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Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health

Impact factor: 1.923 Print ISSN: 0957-9664

Subjects: Criminology & Penology, Psychiatry

Most recent papers:

  • The prevalence of mental illness and unmet needs of police custody detainees.
    Chiara Samele, Iain McKinnon, Penelope Brown, Samir Srivastava, Aleksandra Arnold, Nicholas Hallett, Andrew Forrester.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 05, 2021
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nInternationally, there is evidence of high rates of mental disorders amongst police custody detainees but this literature is limited, and there has been little research into the unmet needs of police detainees in the UK, or elsewhere. Such research could support better focussed interventions for improving health and recidivism outcomes.\n\n\nAim\nTo examine psychiatric and developmental morbidity amongst police detainees, and ascertain differences in need between morbidity categories.\n\n\nMethod\nWe used a cross‐sectional study design and interviewed a 40% sample of people entering police custody in one South London police station over a 2‐week period. A series of standardised measures was administered to screen for the presence of mental illness, general health and social care needs.\n\n\nResults\nA cohort of 134 people was generated, of whom nearly one‐third (39, 29%) had current mental illness (major depression and/or psychosis); more had a lifetime diagnosis (54, 40%). Just under a fifth met the threshold for post‐traumatic stress disorder (11, 8%). Clinically relevant alcohol or daily cannabis use affected about one quarter of the sample. Twenty‐one percent (or 28) screened positive for personality disorder, 11% (or 15) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 4% (6) for intellectual disability. Nearly one‐fifth (24, 18%) were at risk for suicide. Those with psychosis, and those deemed at risk for suicide, had the highest levels of unmet need and, indeed, overall need. The most frequent unmet need was for accommodation.\n\n\nConclusion\nOur findings not only confirm high rates of mental health problems amongst police detainees but also demonstrate their high risk of suicide and high levels of unmet need, especially as regards accommodation. This underscores the need to provide mental health services in police stations, to help identify and resolve these issues at this early stage in the criminal justice system. Extending accommodation capacity to help some arrestees may help to save lives and interrupt cycling through the criminal justice system.\n\n"]
    April 05, 2021   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2193   open full text
  • The mediating role of externalising and healthy schema modes in the relationship between early maladaptive schemata and overt behaviours in adolescent boys with offending behaviours, and a comparison of their early schemata with those of typically developing boys.
    Dorien L. C. Schilder, Marjolein F. van Wijk‐Herbrink, Annabeth P. Groenman, Barbara J. van den Hoofdakker.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 25, 2021
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nEvidence‐based treatments in routine clinical practice often fail to achieve or sustain amelioration of severe behaviour problems in adolescents. Better understanding of mechanisms underlying such severe behaviour problems could improve treatments. Underlying schemata and schema modes may play an important role.\n\n\nAims\nTo compare early maladaptive schemata, schema modes and behaviour problems in adolescent boys showing disruptive and offending behaviours with those in typically developing boys. We hypothesised a relationship between disconnection and rejection schemata on the one hand and behaviour problems (including offending) on the other in adolescent boys with disruptive behaviour disorders. We also hypothesised that this offending group would differ significantly from typically developing boys on these measures and that schema modes would mediate relationships between schemata and overt behaviours.\n\n\nMethod\nIn this cross‐sectional study, fifty‐five 12–19‐year‐old boys with disruptive behaviour disorders referred to an in‐ or out‐patient clinic were matched to fifty‐five typically developing boys from a previously generated school sample. Group differences on self‐reported schema related measures and externalising behaviour measures were compared using t‐tests. Mediation analyses were performed to assess the mediating role of schema modes in the relation between schemata and behaviour.\n\n\nResults\nBoys diagnosed with disruptive behaviour disorders and engaging in offending behaviours had higher scores on externalising modes and lower scores on healthy modes than the typically developing boys. There were no differences between these groups, however, in disconnection and rejection schemata. In the offending behaviour group, externalising modes mediated the relationship between disconnection and rejection schemata and externalising behaviours while healthy modes mediated a relationship between these schemata and overt prosocial behaviours.\n\n\nImplications\nThe potential impact of healthy modes has not previously been shown in studies of schemata in young offenders. Our findings suggest that treatments for adolescents with severe behaviour problems should not only target maladaptive schemata and dysfunctional modes, but seek also to boost healthy modes.\n\n"]
    March 25, 2021   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2192   open full text
  • Relationships between hope and mental health among women in prison.
    Vivian Wai‐Ming Mak, Samuel Man‐Yin Ho, Wing‐Ling Li, Barbara Ka‐Yan Pau.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 18, 2021
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nPrevious research with non‐offenders has linked a higher dispositional cognition of hope to lower levels of psychological symptoms and demonstrated mediating effects of attentional biases on the relationship between hope and psychological symptoms, but this has not been explored among offenders.\n\n\nAims\nOur aim was to investigate associations between a dispositional cognition of hope and habitual attentional processing styles and distress among women in prison. We hypothesised that higher levels of hope would be associated with more attention to positive information and less to negative information in the surroundings and, in turn, lower levels of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in women in prison.\n\n\nMethod\nIn a cross‐sectional study, we recruited consenting women serving a prison sentence who had been referred to psychological services. Participants completed a set of self‐rating inventories individually, which scaled their levels of hope, attention to positive and negative information and symptoms of anxiety, stress and depression.\n\n\nResults\nTwo hundred and three women participated. Their average age was 35.68 years (range 21–67 years). Over half were recidivists (170, 58%). Overall, the higher the level of hope they had, the lower were the ratings of their psychological symptoms. Positive attentional bias was associated with higher hope and lower psychological distress. In contrast, negative attentional bias was related to lower hope and higher psychological distress ratings. In statistical models, both attentional biases appeared to be partial mediators of the relationship between hope and psychological distress.\n\n\nConclusions\nOur findings among women in prison were consistent with those in non‐forensic populations and not previously studied among prisoners. They suggest that it would be worth evaluating interventions to modify attentional styles as they may have value in increasing hope and reducing psychological symptoms and perhaps also harmful behaviours in this vulnerable population.\n\n"]
    March 18, 2021   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2191   open full text
  • How do childhood conduct problems, callousness and anxiety relate to later offending and adult mental disorder?
    Jean‐Marie Bamvita, Peter Larm, Frank Vitaro, Richard Tremblay, Gilles Côté, Sheilagh Hodgins.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 16, 2021
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 60-76, February 2021. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nVarious combinations of childhood conduct problems, callous traits and anxiety may confer increased risk of offending, psychopathic traits and mental disorders. Knowledge of these outcomes in adulthood is limited.\n\n\nAims\nTo compare adult criminal convictions, psychopathy checklist scores and mental disorders between five groups of men, variously defined in childhood by: (1) callous traits, (2) conduct problems, (3) conduct problems and callous traits, (4) conduct problems and callous traits and anxiety or (5) developing typically.\n\n\nMethod\nTeachers rated conduct problems, callous traits and anxiety at ages 6, 10 and 12 years. Criminal convictions from age 12 to 24 were extracted from official records. The Psychopathy Checklist‐Revised (PCL‐R) and diagnostic interviews were completed at age 33.\n\n\nResults\nRelative to the typically developing group, the groups with conduct problems, with and without callous traits and anxiety, showed 5‐fold elevations in risks of violent convictions and 3 to 4‐fold elevations in risk for antisocial personality disorder, while the groups with conduct problems only and with conduct problems plus callous traits plus anxiety were at increased risk for borderline personality disorder. All risk groups obtained higher PCL‐R total scores than the typically developing childhood group.\n\n\nConclusions and implications\nIt is widely accepted that childhood conduct problems in boys are associated with increased risks of criminal convictions and poorer mental health, but our findings suggest that teachers can identify different subgroups and these have different trajectories. As some subgroups were small, replication is recommended, but our findings offer preliminary support for trialling specific interventions for at risk boys.\n\n"]
    February 16, 2021   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2186   open full text
  • Alexithymia in nonviolent offenders.
    Cate L. Parry, David A. Preece, Maria M. Allan, Alfred Allan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 16, 2021
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 44-48, February 2021. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nAlexithymia is a trait involving difficulties processing emotions. Existing data suggest it is associated with violent offending. In violent offender programmes, therefore, violent offenders are screened for alexithymia and it is attended to if necessary. No studies have, however, examined alexithymia levels in nonviolent offenders and it is, therefore, unknown whether it is also a criminogenic factor in this population.\n\n\nAims\nTo investigate alexithymia levels among incarcerated nonviolent offenders and compare them with a community comparison group.\n\n\nMethod\nThe 20‐item Toronto Alexithymia Scale was used to compare the alexithymia levels of 67 incarcerated nonviolent offenders with a group of 139 people from the general public living in the community.\n\n\nResults\nAlexithymia levels did not differ between the groups.\n\n\nConclusion\nIt appears that alexithymia is not a criminogenic factor for nonviolent offenders and screening of such offenders appears unnecessary.\n\n"]
    February 16, 2021   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2177   open full text
  • Assessing alexithymia in forensic settings: Psychometric properties of the 20‐item Toronto Alexithymia Scale among incarcerated adult offenders.
    David A. Preece, Cate L. Parry, Maria M. Allan, Alfred Allan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 16, 2021
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 31-43, February 2021. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nAlexithymia is a trait involving difficulty identifying feelings (DIF), difficulty describing feelings (DDF) and externally orientated thinking (EOT). It is a risk factor for criminal behaviour. It is commonly assessed with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS‐20), but the psychometrics of the TAS‐20 have not been tested across the range of offender populations, and it has been suggested it might be unsuitable in incarcerated offenders.\n\n\nAim\nTo establish the psychometrics of the TAS‐20 among incarcerated offenders.\n\n\nMethods\nFactorial validity was examined using confirmatory factor analyses, and the invariance of this factor structure was tested against a published community sample. Reliability coefficients were calculated.\n\n\nResults\nOne hundred and forty six incarcerated offenders were recruited. The factor structure of the TAS‐20 was invariant across the samples. The intended factor structure composed of DIF, DDF and EOT factors performed well overall (with a reverse‐scored method factor added), but six EOT items had low factor loadings. The total scale score and DIF and DDF subscales had acceptable reliability, but EOT did not.\n\n\nConclusions\nOur results suggest that the TAS‐20 functions similarly in offender and community samples. Its total scale score, and DIF and DDF subscale scores can be used confidently, but the assessment of externally oriented thinking may not be adequate with this scale alone. In sum, the TAS‐20 can facilitate robust assessment of alexithymia in closed criminal justice settings as well as in the wider community.\n\n"]
    February 16, 2021   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2176   open full text
  • The relationship between psychological symptom ratings and crime in juvenile justice system involved young people.
    Elizabeth N. Hartsell.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 16, 2021
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 13-30, February 2021. ", "\nAbstract\n\nRationale\nPrior research has not adequately examined the relationship between psychological state and offending. Limitations include over‐reliance on criminal convictions as the dependent variable, failure to examine a comprehensive set of psychological states, the limited nature of measures and the frequent use of cross‐sectional data that cannot ensure temporal ordering.\n\n\nAims\nTo explore the relationship between five self‐reported psychological states—anxiety, depression, hostility, paranoia and psychoticism—and three types of offending—violent, non‐violent and marijuana use—reported 6 months later in a sample of justice system involved young people.\n\n\nMethods\nData were acquired from the publicly available Pathways to Desistance dataset, a longitudinal study of 1262 young people (86% male) involved in the criminal justice system. Measures of psychological state were self‐reported using the Brief Symptom Inventory at project entry and self‐report offending measures 6 months later.\n\n\nResults\nNo psychological states were significantly associated with reports of marijuana use and depression was not related to offending. Anger and paranoia each predicted an increased variety of violent and non‐violent offending, while anxiety and psychoticism each increased the variety of violent but not non‐violent offending. Clinically significant states on one or more sub‐scales were related to variety of both violent and non‐violent offending.\n\n\nImplications\nThese results suggest that early screening of psychological state may help identify young people at risk for offending. Further research might be directed at clarifying the extent of actual disorder and the nature of interventions that would best help not only those with a diagnosable disorder, but also those with aspects of their psychological state which trouble them, but which may not actually amount to disorder.\n "]
    February 16, 2021   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2169   open full text
  • Post‐traumatic growth in prisoners and its association with the quality of staff–prisoner relationships.
    Natalie Hearn, Stephen Joseph, Sally Fitzpatrick.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 16, 2021
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 49-59, February 2021. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nBeing sentenced to imprisonment can be traumatic. This may lead to further negative effects, including reoffending or disorders of mental health. Emerging research, however, has suggested that traumatic events can, at times, also lead to post‐traumatic growth, leading us to question whether prisoners could experience this.\n\n\nAims\nOur aims were to explore the prevalence of post‐traumatic growth in prisoners and any association between this and prisoners' perceptions of the quality of their relationships with staff. Our primary hypothesis was that there would be a positive association between perceptions of the quality of relationships with staff members and post‐traumatic growth. We also hypothesised an interaction between staff–prisoner relationships and the extent to which sentencing was experienced as traumatic.\n\n\nMethod\nThe Post‐traumatic Growth Inventory and the Barrett‐Lennard Relationship Inventory were distributed to all 762 prisoners in a high‐security prison for adult men in England. First, one‐tailed correlations between variables were run, then a hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for an interaction between staff–prisoner relationship ratings, trauma of sentencing and post‐traumatic growth.\n\n\nResults\nJust over one fifth of the men (n = 160) returned questionnaires; 76 (48%) had scores indicative of moderate‐to‐high post‐traumatic growth. There was a significant positive association between perceptions of the relationships with staff members and the post‐traumatic growth reported. There was no significant interaction between the staff–prisoner relationships and the experience of trauma of imprisonment.\n\n\nConclusions\nOur study extends understanding of prisoners through finding that higher levels of self‐rated post‐traumatic growth were associated with experiencing empathy, positive regard, acceptance and genuineness from prison staff. This highlights the need for high‐quality relationships to be adopted in all aspects of prison setting and culture and offers further direction for research into such relationships and their role in promoting positive psychological outcomes.\n "]
    February 16, 2021   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2173   open full text
  • Personality traits and male vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation victimisation.
    Joan A. Reid, Bryanna Fox, Klejdis Bilali, Jennifer Diaz.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. January 14, 2021
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nThere has been little research into whether personality traits increase vulnerability to serious forms of recurring victimisation, such as commercial sexual exploitation of young people.\n\n\nAims\nTo investigate whether impulsivity, emotional dysregulation or high psychopathy scale scores indicative of personality traits increase vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation.\n\n\nMethods\nData were used from the longitudinal Pathways to Desistance Study 1170 justice‐involved men who were aged 14–19 at baseline data collection. Ninety‐eight (8%) reported having been commercially sexually exploited during adolescence or young adulthood. We investigated whether personality traits measured at baseline were related to such victimisation.\n\n\nResults\nResults of binomial logistic regression among the young men in this sample indicated that Factor 1 scores on the Psychopathy Checklist‐Youth Version (PCL‐YV), reflecting affective and interpersonal features, are associated with having been commercially sexually exploited, while impulsivity, emotional dysregulation and Factor 2 PCL‐YV, reflecting antisocial activities, were not. Having been a victim of other violence and being a member of a cultural or ethnic minority group were also independently related to being exploited.\n\n\nConclusions and implications for practice\nOur findings show that individual differences in personality, such as fearless temperament and boredom susceptibility, could differentially disadvantage young people, and put them at greater risk of commercial sexual exploitation. This knowledge could be beneficial to prevention efforts supporting male adolescents at risk for victimisation by commercial sexual exploitation, and to shed new light on the theoretical understanding of vulnerability to it.\n\n"]
    January 14, 2021   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2189   open full text
  • Life on parole: The quality of experiences soon after release contributes to a conviction‐free re‐entry.
    Jessie L. Gwynne, Julia A. Yesberg, Devon L. L. Polaschek.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 15, 2020
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 6, Page 290-302, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nPeople returning to the community after prison face many challenges, including finding suitable accommodation and employment, and accessing good social support. The prospects are particularly poor for high‐risk offenders with up to a third of those released in New Zealand returning to prison within 100 days.\n\n\nAims/hypotheses\nWe developed the Parole Experiences Measure (PEM) to quantify the quality of men's life experiences during the first weeks of re‐entry from prison. We aimed to answer the question, can the quality of life experiences differentiate men who survive in the community without reconviction from those who do not?\n\n\nMethods\nUsing a longitudinal design, we examined whether PEM scores for 178 men with extensive histories of crime and violence predicted three recidivism indices (breach of parole, reconviction and reimprisonment) over a 12‐month follow‐up period.\n\n\nResults\nWe found that PEM scores predicted all three indices of recidivism. Of the two PEM subscales, external circumstances (finances, support, accommodation) were more predictive of recidivism than subjective wellbeing (mental and physical health).\n\n\nConclusions/implications\nThe results suggest that meeting basic practical needs in the early months of parole may be more important to avoiding reconviction than attending only to mental and physical health.\n"]
    December 15, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2182   open full text
  • Women parolees’ mental health in the context of reintegration.
    Rosemary Ricciardelli, Laura McKendy.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 15, 2020
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 6, Page 303-311, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nContributing to the literature on reintegration and community supervision, we consider the mental health experiences of women parolees and the implications for case management.\n\n\nAims\nWe consider the different ways mental health considerations are responded to by parole officers and case management staff, identifying areas of tension (e.g., when psychological services are fused with supervision) but also areas of opportunity (e.g., when case management staff forge therapeutic relationships with parolees).\n\n\nMethods\nUsing a grounded approach we explore women's parole experiences and case management practices through a qualitative analysis of parole and casework documents. Our iterative process of document analysis included content and thematic analysis.\n\n\nResults\nMental health is responded to both as a therapeutic need and criminogenic risk. Therapeutic responses entail both formal and informal supportive interventions that often appear welcomed by and beneficial to parolees. Risk‐based responses fuse mental health considerations into supervisory frameworks, evidenced by the prominence of mental health‐related parole conditions and the role of psychologists as assessors of risk.\n\n\nConclusions/Implications for Clinical Practice\nThe tension between treatment and supervision can undermine conditions favourable to responsive case management and the working alliance.\n\n"]
    December 15, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2181   open full text
  • Professionalising release management for mentally disordered perpetrators: Benefits in terms of recidivism rates—Results from a study within the Austrian prison system.
    Monika Stempkowski.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 15, 2020
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 6, Page 312-320, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nIn Austria, mentally ill perpetrators not guilty for reasons of insanity are committed into a custodial measure to receive treatment. The rate of these detainees returning after their conditional release because of reoffending or revocation decreased significantly over a period of 15 years.\n\n\nAims\nThis study aims at examining this system and the adjustments made over a period of 10 years, in order to identify changes responsible for the observable decline of the recidivism rate.\n\n\nMethod\nTherefore, a quantitative study of 807 prison and court files was conducted, extracting information concerning former detainees either released in 2001 & 2002 (n = 67) or 2011 & 2012 (n = 134) and subsequently comparing the groups. Additionally, expert interviews were conducted.\n\n\nResults\nAs one major change, the data revealed improvements regarding the preparation and management of the time on parole. The possibility for detainees to test their readiness for life outside the confinement through temporary interruptions of custody was enhanced, as were post‐release housing opportunities in care facilities. Additionally, the courts issued more directives concerning measures such as medication or abstinence from alcohol.\n\n\nConclusion\nConcerning mentally ill offenders, this study highlights the importance of a comprehensive preparation and management of the conditional release, providing support and treatment as well as a certain level of control.\n\n"]
    December 15, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2179   open full text
  • ‘I'm always walking on eggshells, and there's no chance of me ever being free’: The mental health implications of Imprisonment for Public Protection in the community and post‐recall.
    Mia Harris, Kimmett Edgar, Russell Webster.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 15, 2020
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 6, Page 331-340, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nDespite its abolition in 2012, the indeterminate sentence of Imprisonment for Public Protection (IPP) still casts a long shadow over the justice system. Recall is a growing problem: In June 2020, there were 1,359 recalled IPP prisoners. Research documents the negative mental health implications of initial imprisonment under an IPP sentence; however, little is known about experiences on licence, or post‐recall.\n\n\nAims\nTo explain how recalled IPP prisoners perceive being on licence, and in prison post‐recall, to affect their mental wellbeing.\n\n\nMethods\nWe draw on 31 interviews with recalled IPP prisoners, conducted for a wider project exploring the high rates of IPP recall.\n\n\nResults\nThree themes emerged: a perpetual state of anxiety about recall and spending additional years behind bars; self‐imposed social isolation, both in the community and in prison; and a profound sense of hopelessness. People often feel trapped in an unjust and inevitable cycle of imprisonment, with little faith in a positive future.\n\n\nConclusions\nThe government must make structural changes to stop the revolving door of IPP recall. In the short term, confidential mental health support should be available to people serving IPPs in prison and the community.\n\n"]
    December 15, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2180   open full text
  • How do parole board members in England and Wales construct decisions about whether to release perpetrators of intimate partner violence from prison?
    Chris Dyke, Karen Schucan Bird, Carol Rivas.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 15, 2020
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 6, Page 350-362, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nExisting research explores Parole Board decision‐making, but not specifically for perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV), a special case due to the gendered and secretive nature of IPV and the role of control in predicting reoffending.\n\n\nAim\nTo identify associations between case variables in England and Wales Parole Board decisions regarding perpetrators of IPV and explore how these variables help construct the decision.\n\n\nMethods\nLogistic regressions regarding decisions in a sample of all 137 male prisoners who had abused women and applied for release or progression to open conditions in England and Wales from April 2018 to September 2019, developed into latent class analyses.\nThematic analyses of six interviews with Parole Board members about decision‐making in IPV cases.\n\n\nResults\nRelease decisions were strongly predicted by the recommendations of offender managers, offender supervisors and psychologists, mediated by the Parole Board's confidence in their ability. Decisions were also significantly associated with custodial behaviour and attendance on courses, mediated by the Board's confidence in the prisoner's insight and honesty. Thematic analysis was both consistent with these findings and provided a context in which the associations could be understood.\n\n\nConclusions\nThe findings have implications for understanding the dynamics between professional decisions and the Parole Board's decision; for the importance of offender managers demonstrating their expertise and ability to manage risk; for Parole Board members' reflection and development; for academic research into IPV; and for those who have experienced IPV and are looking to understand parole decisions about their abuser.\n\n"]
    December 15, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2183   open full text
  • Prisoners' understanding and experiences of parole.
    Lynn Kelly, Gill McIvor, Karen Richard.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 15, 2020
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 6, Page 321-330, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nIn Scotland, as elsewhere, there has been growing political and public interest in the function and process of parole accompanied by a lack of empirical research on the operation and effectiveness of parole.\n\n\nAims\nAgainst the backdrop of a Scottish Government review of parole aimed, among other things, at improving the transparency of the process, the aim of the study was to explore the experiences of prisoners seeking early release on licence.\n\n\nMethods\nIn conjunction with the Scottish Prison Service a national survey was conducted of 197 long‐term prisoners who had experience of seeking early release on parole.\n\n\nFindings\nThe survey revealed that prisoners did not have a clear understanding of parole and often did not feel fully engaged in the process.\n\n\nConclusions\nIt is argued that better support for prisoners prior to, during and following parole hearings might foster their increased engagement and alleviate some of the anxiety associated with the parole process.\n\n"]
    December 15, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2178   open full text
  • The mental health impact of parole on families of indeterminate‐sentenced prisoners in England and Wales.
    Christina Straub, Harry Annison.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 15, 2020
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 6, Page 341-349, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nThe indeterminate sentence of Imprisonment for Public Protection (IPP), was created in England and Wales in 2003. After its abolition in 2012, many IPP‐prisoners have become stuck in the prison system, facing considerable problems of sentence progression. The extant literature makes clear that the uncertainty and hopelessness caused by the indeterminacy of the IPP sentence are compounded by the negative impacts experienced by families and others providing support to people serving these sentences.\n\n\nAims\nThe mental strains caused for family members by the IPP sentence were examined. Of particular interest is the role and weight of the parole process experience, and its potential mental and physiological health impact on families.\n\n\nMethods\nThis article draws on findings from two qualitative research projects conducted with families of prisoners serving the IPP sentence in England and Wales. Their experiences will be examined by reference to literature on the mental health impact of indeterminate sentences on prisoners and their families and the wider literature on the symbiotic harms of imprisonment for families. The aim was to add to this by focusing on families' experiences of cumulative stress caused by the sentence.\n\n\nFindings\nWe demonstrate that the IPP parole process exerts specific weight and mental strains on family members occupying the negative end of the stress spectrum. Drawing on a body of neuroscientific, neuroendocrinological and criminological literature, we argue that these mental health impacts on families may represent a public health risk in need of practical and policy mitigation.\n\n\nImplications\nThere is a pressing need for recognition of what are often hidden symbiotic harms experienced by families of people sentenced to IPP. Families require more information as well as considerably greater practical and emotional support on an institutional and communal level.\n\n"]
    December 15, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2184   open full text
  • Evaluation of a framework for safe and appropriate prescribing of psychoactive medications in a UK prison.
    Emily Bebbington, Justin Lawson, Sadia Nafees, Catherine Robinson, Rob Poole.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 11, 2020
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nThe widespread use of drugs in prisons leads to avoidable deaths, poorer health and a poor living environment. The contribution of psychoactive prescription drugs to this problem has received little attention in prison policy or at individual prescriber level.\n\n\nAims\nTo determine the extent of unsafe and inappropriate prescribing of psychoactive medications in one UK prison using a newly developed medicines optimisation framework.\n\n\nMethod\nA medicines optimisation framework was developed based on principles of good prescribing. It was initiated on the opening of a new prison—HMP Berwyn—in February 2017. During the study period, all prisoners at HMP Berwyn were transferred from other prisons. The safety and appropriateness of psychoactive medications were evaluated de novo on reception at HMP Berwyn and during follow up, using the medicines optimisation framework.\n\n\nResults\nAbout 1941 sentenced men arrived at HMP Berwyn between February 2017 and November 2018. Nearly one‐third (634, 33%) were on a prescribed psychoactive medication. Seventy‐five percent of these (474/634) required a prescription change due to appropriateness or safety concerns. Nearly half (295, 46.5%) received changes at reception despite having already undergone medicines reconciliation at their previous prison. Forty‐three percent (275/634) received changes at follow up, most commonly those who had no prior risks identified at reception.\n\n\nConclusions\nInappropriate and unsafe prescribing of psychoactive medications is occurring in prisons despite mandatory medication reviews. Ongoing monitoring is required to reduce the risk from these medications. A medicines optimisation framework such as this could be adopted across other prisons, worldwide, to help contribute to risk reduction from drug use in prisons. Appropriately modified, a similar framework might help reduce inappropriate and harmful prescribing in hospitals and in the community.\n\n"]
    December 11, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2187   open full text
  • Validating the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema modified for people with learning disabilities in a low‐risk secure forensic setting.
    Lindsie Barker, Annette McKeown, Michelle Small, Jenny Meggs.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 12, 2020
    ["Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. ", "\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nResearch has shown that an empowering and nurturing yet challenging work climate is beneficial for people receiving clinical services as it increases patient satisfaction, motivation, engagement, therapeutic alliance and functional improvement. Therefore, for inpatients, monitoring, encouraging and understanding ward climate holds considerable potential for improving forensic mental health services. To date, the most widely employed tool for ward‐climate, the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES), has been evidenced as useful in medium and high security hospitals, but little tested with people with learning disabilities or in low security services.\n\n\nAims\nTo establish the internal consistency and factor validity of the EssenCES, modified for easier reading, in a low secure hospital unit for people with learning disabilities.\n\n\nMethod\nLanguage in the EssenCES was simplified and picture supplements added to facilitate comprehension. Patients completed the scale as part of their clinical routine, supported by National Health Service (NHS) employed psychology assistants. The research team, entirely independent of NHS staff, extracted data from the electronic records of purposively sampled residents in a low‐secure forensic hospital setting for people with learning disabilities.\n\n\nFindings\nTwo hundred and twenty‐seven records (70% men) were acquired. The EssenCES was shown to have good factor validity and retained the original three factor model including the subscales: therapeutic hold, safety and cohesion. One single‐item from the ‘therapeutic hold’ subscale was removed to improve the internal consistency (p < 0.05).\n\n\nConclusions\nThis study adds preliminary support for the use of the EssenCES (with removal of one item) in individuals with learning disabilities within low‐risk secure forensic hospital settings.\n\n"]
    November 12, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2175   open full text
  • Comparison of impulsivity, aggression and suicidality between prisoners in Nigeria who have committed homicide and those who have not.
    Aishatu Yusha'u Armiya'u, Adegboyega Ogunwale, Lubuola Issa Bamidele, Oloche Adole, Musa Usman Umar.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 12, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nMost studies of prisoners, the nature of their offending and any related characteristics have been conducted in rich Western countries. In Nigeria, prison conditions differ in many important respects, key among them that prisoners share large communal spaces much of the time—up to 50 men sleeping in the same space as well as spending the day together. Our aim was to compare levels of impulsivity, aggression and suicide‐related behaviours between prisoners in one prison in Nigeria who had committed a homicide and those who had not, allowing for socio‐demographic factors. A case–control study design was employed with 102 homicide and an equal number of non‐homicide offenders. Each participant was interviewed using the Abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for impulsivity, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale for aggression, the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Module C) for suicide‐related behaviours, and a questionnaire for ascertaining socio‐demographic characteristics. On bivariate analysis, motor impulsivity was higher among homicide offenders (p = .014) while non‐planning was higher among non‐homicide offenders (p = .006), but this relationship was affected by demographic variables. Physical aggression levels did not distinguish the two groups, but homicide offenders were less likely to record property‐directed and auto‐aggressive behaviours (p < .05). By contrast, on average, scores for suicide‐related behaviours were lower among the homicide offenders (p = .001), with non‐homicide offenders showing a mean score in the high‐risk category (13.25; SD, 1.25). As motor impulsivity significantly differentiated the groups, this may be an important measure to add to any risk assessment battery when there are concerns about homicidal behaviours. In this sample, history of interpersonal aggression did not distinguish the groups. People with indications of self‐harm or suicide‐related behaviours may be at less risk of violence to others, but care should be taken in interpreting this finding as it is not entirely consistent with other findings.\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 5, Page 240-255, October 2020. "]
    October 12, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2161   open full text
  • Are Liaison and Diversion interventions in policing delivering the planned impact: A longitudinal evaluation in two constabularies?
    Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Jurgen Mitsch, Tahseen Jilani.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 12, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nLiaison and Diversion (L&D) has twin objectives: improving mental health outcomes and reducing re‐offending. Early diversion from police custody seems promising, but evidence of benefit is required to sustain such programmes. To test the hypothesis that contact with L&D services while in police custody would lead to improved mental health outcomes and a reduction in type and level of offending, we used a pre–post service use design. National Health Service (NHS) records in two counties were searched for evidence that patients had been involved with L&D services while in police custody during the period July 2009–December 2017. We defined January 2009–July 2014 as the pre‐intervention period and any time after contact as the post‐intervention period. Data from the Police National Computer were gathered for each period for these individuals, to assess their pre‐post L&D contact offending histories. NHS Trust data were similarly gathered to assess their pre‐post use of mental health legislation. 4,462 individuals were identified who had used L&D services in police custody. There were statistically significant reductions in the amount of offending following contact with the L&D service (whether one or two contacts), regardless of offence type. Statistically significant reductions were also observed in use of the four most commonly used legislative powers for detaining patients in hospital on mental disorder grounds, regardless of offending status (prolific/non‐prolific). Our results indicate positive associations between the L&D interventions and change in offending and use of compulsory hospital detention. Whilst our research does not allow a direct causal relationship to be established in either area, the findings go beyond other impact assessments of L&D which have either been with small samples or relied only on qualitative data or expert opinion.\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 5, Page 256-267, October 2020. "]
    October 12, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2166   open full text
  • Examining the link between facial affect recognition and violent offending: A comparison between web‐recruited volunteers with histories of violent and non‐violent offending.
    C. Brendan Clark, Jacob Armstrong, Mouhamad Houssein Ballout, Ryley Ewy.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 12, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nThe link between facial affect recognition and criminal justice involvement has been extensively researched, yet there are virtually no data on the capacity for facial affect recognition in post‐incar+cerated individuals, and the results of many studies are limited due to a narrow focus on psychopathy rather than offence category.\n\n\nAims\nTo test the first hypothesis that individuals reporting a history of a violent offence would show a deficit in facial affect recognition and the second hypothesis that the violent offender's deficit would be exclusive to recognition of negative expressions, not affecting positive or neutral expressions.\n\n\nMethod\nPost‐incarcerated individuals (N = 298) were recruited online through Qualtrics and completed questionnaires assessing their criminal justice background and demographics. They completed measures of facial affect recognition, anxiety and depression, and components of aggression.\n\n\nResults\nA logistic regression, including sex, ethnicity, age and years of education and depression/anxiety scores, indicated that committing a violent offence was independently associated with lower facial affect recognition scores as well as male gender and a trait‐based propensity towards physical aggression, but no other co‐variable. These data provided no evidence that this deficit was specific to negative emotions.\n\n\nConclusions and implications for future research/practice\nOur study is one of the first to examine facial affect recognition in a post‐incarcerated sample. It suggests that deficits in facial affect recognition, already well documented among violent prisoners, persist. While acknowledging that these may be relatively fixed characteristics, this study also suggests that, for these people, nothing happening during their imprisonment was touching this. Improving capacity in facial affect recognition should be considered as a target of intervention for violent offenders, developing or revising in‐prison programmes as required.\n\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 5, Page 228-239, October 2020. "]
    October 12, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2164   open full text
  • Psychologically informed practice (PIP) within the offender personality disorder pathway: Towards establishing an evidence base for approved premises.
    Matthew Bruce, Shivani Patel, Peter Stevens.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 12, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nThe United Kingdom (UK) government has commissioned numerous interventions across all stages of the criminal justice pathway for managing offenders likely to have a personality disorder, with the intention to reduce reoffending, improve psychological wellbeing, and develop workforce capabilities. Psychologically Informed Practice (PIP) models underpin these. To evaluate a modified PIP model within the post‐imprisonment community stage of the Offender Personality Disorder (OPD) pathway, specifically workforce development, within all London (UK) probation supervised hostels (approved premises), we used both non‐equivalent control group and pre‐post repeated measure designs to compare changes in staff and offender outcomes before and after introduction of a PIP model across all 12 London approved premises. Findings revealed statistically significant improvements in a number of workforce outcomes (measured using the Personality Disorder ‐ Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire and Maslach Burnout Inventory) which were moderated by age and gender. Data did not support associated improvements in resident offender outcomes (progressive moves, rearrests/reoffences, or breaches leading to recalls). The modified PIP is an effective intervention model for improving some workforce outcomes among probation supervised hostel staff, particularly for women, but our findings suggest that intervention development may be required for significant improvements to be observed in resident offending outcomes. In addition, further research is necessary to determine the longer term effects of PIP on absenteeism, employee turnover, quality of resident‐staff interactions, and overall culture change among staff working within the post‐imprisonment community stage of the OPD pathway.\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 5, Page 268-280, October 2020. "]
    October 12, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2165   open full text
  • The nuanced relationship between adverse childhood experiences and recidivism risk scores among women leaving jail: A preliminary exploration.
    Vanessa Schick, Isabel Roth, Andrea Link, Alycia Welch.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 12, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nWomen with histories of childhood trauma tend to score higher on recidivism risk/needs assessment tools, such as the Level of Service Inventory‐Revised: Screening Version (LSI‐R: SV). These may affect their chance of leaving custody, but risk scores may be inflated by reliance on additional items which reflect other fixed childhood events.\n\n\nAims\nWe hypothesised that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) would be related to immutable risk measures according to the LSI‐R: SV, such as juvenile arrest history, rather than more mutable factors, such as criminal attitudes.\n\n\nMethods\nTwo interviewer‐administered questionnaires—one about ACEs and one about criminogenic risk and needs—were given to a cohort of women just after release from jail. Phi coefficients were used to test for associations between ? ACE scale scores and scores on the risk tool—the LSI‐R: SV.\n\n\nResults\nACE scale items were related to static risk item scores from the LSI‐R: SV, but not to any of the dynamic risk items except psychological health.\n\n\nConclusions\nRisk reduction is an important task in the criminal justice system, for which systematic risk assessment is an integral part of decision making. Self‐reported experience of psychological health apart, only fixed historical variables were related to estimated recidivism risk. There was no relationship between the mutable constructs of attitudes towards crime or employment status and estimated risk. This raises the question of whether the risk of recidivism is increased when there is a background of childhood trauma. Implications for using risk reduction tools to inform the need for trauma‐informed correctional care are discussed. Longitudinal research assessing recidivism is needed to test this further.\n\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 5, Page 221-227, October 2020. "]
    October 12, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2162   open full text
  • Persistent offenders and adolescence‐limited offenders: Differences in life‐courses.
