivate and support their followers.
    October 24, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12057   open full text
  • The Structured Employment Interview: Narrative and Quantitative Review of the Research Literature.
    Julia Levashina, Christopher J. Hartwell, Frederick P. Morgeson, Michael A. Campion.
    Personnel Psychology. October 06, 2013
    In the 20 years since frameworks of employment interview structure have been developed, a considerable body of empirical research has accumulated. We summarize and critically examine this literature by focusing on the 8 main topics that have been the focus of attention: (a) the definition of structure; (b) reducing bias through structure; (c) impression management in structured interviews; (d) measuring personality via structured interviews; (e) comparing situational versus past‐behavior questions; (f) developing rating scales; (g) probing, follow‐up, prompting, and elaboration on questions; and (h) reactions to structure. For each topic, we review and critique research and identify promising directions for future research. When possible, we augment the traditional narrative review with meta‐analytic review and content analysis. We concluded that much is known about structured interviews, but there are still many unanswered questions. We provide 12 propositions and 19 research questions to stimulate further research on this important topic.
    October 06, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12052   open full text
  • Getting What's New from Newcomers: Empowering Leadership, Creativity, and Adjustment in the Socialization Context.
    T. Brad Harris, Ning Li, Wendy R. Boswell, Xin‐an Zhang, Zhitao Xie.
    Personnel Psychology. September 20, 2013
    Researchers consistently argue that organizations need to generate creative ideas to ensure long‐term success and survival. One possible solution for increasing creativity is to inject “fresh blood” into the organization by hiring new employees. However, past work suggests there may be a number of impediments that stifle newcomer creativity and, further, that encouraging newcomer creativity may compromise other adjustment outcomes. Accordingly, the present research examines how empowering leaders, in conjunction with contextual and relational factors (i.e., organizational support for creativity and newcomers' trust in leaders), facilitate newcomer creativity. Study 1 indicates that empowering leadership positively predicts newcomer creativity and that this relationship is contingent on the organizational context. Study 2 reveals that a more specific and proximal contextual socialization factor–newcomers' trust in leaders–is a more potent moderator than organizational support for creativity. Further, these predictors operate through creative process engagement to influence creativity. Finally, results indicate positive links between empowering leadership and role clarity, attachment, and task performance, suggesting that empowering leadership may serve as an important, albeit overlooked, socialization tactic.
    September 20, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12053   open full text
  • Star Performers in Twenty‐First Century Organizations.
    Herman Aguinis, Ernest O'Boyle.
    Personnel Psychology. September 17, 2013
    We argue that changes in the nature of work in 21st‐century organizations have led to the emergence of star performers—a few individuals who contribute a disproportionate amount of output. We describe how stars negate the long‐held belief that the distribution of individual performance is normal and, instead, suggest an underlying power law distribution. In addition, we offer 9 propositions to guide future empirical research on star performers and an underlying power law distribution of individual performance. We describe how the presence of stars is likely to affect all individual‐, team‐, and firm‐level management theories addressing individual performance directly or indirectly, but focus on specific implications for those addressing human capital, turnover, compensation, downsizing, leadership, teamwork, corporate entrepreneurship, and microfoundations of strategy. In addition, we discuss methodological considerations necessary to carry out our proposed research agenda. Finally, we discuss how a consideration of star performers has important implications for management practice.
    September 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12054   open full text
  • The Invisible Eye? Electronic Performance Monitoring and Employee Job Performance.
    Devasheesh P. Bhave.
    Personnel Psychology. September 10, 2013
    To enhance employee performance, many organizations are increasingly using electronic performance monitoring (EPM). The relationship between the frequency of EPM use and employee performance is examined in 2 field studies. In Study 1, which uses a unique longitudinal data set, results reveal that shorter time lags between 2 consecutive employee performance assessments are related to better task performance as indicated by call quality metrics. A second field study using matched supervisor–employee and EPM system data is conducted in 2 call centers to extend these results and to focus more directly on the supervisors’ use of EPM and its relationship with additional performance criteria: counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Results indicate that more frequent supervisory use of EPM is associated with better task performance and OCB. However, supervisory use of EPM was not significantly related to CWB.
    September 10, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12046   open full text
  • Spotlight on Age‐Diversity Climate: The Impact of Age‐Inclusive HR Practices on Firm‐Level Outcomes.
    Stephan A. Boehm, Florian Kunze, Heike Bruch.
