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Aggressive Behavior

Impact factor: 2.247 5-Year impact factor: 2.523 Print ISSN: 0096-140X Online ISSN: 1098-2337 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)

Subject: Multidisciplinary Psychology

Most recent papers:

  • The lone gamer: Social exclusion predicts violent video game preferences and fuels aggressive inclinations in adolescent players.
    Alessandro Gabbiadini, Paolo Riva.
    Aggressive Behavior. October 20, 2017
    Violent video game playing has been linked to a wide range of negative outcomes, especially in adolescents. In the present research, we focused on a potential determinant of adolescents’ willingness to play violent video games: social exclusion. We also tested whether exclusion can predict increased aggressiveness following violent video game playing. In two experiments, we predicted that exclusion could increase adolescents’ preferences for violent video games and interact with violent game playing fostering adolescents’ aggressive inclinations. In Study 1, 121 adolescents (aged 10–18 years) were randomly assigned to a manipulation of social exclusion. Then, they evaluated the violent content of nine different video games (violent, nonviolent, or prosocial) and reported their willingness to play each presented video game. The results showed that excluded participants expressed a greater willingness to play violent games than nonviolent or prosocial games. No such effect was found for included participants. In Study 2, both inclusionary status and video game contents were manipulated. After a manipulation of inclusionary status, 113 adolescents (aged 11–16 years) were randomly assigned to play either a violent or a nonviolent video game. Then, they were given an opportunity to express their aggressive inclinations toward the excluders. Results showed that excluded participants who played a violent game displayed the highest level of aggressive inclinations than participants who were assigned to the other experimental conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that exclusion increases preferences for violent games and that the combination of exclusion and violent game playing fuels aggressive inclinations.
    October 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21735   open full text
  • Children's hostile intent attributions and emotional distress: What do parents perceive?
    David A. Nelson, Christine M. Cramer, Sarah M. Coyne, Joseph A. Olsen.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 28, 2017
    Traditionally, assessments of social information processing and associated emotional distress have used children's self‐reports. We posit that additional informants, such as parents, may help illuminate the association between these variables and aggression. Our sample was composed of 222 dual‐parent families of fourth‐grade children (103 boys; 119 girls). Children responded to instrumental and relational provocations and their parents read the same scenarios and responded the way they believed their child would. Peer nominations provided aggression scores. We explored how means differed by provocation type (relational vs. instrumental), informant (mother, father, and child), and gender of child. The results also suggest that parent perceptions may effectively predict children's participation in relational and physical aggression, above and beyond the child's self‐reports.
    September 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21734   open full text
  • Evaluating the heat‐aggression hypothesis: The role of temporal and social factors in predicting baseball related aggression.
    William L. D. Krenzer, Eric D. Splan.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 04, 2017
    We examined the role that season progression and social threats play in the heat‐aggression hypothesis within Major League Baseball put forward by Reifman, Larrick, and Fein (). Box score data from 38,870 Major League Baseball games between the years of 2000 and 2015 was used to test the heat‐aggression relationship, while accounting for temporal and social factors that may be simultaneously exerting influence on player behavior. Controlling for a number of other variables, we observed that the effect of temperature on aggressive behavior is partially contingent on the point of the season in which the game took place. Aggressive behavior was also more likely to occur when teams played divisional (compared to league and inter‐league) rivals, however this relationship was contingent on season progression. We provide potential boundary conditions relating to the heat‐aggression relationship, indicating this may not be a ubiquitous phenomenon.
    September 04, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21726   open full text
  • Depression in early adolescence: Contributions from relational aggression and variation in the oxytocin receptor gene.
    Shauna C. Kushner, Kathrin Herzhoff, Suzanne Vrshek‐Schallhorn, Jennifer L. Tackett.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 04, 2017
    Interpersonal stress arising from relational aggression (RA)—the intentional effort to harm others via rejection and exclusion—may increase risk for depression in youth. Biological vulnerabilities related to the hormone oxytocin, which affects social behavior and stress responses, may exacerbate this risk. In a community sample of 307 youth (52% female; age range = 10–14 years), we tested whether (1) the association between RA and subsequent depressive symptoms was mediated through social problems and (2) a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) moderated this indirect association between RA and depression, where GG homozygotes are predicted to be more sensitive to the effects of social problems than A‐allele carriers. Youth‐reported RA and depressive symptoms were measured using a structured interview and a questionnaire, respectively. DNA was extracted from saliva collected with Oragene kits. Consistent with the interpersonal theory of depression, the association between relational aggression and subsequent depressive symptoms was mediated by social problems. This indirect effect was further moderated by rs53576 genotype, such that GG homozygotes showed a stronger mediation effect than A‐carriers. These results suggest that rs53576 variants confer vulnerability for depression within the context of interpersonal risk factors, such that youth with the GG genotype may be particularly sensitive to the social consequences resulting from RA.
    September 04, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21724   open full text
  • Exposure to nature counteracts aggression after depletion.
    Yan Wang, Yihan She, Stephen M. Colarelli, Yuan Fang, Hui Meng, Qiuju Chen, Xin Zhang, Hongwei Zhu.
    Aggressive Behavior. August 31, 2017
    Acts of self‐control are more likely to fail after previous exertion of self‐control, known as the ego depletion effect. Research has shown that depleted participants behave more aggressively than non‐depleted participants, especially after being provoked. Although exposure to nature (e.g., a walk in the park) has been predicted to replenish resources common to executive functioning and self‐control, the extent to which exposure to nature may counteract the depletion effect on aggression has yet to be determined. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to nature on aggression following depletion. Aggression was measured by the intensity of noise blasts participants delivered to an ostensible opponent in a competition reaction‐time task. As predicted, an interaction occurred between depletion and environmental manipulations for provoked aggression. Specifically, depleted participants behaved more aggressively in response to provocation than non‐depleted participants in the urban condition. However, provoked aggression did not differ between depleted and non‐depleted participants in the natural condition. Moreover, within the depletion condition, participants in the natural condition had lower levels of provoked aggression than participants in the urban condition. This study suggests that a brief period of nature exposure may restore self‐control and help depleted people regain control over aggressive urges.
    August 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21727   open full text
  • Transitions in sleep problems from late adolescence to young adulthood: A longitudinal analysis of the effects of peer victimization.
    Ling‐Yin Chang, Hsing‐Yi Chang, Linen Nymphas Lin, Chi‐Chen Wu, Lee‐Lan Yen.
    Aggressive Behavior. August 31, 2017
    Adolescence is a developmental period with high vulnerability to sleep problems. However, research identifying distinct patterns and underlying determinants of sleep problems is scarce. This study investigated discrete subgroups of, changes in, and stability of sleep problems. We also examined whether peer victimization influenced sleep problem subgroups and transitions in patterns of sleep problems from late adolescence to young adulthood. Sex differences in the effects of peer victimization were also explored. In total, 1,455 male and 1,399 female adolescents from northern Taiwan participated in this longitudinal study. Latent transition analysis was used to examine changes in patterns of sleep problems and the effects of peer victimization on these changes. We identified three subgroups of sleep problems in males and two in females, and found that there was a certain level of instability in patterns of sleep problems during the study period. For both sexes, those with greater increases in peer victimization over time were more likely to change from being a good sleeper to a poor sleeper. The effects of peer victimization on baseline status of sleep problems, however, was only significant for males, with those exposed to higher levels of peer victimization more likely to be poor sleepers at baseline. Our findings reveal an important role of peer victimization in predicting transitions in patterns of sleep problems. Intervention programs aimed at decreasing peer victimization may help reduce the development and escalation of sleep problems among adolescents, especially in males.
    August 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21725   open full text
  • Heightened male aggression toward sexualized women following romantic rejection: The mediating role of sex goal activation.
    Khandis R. Blake, Brock Bastian, Thomas F. Denson.
    Aggressive Behavior. August 03, 2017
    Research from a variety of disciplines suggests a positive relationship between Western cultural sexualization and women's likelihood of suffering harm. In the current experiment, 157 young men were romantically rejected by a sexualized or non‐sexualized woman then given the opportunity to blast the woman with loud bursts of white noise. We tested whether the activation of sexual goals in men would mediate the relationship between sexualization and aggressive behavior after romantic rejection. We also tested whether behaving aggressively toward a woman after romantic rejection would increase men's feelings of sexual dominance. Results showed that interacting with a sexualized woman increased men's sex goals. Heightened sex goal activation, in turn, predicted increased aggression after romantic rejection. This result remained significant despite controlling for the effects of trait aggressiveness and negative affect. The findings suggest that heightened sex goal activation may lead men to perpetrate aggression against sexualized women who reject them.
    August 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21722   open full text
  • A riot on campus: The effects of social identity complexity on emotions and reparative attitudes after ingroup‐perpetrated violence.
    Kristi A. Costabile, Adrienne B. Austin.
    Aggressive Behavior. August 02, 2017
    When a group commits a transgression, members who identify closely with the group often engage in defensive strategies in which they are less likely to experience guilt and shame in response to the transgression than are less identified group members. Subsequently, highly identified group members are often less willing to offer reparations to the injured parties. Because appropriate emotional responses and reparations are critical to community reconciliation, the present investigation examined whether social identity complexity—the degree to which individuals perceive their multiple social identities as interrelated—reduced these defensive responses. In the aftermath of a campus riot, emotional responses and reparative attitudes of undergraduate students were assessed. Results indicated that individuals who closely identified with the university were in fact capable of experiencing guilt and shame, but only if they also had complex social identities. A path model indicated that emotional responses, in turn, predicted willingness to provide reparations to the campus community. Accordingly, social identity complexity provides a new approach to understanding responses to ingroup‐perpetrated violence.
    August 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21723   open full text
  • Being a good or a just teacher: Which experiences of teachers’ behavior can be more predictive of school bullying?
    Matthias Donat, Michel Knigge, Claudia Dalbert.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 30, 2017
    In two cross‐sectional questionnaire studies with N = 2,931 German students, aged between 12 and 17 years (M = 14.1, SD = 0.5), we investigated the relation between students’ bullying behavior and their personal belief in a just world (BJW). We considered students’ personal experience of teacher justice as a possible mediator in this relation and investigated whether the students’ experiences of their teachers’ classroom management explained bullying behavior in addition to personal BJW and teacher justice, while statistically controlling for sex and school type. In both studies, multilevel modeling results showed that the more students endorsed personal BJW and the more they evaluated their teachers’ behavior toward them personally as being just, the less likely they were to report that they bullied others. The students’ personal experience of teacher justice mediated the association of personal BJW with bullying. Furthermore, the students’ personal experience of classroom management significantly predicted bullying in addition to personal BJW and teacher justice. The observed relations were mainly significant at the individual level. The pattern of results persisted when we controlled for school type and when we considered student sex as a moderator. We discussed the adaptive functions of BJW and implications for future school research and practice.
    July 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21721   open full text
  • Aggression‐related brain function assessed with the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm in fMRI.
    Anine P. Skibsted, Sofi da Cunha‐Bang, Justin M. Carré, Adam E. Hansen, Vincent Beliveau, Gitte M. Knudsen, Patrick M. Fisher.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 25, 2017
    The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression‐related brain reactivity including response to provocations and associations with aggression within the paradigm. Twenty healthy participants completed two 12‐min PSAP sessions within the scanner. We evaluated brain responses to aggressive behavior (removing points from an opponent), provocations (point subtractions by the opponent), and winning points. Our results showed significant ventral and dorsal striatal reactivity when participants won a point and removed one from the opponent. Provocations significantly activated the amygdala, dorsal striatum, insula, and prefrontal areas. Task‐related aggressive behavior was positively correlated with neural reactivity to provocations in the insula, the dorsal striatum, and prefrontal areas. Our findings suggest the PSAP within an fMRI environment may be a useful tool for probing aggression‐related neural pathways. Activity in the amygdala, dorsal striatum, insula, and prefrontal areas during provocations is consistent with the involvement of these brain regions in emotional and impulsive behavior. Striatal reactivity may suggest an involvement of reward during winning and stealing points.
    July 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21718   open full text
  • Effects of harsh parenting and positive parenting practices on youth aggressive behavior: The moderating role of early pubertal timing.
    Frances R. Chen, Adrian Raine.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 12, 2017
    Prior research indicates that early pubertal timing is associated with aggressive behavior, particularly in the context of adversity as postulated in the contextual amplification hypothesis. However, few studies have examined harsh parenting as the context for the effect of early pubertal timing. Even fewer studies have tested the interactive effect of early pubertal timing and positive parenting on aggressive behavior. In this study, we tested the proposition that early pubertal timing, contrary to the general conception of it as a vulnerability, indexed susceptibility, and thus early maturing individuals were affected more by their environment in a “for better and for worse” manner. The sample consisted of 411 community‐recruited youth aged 11–12 years (51% boys, 80% African Americans). Participants reported Tanner Stages of pubertal development, aggressive behavior and harsh parenting practice of their parents. Puberty scores were standardized with groups of the same age, sex, and ethnicity, and those that scored the top one‐third were defined as early maturing individuals. Parents reported youth's aggressive behavior and their parenting practices towards the youth, including harsh parenting and positive parenting. Early pubertal timing significantly moderated the relationship between harsh/positive parenting and aggressive behavior. Specifically, harsh parenting was positively associated with aggressive behavior to a larger degree among early maturing individuals than among on‐time/late‐maturing individuals. Positive parenting was inversely associated with aggressive behavior but only among early maturing individuals. This study is the first to document support for early pubertal timing as susceptibility to the environmental influences in relation to aggressive behavior. Theoretical and intervention implications are discussed.
    July 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21720   open full text
  • The object of my aggression: Sexual objectification increases physical aggression toward women.
    Eduardo A. Vasquez, Louisa Ball, Steve Loughnan, Afroditi Pina.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 20, 2017
    Objectification involves reducing someone to a sexual object, rather than seeing them as a full person. Despite numerous theoretical claims that people are more aggressive toward the objectified, and empirical evidence that objectification is linked to high willingness to aggress, rape proclivity, and aggressive attitudes, no research has examined a causal link between objectification and physical aggression, particularly in the context of provocation. In two experiments, we examined this predicted link. In Experiment 1, using a 2 (objectification: no/yes) × 2 (provocation: no/yes) factorial between‐subjects design, we investigated the effects of objectification, induced via body focus during a face‐to‐face interaction, and provocation on physical aggression toward a female confederate. Our results revealed a significant main effect of provocation, a marginal main effect of objectification, and a significant interaction between these variables. In the absence of a provocation, focusing on a woman's body increased aggression toward her. Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 using a video of a target woman instead of a face‐to‐face interaction. Again, our results showed a significant two‐way interaction between objectification and provocation, wherein objectification increased aggression in the absence of provocation. Overall, this research indicates that objectification can lead to heightened physical aggression toward objectified women.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21719   open full text
  • Effortful control, exposure to community violence, and aggressive behavior: Exploring cross‐lagged relations in adolescence.
    Concetta Esposito, Dario Bacchini, Nancy Eisenberg, Gaetana Affuso.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 11, 2017
    Self‐regulation processes and violent contexts play an important role in predicting adolescents’ aggressive behavior; less clear is how all three constructs are linked to each other over time. The present study examined the longitudinal relations among adolescents’ self‐reported effortful control (EC), exposure to community violence, both as a witness and as a victim, and aggressive behavior. Participants were 768 Italian adolescents (358 males) living in a high‐risk context, with a mean age at T1 of 11 years in the younger cohort and 14 years in the older cohort. In a four‐wave cross‐lagged panel design, low EC was a strong predictor of aggressive behavior across each time point, whereas aggressive behavior was found to positively predict adolescents’ violence exposure both as witnesses and victims. Some evidence of transactional relations was also found between adjustment problems and exposure to community violence and between EC and externalizing problems. Moreover, EC was indirectly related to exposure to violence through externalizing problems, and mediated the relation of witnessing community violence to aggression, thus supporting the view that top‐down regulatory processes play a complex role in the development of violence and other externalizing problems. The importance of considering interventions that take in account these complex relations is discussed.
    June 11, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21717   open full text
  • Child and adolescent risk factors that differentially predict violent versus nonviolent crime.
    Carla B. Kalvin, Karen L. Bierman.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 08, 2017
    While most research on the development of antisocial and criminal behavior has considered nonviolent and violent crime together, some evidence points to differential risk factors for these separate types of crime. The present study explored differential risk for nonviolent and violent crime by investigating the longitudinal associations between three key child risk factors (aggression, emotion dysregulation, and social isolation) and two key adolescent risk factors (parent detachment and deviant peer affiliation) predicting violent and nonviolent crime outcomes in early adulthood. Data on 754 participants (46% African American, 50% European American, 4% other; 58% male) oversampled for aggressive‐disruptive behavior were collected across three time points. Parents and teachers rated aggression, emotion dysregulation, and social isolation in fifth grade (middle childhood, age 10–11); parents and youth rated parent detachment and deviant peer affiliation in seventh and eighth grade (early adolescence, age 12–14) and arrest data were collected when participants were 22–23 years old (early adulthood). Different pathways to violent and nonviolent crime emerged. The severity of child dysfunction in late childhood, including aggression, emotion dysregulation, and social isolation, was a powerful and direct predictor of violent crime. Although child dysfunction also predicted nonviolent crime, the direct pathway accounted for half as much variance as the direct pathway to violent crime. Significant indirect pathways through adolescent socialization experiences (peer deviancy) emerged for nonviolent crime, but not for violent crime, suggesting adolescent socialization plays a more distinctive role in predicting nonviolent than violent crime. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
    June 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21715   open full text
  • Differences in the early stages of social information processing for adolescents involved in bullying.
    Alexa Guy, Kirsty Lee, Dieter Wolke.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 07, 2017
    Bullying victimization has commonly been associated with deficiencies in social information processing (SIP). In contrast, findings regarding bullying perpetration are mixed, with some researchers claiming that bullies may have superior SIP abilities than victimized or uninvolved youth. This study investigated the effects of bullying and victimization on early SIP; specifically the recognition and interpretation of social information. In stage 1, 2,782 adolescents (11–16 years) were screened for bullying involvement, and in stage 2, 723 of these participants (mean age = 13.95) were assessed on measures of emotion recognition, hostile attribution bias, and characterological self‐blame (CSB). No associations between bullying and early SIP were found. In contrast, victimization was associated with more hostile attribution bias and CSB attributions. Girls performed better than boys on the emotion recognition task while boys showed greater hostile attribution biases. No interaction effects of bullying or victimization with gender were found. Follow‐up categorical analyses that considered pure victims versus victims who also bullied (bully‐victims) on SIP, found a similar pattern of findings. These findings suggest that those who purely bully others are neither superior nor deficient in the early stages of SIP. Victimized adolescents, however, show biases in their interpretations of social situations and the intentions of others. These biases may lead to maladaptive responses and may increase risk for further victimization by peers.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21716   open full text
  • Effects of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior: A moderated mediation analysis.
    Yan Ge, Qian Zhang, Wenguo Zhao, Kan Zhang, Weina Qu.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 29, 2017
    To explore the effect of anger behind the wheel on driving behavior and accident involvement has been the subject of many studies. However, few studies have explored the interaction between anger and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior. This study is a moderated mediation analysis of the effect of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on driving behavior. A sample of 303 drivers was tested using the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The results showed that trait anger and driving anger were positively correlated with dangerous driving behavior. Driving anger partially mediated the effect of trait anger on dangerous driving behavior. Driving experience moderated the relationship between trait anger and driving anger. It also moderated the effect of driving anger on dangerous driving behavior. These results suggest that drivers with more driving experience may be safer as they are not easily irritated during driving.
    May 29, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21712   open full text
  • Feeling unrestricted by rules: Ostracism promotes aggressive responses.
    Kai‐Tak Poon, Fei Teng.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 26, 2017
    The current research consisted of three studies (overall N = 338; 59 men; mean age = 19.98; SD = 1.75), which aimed to examine whether ostracism promotes aggression through enhanced feelings of rule negligence by adopting a multi‐method approach. Participants were undergraduate students in a public university in Hong Kong and they only participated in one of the three studies. The results showed that ostracized participants reported higher levels of rule negligence and aggression than non‐ostracized participants (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, enhanced feelings of rule negligence significantly mediated the relation between ostracism and aggression (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, priming ostracized people with the importance of following social rules weakened the effect of ostracism on aggression (Study 3). In sum, these findings highlight the critical influence of rule negligence in understanding when and why ostracism promotes aggression and how to diminish such an effect. Implications were discussed.
    May 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21714   open full text
  • Your act is worse than mine: Perception bias in revenge situations.
    Maartje Elshout, Rob M. A. Nelissen, Ilja van Beest.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 26, 2017
    Theoretical reflections suggest that avengers and targets of revenge have self‐serving perception biases when judging the severity of revenge acts and preceding offenses. Empirical research investigating such biases has so far focused on either the offense or the revenge act and may have confounded a perception bias with a situational selection bias (i.e., avengers and targets selecting different events in self‐serving ways, so that there may be actual, as opposed to perceptual, differences in severity). The current research circumvents this shortcoming by empirically investigating this perception bias by assessing avengers’ and targets’ severity scores of both the offense and the revenge act, and comparing these scores with severity scores of independent raters. Results show that although there is a situational selection bias, there is also a perception bias for both avengers and targets: Both avengers and targets believe that the other person's act is worse than their own act. This perception bias may explain the existence of perpetuating revenge cycles.
    May 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21713   open full text
  • Female undergraduate's perceptions of intrusive behavior in 12 countries.
    Lorraine Sheridan, Adrian J. Scott, John Archer, Karl Roberts.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 15, 2017
    The present study examines young women's (N = 1,734) perceptions of the unacceptability of 47 intrusive activities enacted by men. Female undergraduate psychology students from 12 countries (Armenia, Australia, England, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Scotland, Trinidad) indicated which of 47 intrusive activities they considered to be unacceptable. Responses were compared with parasite‐stress values, a measure of global gender equality and Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures. There was no unanimous agreement on any of the items, even for those relating to forced sexual violence. Cluster analysis yielded four clusters: “Aggression and surveillance” (most agreement that the constituent items were unacceptable), “Unwanted attention,” “Persistent courtship and impositions,” and “Courtship and information seeking” (least agreement that the constituent items were unacceptable). There were no significant relationships between the “Aggression and surveillance” or “Courtship and information seeking” clusters and the measure of gender equality, Hofstede's dimensions of national cultures or the measure of parasite stress. For the “Unwanted attention” and “Persistent courtship and impositions” clusters, women residing in countries with higher gender inequality and higher parasite‐stress were less accepting of behavior associated with uncommitted sexual relations, and women in more individualistic societies with higher levels of gender equality were less accepting of monitoring activities. Culture may take precedence over personal interpretations of the unacceptability of intrusive behavior that is not obviously harmful or benign in nature.