    Lea Pulkkinen, Päivi Fadjukoff, Tuuli Pitkänen.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 16, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\n\nBackground and Aims\nAs our previous study indicated, almost half of juvenile delinquents continued offending in adulthood, while the rest ceased to do so. We compared these groups with each other and with non‐offenders in the life‐course use of alcohol, identity development and life situation.\n\n\nMethods\nBased on the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, four groups were formed at age 42 for men and women: persistent, adolescence‐limited and adult‐onset offenders and non‐offenders. Longitudinal data (N = 369; 53% males) have been collected at ages 8, 14, 20, 27, 36, 42 and 50.\n\n\nResults\nPersistent offending, but not adolescence‐limited offending, was associated with the accumulation of problems in adulthood and an elevated risk of death before age 54. For males, persistent offending was associated with heavy drinking from adolescence to middle age, diffuse identity, high divorce rates and poverty. For females, persistent offending was associated with heavy drinking in adulthood and a higher rate of being outside the workforce in middle age. In males, adolescence‐limited offending was associated with more controlled drinking in adulthood, and in females, with early divorce from the partner and advanced identity.\n\n\nConclusions\nDetecting the risks of the accumulation of problems and potential for positive transitions of juvenile delinquents until middle age will be important for prevention and treatment.\n\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 4, Page 196-209, August 2020. "]
    August 16, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2157   open full text
  • Childhood risk factors for criminal career duration: Comparisons with prevalence, onset, frequency and recidivism.
    David P. Farrington.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 16, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nIt has been argued that the predictors of all criminal career features are the same, and that childhood risk factors do not predict life‐course‐persistent offenders. Little is known about childhood predictors of the duration of criminal careers. The aim is to investigate childhood (aged 8–10 years) risk factors for criminal career duration, in comparison with childhood risk factors for other criminal career features. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males from age 8, with conviction records up to age 61. Life‐course‐persistent (LCP) offenders were defined as those with a criminal career lasting at least 20 years. The strongest predictors of LCP offenders were harsh discipline, poor parental supervision, a convicted father and parental conflict. Childhood risk factors for LCP offenders and criminal career duration were different from childhood risk factors for the prevalence of offending (convicted versus unconvicted males). These results should be taken into account in developmental and life‐course criminology theories, risk assessment instruments and risk‐focused interventions.\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 4, Page 159-171, August 2020. "]
    August 16, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2155   open full text
  • On the future of the individual longitudinal age‐crime curve.
    Marc Le Blanc.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 16, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\n\nBackground\nThis article serves as our memorial for the outstanding contribution of Rolf Loeber to developmental criminology. His salient paper on the future of the study of the age‐crime curve (2012) is the focal point.\n\n\nAims\nFollow some research trails that Rolf Loeber proposed in his 2012 paper.\n\n\nMethods\nRecent data on official offending from the Montréal Two Samples Four Generations Cross‐sectional and Longitudinal Studies (MTSFGCLS) are analysed. The data were gathered for two generations of juvenile court males; five birth cohorts born around 1960 and followed from age 8 to 61, and five birth cohorts born around 1980, males and females traced from age 12 to 45. The age‐crime curves are presented for the total prevalence. Epidemiological data are displayed for career descriptors: number of years active in offending, frequency, variety, onset, offset and duration.\n\n\nResults\nThe age‐crime curves of the two generations display the habitual shape reported in the literature. The epidemiological data shows that the population sample has a much lower curve in comparison to the court sample; this sort of difference is also observed between females and males.\n\n\nConclusion\nThe difference between the two generations in the age‐crime curves are interpreted in light of three evolutions in Québec from 1960 to 2000: (a) a radical change in the delinquency law, social and criminal justice policies, and treatment for juvenile delinquents; (b) a reduction of the juvenile and adult crime rates; (c) a significant increase in the wellbeing of the population on education, health and welfare services.\n\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 4, Page 183-195, August 2020. "]
    August 16, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2159   open full text
  • Identifying and predicting criminal career profiles from adolescence to age 39.
    Bo‐Kyung Elizabeth Kim, Amanda B. Gilman, Kevin P. Tan, Rick Kosterman, Jennifer A. Bailey, Richard F. Catalano, J. David Hawkins.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 16, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nFew longitudinal studies are capable of identifying criminal career profiles using both self‐report and official court data beyond the 30s. The current study aims to identify criminal career profiles across three developmental periods using self‐report data, validate these profiles with official court records and determine early childhood predictors. Data came from the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808). Latent Class Analysis was used to examine criminal careers from self‐reported data during adolescence (aged 14–18), early adulthood (aged 21–27) and middle adulthood (aged 30–39). Official court records were used to validate the classes. Childhood risk and promotive factors measured at ages 11–12 were used to predict classes. Findings revealed four career classes: non‐offending (35.6%), adolescence‐limited (33.2%), adult desister (18.3%) and life‐course/persistent (12.9%). Official court records are consistent with the description of the classes. Early life school and family environments as well as having antisocial beliefs and friends differentiate membership across the classes. The results of this study, with a gender‐balanced and racially diverse sample, bolster the current criminal career knowledge by examining multiple developmental periods into the 30s using both self‐report and official court data.\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 4, Page 210-220, August 2020. "]
    August 16, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2156   open full text
  • Criminal career duration: Predictability from self‐reports and official records.
    Lia Ahonen, Douglas FitzGerald, Kaylee Klingensmith, David P. Farrington.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 16, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nCriminal career duration has not been well investigated. There are very few longitudinal data sets that last long enough and enough subjects to investigate criminal career duration, and especially the characteristics and risk profiles of especially life course persistent offenders. The aim of the study was to describe the predictability of criminal career duration based on both official records and self‐reports of offending, and to put the results in the context of the Moffitt theory of “adolescent limited” and “life course persistent” offenders. The Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 1517) is a seminal longitudinal study based on a community sample of high‐risk boys from the city of Pittsburgh. Data was used from the oldest sample of boys in the PYS (N = 506). The participants were first assessed on average at age 12, and data was used up until age 36 for self‐reported offending, and age 40 for police charges. The analyses were conducted on moderate and serious violence and moderate and serious theft. Career duration was based on self‐reports and official charges in combination. The results show the extent to which commonly accepted and well validated risk factors predict criminal career duration with a special focus on individuals showing high rate/persistent offending in adolescence. Results show more pathways of delinquent development than have previously been described by Moffitt, (Psychological Review, 1993, 100(4), 674–701). Results also show that there is limited predictability of delinquency and offending over time. In addition, results show that only a small number of risk factors distinguish high and low rate adolescent offenders who become continuous offenders. Examples are peer factors. Implications for policy making and intervention science are discussed.\n", "Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 30, Issue 4, Page 172-182, August 2020. "]
    August 16, 2020   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2152   open full text
  • Looking from the outside: No substitute for rigorous evaluation.
    Conor Duggan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 27, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Looking in from the outside, what would the ordinary person expect of forensic mental health services? I suggest that there are three questions he or she would ask: (a) Are there public health measures that can be introduced to prevent those with mental disorder going on to commit crimes? (b) Can we identify in advance the individual who is likely to go on and commit a violent act because of his or her mental health difficulties, and prevent that or limit damage? (c) If a seriously harmful act has already been committed, what interventions might prevent a repetition? All of these questions are about prevention of an untoward event in the future and anticipate knowledge. How secure can we be that current forensic mental health practitioners can make adequately evidenced responses? I fear that examination of current literature would indicate that they and their academic colleagues would fall short of these expectations. Reasons for this are undoubtedly numerous. The issues are complex, with the interplay of many variables from the vagaries of human nature through varying presentations of disorders, still often classified rather than diagnosed, to widely differing environments which, further, may suddenly change in a critical way. The impact of a serious offence can be so catastrophic that officialdom often decides that “something must be done.” Yet, without a good evidence base, such decision‐making is often ineffective and wasteful of resources. The limited evidence base has not been helped by the virtual extinction of an academic forensic psychiatry infrastructure and funding within British universities and the National Health Service. This does not bode well for the future. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 29, Issue 4, Page 189-195, August 2019. '
    September 27, 2019   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2129   open full text
  • Mental health in the criminal justice system: A pathways approach to service and research design.
    Andrew Forrester, Gareth Hopkin.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 27, 2019
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Care pathway approaches were introduced into health care in the 1980s and have become standard international practice. They are now being introduced more specifically for health care in the criminal justice system. Care pathway delivery has the theoretical advantage of encouraging a whole‐systems approach for health and social care within the criminal justice system, but how well is it supported by empirical evidence? Aims The aim of this study is to review the nature and extent of evidence streams supporting health care delivery within interagency pathway developments since 2000. Method We used an exploratory narrative method to review the nature and extent of evidence streams supporting health care delivery within interagency pathway developments since 2000. The available literature was reviewed using a keyword search approach with three databases: PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. Findings Research in this field has covered police custody, courts, prisons, and the wider community, but there is little that follows the entire career through all these elements of offender placement. Main themes in the research to date, regardless of where the research was conducted, have been counting the disorder or the need, development and evaluation of screening tools, and evaluation of clinical intervention styles. Most evidence to date is simply observational, although the possibility of conducting randomised controlled trials of interventions within parts of the criminal justice system, especially prisons, is now well established. Conclusions Access to health care while passing through the criminal justice system is essential because of the disproportionately high rates of mental disorder among offenders, and the concept of structured pathways to ensure this theoretically satisfying, but as yet empirically unsupported. Further, substantial cuts in services, generally following government economies, are largely unresearched. Considerable investment in new possibilities, driven by both pressure groups and government, tend to be informed by good will and theory rather than hard evidence and are often not evaluated even after introduction. This must change. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 29, Issue 4, Page 207-217, August 2019. '
    September 27, 2019   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2128   open full text
  • Discrimination against offenders with mental disorder.
    Adrian Grounds.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 27, 2019
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Mentally disordered offenders may suffer discrimination on the basis of mental disorder, or on the basis of being offenders, or both. Aims The aim of this paper is to outline a framework for examining discrimination affecting mentally disordered offenders. It is argued that there should be systematic comparisons between offenders with mental disorder and nonoffenders with mental disorder in order to identify and characterise specific failures to ensure equivalence of mental health care; and systematic comparisons between offenders with mental disorder and offenders without mental disorder in order to identify how mental disorder may constitute a barrier to forms of support and constructive intervention available to other offenders. Methods A critical review was conducted of official documents presenting criminal justice and mental health policy for England and Wales, principally since 2012, together with reports of inspectorate and oversight bodies and relevant research studies. Findings There is evidence that offenders with mental disorder may not be able to access mental health care equivalent to that for nonoffenders with mental disorder. There is also evidence that they may not be able to access interventions available to other offenders. Further disadvantage may arise in the criminal courts since, in England and Wales, if inpatient care is required, the powers of criminal courts to effect hospital admission under Part III of mental health legislation are weakened by the statutory requirement of information that places are available. This is discriminatory against offenders with mental disorder insofar as forms of court disposal for other offenders are not prevented by the capacity of criminal justice agencies. Conclusions and implications The review supports the need for systematic comparisons to identify forms of disadvantage and discrimination experienced by mentally disordered offenders in relation to both mental health and criminal justice policies services. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 29, Issue 4, Page 247-255, August 2019. '
    September 27, 2019   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2126   open full text
  • Extended suicide, or homicide followed by suicide.
    John C. Gunn.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 27, 2019
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Suicide with accompanying homicide is frightening and ill understood. Aims To raise professional awareness of its complexities and difficulties and identify areas for developing research. Method A Crime in Mind seminar was held in London in December 2018, with four expert presentations and discussion. This paper draws on that seminar and supplementary literature. Findings Homicide/suicide is very difficult to predict and thus prevent. Victims and perpetrators may have a dependency relationship. Better training, especially of general practitioners, may increase the likelihood of detecting signs of despair and delusional ideas. Psychiatrists should be more alert to fixed delusions and homicidal thoughts. Individual assessment and management alone is unlikely to be sufficient. Public health strategies are likely to be important too. Weapons control is vital. Employers of people with great personal responsibility and special access to potentially lethal tools, such as airline pilots, and perhaps clinicians, should have regular, compulsory, mental health checks. Conclusions Six points of clinical importance emerged, including lowering the threshold for diagnosing delusional disorder and the establishment of anti‐violence clinics. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 29, Issue 4, Page 239-246, August 2019. '
    September 27, 2019   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2125   open full text
  • What next for adolescent forensic mental health research?
    Heidi Hales, Clare Holt, Enys Delmage, César Lengua.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 27, 2019
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background A small proportion of every nation's young people become sufficiently antisocial to come into contact with the criminal justice system. Many also have disorders of mental health or emotional well‐being. Although countries vary in designating age of criminal responsibility, all must provide services for offenders, perhaps as young as 10, both to help them and safeguard their peers and the wider public. Aim The aim of this article is to map the range of research required to support the development of satisfactory services for young mentally disordered offenders and identify knowledge gaps from a practitioner's perspective. Methods Using a public health prevention framework, we identified the main streams of research pertinent to young, mentally disordered offenders and sought examples of each to consider the extent to which they have been used to inform service development in England. Findings As in most countries, service development seems first driven by unusual, newsworthy cases. Overall, however, current English provision follows sound primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention principles with parallel tiers of service, including public health initiatives. Primary prevention and more specific treatments are likely to be informed by research findings, but service structure tends to emerge from a wider review base, including criminal justice, social and educational practitioner reviews, and also politics. Thus, services and populations of service users may change in advance of research evidence. Substantial reduction in numbers of young offenders in prison in England, for example, is clearly good in principle, but the intensity of need in the residual group is posing new challenges to which there are, yet, few answers. Conclusions Although the last 15 years of coordinated service development in England has been broadly theoretically based, it has not been systematically assessed to establish what works best for whom. New problems emerging, such as new drugs of misuse, and new opportunities, such as technology for supporting and monitoring, require model studies. More research focusing on correlates of success is essential. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 29, Issue 4, Page 196-206, August 2019. '
    September 27, 2019   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2124   open full text
  • Learning from research: Adapting interventions for sexual offending to improve outcomes.
    Birgit Völlm, Jackie Craissati, Don Grubin, Sarah Skett.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 27, 2019
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Sexual behaviour towards another person who does not or cannot consent to it causes serious harm to its victims. Understandable tendencies towards isolating or shaming the offenders, however, may actually increase risks of recidivism and further such harms. Aim The study aims to consider evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for sex offenders, mainly in a U.K. context, across four areas: criminal justice system programmes, medication, interventions for sex offenders with personality disorder and a community‐based model for the reintegration—Circles of Support and Accountability, and identify key evidence gaps. Methods We searched for reviews in the following four strands of work—psychosocial programmes, medication, personality focused therapies, and Circles of Support and Accountability—and identified gaps in knowledge. Findings Randomised controlled trials in this field are rare but have been achieved. Findings from more naturalistic outcome studies of sex offender treatment programmes are disappointing, but recidivism rates among released sex offender prisoners are low, regardless. Medication relying on substantial physiological change raises substantial ethical concerns. Not all sex offenders have a mental disorder but up to half have been diagnosed with a personality disorder, which may need specific treatment. Evidence is growing that lay work such as Circles of Support and Accountability is a valuable adjunct to other interventions. Conclusions and Implications for Future Research In this field, where tensions between attributions swing between “madness” and “badness,” there is growing evidence for optimism that complexity of history and presentation can be met through cooperation between the many disciplines, integrative strategies, and wider community engagement. The need now is for large, prospective controlled trials of interventions, with long periods of follow‐up. Perhaps, the most exciting developments have come from the wider public. More research into the qualities of these volunteers might inform public education and health strategies supporting wider safety. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 29, Issue 4, Page 227-238, August 2019. '
    September 27, 2019   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2122   open full text
  • The Violence Reduction Programme: An exploration of posttreatment risk reduction in a specialist medium‐secure unit.
    Harry Horgan, Chloe Charteris, Derval Ambrose.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 02, 2019
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background There is limited evidence for treatment programmes for offenders with a diagnosis of personality disorder deemed to be of high risk of violence towards others. Aim This study sought to evaluate change in clinician‐rated risk of violence in males among offenders accepted to a specialist medium‐secure hospital providing treatment based on the Violence Reduction Programme (VRP). Method A retrospective, records‐based cohort study design was used to explore change in risk of violence in a sample including five VRP cohorts composed of 33 offenders. Violence risk scale (VRS) score was the primary outcome measure. Correlates of treatment dropout were also explored. Results Twenty‐seven men completed treatment. Paired pretreatment and posttreatment VRS scores were available for 19 men. Six men disengaged with treatment. There was a significant mean reduction in risk of violence score (d = 1.08). At the individual level, eleven (57%) participants in the VRP showed reliable reduction in risk of violence. No treatment completers with a complete rating pair demonstrated an increased risk of violence. Younger age and referral from prison were significantly associated with treatment dropout. Conclusion VRP‐based treatment appears to be a promising intervention for specialist services for offenders with a personality disorder diagnosis in the United Kingdom. Longer term follow‐up to ascertain whether these apparent treatment gains are accompanied by actual reduction in violent recidivism is now required, and a full scale trial warranted. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. '
    September 02, 2019   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2123   open full text
  • Comparative outcomes for a national cohort of persons convicted of murder, with and without serious mental illness, and those found not guilty by reason of insanity on a murder charge: A 25‐year follow‐up study.
    Jeremy Skipworth, Wendy Bevin, Brian McKenna, Alexander I.F. Simpson, Phil Brinded, Janet Pearson.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 23, 2019
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Serious mental illness (SMI) is common among persons sentenced to life imprisonment for murder, yet little is known about how this affects rehabilitation, prospects of parole, or risk to the community. Aim The aim of this study is to compare outcomes for a national cohort of offenders charged with murder who were either convicted and sentenced to life in prison or placed on a forensic hospital order. Methods The 386 cases of murder charges in New Zealand between 1988 and 2000 were divided into three groups: perpetrators without SMI sentenced to life imprisonment (n = 313), perpetrators with SMI but sentenced to life imprisonment (n = 32), or those with such illness and found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) who received a forensic hospital order (n = 41). Access to rehabilitative interventions, time to release, reoffending, and recall to prison or hospital were examined. Results Being in prison but having severe mental illness delayed release on parole but did not increase the risk of criminal recidivism or recall to prison. Hospital order patients were a demographically different group; they were released to the community earlier and had a lower rate of criminal recidivism. Conclusions This study provides some evidence that incarceration periods for life‐sentenced homicide perpetrators with SMI may be reduced without increasing community risk if hospital transfer and/or more targeted interventions are provided in prison. It also provides further evidence that persons found NGRI after a charge of murder have a relatively low risk of criminal recidivism. The stigma that may sometimes attach to such offenders is unwarranted, if it relies on concerns about risk of reoffending. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. '
    July 23, 2019   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2120   open full text
  • Reinforcement learning in child molesters.
    Tineke Dillien, Kris Goethals, Bernard Sabbe, Inti A. Brazil.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 26, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Child molesters form a heterogeneous group, but one generally shared characteristic is maladaptive, rigid behaviour. Impairments in reinforcement learning may explain these maladaptive tendencies, but this has not been systematically investigated. Further, it is not known if such impairments vary with subtype of child molesters. Aims To investigate the presence of impairments in reinforcement learning among child molesters and to test for differences in patterns of impairment with subtype. Methods A group of 59 child molesters was recruited from several prisons in a two‐stage screening process, the first using records and the second interview; a comparison group of 33 offenders who had never committed a sex offence and who denied paedophile ideation was similarly recruited; 36 nonoffender comparison men were recruited by social media and word of mouth. Each was asked to perform a probabilistic reversal learning task, in which stimulus‐outcome contingencies had to be learned. Results Child molesters, as a group, made significantly more errors on the probabilistic reversal learning task than the nonoffenders; the comparison offenders and the nonoffenders gained similar scores, although findings may have been confounded by older age in the child molester group. Nonpaedophilic child molesters had significantly worse scores than paedophilic child molesters. Conclusions Child molesters, especially those not diagnosed with paedophilia, have deficits during both the acquisition and reversal of contingencies, suggesting reinforcement learning deficits that may undermine their capacity to benefit maximally from therapy without preliminary work to repair those deficits, possibly in conjunction with extending the offender programmes. Testing before programme entry would enable accurate targeting of scarce resources in this respect. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. '
    November 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2097   open full text
  • Psychiatric disorders, substance use, and executive functioning in older probationers.
    Lucy Fitton, Andrew Bates, Adrian Hayes, Seena Fazel.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 08, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Although the number of older people serving community sentences (probation) after conviction for a criminal offence in England and Wales has increased rapidly since about 2006, this population has received little research attention. Aim To examine the mental health, substance use, and executive functioning of older probationers. Methods Thirty‐two male probationers aged 50 years and older were recruited from probation services in the Thames Valley, England, and administered validated semistructured interviews for psychiatric disorders, symptom checklists for depression and substance use, cognitive impairment screens, and neuropsychological tests of executive functioning (examining verbal fluency and response inhibition). Results We found that older probationers presented with a high prevalence of mental health difficulties (overall caseness n = 22; 69%, 95% CI [53–85]) that exceed estimates in the older general population. Prevalences of depression (25%) or alcohol abuse or dependence (19%) were found to be high. In comparison with normative data, however, older probationers did not present with deficits in tested executive functioning. Conclusions and implications for practice Mental health and substance use problems were more prominent than cognitive deficits in this sample of older probationers. Further work should include older community controls to inform service planning and to determine how these mental health factors interact with offending. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. '
    November 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2094   open full text
  • Serving a community sentence with a mental health treatment requirement: Offenders' perspectives.
    Abigail Manjunath, Rebecca Gillham, Chiara Samele, Pamela J. Taylor.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 06, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Safe alternatives to custody for offenders with mental disorder are vital, not least as self‐harm, and violence rates are rising among them in prisons. In England and Wales, the Criminal Justice Act 2003 allows a mental health treatment requirement (MHTR) to supplement a community or suspended prison sentence, but this combination is poorly understood and rarely sought. Aim To explore offenders' perspectives on the MHTR. Methods We interviewed all 25 consenting offenders under an MHTR in two probation areas. Verbatim transcripts of their audio‐taped narratives were analysed using grounded theory methods. Results Their core concern was “instability,” characterised by many health and social difficulties and resolved by achieving stability, which included not reoffending as well as becoming healthy, substance free, and “having a life.” Most considered that the MHTR helped their motivation and service provision, but some cited poor supervisor accessibility, supervisor role confusion, and sense of stigma under the order as stressful and threatening good outcomes. Conclusions This first account of offenders' perspectives on the MHTR suggests a model in which, under it, offenders see themselves making progress as courts require. They understand the risk of return to court and imprisonment if in breach. This model of understanding how MHTRs work could provide for professional guidance and evaluation of their effectiveness. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. '
    November 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2096   open full text
  • Effectiveness of aggression replacement training in reducing criminal recidivism among convicted adult offenders.
    Martin Lardén, Elisabeth Nordén, Mats Forsman, Niklas Långström.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 16, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Aggression replacement training (ART) is a widely used cognitive behavioural intervention for reducing aggression‐related recidivism among criminal offenders. Its effectiveness in reducing offending, however, remains uncertain. Aim To examine the effect of ART on adult offenders' criminal recidivism rates. Method We compared 1,124 convicted adult offenders who began ART in the Swedish Prison and Probation Services 2003–2009 with 3,372 offenders in the system at the same time who did not participate in ART. Linkage with nationwide, longitudinal registries allowed extensive propensity score‐matched controlling for baseline differences (e.g. sociodemographics, criminal history, psychiatric morbidity, and substance misuse) between groups. Results Intent‐to‐treat analyses suggested similar 1‐year general reconviction rates (according to the National Crime Register) between the two groups (ART participants 50% [n = 465]: comparison participants 51% [n = 1,492]; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.97, 95% CI [0.88, 1.07]) and similar one‐year violent recidivism (ART participants 19% [n = 174]: comparison participants 18% [n = 547]; HR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.89, 1.17]). For ART completers, findings suggested a marginal decrease in reconvictions for any recidivism, but not for violent recidivism specifically. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. Conclusions and implications Our findings add to the emerging literature suggesting no effect of ART on reoffending among adult offenders. Originally designed for adolescents, it may be that the programme should include components for more adult‐specific needs. Further, although group differences in reoffending did not emerge, research with a wider range of outcomes may be worthwhile before abandoning this approach with offenders. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. '
    October 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2092   open full text
  • Prenatal maternal smoking, maternal offending, and offspring behavioural and cognitive outcomes in early childhood.
    Stacy Tzoumakis, Vaughan J. Carr, Kimberlie Dean, Kristin R. Laurens, Maina Kariuki, Felicity Harris, Melissa J. Green.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy and parental offending are both linked to adverse offspring outcomes. Few studies have examined how these exposures together influence diverse offspring outcomes in early childhood. Aims To examine associations between quantity of prenatal maternal smoking and frequency of maternal offending and offspring behavioural and cognitive outcomes at age 5 years. Methods Over 66,000 Australian children (mean age 5.6 years) were drawn from an intergenerational data linkage study. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions were conducted for the two key exposures (maternal prenatal smoking and mother having at least two criminal convictions) and offspring behavioural and cognitive vulnerabilities. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were also estimated for each outcome for the two exposures. Results Prenatal smoking and maternal offending were, separately and together, associated with most of the developmental vulnerabilities examined, even after adjusting for other familial and prenatal risk factors. PAFs for prenatal smoking ranged from 5.3% to 15.8%, and PAFs for maternal offending ranged from 3.4% to 11.8% across the offspring outcomes. Conclusions Maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal offending were uniquely associated with a range of offspring vulnerabilities, but mothers who smoked during pregnancy tended to experience multiple problems that should also be considered as indicators of child vulnerabilities. While early behavioural difficulties were evident in these children, it was striking that they were also likely to have cognitive vulnerabilities. Early intervention to support cognitive development in these children may minimise their risk of academic underachievement, long‐term disadvantage, and even offending. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 5, Page 397-408, October 2018. '
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2089   open full text
  • What influences social outcomes among offenders with personality disorder: A systematic review.
    Catriona Connell, Vivek Furtado, Elizabeth A. McKay, Swaran P. Singh.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Personality disorder is highly prevalent in offender populations and is associated with poor health, criminal justice, and social outcomes. Research has been conducted into factors that influence offending and health, but, in order to improve (re)habilitation, service providers must also be able to identify the variables associated with social outcomes and the mechanisms by which they operate. Aim To establish what is known about what influences social outcomes among offenders with personality disorder. Method A systematic review was completed using Cochrane methods, expanded to include nonrandomised trials. Anticipated high heterogeneity informed a narrative synthesis. Results Three studies met inclusion criteria. Two were qualitative studies including only 13 cases between them. All studies were low quality. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to determine what influences good social outcomes among offenders with personality disorder. Research is required to identify associated variables, to inform the development of effective interventions. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 5, Page 390-396, October 2018. '
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2082   open full text
  • Positive and negative social influences and crime acceleration during the transition from childhood to adolescence: The interplay of risk and protective factors.
    Glenn D. Walters.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Social influences are believed to play a vital role in delinquency development within the context of the child‐to‐adolescent transition. Aims It was hypothesised that (a) positive social influences would be at least as important as negative social influences in shaping later offending behaviour during the child‐to‐adolescent transition; (b) parental social influences would be more prominent during childhood, and sibling and peer social influences would be more prominent during adolescence; and (c) parents would have a more positive influence than siblings or peers. Methods Participants were 857 adult respondents (416 men, 441 women) from the 1942 and 1949 Racine birth cohorts. Most were White (87%), with 8% African Americans, and 5% Hispanics. Participants provided retrospective accounts of positive and negative social influences during childhood (ages 6–13) and offending both then and during adolescence (ages 14–18). These retrospective accounts, which were organised into positive and negative influence scales by the original researchers, were then subjected to multiple regression analyses. Results A range of positive and negative social influences, not confined to parenting, were associated with adolescent offending, after allowing for the effects of sex, race, education, family structure, and parental and peer criminality. Change was a predominant theme in these data; whereas parental and sibling influences peaked during childhood and were overwhelmingly positive, peer influences peaked during adolescence and were less preponderantly positive. Conclusions and implications These results support a risk model in which positive and negative social influences accumulate to determine a person's propensity for future offending. This propensity can be reduced by encouraging positive influences and discouraging negative ones during the child‐to‐adolescent transition. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 5, Page 414-423, October 2018. '
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2088   open full text
  • Three good deeds and three blessings: The kindness and gratitude interventions with Chinese prisoners.
    Ying Yang, Haiyan Zhao, Ma Aidi, Yu Kou.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Studies have found lower well‐being among prisoners than in the general population. Positive psychological interventions provide fruitful ways of enhancing people's well‐being, but little is known about whether these contribute to prisoners' well‐being. Aims To test the effects of two typical positive psychological interventions – kindness and gratitude – on Chinese prisoners' well‐being. Methods One hundred and forty‐four participants were randomly assigned to three conditions: kindness or gratitude groups in addition to ‘treatment as usual’ and a control condition of treatment as usual alone, with 48 men in each condition. Participants completed established well‐being measures before and after the 6‐week intervention and a similar period in control conditions. Results Both kindness and gratitude interventions significantly increased prisoners' well‐being compared to the control group. The kindness intervention promoted higher well‐being than the gratitude intervention. Conclusions Although both kindness and gratitude interventions enhanced prisoners' happiness and mitigated negative affect, the weaker effect of the gratitude condition reflects Chinese strongly communal culture, so further cross‐cultural studies would be of interest. Future research should also include longer term follow‐up and expand the work to include women in prison. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 5, Page 433-441, October 2018. '
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2085   open full text
  • Bullying and alexithymia: Are there differences between traditional, cyber, combined bullies, and nonbullies in reading their own emotions?
    Sebastian Wachs, Michelle F. Wright.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Few studies have examined alexithymia, the inability to identify or describe one's emotions, as a possible correlate of bullying. Aims To investigate whether there are differences among 12–18 year‐olds in capacity for identifying and/or describing own emotions between traditional bullies, cyber bullies, combined bullies, and nonbullies. Methods Data from self‐report questionnaires completed by 897 female and 652 male 12–18 year‐olds (mean 14.5 years, standard deviation 1.68) from Germany and Thailand were analysed using analysis of covariance. Results Young people who reported never having bullied others scored lower on the alexithymia scale than traditional, cyber, or combined bullies. There were no differences between traditional and cyber bullies on this measure, but those who operated in both ways had significantly higher alexithymia scores compared with those who bullied in just one modality. Conclusion Alexithymia is thus likely to be an important factor to consider in prevention and treatment of bullying. We recommend that prevention programmes include elements to help identify and describe one's own emotions, providing additional support, and “training” if alexithymia is identified. When young people use cyber techniques and traditional bullying methods, it seems likely that they will have greatest need in this respect. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 5, Page 409-413, October 2018. '
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2083   open full text
  • Police interactions and interventions with suspects flagged as experiencing mental health problems.
    Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Jurgen Mitsch, Tahseen Jilani, Philip Quinlan, Jack Cattell, Najat Khalifa.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Interactions between individuals experiencing mental health (MH) problems and the police are complex, and effectiveness of innovative support and diversion models in England and Wales not yet fully evaluated. Aims/hypotheses Our aims were to examine police interactions with suspects and to measure the immediate effectiveness of police/NHS MH interventions, including liaison and diversion and embedded staff in police contact and control rooms. We hypothesised that those with an MH flag would have significantly greater benefit from such interventions than those without in terms of how far they are taken down the criminal justice pathway and how long they spend in police custody. Methods We examined police interactions with suspects with and without flagged MH problems in relation to key outcome measures over a 15‐month period, overall or when flagged by nurses alone. ‘MH flagging’ is defined as the presence of a marker on police systems, including both historical and current information, that alerts control room staff and response officers that the call may involve an individual/s with MH problems. Serial cross‐sectional analysis of material from a database of individual cases integrating information from three police sources (N = 13,472) was used to test for associations between ‘mental health flagging’ and outcomes. Results Individuals with an MH flag have almost identical police dispatch response profiles to those without; they were arrested for and charged with similar offences. Those with an MH flag were significantly more likely to be charged with a criminal offence, less likely to receive a caution and spent longer periods in police custody than people under similar accusations but no MH flag. Conclusions MH flagging appeared to disadvantage the people flagged, despite the presence of theoretically appropriate interventions. Further research is needed to understand this. It may be that indicating this form of vulnerability if the person is not judged to qualify for a MH service is discriminatory and may even account for excessive rates of mental disorder among prisoners. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 5, Page 424-432, October 2018. '
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2078   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2 No abstract is available for this article. - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 5, October 2018.
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2093   open full text
  • Use of self‐reported psychopathy assessments with older adults: An update on evaluation of their psychometrics for people over 60 years.
    Katherine J. Holzer, Michael G. Vaughn.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 28, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Psychometric properties of self‐report psychopathy scales have generally been established in samples of people under the age of 40. Personality traits are, however, likely to persist into old age, so it is important to understand the performance of user‐friendly self‐report psychopathy measures among older people. Aims The aims of this study were to find out the extent to which self‐reported scales developed for rating psychopathy have been used with people of 60 years or older and the extent of any evidence that the psychometric properties of the scales vary with age. Methods A systematic literature review, with searching limited to PubMed, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar for the years 1990‐2017, of studies of the psychometric properties of five prominent self‐report psychopathy scales: the Self‐Report Psychopathy Scale, Levenson Self‐Report Psychopathy Scale, Psychopathic Personality Inventory, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, and the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment according to age of participants. Results Fourteen studies were found for the years 1990–2017. Age ranges in these samples are wide, with a typical mean age of approximately 30 years. None of these studies focused solely on adults of 60 years or older or attempted to isolate findings by specific age group. Conclusions and Implications for Future Research Studies of the use of self‐rated psychopathy tools remain inconclusive about their psychometrics in older people. Further investigations should follow three main paths: first, deriving samples solely of older adults from the general population—to improve the generalisability of their results; second, item response theory methods should be used to detect differential item functioning between younger and older adults; finally, modifications of extant measures with and without items with potential age‐bias should be tested. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. '
    September 28, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2091   open full text
  • Recovery and forensic care: Recent advances and future directions.
    Alexander I.F. Simpson, Stephanie R. Penney.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 14, 2018
    --- - - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 5, Page 383-389, October 2018.
    September 14, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2090   open full text
  • Aggression, attributional style, and locus of control among imprisoned migrants from the former Soviet Union.
    Maria Isabel Fontao, Thomas Ross.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 11, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background In the 1990s, over two million migrants from the former Soviet Union with German ancestry came to Germany, a small number of whom committed offences. Aim The aim of this study is to investigate aggression, locus of control, and attributional style in these (male) migrants imprisoned in Germany. Methods Three groups of men with German ancestry were compared: 1.36 prisoners migrating into Germany from the former Soviet Union (migrant‐P), 2.31 migrating into Germany from the former Soviet Union without a history of offending (community sample; C), and 3.40 German prisoners with no migration experience (native‐P). Results Aggression was high among all prisoners relative to nonoffending migrants. Prisoners tended to be under‐achievers educationally compared with community living migrants. Imprisoned migrants had scores on locus of control and on attribution scales of feeling more influenced by fate and other external factors than had the community migrants, but in a regression model with aggression as the dependent variable and locus of control and attributional style measures as the independent variables, only external attributional style with respect to failure was significantly related to aggression. Implications External attributional style appears to be linked to the probability of aggressive behaviours, leading to unlawful acts and imprisonment. Regardless of whether a person has a migration history or not, as attribution of failure among these relatively low‐achieving prisoners was associated with aggression, loosening these attributional tendencies in therapy might help to reduce aggression. Migration per se was not problematic in these respects in this sample. - 'Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, EarlyView. '
    September 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2087   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 06, 2018
    --- - |2 No abstract is available for this article. - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 4, August 2018.