    Personnel Psychology. September 10, 2013
    This study investigates the emergence and the performance effects of an age‐diversity climate at the organizational level of analysis. Building upon Kopelman and colleagues’ (Kopelman, Brief, & Guzzo, ) climate model of firm productivity as well as Cox's ()  interactional model of cultural diversity, we hypothesize a positive influence of age‐inclusive HR practices on the development of an organization‐wide age‐diversity climate, which in turn should be directly related to collective perceptions of social exchange and indirectly to firm performance and employees’ collective turnover intentions. The assumed relationships are tested in a sample of 93 German small and medium‐sized companies with 14,260 employees participating. To circumvent common source problems, information for the various constructs was gathered from 6 different sources. To test our assumed relationships, we applied structural equation modeling and executed bootstrapping procedures to test the significance of the indirect effects. We received support for all assumed relationships. The paper concludes with practical recommendations on how to establish and make use of a positive age‐diversity climate.
    September 10, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12047   open full text
  • Now You See Them, Now You Do Not: The Influence of Indicator–Factor Ratio on Support for Assessment Center Dimensions.
    Elizabeth L. Monahan, Brian J. Hoffman, Charles E. Lance, Duncan J. R. Jackson, Mark R. Foster.
    Personnel Psychology. August 23, 2013
    The inability of assessment center (AC) researchers to find admissible solutions for confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models that include dimensions has led some to conclude that ACs do not measure dimensions at all. This study investigated whether increasing the indicator–factor ratio facilitates the achievement of convergent and admissible CFA solutions in 2 independent ACs. Results revealed that, when models specify multiple behavioral checklist items as manifest indicators of each latent dimension, all of the AC CFA models tested were identified and returned proper solutions. When armed with the ability to undertake a full set of model comparisons using model fit rather than solution convergence and admissibility as comparative criteria, we found clear evidence for modest dimension effects. These results suggest that the frequent failure to find dimensions in models of the internal structure of ACs is a methodological artifact and that one approach to increase the likelihood for reaching a proper solution is to increase the number of manifest indicators for each dimension factor. In addition, across exercise dimension ratings and the overall assessment rating were both strongly correlated with dimension and exercise factors, indicating that regardless of how an AC is scored, exercise variance will continue to play a key role in the scoring of ACs.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12049   open full text
  • When Do Employees Speak up for Their Customers? A Model of Voice in a Customer Service Context.
    Chak Fu Lam, David M. Mayer.
    Personnel Psychology. August 23, 2013
    We develop a conceptual model of customer‐focused voice and test it in a hospital setting. Drawing from theory and research on voice, we find that customer orientation and job autonomy are positively associated with customer‐focused voice. In addition, consistent with social information processing theory, these relationships are moderated by service climate, such that a high service climate compensates for the less desirable aspects of employees or their jobs. Finally, we provide evidence for a critical but untested assumption of the voice literature by linking hospital‐level customer‐focused voice to hospital‐level service performance. Results based on data from four unique data sources, provided at varying points in time, and at different levels of analysis demonstrate support for our conceptual model.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12050   open full text
  • Psychological Ownership, Territorial Behavior, and Being Perceived as a Team Contributor: The Critical Role of Trust in the Work Environment.
    Graham Brown, Craig Crossley, Sandra L. Robinson.
    Personnel Psychology. August 19, 2013
    In this field study, we develop and test a theory regarding the role of trust in the work environment as a critical condition that determines the relationship between psychological ownership, territoriality, and being perceived as a team contributor. We argue that, dependent upon the context of trust in the work environment, psychological ownership may lead to territorial behaviors of claiming and anticipatory defending and that, dependent upon the context of trust, territorial behavior may lead coworkers to negatively judge the territorial employee as less of a team contributor. A sample of working adults reported on their psychological ownership and territorial behavior toward an important object at work, and a coworker of each provided evaluations on the level of trust in the work environment and rated the focal individual's contributions to the team. Findings suggest that a work environment of trust is a “double‐edged sword”: On the one hand, a high trust environment reduces the territorial behavior associated with psychological ownership; on the other hand, when territorial behavior does occur in high trust environments, coworkers rate the territorial employee's contributions to the team significantly lower. We discuss the nature and management of territorial behavior in light of these findings.
    August 19, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12048   open full text
  • Helpful Today, But Not Tomorrow? Feeling Grateful as a Predictor of Daily Organizational Citizenship Behaviors.