    May 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21711   open full text
  • Resource partitioning in tolerant and intolerant macaques.
    Nancy Rebout, Christine Desportes, Bernard Thierry.
    Aggressive Behavior. April 27, 2017
    The clumped distribution of food resources promotes food defensibility and can lead to the monopolizing of resources by high‐ranking individuals. However, the balance of power is set at different levels according to societies, meaning that resource partitioning should vary between them. This study investigates whether dominance asymmetry and resource partitioning are related in non‐human primates by comparing two species with contrasting social styles, namely rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) which display strong social intolerance and a steep gradient of dominance, and Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana), which exhibit higher levels of tolerance and more balanced dominance relationships. Study groups were kept in semi‐free ranging conditions. Animals were provided with fruit in three different clumped conditions during 30‐min trials. We found that higher‐ranking rhesus macaques had priority for the access to fruit: these individuals spent longer in the feeding area in the first 10‐min period of trials, while lower‐ranking individuals had diminished access to fruit under the most clumped condition; this was associated with sustained agonistic interactions. Dominance effects were weaker in Tonkean macaques. They exhibited co‐feeding between high‐ and low‐ranking individuals in the first period; there was no significant effect of dominance even in the most clumped condition; and frequencies of agonistic interactions remained moderate relative to the number of individuals present in the feeding area. These results show that food resources were more equitably distributed among group members in tolerant macaques than in their intolerant counterparts. Dominance gradient and social tolerance may be considered as two aspects of the same phenomenon.
    April 27, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21709   open full text
  • Piecing together the aggression puzzle: Testing the mediating variables linking early to later aggression.
    Christopher P. Barlett, Kaitlyn M. Helmstetter, Douglas A. Kowalewski, Logan Pezzillo.
    Aggressive Behavior. April 19, 2017
    Results from several studies show that early aggression predicts later aggression; however, few studies have examined the mediating mechanisms in these relations. The paucity of research that has tested mediation found that aggressive motives and hostile attributions are important causal processes. This past work is limited by not measuring aggression multiple times throughout the study to test aggression change over time and the variables that mediate such change. The current study had participants (N = 90) interact with a same‐sex confederate on a modified version of the Tangram Task—our measure of aggressive behavior—for three trials. At each trial, participants completed a measure of aggressive motivations, assigned tangram puzzles for their partner to solve, were provoked (or not) by their ostensible partner, and then completed an assessment of aggressive attributions regarding their partner's behavior. Results showed that, for provoked participants, the relation between Time 1 aggressive attributions predicted Time 3 aggressive behavior through the following temporal mediated pathway: Time 2 aggressive attributions, Time 2 aggressive behavior, and Time 3 aggressive motivations.
    April 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21710   open full text
  • Peer victimization and changes in physical and relational aggression: The moderating role of executive functioning abilities.
    Julia D. McQuade.
    Aggressive Behavior. April 10, 2017
    This study is the first to examine whether executive functioning (EF) abilities moderate longitudinal associations between peer victimization and engagement in physically and relationally aggressive behavior. Participants were 61 children (9–13 years, M = 10.68, SD = 1.28; 48% male) drawn from a partially clinical sample who were assessed at two time points, approximately 12 months apart. At time 1, children were administered a battery of EF tests; adult reports of children's relational and physical victimization and use of relational and physical aggression were collected. At time 2, adult‐reported aggression was re‐collected. Regression analyses tested whether EF ability moderated the association between peer victimization and increased engagement in aggression. Form‐specific (e.g., physical victimization predicting physical aggression) and cross‐form (e.g., physical victimization predicting relational aggression) models were tested. EF moderated the association between physical victimization and increases in physical aggression over time and between relational victimization and increases in relational aggression over time. Physical victimization predicted increases in physical aggression only among children with poor EF. However, relational victimization predicted increases in relational aggression for children with good EF skills but decreases in relational aggression for children with poor EF skills. Interaction effects for cross‐form models were not significant. Results suggest that there are distinct risk factors implicated in children's engagement in physical and relational aggression. Established cognitive vulnerability models for engagement in physical aggression should not be assumed to apply to engagement in relational aggression.
    April 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21708   open full text
  • Discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences and later internalizing and externalizing behavior: A prospective study.
    Soonjo Hwang, Young Shin Kim, Yun‐Joo Koh, Somer Bishop, Bennett L. Leventhal.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 22, 2017
    Discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences may lead to later internalizing or externalizing behavior in adolescents. A 1,663 South Korean 7th and 8th graders (mean age: 13.1 and 14.1 years old), were seen for a follow‐up study to examine the relationships between the discrepancy in perception of their bullying experiences (defined as discrepancy between self‐ and peer‐reports of bullying experiences) and internalizing or externalizing behavior at follow‐up. Bullying was assessed by self‐ and peer‐report. The discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences was defined by the concordance or discordance between self‐ and peer‐reports. Internalizing and externalizing behavior was evaluated using the Youth Self Report and Child Behavior Checklist, at baseline and follow‐up. Two by two ANCOVA was performed with a factorial design, categorizing discrepancy in perception of bullying experiences based on the agreement between self‐report and peer‐report. Internalizing/externalizing behavior‐at‐follow‐up was used as an outcome, adjusting for other known risk factors for internalizing/externalizing behavior, including baseline internalizing/externalizing behavior, and bullying experiences. Adolescents with perceptions of bullying experiences discrepant from peer‐reports showed increased internalizing/externalizing behavior at follow‐up. Bullying also stands out as an independent risk factor for the development of future externalizing behavior even among adolescents with accurate perceptions of bullying experiences. These specific groups of youth warrant more focused assessment and intervention.
    March 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21707   open full text
  • The efficacy of teachers’ responses to incidents of bullying and victimization: The mediational role of moral disengagement for bullying.
    Kristel Campaert, Annalaura Nocentini, Ersilia Menesini.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 20, 2017
    Teachers respond differently to bullying and victimization. Socio‐cognitive and moral domain theory suggest that students process teachers’ behavior cognitively and that teachers’ responses to incidents of bullying and victimization could affect students’ level of moral disengagement. We examined the mediating effect of students’ moral disengagement between types of teachers’ responses to situations of bullying and victimization and individual bullying using multilevel mediation modelling. Participants were 609 students (50% boys, age M = 11.47, SD = 1.14) of central Italy, nested in 34 classes. Students rated the frequency of self‐reported bullying and of teachers’ responses to incidents of bullying and victimization on a 5‐point Likert scale. Teachers’ responses to bullying included non‐intervention, mediation, group discussion, and sanctions. Teachers’ responses to victimization included non‐intervention, mediation, group discussion, and victim support. Results indicated that in the teachers’ responses to incidents of bullying model, a significant indirect effect of non‐intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.01, .05]) and of sanctions (β = −.02; 95%CI [−.04, −.01]) on bullying through moral disengagement was found at the individual level. Similarly, in the model on teachers’ responses toward victims there was a significant indirect effect through moral disengagement of non‐intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.02, .04]) and victim support (β = −.01; 95%CI [−.02, −.001]). At the class level there were no significant indirect effects. In sum, results indicated that moral disengagement is an important mediator at the individual level and suggest including teachers in anti‐bullying interventions with a specific focus on their role for moral development.
    March 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21706   open full text
  • Prospective associations between peer victimization and social‐psychological adjustment problems in early childhood.
    Kimberly E. Kamper‐DeMarco, Jamie M. Ostrov.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 15, 2017
    The present short‐term longitudinal study examined prospective associations between two forms of peer victimization (i.e., physical, relational) and both externalizing and internalizing problems in early childhood. The study assessed 97 children (42 girls; M age = 45.22 months, SD = 6.99) over the course of one school year with assessments occurring at the end of each semester (approximately 6 months apart). Multiple methods were used to collect data over the course of one school year to test theoretically driven hypotheses. Cross‐lagged path analyses were conducted, revealing significant associations between relational victimization and increases in depressive symptoms. On the other hand, relational victimization was also significantly associated with decreases in externalizing problems (e.g., inattention, deception/lying) and increases in prosocial behavior. Physical aggression predicted increases in physical victimization, supporting hypotheses that children displaying physically aggressive behavior are likely to be reactive to negative peer interactions and endure future victimization.
    March 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21705   open full text
  • The facial width‐to‐height ratio determines interpersonal distance preferences in the observer.
    Klara A. Lieberz, Sabine Windmann, Shawn N. Geniole, Cheryl M. McCormick, Meike Mueller‐Engelmann, Felix Gruener, Pia Bornefeld‐Ettmann, Regina Steil.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 06, 2017
    Facial width‐to‐height ratio (fWHR) is correlated with a number of aspects of aggressive behavior in men. Observers appear to be able to assess aggressiveness from male fWHR, but implications for interpersonal distance preferences have not yet been determined. This study utilized a novel computerized stop‐distance task to examine interpersonal space preferences of female participants who envisioned being approached by a man; men's faces photographed posed in neutral facial expressions were shown in increasing size to mimic approach. We explored the effect of the men's fWHR, their behavioral aggression (measured previously in a computer game), and women's ratings of the men's aggressiveness, attractiveness, and masculinity on the preferred interpersonal distance of 52 German women. Hierarchical linear modelling confirmed the relationship between the fWHR and trait judgements (ratings of aggressiveness, attractiveness, and masculinity). There were effects of fWHR and actual aggression on the preferred interpersonal distance, even when controlling statistically for men's and the participants’ age. Ratings of attractiveness, however, was the most influential variable predicting preferred interpersonal distance. Our results extend earlier findings on fWHR as a cue of aggressiveness in men by demonstrating implications for social interaction. In conclusion, women are able to accurately detect aggressiveness in emotionally neutral facial expressions, and adapt their social distance preferences accordingly.
    March 06, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21704   open full text
  • Metacognitive beliefs and rumination as predictors of anger: A prospective study.
    Gabriele Caselli, Alessia Offredi, Francesca Martino, Davide Varalli, Giovanni M. Ruggiero, Sandra Sassaroli, Marcantonio M. Spada, Adrian Wells.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 23, 2017
    The metacognitive approach conceptualizes the relationship between anger and rumination as driven by metacognitive beliefs, which are information individuals hold about their own cognition and about coping strategies that impact on it. The present study aimed to test the prospective predictive impact of metacognitive beliefs and rumination on anger in a community sample. Seventy‐six participants were recruited and engaged in a 2‐week anger, rumination, and metacognitive beliefs monitoring protocol. A multi‐wave panel design was employed to test whether metacognitive beliefs and rumination have a prospective impact on anger. Metacognitive beliefs and rumination were found to have a significant prospective impact on anger that was independent from the number of triggering events. Metacognitive beliefs about the need to control thoughts were shown to have a direct impact on subsequent anger, independently from rumination. These findings provide support for the potential value for applying metacognitive theory and therapy to anger‐related problems. Aggr. Behav. 43:421–429, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21699   open full text
  • Anxiety symptoms as a moderator of the reciprocal links between forms of aggression and peer victimization in middle childhood.
    John L. Cooley, Andrew L. Frazer, Paula J. Fite, Shaquanna Brown, Moneika DiPierro.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 20, 2017
    The current short‐term longitudinal study evaluated whether anxiety symptoms moderated the bidirectional associations between forms (i.e., physical and relational) of aggression and peer victimization over a 1‐year period during middle childhood. Participants were 228 predominantly Caucasian children (50.4% boys; M = 8.32 years, SD = .95 years) in the second through fourth grades and their homeroom teachers. Children completed a self‐report measure of anxiety symptoms at Time 1. Peer victimization was assessed using self‐reports at Time 1 and approximately 1 year later (Time 2), and teachers provided ratings of children's aggressive behavior at both time points. A series of cross‐lagged path analysis models indicated that high (+1 SD) initial levels of anxiety symptoms exacerbated the prospective link from Time 1 relational aggression to Time 2 peer victimization; conversely, when initial levels of anxiety symptoms were low (−1 SD), relational aggression predicted lower levels of subsequent peer victimization. Time 1 peer victimization was also found to predict lower levels of Time 2 physical aggression when initial levels of anxiety symptoms were low, and Time 1 anxiety symptoms were uniquely related to higher levels of relational aggression over a 1‐year period. Regions of significance were calculated to further decompose significant interactions, which did not differ according to gender. Study findings are discussed within a social information processing theoretical framework, and directions for future research and implications for practice are reviewed. Specifically, co‐occurring anxiety symptoms may need to be addressed in interventions for both aggression and peer victimization during middle childhood.
    February 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21703   open full text
  • Longitudinal relations between children's cognitive and affective theory of mind with reactive and proactive aggression.
    Gina Austin, Rebecca Bondü, Birgit Elsner.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 20, 2017
    Aggression may be performed for different reasons, such as defending oneself (reactive aggression) or to reach egoistic aims (proactive aggression). It is a widely accepted notion that a lack of theory of mind (ToM) as a basic social competence should be linked to higher aggression, but findings on the developmental links between ToM and different functions of aggression have been inconsistent. One reason for this may be the failure of taking the bi‐dimensionality of both ToM (cognitive vs. affective) and aggression (reactive vs. proactive) into account. In addition, the direction of effect remains unclear because longitudinal studies examining the mutual influences of both constructs are rare. Because research on ToM has focused on the preschool years, little is known about its development in middle childhood. Therefore, the present study examined the bi‐directional developmental links of cognitive and affective ToM with reactive and proactive aggression in a longitudinal study in N = 232, 6‐ to 9‐year‐olds. Two points of measurement with a delay of about 1 year were conducted, and data were analyzed via cross‐lagged structural equation modeling (SEM), controlling for age, gender, and information processing. In general, early ToM predicted later functions of aggression, but not vice versa. Cognitive and affective ToM were inversely related to later reactive aggression, but only affective but not cognitive ToM was inversely related to later proactive aggression. These findings emphasize the importance of ToM for the occurrence of aggression and of taking the bi‐dimensionality of both constructs into account when investigating their developmental links across childhood.
    February 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21702   open full text
  • Generalized hostile interpretation bias regarding facial expressions: Characteristic of pathological aggressive behavior.
    Danique Smeijers, Mike Rinck, Erik Bulten, Thom van den Heuvel, Robbert‐Jan Verkes.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 12, 2017
    Individuals with aggression regulation disorders tend to attribute hostility to others in socially ambiguous situations. Previous research suggests that this “hostile attribution bias” is a powerful cause of aggression. Facial expressions form important cues in the appreciation of others’ intentions. Furthermore, accurate processing of facial expressions is fundamental to normal socialization. However, research on interpretation biases in facial affect is limited. It is asserted that a hostile interpretation bias (HIB) is likely to be displayed by individuals with an antisocial (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and probably also with an intermittent explosive disorder (IED). However, there is little knowledge to what extent this bias is displayed by each of these patient groups. The present study investigated whether a HIB regarding emotional facial expressions was displayed by forensic psychiatric outpatients (FPOs) and whether it was associated with ASPD and BPD in general or, more specifically, with a disposition to react with pathological aggression. Participants of five different groups were recruited: FPOs with ASPD, BPD, or IED, non‐forensic patients with BPD (nFPOs‐BPD), and healthy, non‐aggressive controls (HCs). Results suggest that solely FPOs with ASPD, BPD, or IED exhibit a HIB regarding emotional facial expressions. Moreover, this bias was associated with type and severity of aggression, trait aggression, and cognitive distortions. The results suggest that a HIB regarding facial expressions is an important characteristic of pathological aggressive behavior. Interventions that modify the HIB might help to reduce the recurrence of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 43:386–397, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21697   open full text
  • Psychological processes in young bullies versus bully‐victims.
    Anouk van Dijk, Astrid M. G. Poorthuis, Tina Malti.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 08, 2017
    Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves (“bully‐victims”) whereas others are not victimized themselves (“bullies”). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully‐victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully‐victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This “distinct processes hypothesis” was contrasted with the “shared processes hypothesis,” predicting that bullies and bully‐victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4–9) were classified as bully, bully‐victim, or noninvolved using peer‐nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false‐belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher‐reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully‐victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully‐victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully‐victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21701   open full text
  • Do attachment patterns predict aggression in a context of social rejection? An executive functioning account.
    Yuanxiao Ma, Haijing Ma, Xu Chen, Guangming Ran, Xing Zhang.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 07, 2017
    People tend to respond to rejection and attack with aggression. The present research examined the modulation role of attachment patterns on provoked aggression following punishment and proposed an executive functioning account of attachment patterns’ modulating influence based on the General Aggression Model. Attachment style was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationships inventory. Experiments 1a and b and 2 adopted a social rejection task and assessed subsequent unprovoked and provoked aggression with different attachment patterns. Moreover, Experiment 1b and 2 used a Stroop task to examine whether differences in provoked aggression by attachment patterns are due to the amount of executive functioning following social rejection, or after unprovoked punishment, or even before social rejection. Anxiously attached participants displayed significant more provoked aggression than securely and avoidantly attached participants in provoked aggression following unprovoked punishment in Experiments 1 and 2. Meanwhile, subsequent Stroop tests indicated anxiously attached participants experienced more executive functioning depletion after social rejection and unprovoked aggression. The present findings support the General Aggression Model and suggest that provoked aggression is predicted by attachment patterns in the context of social rejection; different provoked aggression may depend on the degree of executive functioning that individuals preserved in aggressive situations. The current study contributes to our understanding of the importance of the role of attachment patterns in modulating aggressive behavior accompanying unfair social encounters.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21700   open full text
  • Maternal depression and intimate partner violence exposure: Longitudinal analyses of the development of aggressive behavior in an at‐risk sample.
    Megan R. Holmes, Susan Yoon, Kristen A. Berg.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 27, 2017
    A substantial body of literature has documented the negative effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on a wide range of children's developmental outcomes. However, whether a child's exposure to IPV leads to increased adjustment difficulties is likely to depend on a variety of factors, including the caregiver's mental health and the developmental time period when IPV exposure occurs. The present study seeks to improve our understanding of the long‐term effects of IPV exposure and maternal depression on the development of children's overt aggressive behavior. Longitudinal analyses (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) examining three time points (toddler: age 2–3 years, preschool/kindergarten: age 4–5 years, and elementary school: age 6–8 years) were conducted using 1,399 at‐risk children drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well‐Being (NSCAW‐I). IPV exposure during age 2–3 years was significantly related to concurrent aggressive behavior and aggressive behavior during age 4–5 years. At all three time points, IPV was significantly associated with maternal depression, which in turn, was significantly related to higher levels of aggressive behavior. There was also a significant indirect lagged effect of IPV exposure at age 2–3 years through maternal depression on aggressive behavior at age 4–5 years. Results indicated that maternal depression was a strong predictor of increased reports of overt aggressive behavior, suggesting that interventions to buffer the effects of IPV exposure should focus on relieving maternal depression and fostering productive social behavior in children. Aggr. Behav. 43:375–385, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 27, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21696   open full text
  • Does an aggressor's target choice matter? Assessing change in the social network prestige of aggressive youth.
    Naomi C. Z. Andrews, Laura D. Hanish, Carlos E. Santos.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 17, 2017
    Based on a social dominance approach, aggression is conceptualized as a strategy used to gain position, power, and influence within the peer network. However, aggression may only be beneficial when targeted against particular peers; both victims’ social standing and the number of victims targeted may impact aggressors’ social standing. The current study examined associations between aggressors’ targeting tendencies (victims’ social standing and number of victims) and aggressors’ own social standing, both concurrently and over time. Analyses were conducted using three analytic samples of seventh and eighth grade aggressors (Ns ranged from 161 to 383, 49% girls; 50% Latina/o). Participants nominated their friends; nominations were used to calculate social network prestige. Peer nominations were used to identify aggressors and their victim(s). For each aggressor, number of victims and victims’ social network prestige were assessed. Aggressors with more victims and with highly prestigious victims had higher social network prestige themselves, and they increased more in prestige over time than aggressors with fewer victims and less prestigious victims (though there were some differences across analytic samples). Findings have implications for the need to extend the social dominance approach to better address the links between aggressors and victims. Aggr. Behav. 43:364–374, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21695   open full text
  • Violence involvement among nightlife patrons: The relative role of demographics and substance use.
    Trond Nordfjærn.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 12, 2017
    The nightlife setting is a risk context for violence involvement that ultimately may cause severe injuries and fatalities. Few studies have examined associations between alcohol and illicit substance use with physical violence involvement among nightlife patrons. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relative role of demographics and substance use characteristics for nightlife violence involvement among Norwegian nightlife patrons. A cross‐sectional self‐completion survey was conducted outside 12 licensed premises in Oslo (n = 1099, response rate = 76%) and each respondent's BAC level was measured by a breathalyzer and registered on the questionnaire. A total of 103 individuals (10%) reported that they had been involved in physical violence when they were consuming alcohol in the nightlife setting during the last 12 months. Uni‐variate results showed that patrons who had been involved in violence were more likely to present a BAC level above 1.00‰ than those who had not been involved. The prevalence of last year illicit substance use was overall high, especially in the violence‐involved group. The most important factors associated with violence involvement in multivariate analysis were a high frequency of last year alcohol intoxication and last year illicit substance use. Women and those with high education had a lower risk of violence involvement. The implications for preventive initiatives are that these need to focus on factors additional to alcohol restrictions. Preventive efforts targeted to specific patron groups and measures targeting patrons who are more likely to use illicit substances may hold promise. Aggr. Behav. 43:398–407, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ab.21698   open full text
  • Two sides to the story: Adolescent and parent views on harmful intention in defining school bullying.