    August 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2086   open full text
  • Duty to warn for potential risk of psychological harm.
    Naista Zhand, David G. Attwood.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 06, 2018
    --- - - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 309-312, August 2018.
    August 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2075   open full text
  • Men and women with borderline personality disorder resident in Dutch special psychiatric units in prisons: A descriptive and comparative study.
    Chantal Brink, Joke M. Harte, A. Dorina Denzel.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 03, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background The overall prevalence of borderline personality disorder is well known, but characteristics of offender patients with the condition are less clear, especially among men. Aim Describe characteristics of men and women with borderline personality disorder in special psychiatric units in Dutch prisons on three domains: prevalence of child abuse, comorbidity of borderline personality disorder with other disorders, and clinical symptoms. Methods One hundred and sixty‐seven people were assigned to this study based on a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM‐5) diagnoses retrieved from records. Other DSM‐5 diagnoses were also recorded. Two scales, the Dutch Historisch, Klinisch, Toekomst—Revisie and the international Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale—Expanded (BPRS‐E) were used to record child abuse and clinical symptoms, respectively. Results Prevalence rates of child abuse were high, but the men and women did not differ in this respect. The male offender patients were more likely than the women to have a comorbid substance use disorder, whereas the women were more likely to have a comorbid anxiety disorder. Intellectual disability was the most common comorbid Axis II disorder. The women were more likely than the men to have committed a fatal/nearly fatal index offence and showed higher rates of distress or behavioural disturbance on all five BPRS‐E factors. Conclusions This study provides evidence of the importance of in‐depth knowledge of presentations with borderline personality disorder specific to setting. Although we were unable to make direct comparisons with other samples, our figures suggest clinically relevant differences among offender patients from the more widely reported general samples. We also shed light on a sometimes underexposed group of men with borderline personality disorder and their clinical needs. More population‐specific intervention and follow‐up studies are now indicated. - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 324-334, August 2018.
    July 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2084   open full text
  • A randomised controlled trial of a cognitive skills programme for offenders with mental illness.
    Drew A. Kingston, Mark E. Olver, Jared McDonald, Colin Cameron.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 06, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Interventions for offenders with mental illness have tended to be confined to treatment of illness, with the expectation that symptom reduction will be accompanied by reduced criminal recidivism, but recent evidence suggests that other treatment targets may be more effective against recidivism. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a cognitive skills programme (Reasoning and Rehabilitation 2: Short Version for Adults [R&R2]) among offenders with mental illness. Our first hypothesis was that participation in this programme would result in significantly greater improvement in antisocial attitudes than among similar prisoners who did not participate; both groups received “treatment as usual” (TAU). Our second hypothesis was that those receiving R&R2 would show less post‐treatment violent or general recidivism than those receiving TAU alone. Method Incarcerated offenders with serious mental illness (N = 101) were randomly assigned to R&R2 or TAU alone. Criminal attitudes and mental state were examined before and after treatment. Violent and non‐violent recidivism was measured, on average, 18 months after release. Results In both intervention and TAU alone trial arms, there were significant pre‐ to post‐treatment changes in criminal attitudes and symptoms or signs of mental disorder. There was no difference between groups in these respects. These pre/post changes were not associated with reductions in recidivism over time, whether or not controlling for baseline risk. Conclusions Although there was no demonstrable advantage of R&R2 over TAU alone, non‐significant trends towards lower violent recidivism in the R&R2 group and general recidivism in the TAU group suggest that it may be worth repeating the trial in a larger sample with more differentiated control groups. - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 369-382, August 2018.
    May 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2077   open full text
  • Exploring the efficacy of reintegrative shaming for non‐predatory offending.
    Chivon H. Fitch, Zavin Nazaretian, Devon Himmel.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 08, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Since Braithwaite advanced reintegrative shaming theory about 25 years ago, the theory has almost invariably been retested only in relation to predatory offending. Few studies have tested the relevance of the theory for non‐predatory offending. Aim This study aims to explore the utility of reintegrative shaming theory in explaining non‐predatory crimes. Our main research question was: is acknowledgement of shame apportioned by others associated with reduction in non‐predatory offending? Methods We used zero‐inflated negative binomial modelling to analyse data from a national, longitudinal, population‐based study of 1,726 adolescents. Results Overall, peer shame acknowledgement at age 18–21 was a significant predictor of no non‐predatory offending at ages 21–27. Contrary to our expectation, however, similar recognition and incorporation of parental shame was not related to absence of such offending. Implications Our findings add further weight to the validity of reintegrative shaming theory, showing its broader value explaining criminal behaviour—and desistance from it—beyond the original model. - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 361-368, August 2018.
    March 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2072   open full text
  • Religion and desistance from substance use among adolescent offenders: The role of cognitive functioning.
    Richard Stansfield.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 01, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Religious beliefs and practices have been shown to have some association with desistance from offending, as have cognitive processes, including emotion regulation, self‐control, reasoning, learning, and empathy. Religious behaviours may, however, be moderated or mediated by cognitive abilities, but few studies take this into account. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the role of cognitive ability in any relationship between religious beliefs and behaviours and desistance from substance use among adolescents. Method Data were extracted from the Pathways to Desistance Study dataset (n = 1,354). Religious measures were self‐rated importance of religion, helpfulness of religion in dealing with problems, and attendance at religious services. Cognitive measures were the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence and Trail Making Tests. A count of numbers of mind‐altering substances used constituted the main substance measure. Control variables included sex, age, and age of onset of offending. Results Mixed‐effects longitudinal analyses revealed that religious behaviours did constitute a significant predictor of lower substance use for young people after a criminal conviction, after controlling for changes in employment, social support, and delinquent peer association, but only among those with average or above cognitive function. Conclusions These findings may explain why there have been some discrepancies in previous studies of religion and substance misuse. They may also have important implications for the training of anyone delivering programmes to young people in prison that have faith‐based elements, including community faith group leaders and volunteers. - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 350-360, August 2018.
    March 01, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2071   open full text
  • Age onset of offending and serious mental illness among forensic psychiatric patients: A latent profile analysis.
    Stephanie R. Penney, Aaron Prosser, Alexander I.F. Simpson.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. January 16, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Developmental typologies regarding age of onset of violence and offending have not routinely taken account of the role of serious mental illness (SMI), and whether age of onset of offending in relation to onset of illness impacts on the manifestation of offending over the life course. Aims To test whether forensic psychiatric patients can be classified according to age of onset of SMI and offending, and, if so, whether subtypes differ by sex. Methods Details of all 511 patients enrolled into a large forensic mental health service in Ontario, Canada, in 2011 or 2012 were collected from records. Results A latent profile analysis supported a 2‐class solution in both men and women. External validation of the classes demonstrated that those with a younger age onset of serious mental illness and offending were characterised by higher levels of static risk factors and criminogenic need than those whose involvement in both mental health and criminal justice systems was delayed to later life. Conclusions Our findings present a new perspective on life course trajectories of offenders with SMI. While analyses identified just two distinct age‐of‐onset groups, in both the illness preceded the offending. The fact that our sample was entirely drawn from those hospitalised may have introduced a selection bias for those whose illness precedes offending, but findings underscore the complexity and level of need among those with a younger age of onset. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 335-349, August 2018.
    January 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2069   open full text
  • Learning to blast a way into crime, or just good clean fun? Examining aggressive play with toy weapons and its relation with crime.
    Sven Smith, Christopher J. Ferguson, Kevin M. Beaver.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. January 16, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract Background Researchers, such as Bandura, have proposed that children's mere exposure to the use of play weapons encourages deviant displays of aggression, but there is very little research to support this hypothesis of 20 years. Aim To examine the relationship between amount of weapon play and concurrent aggression as well as later violent juvenile crime, while controlling for other variables possibly influencing criminal pathways. Method Using longitudinal survey data collected from mothers and children (n = 2019) from age 5, with follow‐up at age 15, correlations between children's play with toy weapons and juvenile criminality were examined. Multivariate regression analyses were employed to determine to what extent early childhood aggression, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and symptoms of depression were antecedents of juvenile crime. Results For bivariate analysis between toy weapon play and juvenile criminality, the effect size was small and not significant. The relationship remained not significant once control variables were introduced into the model. Conclusions and implications The act of pretending to be aggressive in childhood thus plays little role in predicting later criminality after other factors, such as gender, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or depression, have been taken into account. Involvement in imaginative play with toy gun use in early childhood is unlikely to be useful as a risk marker for later criminal behaviour. Play fighting and war toy games may even be considered necessary components within the frame of normal development. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. - Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, Volume 28, Issue 4, Page 313-323, August 2018.
    January 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2070   open full text
  • Characteristics of alleged homicide offenders with and without schizophrenia in Sichuan, China.
    Xiacan Chen, Xueli Zhang, Stephen C.P. Wong, Min Yang, Di Kong, Junmei Hu.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 19, 2017
    Background Little is known about the characteristics of people with and without schizophrenia who have been charged with homicide in China. Aims and research question Our research question was what differences are there between alleged homicide offenders with and without psychosis? Method All archival records of alleged homicide cases referred for assessment to the West China Forensic Central Medical Service during 1998–2006 were retrieved. The centre serves a large catchment area in the mainly rural province of Sichuan. A random 20% of cases with schizophrenia and all cases without psychosis were selected for comparison. Demographic, criminological and mental health data were extracted from the records, and violence was rated by using the Violence Risk Scale (Chinese version). Results The two groups differed significantly in age, education, occupation, marital status and relationships to victim. The estimated risk of reoffending was higher in the schizophrenia group than the non‐psychotic group, even after controlling for demographic differences. Despite many individuals reporting long histories of mental illness, about 40% of those with schizophrenia had never had any psychiatric treatment and less than 4% were in treatment at the time of the alleged homicide. Conclusions The tendency for homicidal people with schizophrenia to be older, less educated and more socially isolated than their non‐psychotic peers is similar to experience in Western countries, but the apparently higher risk scale scores of the Chinese schizophrenia group and their greater tendency to attack strangers are different. The lack of reported previous engagement with mental health services by a clearly ill and risky group of people is a likely explanation. Similar rural problems compared with better served urban areas have been reported in the Chuvash Republic. The case for better rural mental health services seems strong. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2054   open full text
  • Effectiveness of current policing‐related mental health interventions: A systematic review.
    Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Farhad Shokraneh.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 19, 2017
    Background There are three commonly used mental health interventions associated with policing: liaison and diversion, street triage and having specialist staff embedded in police contact control rooms. Crisis intervention teams (CITs), already used in the USA, are now attracting wider interest, including in the UK. Investment in these interventions is growing, so it is important to have evidence of their effectiveness. Aim To conduct a systematic literature review to answer questions about effectiveness of police‐mental health service models for responding to people with mental disorder and suspected offending or public safety problems. Methods A population/participant, intervention/indicator, comparator/control, outcome (PICO) framework was developed and keywords used to locate research studies within 29 databases. The 3179 results returned were screened by two researchers against preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. This resulted in 23 studies being included from which were taken the study methodology and findings and on which a narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Twenty‐three studies could be included, overall showing a positive impact of the interventions considered, but no well‐designed randomised controlled trials to test this optimistic view rigorously. Conclusions Overall, rather than indicating that one approach is more effective than another, the review points to the need for a multi‐faceted approach within a structured and integrated model, such as the CIT model. This is generally not the current pattern of interventions, and policy makers, service commissioners and providers may wish to review future options. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2058   open full text
  • Why run the risk? Motivation for offences by patients with substance use and antisocial personality disorders which they rated as most risky to their own well‐being.
    Birgitte Thylstrup, Morten Hesse.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 10, 2017
    Background Understanding motives for offending is important for the development and delivery of effective interventions. Aims To explore associations between variables with motivational implications and the offence committed in the past year rated by people with antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder as putting them and their status at most risk. Methods Participants were 127 outpatients from a sample recruited for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an intervention for adults attending substance abuse treatment clinics in 13 municipalities in Denmark. Motives for offending were assessed on one occasion, using the Offending Motivation Questionnaire, aggression was assessed using the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire and substance‐related problems, including mental state difficulties, were assessed using the Substance Use Risk Profile. Results Attributing offending to provocation, excitement or financial gain differed substantially by type of offence, whereas attribution of offending to compliance did not. Personality scale scores were associated with attributing offences to provocation, excitement or compliance but not with financial gain. Conclusions Motives for offending among substance users with antisocial personality disorder must be understood both in light of the type of offence and personality traits. Offending behaviour prevention strategies that draw on these distinctions, run in parallel to treatment for substance use, could improve reduction in recidivism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2059   open full text
  • Anger parameters in parolees undergoing psychoeducation: Temporal stability, social desirability bias, and comparison with non‐offenders.
    Ephrem Fernandez, Vasiliki Kiageri, Deepan Guharajan, Andrew Day.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 08, 2017
    Background Anger is commonly measured as if it were a single, simple construct. This may be particularly unhelpful if the main purpose of a measure is to determine change and responsiveness to interventions. Aims Our primary aim was to assess five anger parameters in parolees – frequency, duration, intensity, latency, and threshold – and to test for effects of psychoeducation and social desirability bias on parolees' scores. Average anger scores for the offender sample were compared with those in a non‐offender sample. Methods The offender sample was drawn from male parolees in San Antonio. Age‐matched volunteers recruited at public libraries were engaged for baseline comparisons. The Anger Parameters Scale and the Marlow–Crowne Scale were used to assess anger and social desirability, respectively. Parole officers delivered a psychoeducation course to parolees over 12 weeks, and anger and social desirability measures were taken before and afterwards. Results At baseline, parolees were angry more often, stayed angry longer, and reached higher levels of anger than the non‐offenders, confirming their eligibility for the programme. Mean anger scores were not significantly different after psychoeducation than before it. Parolees' reported anger was significantly and negatively correlated with social desirability scores. Conclusions Only three of the five anger parameters were prominent among these offenders: frequency, duration, and intensity of their outbursts. Psychoeducation did not produce improvement, possibly because it was instructional rather than therapeutic, but also because group means may mask useful individual differences. Concurrent assessment of social desirability is likely to assist in interpretation of anger measures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2057   open full text
  • Criminal thinking shifts among male prisoners participating in a cognitive‐based education programme.
    Cody Warner, Timothy Conley, Riley Murphy.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 06, 2017
    Background Many prisoners rationalise criminal behaviour, and this type of thinking has been linked to recidivism. Correctional programmes for modifying criminal thinking can reshape how offenders view themselves and their circumstances. Aim Our aim was to test whether participation in a cognitive‐based curriculum called Steps to Economic and Personal Success (STEPS) was associated with changes in criminal thinking. Methods The STEPS curriculum is delivered in 15 video‐based facilitated classes. A pre‐intervention/post‐intervention survey design was applied to 128 adult male prisoners who completed the programme. Criminal thinking was measured by the Texas Christian University Criminal Thinking Scale, a self‐report instrument with the six domains: entitlement, justification, power orientation, cold heartedness, criminal rationalisation and personal irresponsibility. Results Participants had lower scores in most of the criminal thinking domains after the intervention than before, with largest reductions in justification and power orientation. Conclusion Findings provide evidence that attitudes to crime can be changed in a correctional setting, and the programme under study shows promise as an effective intervention for changing these attitudes among prisoners. Future research should build on these findings to examine whether and how such changes are related to desistance from offending behaviours. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 06, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2053   open full text
  • Mental disorder and victimisation in prison: Examining the role of mental health treatment.
    Jane C. Daquin, Leah E. Daigle.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 31, 2017
    Background There is evidence that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of victimisation in prison. It is unclear whether this risk of victimisation varies across types of disorders or symptoms and what role mental health treatment has on victimisation risk in this context. Aims To examine the relationship between specific mental disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and victimisation in prison and the effect of treatment for the disorders on victimisation risk. Methods Using a nationally‐representative sample of prisoners, path analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation. The analyses also examined whether receiving mental health treatment in prison affected any such relationship. Results Victimisation risk varied with the type of mental disorder or symptoms. Depression, personality disorder, hopelessness, paranoia, and hallucinations were associated with increased victimisation risk. Psychotic illnesses were otherwise negatively associated with victimisation. Receiving mental health treatment in prison was associated with greater risk of victimisation there. Receiving treatment appeared to mediate the relationship between mental disorders, symptoms, and victimisation. Conclusions The findings suggest that not all inmates with mental disorders are at an increased risk of victimisation. Further, mental health treatment in prison also appears to be a risk factor of victimisation. More research is needed to further elucidate the relationship between mental disorders, treatment, and victimisation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2056   open full text
  • Klinefelter's syndrome and sexual offending – A literature review.
    Rebecca O'Donovan, Birgit Völlm.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 07, 2017
    Background Klinefelter's syndrome is a sex chromosome abnormality affecting approximately 1 in 1000 men. There have been suggestions that it is associated with a higher than average prevalence of sexual offending but to what extent does research evidence support this assertion? Aims This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of published research to establish the prevalence of sexual offending in men with Klinefelter's syndrome. Method The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched from inception until 31 December 2016 by using a range of terms for Klinefelter's syndrome and for sexual offending. All selected papers were examined for quality by using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Results We identified 53 relevant papers of which 10 met our inclusion criteria. All but one were prevalence studies conducted in a prison or hospital setting. The one, Danish, register‐based cohort study did suggest an increased risk of sex offending among Klinefelter men, probably established before the diagnosis was made and, therefore, any hormone replacement instituted. Conclusion There is insufficient evidence to date to support concerns about exceptional risk of sex offending among men with Klinefelter's syndrome. Rather, it is arguable that there is a research gap in understanding how the experience of and treatment for their condition may affect them. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2052   open full text
  • Effects of cognitive‐behavioural therapy (CBT) and positive psychological intervention (PPI) on female offenders with psychological distress in Hong Kong.
    Vivian W.M. Mak, Calais K.Y. Chan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 02, 2017
    Background Despite rapid growth in the female prison population, there is little research on effectiveness of psychological interventions for them. Aims To test the hypotheses that (1) each of two psychological interventions administered separately – cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or positive psychology intervention (PPI) – would be more effective than ‘treatment‐as‐usual’ alone in reducing psychological distress and enhancing psychological well‐being; (2) outcomes would differ according to intervention; and (3) combining the interventions would be more effective than delivering either alone. Methods We recruited 40 women in a special Hong Kong prison unit for female offenders with psychological distress. Half of them received eight sessions of CBT followed by eight sessions of PPI; the other half received the same interventions in the reverse order. We recruited another 35 women who received only ‘treatment as usual’ (TAU) in the same unit. We used various clinical scales to assess the women's psychological distress or well‐being before and after the interventions or at similar time points for the comparison women. Results All intervention group women showed a significant reduction in psychological distress and enhancement in psychological well‐being after each intervention alone compared to the TAU women. There were no significant differences between CBT and PPI in this respect. Receiving both treatments, however, did yield significantly more improvement than either intervention alone in reducing depressive thoughts and enhancing global judgement of life satisfaction, self‐perceived strengths and hopeful thinking style. Conclusions and implication for practice Our findings provide preliminary empirical support for the effectiveness of psychological interventions with psychologically distressed women in prison. It would be important now to conduct a full, randomised trial to determine optimal length and combinations of treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2047   open full text
  • Correlations between psychopathology and self‐reported quality of life among adolescents in youth correctional facilities in Lagos, Nigeria: A short report.
    Olayinka Atilola, Bolanle Ola, Gbonjubola Abiri, Abiodun O. Adewuya.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 28, 2017
    Background The relationship between psychopathology and quality of life (QoL) and well‐being among young incarcerated offenders has hardly been explored. Aims Our aim was to test the hypothesis that higher self‐rated psychopathology would be associated with lower QoL among adolescents resident within youth correctional facilities in Lagos. Methods Psychopathology was assessed using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ), while QoL was measured by using the Paediatric Quality of Life. Results One hundred and sixty‐five adolescents completed the study, mostly boys (n = 124; 75%) with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.1 years. Nearly, a fifth (30, 18%) of respondents had abnormal total SDQ scores (≥17), suggestive of definite psychiatric disorder, while another 44 (27%) had highly probable psychopathology (total SDQ scores 15–16). There was strong negative correlation (r = −0.51, p < 0.001) between total SDQ scores and overall self‐reported QoL among respondents. Conclusions and implications for practice Although we were unable to infer direction of relationship between psychopathology and QoL among these adolescents, it is plausible to suppose that treatment of mental health problems could have a positive impact on rehabilitation and reintegration. Given the rate of likely psychopathology, mental health screening within young offender institutions should be routine, and followed, as necessary with full assessment and resultant treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2042   open full text
  • A period prevalence study of being a parent in a secure psychiatric hospital and a description of the parents, the children and the impact of admission on parent–child contact.
    Sarah Elizabeth Argent, Laura Riddleston, Jodie Warr, Hannah Tippetts, Zoe Meredith, Pamela Jane Taylor.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 14, 2017
    Background Most secure psychiatric hospital patients are of childbearing age, but their parental status is minimally researched. Aim The aim of the study is to describe the parent patients in one regional secure hospital and explore post‐admission child–parent contact. Methods A 9‐year records survey of a complete secure hospital admissions cohort was conducted. Results Nearly half of the cohort of 165 patients (46%) were parents. Parent patients were less likely than childless patients to have diagnostic co‐morbidity or to have received childhood mental health care but were more likely to have committed a homicide/life‐threatening index offence with family or friend victims. Men, whether fathers or not, and childless women were unlikely ever to have harmed a child, but it was more likely than not that mother patients had. Records indicated minimal discussion about childlessness. Ninety‐four (60%) of the 157 children involved were under 18 years on parental admission. Adult children who had been living with the parent patient before the parent's admission invariably maintained contact with them afterwards, but nearly half (48%) of such under 18‐year‐olds lost all contact. The only characteristic related to such loss was the index offence victim having been a nuclear family member. Conclusions As the discrepancy in whether or not parent patients and their children continued contact with each other after the parent's admission seemed to depend mainly on the child's age and his or her resultant freedom to choose, acquisition of accurate data about affected children's perspective on visiting seems essential. Given that parent patients had experienced relative stability in interpersonal relationships and had rarely had childhood disorders, parenting support in conjunction with treatment seems appropriate. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 14, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2046   open full text
  • Commentary: Implementation in the community.
    Caitriona Higgins, Jake Shaw.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 05, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2038   open full text
  • Enhancing the desistance trajectory in prison: Commentary on McMurran and Delight's (2017) ‘Process of change in an OPD pathway prison progression unit’.
    Nikki Jeffcote.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 05, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2040   open full text
  • Commentary‐the national probation perspective.
    Angus Cameron, Lesley Took, David Stead, Mike Yeardley, Risha Patel.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 05, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2037   open full text
  • The clinical development of the London pathways partnership.
    Jackie Craissati.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 05, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2034   open full text
  • Processes of change in an offender personality disorder pathway prison progression unit.
    Mary McMurran, Steve Delight.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 05, 2017
    Background In England, the National Offender Management Service and the NHS have come together to try and improve management and treatment of offenders with personality disorder by developing a pathways approach to assist high‐risk male offenders with severe personality disorder. Aim The aim of the study is to investigate service user and staff perceptions of change in this pathway. Methods Semi‐structured interviews were conducted with 16 prisoners and 16 staff in one unit in a London‐based personality disorder pathway. The four core questions were as follows: (1) what changes do you think have occurred?; (2) what do you think helped make these changes?; (3) how do you think this helped change?; and (4) what hindered positive change? Thematic analysis was applied to the narratives. Results Prisoners and staff separately reported similar changes, each observing that prisoners became less anti‐authority, improved their self‐understanding, developed feelings of self‐worth and increased their optimism about change. There was similar consensus on what they thought had brought about change – primarily development of trusting relationships. These allowed a psychological perspective on understanding prisoners' behaviour. Maintenance of this approach was seen as demanding, with barriers including ‘security restrictions’ curtailing purposeful activities, visits and community contact and ‘stigmatising beliefs about personality disorder’ in the wider prison. Implications for Practice Findings suggest that shared goals and progress are achievable. Difficulties in sustaining these will require a range of solutions, but wider support from the prison is essential to containing hostility to such prisoners and specialised work and ensuring the provision of purposeful activity. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2032   open full text
  • Evaluating the impact of the London Pathway Project.
    Darrick Jolliffe, Jack Cattell, Annabelle Raza, Philip Minoudis.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 05, 2017
    Background The London Pathway Project (LPP) is an innovative whole‐systems approach to addressing the needs of offenders who have severe personality disorder, with the goal of reducing their risk of harm. Previous research has evaluated the initial implementation of the LPP. Aims This paper focused on evaluating the impact of the LPP on a number of criminogenic needs over time and its impact on the risk of reoffending and harm compared with a similar group who did not experience the pathway. Method Data for men who had been identified for the LPP were used to explore changes in key criminogenic needs an average of 11 months after commencing on the pathway. In addition, Offender Assessment System data was used to match men who had experienced the LPP for at least 12 months to a comparison group on key demographic and criminal history variables. Changes in validated risk assessment devices and changes in practitioners' perception of risk were examined. Results The LPP was associated with desirable within‐individual change for most of the criminogenic needs explored. However, strong non‐desirable changes in lifestyle and associates were also identified, but this was particularly the case for those sentenced to prison. When compared with a matched group, those identified for the pathway showed a significant reduction on an objective measure of risk of reoffending but were rated as having significantly increased risk of harm on the basis of practitioner's perceptions. There was no evidence that greater progression along the pathway was associated with greater benefits. Conclusions This is the first impact evaluation of the LPP, and the results were generally positive in terms of its relation to criminogenic needs and risks. Much more research that clearly links project inputs to actual behavioural outcomes, such as later reoffending, is needed. Implications This initial evaluation of the impact of the LPP could be used as baseline data to examine the impact of the pathway over time, and with greater precision (e.g. matching on personality features). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2041   open full text
  • Factors associated with progression in the London pathway project.
    Darrick Jolliffe, Jack Cattell, Annabelle Raza, Philip Minoudis.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 05, 2017
    Background The London Pathways Partnership (LPP) Community Service is an approach to mainstreaming the identification of offenders with severe personality disorder to address their needs and reduce their risk. Aims To evaluate the result of the full‐scale implementation of the LPP and evaluate factors associated with an offender's progression on the pathway. Method The data collected as part of the LPP project and Offender Assessment System data were used to evaluate who was screened into the pathway and their progression on the pathway. Results Over 3,400 offenders were screened into the pathway in the first 48 months of implementation but fewer were recorded as having progressed. It was not possible to determine whether this attrition reflected appropriate pathway action, inefficient service provision or weak recording procedures. Certain types of offenders were represented at progressive stages of the pathway. Those who had violent or sexual offences, had received custodial sentences, had more personality disorder indicators and were of higher risk were more likely to be found at progressive stages of the pathway. When probation areas began implementing the service was also found to be related to pathway movement. Also, those of Non‐White ethnicity were no less likely than those of White ethnicity to be recommended or referred for services but were significantly less likely to start services. Conclusions The LPP attempts to balance breadth (covering all offenders being convicted in London) with depth (developing a feasible pathway for all offenders identified with severe personality disorder) and has done so with some success. Implications Future research should examine the continued rollout of the LPP service, and importantly the relationship between salient individual, risk and personality features, pathway inputs and measures of later reoffending. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2035   open full text
  • Examining the effect of social bonds on the relationship between ADHD and past arrest in a representative sample of adults.
    Mark Maas, Nathan J. Kolla, Patricia G. Erickson, Christine M. Wickens, Robert E. Mann, Evelyn Vingilis.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 05, 2017
    Background Several studies have found a connection between attentional deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminal behaviour in clinical and prison samples of adults, but there is a lack of representative general population data on this. Aim To test relationships between histories of ADHD and arrest. Our main research question was whether any such relationship is direct or best explained by co‐occurring variables, especially indicators of social bonds. Method Data were from a sample of 5,376 adults (18+) representative of the general population of Ontario, Canada. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between self‐reported arrest on criminal charges and ADHD as measured by the Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS‐v1.1). Indicators of strong social bonds (post secondary education, household size) and weak bonds (drug use, antisocial behaviours, alcohol dependence) were also obtained at interview and included in the statistical models. Results In a main effects model, screening positive for ADHD was twice as likely (OR 2.05 CI 1.30, 3.14) and past use of medications for ADHD three times as likely (OR 3.94 CI 2.46, 6.22) to be associated with ever having been arrested. These associations were no longer significant after controls for weak and strong social bonds were added to the models. In the best fitting statistical model, ever having been arrested was not associated with ADHD, but it was significantly associated with indicators of strong and weak social bonds. Conclusions The observed connection between ADHD and criminality may be better understood through their shared relationships with indicators of poor social bonds. These include antisocial behaviour more generally, but also drug use and failure to progress to any form of tertiary education, including vocational training. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2045   open full text
  • Multiple traumatic experiences, post‐traumatic stress disorder and offending behaviour in female prisoners.
    Thanos Karatzias, Kevin Power, Caroline Woolston, Prathima Apurva, Amelie Begley, Khadija Mirza, Lisa Conway, Carol Quinn, Sally Jowett, Ruth Howard, Allister Purdie.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 20, 2017
    Background Although it is well established that prisoners commonly have histories of childhood trauma, little is known about mediators between exposure to trauma and criminal behaviour. Hypotheses We hypothesised that the experience of trauma in adulthood, post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional dysregulation would mediate the relationship between childhood traumatic events and later criminal behaviour. Methods Eighty‐nine female prisoners were interviewed using standardised scales, in a cross‐sectional study design. History of traumatic events, DSM‐5 PTSD and emotional regulation were assessed, along with offending and demographic information. A series of regression and mediation analyses were undertaken on the data. Results Almost all (91%) of the 89 women reported both childhood and adulthood trauma. Over half (58%) met the criteria for DSM‐5 PTSD. Multiple traumas were significantly associated with seriousness of offence, as indicated by sentence length. Adult experience of trauma was the only significant mediator between childhood trauma and subsequent offending. Conclusions/implications for practice Women who have experienced multiple traumatic events may be more likely to commit serious offences, so it is very important to assess and meet their trauma‐related needs. While prisons should never be used as substitutes for healthcare facilities, when women or girls are sent to prison, the opportunity for constructive interventions must be seized. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2043   open full text
  • Effect of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention on criminal thinking and prison misconduct in male inmates: Variable‐oriented and person‐oriented analyses.
    Glenn D. Walters.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 07, 2017
    Background There is some consensus on the value of cognitive‐behaviourally informed interventions in the criminal justice system, but uncertainty about which components are of critical value. Aims To test the hypothesis that change in prisoners ‐ criminal thinking and institutional misconduct ‐ will both follow completion of a brief cognitive behavioural intervention. Methods A one‐group pre‐test–post‐test quasi‐experimental design was used to assess change on the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) scale of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles among 219 male prisoners completing a 10‐week cognitive behavioural intervention, referred to as ‘Lifestyle Issues’. Institutional misconduct was measured for 1 year prior to completion of the course and 2 years subsequently. Using variable‐oriented analysis, post‐test GCT scores were compared with change in prison conduct, controlling for the pre‐test thinking scores. Calculations were repeated by using person‐oriented analysis. Results Prisoners who displayed a drop in GCT scores between pre‐test and post‐test levels were significantly more likely to show a reduction in prison misconduct, whereas prison misconduct was likely to escalate among those who displayed a rise in criminal thinking scores from pre‐test to post‐test. Conclusions These findings must still be regarded as preliminary, but taken together with other work and with cognitive behavioural theory, they suggest that development of more prosocial thinking and abilities may have an early beneficial effect on institutional behaviour. Their measurement may offer a practical way in which men could be assessed for readiness to return to the community. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2028   open full text
  • Structured risk assessment for reduction of multiple risk outcomes in a secure mental health setting: Use of the START.
    Cevher Gunenc, Laura E. O'Shea, Geoffrey L. Dickens.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 01, 2017
    Background Structured risk assessment is commonly used in secure settings to aid prediction and prevention of risky behaviours; the expected benefits have rarely been investigated. Aims The aim of the study is to determine whether adverse outcomes (physical and verbal aggression, self‐harm, victimisation, self‐neglect, unauthorised leave and substance abuse) reduced after patients were assessed with the Short‐term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START). Methods In a naturalistic study, anonymised demographic and clinical information was collected from 50 male patients. Data included START assessment and frequency of target behaviour for 3 months before and after first assessment. Chi‐square and linear mixed models analyses were used to determine whether there was any change in the behaviours of interest. Results There were no significant changes in physical or verbal aggression over time, although a tendency towards fewer incidents was apparent. Other adverse behaviours were very infrequent at baseline, precluding adequate analysis. Conclusions In this small sample, START did not achieve its primary purpose of significant reduction in adverse behaviours. Although our sample size was informed by a power calculation, we may have over‐estimated the size of anticipated change. Further, the 3‐month comparison periods before and after the assessment follow‐up period were rather short. Accordingly, we recommend more research on the value of this tool in practice rather than discontinuing its use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2036   open full text
  • The role of self‐serving cognitive distortions in reactive and proactive aggression.
    Sanne Oostermeijer, Kirsten C. Smeets, Lucres M. C. Jansen, Tijs Jambroes, Nanda N. J. Rommelse, Floor E. Scheepers, Jan K. Buitelaar, Arne Popma.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 24, 2017
    Background Aggression is often divided into reactive and proactive forms. Reactive aggression is typically thought to encompass ‘blaming others’ and ‘assuming the worst’, while proactive aggression relates to ‘self‐centeredness’ and ‘minimising/mislabelling’. Aim Our aim was to evaluate relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and cognitive distortions and to test whether changes in these cognitions relate to changes in aggression. Methods A total of 151 adolescents (60% boys; mean age 15.05 years, standard deviation 1.28) were enrolled in an evidence‐based intervention to reduce aggression. Due to attrition and anomalous responses, the post‐intervention sample involved 80 adolescents. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between cognitive distortions and aggression. Results Blaming others was related to reactive aggression before the intervention, while all cognitive distortions were related to proactive aggression both pre‐ and post‐intervention. Changes in reactive aggression were uniquely predicted by blaming others, while changes in proactive aggression were predicted by changes in cognitive distortions overall. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first to show a relationship between changes in cognitive distortions and changes in aggression. Treatment of reactive aggression may benefit from focusing primarily on reducing cognitive distortions involving misattribution of blame to others. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2039   open full text
  • Mental health and associated factors among young offenders in Chile: a cross‐sectional study.
    Jorge Gaete, Nicolas Labbé, Paloma Villar, Catalina Allende, Ricardo Araya, Eduardo Valenzuela.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 12, 2017
    Background Few studies in Latin America have explored mental disorder among young offenders, or variables associated with it. Aims Our aim was to test for associations between childhood adversity or substance misuse and psychiatric disorders among young offenders. Methods Sentenced adolescent offenders were recruited from young offenders' institutions or community centres provided by the Chilean National Service for Minors. Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, conducted by trained psychologists. A trained sociologist used an ad hoc interview to collect information about childhood experiences, including parenting, trauma, education and substance misuse. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to analyse data. Results The most prevalent psychiatric disorders among the 935 participants were marijuana dependence disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorders. Substance use disorders were less frequent among young offenders who were serving their sentence in young offenders' institutions than among those serving in community centres and more frequent among those who started to use marijuana at an earlier age. Among other variables, childhood maltreatment was related to major depressive disorder, and maternal death to anxiety disorders. Higher educational status was related to a lower frequency of depressive and anxiety disorders. Conclusions Our findings suggest that greater efforts must be made to identify vulnerable young people much earlier. Few of these young offenders with mental health problems had been well adjusted in health, education or socially before this period of detention. © 2017 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
    April 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2029   open full text
  • Adult criminality among former residential school adolescents.