    Jeffrey R. Spence, Douglas J. Brown, Lisa M. Keeping, Huiwen Lian.
    Personnel Psychology. August 19, 2013
    This research extends the existing theoretical understanding of what predicts organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Using experience sampling techniques, we examine the within‐person relation between OCB and a novel, theoretically relevant predictor: state gratitude. Using 4 independent samples with a total of 210 working adults and 173 undergraduate students, we developed a reliable and valid measure of state gratitude. Drawing upon the moral affect model of gratitude and affective events theory, we conducted 2 experience sampling studies with data collected from 67 (Study 2) and 104 (Study 3) working adults to test the effects of state gratitude on OCB, beyond the effects of several relevant constructs (i.e., state positive affect, dispositional gratitude, and social exchange). Our results advance OCB research and explanations of OCB by modeling OCB as a dynamic, time‐variant construct and by demonstrating that feelings of gratitude, a discrete positive emotion, can be an effective predictor of OCB.
    August 19, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12051   open full text
  • The Dynamic Relationships of Work Affect and Job Satisfaction with Perceptions of Fit.
    Allison S. Gabriel, James M. Diefendorff, Megan M. Chandler, Christina M. Moran, Gary J. Greguras.
    Personnel Psychology. July 22, 2013
    This study assessed the longitudinal relationship between perceived fit (i.e., person–organization fit, person–job fit) and affect‐based variables (i.e., job satisfaction, negative affect, positive affect) using momentary (i.e., within‐person level) and stable (i.e., between‐person level) assessments of both sets of variables. In doing so, we tested 3 theoretical models of the perceived fit and work affect relationship (i.e., fit preceding affect; affect preceding fit; reciprocal fit–affect relations) to determine (a) the antecedents and consequences of fit perceptions, (b) whether fit perceptions exhibit meaningful within‐person variability, and (c) if direct fit perceptions are simply the result of affect/job satisfaction at work or can influence such work experiences. In addition, we examined whether the relationships between affect/job satisfaction and fit perceptions were homologous (i.e., similar) across the 2 levels of analysis (i.e., within‐person and between‐person). Results indicated that fit primarily preceded affect and job satisfaction at both levels of analysis, though some specific relationships exhibited reciprocal causality and others supported affect as an antecedent of fit perceptions. Our findings paint a complex picture of the causal relationship between perceived fit and work affect.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12042   open full text
  • Recruiting Global Travelers: The Role of Global Travel Recruitment Messages and Individual Differences in Perceived Fit, Attraction, and Job Pursuit Intentions.
    Jean M. Phillips, Stanley M. Gully, John E. McCarthy, William G. Castellano, Mee Sook Kim.
    Personnel Psychology. July 15, 2013
    Organizations often require managers to travel globally to fill international roles. Attending to fit with an organization's need for international mobility and global openness during recruiting could increase the proportion of effective global managers in an organization's applicant pool. We use recruitment research and theory to develop and test a conditional process model of the relationship between recruitment messages and job seeker perceived fit, attraction, and job pursuit intentions, depending on job seekers’ global openness and willingness to travel globally. Recruitment messages include information about a job's travel requirements and the global presence of the business. Two studies were undertaken to test our hypotheses. Analyses were conducted with conditional process modeling using nonlinear bootstrapping. Study 1, involving 230 job seekers, found that applicants’ willingness to travel interacted with recruiting messages about a job's global travel requirements to relate to job pursuit intentions through perceived job fit and job attraction. Study 2, involving 260 participants recruited through Mechanical Turk, indicated that global openness interacted with a global recruitment message, and willingness to travel interacted with a travel recruitment message, to relate to job pursuit intentions through job and organizational dimensions of perceived fit and attraction.
    July 15, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12043   open full text
  • Driving it Home: How Workplace Emotional Labor Harms Employee Home Life.
    David T. Wagner, Christopher M. Barnes, Brent A. Scott.
    Personnel Psychology. July 13, 2013
    To date, the majority of research on emotional labor has focused on outcomes that occur in the workplace. However, research has yet to consider the possibility that the daily effects of emotional labor spill over to life outside of work, even though a large body of literature examining the spillover from work life to home life indicates that work experiences influence employees after they leave the workplace. Accordingly, we examined the influence of day‐to‐day surface acting on 3 types of theoretically derived stress outcomes experienced at home: emotional exhaustion, work‐to‐family conflict, and insomnia. In an experience sampling field study of 78 bus drivers, we found that daily surface acting was connected to increases in each of the outcomes noted above. Moreover, surface acting had an indirect effect on emotional exhaustion and insomnia via state anxiety.