    Hannah J. Thomas, Jason P. Connor, Chantelle M. Baguley, James G. Scott.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 20, 2016
    Bullying is defined as repeated negative actions involving a power differential, and intention to harm. There is limited research on harmful intention as a definitional component. This study explored the role of the perpetrator's harmful intention and the target's perception of harmful intention. Some 209 students (M = 14.5 years; 66.5% female) and 447 parents (M = 46.4 years; 86.4% female) were randomly assigned in an online survey. Participants assessed the likelihood of bullying in five hypothetical scenarios (physical, verbal, rumor, exclusion, and cyber) across five intention conditions, that also involved repetition and a power differential. The five intention conditions were: 1) harm intended by perpetrator (I) and perceived as intended to harm by target (I) [II condition]; 2) harm not intended by perpetrator (N) but perceived as intended to harm by target (I) [NI condition]; 3) harm intended by perpetrator (I) but not perceived as intended to harm by target (N) [IN condition]; 4) harm not intended by perpetrator (N) and not perceived as intended to harm by target N [NN condition]; and 5) a control which did not state any actual or perceived harmful intention [C condition]. For students and parents, the perpetrator's harmful intention and the target's perception of harmful intention were important when considering whether a peer interaction constituted bullying. These findings confirm the applicability of the three‐part definition of bullying, and highlight the importance of assessing these two dimensions of harmful intention when determining whether a problematic peer interaction should be regarded as bullying. Aggr. Behav. 43:352–363, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21694   open full text
  • The bidirectional associations between state anger and rumination and the role of trait mindfulness.
    Ashley Borders, Shou‐En Lu.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 05, 2016
    Rumination is associated with exacerbated angry mood. Angry moods may also trigger rumination. However, research has not empirically tested the bidirectional associations of state rumination and anger, as experience sampling methodology can do. We predicted that state anger and rumination would be bi‐directionally associated, both concurrently and over time, even controlling for trait anger and rumination. In addition, because mindfulness is associated with rumination and anger at the bivariate level, we examined the effect of trait mindfulness on the bidirectional association between state rumination and anger. We examined two hypotheses: (i) state rumination mediates the effect of trait mindfulness on state anger; and (ii) trait mindfulness weakens, or moderates, the bidirectional associations between state rumination and anger. In an experience‐sampling study, 200 college students reported their current ruminative thinking and angry mood several times a day for 7 days. Mixed model analyses indicated that state anger and rumination predicted each other concurrently. In cross‐lagged analyses, previous anger did not uniquely predict current rumination; previous rumination predicted current anger, although the effect was small. In support of our hypothesis, state rumination mediated the association between trait mindfulness and state anger. Additionally, trait mindfulness moderated the concurrent and cross‐lagged associations between state rumination and anger, although the results were complex. This study contributes new information about the complex interplay of rumination and anger. Findings also add support to the theory that mindfulness decreases emotional reactivity. Aggr. Behav. 43:342–351, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 05, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21693   open full text
  • Relation between social information processing and intimate partner violence in dating couples.
    Sarah Setchell, Patti Timmons Fritz, Jillian Glasgow.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 05, 2016
    We used couple‐level data to predict physical acts of intimate partner violence (IPV) from self‐reported negative emotions and social information‐processing (SIP) abilities among 100 dating couples (n = 200; mean age = 21.45 years). Participants read a series of hypothetical conflict situation vignettes and responded to questionnaires to assess negative emotions and various facets of SIP including attributions for partner behavior, generation of response alternatives, and response selection. We conducted a series of negative binomial mixed‐model regressions based on the actor‐partner interdependence model (APIM; Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006, Dyadic data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press). There were significant results for the response generation and negative emotion models. Participants who generated fewer coping response alternatives were at greater risk of victimization (actor effect). Women were at greater risk of victimization if they had partners who generated fewer coping response alternatives (sex by partner interaction effect). Generation of less competent coping response alternatives predicted greater risk of perpetration among men, whereas generation of more competent coping response alternatives predicted greater risk of victimization among women (sex by actor interaction effects). Two significant actor by partner interaction effects were found for the negative emotion models. Participants who reported discrepant levels of negative emotions from their partners were at greatest risk of perpetration. Participants who reported high levels of negative emotions were at greatest risk of victimization if they had partners who reported low levels of negative emotions. This research has implications for researchers and clinicians interested in addressing the problem of IPV. Aggr. Behav. 43:329–341, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 05, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21692   open full text
  • A multifaceted risk analysis of fathers’ self‐reported physical violence toward their children.
    Noora Ellonen, Kirsi Peltonen, Tarja Pösö, Staffan Janson.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 23, 2016
    Existing research has shown that child maltreatment is carried out by both mothers and fathers. There is also an extensive body of literature analyzing reasons for mothers’ violent behavior. Among fathers, reasons are less well studied, resulting in the lack of a comprehensive picture of paternal child abuse. In this study, 20 child‐, parent‐, and family‐related factors have been included in a combined analysis to assess which of these may pose a risk for fathers’ severe violent behavior toward their children. The study is based on merged data from Finland and Sweden, in which an anonymous survey was answered by parents, based on representative samples of parents with 0–12‐year‐old children. The merged data set included 679 fathers and analyses were carried out using logistic regression models. Six percent of the fathers had committed severe violent acts, that is, slapped, hit, punched, kicked, bit, hit/tried to hit their child with an object or shook (under 2‐year‐old) their child at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Corporal punishment experienced by the fathers when they were children, or used by the father as a method of discipline, strongly increased the likelihood of severe violent acts. The findings emphasize the importance of preventing all forms of corporal punishment in seeking to minimize the occurrence of severe physical violence by fathers toward their children. Aggr. Behav. 43:317–328, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 23, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21691   open full text
  • A randomized controlled trial of a brief versus standard group parenting program for toddler aggression.
    Lucy A. Tully, Caroline Hunt.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 17, 2016
    Physical aggression (PA) in the toddler years is common and developmentally normal, however, longitudinal research shows that frequent PA is highly stable and associated with long‐term negative outcomes. Significant research has demonstrated the efficacy of parenting interventions for reducing externalizing behavior in children yet their typical length may overburden families, leading to low participation rates and high attrition rates. To increase the reach of parenting interventions and impact on the prevalence of externalizing behavior problems, brief interventions are needed. This RCT compared a standard (8 session) group Triple P to a brief (3 session) discussion group and a waitlist control for reducing toddler PA, dysfunctional parenting and related aspects of parent functioning. Sixty‐nine self‐referred families of toddlers with PA were randomized to the respective conditions. At post‐assessment, families in the standard intervention had significantly lower levels of observed child aversive behavior, mother reports of PA and dysfunctional parenting, and higher levels of mother‐ and partner‐rated behavioral self‐efficacy than the waitlist control. Families in the standard intervention also had significantly lower levels mother‐rated dysfunctional parenting than the brief intervention, and the brief intervention had significantly lower levels of mother‐rated dysfunctional parenting than waitlist. There were no significant group differences at post‐assessment for measures of parental negative affect or satisfaction with the partner relationship. By 6 month follow‐up, families in the brief and standard intervention did not differ significantly on any measure. The implications of the findings to delivery of brief parenting interventions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:291–303, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21689   open full text
  • Bullying participant roles and gender as predictors of bystander intervention.
    Lyndsay N. Jenkins, Amanda B. Nickerson.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 11, 2016
    Although the importance of peer bystanders in bullying has been recognized, there are few studies that examine the phenomenon in relation to Latané and Darley's (1970) classic Bystander Intervention Model, which states that there are five stages of bystander intervention: (i) notice the event; (ii) interpret the event as an emergency that requires assistance; (iii) accept responsibility for intervening; (iv) know how to intervene or provide help; and (v) implement intervention decisions. This study examined preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the Bystander Intervention Model in Bullying (Nickerson, Aloe, Livingston, & Feeley, 2014), and the extent to which bullying role behavior (bullying, assisting, victimization, defending, and outsider behavior) and gender predicted each step of the model with a sample of 299 middle school students. Results of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported a five‐factor structure of the measure corresponding to the steps of the model. There was evidence of convergent validity and Cronbach alpha for each subscale exceeded .75. In addition, students who reported defending their peers were more likely to also engage in all five steps of the bystander intervention model, while victims were more likely to notice events, and outsiders were less likely to intervene. Gender differences and gender interactions were also found. Aggr. Behav. 43:281–290, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21688   open full text
  • The effects of environmental resource and security on aggressive behavior.
    Henry Kin Shing Ng, Tak Sang Chow.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 11, 2016
    Exposure to different environments has been reported to change aggressive behavior, but previous research did not consider the underlying elements that caused such an effect. Based on previous work on environmental perception, we examined the role of environmental resource and security in altering aggression level. In three experiments, participants were exposed to environments that varied in resource (High vs. Low) and security (High vs. Low) levels, after which aggression was measured. The environments were presented through visual priming (Experiments 1–2) and a first‐person gameplay (Experiment 3). We observed a consistent resource‐security interaction effect on aggression, operationalized as the level of noise blast (Experiment 1) and number of unpleasant pictures (Experiments 2–3) delivered to strangers by the participants. High resource levels associated with higher aggression in insecure conditions, but lower aggression in secure conditions. The findings suggest that the adaptive value of aggression varies under different environmental constraints. Implications are discussed in terms of the effects of adverse environments on aggression, and the nature's effects on social behavior. Aggr. Behav. 43:304–314, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21690   open full text
  • Teacher attunement to peer‐nominated aggressors.
    Molly Dawes, Chin‐Chih Chen, Sharon K. Zumbrunn, Meera Mehtaji, Thomas W. Farmer, Jill V. Hamm.
    Aggressive Behavior. October 25, 2016
    This study examined the associations between teacher attunement to aggressive students and students’ characteristics in a sample (n = 278) of youth in 5th‐grade classrooms with the assumption that certain student characteristics may either prime or hinder teachers’ attunement to aggressive students. Teacher attunement was measured as the agreement between teacher‐ and peer‐nominations for students who start fights. Teachers rated their students on the following characteristics: academic competence, affiliation, popularity, internalizing behavior, and Olympian qualities. Higher affiliation, popularity, and internalizing behavior were associated with decreased odds for teacher attunement to aggressive youth. Higher Olympian qualities were associated with increased odds for teacher attunement to aggressive youth. Implications for interventions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:263–272, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    October 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21686   open full text
  • Violent behavior among military reservists.
    Jamie Kwan, Margaret Jones, Lisa Hull, Simon Wessely, Nicola Fear, Deirdre MacManus.
    Aggressive Behavior. October 24, 2016
    Large numbers of British and American Reservists have been deployed to operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Little is known about the impact of deployment and combat exposure on violent behavior in Reservists. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of self‐reported violent behavior among a representative sample of United Kingdom Reservists, the risk factors associated with violence and the impact of deployment and combat exposure on violence. This study used data from a large cohort study of randomly selected UK military personnel and included Reservists who were in service at the time of sampling (n = 1710). Data were collected by questionnaires that asked about socio‐demographic and military characteristics, pre‐enlistment antisocial behavior, deployment experiences, post‐deployment mental health, and self‐reported interpersonal violent behavior. The prevalence of violence among Reservists was 3.5%. Deployment was found to be a risk factor for violent behavior even after adjustment for confounders. The association with violence was similar for those deployed in either a combat role or non‐combat role. Violence was also strongly associated with mental health risk factors (PTSD, common mental disorders, and alcohol misuse). This study demonstrated higher levels of self‐reported post‐deployment violence in UK Reservists who had served in either Iraq or Afghanistan. Deployment, irrespective of the role was associated with higher levels of violent behavior among Reservists. The results also emphasize the risk of violent behavior associated with post‐deployment mental health problems. Aggr. Behav. 43:273–280, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    October 24, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21687   open full text
  • On the role of dominance and nurturance in the confluence model: A person‐centered approach to the prediction of sexual aggression.
    Stefan J. Troche, Philipp Yorck Herzberg.
    Aggressive Behavior. October 24, 2016
    Malamuth's (1998) confluence model holds that the combination of hostile masculinity, impersonal sexuality, and the constellation of high dominance and low nurturance plays a crucial role in explaining men's sexual aggression against women. Most studies on the confluence model concentrate on hostile masculinity and impersonal sexuality rather than dominance and nurturance. Using a person‐centered approach, we investigated whether sexual aggressive men could be better identified in a sample of 692 men when not only hostile masculinity and impersonal sexuality but also dominance and nurturance were used as indicators in a latent profile analysis. Regardless of whether dominance and nurturance were considered or not, latent profile analyses revealed a high‐risk group, which showed higher sexual aggression than other groups. In both cases, the sensitivity (i.e., the proportion of sexually aggressive men correctly assigned to the high‐risk group) was low (33% and 31%, respectively) but increased substantially for the identification of severe sexual aggression. The positive prediction value, however, increased from 68% to 78% when dominance and nurturance were considered as predictor variables in addition to hostile masculinity and impersonal sexuality, indicating that more men assigned to the high‐risk group were indeed sexually aggressive. These results demonstrate the power of the confluence model for identifying sexually aggressive men from a person‐centered perspective. They also point to the necessity of expanding this perspective by considering further (e.g., situational) risk factors, which have previously been identified as predicting sexually aggressive behavior in men. Aggr. Behav. 43:251–262, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    October 24, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21685   open full text
  • Neural correlates of proactive and reactive aggression in adolescent twins.
    Yaling Yang, Shantanu H. Joshi, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M. Thompson, Laura A. Baker.
    Aggressive Behavior. October 21, 2016
    Verbal and physical aggression begin early in life and steadily decline thereafter in normal development. As a result, elevated aggressive behavior in adolescence may signal atypical development and greater vulnerability for negative mental and health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that brain disturbances in regions involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, and sensation seeking may contribute to heightened aggression. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying subtypes of aggression (i.e., proactive and reactive aggression) and whether they differ between males and females. Using a sample of 106 14‐year‐old adolescent twins, this study found that striatal enlargement was associated with both proactive and reactive aggression. We also found that volumetric alterations in several frontal regions including smaller middle frontal and larger orbitofrontal cortex were correlated with higher levels of aggression in adolescent twins. In addition, cortical thickness analysis showed that thickness alterations in many overlapping regions including middle frontal, superior frontal, and anterior cingulate cortex and temporal regions were associated with aggression in adolescent twins. Results support the involvement of fronto‐limbic‐striatal circuit in the etiology of aggression during adolescence. Aggr. Behav. 43:230–240, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21683   open full text
  • Physical and relational bullying and victimization: Differential relations with adolescent dating and sexual behavior.
    Andrew V. Dane, Zopito A. Marini, Anthony A. Volk, Tracy Vaillancourt.
    Aggressive Behavior. October 17, 2016
    Taking an evolutionary psychological perspective, we investigated whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator or victim was more likely if adolescents reported having more dating and sexual partners than their peers, an indication of greater engagement in competition for mates. A total of 334 adolescents (173 boys, 160 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16 years (M = 13.6, SD = 1.3), recruited from community youth organizations, completed self‐report measures of physical and relational bullying and victimization, as well as dating and sexual behavior. As predicted, pure physical bullying was positively associated with the number of dating and sexual partners, primarily for adolescent boys. Adolescent girls with more dating partners had greater odds of being relational bully‐victims, in line with predictions. Finally, adolescent girls with more sexual partners were at greater risk of being physically victimized by peers, and greater involvement with dating and sexual partners was associated with higher odds of being a physical bully‐victim. Results are discussed with respect to evolutionary theory and research in which adolescent boys may display strength and athleticism through physical bullying to facilitate intersexual selection, whereas relational bullying may be employed as a strategy to engage in intrasexual competition with rivals for mates. Aggr. Behav. 43:111–122, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    October 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21667   open full text
  • The role of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards in committing violence during combat: A cross‐sectional study with former combatants in the DR Congo.
    Roos Haer, Katharin Hermenau, Thomas Elbert, James K. Moran, Tobias Hecker.
    Aggressive Behavior. October 17, 2016
    It has been postulated that the violent behavior that characterizes armed conflict is reinforced by the possibility of receiving rewards. The present study examined the potential influence of two types of rewards in an ongoing setting of conflict: extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Former combatants active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (N = 198) were interviewed and questioned about the way they were recruited, the offenses they committed during combat, their level of perceived intrinsic rewards (i.e., appetitive perception of violence), and the number of received extrinsic rewards during their time in the armed group (e.g., money, extra food, alcohol, or drugs). A moderated multiple regression analysis showed that the number of received extrinsic rewards and the level of intrinsic rewards were significantly positively related to the number of different types of offenses committed. In contrast to our expectations and previous findings, the recruitment type (forced conscription vs. voluntary enlistment) did not moderate this relation. Our findings suggest that both types of rewards play a role in committing violence during combat. We suggest, therefore, that reintegration programs should not only consider the influence of extrinsic rewards, but also need to address the influence of intrinsic rewards to counter violent behavior among former combatants. Aggr. Behav. 43:241–250, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    October 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21684   open full text
  • Helping and hurting others: Person and situation effects on aggressive and prosocial behavior as assessed by the Tangram task.
    Muniba Saleem, Christopher P. Barlett, Craig A. Anderson, Ian Hawkins.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 14, 2016
    The Tangram Help/Hurt Task is a laboratory‐based measure designed to simultaneously assess helpful and hurtful behavior. Across five studies we provide evidence that further establishes the convergent and discriminant validity of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task. Cross‐sectional and meta‐analytic evidence finds consistently significant associations between helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Task and prosocial and aggressive personality traits. Experimental evidence reveals that situational primes known to induce aggressive and prosocial behavior significantly influence helpful and hurtful scores on the Tangram Help/Hurt Task. Additionally, motivation items in all studies indicate that tangram choices are indeed associated with intent of helping and hurting. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the Tangram Help/Hurt Task relative to established measures of helpful and hurtful behavior. Aggr. Behav. 43:133–146, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21669   open full text
  • What is past is prologue: A population‐based case‐control study of repeat victimization, premature mortality, and homicide.
    William Alex Pridemore, Mark T. Berg.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 14, 2016
    We examined risk of male premature mortality associated with recent criminal victimization. Prior victimization is among the most consistent predictors of future risk but the explanation of repeat victimization remains elusive. Two general perspectives frame this debate. According to the state‐dependence perspective, repeat victimization is forged through intervening processes connecting an initial with a subsequent violent victimization. According to the risk‐heterogeneity perspective, this association is spurious because all victimization events for a person result from underlying individual traits. Research on health outcomes and premature mortality provides related, but often overlooked, conceptual assumptions about the co‐occurring health burden of preventable injuries and disease. We extend and apply each of these perspectives in the current study to assess the nature and sources of repeat violent victimization. Data were from the Izhevsk (Russia) Family Study, a large‐scale population‐based case‐control study. Cases (n = 1750) were all male deaths aged 25–54 living in Izhevsk between October 2003 and October 2005. Controls (n = 1750) were randomly selected from a city population register. Key independent variables were prior year prevalence of violent, property, and residential victimization. We used logistic regression to estimate mortality odds ratios. Results provided evidence for state dependence. We found that (i) after controlling for indicators of risk heterogeneity men who had been victims of violence (but not property or residential crime) within the past year were 2.6 times more likely than those who had not to die prematurely; and (ii) the only type of death for which risk was higher was homicide. Aggr. Behav. 43:176–189, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21673   open full text
  • Unanimous versus partial rejection: How the number of excluders influences the impact of ostracism in children.
    Marlene J. Sandstrom, Marike H. F. Deutz, Tessa A. M. Lansu, Tirza H. J. van Noorden, Johan C. Karremans, Antonius H. N. Cillessen.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 14, 2016
    Previous research has shown that ostracism—the experience of being ignored and excluded—has negative effects on all of us, young and old. Using a Cyberball paradigm, the present research replicates the effects of ostracism on the moods (anger, anxiety, happiness, and anger) and fundamental needs (belongingness, control, meaningful existence, and self‐esteem) of children (Study 1) and then extends the literature by examining the role of the number of ostracizers and inclusive members in this process by randomly assigning children to conditions varying in degree of ostracism (Study 2). Results of both studies showed that experiencing ostracism strongly and negatively affected all moods and fundamental needs—with the exception of anxiety. Study 2 in addition showed that the ratio of excluders to inclusive group members had different effects across outcomes. In all cases, complete ostracism produced the worst outcomes, suggesting that the presence of even a single ally reduces children's distress. For sadness, unanimous ostracism seemed particularly toxic. In some cases, facing two ostracizers produced significantly worse outcomes than only one, suggesting that consensual rejection might drive the negative effects on happiness, and sense of belonging, control, and meaningful existence. For self‐esteem, only one ostracizer (in the presence of two inclusive members) was sufficient to induce a negative effect. Aggr. Behav. 43:190–203, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21674   open full text
  • Predicting aggression in adolescence: The interrelation between (a lack of) empathy and social goals.
    Babette C. M. van Hazebroek, Tjeert Olthof, Frits A. Goossens.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 14, 2016
    In an attempt to explain the inconsistent findings and overall weak relation between empathy and aggression, we focused on the role of emotional empathy (emotions of concern, compassion or sympathy toward a (potential) victim), agentic goals (the desire to be dominant during social interaction with peers) and their interplay (mediation or moderation) in the prediction of proactive aggression (learned instrumental behavior) in adolescence. Data were collected from 550 young Dutch adolescents, who filled out multiple questionnaires. Findings showed that the link between a lack of empathic concern and proactive aggression is partly mediated and moderated by agentic goals. The moderation analyses showed that the predictive value of a lack of empathic concern with regard to proactive aggression was greater when adolescents reported a stronger desire to be dominant in social situations with peers. In addition, the findings supported the assumption that the relation between empathic concern and reactive aggression (a hostile and angry response to perceived provocation) is not mediated or moderated by agentic goals. Findings were discussed in terms of their implications for future research. Aggr. Behav. 43:204–214, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21675   open full text
  • An ERP study on hostile attribution bias in aggressive and nonaggressive individuals.