    Marko Manninen, Jaana Suvisaari, Niko Marola, Mikko Aaltonen.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 03, 2017
    Background There is evidence from around the world that disruptive behaviour during adolescence is associated with increased risk of later criminality. Outcomes for young people placed in the Finnish residential school because of severe conduct problems are not known. Aims Our aims were to investigate criminality after leaving a residential school placement during adolescence, and to compare trends in criminality between four successive graduate cohorts (1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006). Methods We used official records to study complete national cohort of all 861 people who had been resident in the Finnish residential school system on the last day of each of the years 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006. They were compared with 4255 matched general population controls. The follow‐up time was up to 20 years. Results Two‐thirds (66%) of all residential school graduates (N = 566: 448/78% men, 118/41% women) had at least one criminal conviction in adulthood, a 13‐fold elevation over the general population rate. The most prevalent crime categories were violence (N = 409, 48%: 331/58% men, 78/27% women) and property crimes (N = 405: 47%: 346/60% men, 51/21% women). The risk of violent crime was 18 times that among controls; 13 of residential school males (2.3%) had a homicide conviction. Once adult, the risk of offending decreased with age. There was a significant trend for improvement in offending rates between the earliest and latest residential school cohorts. Conclusions The risk of committing crimes after a residential school placement is sufficiently elevated that alternative strategies, perhaps particularly longer‐term post‐release supervision and aftercare, should be considered. Indications of lower crime rates in later cohorts suggest that some positive changes to the school regime and/or aftercare may have been made already. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2025   open full text
  • Cognitive impairment, self‐perceived health and quality of life of older prisoners.
    Nicolas Combalbert, Valérie Pennequin, Claude Ferrand, Marine Armand, Morgane Anselme, Brigitte Geffray.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 09, 2017
    Background There is a wealth of studies of somatic and mental illness among prisoners, but little on older prisoners and their cognitive aging. Aims Our study examines the cognitive performance of older male prisoners and its effect on their perceived health and quality of life. Methods A total of 138 men aged 50 or over were recruited in seven French prisons and 138 men of similar ages from the general population. Two assessments of executive cognitive functions – the mini‐mental state examination and the frontal assessment battery – were administered to each participant, together with self rating schedules of health (Nottingham Health Profile), subjective state of mental health and quality of life (the brief World Health Organisation Quality of Life Questionnaire). Results There were very significant differences between the two groups in terms of cognitive performance, perceived health and quality of life. There was, however, no significant association between cognitive impairment and perceived health or quality of life. Conclusions We found evidence that about a fifth of male prisoners in France had executive function test scores suggestive of at least moderately severe dementia and many others some evidence of cognitive impairments. Prisoners suffering from cognitive impairment do not necessarily seek help, perhaps not even considering that their health or quality of life to be affected. Communication deficits may also prevent their participation in prison activities which could prevent, slow or halt cognitive decline. Consequently, it is important that systematic screening for cognitive disorders is offered to men over 50 in prison. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2023   open full text
  • The association between type of out‐of‐home mental health treatment and juvenile justice recidivism for youth with trauma exposure.
    John Robst, Mary Armstrong, Norin Dollard.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 09, 2017
    Background High rates of mental health disorders and exposure to trauma among the juvenile justice population highlight the importance of understanding whether and how mental health services can help prevent further justice system involvement as well as provide treatment. Aims We had two principal questions: Is out‐of‐home mental health treatment after arrest associated with reduced recidivism among young people who have been exposed to trauma? Are particular types of out‐of‐home treatment associated with better outcomes? We hypothesised that type of residential setting would affect outcomes among those with histories of serious trauma. Methods Primary data sources included Florida Juvenile Justice, Child Welfare and Medicaid data from July 2002 through June 2008. We identified all Florida Juvenile Justice cases with a record of ‘severe emotional disturbance’. Two groups were identified – one for whom an arrest was followed within 90 days by out‐of‐home placement for mental health treatment and the other for whom there was some other out‐of‐home placement. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to calculate associations with likelihood of re‐arrest during a 12 month at risk period. Results Young people who had experienced severe trauma and were sent to out‐of‐home treatment settings after conviction for a criminal offence had lower recidivism rates when receiving treatment in foster care than other out‐of‐home placements, while those with less severe or no trauma histories had lower recidivism rates with any out‐of‐home placement. Conclusions and implications for practice We believe that this is the first study to have considered how trauma histories may mediate outcomes for young people in out‐of‐home placements after arrest or conviction for a criminal offence. Findings suggest that case managers and clinicians should consider the trauma histories when making decisions about the appropriate treatment setting in these circumstances. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2024   open full text
  • Effects of child abuse, adolescent violence, peer approval and pro‐violence attitudes on intimate partner violence in adulthood.
    Todd I. Herrenkohl, Hyunzee Jung.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 06, 2016
    Background Children's exposure to violence increases their risk for later victimisation and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the relative influence of child abuse, adolescent violence, peer approval of violence and pro‐violence attitudes on later IPV is not well established. Aims Analyses focus on the prediction of adult IPV from variables measured in childhood and adolescence to establish the unique influence of earlier victimisation and perpetration of violence, as well as other variables grounded in theory and empirical findings. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study that began in the 1970s with a sample of 457 preschool‐aged children who were reassessed as adults. Outcomes of adult IPV victimisation and perpetration types were regressed on predictors of parent‐reported child abuse, officially recorded child maltreatment, adolescent victimisation, violence perpetration, pro‐violence attitudes and peer approval of violence during adolescence, controlling for childhood Socio Economic Status (SES), age in adolescence and gender. Results Dating violence victimisation and peer approval of dating violence in adolescence emerged as the unique predictors of IPV victimisation and perpetration in adulthood. Official child maltreatment predicted IPV perpetration. Conclusions Results underscore the importance of prevention programmes and strategies to disrupt the cycle of violence at its early stages, as well as interventions during adolescence targeting peer influences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2014   open full text
  • From early dating violence to adult intimate partner violence: Continuity and sources of resilience in adulthood.
    Sarah J. Greenman, Mauri Matsuda.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 06, 2016
    Background Previous literature has found continuity for intimate partner violence, but little research has explored continuity between dating violence and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) or whether protective factors may attenuate this relationship. Aims This research hypothesised a positive relationship between dating violence in early adulthood and later adulthood IPV and that support and attachment would provide buffering and direct protection for this relationship. Methods Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study were used to explore these questions through negative binomial regression. Results Dating violence was statistically significantly related to an increase of adult IPV. Family support, parental reports of attachment to the subject, peer support and parenting‐related social support all were protective factors that provided a direct effect for those respondents perpetrating dating violence. None of the protective factors provided buffering protection between dating violence and adult IPV. Conclusions Results confirm significant continuity between dating violence and IPV and that support from peers and family, parenting‐related support and parental reports of attachment protect an individual from continuing to engage in intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. Bolstering these supportive relationships may help provide points of intervention to interrupt the link between early dating violence and later adulthood IPV. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2012   open full text
  • Risk assessments for dating violence in mid to late adolescence and early adulthood.
    James Tapp, Estelle Moore.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 06, 2016
    Aim The objective of this paper is to review risk instruments that have been used in the assessment of the potential for violence within the dating relationships of young people. Method A review of the dating violence literature was conducted to identify risk assessment approaches that have been used to predict harmful behaviour within the dating relationships of people aged between 15 and 30 years. Risk assessments were evaluated on recommended quality criteria: predictive validity, accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) and inter‐rater reliability. Results Only five studies describing assessments that focused specifically on dating violence risk factors were selected for review. Three assessments encompassed dating behaviours by victims that have been associated with an increased risk of further victimisation. Conclusions Drawing on this evidence, we conclude that young people appear to be at greater risk of encountering dating violence if they have experienced violence in earlier attachment relationships; if their skills for coping with conflict and responding to coercion are limited and if the presence of peer influences reinforces offence supportive attitudes. The reliability and validity of existing intimate partner violence risk assessments that conceptually overlap with elements of dating violence risk warrant investigation to inform risk assessment developments in this field and, building on this, possible interventions to minimise future harm. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2013   open full text
  • Predictors of emotional and physical dating violence in a sample of serious juvenile offenders.
    Gary Sweeten, Matthew Larson, Alex R. Piquero.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 06, 2016
    Aim We estimate group‐based dating violence trajectories and identify the adolescent risk factors that explain membership in each trajectory group. Method Using longitudinal data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, which follows a sample of 1354 serious juvenile offenders from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Phoenix, Arizona between mid‐adolescence and early adulthood, we estimate group‐based trajectory models of both emotional dating violence and physical dating violence over a span of five years in young adulthood. We then estimate multinomial logistic regression models to identify theoretically motivated risk factors that predict membership in these groups. Results We identified three developmental patterns of emotional dating violence: none (33%), low‐level (59%) and high‐level decreasing (8%). The best‐fitting model for physical dating violence also had three groups: none (73%), low‐level (24%) and high‐level (3%). Race/ethnicity, family and psychosocial variables were among the strongest predictors of both emotional and physical dating violence. In addition, delinquency history variables predicted emotional dating violence and relationship variables predicted physical dating violence. Conclusions Dating violence is quite prevalent in young adulthood among serious juvenile offenders. Numerous predictors distinguish between chronic dating violence perpetrators and other groups. These may suggest points of intervention for reducing future violence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2015   open full text
  • Dating violence and physical health: A longitudinal lens on the significance of relationship dynamics and anti‐social lifestyle characteristics.
    Jennifer E. Copp, Peggy C. Giordano, Monica A. Longmore, Wendy D. Manning.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 06, 2016
    Background Scholars have documented the significant physical health consequences of intimate partner violence. Yet, because existing research draws primarily on clinical samples of adult women, it is unclear whether exposure to dating violence is related to health detriments among young men and women. Furthermore, data limitations largely have precluded consideration of the mechanisms underlying these previously observed associations. Aims We sought to examine the direct association between dating violence and self‐rated physical health during adolescence and across the transition to adulthood. We also directed attention to potential mediating and confounding factors, including negative relationship dynamics, anti‐social lifestyle characteristics and physical health correlates. Methods Drawing on five waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 3746 person‐periods), we used growth curve analyses to examine these associations among a sample of young men and women in dating relationships. Results Longitudinal analyses revealed that dating violence was associated with declines in self‐rated physical health across the period from adolescence to young adulthood. This effect, however, was attenuated with the inclusion of negative relationship dynamics. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further examine the physical health consequences of dating violence, with a particular focus on the relationship context and other potential confounding forces. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2016   open full text
  • Dating violence in teenage girls: parental emotion regulation and racial differences.
    Lia Ahonen, Rolf Loeber.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 06, 2016
    Background Teen dating violence (TDV) is a common phenomenon of great public concern. TDV may lead to severe long‐term consequences for victims and offenders, and even more so for females than for males. Aim The aim of this paper is to investigate possible underlying factors for involvement in TDV either as a perpetrator or a victim. Social learning theory is commonly used to explain internalisation of parents' behaviour on children's behavioural expressions, but less so on parents' emotion regulation as a direct link to later TDV. Method We used longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 2450) to investigate if and how parents' positive and negative emotion regulation is related to TDV, controlling for early aggression and race. Results Results show a moderately strong association between parents' negative emotion regulation and their daughters' involvement in serious dating violence. We also found that many more African American girls were involved in TDV compared to Caucasian girls, both as a perpetrator and victim. Conclusions and practical implications We discuss directions for future research focusing on emotion regulation and dating violence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2011   open full text
  • Risk factors for dating violence versus cohabiting violence: Results from the third generation of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.
    Delphine Theobald, David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi, Rebecca V. Crago.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 06, 2016
    Background Dating violence is an important problem. Evidence suggests that women are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. Aims The present study investigates the prevalence of dating violence compared with cohabiting violence in a community sample of men and women and assesses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict this behaviour. A secondary aim is to construct a risk score for dating violence based on the strongest risk factors. Methods The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 men (generation 2) born in the 1950s in an inner London area. Most recently, their sons and daughters [generation 3 (G3)] have been interviewed regarding their perpetration of dating and cohabiting violence, utilising the Conflict Tactics Scale. Risk factors were measured in four domains (family, parental, socio‐economic and individual). Results A larger proportion of women than men perpetrated at least one act of violence towards their dating partner (36.4 vs 21.7%). There was a similar pattern for cohabiting violence (39.6 vs 21.4%). A number of risk factors were significantly associated with the perpetration of dating violence. For G3 women, these included a convicted father, parental conflict, large family size and poor housing. For G3 men, these included having a young father or mother, separation from the father before age 16, early school leaving, frequent truancy and having a criminal conviction. A risk score for both men and women, based on 10 risk factors, significantly predicted dating violence. Conclusion Risk factors from four domains were important in predicting dating violence, but they were different for G3 men and women. It may be important to consider different risk factors and different risk assessments for male compared with female perpetration of dating violence. Early identification and interventions are recommended. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2017   open full text
  • Moral disengagement and callous–unemotional traits: A longitudinal study of Italian adolescents with a disruptive behaviour disorder.
    Pietro Muratori, Marinella Paciello, Carlo Buonanno, Annarita Milone, Laura Ruglioni, John E. Lochman, Gabriele Masi.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 13, 2016
    Background Callous–unemotional traits have been proposed as risk factors for a poorer prognosis in young people with disruptive behaviour disorders. Identification of factors that may cause or maintain elevated levels of such traits could help in developing targeted therapeutic interventions. Some previous studies have investigated the role of moral cognitive mechanisms, such as moral disengagement, but these previous studies focused primarily on normal or ‘at‐risk’ samples. Aim We aimed to evaluate associations and possible interactions between moral disengagement as a cognitive dimension and callous–unemotional traits as an affective dimension in adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders. Method We recruited 55 adolescents with a disruptive behaviour disorder from a community care hospital in Pisa. They were evaluated at baseline and after one year with measures that included a moral disengagement scale, the Antisocial Process Screening Device, to assess callous traits, and the Youth Self‐Report, to explore externalising behaviour problems. Results Structural equation modelling showed that higher initial moral disengagement scores were associated with later higher levels of callous–unemotional traits in adolescents and vice versa, even after, respectively, controlling for previous levels of callous traits and moral disengagement. Conclusion As impairments in either cognitive or affective traits may predispose to problematic development of the other, our findings would suggest that screening at the earliest opportunity possible for both moral disengagement and callous–unemotional traits among children with disruptive behaviour disorders could help to map natural outcome pathways and thus tailor more accurate interventions for prevention of antisocial or criminal behaviour. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2019   open full text
  • Juvenile animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour.
    Michael T. Baglivio, Kevin T. Wolff, Matt DeLisi, Michael G. Vaughn, Alex R. Piquero.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 04, 2016
    Background There is a view that young people presenting with an animal cruelty and firesetting combination represent a uniquely risky group, but prior work has relied on samples with insufficient power. Research question What is the prevalence of the co‐occurrence of animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour among young delinquents? What other features correlate with this? Methods We measured the prevalence of animal cruelty and firesetting among 292,649 juvenile offenders and used rare events logistic regression to examine demographic, criminal, mental health and family histories as correlates. Results The prevalence of animal cruelty was 0.59%, accounting for 1732 young people, and of firesetting 1.56% (n = 4553). The co‐occurrence of these behaviours was rare: 0.17% (n = 498), but approximately twice that expected by chance based on the prevalence of each behaviour individually (0.59% × 1.56% = 0.009%). Rates were higher in males, older youths and Whites. Among historical variables, criminal history was the strongest correlate, followed by mental health problems, then familial and individual indicators. Conclusions As only male gender and being a victim of sexual abuse increased the odds of evidencing both animal cruelty and firesetting behaviour substantially above the odds for each behaviour individually, there thus appears to be little that is unique to the co‐occurrence. Our findings suggest that sensitivity to the occurrence of each is the best way forward, with rather familiar assessments and interventions offering some hope of reducing these seriously damaging behaviours. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 04, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2018   open full text
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, type of offending and recidivism in a prison population: The role of substance dependence.
    Jan C. Román‐Ithier, Rafael A. González, María C. Vélez‐Pastrana, Gloria M. González‐Tejera, Carmen E. Albizu‐García.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 26, 2016
    Background It is unclear whether adult offenders with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to re‐offend, and if so, in any specific offences. Aim This study aimed to examine correlates of childhood ADHD symptoms among prisoners. Methods A randomly selected sample of 1179 participants from the adult sentenced population of Puerto Rico (USA) reported their history of violent and non‐violent offences, age of first arrest and re‐offending. Participants completed retrospective measures of ADHD and a diagnostic interview for substance use disorders. Results Self‐reported ADHD was associated with age of first arrest, a number of violent and non‐violent offences and re‐offending. The association with any non‐violent offending was explained statistically by substance use disorders and other psychosocial covariates. ADHD was independently associated with being under 15 years of age at first arrest and with re‐offending. Conclusions Although some associations between ADHD and offending may be accounted for by co‐morbidity with substance use disorders, early onset of offending and repeated violent offending appear to be directly related to ADHD. Criminal justice policies should, therefore, incorporate ADHD screening accompanied by appropriate rehabilitation programmes when such neurodevelopmental disorder is identified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2009   open full text
  • Support for the predictive validity of the multifactor offender readiness model (MORM): forensic patients' readiness and engagement with therapeutic groups.
    Mehdi Alemohammad, Jane L. Wood, James Tapp, Estelle Moore, Alan Skelly.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 20, 2016
    Background Treatment non‐engagement in forensic health settings has ethical and economic implications. The multifactor offender readiness model (MORM) provides a framework for assessing treatment readiness across person, programme and contexts. Aims To answer the following question: Are the internal factors of the MORM associated with likelihood of engagement in groups by patients in forensic mental health services? Method In a retrospective design, associations were investigated between internal factors of the MORM, measured as part of assessment for group participation, and the outcomes of treatment refusal, treatment dropout and treatment completion. Results One hundred and eighteen male patients in a high security hospital consecutively referred for group treatment agreed to participate. Internal factors of the MORM associated with treatment refusals included: psychopathic cognition, negative self‐evaluation/affect and effective goal‐seeking strategies. Those associated with dropouts included emotional dysregulation, low competencies to engage and low levels of general distress. MORM factors associated with completion included: low motivation, ineffective goal‐seeking strategies, absence of psychopathic cognition, high levels of general distress and competency to engage. Conclusions Internal factors of the MORM could be useful contributors to decisions about treatment readiness for hospitalised male offender‐patients. Up to one in three programmes offered were refused, so clinical use of the MORM to aid referral decisions could optimise the most constructive use of resources for every individual. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2008   open full text
  • Training probation officers in case formulation for personality disordered offenders.
    Susan Brown, Chris Beeley, Gita Patel, Birgit Völlm.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 20, 2016
    Background The UK Strategy on Managing High Risk of Serious Harm Offenders with Severe Personality Disorder proposes an important role for offender managers in completing case formulations about such offenders. There is little evidence on whether this can be achieved. Aim Our primary aims were to devise, implement and evaluate training in case formulation for offender managers. A secondary aim was to assess whether the training led to changes in offender manager attitudes towards working with offenders with personality disorder. Method A 5‐day training programme was delivered to 20 offender managers, whose ability to carry out case formulation was assessed before and after the training using a 10‐point quality checklist. Attitudes towards personality disorder were also assessed before and after. Qualitative feedback on the training was used to provide further insight into the findings. Results Offender managers showed a significant improvement in their ability to carry out case formulation following training, with 7 of the 10 quality domains on the quality checklist rated as at least ‘satisfactory’ post training. Qualitative feedback highlighted reasons for some of the shortfalls in two of the three areas that did not show improvement. Improvements were shown in attitudes towards working with offenders with personality disorder in two of three domains. Conclusion Our findings provide further evidence for the effectiveness of training offender managers in case formulation. This is encouraging in terms of extending implementation of the Offender Personality Disorder Pathway, but a full trial is indicated, partly not only because sample sizes have been small so far, but also because the participants have been enthusiastic volunteers rather than randomly selected offender managers, and there are indications from other work that we know too little about optimal extent of training and about whether its effects are sustained. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2006   open full text
  • Questioning fairness: the relationship of mental health and psychopathic characteristics with young offenders' perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy.
    Erika K. Penner, Catherine S. Shaffer, Jodi L. Viljoen.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 13, 2016
    Background Theories of procedural justice suggest that individuals who experience the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to perceive it as legitimate and, in turn, are less likely to reoffend. However, when individuals come into contact with the legal system, they are not blank slates – they have beliefs and personality characteristics that may systematically influence such perceptions. Aims Our aim was to establish the extent to which demographic characteristics, legal history and clinical features, including personality characteristics, systematically influenced the degree to which young people experience the justice system as fair and legitimate. Method Self‐report, file and interview data were collected from ninety‐two 12 to 17‐year‐olds on probation in Western Canada. Results Substance use and traumatic experiences were inversely correlated with perceptions of procedural justice and legal legitimacy. Young people with higher scores on interpersonal, lifestyle and antisocial facets of the psychopathy checklist: youth version believed less strongly in the legitimacy of the law, but regression analyses confirmed that only history of trauma was independently associated with perceived procedural justice and legitimacy. Those in the youngest age group were more likely to have positive perceptions of justice than older youths, but demographics and legal history otherwise did not relate to outcomes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that examining the relationship between procedural justice, legitimacy and offending without taking intra‐individual variables into account may neglect important influences on those relationships. Other research has begun to show that young people who do not accept the law as legitimate or the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to offend. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2004   open full text
  • Predictive accuracy of the Historical‐Clinical‐Risk Management‐20 for violence in forensic psychiatric wards in Japan.
    Kaoru Arai, Ayumi Takano, Takako Nagata, Naotsugu Hirabayashi.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 13, 2016
    Background Most structured assessment tools for assessing risk of violence were developed in Western countries, and evidence for their effectiveness is not well established in Asian countries. Aims Our aim was to examine the predictive accuracy of the Historical‐Clinical‐Risk Management‐20 (HCR‐20) for violence in forensic mental health inpatient units in Japan. Methods A retrospective record study was conducted with a complete 2008–2013 cohort of forensic psychiatric inpatients at the National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo. Forensic psychiatrists were trained in use of the HCR‐20 and asked to complete it as part of their admission assessment. The completed forms were then retained by the researchers and not used in clinical practice; for this, clinicians relied solely on national legally required guidelines. Violent outcomes were determined at 3 and 6 months after the assessment. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to calculate the predictive accuracy of the HCR‐20 for violence. Results Area under the curve analyses suggested that the HCR‐20 total score is a good predictor of violence in this cohort, with the clinical and risk sub‐scales showing good predictive accuracy, but the historical sub‐scale not doing so. Area under the curve figures were similar at 3 months and at 6 months. Conclusions Our results are consistent with studies previously conducted in Western countries. This suggests that the HCR‐20 is an effective tool for supporting risk of violence assessment in Japanese forensic psychiatric wards. Its widespread use in clinical practice could enhance safety and would certainly promote transparency in risk‐related decision‐making. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2007   open full text
  • The impact of a community mental health initiative on outcomes for offenders with a serious mental disorder.
    Lynn A Stewart, Shanna Farrell‐MacDonald, Stacey Feeley.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 07, 2016
    Background The Community Mental Health Initiative (CMHI) is mandated to assist offenders with serious mental disorders in their transition from institutions to the community, but this incorporates different styles of service. An important unanswered question is whether these are equivalent. Aims/hypotheses Our aim was to compare outcomes for different intervention styles within the CMHI, a programme for serious offenders in prison who also have at least one major mental disorder. Our specific research questions were as follows: do outcomes differ according to whether offenders with mental health difficulties receive (1) clinical discharge planning only; (2) community mental health services only; (3) the combined services or (4) none, although meeting criteria for any CMHI service? Methods Survival analyses, controlling for variables with a significant effect on recidivism or return to prison, were used to test for differences in recidivism or return to prison rates between the intervention and no‐intervention groups during a fixed follow‐up period. Results Men receiving only community mental health services had a significantly lower risk of returning to custody and of recidivism than men receiving discharge planning alone or no community mental health service at all, even after controlling for potential confounders including age, number of previous imprisonments and number of previous community failures. The advantages were apparent within 3–6 months and sustained for up to 4 years. Conclusions/implications for practice Provision of specialised community mental health services for higher‐risk male offenders with a mental disorder may reduce recidivism in the short and longer term – within 3 months and up to 4 years respectively. Statistical modelling also pointed to the need to include treatment for substance abuse and assistance in identifying stable accommodation and brokerage of community services among the interventions and services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2005   open full text
  • Circles of support and accountability: The characteristics of core members in England and Wales.
    Martin Clarke, Leah Warwick, Birgit Völlm.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 20, 2016
    Background Circles of support and accountability, or Circles, use community volunteers to help reintegrate sex offenders at risk of reoffending in the community. Aims The aims of this study are to describe the first 275 male sex offenders (‘core members’) in England and Wales supported by a Circle and to compare those attending the five largest Circles. Methods As part of their monitoring activity, 10 Circles extracted data from case files, anonymised it and submitted it to Circles UK, the national oversight body. Results Circles have expanded rapidly with 165 (60%) of Circles commencing in the three years 2011–2013 compared with 110 in the nine years 2002–2010. Most core members were referred from the Probation Service (82%). Circles were provided to men with a range of predicted risks of reoffending – from low (26%) to very high (12%). There were some positive changes between the beginning and end of Circles, such as fewer men being unemployed and more living in their own chosen accommodation. Conclusions/implications for practice Circles have been used to support the reintegration of a wide range of sex offenders. Given their rapid growth and flexibility, consistent recording standards are required across. These standards should be reviewed periodically to ensure all important fields of change are captured, including frequency of attendance, length per session and quality of engagement in the work. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2003   open full text
  • Psychopathological features in a sample of substance‐abusing individuals with criminal history: Towards a definition of a personality prototype of an ‘Addict with Criminal Conduct’.
    Alessio Gori, Lucia Ponti, Franca Tani, Giuseppe Iraci Sareri, Marco Giannini, Patrizia Meringolo, Giuseppe Craparo, Angelo Bruschi, Vincenzo Caretti, Marco Cacioppo, Rolando Paterniti, David Schuldberg.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 22, 2016
    Background The relationship between substance use disorders and criminal activity is strong, and one that is not easily resolved in the criminal justice system. A better understanding of personality traits among substance misusers who commit offences could support better treatment efforts. Aims The aim of this study is to explore associations between the psychopathology of people addicted to substances who have also committed crimes. Methods We recruited 263 substance‐dependent individuals (80% male, 20% female) from a cohort of people attending regional community services in Italy. They all completed an extensive evaluation of their current mental health and personality traits. Their official criminal records were obtained, and the psychopathology of those who had a criminal record compared with those who did not. Results The criminal group was more likely to perceive the external world as hostile and to consider others as responsible for their own problems and difficulties; in addition, substance‐dependent individuals with criminal records showed more personality traits within the psychopathy range and fewer in the dependent personality range than the substance abusers who had never committed crimes. Conclusions These findings allow us to hypothesise that substance abusers who also have criminal convictions may have a specific personality profile. If further research were to confirm this, then it could have important implications for identifying people for particular treatment pathways and developing more effective treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1999   open full text
  • The relationship between types of childhood victimisation and young adulthood criminality.
    Kathryn H. Howell, Åsa K. Cater, Laura E. Miller‐Graff, Laura E. Schwartz, Sandra A. Graham‐Bermann.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 22, 2016
    Background Previous research suggests that some types of childhood abuse and neglect are related to an increased likelihood of perpetrating criminal behaviour in adulthood. Little research, however, has examined associations between multiple different types of childhood victimisation and adult criminal behaviour. Aims We sought to examine the contribution of multiple and diverse childhood victimisations on adult criminal behaviour. Our central hypothesis was that, after controlling for gender, substance use and psychopathy, each type of childhood victimisation – specifically experience of property offences, physical violence, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, neglect and witnessed violence – would be positively and independently related to criminal behaviour in young adults. Methods We examined data from a large, nationally representative sample of 2244 young Swedish adults who reported at least one form of victimisation, using hierarchical regression analysis to also account for gender, substance use and psychopathy. Results Experiences of physical assaults, neglect and witnessing violence as a child were significantly associated with adult criminal behaviour, but not experiences of property, verbal or sexual victimizations. Conclusions Our findings help to identify those forms of harm to children that are most likely to be associated with later criminality. Even after accounting for gender, substance misuse and psychopathology, childhood experience of violence – directly or as a witness – carries risk for adulthood criminal behaviour, so such children need targeted support and treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2002   open full text
  • Family intervention in a prison environment: A systematic literature review.
    Anna Roberts, Juliana Onwumere, Andrew Forrester, Vyv Huddy, Majella Byrne, Catherine Campbell, Manuela Jarrett, Patricia Phillip, Lucia Valmaggia.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 22, 2016
    Background The prison population in England and Wales is approximately 85,000, and elevated rates of mental health difficulties have been reported among the prisoners. Despite frequent recommendations for family interventions to optimise prisoner outcomes, the evidence for its use and impact in prison remain unclear. Aim The aim of the study is to conduct a systematic review of published literature on family interventions in prisons. Methods Embase, PsychINFO and Medline were searched using terms for family interventions and for prisoners or young offenders. No limit was imposed on study design, but, for inclusion, we required that papers were written in English and published in peer‐reviewed journals. Results Nine hundred eighty‐three titles were retrieved. Twenty‐two met criteria for inclusion. Three were case studies, 12 were descriptive, 6 were quasi‐experimental and one was a randomised controlled trial. Interventions and study methods were too heterogeneous for meta‐analysis. All studies gave positive conclusions about family interventions, but empirical data on effectiveness were slight. Conclusions Consistency in findings across the wide‐ranging studies suggested that family therapies may indeed be helpful for prisoners and their families, so further research is warranted. The fact that a randomised controlled trial proved feasible should encourage researchers to seek more robust data and to determine which form of intervention is effective and in which circumstances. It would also be useful to develop an improved understanding of mechanisms of change. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2001   open full text
  • Everything moves on: referral trends to a leavers' group in a high secure hospital and trial leave progress of group graduates.
    Gwen Adshead, Natalie Pyszora, Claire Wilson, Ramesh Gopie, Deryk Thomas, Julia Smith, Emily Glorney, Estelle Moore, James Tapp.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 22, 2016
    Background Moving on from high secure psychiatric care can be a complex and potentially stressful experience, which may hinder progression. A leavers' group in a UK high secure hospital is offered to support patients with this transition. Aims The aims of this study are to investigate characteristics of patients referred for the leavers' group and compare outcomes for leavers' group graduates with those for patients who never attended a leavers' group for any reason. Methods A retrospective quasi‐experimental design was applied to data extracted from various records sources – within and outside the high security hospital. Results About one‐fifth of patients who left the hospital on trial leave during the study were referred to the leavers' group (N = 109). Referred patients were significantly more likely to have either been admitted from another high‐security hospital or transferred from prison for treatment and have a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia. Patients not referred had a significantly higher rate of previously refusing to participate in groups. There was a tendency for rate of return from trial leave for group graduates to be lower than that of patients who did not attend the leavers' group, but this just failed to reach statistical significance (rate ratio [RR] = 1.04; CI 0.97–1.11). Conclusions A leavers' group appeared to be a valued therapy option for people who had spent a long time in high secure psychiatric care, or those who continued to require hospital treatment beyond prison tariffs. There was a low return rate from trial leave, which made the evaluation of this outcome difficult. A detailed study into both the reasons for return from trial leave and successes would provide further information on ideal preparation for moving on. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.2000   open full text
  • The impact of US Government assistance on recidivism.
    Julie S. Costopoulos, Amy M. Plewinski, Patricia L. Monaghan, Vanessa A. Edkins.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 01, 2016
    Background Community re‐entry from custody programmes facilitate access to community resources, such as cash assistance and food stamps, with the aim of reducing criminal recidivism. Evidence that these programmes achieve is mainly from longer‐term prisoners rather than short‐term jail inmates. Aim The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that facilitating access to community resources while still in jail would reduce re‐arrest rates among former jail inmates in the USA. Methods Community resources offered to the jail inmates participating in this study included Medicaid, food stamps and cash assistance. Participants who opted to sign up for these social services were matched with non‐applicants based on date of release (n = 101). Each participant's criminal history was coded prior to release from the jail and at three months, six months and one year after release. Results Contrary to our original hypotheses, recidivism was not significantly reduced in the applicant group. People released after facilitated access to community assistance had an increase in drug offence severity at six months after release. Recidivism also differed by age and race. Conclusion The substance offences in the applicant group suggested that cash benefits provided the released offender with the means to sustain their substance misuse. Treatment for substance misuse should be incorporated with other resources in order to reduce recidivism effectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1997   open full text
  • Sexual behaviour in preschool children in the context of intra‐parental violence and sexual coercion.
    Jesse Cale, Patrick Lussier.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 29, 2016
    Background Very little is understood about the developmental antecedents of sexual behaviour prior to adolescence. Aims Our aim was to examine the impact of different forms of intimate partner violence on early childhood sexual development. Methods We used data from an ongoing prospective longitudinal cohort study of Canadian families. Intimate partner violence of various kinds was measured using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Measures of child sexual development were based on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Both measures relied on parental report. Results Sexual coercion between parental figures, but not physical violence or emotional aggression, was significantly associated with intrusive sexual behaviours shown by 3‐ to 5‐year‐old children. Conclusions It may seem unlikely that 3‐ to 5‐ year‐old children can understand that their parents are in a sexually coercive relationship, but our findings suggest that they are sufficiently aware of such behaviours when they occur that they may start to model their own behaviour on them. Clinicians and social workers may need to be more aware of this possibility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1996   open full text
  • Treatment no‐show in forensic outpatients with ADHD.
    Kasja Woicik, Rosalind Lem, Jelle J. Sijtsema, Stefan Bogaerts.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 17, 2016
    Background ‘No‐show’ is important in today's mental healthcare services, yet in forensic psychiatry, little is known about its relationship to general and disorder‐specific patient characteristics. Aims The aim of this article is to determine the prevalence of no‐show and any general and disorder‐specific features associated with no‐show in a cohort of offenders with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder registered at a specialist forensic mental health clinic. Methods Participants were 118 adult men with a mean age just over 32 years (SD 8.75) attending forensic mental health outpatient clinics in the Netherlands who had a primary diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and who had been aggressive and/or delinquent. Results Over a 1‐year period, most patients (101, 86%) missed at least one appointment. The average number of appointments offered was 37.88 (SD = 27.27), and the average number of no‐shows was 6.53 (SD = 5.99) per patient. Multivariate linear regressions showed a 10‐fold likelihood of later no‐shows if the first appointment was missed; not showing up after the intake procedure was also associated with higher rates of later no‐show. None of the disorder‐specific characteristics contributed to the problem. Conclusions No‐show is of particular concern in forensic mental health settings. In the current study, no‐show was primarily associated with features related to the time of initial consultation. More attention should thus be paid at this stage to using a standard method of assessing a wider range of variables likely to affect attendance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1989   open full text
  • Impaired executive function in 14‐ to 16‐year‐old boys with conduct disorder is related to recidivism: A prospective longitudinal study.
    Hideki Miura, Yasuyuki Fuchigami.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 10, 2016
    Background Several studies have suggested a relationship between cognitive impairment and recidivism, but most have adopted a retrospective design. Aim The aim of this study was to test for any relationship between impaired executive function in adolescents with conduct disorder and subsequent recidivism up to 3 years later. Method In this prospective cohort study, 221 male adolescents with conduct disorder, admitted to a juvenile justice assessment centre for the first time, were interviewed about their offence, age, onset of delinquency and family history. They completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Keio version) (KWCST) and the Iowa gambling task. Scores were compared between those who subsequently re‐offended and those who did not. Results Seventy‐six (34%) participants re‐offended. There was no direct difference between groups in executive function, but there were age differences both in executive function and in recidivism. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the variables, which were independently associated with recidivism, were younger age, change in the person who brought up the child, and fewer (≤4) categories achieved on the KWCST. Recidivists were about twice as likely as single offenders to have achieved four categories or less on the KWCST (odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.4). Conclusions Impaired executive function appears to predispose to recidivism among young first‐time male offenders with conduct disorder. Our findings also suggest that further precise assessments of environmental stress on developing neurocognitive function could clarify the background of antisocial behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
    February 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1993   open full text
  • Psychologically informed practice (PIP) for staff working with offenders with personality disorder: A pragmatic exploratory trial in approved premises.
    Matt Bruce, Harry Horgan, Roz Kerr, Alexis Cullen, Sam Russell.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 10, 2016
    Background Rates of reoffending and recall are high among released male prisoners with personality disorder. There is a need for innovative intervention to reduce offending and increase staff confidence in working with such men. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel intervention consisting of training and consultation termed ‘psychologically informed practice’, within community‐based ‘approved premises’ for offenders. Method A pragmatic exploratory trial was used to compare two premises in a South London borough licenced under criminal justice legislation to provide supervised accommodation for selected released prisoners. One used the PIP intervention for 12 months while the other (comparison group) functioned in a similar way but without this intervention. Outcome measures included staff attitudes and offender behaviours. Results Significant improvements were observed only for the intervention group. Compared with baseline measures, significantly higher levels of knowledge and understanding of personality disorder as well as a greater sense of personal accomplishment were observed in staff who have been trained and supported in psychologically informed practice. Significantly lower rates of warnings and recalls to prison were observed only for the intervention group at 6 months following initial staff training. Conclusion Psychologically informed practice appears to be sufficiently advantageous for staff and offenders, and the trial feasible, which is a full‐scale multi‐centre trial, seems warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1994   open full text
  • Murder and psychosis: Neuropsychological profiles of homicide offenders with schizophrenia.