    July 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12044   open full text
  • Helping Teams to Help Themselves: Comparing two Team‐Led Debriefing Methods.
    Erik R. Eddy, Scott I. Tannenbaum, John E. Mathieu.
    Personnel Psychology. July 12, 2013
    Team‐based structures have become more widely used in organizations. Therefore, it is important for team members to perform well in their current team and to build skills and enthusiasm for working on future teams. This study examined team debriefing, an intervention in which team members reflect on recent experiences to prepare for subsequent tasks. Prior researchers have shown that facilitated team debriefs work, but they have not examined how to enable teams to conduct their own debriefs or studied how debriefs affect individual level outcomes. Therefore, we compared 2 team‐led debriefing techniques: (a) an unguided debrief and (b) a guided debrief designed to incorporate lessons learned from prior debriefs. We collected data from 174 business students who were members of 35 teams from 9 sections of a Strategic Management course. Class sections were randomly assigned to one of the debriefing conditions, and teams completed 4 business cases over 10 weeks. A multilevel design was employed and a multistage model building approach was used to test the hypotheses using hierarchical linear modeling techniques. Results of this cluster randomized, quasi‐experimental design suggest that the team‐led guided debrief intervention resulted in superior team processes as compared to the unguided debriefing method. Team processes, in turn, related significantly to greater team performance and increased individual readiness for teamwork and enthusiasm for teaming. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
    July 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12041   open full text
  • Show me The Money! do Financial Rewards for Performance Enhance or Undermine The Satisfaction from Emotional Labor?
    Alicia A. Grandey, Nai‐Wen Chi, Jennifer A. Diamond.
    Personnel Psychology. June 07, 2013
    Does satisfaction from performing emotional labor (EL)—maintaining positive emotions with customers as part of the job—depend on the  financial rewards available for good service? According to a “controlling perspective” of rewards, satisfaction from performing EL may be undermined by financial incentives, but based on a “valuing perspective” of rewards, the relationship should be enhanced. We contribute to the literatures on EL and performance‐contingent rewards with a “full‐cycle” inquiry of this question conducted with (a) a field survey of diverse occupations in the United States, (b) an experimental call center simulation with U.S. college students, and (c) a multilevel study of Taiwanese sales firms. Overall, financial rewards for service performance enhanced, rather than undermined, satisfaction from EL requirements and effort (i.e., surface acting) with customers. Performing EL by modifying feelings (i.e., deep acting) was positively related to job satisfaction regardless of rewards, beyond personality traits. Results have implications for reward structures and enhancing job satisfaction with this increasingly common form of labor.
    June 07, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12037   open full text
  • Gone Today but here Tomorrow: Extending the Unfolding Model of Turnover to Consider Boomerang Employees.
    Abbie J. Shipp, Stacie Furst‐Holloway, T. Brad Harris, Benson Rosen.
    Personnel Psychology. June 07, 2013
    Turnover research typically views voluntary turnover as an end state that severs the employment relationship permanently. However, this perspective overlooks the possibility that an employee who quits may return in the future. Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that these “Boomerangs” can be a valuable staffing resource for their organizations. Yet, research regarding this type of employee is largely absent. Thus, we know little about whether the experiences of these temporary leavers differ from those who leave an organization permanently. In this paper, we examined differences between Boomerangs (employees who quit but are later rehired) and “Alumni” (employees who quit but will not return) using both qualitative and quantitative data. In a large sample of professional service employees, we found that Boomerangs and Alumni reported different reasons for having quit, which meant they were more likely to be classified on different paths in the unfolding model of turnover. In addition, survival analyses on the time to turnover suggest that Boomerangs quit earlier than Alumni in their original tenure, paradoxically suggesting that employees who quit earlier may be the very employees who will return in the future. Together, our findings suggest an extension to the unfolding model that considers how the timing of and reasons for turnover impact post‐turnover (return) decisions.
    June 07, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12039   open full text
  • Personality And Leadership Composition in Top Management Teams: Implications For Organizational Effectiveness.
    Amy E. Colbert, Murray R. Barrick, Bret H. Bradley.