    Jean Gagnon, Mercédès Aubin, Fannie Carrier Emond, Sophie Derguy, Alex Fernet Brochu, Monique Bessette, Pierre Jolicoeur.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 14, 2016
    Hostile attribution bias (e.g., tendency to interpret the intention of others as hostile in ambiguous social contexts) has been associated with impulsive aggression in adults, but the results are mixed and the complete sequence of hostile inferential processes leading to aggression has not been investigated yet. The goal of this event‐related brain potentials (ERPs) study was to track the neural activity associated with the violation of expectations about hostile versus nonhostile intentions in aggressive and nonaggressive individuals and examine how this neural activity relates to self‐reported hostile attributional bias and impulsive aggression in real life. To this end, scenarios with a hostile versus nonhostile social context followed by a character's ambiguous aversive behavior were presented to readers, and ERPs to critical words that specified the hostile versus nonhostile intent behind the behavior were analysed. Thirty‐seven aggressive and fifty nonaggressive individuals participated in the study. The presentation of a critical word that violated hostile expectation caused an N400 response that was significantly larger in aggressive than nonaggressive individuals. Results also showed an enhanced late positive potential‐like component in aggressive individuals when hostile intention scenarios took place in a nonhostile context, which is associated with impulsive aggression in real life even after having controlled for the effect of self‐reported hostile attributional bias. The Hostile Expectancy Violation paradigm evaluated in this study represents a promising tool to investigate the relationship between the online processing of hostile intent in others and impulsive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 43:217–229, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21676   open full text
  • Do the same risk and protective factors influence aggression toward partners and same‐sex others?
    Elizabeth A. Bates, John Archer, Nicola Graham‐Kevan.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 07, 2016
    The current studies examined whether several risk and protective factors operate similarly for intimate partner violence (IPV) and same‐sex aggression (SSA) in the same sample, and to assess whether they show similar associations for men and women. Study 1 (N = 345) tested perceived benefits and costs, and instrumental and expressive beliefs about aggression: perceived costs predicted IPV and SSA for both men and women. Expressive beliefs predicted IPV (more strongly for women), and instrumental beliefs predicted SSA. Study 2 (N = 395) investigated self‐control, anxiety and empathy, finding that self‐control strongly predicted both types of aggression in both sexes. Study 3 (N = 364) found that primary psychopathy (involving lack of anxiety) was associated with IPV for men and SSA in both sexes, whereas secondary psychopathy (involving lack of self‐control) was associated with IPV and SSA in both sexes. Overall there were both similarities and differences in the risk factors associated with IPV and SSA, and for men and women. The implications of the findings for theoretical debates about the study of IPV are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:163–175, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21672   open full text
  • Examining the reactive proactive questionnaire in adults in forensic and non‐forensic settings: A variable‐ and person‐based approach.
    Suzanne Brugman, Liza J. M. Cornet, Danique Smeijers, Kirsten Smeets, Sanne Oostermeijer, Jan K. Buitelaar, Robbert‐Jan Verkes, Jill Lobbestael, Catharina H. de Kogel, Lucres M. C. Jansen.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 07, 2016
    The Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) was originally developed to assess reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in children. Nevertheless, some studies have used the RPQ in adults. This study examines the reliability of the RPQ within an adult sample by investigating whether reactive and proactive aggression can be distinguished at a variable‐ and person‐based level. Male adults from forensic samples (N = 237) and from the general population (N = 278) completed the RPQ questionnaire. Variable‐based approaches, including factor analyses, were conducted to verify the two‐factor model of the RPQ and to examine alternative factor solutions of the 23 items. Subsequently, a person‐based approach, i.e., Latent Class Analysis (LCA), was executed to identify homogeneous classes of subjects with similar profiles of aggression in the observed data. The RPQ proved to have sufficient internal consistency. Multiple‐factor models were examined, but the original two‐factor model was statistically and theoretically considered as most solid and in line with previous research. The multi‐level LCA identified three different classes of aggression severity (class 1 showed low aggressive behavior; class 2 subjects displayed modest aggression levels; and class 3 exhibited the highest level of aggressive behavior). In addition, class 1 and 2 showed more reactive than proactive aggression, whereas class 3 displayed comparable levels of reactive/proactive aggression. The RPQ appears to have clinical relevance for adult populations in the way that it can distinguish severity levels of aggression. Before the RPQ is implemented in adult populations, norm scores need to be developed. Aggr. Behav. 43:155–162, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21671   open full text
  • Predicting cyberbullying perpetration in emerging adults: A theoretical test of the Barlett Gentile Cyberbullying Model.
    Christopher Barlett, Kristina Chamberlin, Zachary Witkower.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 07, 2016
    The Barlett and Gentile Cyberbullying Model (BGCM) is a learning‐based theory that posits the importance of positive cyberbullying attitudes predicting subsequent cyberbullying perpetration. Furthermore, the tenants of the BGCM state that cyberbullying attitude are likely to form when the online aggressor believes that the online environment allows individuals of all physical sizes to harm others and they are perceived as anonymous. Past work has tested parts of the BGCM; no study has used longitudinal methods to examine this model fully. The current study (N = 161) employed a three‐wave longitudinal design to test the BGCM. Participants (age range: 18–24) completed measures of the belief that physical strength is irrelevant online and anonymity perceptions at Wave 1, cyberbullying attitudes at Wave 2, and cyberbullying perpetration at Wave 3. Results showed strong support for the BGCM: anonymity perceptions and the belief that physical attributes are irrelevant online at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 cyberbullying attitudes, which predicted subsequent Wave 3 cyberbullying perpetration. These results support the BGCM and are the first to show empirical support for this model. Aggr. Behav. 43:147–154, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21670   open full text
  • Do beliefs about gender roles moderate the relationship between exposure to misogynistic song lyrics and men's female‐directed aggression?
    Courtland S. Hyatt, Danielle S. Berke, Joshua D. Miller, Amos Zeichner.
    Aggressive Behavior. August 16, 2016
    Although independent lines of research have identified misogynistic lyrical content and traditional gender role beliefs as reliable predictors of men's female‐directed aggression, more research is needed to understand the extent to which these variables may function in synthesis to potentiate aggression. In the current study, men (N = 193), who completed questionnaires relevant to their conformity to masculine norms and level of hostile and benevolent sexism, were exposed to either misogynistic or neutral lyrics before having the opportunity to shock an ostensible female confederate in a bogus reaction time task that, in effect, measured aggression. Results indicated that misogynistic lyrics and hostile sexism significantly predicted both unprovoked and provoked aggression against a female target. Contrary to expectations, moderating effects of gender role beliefs on the relationship between misogynistic lyrics and men's aggression were not found. Implications are discussed in terms of the costs of misogyny in media for women's lives. Aggr. Behav. 43:123–132, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21668   open full text
  • Emotion and aggressive intergroup cognitions: The ANCODI hypothesis.
    David Matsumoto, Hyisung C. Hwang, Mark G. Frank.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 13, 2016
    Previous research has suggested an important role for the emotion of hatred in intergroup aggression. Recent theoretical and empirical work has strongly suggested that the combination of anger, contempt, and disgust (ANCODI) comprise the basic elements of hatred, and are the key emotions associated with intergroup aggression. No study, however, has provided evidence that these emotions cause hostile cognitions about specific groups. We report two studies that provide initial evidence. In both, participants were members of ideologically motivated groups and were primed with ANCODI. In Study 1 participants primed with ANCODI produced more aggressive cognitions relative to their opponent outgroup than a neutral outgroup; this effect did not occur for participants primed with fear‐sadness. In Study 2 participants primed with ANCODI engaged in more competitive decision making against their opponent outgroups than a neutral outgroup; this effect did not occur for participants primed with disgust only. These findings contribute to the literature on the role of emotion in intergroup aggression and hostility, and provide a more nuanced view of the role of emotions in intergroup relations, possibly identifying the basic emotional elements of hatred. Aggr. Behav. 43:93–107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    July 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21666   open full text
  • Illuminating the dual‐hormone hypothesis: About chronic dominance and the interaction of cortisol and testosterone.
    Stefan Pfattheicher.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 13, 2016
    The dual‐hormone hypothesis suggests that testosterone is positively associated with status‐seeking tendencies such as aggression and dominance, particularly in individuals with low levels of cortisol. Although recent research supports the dual‐hormone hypothesis, its boundary conditions under which the dual‐hormone interaction is likely to emerge are not clearly understood. In the present study (N = 153), the dual‐hormone hypothesis was empirically tested in the context of an economic game that included a decision whether to dominate another individual. We also examined whether the dual‐hormone interaction is more likely to be found in individuals who are chronically prone to dominance tendencies. Results revealed a significant testosterone × cortisol interaction in line with the dual‐hormone hypothesis. Additionally, the testosterone × cortisol interaction was only significant in individuals with a high level of chronic dominance. Overall, the present work suggests that chronic personality tendencies should be taken into account in order to explore (the boundary conditions) of hormone‐behavior associations. Aggr. Behav. 43:85–92, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    July 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21665   open full text
  • Development of a social emotional information processing assessment for adults (SEIP‐Q).
    Emil F. Coccaro, Jennifer Fanning, Royce Lee.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 20, 2016
    An expanded self‐report, vignette‐based, questionnaire was developed to assess five components in a social emotional information processing model (SEIP: attribution, emotional response, response valuation, outcome expectancy, response efficacy, and response enactment), first in a population‐based sample (n = 250) and, second in healthy control participants (n = 50) and in those with DSM‐5 Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED: n = 50). SEIP‐Q vignettes depict, separately, both overtly aggressive and relationally aggressive as well as socially ambivalent scenarios. This expanded SEIP‐Q assessment demonstrated good internal reliability, as well as convergent and discriminant validity, for all five SEIP components. IED participants differed from healthy controls in all SEIP‐Q components. This expanded SEIP‐Q assessment is thus proposed as a reliable and valid method for studying the various stages of SEIP in adult human subjects. Aggr. Behav. 43:47–59, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    June 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21661   open full text
  • Disentangling functions of online aggression: The Cyber‐Aggression Typology Questionnaire (CATQ).
    Kevin C. Runions, Michal Bak, Thérèse Shaw.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 09, 2016
    Aggression in online contexts has received much attention over the last decade, yet there is a need for measures identifying the proximal psychological drivers of cyber‐aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to present data on the newly developed Cyber‐Aggression Typology Questionnaire (CATQ) designed to distinguish between four distinct types of cyber‐aggression on dimensions of motivational valence and self‐control. A sample 314 undergraduate students participated in the study. The results confirmed the predicted four‐factor structure providing evidence for distinct and independent impulsive‐aversive, controlled‐aversive, impulsive‐appetitive, and controlled‐appetitive cyber‐aggression types. Further analyses with the Berlin Cyberbullying Questionnaire, Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, and the Behavior Inhibition and Activation Systems Scale provide support for convergent and divergent validity. Understanding the motivations facilitating cyber‐aggressive behavior could aid researchers in the development of new prevention and intervention strategies that focus on individual differences in maladaptive proximal drivers of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 43:74–84, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21663   open full text
  • Measuring individual differences in responses to date‐rape vignettes using latent variable models.
    Antover P. Tuliao, Lesa Hoffman, Dennis E. McChargue.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 09, 2016
    Vignette methodology can be a flexible and powerful way to examine individual differences in response to dangerous real‐life scenarios. However, most studies underutilize the usefulness of such methodology by analyzing only one outcome, which limits the ability to track event‐related changes (e.g., vacillation in risk perception). The current study was designed to illustrate the dynamic influence of risk perception on exit point from a date‐rape vignette. Our primary goal was to provide an illustrative example of how to use latent variable models for vignette methodology, including latent growth curve modeling with piecewise slopes, as well as latent variable measurement models. Through the combination of a step‐by‐step exposition in this text and corresponding model syntax available electronically, we detail an alternative statistical “blueprint” to enhance future violence research efforts using vignette methodology. Aggr. Behav. 43:60–73, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21662   open full text
  • The relationship between physical aggression, foreign policy and moral choices: Phenotypic and genetic findings.
    Rose McDermott, Peter K. Hatemi.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 31, 2016
    Previous work has demonstrated that both leaders and other individuals vary in dispositional levels of physical aggression, which are genetically influenced. Yet the importance of individual differences in aggression for attitudes toward foreign policy or context‐laden moral choices, such as sacrificing the lives of some for the greater good of many, has yet to be fully explored. Given the global importance of such decisions, we undertook this exploration in a sample of 586 Australians, including 250 complete twin pairs. We found that individuals who scored higher on Buss–Perry's physical aggression scale were more likely to support aggressive foreign policy interventions and displayed a more utilitarian moral calculus than those who scored lower on this scale. Furthermore, we found that the majority of variance in physical aggression lay in genetic factors for men, whereas the majority of the variance was in environmental factors for women. The source of covariation between aggression and political choices also differed between the sexes. A combination of genetic and environmental factors accounted for most of the cross‐trait correlations among males, whereas common and unique environmental factors accounted for most of the cross‐trait correlations among females. We consider the implications of our results for understanding how trait measures of aggression are associated with foreign policy and moral choices, providing evidence for why and how individuals differ in responding to complex social dilemmas. Aggr. Behav. 43:37–46, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 31, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21660   open full text
  • How do different dimensions of adolescent narcissism impact the relation between callous‐unemotional traits and self‐reported aggression?
    Lauren M. Lee‐Rowland, Christopher T. Barry, Christopher T. A. Gillen, Laura K. Hansen.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 02, 2016
    The current study examined the moderating influence that different aspects of narcissism have on the relation between callous‐unemotional (CU) traits and aggression in a sample of 720 adolescents (500 males), ages 16–19 enrolled in a 22‐week residential program. Findings from the two studies revealed that psychopathy‐linked narcissism as assessed by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Antisocial process screening device. Toronto: Multi‐Health Systems.) and vulnerable narcissism as assessed using the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009; Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365–379) significantly moderated the relation between CU traits and aggression in adolescents. Conversely, non‐pathological narcissism assessed by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory for Children (NPIC; Barry, Frick, & Killian, 2003; The relation of narcissism and self‐esteem to conduct problems in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 139–152) and PNI grandiose narcissism did not significantly impact this relation. These results suggest that forms of narcissism most closely connected to internalizing problems combined with CU traits are associated with relatively heightened aggression in youth. The implications of these findings are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:14–25, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21658   open full text
  • Psychological and relational correlates of intimate partner violence profiles among pregnant adolescent couples.
    Jessica B. Lewis, Tami P. Sullivan, Meghan Angley, Tamora Callands, Anna A. Divney, Urania Magriples, Derrick M. Gordon, Trace S. Kershaw.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 02, 2016
    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within‐subjects effects to compare IPV groups and sex on relationship and psychological factors. Analyses were conducted at the couple level, with IPV groups as a between‐subjects couple level variable and sex as a within‐subjects variable that allowed us to model and compare the outcomes of both partners while controlling for the correlated nature of the data. Analyses controlled for age, race, income, relationship duration, and gestational age. Among couples, 64% had no IPV; 23% male IPV victim only; 7% mutual IPV; 5% female IPV victim only. Relationship (F = 3.61, P < .001) and psychological (F = 3.17, P < .001) factors differed by IPV group, overall. Attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, relationship equity, perceived partner infidelity, depression, stress, and hostility each differed by IPV profile (all P < .01). Attachment anxiety, equity, depression and stress had a significant IPV profile by sex interaction (all P < .05). Couples with mutual IPV had the least healthy relationship and psychological characteristics; couples with no IPV had the healthiest characteristics. Females in mutually violent relationships were at particularly high risk. Couple‐level interventions focused on relational issues might protect young families from developing IPV behaviors. Aggr. Behav. 43:26–36, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21659   open full text
  • Are target‐shooters more aggressive than the general population?
    Thorsten M. Erle, Niklas Barth, Friederike Kälke, Gabriel Duttler, Harald Lange, Andreas Petko, Sascha Topolinski.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 02, 2016
    Although psychological research shows that guns are aggressive cues, proponents of liberal gun control argue that people rather than guns are to blame for gun‐related violence. For instance, athletic target‐shooters might classify guns as athletic rather than aggressive stimuli and thus should not be more aggressive than the general population. The present work investigated aggression and emotion‐regulation in target‐shooters. A longitudinal study found that initial self‐reported aggression in target‐shooters was higher than in the general population and further increased over 1 year. Additionally, the sample exhibited deficient emotion‐regulation strategies, and this was related to self‐reported aggression. In contrast, their implicit self‐construct became more peaceful over time but was unrelated to all other measures. Two further cross‐sectional experiments explored the causal impact of athletic target‐shooting and other athletic activities (shooting a basketball) on aggression. Target‐shooters and basketball players were tested before and after their regular team practice and aggressive thoughts and feelings were measured. Target‐shooting but not basketball practice activated aggressive and anxiety‐related thought more strongly than positive thought. Future research avenues, implications for the indirect measurement of aggression, and possible interventions to decrease aggression in target‐shooters are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 43:3–13, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21657   open full text
  • Violent media and hostile appraisals: A meta‐analytic review.
    Brad J. Bushman.
    Aggressive Behavior. April 28, 2016
    Hostile people tend to view the world as a hostile place. Although there are individual differences in hostile world‐views, situational factors can also play a role. For example, scenes of violence in the mass media might influence people to view the world as a hostile place. This meta‐analysis aggregates, for the first time, all studies that have investigated the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (e.g., perceiving the ambiguous actions by others as aggressive actions). This meta‐analysis included 37 independent studies involving 10,410 participants. The results showed a “small” to “moderate” sized average correlation between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals (r+ = .20, 95%CI = .14, .26). Significant correlations were found in experimental, cross‐sectional, and longitudinal studies, indicating a triangulation of evidence. Effects were not correlated with participant gender. Effects were also stable over time. However, the link between exposure to violent media and hostile appraisals was positively related to age, perhaps because violent media can have cumulative effects over time. There was no evidence of publication bias. The findings from this meta‐analysis are consistent with the General Aggression Model (e.g., Anderson, & Bushman, 2002; Annual Review of Psychology 53:27–51). These results compliment those from previous meta‐analyses showing that violent media can increase aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior. These findings also have practical significance, because people who view the world in a hostile manner are more likely to behave aggressively themselves. Aggr. Behav. 42:605–613, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    April 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21655   open full text
  • Defending victimized peers: Opposing the bully, supporting the victim, or both?
    Albert Reijntjes, Marjolijn Vermande, Tjeert Olthof, Frits A. Goossens, Liesbeth Aleva, Matty van der Meulen.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 30, 2016
    To reduce bullying, more knowledge on children defending their victimized peers is critical. In previous work, predominantly cross‐sectional in nature, defending has typically been operationalized as one single, broad construct. However, there are good reasons to assume that attacking the bully (bully oriented defending) and comforting the victim (victim‐oriented defending) are relatively independent constructs, with potentially different correlates. This longitudinal study in the Netherlands (N = 394; Mage = 10.3) combined person‐ and variable‐centered techniques to examine relations between two different forms of defending and multiple outcome variables. In addition to the largest group scoring low on both types of defending, three subgroups emerged. A small group of “traditional,” predominantly female defenders, scored high on both forms of defending. These children were well liked and high in reputation‐based status, as indexed by perceived popularity and resource control. A larger, predominantly female second group only scored high on victim‐oriented defending. These children were also well liked, but low in reputation‐based status. The third group only scored high on bully oriented defending, and predominantly contained boys. These children were high in reputation‐based status but quite disliked, and they scored high on bullying. Findings strongly suggest that bully oriented defending does not in all cases reflect desirable interventions of empathic children. Aggr. Behav. 42:585–597, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    March 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21653   open full text
  • Too (mentally) busy to chill: Cognitive load and inhibitory cues interact to moderate triggered displaced aggression.
    Eduardo A. Vasquez, Joanna Howard‐Field.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 30, 2016
    Inhibitory information can be expected to reduce triggered displaced aggression by signaling the potential for negative consequences as a result of acting aggressively. We examined how cognitive load might interfere with these aggression‐reducing effects of inhibitory cues. Participants (N = 80) were randomly assigned to a condition in a 2 (cognitive load: high/low) × 2 (inhibiting cues: yes/no) between‐subjects design. Following procedures in the TDA paradigm, participants received an initial provocation from the experimenter and a subsequent triggering annoyance from another individual. In the inhibitory cue condition, participants were told, before they had the opportunity to aggress, that others would learn of their aggressive responses. In the high cognitive load condition, participants rehearsed a 10‐digit number while aggressing. Those in the low cognitive load condition rehearsed a three digit number. We found significant main effects of cognitive load and inhibitory cue, which were qualified by the expected load × inhibitory cue interaction. Thus, inhibitory cues reduced displaced aggression under low‐cognitive load. However, when participants in the inhibitory cue condition were under cognitive load, aggression increased, suggesting that mental busyness interfered with the full use of inhibitory information. Aggr. Behav. 42:598–604, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    March 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21654   open full text
  • The impact of parenthood on physical aggression: Evidence from criminal data.
    Lynda G. Boothroyd, Catharine P. Cross.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 22, 2016
    Evolutionary approaches to sex differences in physical aggression weigh the potential benefits of aggression against the likely costs to inclusive fitness, with some authors focusing on the damage physical injury would do to female inclusive fitness, and others on the extent to which success in physical competition may particularly enhance male fitness. This study tested a hypothesis derived from these approaches: that parents would be less physically aggressive than non‐parents because of the damage any physical injury would do to their inclusive fitness. Analysis was carried out using the United States federal sentencing records for 1994–1999 (22,344 individuals). The proportion of theft convictions which were violent (robbery; vs. larceny) was significantly greater for men than women (odds ratio 7.7). As predicted, non‐parents were significantly more likely to be violent than parents (odds ratio 1.6). Parenthood had a similar effect on relative rates of violence in men and women, although the baseline was considerably higher for men. There was also a significant effect in men of marital status, which interacted with parental status such that parenthood was only associated with a reduction in rates of violence in males recorded as partnered. The results are interpreted in terms of both evolutionary theory and recent work on the hormonal impacts of marriage and parenthood. Aggr. Behav. 42:577–584, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    March 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21652   open full text
  • Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking.
    Erica M. Woodin, Paweena Sukhawathanakul, Valerie Caldeira, Jacqueline Homel, Bonnie Leadbeater.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 16, 2016
    Adolescent peer aggression is a well‐established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or “binge” alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12–18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563–576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    March 16, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21651   open full text
  • Psychopathic traits mediate the association of serotonin transporter genotype and child externalizing behavior.