    John Stratton, Michael Brook, Robert E. Hanlon.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 10, 2016
    Background Neurocognitive dysfunction, a core feature of schizophrenia, is thought to contribute to the impulsive violent aggression manifested by some individuals with schizophrenia, but not enough is known about how homicidal individuals with schizophrenia perform on neuropsychological measures. Aims The primary aim of our study was to describe the neuropsychological profiles of homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Supplementary analyses compared the criminal, psychiatric and neuropsychological features of schizophrenic homicide offenders with and without God/Satan/demon‐themed psychotic symptoms. Methods Twenty‐five men and women diagnosed with schizophrenia who had killed another person – 21 convicted of first‐degree murder and 4 found not guilty by reason of insanity – completed neuropsychological testing during forensic evaluations. Results The sample was characterised by extensive neurocognitive impairments, involving executive dysfunction (60%), memory dysfunction (68%) and attentional dysfunction (50%), although those with God/Satan/demon‐themed psychotic symptoms performed better than those with nonreligious psychotic content. Conclusions Our findings indicate that impaired cognition may play an important role in the commission of homicide by individuals with schizophrenia. A subgroup with God/Satan/demon delusions seem sufficiently less impaired that they might be able to engage in metacognitive treatment approaches, aimed at changing their relationship to their psychotic symptoms, thus reducing the perception of power and omnipotence of hallucinated voices and increasing their safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1990   open full text
  • The influence of a learning to forgive programme on negative affect among mentally disordered offenders.
    Mansfield Mela, Marilyn Baetz, Gene Marcoux, Daniel Delury, Brent Cooper, Tolulope T. Sajobi.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 02, 2016
    Background Clinical trials and meta‐analyses provide some evidence for effectiveness of forgiveness therapy delivered individually or in groups. To date, however, forgiveness therapy has not been evaluated with mentally disordered offenders. Given the high prevalence of experienced and perpetrated trauma among such people, this population may particularly benefit from such an intervention. Aim The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and impact of a ‘learn to forgive’ group programme among mentally disordered offenders on a specialist secure hospital setting. Methods We conducted a non‐randomised trial with 36 offenders with mental disorders and 29 comparison patients. The intervention group engaged in a six‐week manual‐based ‘learn to forgive’ treatment programme, while the comparison group watched a 90‐minute video on forgiveness. Both groups completed measures of anger, depression, stress, forgiveness and satisfaction with life at baseline and then 6 and 18 weeks later. A repeated measures mixed‐effects model was used to investigate the association between affective outcomes and type of intervention received, after adjusting for baseline characteristics. Results The group completion rate was over 90%. The treatment and comparison groups were similar on baseline demographic and criminological measures, but the treatment group had higher baseline anger and depression scores. While both groups showed improved capacity to forgive and reduced negative affect over time, those in the ‘learn to forgive’ programme showed significantly more improvement in forgiveness and on anger measures. Conclusions and implications for practice Forgiveness training can be delivered effectively to offenders with mental disorders in clinical settings. Its range of benefits, including reduction I in anger as well as improved capacity to forgive, suggest that it may have longer term implications for personal safety and reintegration into mainstream societal settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1991   open full text
  • Cost‐effectiveness of multisystemic therapy versus usual treatment for young people with antisocial problems.
    Karin M. Vermeulen, Daniëlle E. M. C. Jansen, Erik J. Knorth, Erik Buskens, Sijmen A. Reijneveld.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. January 15, 2016
    Background Behavioural problems are common among adolescents. The burden on society in social disturbance, health, failures to contribute and costs has triggered innovative community‐based interventions such as multisystemic therapy (MST). Aims Our aim was to compare the cost‐effectiveness of MST and treatment as usual (TAU). Methods Cost‐effectiveness was assessed alongside a randomised clinical trial. One hundred and sixteen adolescents were allocated to MST or TAU. Follow‐up lasted six months. Quality of life (EQ‐5D) as perceived by the adolescents was the primary outcome. A societal perspective was used for cost assessment. Results There was no significant difference between groups in the small improvement experienced in quality of life (EQ‐5D average score improvement in both 0.02 points, standard deviation 0.13 MST; 0.23 TAU). Dropout before follow‐up was 48% and 69% respectively. Overall costs attributed to these young people were, however, 50% lower in the MST group. The incremental cost‐effectiveness ratio (ICER) was 384,633€ (95% CI: −2,001,433 to 2,024,681€), which indicates dominance of MST over TAU. Conclusions/Implications for practice Our study shows that, at worst, MST offers no advantage to young offenders in terms of their experienced quality of life, but ‘TAU’ included family focused intervention as well as standard supervision. There were some cost advantages for the individual and his/her family in the MST group, but substantial cost benefits for wider society. The case for a large, multi‐centre, perhaps international trial is strong as widespread implementation of MST would benefit everyone if these findings are confirmed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 15, 2016   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1988   open full text
  • Characteristics and correlates of stealing in college students.
    Jon E. Grant, Brian L. Odlaug, Katherine Lust, Gary Christenson.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 09, 2015
    Background Stealing is a fairly common behaviour among young adults. Understanding the potential associations and characteristics of individuals who steal may help educational institutions, health services and young people themselves resolve difficulties before the behaviour impacts on their academic performance and health. Aims We aim to test the hypothesis that desires to steal among students would be associated with worse academic achievements and higher rates of mood and impulse control disorders. Methods One thousand eight hundred and five students completed the College Student Computer User Survey online and were included in this analysis at a large Midwestern United States University. Responders were grouped according to self‐reported stealing urges and behaviours and were compared on measures of psychosocial function, mental health disorders and impulsivity. Results Urges to steal were associated with worse depressive symptoms, higher levels of perceived stress and a number of psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder and multiple disorders of impulse control (kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, skin picking, trichotillomania and compulsive buying). Conclusions and implications for practice and/or future research These following data indicate that stealing for many college students may be considered within a spectrum of impulsive behaviours. Illegal behaviours among students point to mental health difficulties among them. Our findings may provide clinicians, researchers and health professionals with a clearer picture of a range of impulsive behaviours among college students and promote treatment for this group. Our findings could also inform preventative approaches to impulsive problems in young adults. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1986   open full text
  • The effect of gender on the outcome of forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden: A case vignette study.
    Kristina Sygel, Joakim Sturup, Uno Fors, Hanna Edberg, Joakim Gavazzeni, Katarina Howner, Mats Persson, Marianne Kristiansson.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 09, 2015
    Background Previous research suggests that female violent offenders at risk of a prison sentence are more likely than their male counterparts to be assessed as having mental health problems of a nature or degree that would lead to a court requirement for hospital treatment. Aims/hypotheses To test the hypothesis that there is bias towards hospital disposal of female compared with male violent offenders with mental disorder. Methods In Sweden, the National Board of Forensic Medicine oversees all assessments of mental disorder for the criminal courts. Twenty‐six Board appointed forensic psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers each independently assessed six case vignettes for fit with criteria for ‘severe mental disorder’, a prerequisite for hospital disposal from court. Each gender neutral vignette described a person who had been convicted of serious assault and had a major mental disorder. A gender was then assigned to each offender randomly within a block design, thus varying between sets. Participants were blind to the main aim of the study and the gender variation. Results There was no significant association between gender of the person assessed and judgement that s/he had a ‘severe mental disorder’. An offender depicted as having mental retardation was more likely to be assessed as at high risk of criminal recidivism if portrayed as female, regardless of the sex, place of work or level of experience of the assessor. Conclusion We found no evidence of gender bias in determining appropriateness of a hospital disposal of an offender with mental disorder. The difference in assessment of recidivism according to sex of the patient was only in relation to mental retardation; further research would be needed to able to interpret this. As researchers in other countries have reported gender bias in disposals from court, our findings may provide support for a centralised forensic psychiatric assessment board and formal, on‐going training. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1987   open full text
  • Subtypes of firesetters.
    Lydia Dalhuisen, Frans Koenraadt, Marieke Liem.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 25, 2015
    Background Prior research has classified firesetters by motive. The multi‐trajectory theory of adult firesetting (M‐TTAF) takes a more aetiological perspective, differentiating between five hypothesised trajectories towards firesetting: antisocial cognition, grievance, fire interest, emotionally expressive/need for recognition and multifaceted trajectories. Aim The objective of this study was to validate the five routes to firesetting as proposed in the M‐TTAF. Methods All 389 adult firesetters referred for forensic mental health assessment to one central clinic in the Netherlands between 1950 and 2012 were rated on variables linked to the M‐TTAF. Cluster analysis was then applied. Results A reliable cluster solution emerged revealing five subtypes of firesetters – labelled instrumental, reward, multi‐problem, disturbed relationship and disordered. Significant differences were observed regarding both offender and offence characteristics. Discussion Our five‐cluster solution with five subtypes of firesetters partially validates the proposed M‐TTAF trajectories and suggests that for offenders with and without mental disorder, this classification may be useful. If further validated with larger and more diverse samples, the M‐TTAF could provide guidance on staging evidence‐based treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 25, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1984   open full text
  • Project WINGS (Women Initiating New Goals of Safety): A randomised controlled trial of a screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) service to identify and address intimate partner violence victimisation among substance‐using women receiving community supervision.
    Louisa Gilbert, Stacey A. Shaw, Dawn Goddard‐Eckrich, Mingway Chang, Jessica Rowe, Tara McCrimmon, Maria Almonte, Sharun Goodwin, Matthew Epperson.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 20, 2015
    Background The high rate of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimisation found among substance‐using women receiving community supervision underscores the need for effective IPV victimisation screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services (SBIRT) for this population. Aims This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a single‐session computerised self‐paced IPV SBIRT (Computerised WINGS) in identifying IPV victimisation among women under community supervision and increasing access to IPV services, compared to the same IPV SBIRT service delivered by a case manager (Case Manager WINGS). Methods This RCT was conducted with 191 substance‐using women in probation and community court sites in New York City. Results No significant differences were found between Computerised and Case Manager WINGS arms on any outcomes. Both arms reported identical high rates of any physical, sexual or psychological IPV victimisation in the past year (77% for both arms) during the intervention. Both arms experienced significant increases from baseline to the 3‐month follow‐up in receipt of IPV services, social support, IPV self‐efficacy and abstinence from drug use. Conclusions Findings suggest that both modalities of WINGS show promise in identifying and addressing IPV victimisation among substance‐using women receiving community supervision.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1979   open full text
  • Mentoring serial and high‐risk perpetrators of intimate partner violence in the community: Engagement and initiating change.
    Kate Walker, Erica Bowen.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 20, 2015
    Background Mentoring has typically been used with young offenders. A pilot‐mentoring project has been introduced in the UK for high‐risk intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders. Aims The aim of the study was to evaluate how serial and high‐risk IPV men engaged with mentoring and how change was initiated for this population. Methods Interviews were conducted with two mentors, six mentees and four support workers, and file notes for 16 mentees were examined. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data. Results The global theme, tools and techniques that facilitate engagement comprised two organising themes, building relationships and tenacity of the mentor, which explained how engagement was initiated and driven. Catalysts to initiate change with its two organising themes, hooks and focus on the future, captured factors that act as potential turning points or triggers for the mentees to address their use of IPV and start the process of change. Conclusions Mentoring is an innovative and alternative approach for engaging intervention‐resistant serial and high‐risk IPV perpetrators, enabling them to identify their need to change and laying down the foundation that could facilitate this change. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1964   open full text
  • Dyadic violence and readiness to change among male intimate partner violence offenders.
    Cory A. Crane, Robert C. Schlauch, Christopher I. Eckhardt.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 20, 2015
    Background Although readiness to change is associated with mandated partner violence treatment compliance and subsequent violent behaviour among male offenders (e.g. Scott and Wolfe, ; Eckhardt et al., ), our understanding of the factors associated with pretreatment change remains limited. Offender research indicates that individual and dyadic violent behaviour are highly variable and that such variability may provide insight into levels of pretreatment change (Holtzworth‐Munroe and Stuart, ; Archer, ). Aims/Hypotheses We sought to examine the associations between indicators of change and individual as well as dyadic violence frequency in a sample of male partner violence offenders. Method To determine whether severity and perceived concordance in the use of violence among male offenders and their female partners influenced readiness to change at pretreatment, 82 recently adjudicated male perpetrators of intimate partner violence were recruited into the current study and administered measures of readiness to change violent behaviour (Revised Safe at Home Scale; Begun et al., ) as well as partner violence experiences (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale; Straus et al., ). Results Analyses revealed an interaction between offender‐reported male and female violence in the prediction of pretreatment readiness to change such that greater male violence was associated with greater readiness to change among males who reported that their female partners perpetrated low, but not high, levels of violence. Consistently, greater female violence was associated with lower readiness to change only among the most violent male offenders. Conclusions and implications for clinical practice Results provide support for the assertion that the most violent offenders may be the most resistant to partner violence intervention efforts, particularly when they perceive themselves to be victims as well. Enhanced motivational and couples programming may facilitate treatment engagement among the high‐risk group of male offenders who report concordant relationship violence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1977   open full text
  • Anger, problematic alcohol use, and intimate partner violence victimisation and perpetration.
    Joel G. Sprunger, Christopher I. Eckhardt, Dominic J. Parrott.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 20, 2015
    Background Anger and problematic alcohol use have been established as individual risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) victimisation and perpetration, but it is unknown how these factors convey risk for IPV perpetration for men and women within the context of mutually violent relationships. Hypotheses Anger and problematic alcohol use were hypothesised to mediate the association between IPV victimisation and perpetration for men and women, with direct and indirect influences from partner variables. Methods Heterosexual couples (N = 215) at high‐risk for IPV completed questionnaires indexing trait anger, problematic alcohol use and extent of past‐year IPV perpetration and victimisation. An actor‐partner interdependence modelling (APIM) framework was used to evaluate these cross‐sectional data for two hypothesised models and one parsimonious alternative. Results The best‐fitting model indicated that IPV victimisation showed the strongest direct effect on physical IPV perpetration for both men and women. For women, but not men, the indirect effect of IPV victimisation on physical IPV perpetration through anger approached significance. For men, but not women, the victimisation–perpetration indirect effect through problematic drinking approached significance. Implications for clinical practice The results suggest that anger and problem drinking patterns play different yet important roles for men and women in mutually violent relationships. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1976   open full text
  • Never ever? Characteristics, outcomes and motivations of patients who abscond or escape: A 5‐year review of escapes and absconds from two medium and low secure forensic units.
    Gillian Mezey, Catherine Durkin, Liam Dodge, Sarah White.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 13, 2015
    Background Absconds and escapes by psychiatric patients from secure forensic psychiatric settings create public anxiety and are poorly understood. Aims To describe secure hospital patients who escape from within the secure perimeter or abscond, and test for differences between these groups. Method Escapes and absconds between 2008 and 2012 from the medium and low secure forensic psychiatric inpatient units of two London National Health Service Trusts were identified through the Trusts' databases. Demographic, offending, mental health and incident data were extracted from records for each. Results Seventy‐seven incidents, involving 54 patients, were identified over the five years. These were 13 escapes involving 12 patients, representing a rate of 0.04 per 1000 bed days, and 64 absconds involving 42 patients, a rate of 0.26 per 1000 bed days; 15 (28%) patients were absent without leave more than once. Over half of the patients came back voluntarily within 24 hours of leaving. Over 50% of them had drunk alcohol or taken drugs while away from the unit. Escapees were more likely to be transferred prisoners and to have planned their escape, less likely to return to the unit voluntarily and away longer than patients who absconded. Offending was rare during unauthorised leave—just three offences among the 77 incidents; self‐harm was more likely. Motives for absconding included: wanting freedom or drink or drugs, family worries and/or dissatisfaction with aspects of treatment. Conclusions Escapes or absconding from secure healthcare units have different characteristics, but may best be prevented by convergent strategies. Relational security is likely to be as important for foiling plans for the former as it is for reducing boredom, building strong family support and managing substance misuse in the latter. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 13, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1982   open full text
  • Effectiveness of work skills programmes for offenders with mental disorders: A systematic review.
    Emily C. Talbot, Birgit Völlm, Najat Khalifa.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 18, 2015
    Background Academic literature and government initiatives have emphasised the importance of work as a means of improving health and reducing reoffending among offenders with mental disorders. Whilst a number of work skills programmes have shown promise for offenders more generally, evaluation of evidence for their effectiveness for those with a mental disorder is lacking, particularly in relation to improving employment outcomes. Aims To assess the evidence on the effectiveness of work skills programmes for mentally disordered offenders. Method A systematic review of the literature was conducted by searching the following databases: PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library (Trials Register), Embase and Medline, using search terms which included Work Skills Programme*, Offend* and Mental*. Any empirical comparison study of work skills programmes was included in this review. The primary outcome was employment. Secondary outcomes included employment outcomes, reoffending, education, mental state, substance misuse, global functioning, quality of life, acceptability, leaving the study early and cost effectiveness or other economic outcomes. Results Six articles met the inclusion criteria. Collectively they provided limited evidence that work skills programmes increase the likelihood of people with mental disorder who are offenders obtaining employment in the short term, but there are insufficient studies to determine the long‐term impact of work skills programmes. Conclusions There is modest evidence to support inclusion of specific work skills programmes in the treatment of offenders with mental disorder. Future studies should be of theoretically driven programmes, such as Individual Placement Support (IPS), and use a standard set of relevant outcome measures and long enough follow‐up for testing the effectiveness of any programme on engagement in competitive, paid employment as, even if skilled, offenders with mental disorder must constitute a hard to place group. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 18, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1981   open full text
  • Crime and mortality in a population‐based nationwide 1981 birth cohort: Results from the FinnCrime study.
    Henrik Elonheimo, Lauri Sillanmäki, André Sourander.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 25, 2015
    Background Offending is known to be associated with various health problems and premature death, but previous studies on associations between offending and mortality have often been only with men, convicted offenders or highly selected samples. A more sensitive measure of offending may be preferable when trying to understand the extent of health disadvantages among people who offend. Aims The aim of this paper was to study the associations between investigated offending, death and causes of death in a nationally representative birth cohort. Methods A broad concept of offending was used such that people who had had any contact with the police because they had been suspected of crime were included. Offending data were obtained from the National Police Register for 5405 men and women born in Finland in 1981, spanning their ages 15–30 years; mortality data were received from Statistics Finland. Offending was classified into four categories by frequency: none, 1–4 different offence contacts, 5–27 and 28 or more. Causes of death were categorised into natural, accidents, suicide or homicide. Of the cohort, 2304 (43%) had offended and 57 (1.1%) had died. Associations between offending, mortality and causes of death were analysed, controlling for parental education level and family structure in childhood. Results The mortality rate was higher among offenders than non‐offenders, increasing with rising frequency of offending. The most frequent offenders were nearly 30 times more likely to have died by age 30 than non‐offenders (odds ratio 28.6, confidence interval 12.1–67.5); risk was higher for female than male offenders. Death among offenders was less likely to be from natural causes. Implications A heightened risk of premature death is the ultimate form of adverse outcome for offenders. Offenders' health is likely to need more attention as part of their overall management, for recidivists in particular. In our study, offenders' only certain criminal justice contact was with the police, so it may be that the police should take a greater role in signposting them towards health services. Offender treatment is needed not only to protect potential victims but also offenders themselves. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 25, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1973   open full text
  • Prevalence and clinical correlates of police contact prior to a first diagnosis of schizophrenia.
    Cornelia Schumann, Laila Asmal, Bonginkosi Chiliza, Robin Emsley.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 25, 2015
    Background Little is known about the reasons why people with schizophrenia have contact with police, especially prior to the first episode of illness. Aim To investigate the prevalence and correlates of police contact in first‐episode schizophrenia. Methods The prevalence and type of police contact was established among all 110 patients presenting to psychiatric services in one catchment area during a first episode of schizophrenia and among 65 non‐mentally ill controls, by participant and collateral interview and from records. Socio‐demographic and clinical characteristics were also recorded and the two groups compared. Results The first episode of schizophrenia patients had more contact with police than controls, despite the higher prevalence of conduct disorder symptoms among the controls. The patients were not, however, more likely to be incarcerated or arrested. Among the patients, over half of the police call‐outs occurred during the period of untreated psychosis. Positive psychotic symptoms were independently associated with police contact, after allowing for socio‐demographics. Conclusions As over a third of people in a first episode of schizophrenia had been in contact with the police – more than twice the proportion among non‐psychotic controls – and contact was associated with untreated positive psychotic symptoms, better early detection and treatment of psychosis seems indicated. In the meantime, police services may be playing an important role in reducing the duration of untreated psychosis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 25, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1975   open full text
  • Hospital‐treated suicide attempts among Finnish fire setters: a follow‐up study.
    Annika Thomson, Jari Tiihonen, Jouko Miettunen, Matti Virkkunen, Nina Lindberg.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 17, 2015
    Background High rates of attempted and completed suicide have been reported among offenders, but there has been little attention in this respect to fire setters specifically. Aim Our aim was to investigate hospital‐treated suicide attempts among male fire setters. Methods For each of a consecutive series of 441 pre‐trial fire setters, four controls matched for age, gender and place of birth were randomly selected from the Central Population Register. Data on hospitalisation and causes of death over a 39‐year period were obtained from the Finnish national registers. Results The prevalence of suicide attempts was significantly higher among fire setters than among controls. Approximately every fifth fire setter had made at least one suicide attempt which had required hospital treatment. The most common method chosen was intentional self‐poisoning or exposure to noxious substances. More than 1 in 10 fire setters with at least one hospitalisation for suicide‐related behaviour eventually completed suicide. Conclusions and implications for practice More attention should be paid to detecting and managing suicidal behaviours among fire setters as they are a high‐risk group and accurate identification of their needs in this respect may not only be life‐saving but also reduce recidivism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 17, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1972   open full text
  • Eight decades of mortality in an English high‐security hospital.
    Michael Ferriter, Trevor Gedeon, Sandra Buchan, Sharyn Findlay, Dumisani Mbulawa, Melanie Powney, Irene Cormac.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 30, 2015
    Background Psychiatric patients are known to have poorer physical health than the general population and to have premature mortality, but the impact of institutional care on the physical health of patients is less clear. Aims This study aimed to compare mortality rates and causes of death between a high‐security psychiatric hospital cohort and the general population in England for the periods 1920–1961 and 1972–2000. Method Data were obtained from various clinical and non‐clinical archives and death certificates. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated for all causes of patient death for each International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition category. Results Mortality rates of men ever resident in Rampton Hospital were similar to those of men in the general population, but women in Rampton Hospital had nearly twice the national death rate. Younger men in the latest time period (1972–2000), however, had a higher mortality rate. Higher mortality rates in the hospital than in the general population were accounted for by infectious and parasitic diseases as well as diseases of the nervous system; rates of neoplasms and diseases of the blood and of circulatory or respiratory diseases were lower among the patients. Clinical implications Specific‐cause mortality rates were compatible with our working hypothesis that the hospital could in some ways pose risks and in other ways be protective. Morbidity and causes of premature death may be environment‐specific, so recognition of the types of illness linked to premature death among high‐security hospital patients could inform improvements in the physical health of long‐stay patients. Further longitudinal studies should be undertaken to monitor trends and inform changes needed to reduce premature mortality. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1970   open full text
  • Life satisfaction and status among adolescent law offenders.
    Abraham P. Buunk, José María Peiró, Esperanza Rocabert, Pieternel Dijkstra.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 23, 2015
    Background Life satisfaction among young offenders may be affected by the subjective experience of their social status and by the feeling of being a ‘loser’ compared with others, but it is not clear what variables affect such experiences in this group. Aims To examine relationships of type of sentence (prison or probation) and of gender with subjective social status, sense of defeat and life satisfaction among young offenders. Methods One hundred and five participants were randomly selected from a cohort of young offenders, stratifying for sentence type and for gender. They were interviewed by trained and experienced interviewers. Results Young people in a correctional facility experienced lower life satisfaction and greater sense of defeat than those on probation. Independently of judicial measure, low life satisfaction was correlated with sense of defeat among young men but not young women, whereas among young women, but not young men, low life satisfaction was associated with low subjective status. Conclusions and implications Our findings of a correlation between sentence type and life satisfaction needs new, longitudinal research to determine the direction of this relationship. Whether low life satisfaction is predictive of a custodial disposal for young offenders or such a sentence lowers life satisfaction, those trying to supervise or help these young people may need to take account of it. Further, our findings suggest that young male and young female offenders should perhaps be treated in different ways to improve their sense of satisfaction with life, which may, in turn, reduce their risk of reoffending. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 23, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1971   open full text
  • A comparison of offending trajectories in violent youth according to violence type.
    Hannah Ching, Michael Daffern, Stuart Thomas.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 14, 2015
    Background Widespread public concern about youth violence persists, particularly the so‐called acts of appetitive violence characterised by positive affect and exemplified in modern trends such as ‘happy slapping’. Empirical research into this phenomenon is scant. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether perpetration of appetitive violence signals a specific offending trajectory. Method We reviewed reports and related material from 105 violent young offenders referred to court mental health services in the state of Victoria, Australia. Index violent offences were categorised as appetitive or not. Official police records were used to determine rearrest during the 12 months following mental health assessment. Results The nine young people whose offence was classified as appetitive were male and did not reoffend, generally or violently, at different rates than the other youths. Conclusion The offending trajectories of young people with appetitively violent index offences were indistinguishable from other violent youths. There is thus insufficient information here to recommend distinctive intervention for this subgroup, but their high reoffending rate (7/9) suggests that they are worthy of more research attention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 14, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1969   open full text
  • Personal recovery within forensic settings – Systematic review and meta‐synthesis of qualitative methods studies.
    Andrew Shepherd, Michael Doyle, Caroline Sanders, Jenny Shaw.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 21, 2015
    Background Many mental health services now explicitly aim to support personal recovery. Are there special ethical and practical considerations for application of this model in forensic mental health services? Is there, for example, any conflict in this context between personal empowerment and risk management? Aim Our aim was to develop a model of the personal recovery processes for people needing forensic mental health services. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted and meta‐synthesis applied to data from relevant papers. Results Five studies were identified through the search process and combined through meta‐synthesis. Three key overarching themes were synthesised: safety and security as a necessary base for the recovery process, the dynamics of hope and social networks in supporting the recovery process and work on identity as a changing feature in the recovery process. Conclusions The themes identified provide for theoretically informed and testable developments in care that could enhance the quality of recovery and rehabilitation for offender patients through explicitly enhancing personal sense of safety, understanding the patient's sense of personal identity and their social networks and transitioning between institutional and community support. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1966   open full text
  • Predictive validity of the HCR‐20 for violent and non‐violent sexual behaviour in a secure mental health service.
    Laura E. O'Shea, Dev‐Kishan Thaker, Marco M. Picchioni, Fiona L. Mason, Caroline Knight, Geoffrey L. Dickens.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 21, 2015
    Background Violent and non‐violent sexual behaviour is a fairly common problem among secure mental health service patients, but specialist sexual violence risk assessment is time‐consuming and so performed infrequently. Aims We aimed to establish whether a commonly used violence risk assessment tool, the Health Clinical Risk management 20(HCR‐20), has predictive validity specifically for inappropriate sexual behaviour. Methods A pseudo‐prospective cohort design was used for a study in the adult wards of a large provider of specialist secure mental health services. Routine clinical team HCR‐20 assessments were extracted from records, and incidents involving inappropriate sexual behaviour were recorded for the 3 months following assessment. Results Of 613 patients, 104 (17%) had engaged in at least one inappropriate sexual behaviour; in 65 (10.6%), the sexual act was violent. HCR‐20 total score, clinical and risk management subscales, predicted violent and non‐violent sexual behaviour. The negative predictive value of the HCR‐20 for inappropriate sexual behaviour was over 90%. Conclusions Prediction of violent sexual behaviour may be regarded as well within the scope of the HCR‐20 as a structured professional judgement tool to aid violence risk prediction, but we found that it also predicts behaviours that may be of concern but fall below the violence threshold. High negative predictive values suggest that HCR‐20 scores may have some utility for screening out patients who do not require more specialist assessment for inappropriate sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1967   open full text
  • A hormonal approach to anti‐social behaviour.
    Max M. Loomans, Joke H. M. Tulen, Yolanda B. Rijke, Hjalmar J. C. Marle.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 21, 2015
    Background Altered levels of cortisol and testosterone have previously been associated with anti‐social personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy, but there is some conflicting evidence as to how characteristic these findings are. Aim To test the hypothesis that diurnal fluctuations in cortisol and/or testosterone will differentiate ASPD and psychopathy among male forensic psychiatric inpatients and distinguish both groups from healthy men not in treatment. Methods One hundred and sixty‐six men participated: 81 patients with ASPD, 42 of whom had a Psychopathy Checklist‐Revised (PCL‐R) score of 26 or more and 39 with a score of 25 or less, 51 forensic hospital employees and 34 general population men. None in the latter two groups had abnormal personality traits. For each person, diurnal cortisol and testosterone saliva samples were collected. Results Both patient groups and the forensic hospital employees showed significantly higher diurnal testosterone levels than the general population, community‐based men. The community men showed significantly lower values in their diurnal cortisol variation than the ASPD and psychopathy groups but, in this, were similar to the forensic employee group. Neither cortisol nor testosterone levels differentiated the higher from lower Psychopathy Checklist‐Revised scorers. Conclusions We replicated findings of diurnal testosterone deficiencies among men with psychopathy and ASPD, but we were unable to differentiate patients groups from each other or from the hospital employees on cortisol measures. This suggests a case for more research with more diverse comparison groups and more differentiation of personality traits before drawing definitive conclusions about distinctive hormonal patterns among men with psychopathy, as external environmental variables may prove more influential than previously suspected. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1968   open full text
  • Evaluation of the Impact Personality Disorder Project – A psychologically‐informed consultation, training and mental health collaboration approach to probation offender management.
    Susannah Clark, Stuart John Chuan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 28, 2015
    Background The Camden and Islington Impact Personality Disorder Project provided psychologically informed consultation and training to probation staff in a Public Protection Unit and staff in two ‘approved premises’ (probation hostels) working with high‐risk prison sentenced offenders on licence in the community; some direct therapeutic work was also conducted jointly with probation officers. Most of the offenders had behaviours associated with personality disorder, although had not necessarily received a diagnosis of personality disorder. Aims To evaluate this service (the intervention) and test the hypothesis that its work would be associated with a reduction in recalls to prison. Methods Local and national probation records were used to identify all prison recalls made by 10 consistently available probation officers for 1 year before the intervention and up to 3 years after its introduction; reasons for recall and evidence of new arrests or charges were also extracted. Results There was a significant decrease in rate of recalls in the first year of the intervention, sustained over the second year and, for the smaller number of officers still available, also over the third year. Non‐compliance with supervision as a reason for recall was cut by two‐thirds; other reductions were in responses to ‘challenging’ behaviours. There was no evidence of increase in serious further offending. Conclusions Our findings provide preliminary evidence that psychologically informed practice by probation officers supervising offenders at highest risk of serious harm re‐offending can reduce the rate of recall to prison, a costly alternative to maintaining offenders in the community, without apparently reducing community safety. Further research should clarify the extent to which the intervention helped the officers merely to tolerate challenging behaviours from these offenders and the extent of real change in the behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 28, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1965   open full text
  • When insanity has gone undiscovered by the courts: The practice of the Norwegian Criminal Cases Review Commission in cases of doubts about insanity.
    Pål Grøndahl, Ulf Stridbeck.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 28, 2015
    Background England, Scotland and Norway have established Criminal Cases Review Commissions to review the convictions of persons who may have been wrongly found guilty of a criminal offence. Aims The aim of this study was to explore the Norwegian Criminal Cases Review Commission (NCCRC) practice when legal insanity constitutes grounds for possible reopening of a criminal case. Methods We identified all cases between 2004 and 2012 where an application to the NCCRC to reopen a case was on grounds of concerns about insanity. Data were extracted from records. Differences between reopened and disallowed insanity cases and variables that may explain the NCCRC's decision to reopen a case were analysed using multiple logistic regression. Results Forty cases were allowed, and 34 disallowed. The NCCRC relied fully and unanimously on the conclusions of the expert reports in making these decisions. In 26 of the 40 cases that the Commission reopened, psychosis had gone undetected by the courts. Such undetected cases were most often discovered in the wake of a new criminal case in connection with the defendant. If the length of the sentence were short, it was less likely that insanity had been considered by the court in the index judgement. Conclusions The NCCRC may rely excessively on the forensic psychiatric reports. The experts' conclusions may be uncertain, given that they often have to look back several years to establish mental state and its relevance at the time of the crime. As nearly two‐thirds of the reopened insanity cases had been given penalties of under 6 months, it may be asked whether such further investigation of fairly low‐level crimes is the best use of resources. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 28, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1960   open full text
  • Mental health problems in young male offenders with and without sex offences: a comparison based on the MAYSI‐2.
    Cyril Boonmann, Rebecca J. Nelson, Frank DiCataldo, Lucres M. C. Jansen, Theo A. H. Doreleijers, Robert R. J. M. Vermeiren, Olivier F. Colins, Thomas Grisso.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 21, 2015
    Background There is a need for better knowledge about the relationship between sexual offending by young people and mental health problems. Aim This study aimed to compare mental health problems between young people who commit sexual offences and those who do not. Methods After completion of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument‐Version 2 (MAYSI‐2), 334 young people who, according to MAYSI‐2 information, had committed a sex offence were compared with 334 young people whose MAYSI‐2 data suggested that they had not committed a sex offence. They were matched for age, race/ethnicity, type of facility and adjudication status. We also examined the young sex offenders for within group differences. Results The young sex offenders were less likely to report anger–irritability or substance misuse than the comparison youths. Within the sex offender group, older juveniles were more likely to report alcohol and drug use problems than younger ones, Caucasians were more likely to report anger and suicidal ideation than their non‐Caucasian peers, those detained were more likely to report alcohol and drug use problems and somatic complaints than those on probation, and convicted youths were more likely to report alcohol and drug use problems and anger–irritability than those awaiting trial. Conclusions Juvenile sexual offending seems less likely to be committed in the context of an anti‐social lifestyle than other offending. Important findings among young sex offenders are their higher levels of mental health problems among those detained and convicted than among those on probation or awaiting trial. Assessment of the mental health of young sex offenders seems to be even more important the further they are into the justice system. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1961   open full text
  • Why is young maternal age at first childbirth a risk factor for persistent delinquency in their male offspring? Examining the role of family and parenting factors.
    Eveline Vugt, Rolf Loeber, Dustin Pardini.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 15, 2015
    Background Children born to mothers who were younger than average at their first childbirth are at increased risk for future persistent delinquent behaviour, but explanations for this remain unclear. Aims Our aim was to identify possible family and parenting variables that may help explain this relationship. We hypothesised that parental stress, large number of children in the home, low socioeconomic status (including neighbourhood problems) and poor parenting would account for the link between early first motherhood and their offspring's delinquency. Methods Four hundred and sixty‐two boys were selected from the Pittsburgh Youth Study, a longitudinal study of a random sample of school boys in Pittsburgh, initially assessed half‐yearly and then annually from 7 to 19 years of age, using self‐reporting and other reporting methods. Indirect effect models were used to test relationships between variables. Results Higher levels of parental stress, poorer parent–child communication and caring for a larger number of children all mediated the relationship between maternal youth and persistent delinquency by their boys, but only explained about 20% of it. Discussion At least partial explanations of the relationship between a mother's age at first childbirth and persistent delinquency in her male offspring suggest that future research should test whether early interventions with younger mothers to decrease their sense of stress in parenting and improve their capacity for communication with their child(ren) may help to prevent persistent delinquency in their boys. Programmes designed to help young women make more informed and planned decisions about their pregnancies should also be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 15, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1959   open full text
  • Factors associated with physical or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration by men attending substance misuse treatment in Catalunya: A mixed methods study.