    Personnel Psychology. June 05, 2013
    This study examines whether top management team (TMT) personality and leadership are associated with organizational effectiveness beyond the effects of CEO personality and leadership, as suggested by upper echelons theory. Using direct measures of personality and leadership, rather than proxy variables from archival sources or demographic data, we found that mean levels of conscientiousness among TMT members were related to lagged indicators of organizational performance, as were CEO conscientiousness and transformational leadership. Follower commitment to the organization was found to be associated with higher levels of transformational leadership from both the CEO and TMT. The results are consistent with the upper echelons perspective that organizational effectiveness is influenced not only by the CEO but also by a dominant coalition of leaders. Yet, the results also show that the CEO plays a distinct role in influencing organizational financial performance and collective organizational commitment. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
    June 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12036   open full text
  • Why do Managers Engage in Trustworthy Behavior? A Multilevel Cross‐Cultural Study in 18 Countries.
    B. Sebastian Reiche, Pablo Cardona, Yih‐Teen Lee, Miguel Ángel Canela, Esther Akinnukawe, Jon P. Briscoe, César Bullara, Maria Victoria Caparas, Dan V. Caprar, Dallied Charlemagne, Tor Grenness, Wei He, Konrad Jamro, Astrid Kainzbauer, Kathrin Koester, Alma Lazo, Alejandro Moreno, Michael J. Morley, Vivian Myloni, Sadia Nadeem, Marisa Aguirre Nieto, Alexey Svishchev, Scott N. Taylor, Helen Wilkinson.
    Personnel Psychology. June 05, 2013
    Drawing on theories of generalized exchange and the norm of indirect reciprocity, we conceptualize subordinates’ organizational citizenship behavior directed toward the organization (OCBO) and directed toward peers (OCBI) as antecedents of managerial trustworthy behavior and examine how managers’ affective trust in subordinates mediates this relationship. We also investigate the extent to which this mediation is moderated by the level of collectivism in a society. Data were collected from 741 managers and 2,111 subordinates in 18 countries representing all major cultural regions of the world. We find support for our hypothesized moderated mediation in that managers’ affective trust in subordinates mediates the relationships between both subordinates’ OCBO and managerial trustworthy behavior, and subordinates’ OCBI and managerial trustworthy behavior across the different countries studied. Further, managers’ affective trust in subordinates only mediates the relationships between both types of citizenship behavior and managerial trustworthy behavior when collectivism is low to medium but not when it is high. Implications for research on cross‐cultural psychology, trust, and organizational citizenship behavior are discussed.
    June 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12038   open full text
  • A Meta‐Analytic Investigation of the Within‐Person Self‐Efficacy Domain: Is Self‐Efficacy a Product of Past Performance or a Driver of Future Performance?
    Traci Sitzmann, Gillian Yeo.
    Personnel Psychology. May 23, 2013
    We conducted a meta‐analysis to determine whether the within‐person self‐efficacy/performance relationship is positive, negative, or null and to compare the strength of the self‐efficacy/performance and past performance/self‐efficacy within‐person relationships. The self‐efficacy/performance within‐person corrected correlation was .23 but was weak and nonsignificant (ρ = .06) when controlling for the linear trajectory, revealing that the main effect was spurious. The past performance/self‐efficacy within‐person corrected correlation was .40 and remained positive and significant (ρ = .30) when controlling for the linear trajectory. The moderator results revealed that at the within‐person level of analysis: (a) self‐efficacy had at best a moderate, positive effect on performance and a null effect under other moderating conditions (ρ ranged from –.02 to .33); (b) the main effect of past performance on self‐efficacy was stronger than the effect of self‐efficacy on performance, even in the moderating conditions that produced the strongest self‐efficacy/performance relationship; (c) the effect of past performance on self‐efficacy ranged from moderate to strong across moderating conditions and was statistically significant across performance tasks, contextual factors, and methodological moderators (ρ ranged from .18 to .52). Overall, this suggests that self‐efficacy is primarily a product of past performance rather than the driving force affecting future performance.
    May 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12035   open full text
  • Reactive Adjustment or Proactive Embedding? Multistudy, Multiwave Evidence for Dual Pathways to Expatriate Retention.
    Hong Ren, Margaret A. Shaffer, David A. Harrison, Carmen Fu, Katherine M. Fodchuk.