    Whitney A. Brammer, Kristen L. Jezior, Steve S. Lee.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 16, 2016
    Although the promoter polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (5‐HTTLPR) gene is associated with externalizing behavior, its mediating pathways are unknown. Given their sensitivity to serotonin neurotransmission and unique association with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), we tested callous‐unemotional (CU) traits and narcissism as separate mediators of the association of 5‐HTTLPR with ADHD and ODD. We evaluated 209 5–9 year‐old children with and without ADHD at baseline; approximately 2 years later (i.e., Wave 2), parents and teachers separately rated ADHD and ODD symptoms and youth self‐reported antisocial behavior. Controlling for race‐ethnicity and baseline ADHD/ODD, narcissism uniquely mediated predictions of multi‐informant rated Wave 2 ADHD and ODD from variation in 5‐HTTLPR; CU traits mediated predictions of Wave 2 ADHD from variations in 5‐HTTLPR, but did not mediate the associations of 5‐HTTLPR with ODD or youth self‐reported antisocial behavior. Specifically, the number of 5‐HTTLPR long alleles positively predicted CU traits and narcissism; narcissism was positively associated with Wave 2 ADHD and ODD symptoms, whereas CU traits were positively associated with Wave 2 ADHD. Child sex also moderated indirect effects of CU traits and narcissism, such that narcissism mediated predictions of ADHD/ODD in girls but not boys. Psychopathic traits may represent a relevant pathway underlying predictions of prospective change in ADHD and ODD from 5‐HTTLPR, particularly in girls. We consider the role of psychopathic traits as a potential intermediate phenotype in genetically sensitive studies of child psychopathology. Aggr. Behav. 42:455–470, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    March 16, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21642   open full text
  • Breaking the link between provocation and aggression: The role of mitigating information.
    Christopher Barlett, Zachary Witkower, Colin Mancini, Muniba Saleem.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 10, 2016
    In two experimental studies, we examine the extent to which strong or weak mitigating information after a provocation alters aggressive responding. In Study 1, we randomly assigned 215 (108 female) college‐aged participants to a strong or weak provocation by having a research assistant talk to the participant about failing a task in a harsh or confused tone. This was followed by a second research assistant giving a strong or weak excuse to the participant regarding the first research assistant's behavior. Then, aggressive behavior was assessed using a researcher rating task. In Study 2, 63 (25 female) college‐aged participants interacted with a confederate on the CRT. All participants were strongly provoked by receiving strong noise blasts. After five CRT trials, the confederate delivered weak or strong mitigating information to the participant regarding the noises blasts. The results indicated that: (i) strong provocations are more likely to increase aggression than weak provocations; (ii) strong mitigating information is more likely to decrease aggression than weak mitigating information; and (iii) the varying strength of mitigating information is important in situations involving weak, but not strong provocations: strong mitigating information is more likely than weak mitigating information reduce aggression when provocation is strong, but not when provocation is weak. We discuss the importance of mitigating information in decreasing aggressive behavior and the conditions in which mitigating information is especially likely to be effective. Aggr. Behav. 42:555–562, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    March 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21650   open full text
  • Ego‐depletion and aggressive behavior.
    Christopher Barlett, Hannah Oliphant, Wesley Gregory, Dorian Jones.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 02, 2016
    Multiple theoretical frameworks postulate that ego‐depletion can influence aggressive behavior. Our experimental study assessed whether ego‐depletion is related to aggressive behavioral change and whether provocation moderated this effect. Aggression was measured by asking participants to take raffle tickets from an ostensible partner. First, participants were randomly assigned to either high or low ego‐depletion (by having them memorize a short or long number throughout the entire study) prior to engaging in the first ticket exchange. Participants were then either provoked (or not) by having their “partner” take more or fewer tickets than the partner originally requested. The ticket exchange occurred three times to assess behavioral change. Results showed that aggression was highest for ego depleted participants who were provoked. Implications are discussed in terms of the General Aggression Model and the Strength Model of Self‐Control. Aggr. Behav. 42:533–541, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21648   open full text
  • The association between AIDS‐related stigma and aggression toward gay men and lesbians.
    Wilson Vincent, John L. Peterson, Dominic J. Parrott.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 26, 2016
    This study examined whether self‐identified race and prior contact with a gay man or lesbian moderate the association between AIDS‐related stigma and aggression toward gay men and lesbians when controlling for sexual prejudice. A regional, community‐recruited sample of 194 heterosexual men (50% Black, 50% White) completed measures of AIDS‐related stigma, sexual prejudice, and prior contact with gay men and lesbians. Regression analyses showed that AIDS‐related stigma was positively associated with aggression toward gay men and lesbians among White men who reported no prior contact, but not among White men who endorsed prior contact and Black men regardless of prior contact. Findings suggest that intergroup contact may be a key component to reducing the effects of AIDS‐related stigma towards stigmatized groups. Implications for aggression theory and intervention are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:542–554, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21649   open full text
  • Toward a re‐interpretation of self‐harm: A cross‐contextual approach.
    Delia Latina, Håkan Stattin.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 16, 2016
    A common view is that self‐harmers are individuals who are exposed to or have been exposed to stressors and hostility in everyday settings. A strand of research has also found that self‐harmers expose other people to their hostility. Extending these findings, this study examined whether adolescent self‐harmers are simultaneously exposed and expose others to hostility in their everyday interpersonal contexts—at home, at school, and during leisure‐time. The participants were 1,482 adolescents, ranging from 13 to 16 years of age, who attended different schools in a medium‐sized city in central Sweden. The results show that the adolescents involved in mutually hostile relationships in their different interpersonal contexts exhibited higher self‐harm than the adolescents who were exposed to others’ hostility or exposed other people to their hostility. Also, the more mutually hostile settings the adolescents were involved in, the more self‐harm they reported. Overall, our findings suggest not only that self‐harmers are exposed to hostility in their different interpersonal contexts, as has been typically assumed, but also that they simultaneously expose others to hostility in these contexts. This has implications for our understanding of young people who harm themselves and also for intervention. Aggr. Behav. 42:522–532, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 16, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21647   open full text
  • Men's harassment behavior in online video games: Personality traits and game factors.
    Wai Yen Tang, Jesse Fox.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 16, 2016
    Online video games afford co‐play and social interaction, often anonymous, among players from around the world. As predicted by the social identity model of deindividuation effects, undesirable behavior is not uncommon in online gaming environments, and online harassment has become a pervasive issue in the gaming community. In this study, we sought to determine what personality traits and game‐related variables predicted two types of online aggression in video games: general harassment (e.g., skill‐based taunting, insulting others’ intelligence) and sexual harassment (e.g., sexist comments, rape threats). Men who play online video games (N = 425) participated in an anonymous online survey. Social dominance orientation and hostile sexism predicted higher levels of both sexual harassment and general harassment in online games. Game involvement and hours of weekly gameplay were additional predictors of general harassment. We discuss implications of online social aggression and online sexual harassment for online gaming. We also apply our findings to the broader understanding of online harassment, cyberaggression, cyberbullying, and other forms of online hostility in computer‐mediated communication contexts. Aggr. Behav. 42:513–521, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 16, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21646   open full text
  • Dressed to kill? Visible markers of coalitional affiliation enhance conceptualized formidability.
    Daniel M. T. Fessler, Colin Holbrook, David Dashoff.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 05, 2016
    Displaying markers of coalitional affiliation is a common feature of contemporary life. In situations in which interaction with members of rival coalitions is likely, signaling coalitional affiliation may simultaneously constitute an implicit challenge to opponents and an objective commitment device, binding signalers to their coalitions. Individuals who invite conflict, and who cannot readily back out of conflict, constitute a greater threat than those who avoid conflict and preserve the option of feigning neutrality. As a consequence, the former should be viewed as more formidable than the latter. Recent research indicates that relative formidability is summarized using the envisioned physical size and strength of a potential antagonist. Thus, individuals who display markers of coalitional affiliation should be conceptualized as more physically imposing than those who do not. We tested this prediction in two experiments. In Study 1, conducted with U.S. university students, participants inspected images of sports fans' faces. In Study 2, conducted with U.S. Mechanical Turk workers, participants read vignettes depicting political partisans. In both studies, participants estimated the physical formidability of the target individuals and reported their own ability to defend themselves; in Study 2, participants estimated the target's aggressiveness. Consonant with predictions, targets depicted as signaling coalitional affiliation in situations of potential conflict were envisioned to be more physically formidable and more aggressive than were those not depicted as signaling thusly. Underscoring that the calculations at issue concern the possibility of violent conflict, participants' estimates of the protagonist's features were inversely correlated with their ability to defend themselves. Aggr. Behav. 42:299–309, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 05, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21624   open full text
  • Perceptions of low agency and high sexual openness mediate the relationship between sexualization and sexual aggression.
    Khandis R. Blake, Brock Bastian, Thomas F. Denson.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 05, 2016
    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the saturation of popular Western culture by female hypersexualization. We provide data showing that men have more sexually aggressive intentions toward women who self‐sexualize, and that self‐sexualized women are vulnerable to sexual aggression if two qualifying conditions are met. Specifically, if perceivers view self‐sexualized women as sexually open and lacking agency (i.e., the ability to influence one's environment), they harbor more sexually aggressive intentions and view women as easier to sexually victimize. In Experiment 1, male participants viewed a photograph of a woman whose self‐sexualization was manipulated through revealing versus non‐revealing clothing. In subsequent experiments, men and women (Experiment 2) and men only (Experiment 3) viewed a photograph of a woman dressed in non‐revealing clothing but depicted as open or closed to sexual activity. Participants rated their perceptions of the woman's agency, then judged how vulnerable she was to sexual aggression (Experiments 1 and 2) or completed a sexually aggressive intentions measure (Experiment 3). Results indicated that both men and women perceived self‐sexualized women as more vulnerable to sexual aggression because they assumed those women were highly sexually open and lacked agency. Perceptions of low agency also mediated the relationship between women's perceived sexual openness and men's intentions to sexually aggress. These effects persisted even when we described the self‐sexualized woman as possessing highly agentic personality traits and controlled for individual differences related to sexual offending. The current work suggests that perceived agency and sexual openness may inform perpetrator decision‐making and that cultural hypersexualization may facilitate sexual aggression. Aggr. Behav. 42:483–497, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 05, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21644   open full text
  • Psychometric examination and validation of the aggressive driving scale (ADS).
    Yiqi Zhang, Rebecca Houston, Changxu Wu.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 05, 2016
    Aggressive driving behavior is an important cause of traffic accidents. Based on the recent view that aggressive driving is one way that trait aggression manifests itself, a growing research area has focused on the development of scales to assess aggressive driving. The aggressive driving scale (ADS) analyzed in the present study consists of 24 items. A sample of 276 participants was analyzed to obtain the factor structure and reliability of the ADS and 67 of them participated in the behavioral experiment in order to examine the construct and predictive validity of the scale. Results indicated a 3‐factor structure (interference with other drivers, violations/risk taking, and anger/aggression expression behavior) with high item loadings. The ADS had high internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Construct validity of the ADS was established as the ADS subscale scores correlated significantly with trait measures of anger and aggression. Predictive validity of the ADS was verified as most items were significantly correlated with behavioral measures derived from a driving simulator. The ADS was a significant predictor of behavioral measures both in the simulated environment (i.e., frequency of driving off the road, red light running behavior, frequency of colliding with a vehicle, frequency and distance of over speeding, frequency and distance of central crossing) and reported real world situations (i.e., annual moving violations and accidents). These results suggest that the ADS is a reliable and valid tool in evaluating aggressive driving behavior as the current study provides behavioral support for the effectiveness of the ADS in measuring aggressive driving behavior. Aggr. Behav. 42:313–323, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 05, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21627   open full text
  • Biased self‐perceived social competence and engagement in subtypes of aggression: Examination of peer rejection, social dominance goals, and sex of the child as moderators.
    Julia D. McQuade, Rosanna P. Breaux, Angelina F. Gómez, Rebecca J. Zakarian, Julia Weatherly.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 02, 2016
    This study expands on prior research suggesting that children who either over‐ or under‐estimate their social competence relative to others’ reports are more likely to be aggressive. Linear and curvilinear associations between biased social self‐perceptions and forms (physical vs. relational) and functions (proactive vs. reactive) of aggression were tested along with three moderators (peer rejection, social dominance goals, and child sex). Children in the fifth through eight grade (N = 167) completed self‐reports of perceived social competence and social dominance goals. Teachers completed ratings of children's social competence, peer rejection, and reactive and proactive physical and relational aggression. Bias in self‐perceived social competence was quantified as the residual difference between child and teacher ratings of the child's social competence. There was a significant interaction between quadratic bias and peer rejection predicting reactive physical aggression; rejected children with a positive bias or a negative bias were highest in reactive physical aggression. The interaction between linear bias, social dominance goals, and the sex of the child was also significant when predicting proactive physical aggression. Among girls who highly valued social dominance, a positive bias predicted greater proactive physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of implications for aggression theory and intervention. Aggr. Behav. 42:498–509, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21645   open full text
  • The moderating role of aggressiveness in response to campaigns and interventions promoting anti‐violence attitudes.
    Miguel A. M. Cárdaba, Pablo Briñol, Gaspar Brändle, José A. Ruiz‐SanRomán.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 28, 2016
    This research indicates that a critical factor for understanding the success or failure of anti‐violence campaigns is the aggressiveness of the target audience. We propose that person and situation interact in predicting post‐intervention attitudes toward violence, fighting expectations, and intentions to learn how to use real guns. Across two studies conducted in different countries and with different age populations, we found that anti‐violence campaigns were effective, only for those for whom the message was already pro‐attitudinal (low trait aggressiveness). In contrast, for individuals with relatively higher scores in trait aggressiveness, there was no difference in attitudes toward violence between those who received the anti‐violence intervention and those assigned to the control group. In fact, the anti‐violence messages resulted in a boomerang effect, increasing the favorability of attitudes toward violence in one of the studies. Aggr. Behav. 42:471–482, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21643   open full text
  • Neighborhood disadvantage and physical aggression in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of multilevel studies.
    Ling‐Yin Chang, Mei‐Yeh Wang, Pei‐Shan Tsai.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 08, 2016
    Child and adolescent physical aggression are influenced by multiple contexts, such as peers, family, school, and neighborhood. However, the effect of neighborhoods on youth physical aggression remains unclear. The objective of this study was to quantitatively synthesize studies that have examined the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on physical aggression in children and adolescents and to identify potential moderators. We searched seven databases for articles published before April 25, 2015. Studies were considered eligible if they were published in peer‐reviewed journals, used multilevel data, controlled for neighborhood clustering, used physical aggression as the study outcome, and considered children or adolescents as the study population. Of the 152 eligible studies, we included 43 in the meta‐analysis. The results from the random‐effects model revealed that neighborhood disadvantage was positively and significantly associated with physical aggression (P < .001). Metaregression and moderator analyses further indicated a stronger association between neighborhood disadvantage and physical aggression among studies with younger participants, a higher percentage of female participants, and a longer follow‐up period (P < .05). Current findings, however, may not be generalized to other types of aggression. The observed neighborhood effects may also be limited because of the omission of studies that did not provide sufficient information for calculating the pooled effect. In summary, the results provide supporting evidence for the adverse effect of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods on physical aggression after adjusting for the individual‐level characteristics of children and adolescents. Interventions targeting structural contexts in neighborhoods are required to assist in reducing physical aggression in young people. Aggr. Behav. 42:441–454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 08, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ab.21641   open full text
  • Soccer players awarded one or more red cards exhibit lower 2D:4D ratios.
    Alvaro Mailhos, Abraham P. Buunk, Denise del Arca, Verónica Tutte.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 24, 2015
    Anatomical, cognitive and behavioral sex differences are widely recognized in many species. It has been proposed that some of these differences might result from the organizing effects of prenatal sex steroids. In humans, males usually exhibit higher levels of physical aggression and prowess. In this study, we analyze the relationship between second‐to‐fourth digit (2D:4D) ratios—a proxy for prenatal androgen levels—and foul play and sporting performance in a sample of junior soccer players from a professional Uruguayan soccer club. Our results show that the most aggressive players (i.e., those awarded one or more red cards) have a more masculine finger pattern (lower 2D:4D ratio), while no relationship could be found between sporting performance and 2D:4D ratios. The results are discussed in the context of previous findings. Aggr. Behav. 42:417–426, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 24, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21638   open full text
  • Intimate partner aggression‐related shame and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: The moderating role of substance use problems.
    Nicole H. Weiss, Aaron A. Duke, Nicole M. Overstreet, Suzanne C. Swan, Tami P. Sullivan.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 24, 2015
    A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women's use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women's use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self‐defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms. The goal of the present study was to examine whether women's shame concerning their use of intimate partner aggression is associated with their PTSD symptoms, and whether drug and alcohol use problems moderate this association. Participants were 369 community women who had used and been victimized by physical aggression in an intimate relationship with a male partner in the past six months. The intimate partner aggression‐related shame × drug (but not alcohol) use problems interaction on PTSD symptom severity was significant. Analysis of simple slopes revealed that women's intimate partner aggression‐related shame was positively associated with their PTSD symptoms when drug use problems were high, but not when drug use problems were low. Findings have implications for the potential utility of PTSD treatments targeting a reduction in shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies (i.e., drug use) in this population. Aggr. Behav. 42:427–440, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 24, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21639   open full text
  • Intimate partner violence: Are the risk factors similar for men and women, and similar to other types of offending?
    Abigail J.V. Thornton, Nicola Graham‐Kevan, John Archer.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 17, 2015
    We studied intimate partner violence (IPV) within a framework of other violent and nonviolent offending, to explore whether the risk factors for offending were similar across the different offense categories, and also for men and women. A comprehensive measure of offending behavior was administered to 184 men and 171 women, together with measures of anger, self‐control, and psychopathic traits. The measure, the nonviolent and violent offending behavior scale (NVOBS), assesses IPV, general violence, and nonviolent offending behavior. Men perpetrated higher levels of general violence and nonviolent offenses than women, whereas women perpetrated significantly more IPV than men. Regression analyses showed that the predictors of offending behavior are generally similar for men and women, with the exception of IPV, where self‐control was a better predictor of IPV for men and anger was a better predictor of IPV for women. Limitations of the present sample and suggestions for future work are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:404–412, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 17, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21635   open full text
  • Effects of intrauterine substance and postnatal violence exposure on aggression in children.
    Olivier J. Barthelemy, Mark A. Richardson, Ruth Rose‐Jacobs, Leah S. Forman, Howard J. Cabral, Deborah A. Frank.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 10, 2015
    During the cocaine epidemic of the 1980s and early 1990s, many expressed fears that children with intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) would grow up to be unusually violent. The present study examines the relationship of caregiver reports of school‐age children's aggressive behavior with IUCE and postnatal exposure to violence. Respondents were 140 low‐income, primarily African American children, ages 8–11, and each child's current primary caregiver from a longitudinal study evaluating potential long term sequelae of IUCE. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the independent and interactive effects of level of IUCE (None (n = 69), Lighter (n = 47), Heavier (n =  24)) and exposure to violence (Violence Exposure Scale for Children‐Revised) on aggressive behavior (Child Behavior Checklist), while also controlling for other intrauterine substance exposures and additional contextual factors. Children's self‐reported exposure to violence was significantly positively associated with caregivers’ reports of aggressive behavior (β = 2.17, P = .05), as was concurrent caregiver's psychiatric distress (β = .15, P = .003). However, neither IUCE nor its interaction with exposure to violence showed a significant association with aggressive behavior. Findings suggest the importance of postnatal social environment rather than IUCE in predicting aggressive behavior in childhood. Aggr. Behav. 42:209–221, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 10, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21607   open full text
  • Attribution of human characteristics and bullying involvement in childhood: Distinguishing between targets.
    Tirza H. J. van Noorden, Gerbert J. T. Haselager, Tessa A. M. Lansu, Antonius H. N. Cillessen, William M. Bukowski.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 16, 2015
    This investigation researched the association between the attribution of human characteristics and bullying involvement in children by distinguishing between targets. Study 1 focused on the attribution of human characteristics by bullies, victims, bully/victims, and non‐involved children toward friends and non‐friends. The data from 405 children (M = 10.7 years old) showed that they attributed fewer prosocial and more antisocial human characteristics to non‐friends than to friends. Moreover, boy victims attributed fewer prosocial human characteristics to non‐friends than boy bullies and non‐involved boys did. In addition, victims attributed more antisocial human characteristics to non‐friends than non‐involved children did. Study 2 addressed bullies’, victims’, bully/victims’, and non‐involved children's attribution of human characteristics to each other. The data of 264 children (M = 10.0 years old) showed that bullies, victims, and bully/victims attributed fewer prosocial and more antisocial human characteristics to each other than to non‐involved children. Non‐involved children attributed fewer prosocial human characteristics to bully/victims than to bullies and victims, and more antisocial human characteristics to bully/victims than to victims. In addition, girls attributed more prosocial and fewer antisocial human characteristics to girls than to boys, whereas boys did not distinguish between girls and boys. Based on these findings, suggestions for future research are provided and implications for bullying prevention and intervention are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:394–403, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 16, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21634   open full text
  • Intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine: Examining individual, familial, and cultural factors.
    Iryna Balabukha, Ambika Krishnakumar, Lutchmie Narine.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 06, 2015
    We examined the role of financial strain, parent‐to‐parent violence, parent‐to‐child violence, emotional distress, and alcohol use in intimate partner violence perpetrated by young adult women against men in Ukraine. The moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence‐related laws and regulations was also examined. Four hundred and six full‐time female university students from four universities in Ukraine participated in the study. We found that emotional distress, parent‐to‐parent, and parent‐to‐child violence mediated the link between financial strain and intimate partner violence perpetrated by women on men. However, we found limited support for the moderating role of acceptability of intimate partner violence and violence‐related laws and regulations in the relationship between individual and familial factors on intimate partner violence. The findings from this investigation suggest that there is a distinct need for supporting families and individuals in dealing with issues of intimate partner violence directed by women against men in Ukraine. Aggr. Behav. 42:380–393, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 06, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21633   open full text
  • The mental health of male victims and their children affected by legal and administrative partner aggression.