    Gail Gilchrist, Alicia Blazquez, Lidia Segura, Heinrich Geldschläger, Ester Valls, Joan Colom, Marta Torrens.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 05, 2015
    Background Prevalence of intimate partner violence perpetration is higher among male substance misusers than men in the general population. Previous studies have included few risk factors, limiting their capacity to inform interventions. Aim The aim of this study was to examine factors associated with intimate partner violence by male substance misusers. Methods Two hundred and thirty‐five men in treatment for substance misuse completed surveys that included the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). Variables significant in bivariate analyses were entered into multiple logistic regression analyses. Seventeen in‐depth interviews were conducted with perpetrators and analysed using a framework approach. Results Just over a third of the men (34%) had been violent in the last year to their current/most recent partner. After excluding the men's own domestic victimisation from the multivariate model, perpetratation of such violence was significantly and independently associated with lower level of education, having higher PMWI dominance–isolation and emotional–verbal subscale scores and parents who had separated/divorced, and at a lower level of significance, childhood physical abuse, hazardous drinking and cocaine as the principal drug for which treatment was sought. Interview data suggested that perpetrators ‘blamed’ alcohol or cocaine use, jealousy, control and provocation or ‘fighting back’ for their behaviour. Conclusions Intimate partner violence is common among men attending substance misuse treatment. Integrated interventions should that address both intimate partner violence and substance misuse should be considered. Areas for intervention would include reducing dominating–isolating behaviours and emotional–verbal abuse, improving communication skills, challenging gender‐specific roles and believing that substance use ‘causes’ violent behaviour. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 05, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1958   open full text
  • Predicting the transition from juvenile delinquency to adult criminality: Gender‐specific influences in two high‐risk samples.
    Kimberly A. Rhoades, Leslie D. Leve, J. Mark Eddy, Patricia Chamberlain.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 28, 2015
    Background Most juvenile offenders desist from offending as they become adults, but many continue and ultimately enter the adult corrections system. There has been little prospective examination of which variables may predict the latter transition, particularly for women. Aims Our aim was to find out, for men and women separately, what variables identifiable in adolescent offenders predict their continuation of offending into adult life. Methods Participants were 61 male and 81 female youths who had been referred from the juvenile justice system for chronic delinquency and recruited into randomised controlled trials comparing Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care with group care (‘treatment as usual’). All participants had attained adulthood by the time of our study. We first examined gender differences in childhood risk factors and then used Cox proportional‐hazards models to estimate the relationship of potential risk factors to first adult arrest. Results Results indicated that, for men, juvenile justice referrals alone predicted risk of any first adult arrest as well as arrest for felony arrest specifically. Each additional juvenile referral increased the risk of any adult arrest by 9% and of adult felony arrest by 8%. For women, family violence, parental divorce and cumulative childhood risk factors, but not juvenile justice referrals, were significant predictors of adult arrest. Each additional childhood risk factor increased the risk of adult arrest by 21%. Women who experienced parental divorce were nearly three times more likely to be arrested as an adult, and those who experienced family violence 2.5 times more so than those without such experiences. Conclusions and implications for practice We found preliminary evidence of gender differences in childhood risk factors for adult offending, and, thus potentially, for the development and use of interventions tailored differently for girls and boys and young men and young women to reduce their risk of becoming adult recidivists. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 28, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1957   open full text
  • Predicting inpatient aggression by self‐reported impulsivity in forensic psychiatric patients.
    Annelea M. C. Bousardt, Adriaan W. Hoogendoorn, Eric O. Noorthoorn, Jacobus W. Hummelen, Henk L. I. Nijman.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 17, 2015
    Background Empirical knowledge of ‘predictors' of physical inpatient aggression may provide staff with tools to prevent aggression or minimise its consequences. Aim To test the value of a self‐reported measure of impulsivity for predicting inpatient aggression. Methods Self‐report measures of different domains of impulsivity were obtained using the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation seeking, Positive urgency (UPPS‐P) impulsive behaviour scale with all 74 forensic psychiatric inpatients in one low‐security forensic hospital. Aggressive incidents were measured using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). The relationship between UPPS‐P subscales and the number of weeks in which violent behaviour was observed was investigated by Poisson regression. Results The impulsivity domain labelled ‘negative urgency' (NU), in combination with having a personality disorder, predicted the number of weeks in which physical aggression was observed by psychiatric nurses. NU also predicted physical aggression within the first 12 weeks of admission. Conclusions and implications for practice The results indicate that NU, which represents a patient's inability to cope with rejection, disappointments or other undesired feelings, is associated with a higher likelihood of becoming violent while an inpatient. This specific coping deficit should perhaps be targeted more intensively in therapy. Self‐reported NU may also serve as a useful adjunct to other risk assessment tools and as an indicator of change in violence risk. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 17, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1955   open full text
  • A total population‐based cohort study of female psychiatric inpatients who have served a prison sentence.
    Steinn Steingrimsson, Martin I. Sigurdsson, Hafdis Gudmundsdottir, Thor Aspelund, Andres Magnusson.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 31, 2015
    Background Studies of the overlap between severe mental disorder and criminality tend to focus on prison populations rather than psychiatric populations. Aims Our aims were to establish the prevalence of previous imprisonment among female psychiatric inpatients and test relationships between diagnoses, mortality and imprisonment. Methods A nationwide cohort of 18–65‐year‐old women who had been hospitalised for psychiatric disorder between January 1983 and March 2008 was identified from a hospital records database and linked to the database of the Prison and Probation Administration of Iceland as well as the National Register of causes of death at Statistics Iceland from January 1985. Results Six thousand and ninety‐four women had had at least one psychiatric hospitalisation, 102 of them had been imprisoned on 172 occasions between them, giving an imprisonment rate of 118 per 100,000 over the 24 year period of study. The crude imprisonment proportion was 1.7% during a 20‐year follow‐up period; it was at its peak (5%) among 18–30 year‐olds at index admission. Substance use and personality disorders were the most common diagnoses associated with imprisonment. Mortality rates were not statistically different between those imprisoned and not (hazard ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval 0.5–3.5). Conclusion and implications for practice Women admitted to a psychiatric hospital have higher rates of imprisonment than the general population. Because admission predated imprisonment in most cases, this may be seen as an opportunity for early intervention to reduce later criminality. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 31, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1952   open full text
  • Relationships of diet‐related blood parameters and blood lead levels with psychopathology and aggression in forensic psychiatric inpatients.
    Ap Zaalberg, Jos Wielders, Erik Bulten, Cees Staak, Anouk Wouters, Henk Nijman.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 31, 2015
    Background Earlier studies have suggested associations between diet‐related blood parameters and both aggression and psychopathological symptoms, but little is known about this in forensic psychiatric inpatients. Aim This article aims to explore the levels of diet‐related blood parameters and their relationship to aggressive behaviour and/or psychopathology among Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients. Methods Minerals, vitamins, lead and fatty acid levels were measured in blood samples from 51 inpatients, well enough to consent and participate in the study, from a possible total of 99. Levels of aggression and psychopathology were assessed using questionnaires, observation instruments and clinical data. Associations between blood parameters and behavioural measures were calculated. Results Low average levels of vitamin D3 and omega (ω)‐3 fatty acids were found, with nearly two‐thirds of the patients having below recommended levels of D3, while vitamin B6 levels were high. Magnesium, iron, zinc, copper and lead were overall within reference values, but copper/zinc ratios were high. Several significant associations between levels of fatty acid measures and both aggression and psychopathology were observed. Conclusion In our sample of forensic psychiatric inpatients, fatty acids – but not mineral or vitamin levels – were associated with aggression and psychopathology. A potentially causal link between fatty acids and aggression could be tested in a randomised, placebo‐controlled trial of fish oil supplements. General health of such patients might be improved by better vitamin D status (increased sun exposure and/or supplement use) and better ω‐3 fatty acid status (oily fish or fish oil consumption), but discouraging unnecessary self‐prescription of B vitamins where necessary. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 31, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1954   open full text
  • A bifactorial solution to the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version in a sample of civil psychiatric patients.
    Daniel Boduszek, Katie Dhingra, Philip Hyland, Agata Debowska.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 31, 2015
    Background There is considerable debate about the underlying factor structure of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV). An established view is that it reflects a unitary construct underpinned by two correlated factors. More recent research has, however, undermined this conceptualisation. Aims Our aim was to compare 10 competing models of the PCL: SV in a sample of civil psychiatric patients. Method Ten distinct factor models were specified and tested using conventional confirmatory factor analytic techniques, along with confirmatory bifactor modelling. Results A bifactor model, including two general factors (interpersonal–affective and antisocial–lifestyle), and four subordinate factors (interpersonal, affective, antisocial and lifestyle) provided the best fit to the data. The reliability of the conceptualisation was supported through the use of composite reliability, and the differential relationships exhibited between the general factors and measures of personality, impulsivity and mental health. Conclusions Our findings provide further weight to taking the two general psychopathy factors into account when interpreting the PCL: SV for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 31, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1956   open full text
  • Characteristics of women in a prison mental health assessment unit in England and Wales (2008–2010).
    Heidi Hales, Nadia Somers, Chrissy Reeves, Annie Bartlett.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 24, 2015
    Background The high prevalence of mental disorders among women in prison is recognised worldwide. In England and Wales, successive governments and independent reports have argued that the equivalent of community care in prisons is acceptable but that some mental health assessment units (MHAUs), staffed by professional clinicians, should remain. These have not been researched. Aims This paper aimed to explore patterns of use of a MHAU in a women's prison in England and to test the hypothesis that it was being used only, as intended – to hold women pending transfer to a health service hospital or in a bona fide crisis. Methods Anonymised data on all women transferred to one MHAU between 1 January 2008 and 31 August 2010 were obtained from the prison files and subjected to descriptive analysis. Results Less than a third of these women were transferred to an outside hospital; this group stayed longest in the unit. An overlapping group of 52% of the women was under a special assessment, care in custody and teamwork protocol because of suicide or serious self‐harm risk. Thus, 188 (68%) admissions fulfilled national protocol criteria for MHAU admissions. Two in five women admitted were released or returned to ordinary prison locations. Nevertheless, over 80% of the women were known to external mental health services, and 64 (30%) were so unwell on arrival in prison that they were transferred directly to the MHAU. Over a third of admissions were of women admitted more than once during the 32 months of study, and this was significantly more likely after release from prison directly to the community. Conclusions Our hypothesis was not sustained, and it seems unlikely that this prison MHAU is unique in being used outside its strict remit. A shift from studying the epidemiology of mental disorder in prisons to the epidemiology of mental health needs could benefit this vulnerable group and the wider community alike. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 24, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1953   open full text
  • Characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders culpable under the new legislation in Japan: A gender comparison study.
    Takako Nagata, Atsuo Nakagawa, Satoko Matsumoto, Akihiro Shiina, Masaomi Iyo, Naotsugu Hirabayashi, Yoshito Igarashi.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 10, 2015
    Background Although a substantial increase in the number of female offenders has drawn interest towards understanding their unique characteristics, few studies have investigated the characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders in Japan and none since the legislation enacted in 2005 in Japan, which provided for special services for them. Aims The aim of this study is to identify those characteristics of people detained under this legislation, which distinguish the women from the men and may indicate special needs among the women. Methods A retrospective records‐based study of all patients admitted to one secure unit in the 8 years since its opening in July 2005 until a census date of 31 October 2013. Results Thirty‐six (15%) of the patients were women. Marriage, mood disorders, past suicide attempts and homicide were more common among the women than the men. Six of the female offender‐patients had committed filicides, of which four were infanticides. Conclusion There appears to be a particularly vulnerable sub‐group of women with severe mood disorders, a history of serious suicide attempts and young children at risk of harming those children. Our sample was small and from a single unit so, given the potential importance of improving understanding of who is at risk in such circumstances, extending our study nationally seems indicated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 10, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1949   open full text
  • Using signal detection theory in the analysis of emotional sensitivity of male recidivist offenders.
    Fernando Barbosa, Pedro R. Almeida, Fernando Ferreira‐Santos, João Marques‐Teixeira.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 10, 2015
    Background Study of emotional responses of antisocial individuals has produced inconsistent findings. Some studies report emotional deficits, while others find no differences between people with and without antisocial behaviours. Aims Our aim was to apply signal detection theory methods to compare the sensitivity of antisocial and control participants to emotional stimuli. We hypothesised that offenders would show lower ability to discriminate changes in the level of arousal and valence of emotional stimuli relative to the controls. Methods Signal detection theory was applied to study the sensitivity of recidivist offenders in prison to emotional arousal and valence induced by pictures. This approach, novel in this context, provides a departure from the usual reliance on self‐report. Results Offenders reported higher arousal than controls but showed lower sensitivity to changes between different levels of arousal (whereas no differences were found for valence). Also, offenders showed increased response bias for changes in the levels of arousal, as well as in the higher levels of valence. Conclusions Our findings show that direct observations of emotional arousal, but not valence, discriminate between recidivist offenders with antisocial personality disorder and non‐offending controls. Use of such approaches is likely to provide more valid data than self‐reports and may prove particularly useful in studies of intervention for recidivists or in assessment of their readiness for release. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 10, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1950   open full text
  • Mental illness and parenthood: being a parent in secure psychiatric care.
    Fiona R. Parrott, Douglas l. Macinnes, Janet Parrott.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 06, 2015
    Background Research into parenting and mental illness seldom includes forensic mental health service users, despite its relevance to therapeutic, family work and risk management. Aims This study aimed to understand the experiences of parents and the variety of parenting roles maintained during admission to a secure forensic hospital. Methods Narrative interviews with 18 parents (eight mothers and 10 fathers) at an English medium security hospital were analysed thematically, using the framework approach. The proportion of patients who are parents and their contact patterns with their children were estimated from records. Results About a quarter of men and 38% of women were parents. Parenthood was of central importance to their emotional life, spanning experiences of loss, shame and failed expectations, joy, responsibility and hope. Fewer fathers maintained contact with their children than mothers yet fatherhood remained a vital aspect of men's identities, with impact on their self‐esteem. Parenting during lengthy admissions – while constrained and dependent on professional support and surveillance – ranged from sending gifts and money to visits and phone calls. Offending was seen as a particularly shameful aspect of admission, contributing to distancing from the children and difficulty explaining detention to them. Conclusions Such complex experiences call for multidisciplinary knowledge and skills. Provision of focused therapy, as well as appropriate visiting spaces, creative approaches to contact time and support for patients in explaining their mental illness and detention to their children are recommended. © 2015 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    March 06, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1948   open full text
  • Epidemiological associations between posttraumatic stress disorder and incarceration in the National Survey of American Life.
    RaeAnn E. Anderson, Timothy J. Geier, Shawn P. Cahill.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 01, 2015
    Background In spite of an elevated prevalence of trauma histories among prisoners, there has been little research examining the relationship between incarceration and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); this is especially true for Black Americans. Aims To examine relationships between PTSD and incarceration in a nationally representative sample of Black Americans. Methods We conducted analysis of data from the National Survey of American Life sample of 5008 Black American adults in the USA. Multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for demographic factors including age, gender, home region and education were conducted to examine whether incarceration status was independently associated with PTSD. Results Incarceration was significantly associated with trauma exposure, PTSD in the 12 months prior to interview and lifetime PTSD, even while controlling for demographic covariates. Conclusions and implications for practice Incarceration, trauma exposure and PTSD share a significant number of risk factors and co‐vary frequently in some populations, including the one of Black Americans investigated in this study. Interventions that can reduce shared risk factors for incarceration and PTSD and/or facilitate successful treatment of the established condition have the potential to make a large positive impact among incarcerated and formerly incarcerated people. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1951   open full text
  • Mental disorder, imprisonment and reduced life expectancy – A nationwide psychiatric inpatient cohort study.
    Steinn Steingrimsson, Martin I. Sigurdsson, Hafdis Gudmundsdottir, Thor Aspelund, Andres Magnusson.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 23, 2015
    Background There is a strong correlation between severe mental illness and criminality, but little is known about how these two problem areas together may affect health outcomes. Aim The objective of this paper is to compare survival rates of male psychiatric inpatients over a 25‐year period who have and have not been subject to imprisonment, allowing for nature of psychiatric morbidity. Methods A nationwide cohort of men who had ever been psychiatric inpatients was identified from Icelandic data‐registers, and their diagnoses after first discharge, cumulative incidence of imprisonment, and mortality established from records. Using a nested case‐control design, survival differences were determined between those ever imprisoned and those never imprisoned. Results Between January 1983 and March 2008, 7665 men were admitted to psychiatric wards in Iceland, of whom 812 (10.6%) had served a prison sentence during that time. Cumulative incidence of imprisonment was highest in the youngest age group (21%). Substance use and personality disorders were more common amongst those imprisoned. All‐cause mortality, adjusted for diagnosis, age, and year of admission, was twice as high amongst those imprisoned as those not imprisoned (Hazard ratio = 2.0, 95% CI 1.5–2.6, p < 0.001). Clinical implications Our findings indicate that psychiatric inpatients with criminal records should receive special attention with respect to all aspects of their health, not only within psychiatric services but also through more collaboration between the healthcare and judicial systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 23, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1944   open full text
  • Risk assessments and recidivism among a population‐based group of Swedish offenders sentenced to life in prison.
    Joakim Sturup, Daniel Karlberg, Björn Fredriksson, Tobias Lihoff, Marianne Kristiansson.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. January 30, 2015
    Background In Sweden, the number of people serving life sentences has steadily increased. To date, few studies have examined the recidivism rate or the predictive validity of different risk assessment instruments in this group. Aims Our aim was to test the predictive validity among inmates serving life sentences of two different instruments used for assessing risk—the Historical, Clinical and Risk Management‐20 (HCR‐20), most widely used in clinical populations, and the Psychopathy Checklist‐Revised (PCL‐R), commonly applied in both penal and clinical settings. Method Ninety‐eight life‐sentenced prisoners were included, 26 of whom were released during the study period. Data on risk assessments and dates for release were collected from administrative records, while recidivism data were retrieved from a national database on criminal convictions. Results Sex offenders obtained the highest scores and inmates charged with domestic violent offences obtained the lowest scores on both instruments. The released prisoners were followed for a mean period of 33 months. During this time five prisoners (19%) reoffended, four of them violently, with an average time to recidivism of 10 months. Only PCL‐R Facet 4, which reflects antisocial features, was significantly associated with recidivism. Conclusions This small, but population‐based, study demonstrates that antisocial behaviour shows incremental predictive validity for reoffending among life‐sentenced offenders, but other measures have little to add for this specific task. The fact that those life sentenced prisoners who reoffended did so so soon after release should prompt allocation of earlier interventions towards preventing this. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 30, 2015   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1941   open full text
  • Sexual homicide in the USA committed by juveniles and adults, 1976–2007: Age of arrest and incidence trends over 32 years.
    Wade C. Myers, Heng Choon ( Oliver) Chan, Timothy Y. Mariano.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. December 19, 2014
    Background Reliable epidemiological data on sexual homicide are sparse, especially on trends in its incidence over time and age at arrest. Aims Our main aims were to study age at arrest and incidence trends for sexual homicide in the USA over about three decades (1976–2007). Methods We conducted longitudinal analyses of data from the largest USA homicide database available for the years 1976–2007. Results The mean age at arrest for a sexual homicide was 26.3 years (range 7–76; modal 21 years). Three quarters of these offenders were young adults aged 18–35. Age at probable first arrest for a sexual homicide rose significantly from a mean of 25 to a mean of 29 years over the study period. The last decade of the three studied accounted for just one quarter of the homicides as charged in the whole period, but the proportion of sexual homicides specifically fell with each decade, so that the first period accounted for 56% of those in the whole period, the second for 33% and the final decade for just 11%. This was reflected in a reduction in the proportion of all homicides that were sexual, from 1.4% in the first decade to 0.8% in the second and 0.4% in the third, declining by a factor of five for adults and seven for juveniles. Conclusions Use of official national criminal statistics has limitations in studying the epidemiology of any particular behaviour. Nonetheless, our findings of falling sexual homicide rates and of changes in at least one important demographic of these killers indicate a need for a considered reappraisal of such crimes. Establishment of accurate epidemiology and a study of associated factors may assist in the improvement of investigative and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 19, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1947   open full text
  • To tell or not to tell? Psychopathic traits and response integrity in youth delinquency surveys.
    Taina Laajasalo, Eeva T. Aronen, Suvi Saukkonen, Venla Salmi, Mikko Aaltonen, Janne Kivivuori.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 10, 2014
    Background Individuals with high psychopathy scores are capable of providing valid self‐reports on their own personality traits, but there have been no empirical studies of the effect of psychopathic features on responding to sensitive survey questions about specific behaviours. Aims The aim of this study is to investigate any relationship between facets of psychopathy and participants' willingness to report antisocial acts in youth delinquency surveys, controlling for demographic variables known to be associated with response integrity. Methods In a nationally representative sample of 4,855 Finnish mainstream adolescents aged 15–16, honesty of responding was assessed through direct response integrity questions related to violence, property crime and drug use. Psychopathy was measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device – Self Report (APSD‐SR). Results Callous–unemotional traits and, to a lesser degree, narcissistic features were associated with a dishonest response style, although the effect size was modest. Conclusions Although psychopathy does not seem to influence the capability and willingness to report personality traits accurately, it may be associated with endorsing dishonest responses to questions about specific behaviours that have possible repercussions. Our findings suggest that previously observed associations between adolescents' self‐reported delinquent behaviour and psychopathic traits may be underestimations of the strength of the effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1940   open full text
  • A prison mental health in‐reach model informed by assertive community treatment principles: evaluation of its impact on planning during the pre‐release period, community mental health service engagement and reoffending.
    Brian McKenna, Jeremy Skipworth, Rees Tapsell, Dominic Madell, Krishna Pillai, Alexander Simpson, James Cavney, Paul Rouse.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 03, 2014
    Background It is well recognised that prisoners with serious mental illness (SMI) are at high risk of poor outcomes on return to the community. Early engagement with mental health services and other community agencies could provide the substrate for reducing risk. Aim To evaluate the impact of implementing an assertive community treatment informed prison in‐reach model of care (PMOC) on post‐release engagement with community mental health services and on reoffending rates. Methods One hundred and eighty prisoners with SMI released from four prisons in the year before implementation of the PMOC were compared with 170 such prisoners released the year after its implementation. Results The assertive prison model of care was associated with more pre‐release contacts with community mental health services and contacts with some social care agencies in some prisons. There were significantly more post‐release community mental health service engagements after implementation of this model (Z = −2.388, p = 0.02). There was a trend towards reduction in reoffending rates after release from some of the prisons (Z = 1.82, p = 0.07). Conclusions and implications for practice Assertive community treatment applied to prisoners with mental health problems was superior to ‘treatment as usual’, but more work is needed to ensure that agencies will engage prisoners in pre‐release care. The fact that the model showed some benefits in the absence of any increase in resources suggests that it may be the model per se that is effective. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 03, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1942   open full text
  • Are offending trajectories identified in population sample studies relevant for treatment settings? A comparison of long‐term offending trajectories in individuals treated for substance abuse in adolescence, to a matched general population sample.
    Yasmina Molero, Agne Larsson, Anders Tengström, Jenny Eklund.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 11, 2014
    Background Most studies on offending heterogeneity have been conducted with general population samples. It is not clear to what extent these can inform such outcomes for individuals with substance use disorders specifically. Aims The aim of this study is to compare the offending trajectories of individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence with a matched general population sample, and to test for gender differences in this respect. Method Growth mixture models were applied to identify offending trajectories from age 15 to 33 of 1568 individuals treated for substance use disorders in adolescence, and in a matched population‐based sample of 1500 individuals. Results Several parallel trajectories for men and for women were identified in both samples. The substance misuse treatment sample, however, had higher levels of offending, larger offender classes, longer careers and two additional, distinct trajectories. Although there were similarities between the men and women, the men were more heterogeneous offenders. There were two distinct offending trajectories among male substance misusers—decreasing high level and decreasing low level offending. Conclusions Differences between substance using and general population samples indicate that results from the latter could underestimate the severity, heterogeneity, and persistence of offending trajectories if merely generalised to individuals with substance use disorders. Our results also indicated that population‐based samples might be underpowered for detecting female offending heterogeneity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 11, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1939   open full text
  • Individual differences in the concordance of self‐reports and official records.
    Walter Forrest, Benjamin Edwards, Suzanne Vassallo.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2014
    Background Although self‐reported and official measures of criminal behaviour are highly correlated, the concordance between self‐reports and official records appears to vary across the population. Few studies, however, have considered the range of individual traits and characteristics that might influence the relative accuracy of self‐reports and official records. Method Using data collected from the Australian Temperament Project, we investigated the concordance between official records and self‐reports together with some of the factors that might influence it. Results Those with criminal records were 3.5 times more likely to report police contact than those with no criminal record. However, there were significant sources of individual‐level variation in their convergence, and notably honest respondents were less likely to report an interaction with police. Those at risk of crime and delinquency were less likely to consent to official records searches. Conclusions Many individual characteristics that predisposed individuals towards a criminal career also affected their willingness to consent to official records searches and the concordance between criminal records and self‐reports. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1933   open full text
  • Childhood predictors and age 48 outcomes of self‐reports and official records of offending.
    Eric F. Dubow, L. Rowell Huesmann, Paul Boxer, Cathy Smith.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2014
    Background The key question is: are self‐reports and official records equally valid indicators of criminal offending? Aims We examine the correspondence between self‐reports and official records of offending, the similarity of childhood and adolescent individual and contextual predictors of both measures of offending, and the similarity of age 48 correlates of both measures of offending. Methods Men (N = 436) from the Columbia County Longitudinal Study, a sample of all 3rd graders in Columbia County, New York, in 1959–60, participated. The youth, their peers and their parents were interviewed when the youth were age 8; the youth were later interviewed at ages 19, 30 and 48. Results We found moderate to high correspondence between self‐reports of having been in trouble with the law and official arrest records. Lifetime self‐reports and official records of offending were generally predicted by the same childhood and adolescent variables, and were correlated with many of the same adult outcome measures. By age 48, life‐course non‐offenders defined by either self‐reports or official records had better outcomes than offenders. Conclusions The results validate the use of adolescent and adult self‐reports of offending, and the early identification of individuals at risk for adult criminal behaviour through childhood parent and peer reports and adolescent self and peer reports. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1929   open full text
  • Links between trajectories of self‐reported violent and nonviolent offending and official offending during adolescence and adulthood.
    Nathalie M. G. Fontaine, Eric Lacourse, Frank Vitaro, Richard E. Tremblay.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2014
    Background Little is known about the associations between self‐reported offending and official offending whilst considering different types of offences. Aims The aims of the present study are to identify developmental trajectories of self‐reported violent and nonviolent offending (SRVO; SRNVO) and to examine their associations with official violent and nonviolent offences (as juveniles and adults). Methods Developmental trajectories of SRVO and SRNVO from 11 to 17 years of age were estimated with data from the Montreal Longitudinal and Experimental Study, a prospective longitudinal study of 1037 boys from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Results Five trajectories of SRVO (i.e. Chronic, Desisting, Delayed, Moderate and Low) and three trajectories of SRNVO (Chronic, Moderate and Low) were identified. Chronic, Desisting and Delayed trajectories of SRVO were associated with violent and nonviolent official offending in adolescence and early adulthood, over and above the trajectories of SRNVO. In comparison, trajectories of SRNVO were weakly and inconsistently associated with official offending, once controlling for their overlap with trajectories of SRVO. Conclusions Individuals on high trajectories of violent offending during adolescence are most at risk for being exposed to the justice system both concurrently and longitudinally. Differentiating violent and nonviolent offending can help resolve part of the discordance between self‐reported and official offending. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1935   open full text
  • Scaling up from convictions to self‐reported offending.
    Delphine Theobald, David P. Farrington, Rolf Loeber, Dustin A. Pardini, Alex R. Piquero.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2014
    Aim The main aims of this article are to estimate the number of offences that are committed for every one that leads to conviction, and to estimate the probability of an offender being convicted. Method In the Pittsburgh Youth Study, 506 boys were followed up from age 13 to age 24 years, in interviews and criminal records. Self‐reports and convictions for serious theft, moderate theft, serious violence and moderate violence were compared. Results On average, 22 offences were self‐reported for every conviction. This scaling‐up factor increased with age and was the highest for moderate theft and the lowest for serious theft. The probability of a self‐reported offender being convicted was 54%. This percentage increased with the frequency and seriousness of offending and was always higher for African American boys than for Caucasian boys. These race differences probably reflected differences in exposure to risk factors. Conclusions More research is needed on scaling‐up factors, on frequent and serious offenders who are not convicted, on self‐reported non‐offenders who are convicted and on why African American boys are more likely than Caucasian boys to be convicted. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1928   open full text
  • Assessing the nature and mix of offences among serious adolescent offenders.
    Robert Brame, Edward P. Mulvey, Alex R. Piquero, Carol A. Schubert.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2014
    Background Much of the research on specialisation in offending tends to show that offending careers are marked by more versatile than specific criminal activity. One key limitation of this research has been that very few studies have used both official records and self‐reports to study the longitudinal mix of offences. Aims This study uses longitudinal data to examine the mixture of offences during mid‐adolescence and into early adulthood, a key transitionary period of the life course, using both self‐reports and official records. Method Data from 1354 serious adolescent offenders are used to study the mixture of offences over a 7‐year period. Results The results point strongly to the conclusion that generality is typical and specialisation is exceptional. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1936   open full text
  • Prevalence, frequency, onset, desistance and criminal career duration in self‐reports compared with official records.
    David P. Farrington, Maria M. Ttofi, Rebecca V. Crago, Jeremy W. Coid.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2014
    Aim The main aim of this article is to compare prevalence and frequency, ages of onset and desistance, and criminal career duration, according to self‐reports and convictions. Method In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, 411 London males have been followed up from age 8 to age 48, in interviews and criminal records. Results Virtually all males admitted at least one of eight offences, compared with about one third who were convicted. In self‐reports, the number of offences was over 30 times greater, the age of onset was earlier and the career duration was longer, compared with convictions. However, the age of desistance was generally later according to convictions. Conclusions Self‐reported ages of desistance may be affected by increasing concealment with age. The gap between the first self‐reported offence and the first conviction provides an opportunity for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1930   open full text
  • Understanding the relationship between self‐reported offending and official criminal charges across early adulthood.
    Amanda B. Gilman, Karl G. Hill, B. K. Elizabeth Kim, Alyssa Nevell, J. David Hawkins, David P. Farrington.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 08, 2014
    Background There has been very little research examining criminal careers in adulthood using both self‐report data and official records. Aims The aims of this paper are to use self‐reports and official criminal records to explore (1) the prevalences and frequencies of offending behaviour in adulthood; (2) continuity in offending behaviour across the life course; and (3) predictors of official court charges in adulthood. Method Data are drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 participants followed from childhood into early adulthood. Data from ages 21 through 33 are used to examine criminal careers. Results Prevalences of offending behaviour decreased with age, whilst frequency amongst offenders remained stable or increased. There was significant continuity in offending from adolescence to adulthood in both self‐reports and official records, especially for violence. Violent offences were most likely to result in a court charge. Even after controlling for self‐reported frequency of offending, demographic variables (gender, ethnicity, and poverty) were significantly related to a court charge. Conclusions Self‐report and official records, both separately and together, provide valuable information for understanding criminal careers in adulthood, especially with regard to offending continuity across the life course and predicting the likelihood of a court charge. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1934   open full text
  • The path from childhood behavioural disorders to felony offending: Investigating the role of adolescent drinking, peer marginalisation and school failure.
    Jukka Savolainen, W. Alex Mason, Jonathan D. Bolen, Mary B. Chmelka, Tuula Hurtig, Hanna Ebeling, Tanja Nordström, Anja Taanila.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 24, 2014
    Background Although a pathway from childhood behavioural disorders to criminal offending is well established, the aetiological processes remain poorly understood. Also, it is not clear if attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is predictive of crime in the absence of comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD). Hypothesis We examined two research questions: (1) Does ADHD have a unique effect on the risk of criminal offending, independently of DBD? (2) Is the effect of childhood behavioural disorders on criminal offending direct or mediated by adolescent processes related to school experience, substance misuse and peers? Method Structural equation modelling, with latent variables, was applied to longitudinally collected data on 4644 men from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study. Results Both ADHD and DBD separately predicted felony conviction risk. Most of these effects were mediated by adolescent alcohol use and low academic performance. The effect of DBD was stronger and included a direct pathway to criminal offending. Conclusion Findings were more consistent with the life course mediation hypothesis of pathways into crime than the behavioural continuity path, in that the effects of each disorder category were mediated by heavy drinking and educational failure. Preventing these adolescent risk outcomes may be an effective approach to closing pathways to criminal behaviour amongst behaviourally disordered children. However, as there was some evidence of a direct pathway from DBD, effective treatments targeting this disorder are also expected to reduce criminal offending. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1931   open full text
  • Cognitive function is associated with prison behaviour among women in prison but not with subjective perception of adjustment to prison.
    Nuno B. F. Rocha, Duarte A. Fonseca, Alina B. Marques, Susana A. Rocha, Peter N. S. Hoaken.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 23, 2014
    Background There is considerable evidence that aspects of cognitive function, especially executive function, are associated with antisocial behaviour and violence, but most research to date has measured current cognition and previous criminal behaviour. Furthermore, this research has been conducted almost exclusively with male offenders. Aim The aim of this study is to examine relationships between a wide range of cognitive functions and behaviours among women in prison. Our hypotheses were that cognitive functioning would be associated with both more‐or‐less contemporaneously observed behaviour problems and self‐rated adjustment to the environment. Method Forty‐five drug‐free imprisoned female offenders were individually assessed on a battery of cognitive measures. Prison staff rated their behaviour on the Prison Behaviour Rating Scale and the women rated their own sense of adjustment to the environment on the Prison Adjustment Questionnaire. Results Stepwise hierarchical regressions indicated that attention was independently associated with behaviours reflecting tension, depression, isolation, fear, victimisation and worry, whereas processing speed was independently associated with behaviours reflecting lack of energy, mental slowness and lack of awareness of the surrounding environment and total Prison Adjustment Questionnaire score. There was no relationship between cognitive functioning and subjective perception of adjustment to prison. Conclusions and Implications for Practice and Future Research Results indicate that cognition contributes to some of the behavioural problems displayed by inmates in the prison context. Future studies should evaluate the role of programmes to improve cognitive processes in also improving prison behaviour and also test for continuities and discontinuities with post‐release integrative success. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 23, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1937   open full text
  • Personality disorder in a probation cohort: Demographic, substance misuse and forensic characteristics.
    Graham Pluck, Charlie Brooker, Robert Blizard, Paul Moran.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 18, 2014
    Background The occurrence of personality disorder among community supervised offenders may have important implications for their management. There is, however, a dearth of contextual information on personality disorder in such populations. Aims This study aimed to identify demographic, substance use and forensic features that distinguish community‐sentenced offenders with personality disorder from those without. Methods One hundred and seventy‐three offenders under community supervision were screened for personality disorder using the Standardised Assessment of Personality – Abbreviated Scale. Alcohol and drug misuse, demographic and forensic data were also recorded. Results Nearly half of the sample (82, 47%) had probable personality disorder. Compared with those without personality disorder, they were younger, more likely to be unemployed, less likely to be divorced, more likely to have been convicted of robbery and more likely to be alcohol or illicit drug misusers, as well as under drug rehabilitation requirements. Multivariate analyses confirmed that only alcohol and drug abuse were independently associated with personality disorder in this group, and only the latter was significant. Conclusions In this broadly representative sample of offenders serving community sentences in a defined geographical area, those with personality disorder were not more likely to attract higher risk of recidivism ratings, but they were more likely to have problems with heavy alcohol and/or illicit drug misuse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 18, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1938   open full text
  • Predictors of post‐sentence mental health service use in a population cohort of first‐time adult offenders in Western Australia.