    Personnel Psychology. May 17, 2013
    The dominant perspective on expatriation characterizes the process as a continuing adaptation to existing job demands on an international assignment. Another, less studied perspective, emphasizes that expatriates can initiate tactics to acquire task, interpersonal, and affective resources for shaping their assignment experiences. Adopting a positive organizational scholarship lens and drawing on the job demands–resources model, we simultaneously examine both of these reactive demand‐based and proactive resource‐based pathways to expatriate retention. We propose that cross‐cultural uncertainty demands and expatriate‐initiated resource acquisition tactics both influence adjustment and embeddedness. Thus embeddedness works alongside adjustment to drive expatriates’ plans to remain in the international position, which in turn leads to actual retention. Using evidence from 2 separate panel studies (one with 2 waves and the other with 4 waves of data), we demonstrate the importance of the resource‐based pathway for expatriate assignments.
    May 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12034   open full text
  • Different Strokes for Different Folks: The Impact of Sex Dissimilarity in the Empowerment–Performance Relationship.
    Derek R. Avery, Mo Wang, Sabrina D. Volpone, Le Zhou.
    Personnel Psychology. May 14, 2013
    Organizations often utilize empowerment as a way to bolster performance. It is largely assumed, however, that its impact in this capacity is equivalent across organizational members. We tested this notion within a sample of 420 employees belonging to 75 teams in a Chinese organization and found that team empowerment related positively to supervisor‐rated in‐role and self‐rated extra‐role performance through its effect on individual psychological empowerment. More important, employee–coworker demographic dissimilarity moderated both stages of this indirect relationship. Specifically, when employee–coworker sex dissimilarity was higher, the following relationships were attenuated: (a) team empowerment–individual empowerment, (b) individual empowerment–in‐role performance, and (c) individual empowerment–extra–role performance. Collectively, the results illustrate that the impact of empowerment is contingent upon demographic dissimilarity.
    May 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12032   open full text
  • License to Ill: The Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and CEO Moral Identity on Corporate Social Irresponsibility.
    Margaret E. Ormiston, Elaine M. Wong.
    Personnel Psychology. May 14, 2013
    Although managers and researchers have invested considerable effort into understanding corporate social responsibility (CSR), less is known about corporate social irresponsibility (CSiR). Drawing on strategic leadership and moral licensing research, we address this gap by considering the relationship between CSR and CSiR. We predict that prior CSR is positively associated with subsequent CSiR because the moral credits achieved through CSR enable leaders to engage in less ethical stakeholder treatment. Further, we hypothesize that leaders’ moral identity symbolization, or the degree to which being moral is expressed outwardly to the public through actions and behavior, will moderate the CSR–CSiR relationship, such that the relationship will be stronger when CEOs are high on moral identity symbolization rather than low on moral identity symbolization. Through an archival study of 49 Fortune 500 firms, we find support for our hypotheses.
    May 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12029   open full text
  • A Mediated Moderation Model of Recruiting Socially and Environmentally Responsible Job Applicants.
    Stanley M. Gully, Jean M. Phillips, William G. Castellano, Kyongji Han, Andrea Kim.
    Personnel Psychology. May 14, 2013
    Socially and environmentally responsible organizations must attend to the fit of employees with the values of the organization. Recruiting practices are a key tool for ensuring fit with an organization's culture and values. We develop and test a model of the process through which recruitment information about an organization's social and environmental responsibility values differentially affect job seeker perceived fit, attraction, and job pursuit intentions depending on job seekers’ desire to have a significant impact through work. Our model of mediated moderation is tested with a sample of 339 actual job seekers using conditional process modeling and nonlinear bootstrapping techniques. Results support expectations that advertisement messages about an organization's social and environmental responsibility values interact with applicants’ desire to have a significant impact through work to influence job pursuit intentions through the hypothesized mediational process. Implications of the model for research on recruitment and organizational social and environmental responsibility are discussed.
    May 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12033   open full text
  • Emotion Regulation in Workgroups: The Roles of Demographic Diversity and Relational Work Context.
    Eugene Kim, Devasheesh P. Bhave, Theresa M. Glomb.