    Joshua L. Berger, Emily M. Douglas, Denise A. Hines.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 01, 2015
    The authors recently developed a psychometrically valid measure of legal and administrative (LA) intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization (Hines, Douglas, & Berger, 2014). The current article explores the impact of actual and threatened LA aggression on the mental health of male physical IPV victims and their children. In the current study, a sample of 611 men who sought help after experiencing physical IPV from their female partners completed a survey assessing the types and extent of IPV that occurred in their relationship, including LA aggression, their own mental health outcomes, and the mental health of their oldest child. A series of OLS regressions indicated that after controlling for covariates, actual LA aggression was associated with more symptoms of PTSD and depression in male victims, and that both threatened and actual LA aggression were associated with higher levels of affective and oppositional defiant symptoms in the men's school age children. The current findings suggest that it is important to screen couples for the presence of LA aggression and male partners and their children should be referred for mental health treatment if LA aggression is occurring in the relationship. Aggr. Behav. 42:346–361, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21630   open full text
  • Entitled vengeance: A meta‐analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression.
    Kyler Rasmussen.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 01, 2015
    Narcissism has long been used to predict aggressive or vengeful responses to provocations from others. The strength of this relation can, however, vary widely from study to study. Narcissism and revenge were examined in 84 independent samples (N = 11297), along with the moderating role of sample type (i.e., child/adolescent, prisoner, undergraduate, or general samples), type of narcissism measure used (i.e., Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Psychological Entitlement Scale, Short D3, etc.), the nature of the provocation, and the type of provoked aggression examined. Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies (ρ = .25), but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples (ρ = .36) and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed (ρ = .29). Implications for practical research, as well as neglected areas of research on narcissism and provoked aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:362–379, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21632   open full text
  • State narcissism and aggression: The mediating roles of anger and hostile attributional bias.
    Caina Li, Ying Sun, Man Yee Ho, Jin You, Phillip R. Shaver, Zhenhong Wang.
    Aggressive Behavior. October 08, 2015
    Prior research has documented a relationship between narcissism and aggression but has focused only on dispositional narcissism without considering situational factors that may increase narcissism temporarily. This study explored the possibility that an increase in state narcissism would foster aggressive responding by increasing anger and hostile attributional bias following unexpected provocation among 162 college students from China. We created a guided‐imagination manipulation to heighten narcissism and investigated its effects on anger, aroused hostile attribution bias, and aggressive responses following a provocation with a 2 (narcissism/neutral manipulation) × 2 (unexpected provocation/positive evaluation condition) between‐subjects design. We found that the manipulation did increase self‐reported state narcissism. The increase in state narcissism in turn heightened aggression, and this relation was mediated by increased anger. Regardless of the level of state narcissism, individuals were more aggressive after being provoked and this effect of provocation was mediated by hostile attributional bias. The findings indicate that narcissism can be temporarily heightened in a nonclinical sample of individuals, and that the effect of state narcissism on aggression is mediated by anger. Differences between state and trait narcissism and possible influences of culture are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:333–345, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    October 08, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21629   open full text
  • An examination of the stability of interpersonal hostile‐dominance and its relationship with psychiatric symptomatology and post‐discharge aggression.
    Tegan Podubinski, Stuart Lee, Yitzchak Hollander, Michael Daffern.
    Aggressive Behavior. October 06, 2015
    The relevance of interpersonal hostile‐dominance (HD) to post‐discharge aggression in mental health patients is unclear. This study assessed whether (1) HD is stable over time; (2) the relationship between HD and positive, negative, disorganized, and excited symptoms is consistent over time; and (3) HD is related to aggression post‐discharge. Two hundred psychiatric inpatients were recruited on admission to hospital; 41 were available for follow‐up at 6 months post‐discharge, including 29 men and 12 women, with an age range of 19–63 (M = 39.63 years, SD = 12.69 years). Psychiatric symptomatology and interpersonal style were assessed at recruitment and follow‐up; aggression in the community post‐discharge was measured at follow‐up. Results showed that (1) HD was stable over time despite an overall reduction in psychiatric symptoms, (2) HD was positively correlated with symptom severity at both time points, and (3) higher HD, excited symptoms, and positive symptoms measured in the community, and more severe positive symptoms measured in hospital, were associated with aggressive behavior post‐discharge. These results suggest that HD is a risk factor for more severe psychopathology. Furthermore, HD, positive symptoms, and excited symptoms measured in the community act as risk factors for aggressive behavior post‐discharge. As such, treatment planning and risk assessment should consider HD. Aggr. Behav. 42:324–332, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    October 06, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21628   open full text
  • Participant roles in peer‐victimization among young children in South Korea: Peer‐, self‐, and teacher‐nominations.
    Seung‐Ha Lee, Peter K. Smith, Claire P. Monks.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 11, 2015
    This study explored participant roles in aggressive behavior among 95 children aged five to seven years, in a collectivistic culture, South Korea. Using a short‐term longitudinal design, three types of nomination (peer, self, and teacher) were obtained for four participant roles (aggressor, victim, defender‐stop, and defender‐tell) and for four types of aggression (physical, verbal, social exclusion and rumor spreading). Assessments were made of stability of participant roles over time; inter‐rater concordance among informants; discriminability; and relationships with sex, and likeability. Children tended to report themselves as victim and their peers as aggressors, especially for social exclusion. Nominations for aggressor showed highest stability over time and inter‐rater concordance. Social exclusion showed different characteristics from other types of aggressive behavior in terms of its frequency and inter‐rater concordance of role nominations. The type of defender (defender‐stop or defender‐tell) had different correlates with likeability. Findings are discussed in relation to different perspectives on social exclusion, and the defender role. Some different findings related specifically to social exclusion may be related to the particular nature of aggression or wang‐ta in South Korea. Aggr. Behav. 42:287–298, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 11, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21623   open full text
  • Aggressive delinquency among north American indigenous adolescents: Trajectories and predictors.
    Kelley J. Sittner, Dane Hautala.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 09, 2015
    Aggressive delinquency is a salient social problem for many North American Indigenous (American Indian, Canadian First Nations) communities, and can have deleterious consequences later in life. Yet there is a paucity of research on Indigenous delinquency. Group‐based trajectory modeling is used to prospectively examine trajectories of aggressive delinquency over the course of adolescence using data from 646 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture, spanning the ages of 10–19. Five aggression trajectory groups were identified, characterized by different levels and ages of onset and desistence: non‐offenders (22.1%), moderate desistors (19.9%), adolescent‐limited offenders (22.2%), high desistors (16.7%), and chronic offenders (19.2%). Using the social development model of antisocial behavior, we selected relevant risk and protective factors predicted to discriminate among those most and least likely to engage in more aggressive behavior. Higher levels of risk (i.e., parent rejection, delinquent peers, substance use, and early dating) in early adolescence were associated with being in the two groups with the highest levels of aggressive delinquency. Positive school adjustment, the only significant protective factor, was associated with being in the lowest aggression trajectory groups. The results provide important information that could be used in developing prevention and intervention programs, particularly regarding vulnerable ages as well as malleable risk factors. Identifying those youth most at risk of engaging in higher levels of aggression may be key to preventing delinquency and reducing the over‐representation of Indigenous youth in the justice system. Aggr. Behav. 42:274–286, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21622   open full text
  • “It was only harmless banter!” The development and preliminary validation of the moral disengagement in sexual harassment scale.
    Thomas E. Page, Afroditi Pina, Roger Giner‐Sorolla.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 09, 2015
    Sexual harassment represents aggressive behavior that is often enacted instrumentally, in response to a threatened sense of masculinity and male identity. To date, however, theoretical attention to the social cognitive processes that regulate workplace harassment is scant. This article presents the development and preliminary validation of the Moral Disengagement in Sexual Harassment Scale (MDiSH); a self‐report measure of moral disengagement in the context of hostile work environment harassment. Three studies (total n = 797) document the excellent psychometric properties of this new scale. Male U.K. university students (Study 1: n = 322) and U.S. working males (Studies 2 and 3: n = 475) completed the MDiSH and an array of measures for construct validation. The MDiSH exhibited positive correlations with sexual harassment myth acceptance, male gender identification, and hostile sexism. In Study 3, participants were exposed to a fictitious case of hostile work environment harassment. The MDiSH attenuated moral judgment, negative emotions (guilt, shame, and anger), sympathy, and endorsement of prosocial behavioral intentions (support for restitution) associated with the harassment case. Conversely, the MDiSH increased positive affect (happiness) about the harassment and attribution of blame to the female complainant. Implications for practice and future research avenues are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 42:254–273, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21621   open full text
  • Participant roles of bullying in adolescence: Status characteristics, social behavior, and assignment criteria.
    J. Loes Pouwels, Tessa A. M. Lansu, Antonius H. N. Cillessen.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 09, 2015
    This study had three goals. First, we examined the prevalence of the participant roles of bullying in middle adolescence and possible gender differences therein. Second, we examined the behavioral and status characteristics associated with the participant roles in middle adolescence. Third, we compared two sets of criteria for assigning students to the participant roles of bullying. Participants were 1,638 adolescents (50.9% boys, Mage = 16.38 years, SD =.80) who completed the shortened participant role questionnaire and peer nominations for peer status and behavioral characteristics. Adolescents were assigned to the participant roles according to the relative criteria of Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, Björkqvist, Österman, and Kaukiainen (1996). Next, the students in each role were divided in two subgroups based on an additional absolute criterion: the Relative Only Criterion subgroup (nominated by less than 10% of their classmates) and the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup (nominated by at least 10% of their classmates). Adolescents who bullied or reinforced or assisted bullies were highly popular and disliked and scored high on peer‐valued characteristics. Adolescents who were victimized held the weakest social position in the peer group. Adolescents who defended victims were liked and prosocial, but average in popularity and peer‐valued characteristics. Outsiders held a socially weak position in the peer group, but were less disliked, less aggressive, and more prosocial than victims. The behavior and status profiles of adolescents in the participant roles were more extreme for the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup than for the Relative Only Criterion subgroup. Aggr. Behav. 42:239–253, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21614   open full text
  • Multi‐level risk factors and developmental assets associated with aggressive behavior in disadvantaged adolescents.
    Paul R. Smokowski, Shenyang Guo, Katie L. Cotter, Caroline B. R. Evans, Roderick A. Rose.
    Aggressive Behavior. September 09, 2015
    The current study examined multilevel risk factors and developmental assets on longitudinal trajectories of aggressive behavior in a diverse sample of rural adolescents. Using ecological and social capital theories, we explored the impact of positive and negative proximal processes, social capital, and contextual characteristics (i.e., school and neighborhood) on adolescent aggression. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project, which is a 5‐year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 middle and high school students from 40 public schools in two rural, low income counties in North Carolina. A three‐level HLM model (N = 4,056 at Wave 1, 4,251 at Wave 2, and 4,256 at Wave 3) was estimated to predict factors affecting the change trajectories of aggression. Results indicated that negative proximal processes in the form of parent‐adolescent conflict, friend rejection, peer pressure, delinquent friends, and school hassles were significant predictors of aggression. In addition, social capital in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction served as buffers against aggression. Negative proximal processes were more salient predictors than positive proximal processes. School and neighborhood characteristics had a minimal impact on aggression. Overall, rates of aggression did not change significantly over the 3‐year study window. Findings highlight the need to intervene in order to decrease negative interactions in the peer and parent domains. Aggr. Behav. 42:222–238, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ab.21612   open full text
  • Any of them will do: In‐group identification, out‐group entitativity, and gang membership as predictors of group‐based retribution.
    Eduardo A. Vasquez, Lisa Wenborne, Madeline Peers, Emma Alleyne, Kirsty Ellis.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 20, 2015
    In non‐gang populations, the degree of identification with an in‐group and perceptions of out‐group entitativity, the perception of an out‐group as bonded or unified, are important contributors to group‐based aggression or vicarious retribution. The link between these factors and group‐based aggression, however, has not been examined in the context of street gangs. The current study assessed the relationship among in‐group identification, perceptions of out‐group entitativity, and the willingness to retaliate against members of rival groups who did not themselves attack the in‐group among juvenile gang and non‐gang members in London. Our results showed the predicted membership (gang/non‐gang) × in‐group identification × entitativity interaction. Decomposition of the three‐way interaction by membership revealed a significant identification × entitativity interaction for gang, but not for non‐gang members. More specifically, gang members who identify more strongly with their gang and perceived a rival group as high on entitativity were more willing to retaliate against any of them. In addition, entitativity was a significant predictor of group‐based aggression after controlling for gender, in‐group identification, and gang membership. Our results are consistent with socio‐psychological theories of group‐based aggression and support the proposal that such theories are applicable for understanding gang‐related violence. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/AB.21581   open full text
  • Developmental associations between victimization and body mass index from 3 to 10 years in a population sample.
    Pamela Qualter, Suzanne M. Murphy, Janice Abbott, Kathryn J. Gardner, Christa Japel, Frank Vitaro, Michel Boivin, Richard E. Tremblay.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 14, 2015
    In the current prospective study, we investigated (1) whether high and low BMI in early childhood puts a child at risk of victimization by their peers, and (2) whether being victimized increases BMI over the short‐ and long‐term, independent of the effect of BMI on victimization. We also examined whether gender moderated these prospective associations. Participants were 1,344 children who were assessed yearly from ages 3 to 10 years as part of the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD). BMI predicted annual increases in victimization for girls aged 6 years and over; for boys aged 7 and 8 years of age, higher BMI reduced victimization over the school year. Further, victimization predicted annual increases in BMI for girls after age 6 years. When these short‐term effects were held constant, victimization was also shown to have a three and 5‐year influence on annual BMI changes for girls from age 3 years. These short‐ and long‐term cross‐lagged effects were evident when the effects of family adversity were controlled. The findings support those from previous prospective research showing a link between higher BMI and victimization, but only for girls. Further, being victimized increased the likelihood that girls would put on weight over time, which then increased future victimization. The implications of these prospective findings for interventions are considered. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 14, 2015   doi: 10.1002/AB.21580   open full text
  • Childhood bullying and social dilemmas.
    Amelia Kohm.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 06, 2015
    Children who witness bullying often do not defend victims. Bystanders might be reticent to intervene because they are stuck in “social dilemmas.” Social dilemmas are situations in which individuals make decisions based on self‐interest due to their lack of confidence that others will join with them in decisions that benefit the collective. In this study, the social dilemmas concept, which comes from game theory and social psychology, was applied to bullying for the first time. A total of 292 middle school students at a private residential school in the United States completed surveys about their bullying‐related experiences within their residences of 10 to 12 students of the same gender. Multilevel modeling was employed to assess if and how attitudes, group norms, and social dilemmas predict behavior in bullying situations. The findings suggested that both individual and group factors were associated with behavior in bullying situations and that attitudes, group norms, and social dilemmas each made a unique contribution to predicting behavior in bullying situations. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 06, 2015   doi: 10.1002/AB.21579   open full text
  • Perceptions of intimacy and friendship reciprocity moderate peer influence on aggression.
    Diana J. Meter, Deborah M. Casper, Noel A. Card.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 15, 2014
    Previous research has shown that close friends’ influence can exacerbate adolescents’ aggressive behavior, but results of studies which examine whether friendships of greater or lesser qualities moderate peer influence effects are inconsistent. The present study tested whether the perception of the positive friendship quality of intimate exchange and friendship reciprocity moderated best friend influence on participant aggression over time. The 243 participants were approximately 12 years old and ethnically diverse. Neither intimate exchange nor reciprocity significantly moderated friend influence on aggression in a simple way, but the interaction of intimate exchange and friendship reciprocity predicted peer influence on participants’ aggression over time. Specifically, highly intimate, nonreciprocal best friendships and less intimate, reciprocal best friendships showed greatest influence when friends’ proportion of peer nominations for aggression was high. Reciprocity and intimacy should be considered when predicting peer influence on aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1–11, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 15, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21577   open full text
  • Maladaptive perfectionism's link to aggression and self‐harm: Emotion regulation as a mechanism.
    David S. Chester, Lauren M. Merwin, C. Nathan DeWall.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 12, 2014
    The negative affect that results from negative feedback is a substantial, proximal cause of aggression. People high in maladaptive perfectionism, the tendency to focus on the discrepancy between one's standards and performance, are characterized by an exaggerated negative affective response to negative feedback. This exacerbated affective response to failure may then dispose them to hurt others and themselves as aggression and self‐harm are often perceived as a means to regulate negative affect. In Study 1, we demonstrated that maladaptive perfectionism was linked to greater aggressive behavior towards others after receiving negative feedback. Suggesting the presence of an emotion regulation strategy, this effect was mediated by the motivation to use aggression to improve mood. In Study 2, maladaptive perfectionism was linked to self‐harm, an effect exacerbated by negative feedback and mediated by negative affect. These findings suggest that maladaptive perfectionists are at risk for greater harm towards others and the self because negative feedback has a stronger affective impact and harming others and the self is perceived a means to alleviate this aversive state. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21578   open full text
  • Hostility, flooding, and relationship satisfaction: Predicting trajectories of psychological aggression across the transition to parenthood.
    Alina Sotskova, Erica M. Woodin, Lisa H. Gou.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 12, 2014
    Psychological aggression has been shown to have harmful effects on both partners, sometimes above and beyond the effects of physical aggression. However, very little is known about psychological aggression during the transition to parenthood. The transition to parenthood is a time where relationship satisfaction often declines and stress increases, which may put the couples at higher risk for psychological aggression. The purpose of this study was to examine if prenatal risk factors related to interpersonal style (specifically, emotional flooding and hostility) predict changes in psychological aggression from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum. Ninety eight couples took part in this study. The couples completed self‐report questionnaires during pregnancy, 1 year postpartum, and 2 years postpartum. Both partners were asked about perpetrating and experiencing psychological aggression in their current relationship. Two level Hierarchical Linear Models (HLMs) were used to examine longitudinal associations between hostility, flooding, and psychological aggression. For women, hostility during pregnancy was a significant longitudinal predictor of psychological aggression. For men, flooding was a significant longitudinal predictor of psychological aggression. For both men and women, relationship satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between flooding/hostility and psychological aggression, indicating that women's hostile attitudes and men's tendency to be flooded tend to erode relationship quality, leading to increases in psychological aggression. This may represent a classic demand‐withdraw dynamic in couples. The results indicate hostility for women and flooding for men are potential prenatal risk factors for future psychological aggression. Implications and future research directions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1–16, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21570   open full text
  • On the psychometric properties of the aggressiveness‐IAT for children and adolescents.
    Gunnar Lemmer, Mario Gollwitzer, Rainer Banse.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 12, 2014
    In research on aggression, implicit association tests (IATs) have been constructed to elucidate automatic processes involved in aggressiveness. Despite an increasing number of applications of the “Aggressiveness‐IAT” in basic and applied research, the psychometric properties of this method for measuring an automatic aggressive self‐concept have not been comprehensively investigated. Although the Aggressiveness‐IAT has been used both as a cross‐situationally consistent trait measure and as a measure to indicate situational changes, prior studies have not tested to what extent it reliably captures a stable trait vs. an occasion‐specific aggressive self‐concept. The present research scrutinizes the psychometric properties of the Aggressiveness‐IAT by addressing two issues. First, we tested the reliability, consistency, and occasion specificity of the Aggressiveness‐IAT in a longitudinal panel study with four waves and 574 Austrian school children/adolescents by applying latent‐state trait (LST) theory. Second, we validated latent trait scores of the IAT vis‐à‐vis other measures either clearly related to aggression or not. Results demonstrate that 20–30% of the variance in children's and adolescents' IAT scores is situation‐unspecific (i.e., “stable”), whereas 36–50% are situation‐specific. Regarding its construct validity, the Aggressiveness‐IAT is correlated with explicit measures of aggression and related constructs, but it is not associated with discriminant variables (e.g., school achievement). Implications for using the Aggressiveness‐IAT are discussed in the light of these findings. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1–12, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21575   open full text
  • Predicting aggressive behavior with the aggressiveness‐IAT.
    Rainer Banse, Mario Messer, Ilka Fischer.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 12, 2014
    The Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was adapted to assess the automatically activated (implicit) self‐concept of aggressiveness. In three studies the validity of the Aggressiveness‐IAT (Agg‐IAT) was supported by substantial correlations with self‐report measures of aggressiveness. After controlling for self‐report measures of aggressiveness, the Agg‐IAT accounted for 9–15% of the variance of three different indicators of aggressive behavior across three studies. To further explore the nomological network around the Agg‐IAT we investigated its correlations with measures of social desirability (SD). Although not fully conclusive, the results across four studies provided some support for a weak negative correlation between impression management SD and aggressive behavior as well as the Agg‐IAT. This result is in line with an interpersonally oriented self‐control account of impression management SD. Individuals with high SD scores seem to behave less aggressively, and to show lower Agg‐IAT scores. The one‐week stability of the Agg‐IAT was r = .58 in Study 4. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21574   open full text
  • They made you perfect: A test of the Social Reaction Model of Perfectionism.
    Wilson Claire, Simon C. Hunter, Susan Rasmussen, Allison McGowan.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 09, 2014
    Perfectionism serves as a mediator in the relationship between difficult life experiences and psychological distress, but to date no research has examined the effect of recalled peer victimization on perfectionism and adult depressive symptomatology (DS). The present study assessed the Social Reaction Model of Perfectionism (SRMP; Flett, Hewitt, Oliver, & Macdonald (2002b). Perfectionism in children and their parents: A developmental analysis. In G. L. Flett and P. L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 89–132). Washington: American Psychological Association), which proposes that perfectionism (self‐oriented, other‐oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism) results from harsh experiences. This may include experiences of peer victimization (physical, verbal and indirect). The model was extended to also include adult DS and rumination (brooding and reflection). Self‐report questionnaires measuring recalled childhood experiences of peer victimization (Owens, Daly, & Slee (2005). Aggressive Behavior, 31, 1–12. doi: 10.1002/ab.20045), current trait perfectionism (Hewitt & Flett (1991). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022‐3514.60.3.456), rumination (Nolen‐Hoeksema & Morrow (1991). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115–121. doi: 10.1037/0022‐3514.61.1.115) and DS (Radloff (1977). Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 386–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306) were completed by 338 adult participants (54% female). Path‐analyses revealed recalled indirect victimization to be associated with adults' self‐oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. However, only socially prescribed perfectionism mediated the relation between recalled indirect victimization and adult DS. Brooding rumination also mediated the effect of socially prescribed perfectionism upon DS. The findings support the SRMP, and extend the theory to include the effects of perfectionism on rumination and DS. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1–11, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 09, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21572   open full text
  • Identifying unique and shared risk factors for physical intimate partner violence and clinically‐significant physical intimate partner violence.