    Nita Sodhi‐Berry, Matthew Knuiman, David B. Preen, Janine Alan, Vera A. Morgan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 25, 2014
    Background Little is known about whether or how offenders use mental health services after sentence completion. Aim This study aimed to determine the likelihood of such service use by adult (18–44 years) first‐time offenders up to 5 years after sentence completion and possible predictor variables. Methods Pre‐sentence and post‐sentence mental health service use was obtained from whole‐population linked administrative data on 23,661 adult offenders. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine which socio‐demographic, offending and pre‐sentence health service variables were associated with such post‐sentence service use. Results The estimated 5‐year probability of any post‐sentence mental health service use was 12% for offenders who had not previously used such services, but still only 42% for those who had. For the latter, best predictors of post‐sentence use were past psychiatric diagnosis and history of self‐harm; history of self‐harm also predicted post‐sentence use among new mental health services users and so also did past physical illness. Indigenous offenders had a greater likelihood of service use for any mental disorder or for substance use disorders than non‐Indigenous offenders, irrespective of pre‐sentence use. Among those with pre‐sentence service contact, imprisoned offenders were less likely to use mental health services after sentence than those under community penalties; in its absence, socio‐economic disadvantage and geographic accessibility were associated with greater likelihood of post‐sentence use. Conclusions Our findings highlight the discontinuity of mental healthcare for most sentenced offenders, but especially prisoners, and suggest a need for better management strategies for these vulnerable groups with mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 25, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1927   open full text
  • Assessment of psychiatric disorders among sex offenders: Prevalence and associations with criminal history.
    Yung Y. Chen, Chiao‐Yun Chen, Daisy L. Hung.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 14, 2014
    Background Much of the research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among sex offenders has been conducted in the USA or Europe. Less is known about it in other regions, particularly in Asia. Aims The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among sex offenders in Taiwan and their associations with offender characteristics and criminal history. Methods Participants were randomly selected from men serving sentences in Taiwan's prison for serious sex offenders. Consenting men were assessed using the structured clinical interviews for DSM‐IV‐TR Axis I and II disorders. Demographics and criminal history were also recorded. Results Over two‐thirds of the 68 participants met criteria for one or more lifetime Axis I disorders, and nearly 60% met criteria for one or more Axis II disorder. The higher the number of Axis I and cluster B personality disorders, the higher was the total number of convictions. Conclusions Our study adds to the literature that suggests that psychiatric assessment is likely to have an important role in the management and treatment of sex offenders. The finding that multiple disorders are common in this group and associated with more convictions for sex offences suggests that failure to include psychiatric assessment in planning the management of sex offenders may increase the risk of recidivism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 14, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1926   open full text
  • The validity and clinical utility of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument – version 2 (MAYSI‐2) in the UK.
    Charlotte Lennox, Kate O'Malley, Vicky Bell, Jenny Shaw, Mairead Dolan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 11, 2014
    Background The Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument – version 2 (MAYSI‐2) is designed to assist in identifying the mental health needs of young people admitted to secure establishments. To date, very few studies have assessed the MAYSI‐2 outside the USA. Aims This study aimed to assess the validity and clinical utility of the MAYSI‐2 in England. Methods Boys newly admitted into one large young offenders' institution, were consecutively interviewed individually and completed the MAYSI‐2, the Youth Self Report (YSR), which capture similar syndrome scales – and the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K‐SADS), which allows for making psychiatric diagnoses. Results Two hundred and six boys, of average age 16.5 years, completed all assessments. According to the K‐SADS, co‐morbidity of psychiatric disorders was high (80% of the sample). The MAYSI‐2 showed good convergent validity but poorer discriminant validity with the YSR. The MAYSI‐2 and YSR corresponded with both conceptually and non‐conceptually relevant diagnostic domains. Conclusions The poor ability of the MAYSI‐2 and YSR to discriminate and specify disorders is likely to reflect the high rates of co‐morbidity. The fact that 90% of the participants reached the caution cut‐off for any scale on the MAYSI‐2, while suggesting its limited use as a screening tool for this sample, is probably best reflective of the high levels of psychopathology of incarcerated young people in England and Wales since particular efforts to divert as many as possible from custody. A more holistic and comprehensive approach to assessing health needs on admission into custody may be necessary for such a population. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 11, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1924   open full text
  • Single‐Victim and Serial Sexual Homicide Offenders: Differences in Crime, Paraphilias and Personality Traits.
    Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan, Eric Beauregard, Wade C. Myers.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 11, 2014
    Background Information on psychopathological characteristics of sexual homicide offenders is scarce. Aims To investigate criminal, paraphilic and personality trait differences between serial and single‐victim sexual homicide offenders. Methods All 73 single‐victim and 13 serial sexual homicide offenders presenting within a cohort of 671 men sentenced for sexual crimes between 1994 and 2005 and serving their sentence in one high‐security Canadian prison and who consented to interview were assessed and compared on their offending patterns, personality pathology and paraphilic behaviours. Results Serial sexual homicide offenders were more likely than the single offenders to report deviant sexual fantasies, having selected victims with distinctive characteristics, to have targeted strangers, structured premeditation and/or verbal humiliation of their victims during the offences. Personality pathology, defined by at least two Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria for personality disorder, was common in both groups, but the serial offenders were more likely to have narcissistic, schizoid and/or obsessive–compulsive traits; they were also more likely to engage in sexual masochism, partialism, homosexual paedophilia, exhibitionism and/or voyeurism. Implications for practice Samples of serial sexual homicide offenders will, fortunately, always be small, and it may be that more could be learned to assist in preventing such crimes if data from several studies or centres were pooled. Our findings suggest that an investigation of sexual homicide offenders should include strategies for evaluating premeditation as well as personality and paraphilic characteristics. Crime scene features that should alert investigators should include similar characteristics between victims and particular aspects of body exposure or organisation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 11, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1925   open full text
  • Participation in a 9‐month selected physical exercise programme enhances psychological well‐being in a prison population.
    Claudia Battaglia, Alessandra Cagno, Giovanni Fiorilli, Arrigo Giombini, Paolo Borrione, Francesca Baralla, Marco Marchetti, Fabio Pigozzi.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 08, 2014
    Background There is general population evidence that physical exercise is effective in reducing the risk of depression and has positive effects on mood. Some prisons encourage exercise, but there is no evidence specific to this group on its benefits or the relative merits of different programmes. Aims To test the effect of physical exercise on the psychological well‐being of prisoners and to determine which mental disorders are most affected by physical activity. Methods Sixty‐four participants were randomly assigned across three groups: cardiovascular plus resistance training (CRT), high‐intensity strength training (HIST) and no exercise. Before and after the 9‐month experimental period, all participants completed the Symptom Checklist‐90‐Revised. Results Each form of exercise significantly reduced depression scale scores compared with those in the control group, in which average depression scale scores actually increased. The CRT group also showed a significant decrease in GSI scores on the Symptom Checklist‐90 and on its interpersonal sensitivity scale, whereas the HIST group also significantly improved on the anxiety, phobic anxiety and hostility scale scores. Conclusions Our evidence, taken together with general population studies, supports introduction of supervised, moderately intense exercise for at least 1 h per week for men in prison. They form a high risk group for mental disorders, and such exercise reduces depression and anxiety. Minimal special equipment is needed for CRT. Further research should replicate the study in a larger, multi‐centre trial, and examine impact on shorter‐term and longer‐term prisoners, female prisoners and effects on recidivism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1922   open full text
  • Anti‐social personality characteristics and psychotic symptoms: Two pathways associated with offending in schizophrenia.
    Josanne D. M. Van Dongen, Nicole M. L. Buck, Marko Barendregt, Nico M. Van Beveren, Edwin De Beurs, Hjalmar J. C. Van Marle.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 31, 2014
    Background Several research groups have shown that people with schizophrenia who offend do not form a homogenous group. A three‐group model claimed by Hodgins proposes distinguishing between people who start offending before the onset of psychosis (early starters), after psychosis onset but at age 34 years or under (late starters) and after psychosis onset but at age 35 years or older (late first offenders). Aims This study aimed to test the hypotheses (1) that the personality of early starters and non‐psychotic offenders would be similar, but different from either late‐starter group; (2) that the late‐starter groups would be more likely to have positive psychotic symptoms than non‐criminal patients with schizophrenia; and (3) that symptom types would differentiate the psychotic groups. Methods A retrospective file study was conducted on cases of 97 early starters, 100 late starters and 26 late first offenders all drawn from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (NIFP) archives 1993–2008, 115 non‐psychotic offenders from 2005–2008 NIFP archives and 129 patients with schizophrenia and no criminal history from one general service in Rotterdam. Results Early starters closely resembled the non‐psychotic offenders in their premorbid anti‐social personality characteristics. The two late‐onset offending psychosis groups were more likely to have persecutory and/or grandiose delusions than non‐offenders with psychosis, but so were the early starters. Implications In a first study to compare subgroups of offenders with psychosis directly with non‐psychotic offenders and non‐offenders with psychosis, we found such additional support for a distinction between early and late starters with psychosis that different treatment strategies would seem indicated, focusing on personality and substance misuse for the former but psychotic symptoms for all. It remains to be seen whether the higher rate of alcohol misuse amongst late first offenders is a fundamental distinction or a function of age difference. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 31, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1923   open full text
  • Predictive validity of the structured assessment of violence risk in youth: A 4‐year follow‐up.
    Monica Gammelgård, Anna‐Maija Koivisto, Markku Eronen, Riittakerttu Kaltiala‐Heino.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 05, 2014
    Background Structured violence risk assessment is an essential part of treatment planning for violent young people. The Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) has been shown to have good reliability and validity in a range of settings but has hardly been studied in adolescent mental health services. Aims This study aimed to evaluate the long‐term predictive validity of the SAVRY in adolescent psychiatry settings. Methods In a prospective study, 200 SAVRY assessments of adolescents were acquired from psychiatric, forensic and correctional settings. Re‐offending records from the Finnish National Crime Register were collected. Receiver operating curve statistics were applied. Results High SAVRY total and individual subscale scores and low values on the protective factor subscale were significantly associated with subsequent adverse outcomes, but the predictive value of the total score was weak. At the risk item level, those indicating antisocial lifestyle, absence of social support and pro‐social involvement were strong indicators of subsequent criminal convictions, with or without violence. The SAVRY summary risk rating was the best indicator of likelihood of being convicted of a violent crime. After allowing for sex, age, psychiatric diagnosis and treatment setting, for example, conviction for a violent crime was over nine times more likely among those young people given high SAVRY summary risk ratings. Conclusions The SAVRY is a valid and useful method for assessing both short‐term and long‐term risks of violent and non‐violent crime by young people in psychiatric as well as criminal justice settings, adding to a traditional risk‐centred assessment approach by also indicating where future preventive treatment efforts should be targeted. The next steps should be to evaluate its role in everyday clinical practice when using the knowledge generated to inform and monitor management and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 05, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1921   open full text
  • Using social bonding theory to examine ‘recovery’ in a forensic mental health hospital: A qualitative study.
    Alicia Nijdam‐Jones, James D. Livingston, Simon Verdun‐Jones, Johann Brink.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 09, 2014
    Background For people living with mental illness, recovery involves learning to overcome and manage their symptoms and striving to live fulfilling lives. The literature on achieving recovery emphasises the importance of social connections and positive role models. Hirschi's social bonding theory posits that an individual's attachment to others, belief in social norms, and their commitment and involvement in conventional activities are the major contributors to normalising social behaviour. Aims The aim of this study is to understand the qualities of service identified by patients in a forensic hospital as being important and meaningful to recovery. Methods Semi‐structured interviews with 30 inpatients in a forensic mental health hospital in British Columbia, Canada, were audio recorded, and the transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Five themes emerged: involvement in programmes, belief in rules and social norms, attachment to supportive individuals, commitment to work‐related activities and concern about indeterminacy of stay. Conclusions The first four themes map closely onto Hirschi's criminologically derived social bonding theory; however, indeterminacy of stay also arose as a common theme. In addition, the theory was too simple in its separation of elements; our data suggested the complex integration of themes. Our findings may be useful for informing evaluation of forensic mental health services. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 09, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1918   open full text
  • Who becomes more violent among Korean adolescents? Consequences of victimisation in school.
    Seokjin Jeong, Jaya Davis, Youngsun Han.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 09, 2014
    Background Mainly Western studies suggest that bullying increases risk of subsequent offending. Less is known about risk of violence specifically. Very little such research is from Asia – none from Korea. Aim This study aimed to answer three research questions: Is being a victim of bullying in Korean schools associated with later perpetration of violent behaviour? Does type of bullying influence type of offending? Does school climate or parental control mediate this relationship? Method Juvenile justice intake officers identified 606 young offenders who were asked to complete questionnaires about their school experience, school climate and parental supervision. We used multinomial logit model with maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate relationships between the variables of interest. Results Over half (310) of these young people had committed at least one violent offence. Seventy‐six (13%) reported having experienced emotional bullying at school and 31 (5%) physical bullying. Violent offending was over twice as likely as property offending to be associated with emotional bullying history (OR 2.38, CI 1.13–5.01), but three times less likely with physical bullying (OR 0.31, CI 0.11–0.87). In addition, parental control (but not school climate) increased the likelihood of violent offending or other delinquency by 15% (OR 1.14, CI 1.02–1.26; OR 1.16, CI 1.01–1.32, respectively). Conclusions/Implications Our overarching finding of a relationship between childhood experience of bullying and later delinquency is in line with Western findings. Where, however, the latter are equivocal on risk of later violence perpetration, we found that being emotionally bullied raises the risk of becoming violent. Our findings also underscore the importance of having studies from a range of cultures. Predictions from Western studies would be that parental control would be protective and school climate a potential risk factor for later violence, but, in Korea, where parenting styles tend to be highly authoritarian, we found differently. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 09, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1919   open full text
  • Offending outcomes of a mental health youth diversion pilot scheme in England.
    Alina Haines, Steven Lane, James McGuire, Elizabeth Perkins, Richard Whittington.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 09, 2014
    Background A youth justice diversion scheme designed to enhance health provision for young people with mental health and developmental problems as soon as they enter the youth justice system has been piloted in six areas of England. Aim As part of a wider evaluation of the first youth justice diversion scheme outside the USA, our aim here was to examine re‐offending. We sought to test the hypothesis that a specialised service for young people with mental health difficulties would be associated with reductions in re‐offending. In addition, we examined factors associated with the re‐offending that occurred. Methods Two hundred and eight young offenders with access to the diversion scheme and 200 without were compared in four geographical area pairings to allow for socio‐demographic contextual differences. Officially recorded re‐offending was ascertained for 15–30 months after study entry. We also tested characteristics associated with re‐offending among everyone entering the diversion scheme (n = 870). Results There was no statistically significant difference in re‐offending rates between the diversion and comparison samples, but those with access to diversion had significantly longer periods of desistance from offending than those who did not. In multivariate analysis, the only significant characteristic associated with re‐offending was history of previous offending. Conclusions Prevention of re‐offending is only one of the potentially beneficial outcomes of diversion of young people who are vulnerable because of mental health problems, but it is an important one. The advantage of longer survival without prevention of re‐offending suggests that future research should explore critical timings for these young people. The equivocal nature of the findings suggests that a randomised controlled trial would be justified. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 09, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1916   open full text
  • Individuals in the criminal justice system show differences in cooperative behaviour: Implications from cooperative games.
    BRENDAN C. Clark, Christopher B. Thorne, Peter S. Hendricks, Carla Sharp, Shane K. Clark, Karen L. Cropsey.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 09, 2014
    Background The high rate of incarceration in the USA warrants continued exploration into understanding and ameliorating criminal behaviour. The growing use of cooperative games to measure developing prosocial behaviours has never been explored in a US criminal justice population. Aims The aim of this study is to examine cooperative game play among offenders under supervision in the community. We hypothesised that the offenders would use more guarded and self‐preserving strategies and be more likely to excel in short‐lived interactions than law‐abiding community citizens. Methods Community supervised offenders (83) and general population comparison participants (41) were recruited by town centre adverts placed in popular shops. Using the supervision centres as venues, all participants were asked to complete four cooperative games (prisoner's dilemma, public goods game, ultimatum game and trust game), not knowing the identity of the other player who was always, in fact, the experimenter. Results The offender and general population groups were similar in age (early 30s), sex (2/3 men), race (45% white) and IQ distribution (low average range). Offenders made lower offers in the ultimatum game, had lower scores in the prisoner's dilemma, made lower investments and offered lower returns in the trust game and contributed less in the public goods game. Conclusions Even community‐based offenders thus seem to have deficits in the kinds of gameplay, which are informed by theories of social cooperation, but the direction of relationship with offending remains unclear. The apparent deficits may reflect adaptation to a hostile environment where trust and reciprocity are not rewarded. It is also important to recognise that these community‐based offenders did develop play indicative of trust and reciprocity, they just did so more slowly than the comparison group. This may have implications for allowing time for rapport to develop in supervisory relationships. Finally, offenders may benefit from learning that although more guarded behaviours may be adaptive in a rough neighbourhood or in jail, they may be maladaptive and limit their success in other settings such as the work place. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 09, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1920   open full text
  • Neurobiological changes after intervention in individuals with anti‐social behaviour: A literature review.
    Liza J. M. Cornet, Catharina H. Kogel, Henk L. I. Nijman, Adrian Raine, Peter H. Laan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 03, 2014
    Background A neurobiological perspective has become accepted as a valuable approach for understanding anti‐social behaviour. There is literature to suggest that, in non‐offending populations, psychological treatments affect both neurobiological measures and clinical presentation. A theoretical position to this effect has been adopted with respect to offender treatment, but there has been no systematic review of empirical literature on this point. Aims This study aimed to ascertain from published literature firstly whether there is evidence of change in neuropsychological or physiological measures after behavioural treatments/programmes for people with anti‐social behaviour and secondly whether these neurobiological changes are associated with behavioural change. Method A systematic search strategy was formulated to include studies considering ‘neurobiological factors’, ‘anti‐social population’, ‘treatment’ and ‘treatment outcome’. The Maryland Scientific Methods Scale was used to select relevant studies of sufficient methodological quality. Results Eleven studies were found, only one with adults. Overall, the values of specific neurobiological risk factors, particularly of basal cortisol, become less abnormal following intervention. There was some evidence for a link between change in neurobiological functioning and behavioural improvement. Conclusions Findings, although provisional, may provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms of interventions for anti‐social behaviour. Future studies that include pre‐treatment neurobiological assessment could help reveal physical vulnerabilities that interventions should target to improve treatment efficacy, and provide for objective, independent corroboration of change. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 03, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1915   open full text
  • Treatment progress in medium security hospital settings for women: Changes in symptoms, personality and service need from admission to discharge.
    Clive G. Long, O. Dolley, Clive R. Hollin.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 28, 2014
    Background Service evaluations of medium secure hospital facilities for women are underrepresented in the extant literature. Hypothesis That positive changes in symptoms, personality traits and service need would be evident between admission and discharge among women in a medium security hospital service. Methods A pre‐test/post‐test design was used, with comparisons made between admission and pre‐discharge points on a variety of measures of psychiatric symptoms and personality traits. Results There were significant improvements in mood according to Beck Depression Inventory scores, mood and other symptoms of mental disorder and distress as measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Modified Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale, personality traits recorded using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III and service need as measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need, Forensic Version. Conclusions/implications for practice Significant positive change during treatment, in all clinical areas, is encouraging given poor outcomes for women reported in other research. Findings cannot, however, be unequivocally attributed to the treatments given. Further work is needed to improve early engagement and tailor treatment more specifically to the needs of a heterogeneous population. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 28, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1911   open full text
  • Adolescent male hazardous drinking and participation in organised activities: Involvement in team sports is associated with less hazardous drinking in young offenders.
    Britt Hallingberg, Simon Moore, Joanne Morgan, Katharine Bowen, Stephanie H. M. Goozen.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 16, 2014
    Background There is a lack of research investigating organised activity participation and associated alcohol use in vulnerable groups. Aims The purpose of this research was to test and compare associations between participation in organised activities and indicators of hazardous drinking between young offenders and young non‐offenders. Methods Two groups of 13–18 year‐old males were recruited in Cardiff, UK: 93 young offenders and 53 non‐offenders from secondary schools matched on estimated IQ, sex and socioeconomic status. Indicators of hazardous drinking were measured using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). Organised activity participation and externalising behaviour was measured by the Youth Self Report. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence was also administered. Results Young offenders participated in fewer organised activities and had higher FAST scores than non‐offenders. Young offenders and non‐offenders significantly differed on mean FAST scores if they participated in no organised activities but not if they participated in at least one team sport. Externalising behaviour problems were unrelated to participation in organised activities. Conclusions Although young offenders were less likely to have participated in organised activities, for them, participation in a team sport was associated with less hazardous drinking. Vulnerable youths who might benefit most from sporting activities actually access them the least. Future research should identify the different barriers to participation that they face. © 2014 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    May 16, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1912   open full text
  • Cannabis use among juvenile detainees: Typology, frequency and association.
    Elena L. Grigorenko, Laurel Edwards, John Chapman.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 16, 2014
    Background As both lifetime and daily use of marijuana remain prevalent among US adolescents and are likely to increase, given the legalisation of marijuana in a number of states, their correlates with other negative (including delinquent) behaviours have been studied. Most of this research has been carried out with general‐population‐based samples. Thus, little is known about this association among court‐involved and detained juveniles. Aims This study aimed to assess lifetime and daily marijuana use among detainees aged 10–16 years. Our hypotheses were that such use would be higher among youth who had been in detention than in general population samples and that it would be associated with other mental health indicators and criminal justice indicators, such as total number of detentions and number and types of charges. Methods The records of a random 20% sample of all juveniles in detention in Connecticut's state facilities were studied. Data extracted included self‐reported information on lifetime and daily use of marijuana, mental health indicators, lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and criminal justice indicators. Results Rates of both lifetime (54%) and daily (16%) use of marijuana in this sample of 371 young people were substantially higher than previous studies have reported in general population samples. As a group, daily users of marijuana demonstrated a more negative mental health profile but did not differ from the rest of the sample in their criminal justice indicators. Conclusions/implications for practice Our findings suggest that it is unlikely that cannabis use by young offenders can serve as an independent factor in understanding the frequency and severity of delinquency, although it might be associated with the severity of mental health disorder or dysfunction among them. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 16, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1913   open full text
  • Comparing attitudinal and situational measures of self‐control among felony offenders.
    Jeff Bouffard, Jessica M. Craig, Alex R. Piquero.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. May 05, 2014
    Background Hirschi recently revised the measurement of self‐control to include the number and salience of costs an individual considers in an offending situation. Evidence is mixed on its predictive utility relative to other self‐control measures but suffers from different studies operationalising the measure in different ways and mostly examining it with non‐offenders. Aims This study aimed to investigate Hirschi's reconceptualisation of self‐control. Our research question was whether the number and salience of Hirschi's ‘costs’ are independently related to offending. Methods Data on self‐perceptions of likelihood of driving while drunk and various self‐control and social control measures were collected by researchers during an orientation class for convicted offenders newly received into correctional facilities – one for men and one for women – during January to May 2011. Results Eight hundred and nineteen men and 194 women completed the ratings. Both attitudinal and situational self‐control measures were independently associated with self‐rated likelihood of driving while drunk. These findings were confined to the male offenders. Conclusions Findings revealed mixed support for Hirschi's conceptualisation of self‐control and its relevance. Situational and attitudinal measures of self‐control share some common ground but relate differently to offending according to gender. Further research is needed to find out if these results are generalisable to other crime types and whether race/ethnicity could modify the findings. Even among convicted offenders whose crimes are serious and/or frequent enough to result in imprisonment, high self‐control may inhibit offending. This has implications for intervention programmes. This is the first study to compare attitudinal and self‐control measures in relation to offending among a sample of incarcerated offenders and across gender. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 05, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1914   open full text
  • Epidemiological survey of suicide ideation and acts and other deliberate self‐harm among offenders in the community under supervision of the Probation Service in England and Wales.
    Graham Pluck, Charlie Brooker.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. April 08, 2014
    Background There is a dearth of information on suicidal thoughts and acts or other acts of deliberate self‐harm by offenders under community supervision. Aims The objective of this study is to estimate lifetime and one month prevalence of deliberate self‐harm and to determine ongoing risk among offenders in the community under probation supervision. Methods One hundred and seventy‐three randomly selected offenders under supervision by the probation service in one county in England were screened for mental illness. All 88 screened cases and a one‐in‐five sample of non‐cases were interviewed according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory Module‐B. False negatives (n = 17) were used to weight calculations and estimate prevalence for the whole group. Results A third of the interviewed sample (n = 56) had a lifetime history of suicide attempts, and 9 (5%) had self‐harmed in the month prior to interview. Lifetime suicide history was associated with suicidal ideation and deliberate self‐harm in the prior month. Conclusions and implications Our adjusted findings indicate that 25‐40% of offenders serving all or part of their sentence in the community have a lifetime history of self‐harm, which is similar to the rate among prisoners, and are at very much higher risk of further such acts or completed suicide than the general population. At a time of change in delivery of probation services the implications are thatrates of suicide and other forms of deliberate self‐harm should be continually assessed in all probation areas, particularly with reference to service changes;the relationship between deliberate acts of self‐harm, suicidal ideation and completion of suicide should be investigated prospectively in larger studies;probation services are likely to need mental health expertise to manage these risks Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1909   open full text
  • Unravelling offending in schizophrenia: Factors characterising subgroups of offenders.
    Josanne Dongen, Nicole Buck, Hjalmar Van Marle.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 27, 2014
    Background Previous studies have led to suggestions that there are at least three sub‐types of offenders with schizophrenia, but these have not previously been examined simultaneously in one sample. Aims The aims of this study were to investigate categorisation of offenders with psychosis as early or late starters or late first offenders, and test the hypotheses that, compared with non‐offenders with psychosis, early starters would be characterised by low educational or occupational achievement, negative childhood experiences and early substance use, whereas positive psychotic symptoms would characterise late starters or late first offenders. Methods A retrospective file study was conducted, yielding 97 early starters, 100 late starters and 26 late first offenders identified from a specialist inpatient forensic mental health assessment service and 129 non‐offenders identified from general psychiatric services in the same geographic region, all with schizophreniform psychoses. Results We found little difference between early and later starters in terms of measured antecedents, but substance misuse was up to 20 times less likely among late first offenders. Persecutory and/or grandiose delusions were more strongly associated with each offender group compared with non‐offenders, most so with late first offenders. Conclusions Our findings underscore the importance of treating delusions – for safety as well as health. Childhood antecedents may be less important indicators of offender sub‐types among people with psychosis than previously thought. When patients present with grandiose or persecutory delusions over the age of 35 years without co‐morbid substance misuse disorders, but with a history of childhood neglect and low educational achievement, particular care should be taken to assess risk of violence. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 27, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1910   open full text
  • The startle paradigm in a forensic psychiatric setting: Elucidating psychopathy.
    Max M. Loomans, Joke H. M. Tulen, Hjalmar J. C. Marle.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 24, 2014
    Background Most people who meet the diagnostic criteria for anti‐social personality disorder (ASPD) do not meet the criteria for psychopathy. A differentiating feature is affective‐interpersonal style. Eye blink startle reflex paradigms have been used to study affect. Aim The aim of this study is to explore an eye blink startle paradigm as a means of distinguishing between men with both ASPD and psychopathy, and men with ASPD alone. Methods One hundred and thirty‐six men were recruited as follows: 31 patients with ASPD and a Psychopathy Checklist‐Revised (PCL‐R) score of 26 or more, 22 patients with ASPD and a PCL‐R score of 25 or less, 50 forensic hospital employees and 33 general population men, none in the latter two groups having abnormal personality traits. Each was presented with 16 pleasant, 16 unpleasant and 16 neutral pictures. Acoustic probes were presented during each category at 300, 800, 1300 and 3800 milliseconds (ms) after picture onset. Eye blink response was measured by electromyography. Results Overall, both patient groups showed significantly smaller eye blink responses to the startle stimuli compared with the community controls. Both the latter and the ASPD group showed the expected increase in eye blink response at longer startle latencies to unpleasant pictures than pleasant pictures, but this was not present either in the group with psychopathy or in the forensic hospital employees. With increasing startle latency onset, eye blink amplitude increased significantly in both the healthy comparison groups and the ASPD group, but not in the group with psychopathy. Conclusions We replicated eye blink startle modulation deficiencies among men with psychopathy. We confirmed that the psychopathy and ASPD groups could be distinguished by startle stimulus onset asynchrony, but this pattern was also seen in one healthy group – the forensic hospital employees. This suggests a case for more research with more diverse comparison groups and more differentiation of personality traits before drawing definitive conclusions about distinctive startle response patterns among men with psychopathy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1906   open full text
  • Risk and resiliency factors influencing onset and adolescence‐limited commercial sexual exploitation of disadvantaged girls.
    Joan A. Reid.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 11, 2014
    Background Previous research into age‐related variables relevant to girls and young women being involved in commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) has not distinguished between its onset and limitation to adolescence and its early onset and persistence into adult life. Aims The aims of this study were to examine variables associated with adolescent versus adult onset of commercial sexual exploitation and identify potential risk and resiliency factors differentiating adolescence‐limited sexual exploitation and early‐onset‐adult persistent exploitation. Method Interviews with 174 vulnerable mostly African‐American women, 23% of whom reported commercial sexual exploitation in adolescence and/or adulthood, yielded data, which were analysed using multinomial logistic regressions. Results Adolescent sexual victimisation, younger age at first alcohol/drug use, being a victim of intimate partner violence and sense of stigmatisation of sexual self/others were all variables associated with adolescent onset of commercial sexual exploitation. Educational attainment differentiated adolescence limited from adolescent‐adult persistent exploitation; exploitation had ceased by adulthood among over two‐thirds of those who completed at least high school education, but only 13% of those exploited into adult life had finished high school. Conclusions and implications for practice As level of education was linked to cessation of exploitation by adulthood, support for vulnerable girls to complete education at least to high school level may be protective.The link between early onset of substance misuse and persistent exploitation suggests that education and support specifically targeted within this field could reduce likelihood of persistent abuse.Work directed at improvement of self‐image may also reduce risk of persistent exploitation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 11, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1903   open full text
  • Metacognitive group training for forensic and dangerous non‐forensic patients with schizophrenia: A randomised controlled feasibility trial.
    Riitta Kuokkanen, Raimo Lappalainen, Eila Repo‐Tiihonen, Jari Tiihonen.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. March 11, 2014
    Background In schizophrenia, the presence of certain cognitive biases has been established. Informed by this, metacognitive training (MCT) has been developed for schizophrenia. There is increasing evidence of its effectiveness with some patients, but its applicability to dangerous patients has not yet been demonstrated. Aims Our aim was to test the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of MCT for patients in a high‐security hospital setting. Methods Twenty of 33 eligible and selected male in‐patients with schizophrenia and a history of violence were randomised pairwise to eight sessions of MCT or treatment as usual. Symptom severity and reasoning, according to the jumping to conclusions paradigm, were measured before, immediately after treatment, and 3 and 6 months later. Results Men in both groups completed the trial, and those in the MCT arm, almost all of the group sessions. The MCT arm had a significant advantage in improvement of ‘suspiciousness’, greatest at 3 months, but then declining. No significant improvement in reasoning ability was achieved. Conclusions Metacognitive training showed sufficient promise in this group for a full trial to be worthwhile, and the feasibility of an RCT methodology, even in a secure hospital, was established. The fact that the improvements faded during follow‐up suggests that a useful modification to the treatment would be lengthening the protocol, repeating it, or both. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 11, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1905   open full text
  • Pre‐sentence mental health service use by adult offenders in Western Australia: Baseline results from a longitudinal whole‐population cohort study.
    Nita Sodhi‐Berry, David B. Preen, Janine Alan, Matthew Knuiman, Vera A. Morgan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 17, 2014
    Background Little is known about community mental health service use prior to offending. Aim This study aimed to investigate the 1‐year community mental health service use by adult offenders (18–44 years) prior to their first ever criminal sentence in Western Australia. Methods Administrative mental health service data were compared between all offenders (n = 23,755) commencing their first ever criminal sentence in Western Australia during 1985–1994 and a matched community group of 21,977 non‐offenders. Results Just over 8% of offenders had used mental health services prior to sentence compared with 1% of non‐offenders. After adjusting for age, offenders were more likely to have used these services than non‐offenders in all gender–race groups, but the effect was strongest for non‐Indigenous women, who were over 12 times more likely to have used such services, and weakest among Indigenous men, who were about twice as likely to have used them as their non‐offending peers. Service use for substance use disorder, the most common diagnosis, was about one and a half times more prevalent among Indigenous than non‐Indigenous offenders, regardless of gender. For non‐Indigenous offenders, prevalence of any mental health service contact was higher for violent than non‐violent offenders, irrespective of gender. Service use was no different between offenders receiving custodial or non‐custodial sentences in all gender‐race groups. Conclusion The higher likelihood of mental health service use by offenders in the year prior to their first ever sentence than by non‐offenders suggests that, insofar as the disorder was relevant to offending, there were some opportunities for preventive measures during that time. Differential service use according to gender and Indigenous/non‐Indigenous status is of concern. It would be important to understand more about this apparently unequal service access, not least because Indigenous populations tend to be over‐represented in prison. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 17, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1901   open full text
  • Mafia and psychopathy.
    Adriano Schimmenti, Chiara Caprì, Daniele La Barbera, Vincenzo Caretti.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 12, 2014
    Background In popular culture, Mafia members are often portrayed as ruthless, callous and remorseless, but there is no empirical research on their personality traits. Aims The goal of this research was to examine levels of psychopathic traits among Mafia members who have been convicted of a criminal offence. Methods The Psychopathy Checklist‐Revised (PCL‐R) rated 30 Italian adult male prisoners who had been convicted for Mafia‐related crimes (86% resident in one 6‐month period) and 39 next adjacent convicted men who were not enrolled in any criminal organisation. Results Mafia members obtained lower PCL‐R total scores, interpersonal and affective (PCL‐R factor 1) scores and lifestyle scores (factor 2) than the other offenders. Logistic regression analysis showed that lower PCL‐R factor 1 scores with higher factor 2 scores in the absence of a history of substance misuse disorder distinguished Mafia from non‐Mafia offenders. A probability curve confirmed an exponential growth in the probability of classification as a Mafia member in relation to lower PCL‐R factor 1 scores. Conclusions Our findings bring new hope for resocialisation of convicted Mafia members, because they showed significant antisocial traits but they maintained a capacity for emotional connection and greater likelihood of engaging with training and resocialisation programmes than other imprisoned offenders in Italy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1902   open full text
  • Correlates of traumatic brain injury among juvenile offenders: A multi‐site study.
    Michael G. Vaughn, Christopher P. Salas‐Wright, Matt DeLisi, Brian Perron.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. January 15, 2014
    Background There is some evidence that antisocial individuals, including young delinquents, are significantly more likely than people in the general population to incur a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Extant studies are hampered by methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes, lack of control for confounding effects, and use of single sites and may lack representativeness. Hypothesis The hypothesis for this study is that young offenders with a history of TBI will not only be at higher risk of impulsivity and negative emotionality than their non‐injured peers but also that those with TBI will have had more previous victimisation experiences. Methods Data from two sites (Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ) in a substantial longitudinal, prospective study – the Pathways to Desistance Study – were used to compare young people (average age 16 years) who reported TBI with those who did not. Independent variables were behavioural, criminogenic and psychosocial measures. Results Male youths were about twice as likely as young females to report TBI. Such injury was associated with higher impulsivity and negative emotion ratings, even after allowing for potentially confounding factors, including sex. In addition, TBI was independently associated with self‐reported experience of victimisation. Conclusions/implications This extends the generalisability of earlier suggestions of a relationship between TBI and offending, and various factors thought likely to mediate the relationship. The implications are, thus, that it is likely to be of practical value to screen young people who get into the criminal justice system for a history of TBI, and thus to allow for more specific tailoring of interventions to reduce the range of associated problems, including likely reoffending. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 15, 2014   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1900   open full text
  • Timeliness of second opinion appointed doctors' assessments of treatment plans for patients detained in medium security hospitals in London, UK.
    Paula Murphy, Ali Ajaz.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 28, 2013
    Background Mental health legislation in England & Wales requires assessment by a second opinion appointed doctor (SOAD) to safeguard the rights of patients detained in a hospital under this law if they are either refusing certain treatments or are deemed incapable of consenting to them. Aims Our aim was to evaluate timeliness of SOAD assessments. Method Data were collected from the Mental Health Act administrator on all SOAD requests in 1 year for all in‐patients in two English medium security hospital units. Results One hundred and six patients required a SOAD assessment during the 1‐year period examined, of a combined resident total of 295, as did a further 14 patients who had been discharged from hospital and were subject to a community treatment order. About half of the inpatients were seen by a SOAD within 30 days and a further quarter within 60 days, but the remaining quarter waited up to 150 days or more. Discussion and implications These results suggest that in these trusts, unlikely to be atypical, neither patients nor clinicians are being adequately protected by legal safeguards on decisions to treat with medication (or electroconvulsive therapy) in the event of impaired competence for decisions about mental health treatments. There should be clear standards for the appropriate length of time from referral to assessment by an independent doctor (SOAD). Compliance with standards should be transparent, so anonymised data on the matter should be routinely collected and stored by health trust Mental Health Act offices. Data should be monitored at agreed intervals by an independent body. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 28, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1899   open full text
  • Homicide offenders 32 years later – A Swedish population‐based study on recidivism.