    Personnel Psychology. May 08, 2013
    Drawing on the social identity perspective, we investigate the cross‐level relationship between demographic diversity in workgroups and emotion regulation. We propose that age, racial, and gender diversity in workgroups relate positively to emotion regulation because of demography‐related in‐group/out‐group dynamics. We also examine the moderating role of the relational work context, specifically task interdependence and social interaction, on the relationship between demographic diversity and emotion regulation. Results from a sample of 2,072 employees in 274 workgroups indicate that working in a group with greater age diversity is positively related to an employee's emotion regulation. Results suggest the operation of the age diversity effect can be attributed primarily to younger employees when they are in workgroups with older coworkers. Results reveal asymmetric effects for racial diversity such that racial out‐group members engage in higher levels of emotion regulation than racial in‐group members when racial diversity is low, whereas racial in‐group members engage in higher levels of emotion regulation than racial out‐group members when racial diversity is high. Race effects also suggest a moderating effect of social interaction; specifically, social interaction weakens the relationship between racial diversity and emotion regulation. Gender effects are not significant.
    May 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12028   open full text
  • Applicants' and Employees' Reactions to Corporate Social Responsibility: The Moderating Effects of First‐Party Justice Perceptions and Moral Identity.
    Deborah E. Rupp, Ruodan Shao, Meghan A. Thornton, Daniel P. Skarlicki.
    Personnel Psychology. May 08, 2013
    This research explored individuals’ reactions to perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) using a multimotive framework. In 2 studies, the authors explored the boundary conditions of CSR effects among job applicants and internal employees. A scenario‐based experiment (N = 81) showed that the effect of CSR perceptions on job applicants’ job pursuit intentions was mitigated by applicants’ first‐party justice experiences, whereas it was amplified by their moral identity (Study 1). Survey data from 245 full‐time employees (Study 2) further supported the interactive effects revealed in Study 1. Specifically, first‐party justice perceptions attenuated the positive relationship between employees’ CSR perceptions and their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB); and the relationship between CSR perceptions and OCB was more pronounced among employees high (versus low) in moral identity. Our findings bridge the CSR and organizational justice literatures, and reveal that the effects of individuals’ CSR perceptions are more complicated than previously thought. The findings shed light on micro (employee)‐level CSR phenomena and offer implications for both research and practice.
    May 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12030   open full text
  • Getting What the Occupation Gives: Exploring Multilevel Links Between Work Design and Occupational Values.
    Erich C. Dierdorff, Frederick P. Morgeson.
    Personnel Psychology. March 10, 2013
    The history of work design research is voluminous and compelling. Thousands of studies have demonstrated the wide‐reaching and powerful impact the design of work can have on a host of meaningful outcomes. Yet, absent in much of this research is an explicit consideration of the context within which work is performed and how this context might impact work design. Drawing from the theory of work adjustment, we describe the different ways in which occupations are linked to work design. In a sample of 805 individuals from 230 occupations, our multilevel examinations show the occupational‐level values of achievement, independence, altruism, status, and comfort are related to a variety of work characteristics. In addition, we found that work characteristics are key mechanisms through which these occupational values affect individual‐level job satisfaction. Implications of these results for work design theory and practice are discussed.
    March 10, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12023   open full text
  • Changes in Perceived Supervisor Embeddedness: Effects on Employees’ Embeddedness, Organizational Trust, and Voice Behavior.
    Thomas W. H. Ng, Daniel C. Feldman.
    Personnel Psychology. March 10, 2013
    Guided by social information processing theory, this study examines how perceived supervisor embeddedness relates to employees’ own affect toward, attachment to, and behavior within the firm. Data were collected from 338 employees at 3 points in time over a 10‐month period. The results supported the proposed model in 3 key ways. First, perceived supervisor embeddedness was directly related to employees’ own embeddedness over time. Second, organizational trust mediated the relationship between perceived supervisor embeddedness and employees’ own embeddedness over time. Third, organizational trust and employee embeddedness were both related to employees’ voice behavior over time.
    March 10, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12025   open full text
  • Fit Happens Globally: A Meta‐Analytic Comparison of the Relationships of Person–Environment Fit Dimensions with Work Attitudes and Performance Across East Asia, Europe, and North America.
    In‐Sue Oh, Russell P. Guay, Kwanghyun Kim, Crystal M. Harold, Jong‐Hyun Lee, Chang‐Goo Heo, Kang‐Hyun Shin.