    Amy M. Smith Slep, Heather M. Foran, Richard E. Heyman, Jeffery D. Snarr, USAF Family Advocacy Research Program.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 04, 2014
    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern. To date, risk factor research has not differentiated physical violence that leads to injury and/or fear (i.e., clinically significant IPV; CS‐IPV) from general physical IPV. Isolating risk relations is necessary to best inform prevention and treatment efforts. The current study used an ecological framework and evaluated relations of likely risk factors within individual, family, workplace, and community levels with both CS‐IPV and general IPV to determine whether they were related to one type of IPV, both, or neither for both men and women. Probable risk and promotive factors from multiple ecological levels of influence were selected from the literature and assessed, along with CS‐IPV and general IPV, via an anonymous, web‐based survey. The sample comprised US Air Force (AF) active duty members and civilian spouses (total N = 36,861 men; 24,331 women) from 82 sites worldwide. Relationship satisfaction, age, and alcohol problems were identified as unique risk factors (in the context of the 23 other risk factors examined) across IPV and CS‐IPV for men and women. Other unique risk factors were identified that differed in prediction of IPV and CS‐IPV. The results suggest a variety of both established and novel potential foci for indirectly targeting partner aggression and clinically‐significant IPV by improving people's risk profiles at the individual, family, workplace, and community levels. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 04, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21565   open full text
  • Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.
    Suzanne Brugman, Jill Lobbestael, Arnoud Arntz, Maaike Cima, Teresa Schuhmann, Franziska Dambacher, Alexander T. Sack.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 02, 2014
    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non‐clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single‐Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self‐reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self‐aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self‐reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 02, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21573   open full text
  • An item response theory analysis of the Olweus Bullying scale.
    Kyrre Breivik, Dan Olweus.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 02, 2014
    In the present article, we used IRT (graded response) modeling as a useful technology for a detailed and refined study of the psychometric properties of the various items of the Olweus Bullying scale and the scale itself. The sample consisted of a very large number of Norwegian 4th–10th grade students (n = 48 926). The IRT analyses revealed that the scale was essentially unidimensional and had excellent reliability in the upper ranges of the latent bullying tendency trait, as intended and desired. Gender DIF effects were identified with regard to girls' use of indirect bullying by social exclusion and boys' use of physical bullying by hitting and kicking but these effects were small and worked in opposite directions, having negligible effects at the scale level. Also scale scores adjusted for DIF effects differed very little from non‐adjusted scores. In conclusion, the empirical data were well characterized by the chosen IRT model and the Olweus Bullying scale was considered well suited for the conduct of fair and reliable comparisons involving different gender‐age groups. Information Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 02, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21571   open full text
  • Interparental violence and maternal mood disorders as predictors of adolescent physical aggression within the family.
    Angela J. Narayan, Muzi Chen, Pedro P. Martinez, Philip W. Gold, Bonnie Klimes‐Dougan.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 22, 2014
    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents' physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high‐risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 22, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21569   open full text
  • Five‐year‐olds punish antisocial adults.
    Ben Kenward, Therese Östh.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 18, 2014
    The human tendency to impose costs on those who have behaved antisocially towards third parties (third‐party punishment) has a formative influence on societies, yet very few studies of the development of this tendency exist. In most studies where young children have punished, participants have imposed costs on puppets, leaving open the question as to whether young children punish in real third‐party situations. Here, five‐year‐olds were given the opportunity to allocate desirable or unpleasant items to antisocial and neutral adults, who were presented as real and shown on video. Neutral individuals were almost always allocated only desirable items. Antisocial individuals were instead usually allocated unpleasant items, as long as participants were told they would give anonymously. Most participants who were instead told they would give in person did not allocate unpleasant items, although a minority did so. This indicates that the children interpreted the situation as real, and that whereas they genuinely desired to punish antisocial adults, they did not usually dare do so in person. Boys punished more frequently than girls. The willingness of preschoolers to spontaneously engage in third‐party punishment, occasionally even risking the social costs of antagonizing an anti‐social adult, demonstrates a deep‐seated early‐developing punitive sentiment in humans. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 18, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21568   open full text
  • Emotion regulation deficits in intermittent explosive disorder.
    Karla C. Fettich, Michael S. McCloskey, Amy E. Look, Emil F. Coccaro.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 17, 2014
    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by repeated acts of affective aggression. Despite the diagnostic emphasis on the failure to control aggressive impulses, there is little research on affective processes and emotion regulation in IED; however, this research suggests possible dysfunctions in experiences of emotional intensity and lability. The hypothesis in the present study was that compared to individuals with other psychiatric disorders, and psychologically healthy individuals, individuals with IED experience greater negative affect intensity and emotional lability. Participants (N = 373) consisted of 202 individuals diagnosed with IED, 68 non‐IED psychiatric controls (PC), and 103 healthy volunteers (HV). Emotion regulation was assessed using the General Behavior Inventory, the Affective Lability Scale, and the Affect Intensity Measure. Results showed that IED participants reported greater negative affect intensity and greater emotional lability across several emotion domains (e.g., anger, anxiety, depression) than PC and HV participants. These findings suggest that IED is characterized by more global emotion regulation deficits than those associated with anger alone. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1–9, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 17, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21566   open full text
  • Meta‐analytic results of ethnic group differences in peer victimization.
    Irene Vitoroulis, Tracy Vaillancourt.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 12, 2014
    Research on the prevalence of peer victimization across ethnicities indicates that no one group is consistently at higher risk. In the present two meta‐analyses representing 692,548 children and adolescents (age 6–18 years), we examined ethnic group differences in peer victimization at school by including studies with (a) ethnic majority–minority group comparisons (k = 24), and (b) White and Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Aboriginal comparisons (k = 81). Methodological moderating effects (measure type, definition of bullying, publication type and year, age, and country) were examined in both analyses. Using Cohen's d, results indicated a null effect size for the ethnic majority–minority group comparison. Moderator analyses indicated that ethnic majority youth experienced more peer victimization than ethnic minorities in the US (d = .23). The analysis on multiple group comparisons between White and Black (d = .02), Hispanic (d = .08), Asian (d = .05), Aboriginal (d = −.02) and Biracial (d = −.05) groups indicated small effect sizes. Overall, results from the main and moderator analyses yielded small effects of ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity assessed as a demographic variable is not an adequate indicator for addressing ethnic group differences in peer victimization. Although few notable differences were found between White and non‐White groups regarding rates of peer victimization, certain societal and methodological limitations in the assessment of peer victimization may underestimate differences between ethnicities. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21564   open full text
  • Factors associated with use of verbally coercive, incapacitated, and forcible sexual assault tactics in a longitudinal study of college men.
    Heidi M. Zinzow, Martie Thompson.
    Aggressive Behavior. November 12, 2014
    Although verbally coerced and incapacitated sexual assaults are common, less is known about perpetrators of these incidents in comparison to perpetrators of forcible assaults. Furthermore, few studies have investigated factors that differentiate perpetrators who employ different forms of sexual assault tactics. The current study included 526 men who completed self‐report inventories at the end of each of their four years in college. Measures assessed sexual assault tactics, demographics, incident characteristics, risky behavior, rape supportive beliefs and peer norms, antisocial traits, and childhood adversity. Perpetrators were grouped based on the most severe tactics reported over the course of 7 assessed time periods, with 13% in the verbal coercion group, 16% in the incapacitation group, and 5% in the forcible group. ANOVAs determined that the forcible group scored significantly higher than incapacitation and verbal coercion groups on risky behavior, rape supportive beliefs/norms, antisocial traits, and childhood adversity. The incapacitation group scored higher than the verbal coercion group on risky behavior. In a multinomial logistic regression analysis comparing tactic groups to non‐perpetrators, all tactic groups scored significantly higher on risky behavior and rape supportive beliefs/norms, and the forcible group scored higher on antisocial traits and childhood adversity. Perpetrators in the forcible group had engaged in more repeat offenses, and perpetrators of both the incapacitated and forcible assaults were more likely to use alcohol before the incident. Findings highlight the need for interventions that are tailored to offense trajectories, alter rape supportive attitudes and peer norms, and decrease campus substance use. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    November 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/AB.21567   open full text
  • A self‐report measure of legal and administrative aggression within intimate relationships.
    Denise A. Hines, Emily M. Douglas, Joshua L. Berger.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 31, 2014
    Although experts agree that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a multidimensional phenomenon comprised of both physical and non‐physical acts, there is no measure of legal and administrative (LA) forms of IPV. LA aggression is when one partner manipulates the legal and other administrative systems to the detriment of his/her partner. Our measure was developed using the qualitative literature on male IPV victims' experiences. We tested the reliability and validity of our LA aggression measure on two samples of men: 611 men who sustained IPV and sought help, and 1,601 men in a population‐based sample. Construct validity of the victimization scale was supported through factor analyses, correlations with other forms of IPV victimization, and comparisons of the rates of LA aggression between the two samples; reliability was established through Cronbach's alpha. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the perpetration scale was mixed and therefore needs further analyses and revisions before we can recommend its use in empirical work. There is initial support for the victimization scale as a valid and reliable measure of LA aggression victimization among men, but work is needed using women's victimization's experiences to establish reliability and validity of this measure for women. An LA aggression measure should be developed using LGBTQ victims' experiences, and for couples who are well into the divorce and child custody legal process. Legal personnel and practitioners should be educated on this form of IPV so that they can appropriately work with clients who have been victimized or perpetrate LA aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 31, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21540   open full text
  • Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.
    Samuel E. Ehrenreich, Kurt J. Beron, Dawn Y. Brinkley, Marion K. Underwood.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 28, 2014
    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group‐based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low‐, medium‐, and high‐desisting for social aggression, and stably‐low, stably‐medium, and high‐desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single‐parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium‐desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 28, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21535   open full text
  • Bullying in preschool: The associations between participant roles, social competence, and social preference.
    Marina Camodeca, Simona C.S. Caravita, Gabrielle Coppola.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 28, 2014
    The different roles of bullying participation (bully, follower, victim, defender of the victim, and outsider) have not been investigated in preschool children. The aims of this study were to use a peer‐report measure to assess these roles and to investigate their associations with social competence among pre‐schoolers. We also explored whether status among peers, indicated by being socially preferred, mediates the relationship between social competence and bullying roles. Three hundred twenty 3‐ to 6‐year‐old children participated in the study. Bullying roles and social preference were assessed by means of peer reports, whereas social competence was investigated with a Q‐Sort methodology, based on observations in classrooms. Bullying was also assessed by means of teacher reports. The results showed quite a clear distinction among roles and a correspondence between peer and teacher assessments, except for the role of outsider. The role of defender was positively associated with social competence, whereas the other roles were negatively associated. In a subsample, social preference statistically predicted the role of bully and mediated between social competence and bullying. The findings are discussed in terms of the importance of assessing bullying and its correlates at a very young age, although roles may further develop when children grow up. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 28, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21541   open full text
  • Personal characteristics and contextual factors that determine “helping,” “joining in,” and “doing nothing” when witnessing cyberbullying.
    Katrien Van Cleemput, Heidi Vandebosch, Sara Pabian.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 16, 2014
    In this article, we investigated several determinants of bystanders' reactive behaviors when confronted with cyberbullying using self‐reported data from 2,333 Flemish 9–16 year olds. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents that had joined in on the cyberbullying were older, had lower levels of empathy and were more likely to have been involved in cyberbullying or traditional bullying as perpetrators. Adolescents who had helped the victim were younger, had higher levels of empathy and were more likely to have been a victim of cyberbullying or traditional bullying in the past months. Adolescents that did nothing when they witnessed cyberbullying, were also older, showed lower levels of empathy and were less likely to have been a victim of traditional bullying. Social anxiety was not related to joining in, helping and remaining passive. In the second part of the analysis, we found that bystanders' passive behavior could be explained in more detail by moral disengagement theory and other contextual factors. In the discussion, the implications of the findings for research on cyberbullying are addressed. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 16, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21534   open full text
  • Twenty‐eight years after the complete ban on the physical punishment of children in Finland: Trends and psychosocial concomitants.
    Karin Österman, Kaj Björkqvist, Kristian Wahlbeck.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 08, 2014
    In 1983 Finland became the second country in the world, after Sweden, to adopt a law prohibiting all kinds of physical punishment towards children, also by parents. The present investigation was carried out in 2011, 28 years after the law was adopted. Changes in exposure to various types of physical punishment towards respondents born between 1931 and 1996 are presented. A representative sample from Western Finland, consisting of 4,609 respondents (2,632 females, 1,977 males) between 15 and 80 years, filled in a paper‐and‐pencil questionnaire. A number of psychosocial concomitants were measured. The results showed a significant drop in reports of being slapped and beaten with an object among respondents who were born after the law was adopted. The decline in physical punishment was associated with a similar decline in the number of murdered children. Respondents who had been exposed to higher amounts of physical punishment than average scored significantly higher on alcohol abuse, depression, mental health problems, and schizotypal personality. Divorced respondents had been significantly more physically punished than others. Respondents who had attempted suicide during the last 12 months had been exposed to physical punishment during childhood significantly more often than those who had not attempted suicide. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21537   open full text
  • Relationship between psychopathy, aggression, anger, impulsivity, and intermittent explosive disorder.
    Emil F. Coccaro, Royce Lee, Michael S. McCloskey.
    Aggressive Behavior. April 23, 2014
    Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) in DSM‐5 represents a disorder of recurrent, problematic, reactive (i.e., affective or impulsive), aggressive behavior that, over the lifetime, affects about 5–6% of individuals in the United States. While aggression is also observed in those with psychopathic personality, aggression in this context is frequently proactive rather than reactive, and neurobiological study suggests important differences between those with proactive aggression/psychopathy and those with reactive aggression. In this paper, we conducted two sets of analyses. First, a phenomenologic study to explore the frequency of psychopathic personality defined by the Psychopathology Checklist‐Screening Version (PCL‐SV) among IED and comparator participants and to explore differences in measures of aggression, anger, and impulsivity as a function of IED and psychopathic personality. Second, we re‐analyzed data from five published studies to determine if psychopathic personality accounted for differences between IED and comparator participants. The first study found that only a modest proportion of IED participants display clinically substantial features of psychopathy and that measures of trait aggression and anger, rather than those of psychopathy, are the strongest correlates of IED. The second study found little evidence for any impact of psychopathy on reported findings in IED compared with various control participants. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21536   open full text
  • Daily associations among self‐control, heavy episodic drinking, and relationship functioning: An examination of actor and partner effects.
    Cory A. Crane, Maria Testa, Jaye L. Derrick, Kenneth E. Leonard.
    Aggressive Behavior. April 03, 2014
    An emerging literature suggests that temporary deficits in the ability to inhibit impulsive urges may be proximally associated with intimate partner aggression. The current study examined the experience of alcohol use and the depletion of self‐control in the prediction of relationship functioning. Daily diary data collected from 118 heterosexual couples were analyzed using parallel multi‐level Actor–Partner Interdependence Models to assess the effects of heavy episodic drinking and depletion of self‐control across partners on outcomes of participant‐reported daily arguing with and anger toward an intimate partner. Heavy episodic drinking among actors predicted greater arguing but failed to interact with either actor or partner depletion. We also found that greater arguing was reported on days of high congruent actor and partner depletion. Both actor and partner depletion, as well as their interaction, predicted greater partner‐specific anger. The current results highlight the importance of independently assessing partner effects (i.e., depletion of self‐control), which interact dynamically with disinhibiting actor effects, in the prediction of daily adverse relationship functioning. Results offer further support for the development of prospective individualized and couples‐based interventions for partner conflict. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    April 03, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21533   open full text
  • Article title for AB28005: The Impact of Liquidity on Option Prices.
    Doojin Ryu.
    Aggressive Behavior. March 03, 2014
    This study examines the intraday formation process of transaction prices and bid–ask spreads in theKOSPI 200 futures market. By extending the structural model ofMadhavan,Richardson, andRoomans (1997), I develop a unique cross‐market model that can decompose spread components and explain intraday price formation for the futures market by using the order flow information from theKOSPI 200 options market, which is a market that is closely related to the futures market as well as considered to be one of the most remarkable options market in the world. The empirical results indicate that the model implied spread and the permanent component of the spread that results from informed trading tend to be underestimated without the inclusion of options market information. Furthermore, the results imply that trades of in‐the‐money options, which have high delta values, generally incur a more adverse information cost component (the permanent spread component) of the futures market than those of out‐of‐the‐money options, which have relatively low delta values. Finally, I find that the adverse information cost component that is estimated from the cross‐market model exhibits a nearlyU‐shape intraday pattern; however, it sharply decreases at the end of the trading day.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.28005   open full text
  • Employing music exposure to reduce prejudice and discrimination.
    Tobias Greitemeyer, Anne Schwab.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 25, 2014
    Whereas previous research has mainly focused on negative effects of listening to music on intergroup attitudes and behavior, the present three experiments examined whether music exposure could reduce prejudice and discrimination. In fact, those participants who had listened to songs with pro‐integration (relative to neutral) lyrics expressed less prejudice (Studies 1 and 3) and were less aggressive against (Study 2) and more helpful toward an outgroup member (Study 3). These effects were unaffected by song liking as well as mood and arousal properties of the songs employed, suggesting that it is indeed the pro‐integration content of the lyrics that drives the effects. It is discussed to what extent music exposure could be employed to effectively reduce prejudice and discrimination in the real world. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 25, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21531   open full text
  • Real‐time hostile attribution measurement and aggression in children.
    Anna Yaros, John E. Lochman, Jill Rosenbaum, Luis Alberto Jimenez‐Camargo.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 20, 2014
    Hostile attributions are an important predictor of aggression in children, but few studies have measured hostile attributions as they occur in real‐time. The current study uses an interactive video racing game to measure hostile attributions while children played against a presumed peer. A sample of 75 children, ages 10–13, used nonverbal and verbal procedures to respond to ambiguous provocation by their opponent. Hostile attributions were significantly positively related to parent‐rated reactive aggression, when controlling for proactive aggression. Hostile attributions using a nonverbal response procedure were negatively related to proactive aggression, when controlling for reactive aggression. Results suggest hostile attributions in real‐time occur quickly and simultaneously with social interaction, which differs from the deliberative, controlled appraisals measured with vignette‐based instruments. The relation between real‐time hostile attributions and reactive aggression could be accounted for by the impulsive response style that is characteristic of reactive aggression, whereas children exhibiting proactive aggression may be more deliberate and intentional in their responding, resulting in a negative relation with real‐time hostile attributions. These findings can be used both to identify children at risk for aggression and to enhance preventive interventions. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 20, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21532   open full text
  • Sex differences in aggression among children of low and high gender inequality backgrounds: A comparison of gender role and sexual selection theories.
    Amy E. Nivette, Manuel Eisner, Tina Malti, Denis Ribeaud.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 13, 2014
    It is well understood in aggression research that males tend to exhibit higher levels of physical aggression than females. Yet there are still a number of gaps in our understanding of variation in sex differences in children's aggression, particularly in contexts outside North America. A key assumption of social role theory is that sex differences vary according to gender polarization, whereas sexual selection theory accords variation to the ecological environment that consequently affects male competition [Archer, J. (2009). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 249–311; Kenrick, D., & Griskevicious, V. (2009). More holes in social roles [Comment]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 283–285]. In the present paper, we explore these contradicting theoretical frameworks by examining data from a longitudinal study of a culturally diverse sample of 863 children at ages 7–13 in Zurich, Switzerland. Making use of the large proportion of children from highly diverse immigrant background we compare the size of the sex difference in aggression between children whose parents were born in countries with low and with high levels of gender inequality. The results show that sex differences in aggression are generally larger among children with parents from high gender inequality backgrounds. However, this effect is small in comparison to the direct effect of a child's biological sex. We discuss implications for future research on sex differences in children's aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1–14, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 13, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21530   open full text
  • Does the gender of the bully/victim dyad and the type of bullying influence children's responses to a bullying incident?
    Claire L. Fox, Siân E. Jones, Chris E. Stiff, Jayde Sayers.
    Aggressive Behavior. February 07, 2014
    Children's responses to bullying are context related; they will vary depending on the specific bullying episode. The aim of the present study was to explore whether children's responses to bullying vary depending on the gender of the bully and victim and the type of bullying portrayed. In total, 437 children aged 9–11 years from four primary schools in the UK took part in the study. Each child read a story about one child bullying another. There were 12 different versions of the story, varying the type of bullying (verbal, physical, or relational/indirect) and the gender of the bully and victim (i.e., male bully—female victim, female bully—male victim, male bully—male victim, female bully—female victim). Each child was randomly allocated to one of the 12 stories. After reading the story the children then responded to a series of questions to assess their perceptions of the victim and bully and situation. Overall females liked the bully more than males; females also reported liking the female victim more than the male victim and females were more likely than males to intervene with a female victim. The bullying was viewed as more serious, more sympathy was shown to the victim, and there was a greater likelihood of intervention when the incident involved a female bully. There was less liking for the bully if the situation involved a female victim of physical bullying. The findings are explained in terms of social identity theory and social norms about typical male and female behavior. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    February 07, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21529   open full text
  • Low heart rate as a risk factor for child and adolescent proactive aggressive and impulsive psychopathic behavior.