    Joakim Sturup, Per Lindqvist.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 22, 2013
    Background The literature on recidivism by homicide offenders is scarce despite its importance for individuals and for society. Aims To establish the rate of seriously violent re‐offending among homicide offenders and identify risk factors for such recidivism. Methods A 1970s incident cohort of all homicide offenders, sane and insane, from two regions of Sweden (N = 153) was followed up until 2007 using data from the national crime register. Results Ten per cent of the cohort (n = 15) re‐offended. The mean time from index offence to recidivism was 9.4 years. Five people (3%) committed a further homicide, and it was established that another five (3%) offenders had killed before the index offence. Prospective risk factors for violent recidivism were young age, psychotic disorder, male victim, acquainted victim and intoxicated victim. Conclusions The prevalence of repeated homicide is higher than previously reported. Victim variables and mental disorder in conjunction with substance abuse appear to be two domains of particular significance for recidivism. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1896   open full text
  • Longitudinal HCR‐20 scores in a high‐secure psychiatric hospital.
    Catrin Morrissey, Chris Beeley, John Milton.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. November 22, 2013
    Background The HCR‐20 is a widely used 20 item structured professional judgement aid to risk assessment and management, but longitudinal studies of its value are rare, particularly with people at high risk of reoffending. Aims To investigate whether the HCR‐20 discriminates between patient subgroups in one high‐security hospital in England, whether scores reduce with hospital treatment and whether lower scores predict discharge. Methods Repeated HCR‐20 ratings were made by clinical teams across five services within the hospital, two of them (women and men with intellectual disability) national services. A database of 3337 HCR‐20 ratings, from 532 patients over a period of 5 years, was examined using mixed effects models. Results As expected, HCR‐20 scores were high overall, but there were differences between services in the ratings obtained. Female patients and men with intellectual disability had the highest total score. There was a significant relationship between discharge and lower clinical risk score, but not between total and risk scale scores and discharge. There were significant changes in scores over time, although these were small and may not be clinically meaningful. Differences between services were observed, with women evidencing greater change. Conclusions It is unsurprising that patients in two national services (for men with intellectual disability and women) have the highest HCR‐20 scores; however, the finding of relatively greater risk reduction in women needs further investigation. Although we did not find ceiling effects in this sample, the clinical value of frequently repeated HCR‐20 ratings may be limited for high‐risk populations where any change is likely to be slow. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1893   open full text
  • Motivational dimensions of inpatient aggression.
    Ragnar Urheim, Knut Rypdal, Ole Melkevik, Helge Andreas Hoff, Arnstein Mykletun, Tom Palmstierna.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 30, 2013
    Background Recent studies have suggested that functional classifications of aggression should be used to improve the understanding of the heterogeneity of aggression and its management, among inpatients in psychiatric hospitals. Aims Our aim was to examine a theoretically derived three‐factor model for conceptualising aggressive incidents by inpatients as irritable, instrumental or defensive. Methods As part of the routine assessments in a forensic psychiatric high security ward, staff filled out a questionnaire on motives for aggression after all violent incidents. A total of 1652 incidents from 28 patients were analysed by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results Support was found for the three‐factor model. For the most part, the scale items loaded on the factors as predicted, and the model was able to explain 61% of the data variance. Irritable incidents were the most common, but elevated scores for instrumental characteristics were found as well. High psychopathy scores were associated with incidents scoring high values on both irritable and instrumental dimensions, and low values on the defensive dimensions. Conclusions Confirming these three dimensions of inpatient aggressive incidents may help caregivers' understanding of aggressive behaviour. If confirmed in future studies, this dimensional approach may prove useful for the management of aggressive inpatients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 30, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1894   open full text
  • Community DSPD pilot services in South London: Rates of reconviction and impact of supported housing on reducing recidivism.
    Matt Bruce, Sarah Crowley, Nikki Jeffcote, Belinda Coulston.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 21, 2013
    Background The effectiveness of community services in reducing recidivism by men in the ‘dangerous and severe personality disorder’ framework – with personality disorder and at high risk of recidivism – is unknown. Aims To conduct a preliminary examination of the characteristics and reconviction rates of male offenders with personality disorder accessing two South London community dangerous and severe personality disorder pilot outpatient services and to evaluate the role of supported housing for them. Methods Reoffending outcomes of 107 high risk offenders with personality disorder were assessed using a cross‐sectional cohort study design. Participants were allocated to outpatient only (non‐residential) or outpatient with supported housing groups. Self‐reported, collateral and criminal justice data and Offender Group Reconviction Scale III predictors of reoffending were used to describe the samples. Results The overall reconviction rate over the entire study period was 11%. At 12 months following acceptance to the service, reoffending for the entire sample was significantly lower (5%) than mean Offender Group Reconviction Scale III scores predicted (51%). Multivariate analyses confirmed that those also in receipt of supportive housing were significantly less likely to reoffend than those without. Although there was no difference between groups in violent reconviction specifically, only five men in total reoffended violently. Conclusions Although findings appear promising, this was a naturalistic study. The sample size was small, but represented all men accepted into the two pilot services. Further evaluation of the role of supported housing and perhaps other details of community supervision should follow. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 21, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1892   open full text
  • Forensic case formulation: Theoretical, ethical and practical issues.
    Jason Davies, Susie Black, Natalie Bentley, Claire Nagi.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 04, 2013
    Argument Forensic case formulation, of increasing interest to practitioners and researchers raises many ethical, theoretical and practical issues for them. Conclusion Systemic, contextual and individual factors which need to be considered include the multitude of staff often involved with any one individual, the pressure to ‘get it right’ because of the range of risk implications that are associated with individuals within forensic mental health settings, and individual parameters, for example reluctance to be engaged with services. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 04, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1882   open full text
  • The Index Offence Representation Scales; a predictive clinical tool in the management of dangerous, violent patients with personality disorder?
    Gill McGauley, Scott Ferris, Luisa Marin‐Avellan, Peter Fonagy.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 04, 2013
    Background Forensic mental health professionals attach considerable importance to their patient's description of his or her index offence. Despite this, there is no systematic approach to examining and formulating the patient's offence narrative. Aim To use the index offence narratives and capacity to mentalize of violent offender‐patients with personality disorder to develop a tool to predict their progress and to evaluate that tool. Method In a prospective, cohort study, the index offence narratives of 66 violent high security hospital patients with personality disorder were obtained from a semi‐structured interview and used to generate the Index Offence Representational Scales (IORS). The predictive validity of these scales was investigated across a range of outcome variables, controlling for the association between initial and final value of the dependent variable. Results The degree to which patients held internal representations of interpersonal violence and malevolence, as measured by the IORS, predicted subsequent violent behaviour. In contrast to their actual aggressive behaviour, these patients rated themselves as having fewer symptoms on the Symptom Checklist‐90‐R (SCL‐90‐R) and fewer problems in interpersonal relationships on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. A more empathic victim representation on the IORS predicted better engagement with treatment. Conclusions The IORS show promise for helping clinicians formulate the early institutional pathway of seriously violent people with personality disorder, particularly with respect to their overt aggression and prosocial engagement. Replication studies are, however, indicated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 04, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1889   open full text
  • Case formulation in personality disordered offenders: Views from the front line.
    Susan Brown, Birgit Völlm.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 04, 2013
    Background Case formulation (CF) is a process that provides a psychological understanding of a person's difficulties and results in an intervention plan to address them. CF may be particularly useful in complex cases; yet the evidence base on its application in forensic settings is limited. Nevertheless, CF is a key part of the UK government's strategy for high‐risk personality disordered offenders. As part of this strategy, probation staff are expected to carry out CF in order to inform interventions for these offenders. Aims/hypotheses This study sought to access the experience of probation staff of working with personality disordered offenders and their views around their role in the strategy and what challenges and benefits might arise. Methods Three focus groups were carried out, each with 6–7 probation staff. Results Four themes emerged. Firstly, staff reported a lack of personality disorder (PD)‐specific training, and the work that they do with PD offenders is hampered by this. Secondly, probation staff experience difficulties when attempting to obtain help for PD offenders, including diagnostic assessments and treatment for those already diagnosed. Thirdly, the work probation staff currently do with offenders covers similar areas as CF but with a different focus. Fourthly, participants welcomed the prospect of PD‐specific training but were concerned that they should be appropriately supervised and not left to carry out work for which they feel under‐trained. Conclusions Our findings point towards potential benefits in providing probation staff with PD‐specific training in order to implement the PD offender strategy. Implications for practice Issues relating to the lack of provision of appropriate treatment and the need for relevant supervision of probation staff conducting CF need to be addressed in order to enhance the successful operation of the strategy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 04, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1887   open full text
  • An evaluation of case formulation training and consultation with probation officers.
    Philip Minoudis, Jackie Craissati, Jake Shaw, Mary McMurran, Mark Freestone, Stuart J. Chuan, Ania Leonard.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 04, 2013
    Background Formulation is a core competency of mental health professionals, drawing on a variety of sources of information. In England and Wales, the current strategy for offenders with personality disorder places formulation‐led management, generally by probation staff, at its core, but reliability and validity of the process remain unclear. Aims The first aim was to evaluate a checklist previously designed to establish quality of formulation, and the second to measure the impact of training and consultation on the ability of probation officers to formulate cases. Methods The inter‐rater reliability, test–re‐test reliability and internal consistency of the McMurran formulation checklist were calculated from the scores derived from randomised formulations completed by probation officers from fictitious case vignettes. The impact of training was measured by comparing pre‐ and post‐training formulations of these vignettes. Practice cases formulated by probation officers at psychologist‐facilitated consultation meetings over a 6‐month period were used to measure the impact of consultation. All formulations were scored blind by independent experts. Results Inter‐rater reliability, test–re‐test reliability and internal consistency of the scale were all acceptable. Training and practice did not significantly improve the probation officers' formulations. Conclusions The purpose and utility of formulation may vary according to the context in which it is applied. Progress in developing formulation skills may depend on the nature and length of the previous experience of this skill. Future research should take account of such variance, with this scale as a potentially useful aid in monitoring progress. Implications The capacity for teaching formulation to probation officers could be investigated further by comparing the process with formulation development by mental health experts with previously extensive formulation experience. Formulation will probably need to be adapted to meet the needs of the context in which it is developed. The relationship between formulation and management outcome was not investigated here and would be a further important step. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 04, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1890   open full text
  • Structured professional judgement and sequential redirections.
    Quazi Haque, Christopher D. Webster.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 04, 2013
    Background Findings from violence risk assessment prediction‐outcome studies suggest that there is no overall ‘standout’ scheme. Aim This paper aims to highlight that even greater attention is now required on intervention‐focused research. Methods Recent advances in the development of structured professional judgement schemes, such as the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management‐20 (Version 3), are considered when applied to the tasks of refining individual case formulation and risk management planning. The paper also considers social science research relevant to improving interventions aimed at preventing violence and related risks. Results A sequential redirection treatment model is proposed on the basis of our limited understanding of how interventions ‘work’ when applied to mentally disordered offenders. Conclusions and implications for practice Future developments in violence‐reduction interventions will require improved integration between the worlds of research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 04, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1886   open full text
  • Complex forensic case formulation in recovery‐oriented services: Some implications for routine practice.
    Estelle Moore, Gerard Drennan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. October 04, 2013
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    October 04, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1885   open full text
  • Case formulation in personality disordered offenders – A Delphi survey of professionals.
    Birgit Völlm.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 13, 2013
    Background Case formulation (CF) integrates information about an individual to conceptualise the factors causing and maintaining their current difficulties. It is a core clinical skill for both psychologists and psychiatrists. The recent UK government Offender Personality Disorder (PD) Strategy proposes a key role of probation staff in CF. Yet, CF in forensic settings has only recently received research attention, and it is unclear how and by whom it ought to be performed. Aims This study aimed to gain consensus on the key characteristics of CF in PD offenders. Methods We conducted an electronic Delphi survey of experts with a background in psychology or psychiatry. Results Consensus was achieved on who can perform CF, who it should be offered to and the benefits, process, theoretical models and content of CF. A cognitive–behavioural therapy or schema‐focused model was felt to be best suited to inform CF in PD offenders. No agreement was achieved on the assessment of quality of CF. Discussion Our findings support the government's PD strategy in that experts agreed that CF could be performed by professionals other than psychiatrists and psychologists. However, more research is needed on how to best assess the quality of CF and its utility in determining treatment pathways. Clinical implications It may be possible for probation staff to take on a more active role in CF for PD offenders using a cognitive–behavioural or schema‐focused model. However, a significant amount of training will be required for probation staff to acquire the relevant skills. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 13, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1884   open full text
  • Service attachment: The relative contributions of ward climate perceptions and attachment anxiety and avoidance in male inpatients with psychosis.
    Roslyn Campbell, Steven Allan, Patrick Sims.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 06, 2013
    Background It has been suggested that mental health services can help meet the attachment needs of inpatients and improve patient outcomes through the provision of a ‘secure base’; however, what defines the latter is unclear. Perception of ward climate might be a useful indicator. Aim The aim of this study was to examine whether inpatient perceptions of the ward climate, which is partly under the control of the service, or inpatients' own personal levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance are more associated with their attachment to their service. Method Seventy‐six men diagnosed with a psychotic illness, who were residents in one of four regional medium‐security units in England, completed questionnaire measures of service attachment, personal attachment style and ward climate. Results Ward climate was more strongly associated with service attachment than personal levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance. The most important aspect of ward climate for service attachment was the depth and influence of staff support for the inpatients. Conclusions Although patient characteristics are important influences on development of service attachment, ward climate is also important. The latter may be easily and reliably monitored with a brief questionnaire. Strategies to enhance and maintain its positive components are likely to be important for progress with forensic hospital inpatients who have a psychotic illness. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1880   open full text
  • Procedural justice and prisoners' mental health problems: A longitudinal study.
    Karin A. Beijersbergen, Anja J. E. Dirkzwager, Veroni I. Eichelsheim, Peter H. Laan, Paul Nieuwbeerta.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. September 05, 2013
    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross‐sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this study were to examine (1) the longitudinal relationship between prisoners' perceptions of procedural justice – including fairness, respect, humanity and relationships with officers – and their mental health and (2) the moderating role of coping style in this relationship. Methods Data were obtained from the Prison Project, a longitudinal study of adult male prisoners in the Netherlands, interviewed both 3 weeks and 3 months after their reception into pre‐trial detention (N = 824). A cross‐lagged structural equation model was employed to investigate associations. Results Prisoners who reported experiencing a higher level of procedural justice 3 weeks after their arrival in custody reported fewer mental health problems after 3 months. No evidence was found that coping style moderated this relationship. Conclusions These findings suggest a causal relationship between procedural justice and psychological well‐being. Fair and respectful treatment of prisoners is a predictor not only of prison order and prisoners' compliance but also of prisoners' psychological well‐being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 05, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1881   open full text
  • Factor structure of the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema measure of social climate in a UK medium‐security setting.
    Sophia A. Milsom, Mark Freestone, Rachel Duller, Marisa Bouman, Celia Taylor.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 31, 2013
    Background Social climate has an influence on a number of treatment‐related factors, including service users' behaviour, staff morale and treatment outcomes. Reliable assessment of social climate is, therefore, beneficial within forensic mental health settings. The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) has been validated in forensic mental health services in the UK and Germany. Preliminary normative data have been produced for UK high‐security national health services and German medium‐security and high‐security services. Aims We aim to validate the use of the EssenCES scale (English version) and provide preliminary normative data in UK medium‐security hospital settings. Methods The EssenCES scale was completed in a medium‐security mental health service as part of a service‐wide audit. A total of 89 patients and 112 staff completed the EssenCES. Results The three‐factor structure of the EssenCES and its internal construct validity were maintained within the sample. Scores from this medium‐security hospital sample were significantly higher than those from earlier high‐security hospital data, with three exceptions – ‘patient cohesion’ according to the patients and ‘therapeutic hold’ according to staff and patients. Conclusion Our data support the use of the EssenCES scale as a valid measure for assessing social climate within medium‐security hospital settings. Significant differences between the means of high‐security and medium‐security service samples imply that degree of security is a relevant factor affecting the ward climate and that in monitoring quality of secure services, it is likely to be important to apply different scores to reflect standards. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 31, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1878   open full text
  • Predictors of drug use in prison among women convicted of violent crimes.
    Danilo Antonio Baltieri.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 23, 2013
    Background Worldwide, some prisoners consume illicit drugs while in prison. There is now some recognition of risk factors for this among male but not female prisoners. Aim The aim was to identify variables associated with drug use by women in prison after conviction for violent crimes. Method Data were obtained from 315 women serving a sentence for robbery or homicide in the Penitentiary of Sant'Ana, São Paulo State, Brazil. Mainly self‐report assessments of alcohol and drug misuse, sexual and general impulsiveness, depression, and psychosocial and criminological features were completed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Results Thirty‐five (11%) women reported illicit drug use in prison. Younger age, history of childhood sexual abuse, having committed robbery (rather than homicide), earlier onset of criminal activities, higher scores on sexual impulsiveness, drug‐related problems prior to incarceration and having same‐sex relationships inside prison were associated with a higher risk of using drugs in prison. In a multiple logistic regression, only prior drug history and having same‐sex relationships in prison were independently associated with in‐prison drug use. Conclusions Illicit drug use in prison impairs rehabilitative goals. Identification of risk factors for this can help to recognise people with high treatment needs. We found that in‐prison drug users seemed to be an exceptionally needy group, likely to have more wide ranging historical problems than their similar offending peers. It is essential to check for history of drug use outside prison. The strong association with active sexual behaviour in the prison highlighted another area of vulnerability, requiring sensitive in‐prison attention to safeguard these women. Further research to understand the reasons for this relationship is recommended. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1883   open full text
  • Neurocognitive disorders in sentenced male offenders: Implications for rehabilitation.
    Tiina Tuominen, Tapio Korhonen, Heikki Hämäläinen, Satu Temonen, Helena Salo, Jouko Katajisto, Hannu Lauerma.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 21, 2013
    Background Neurocognitive deficits are frequent among male offenders and tend to be associated with a more serious risk of anti‐social activity, but they are not systematically allowed for in rehabilitation programmes. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive performance in a sample of sentenced Finnish male prisoners and consider the implications for prison programme entry. Methods Seventy‐five sentenced male prisoners were examined using a neurocognitive test battery. Results Depending on the neurocognitive domain, from 5% to 49% of the men demonstrated marked neurocognitive deficits in tests of motor dexterity, visuospatial/construction skills, verbal comprehension, verbal and visual memory and attention shift. Verbal IQ was more impaired than performance IQ. There was no association between most serious offence type and neurocognitive performance, but correlations between attention deficit indices and number of previous convictions suggested that recidivists may have an attention disorder profile. Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of offenders, separated by very poor or merely poor cognitive performance. Motor dexterity, visuo‐construction and verbal memory deficits were not wholly explained by lower IQ measures. Conclusions and implications for practice Our sample was small, but the nature and extent of the neurocognitive deficits found suggest that wider use of neurocognitive assessments, which the men generally tolerated well, could help select those most likely to need offender programmes and that the effectiveness of these may be enhanced by some specific cognitive remediation before progressing to more complex social tasks. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 21, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1879   open full text
  • Female‐perpetrated intimate partner violence: An examination of three cases using multiple sequential functional analysis.
    Lyndsay Mappin, David L. Dawson, David M. Gresswell, Kerry Beckley.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 05, 2013
    Background Recent empirical evidence suggests that women assault their intimate partners at approximately the same rate as men. However, a general historical reluctance to acknowledge women as significant perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) has limited clinical understanding of this phenomenon and the processes by which such behaviour may develop. Aim The following paper uses multiple sequential functional analysis (MSFA), an idiographic case formulation method based on functional analysis, to explore the development and functional value of IPV in the case histories of three women. Method Data from comprehensive clinical interviews, file review and collateral professional interviews are synthesised using MSFA to examine the development and maintenance of IPV across each participant's lifespan. Results Although there appeared to be important differences between participants, the analyses broadly indicated that all three participants used violence instrumentally to achieve some aspect of control or coercion over their intimate partners, and to meet their primary intimacy needs. Conclusions The MSFA appears to be a useful methodology for understanding female‐perpetrated IPV and, importantly, may lend itself more readily to effective formulation‐informed interventions than other qualitative‐narrative case methods. The strengths and limitations of MSFA as a pragmatic case formulation method are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 05, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1874   open full text
  • A 30‐year study of homicide recidivism and schizophrenia.
    Andrei Golenkov, Matthew Large, Olav Nielssen.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. August 05, 2013
    Background A second homicide by a released mentally ill person is a potentially avoidable tragedy that can reduce the prospects of conditional release for other mentally ill offenders. Aim The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and criminological features of single and recidivist homicide offenders with schizophrenia from the Chuvash Republic of the Russian Federation. Methods Data were extracted from the criminal and clinical records of all people with schizophrenia who had been convicted of a homicide in the Chuvash Republic at any time between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2010. Those convicted of a second homicide offence during the 30 years of the study were compared with those convicted of a single homicide. Results Sixteen (10.7%) of 149 homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed a previous homicide. The 16 recidivists included nine offenders who were diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first homicide (after January 1981), three who were diagnosed with schizophrenia only after the first homicide and four who had already been diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of a pre‐1981 homicide. Time at risk for recidivists and non‐recidivists differed, but the average time back in the community for the non‐recidivists just exceeded the average time to second homicide for the recidivists. All the recidivists were men. Living in a rural area and dissocial personality traits were associated with homicide recidivism. Conclusions and implications for practice In the Chuvash republic, most of the repeat homicide offences by people with schizophrenia were committed by people residing in rural areas with less access to psychiatric services, which provides indirect evidence for the efficacy of ongoing treatment and supervision in preventing repeat homicides. This area of study is, however, limited by the small numbers of cases and the long follow‐up required. International collaborative studies are indicated to provide a more accurate estimate of the rate of recidivist homicide in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 05, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1876   open full text
  • Cost implications of treatment non‐completion in a forensic personality disorder service.
    Christopher James Sampson, Marilyn James, Nick Huband, Steve Geelan, Mary McMurran.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 23, 2013
    Background A high proportion of individuals admitted to specialist secure hospital services for treatment of personality disorder do not complete treatment. Non‐completion has been associated with poorer treatment outcomes and increased rates of recidivism and hospital readmission, when compared with individuals who do complete treatment or who do not receive treatment at all. Aims In this study, we sought to determine the economic consequences of non‐completion of treatment, using case study data from a secure hospital sample. Both health and criminal justice service perspectives were taken into account. Methods Data were collected from a medium secure hospital personality disorder unit. A probabilistic decision‐analytic model was constructed, using a Markov cohort simulation with 10,000 iterations. The expected cost differential between those who do and those who do not complete treatment was estimated, as was the probability of a cost differential over a 10‐year post‐admission time horizon. Results On average, in the first 10 years following admission, those who do not complete treatment go on to incur £52,000 more in costs to the National Health Service and criminal justice system than those who complete treatment. The model estimates that the probability that non‐completers incur greater costs than completers is 78%. Conclusion It is possible that an improvement in treatment completion rates in secure hospital personality disorder units would lead to some cost savings. This might be achievable through better selection into treatment or improved strategies for engagement and retention. Our study highlights a financial cost to society of individuals discharged from secure hospital care when incompletely treated. We suggest that it could, therefore, be useful for secure hospitals to introduce routine monitoring of treatment completion. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1866   open full text
  • Evaluation of anger management groups in a high‐security hospital.
    Claire Wilson, Stacy Gandolfi, Alison Dudley, Brian Thomas, James Tapp, Estelle Moore.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 23, 2013
    Background Anger management programmes for offenders typically aim to improve the management of emotion associated with aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Such programmes have been quite extensively evaluated in prison and probation settings, but there is less published research in forensic mental health settings. Aim This study aimed to evaluate anger management groups in a high‐security hospital. Method Eighty‐six patients were referred for a 20‐session anger management intervention. Outcomes were self‐reported experiences of anger and changes in institutionally documented incidents of aggression. Incident rates were retrospectively reviewed for all group graduates, where data were available, including a comparison group of graduates who acted as their own controls. Results Group graduates reported sustained reductions in feelings of anger and positive changes in their use of aggression in reaction to provocation. Some reduction in incidents of physical aggression was noted when group completers were compared with non‐completers. Incidents of verbal aggression were observed to increase for graduates. There was also a trend towards improvement when treated men were compared with men on the waiting list. Conclusions Our findings contribute to the growing evidence for anger management groups for aggressive men, although the low‐base rate of incidents, typical of such a containing and therapeutic hospital setting, rendered the analysis of behavioural outcomes difficult. Implications for practice and research Anger management sessions for male forensic psychiatric patients can be effective in reducing incidents of physical aggression in response to provocation. Evaluation of treatments for anger is particularly difficult in secure and protective settings, where the aim is to keep incidents of actual physical aggression to a minimum. Further research of this kind is needed to test the value of self‐reported reduction in angry feelings as an indicator of clinically useful progress. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1873   open full text
  • Psychiatric correlates of past incarceration in the national co‐morbidity study replication.
    Greg A. Greenberg, Robert A. Rosenheck.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 23, 2013
    Background Mental illness and substance abuse have been increasingly linked to criminal justice system involvement, but this relationship has mostly been by survey of prison populations and inferences of excess rates of disorder made by noting how these rates compare with national population‐based surveys of mental disorders. Aims The aim of this study is to examine associations between history of mental disorders, including substance misuse, with incarceration history within a single population‐based data set. Methods Data were from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative household survey of respondents 18 years and older conducted between 5 February 2001 and 7 April 2003. Results Multivariate regression analysis showed the strongest independent risk factors for a history of incarceration were being male [odds ratio (OR) = 6.3; p < 0.001], past receipt of welfare payments (OR = 2.1; p < 0.001), longer than 1 week of past homelessness (OR = 2.1; p < 0.001), not being from the northeast of the USA (OR = 0.31; p < 0.001) and a lifetime substance abuse or dependence diagnosis (OR = 4.9; p < 0.001). With the exception of welfare payments, these measures were also independently associated with longer (27 + days) incarceration. Conclusions The socioeconomic associates of incarceration history were unexpected, and in line with other, differently conducted studies. The fact that only substance misuse disorders of all those assessed were independently associated with incarceration history was a surprise, given the multiplicity of prison surveys, which have shown higher rates of other serious mental disorders. Although we were unable to include measures of schizophrenia or similar psychosis and used impulse control disorders as surrogates for personality disorder, absence of a relationship between depression and incarceration when measured in the same way and over the same time among those previously incarcerated and those not, raises questions about the weight that should be put on the existing epidemiological perspective of mental disorder among prisoners. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1875   open full text
  • Influencing the care pathway for prisoners with acute mental illness.
    Andrew Forrester, Tim Exworthy, Oriana Chao, Karen Slade, Janet Parrott.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 09, 2013
    Background Despite improved mental health services in prisons in England and Wales, there are often delays in transferring acutely mentally ill prisoners to hospital, particularly in the London area. Aim To establish whether clinical pathway interventions can reduce such transfer delays. Methods Two clinical pathway interventions – one based in a medium secure forensic hospital and the other in a remand prison (pre‐trial/sentence) – were independently introduced to manage referrals of prisoners with acute mental illness in London, UK. Time taken to transfer to hospital was measured for each and compared with the best available estimates for time to transfer prior to the new pathways. Results Both interventions produced significant reductions in prison to hospital transfer times. Conclusions/implications for practise The nature of the projects precluded ideal research design, but despite small sample sizes, provision of modestly funded small but dedicated elements of service to target the specified problem of transfer to hospital delays showed a significant advantage for such provision, whether hospital or prison based, psychiatrist or nurse led. Further research is now required to examine the whole pathway. More secure psychiatric beds may be required, at least in the short term, to support diversion policies and enable compliance with national policy directive, and to establish whether redesigned pathways can enhance treatment and behavioural outcomes for acutely mentally ill prisoners on a larger scale. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 09, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1870   open full text
  • Arrests among youth after out‐of‐home mental health treatment: Comparisons across community and residential treatment settings.
    John Robst, Mary Armstrong, Norín Dollard, Lodi Rohrer.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 09, 2013
    Background There are three options in Florida for young people with mental health needs who require out‐of‐home treatment: community‐based group homes, foster families and inpatient group facilities. Prior research has suggested that young people in group settings have poorer criminal justice outcomes, perhaps attributable to negative peer effects in group environments. Aims To compare arrest rates during and after out‐of‐home treatment for youth across the three settings. To test the hypothesis that arrest rates during treatment are independently related to arrest rates after treatment, after allowing for pre‐treatment characteristics and placement type. Methods Florida Medicaid claims data were used to identify children and adolescents in out‐of‐home mental health care from 2003–2007. These were then matched with Florida Department of Juvenile Justice and Law Enforcement records. Propensity score matching was used to allow for observed differences between youth in different treatment settings. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test relationships between arrest rates. Results Unadjusted arrest rates for youth in therapeutic group home care were higher than in psychiatric inpatient units or foster care during and after treatment. Arrests during the treatment episode accounted for a substantial proportion of the difference in arrests after out‐of‐home treatment. After accounting for differences in arrest rates during treatment, the group versus non‐group nature of the treatment setting per se was not a strong determinant of arrest after the treatment episode. Conclusions and implications for practise Attention to the causes of higher arrest rates in group homes, which may include peer contagion and staff policies, could improve outcomes. For youths without a major psychiatric disorder, therapeutic foster care may be better than community‐based group care. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 09, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1871   open full text
  • Possible correlations between the deficient affective experience and negative symptoms of psychosis: An exploratory study in (forensic) psychiatric patients.
    Kris Goethals, Maarten Van Giels, Erol Ekiz, Hjalmar Van Marle.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. July 03, 2013
    Background Deficient affective experience (DAE), the affective and perhaps fundamental component of psychopathy, has some resemblance to the core affective disturbances of schizophrenia. There has, however, been little attempt to test relationships between these concepts, but this could be useful because of the high prevalence of schizophrenia among people in forensic mental health services and evidence that the DAE may be a useful predictor of violent behaviour. Aims Our primary aim was to explore possible correlations between DAE and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and to test the hypotheses that the DAE would differentiate people with and without personality disorder co‐morbidity in a sample with psychosis and, separately, people with main diagnoses of personality disorder or schizophrenia. Method On the basis of an interview and a review of institutional files, DAE total and facet scores were calculated and compared with scores on the negative symptom scale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale among forensic and general psychiatric patients. Partial correlation and rank order coefficients were calculated. Results We found no correlation between total DAE scores and total negative Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores among patients with psychosis, suggesting that the concepts probably do not overlap. Our hypotheses on diagnostic associations with the DAE were partially sustained. DAE scores differentiated psychosis and personality disorder groups but did not differentiate psychosis groups with and without personality pathology. Conclusions and implications This study, using typical clinical samples, suggested that one aspect of the affective disturbance of schizophrenia has little in common with the deficient emotional experience of psychopath. Measurement of DAE is unlikely to help detect co‐morbid personality disorder among people with psychosis, but given our small sample size and the rarity of study in this field, further research would be warranted, perhaps also including a measure of incongruity of affect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 03, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1872   open full text
  • Enhancing treatment engagement in sexual offenders: A pilot study to explore the utility of the Personal Aspirations and Concerns Inventory for Offenders (PACI‐O).
    Joselyn Liza Sellen, Matthew Gobbett, Jacqueline Campbell.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. June 28, 2013
    Background It is essential to improve the motivation of incarcerated sexual offenders to engage in programmes that help lower reoffending rates. The Personal Aspirations and Concerns Inventory for Offenders (PACI‐O) is a semi‐structured interview that helps them to identify what they want to achieve or change in their life. It may improve treatment engagement. Aims The aims of this study were to test use of the PACI‐O as a motivator towards treatment engagement and to test the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of this with sex offenders. Methods Thirty‐seven convicted sex offenders who were due to participate in an Enhanced Thinking Skills programme were randomly assigned to the ‘experimental’ group, who completed the PACI‐O prior to programme entry, or a control group, who completed the programme but not the PACI‐O. All participants completed treatment engagement measures. Results Small positive changes were observed in indicators of treatment motivation and engagement, which were most marked in the small group of offence deniers. The RCT method proved feasible. Conclusions and implications for practice and research Although our sample was small, our preliminary finding indicates that the PACI‐O may provide a cost‐effective method of improving treatment engagement for a hard‐to‐reach group of offenders. Replication with a sample of just over 100 men should offer sufficient power for establishing this technique. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 28, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1868   open full text
  • Distinguishing among weapons offenders, drug offenders, and weapons and drug offenders based on childhood predictors and adolescent correlates.
    Skye Stephens, David M. Day.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. February 22, 2013
    Background Weapons and drug offences incur a large cost to society and tend to be strongly associated. Improved understanding of their antecedents could inform targeted early intervention and prevention programmes. Aim This study aimed to examine differences in criminal careers, childhood predictors and adolescent correlates among weapons‐only offenders, drugs‐only offenders and a versatile group of weapons + drugs offenders. Method We conducted a longitudinal records study of 455 young Canadians charged with drug and/or weapons offences who started their offending in late childhood/early adolescence. Results Consistent with expectation, differences emerged in their criminal careers as the versatile group had a longer criminal career and desisted from offending at a later age than weapons‐only offenders. Against prediction, weapons‐only offenders experienced the greatest number of childhood predictors and adolescent correlates. Conclusion and implications for practice The three offending groups could be differentiated on offending trajectories and developmental factors.In making links between past events and later behaviour, life‐course criminology may inform development of effective early intervention and prevention strategies.As weapons‐only offenders experience the greatest level of adversity in childhood and adolescence, they may benefit most (of these three groups) from early intervention and prevention programmes.A reduction in weapon carrying and use might be achieved by early identification of children risk factors (e.g. family adversity) and appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1857   open full text
  • Re‐offending in forensic patients released from secure care: The role of antisocial/borderline personality disorder co‐morbidity, substance dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder.
    Rick Howard, Lucy McCarthy, Nick Huband, Conor Duggan.
    Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health. January 31, 2013
    Background Research suggests that a particular externalising phenotype, manifested in a developmental trajectory from severe childhood conduct disorder through early‐onset substance abuse to adult antisocial/borderline personality disorder co‐morbidity, may increase risk of antisocial behaviour in general and criminal recidivism in particular. Aim This study aims to test the hypothesis that antisocial/borderline co‐morbidity together with the triad of substance dependence, severe conduct disorder and borderline pathology would result in an increased risk of criminal recidivism. Methods Fifty‐three men who had been assessed and treated in a secure hospital unit were followed up after they had returned to the community. They were assessed for severity of the following: (i) antisocial personality disorder; (ii) borderline personality disorder; (iii) drug/alcohol dependence; and (iv) high Psychopathy Checklist Revised scores (factors 1 and 2). Results Patients with antisocial/borderline co‐morbidity took significantly less time to re‐offend compared with those without such co‐morbidity. Both Psychopathy Checklist Revised factor 2 and the tripartite risk measure significantly predicted time to re‐offence; the former largely accounted for the predictive accuracy of the latter. Conclusion Risk of criminal recidivism can be adequately assessed without recourse to the pejorative term ‘psychopath’. It is sufficient to assess the presence of the three elements of our risk measure: borderline and antisocial personality disorders in the context of drug/alcohol dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder. Practical implications of the study are as follows. (i) Sound assessment of personality, inclusive of a detailed history of childhood conduct disorder as well as adolescent and adult substance misuse, yields good enough information about risk of recidivism without recourse to the pejorative concept of ‘psychopathy’. (ii) Given the high risk of alcohol‐related violence in individuals with antisocial/borderline co‐morbidity, there is a need for specific alcohol‐directed interventions to help such men retain control of their substance use. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 31, 2013   doi: 10.1002/cbm.1852   open full text