    Personnel Psychology. March 10, 2013
    In this cross‐cultural meta‐analysis, we examine the relationships between person–environment [P–E] fit and work attitudes (organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and intent to quit) as well as job performance based on 96 studies (110 independent samples) conducted in East Asia, Europe, and North America. We compare the results across cultures while focusing on 4 dimensions of P–E fit (person‐job fit, person–organization fit, person–group fit, and person–supervisor fit) separately and jointly. Findings suggest that the effects of rational fit (person–organization and person–job fit) are (relatively) stronger in North America and, to a lesser extent, Europe than in East Asia. However, the effects of relational fit (person–group and person–supervisor fit) are (relatively) stronger in East Asia than in North America. This highlights that in collectivistic and high power distance (vs. individualistic and low power distance) cultures, relational (vs. rational) fit is more salient in influencing employees’ perceptions about their work environments. Results are less clear concerning job performance. What is common across cultures is that, regardless of which dimension of P–E fit is being considered, fit happens and high levels of fit lead to positive outcomes, confirming the universal relevance of fit phenomenon.
    March 10, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12026   open full text
  • Win–Win–Win: The Influence of Company‐Sponsored Volunteerism Programs on Employees, NGOs, and Business Units.
    Paula Caligiuri, Ahsiya Mencin, Kaifeng Jiang.
    Personnel Psychology. January 14, 2013
    Although the number of firms adopting corporate volunteerism programs is rising steadily, very few firms are assessing the benefits of such programs on target groups, such as employees and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and identifying the conditions under which benefits to the various groups are maximized. This study addresses both by examining the conditions of employees’ corporate volunteer assignments that lead to increased employee engagement, sustainability of the volunteers’ project within the NGO, capability development for the business unit, and employees’ continuation of volunteerism. Using a longitudinal and multisource design, responses from 116 corporate volunteers from a global pharmaceutical organization are matched with responses from their NGO managers and their business unit managers at 3 points in time: at the start of the volunteer assignment, at the end of the assignment, and 6 months after the completion of the assignment. Across these outcomes, we found that employees’ volunteer assignments are most valuable when they are international, when the volunteers perceive that their projects contribute meaningfully the NGO's functioning, when volunteers have professional skills (and are able to use them), when there are opportunities for skills to be developed that can be applied in the volunteers’ regular work role, and when the NGOs have tangible resources to sustain the volunteers’ projects.
    January 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12019   open full text
  • Service Employees’ Reactions to Mistreatment by Customers: A Comparison Between North America and East Asia.
    Ruodan Shao, Daniel P. Skarlicki.
    Personnel Psychology. January 14, 2013
    The authors proposed that customer service employees’ reactions to mistreatment by customers can vary between North American and East Asian employees due to differences in their cultural values. Customer mistreatment was predicted to be associated with direct, active, and target‐specific reactions (i.e., sabotage directed toward the source of mistreatment) more so among North American employees as compared to East Asian employees. In contrast, customer mistreatment was predicted to relate to more indirect, passive, and target‐general reactions (i.e., withdraw organizational citizenship behavior directed toward customers in general) among employees in East Asia as compared to employees in North America. A field study of customer service employees (N = 213) working in the same hotel chain in China and Canada found support for these predictions. Mediation analyses showed that individualism and collectivism accounted for these differences. Theoretical and practical implications are provided, and future directions are discussed.
    January 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/peps.12021   open full text
  • The Effects of a Learning‐Goal Orientation Training on Self‐Regulation: A Field Experiment Among Unemployed Job Seekers.
    Gera Noordzij, Edwin A. J. Hooft, Heleen Mierlo, Arjan Dam, Marise Ph. Born.
    Personnel Psychology. November 07, 2012
    Finding reemployment after job loss is a complex and difficult task that requires extensive motivation and self‐regulation. This study aimed to examine whether improving unemployed job seekers’ cognitive self‐regulation can increase reemployment probabilities. Based on the goal orientation literature, we developed a learning‐goal orientation (LGO) training, which focused on goal setting aimed at improving rather than demonstrating competences and creating a climate of development and improvement. We predicted that the LGO training would influence peoples’ goal orientation towards job seeking, which in turn would relate to learning from failure, strategy awareness, and self‐efficacy, leading to job‐search intentions, resulting in increased reemployment status. Using a 2‐group quasi‐experimental design with 223 unemployed job seekers, we found support for these predictions, except for self‐efficacy. The results suggest that an LGO training is a promising tool to improve self‐regulation in and effectiveness of job search.
    November 07, 2012   doi: 10.1111/peps.12011   open full text