    Adrian Raine, Annis Lai Chu Fung, Jill Portnoy, Olivia Choy, Victoria L. Spring.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 31, 2014
    Although low resting heart rate has been viewed as a well‐replicated biological correlate of child and adolescent antisocial behavior, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to both reactive–proactive aggression and psychopathy, and whether this relationship generalizes to an East Asian population. This study tests the hypothesis that low resting heart rate will be associated with aggression and psychopathic traits, and that heart rate will interact with adversity in predisposing to these antisocial traits. Resting heart rate was assessed in 334 Hong Kong male and female schoolchildren aged 11–17 years. A social adversity index was calculated from a psychosocial interview of the parent, while parents assessed their children on the Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire and the Antisocial Personality Screening Device. Low resting heart rate was significantly associated with higher proactive aggression, impulsive features of psychopathy, and total child psychopathy. Low resting heart rate interacted with high psychosocial adversity in explaining higher reactive (but not proactive) aggression, as well as impulsive psychopathy. These findings provide support for a biosocial perspective of reactive aggression and impulsive psychopathy, and document low resting heart rate as a robust correlate of both childhood impulsive psychopathic behavior and proactive aggression. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document low resting heart rate as a correlate of child psychopathy and the second to establish low heart rate as a risk factor of antisocial behavior in an East Asian population. The findings provide further evidence for both low resting heart rate as a potential biomarker for childhood psychopathic and aggressive behavior, and also a biosocial perspective on childhood antisocial behavior. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 31, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21523   open full text
  • Cross‐sectional associations between violent video and computer game playing and weapon carrying in a national cohort of children.
    Michele L. Ybarra, L. Rowell Huesmann, Josephine D. Korchmaros, Sari L. Reisner.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 24, 2014
    Data were collected from 9 to 18 year olds surveyed nationally in a three‐wave longitudinal survey. The population‐average (generalized estimating equation, GEE) odds of carrying a weapon to school in the last month were estimated as a function of past‐year exposure to violent content in video, computer, and Internet games, as well as peer aggression and biological sex. The sample included youth who were at risk for both the exposure (i.e., game play) and the outcome (i.e., who attended public or private school). 3,397 observations from 1,489 youth were included in analyses. 1.4% of youth reported carrying a weapon to school in the last month and 69% reported that at least some of the games they played depicted violence. After adjusting for other potentially influential characteristics (e.g., aggressive behavior), playing at least some violent games in the past year was associated with a fourfold increase in odds of also reporting carrying a weapon to school in the last month. Although youth who reported frequent and intense peer victimization in the past year were more likely to report carrying a weapon to school in the last month, this relation was explained by other influential characteristics. Consistent with the predictions of social‐cognitive, observational learning theory, this study supports the hypothesis that carrying weapons to school is associated with violent game play. As one of the first studies of its kind, findings should be interpreted cautiously and need to be replicated. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21526   open full text
  • Aggression and aspects of impulsivity in wild‐type rats.
    Caroline M. Coppens, Sietse F. de Boer, Bauke Buwalda, Jaap M. Koolhaas.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 24, 2014
    Aggression is closely related to impulsive behavior both in humans and in animals. To avoid potential negative consequences, aggressive behavior is kept in control by strong inhibitory mechanisms. Failure of these inhibitory mechanisms results in violent behavior. In the present experiments, we investigated whether aggressive behavior is related to impulsive behavior. Furthermore, we investigated if violent behavior can be distinguished from “normal” aggressive behavior in terms of impulsivity levels. We used rats of the wild‐type Groningen strain, rats of this strain differ widely in their level of offensive aggression expressed toward an unfamiliar intruder male, ranging from no aggression at all to very high levels of intense and sometimes violent behavior. Violent behavior was displayed by some of the animals that were given repeated winning experience. We used behavioral performance in an unpredictable operant conditioning paradigm for food reinforcement (variable interval 15) and performance in a differential‐reinforcement of low rate (DRL‐60s) responding as determinants for impulsivity. We predicted that offensive aggression is correlated with behavioral flexibility measured by the VI‐15 procedure and that aggressive behavior is characterized by low behavioral inhibition on the DRL task. In addition we expected that violent animals would be characterized by extremely low levels of behavioral inhibition on the DRL task. We showed that the level of offensive aggression indeed positively correlated with VI‐15 performance. In addition, we showed that behavioral performance on the DRL procedure is similar in low and high aggressive rats. However, violent animals can be dissociated by a lower efficiency of lever pressing on a DRL‐60s schedule of reinforcement. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21527   open full text
  • Hazardous alcohol use and intimate partner aggression among dating couples: The role of impulse control difficulties.
    Laura E. Watkins, Rosalita C. Maldonado, David DiLillo.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 24, 2014
    To date, research identifying moderators of the alcohol–intimate partner aggression (IPA) relationship has focused almost exclusively on male‐perpetrated aggression, without accounting for the dyadic processes of IPA. The current study examined hazardous alcohol use and impulse control difficulties as predictors of IPA among a sample of 73 heterosexual dating couples. Both actor and partner effects of these risk factors on physical and psychological aggression were examined. Results indicated that impulse control difficulties were an important actor and partner predictor of both physical and psychological aggression. Findings supported the multiple threshold model such that the interaction between impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use significantly predicted physical aggression severity. These results suggest the importance of targeting impulse control difficulties and hazardous alcohol use in IPA treatment, as well as the advantages of examining risk factors of IPA within a dyadic rather than individual framework. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21528   open full text
  • An ethnographic study of participant roles in school bullying.
    Thomas P. Gumpel, Vered Zioni‐Koren, Zvi Bekerman.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 22, 2014
    An ethnographic study in a 10th grade remedial class was undertaken in order to discern patterns of school bullying. Twenty 10th graders were observed over the course of one academic year as they interacted with their peers and teachers. The observations helped us identify dispositional and situational factors which influenced participant roles. In‐depth interviews of students involved in school bullying showed how participants interpreted and explained their classroom behaviors. The analysis of the data gathered allowed the identification of four main actor roles recognized in the existing literature on bullying—the pure victim, the pure bully, the provocative‐victim, and the bystander—as well as the differentiation between aggressive bullies and the bully managers. Most roles fluctuated according to specific circumstances and often appeared to be moderated by the teacher's management style and contextual variables. Some pupils assumed different roles in different contexts, sometimes changing roles within or between episodes. Teacher personality and style also had an impact on the frequencies and types of aggression and victimization. The use of an ethnographic research paradigm is discussed as an important supplement to positivistic studies of school bullying. Aggr. Behav. 40:214–228, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 22, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21515   open full text
  • The role of attention problems and impulsiveness in media violence effects on aggression.
    Edward L. Swing, Craig A. Anderson.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 22, 2014
    Previous research has established media violence as a causal risk factor for aggressive behavior. Several theoretical mechanisms have been identified to explain this effect. The present study assessed 422 undergraduate students to test the possibility that individual differences in attention problems and impulsiveness can help explain the link between violent media and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness proved to be a distinct construct from other processes believed to mediate aggression (aggressive beliefs, aggression related schemata, trait anger, and trait hostility). Attention problems and impulsiveness were uniquely related to both media exposure (total weekly hours and violent content) and aggression. Attention problems and impulsiveness were particularly related to impulsive (as opposed to premeditated) aggression. These results suggest that attention problems and impulsiveness may play an important role in violent media effects on aggression. Aggr. Behav. 40:197–203, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 22, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21519   open full text
  • The animal in you: Animalistic descriptions of a violent crime increase punishment of perpetrator.
    Eduardo A. Vasquez, Steve Loughnan, Ellis Gootjes‐Dreesbach, Ulrich Weger.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 22, 2014
    Criminal acts are sometimes described using animal metaphors. What is the impact of a violent crime being described in an animalistic versus a non‐animalistic way on the subsequent retribution toward the perpetrator? In two studies, we experimentally varied animalistic descriptions of a violent crime and examined its effect on the severity of the punishment for the act. In Study 1, we showed that compared to non‐animalistic descriptions, animalistic descriptions resulted in significantly harsher punishment for the perpetrator. In Study 2, we replicated this effect and further demonstrated that this harsher sentencing is explained by an increase in perceived risk of recidivism. Our findings suggest that animalistic descriptions of crimes lead to more retaliation against the perpetrator by inducing the perception that he is likely to continue engaging in violence. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 22, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21525   open full text
  • Social influence and bullying behavior: Intervention‐based network dynamics of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program.
    Ralf Wölfer, Herbert Scheithauer.
    Aggressive Behavior. January 10, 2014
    Bullying is a social phenomenon and although preventive interventions consequently address social mechanisms, evaluations hardly consider the complexity of peer processes. Therefore, the present study analyzes the efficacy of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program from a social network perspective. Within a pretest–posttest control group design, longitudinal data were available from 328 middle‐school students (MAge = 13.7 years; 51% girls), who provided information on bullying behavior and interaction patterns. The revealed network parameters were utilized to examine the network change (MANCOVA) and the network dynamics (SIENA). Across both forms of analyses, findings revealed the hypothesized intervention‐based decrease of bullies' social influence. Hence the present bullying prevention program, as one example of programs that successfully addresses both individual skills and social mechanisms, demonstrates the desired effect of reducing contextual opportunities for the exhibition of bullying behavior. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ab.21524   open full text
  • Dehumanization in children: The link with moral disengagement in bullying and victimization.
    Tirza H.J. van Noorden, Gerbert J.T. Haselager, Antonius H.N. Cillessen, William M. Bukowski.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 27, 2013
    The current study explored subtle dehumanization—the denial of full humanness—in children, using distinctions of forms (i.e., animalistic vs. mechanistic) and social targets (i.e., friends vs. non‐friends). In addition, the link between dehumanization and moral disengagement in bullying and victimization was investigated. Participants were 800 children (7–12 years old) from third to fifth grade classrooms. Subtle animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization toward friends and non‐friends were measured with the new Juvenile Dehumanization Measure. Results showed that animalistic dehumanization was more common than mechanistic dehumanization and that non‐friends were dehumanized more than friends. The highest levels of dehumanization were found in animalistic form toward non‐friends and the lowest levels in mechanistic form toward friends. Both moral disengagement and animalistic dehumanization toward friends were positively associated with bullying. However, moral disengagement was negatively associated with victimization, whereas both animalistic and mechanistic dehumanization toward non‐friends were positively associated with victimization. The current findings indicate that children are able to distinguish different forms and targets of dehumanization and that dehumanization plays a distinct role from moral disengagement in bullying and victimization. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 27, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21522   open full text
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.
    Chen Chen, Chun Li, Hong Wang, Jian‐Jun Ou, Jian‐Song Zhou, Xiao‐Ping Wang.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 24, 2013
    This 9‐week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive‐behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty‐six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale‐11 (BIS‐11) and Cook–Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between‐group differences in change of MOAS total score (P < .001) and all sub‐scores (Ps < .01) except aggression against property. Between‐group differences were also observed in change of BIS‐11 and CMHS total score (Ps < 0.05). All results favored the WLST group. These findings suggest WLST has the potential to be an effective intervention to reduce overt aggressive behavior in young male violent offenders. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 24, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21521   open full text
  • Developmental trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood: Relationship with using weapons including guns.
    Judith S. Brook, Jung Yeon Lee, Stephen J. Finch, David W. Brook.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 16, 2013
    This is the first study to assess the associations between the trajectories of marijuana use and other predictors of violent behavior with the use of guns or other weapons as well as stealing without the use of weapons among inner‐city African Americans and Puerto Ricans (N = 838). Logistic regression analyses examined whether the longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use compared with the trajectory of no/low marijuana use predicted violent behavior. A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the increasing marijuana use trajectory group (AOR = 3.37, P < .001), the moderate use of marijuana trajectory group (AOR = 1.98, P < .01), and the quitter trajectory group (AOR = 1.70, P < .05) was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in violence (i.e., shooting or hitting someone with a weapon) compared with the BPP of the no use of marijuana trajectory group. Our results address a number of important public health and clinical issues. Public health funds might be spent on prevention programs focused on decreasing the use of marijuana, increasing educational retention, and decreasing contact with deviant associates. Understanding the psychosocial conditions related to the use of weapons is critical for individuals involved in the criminal justice system, physicians, and other health care providers in managing individuals who engage in violent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 40:229–237, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 16, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21520   open full text
  • Reducing aggressive intergroup action tendencies: Effects of intergroup contact via perceived intergroup threat.
    Katharina Schmid, Miles Hewstone, Beate Küpper, Andreas Zick, Nicole Tausch.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 11, 2013
    Two studies tested the prediction that more positive intergroup contact would be associated with reduced aggressive intergroup action tendencies, an effect predicted to occur indirectly via reduced intergroup threat perceptions, and over and above well‐established effects of contact on intergroup attitudes. Study 1, using data based on a cross‐section of the general population of eight European countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and the UK; N = 7,042), examined this hypothesis in the context of aggressive action tendencies towards immigrants. Study 2, using longitudinal data obtained from a general population sample in Northern Ireland, considered effects on aggressive action tendencies between ethno‐religious groups in conflict. Both studies confirmed our predictions, showing that while perceived threat was associated with greater intergroup aggressive tendencies, positive intergroup contact was indirectly associated with reduced aggressive action tendencies, via reduced intergroup threat. Findings are discussed in terms of the theoretical contributions of this research for understanding the relationship between intergroup contact and intergroup aggression. Aggr. Behav. 40:250–262, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 11, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21516   open full text
  • Aggressive effects of prioritizing popularity in early adolescence.
    Antonius H.N. Cillessen, Lara Mayeux, Thao Ha, Eddy H. de Bruyn, Kathryn M. LaFontana.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 11, 2013
    This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the association between early adolescents' popularity and their aggressive, leadership, and prosocial behaviors with peers. Participants were 288 14‐year‐olds from The Netherlands who completed a sociometric instrument and an assessment of how much they prioritized popularity over other personal goals. Results indicated that prioritizing popularity was distinct from actual popularity in the peer group. Further, prioritizing popularity moderated the association of popularity with aggressive and leadership behaviors, with adolescents who were both popular and who prioritized popularity being particularly aggressive and scoring high on leadership behaviors. This trend was especially true for boys. The same moderating effect was not found for prosocial behaviors. Motivational and social‐cognitive factors in the dynamics of peer popularity are highlighted. Aggr. Behav. 40:204–213, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 11, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21518   open full text
  • Adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, relational and physical victimization, and peer liking.
    Yoshito Kawabata, Wan‐Ling Tseng, Nicki R. Crick.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 07, 2013
    A three‐wave longitudinal study among ethnically diverse preadolescents (N = 597 at Time 1, ages 9–11) was conducted to examine adaptive, maladaptive, mediational, and bidirectional processes of relational and physical aggression, victimization, and peer liking indexed by peer acceptance and friendships. A series of nested structural equation models tested the hypothesized links among these peer‐domain factors. It was hypothesized that (1) relational aggression trails both adaptive and maladaptive processes, linking to more peer victimization and more peer liking, whereas physical aggression is maladaptive, resulting in more peer victimization and less peer liking; (2) physical and relational victimization is maladaptive, relating to more aggression and less peer liking; (3) peer liking may be the social context that promotes relational aggression (not physical aggression), whereas peer liking may protect against peer victimization, regardless of its type; and (4) peer liking mediates the link between forms of aggression and forms of peer victimization. Results showed that higher levels of peer liking predicted relative increases in relational aggression (not physical aggression), which in turn led to more peer liking. On the other hand, more peer liking was predictive of relative decreases in relational aggression and relational victimization in transition to the next grade (i.e., fifth grade). In addition, relational victimization predicted relative increases in relational aggression and relative decreases in peer liking. Similarly, physical aggression was consistently and concurrently associated more physical victimization and was marginally predictive of relative increases in physical victimization in transition to the next grade. More peer liking predicted relative decreases in physical victimization, which resulted in lower levels of peer liking. The directionality and magnitude of these paths did not differ between boys and girls. Aggr. Behav. 40:273–287, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 07, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21517   open full text
  • The role of cortisol and psychopathic traits in aggression among at‐risk girls: Tests of mediating hypotheses.
    Laura Stoppelbein, Leilani Greening, Aaron Luebbe, Paula Fite, Stephen P. Becker.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 02, 2013
    Multiple etiological factors (e.g., biological and personality predispositions) have been linked to the development of aggression. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relation between proactive/reactive aggression and biological (HPA‐axis functioning) and personality characteristics (subdimensions of psychopathy) among girls at risk for aggressive behavior. Participants included girls (N = 158) admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient treatment (M age = 9.72; SD = 1.99). Parents completed a measure of proactive/reactive aggression and psychopathy upon admission. Fasting plasma cortisol levels were obtained the morning following the child's admission. Correlational analyses revealed a significant negative correlation between cortisol and the narcissism and impulsivity subdimensions of psychopathy as well as proactive/reactive aggression. A significant positive relation between proactive and reactive aggression and the three subdimensions of psychopathy was also observed. Path analyses revealed that only narcissism was uniquely and positively related to proactive and reactive aggression. Tests of indirect effects from cortisol to aggression through subdimensions of psychopathy indicated significant pathways via narcissism to proactive and reactive aggression. The findings support previous research linking narcissism uniquely to aggression for girls and suggest that the relation between cortisol and proactive/reactive aggression is mediated by narcissism. Aggr. Behav. 40:263–272, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 02, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21513   open full text
  • Testing the direct, indirect, and moderated effects of childhood animal cruelty on future aggressive and non‐aggressive offending.
    Glenn D. Walters.
    Aggressive Behavior. December 02, 2013
    The relationship between childhood cruelty toward animals and subsequent aggressive offending was explored in 1,336 (1,154 male, 182 female) participants from the 11‐wave Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2013). Aggressive and income offending at Waves 1 through 10 were regressed onto a dichotomous measure of prior involvement in animal cruelty and four control variables (age, race, sex, early onset behavior problems) assessed at Wave 0 (baseline). Results indicated that childhood animal cruelty was equally predictive of aggressive and non‐aggressive (income) offending, a finding inconsistent with the hypothesis that cruelty toward animals desensitizes a person to future interpersonal aggression or in some way prepares the individual for interpersonal violence toward humans. Whereas a significant sex by animal cruelty interaction was predicted, there was no evidence that sex or any of the other demographic variables included in this study (age, race) consistently moderated the animal cruelty–subsequent offending relationship. On the other hand, two cognitive‐personality measures (interpersonal hostility, callousness/unemotionality) were found to successfully mediate the animal cruelty–subsequent offending relationship. Outcomes from this study imply that a causal nexus—partially or fully mediated by hostility, callousness/unemotionality, and other cognitive‐personality variables—may exist between childhood animal cruelty and subsequent offending, although the effect is not specific to violence. Aggr. Behav. 40:238–249, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    December 02, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21514   open full text
  • A quick assessment tool for human‐directed aggression in pet dogs.
    Barbara Klausz, Anna Kis, Eszter Persa, Ádám Miklósi, Márta Gácsi.
    Aggressive Behavior. August 14, 2013
    Many test series have been developed to assess dog temperament and aggressive behavior, but most of them have been criticized for their relatively low predictive validity or being too long, stressful, and/or problematic to carry out. We aimed to develop a short and effective series of tests that corresponds with (a) the dog's bite history, and (b) owner evaluation of the dog's aggressive tendencies. Seventy‐three pet dogs were divided into three groups by their biting history; non‐biter, bit once, and multiple biter. All dogs were exposed to a short test series modeling five real‐life situations: friendly greeting, take away bone, threatening approach, tug‐of‐war, and roll over. We found strong correlations between the in‐test behavior and owner reports of dogs' aggressive tendencies towards strangers; however, the test results did not mirror the reported owner‐directed aggressive tendencies. Three test situations (friendly greeting, take‐away bone, threatening approach) proved to be effective in evoking specific behavioral differences according to dog biting history. Non‐biters differed from biters, and there were also specific differences related to aggression and fear between the two biter groups. When a subsample of dogs was retested, the test revealed consistent results over time. We suggest that our test is adequate for a quick, general assessment of human‐directed aggression in dogs, particularly to evaluate their tendency for aggressive behaviors towards strangers. Identifying important behavioral indicators of aggressive tendencies, this test can serve as a useful tool to study the genetic or neural correlates of human‐directed aggression in dogs. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    August 14, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21501   open full text
  • Frustration influences impact of history and disciplinary attitudes on physical discipline decision making.
    Mary B. Russa, Christina M. Rodriguez, Paul J. Silvia.
    Aggressive Behavior. August 07, 2013
    Although intergenerational patterns of punitive physical punishment garner considerable research attention, the mechanisms by which historical, cognitive, and contextual factors interplay to influence disciplinary responding remains poorly understood. Disciplinary attitudes have been shown to mediate the association between disciplinary history and disciplinary responding. The present study investigated whether frustration influences these mediation effects. Half of a sample of 330 undergraduates was randomly assigned to frustration induction. Structural equation modeling confirmed that, for participants in the frustration condition, the relation between disciplinary history and physical discipline decision‐making was fully mediated by attitudes approving physical discipline. In contrast, for respondents in the no‐frustration condition, the pathway from disciplinary history to discipline decision‐making was only partially mediated by attitudes. Under conditions of frustration, attitudes may become a more central means by which personal disciplinary history is associated with disciplinary decision‐making. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    August 07, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21500   open full text
  • Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: Differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.
    Irene Tung, Steve S. Lee.
    Aggressive Behavior. August 05, 2013
    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five‐to ten‐year‐old ethnically diverse children with and without attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race‐ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    August 05, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21497   open full text
  • The voodoo doll task: Introducing and validating a novel method for studying aggressive inclinations.
    C. Nathan DeWall, Eli J. Finkel, Nathaniel M. Lambert, Erica B. Slotter, Galen V. Bodenhausen, Richard S. Pond, Claire M. Renzetti, Frank D. Fincham.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 22, 2013
    Aggression pervades modern life. To understand the root causes of aggression, researchers have developed several methods to assess aggressive inclinations. The current article introduces a new behavioral method—the voodoo doll task (VDT)—that offers a reliable and valid trait and state measure of aggressive inclinations across settings and relationship contexts. Drawing on theory and research on the law of similarity and magical beliefs (Rozin, Millman, & Nemeroff [1986], Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 703−712), we propose that people transfer characteristics of a person onto a voodoo doll representing that person. As a result, causing harm to a voodoo doll by stabbing it with pins may have important psychological similarities to causing actual harm to the person the voodoo doll represents. Nine methodologically diverse studies (total N = 1,376) showed that the VDT had strong reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity. Discussion centers on the importance of magical beliefs in understanding the causes of aggressive inclinations. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21496   open full text
  • Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.
    Elizabeth A. Bates, Nicola Graham‐Kevan, John Archer.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 22, 2013
    The aim of this study was to test predictions from the male control theory of intimate partner violence (IPV) and Johnson's [Johnson, M. P. (1995). Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 282–294] typology. A student sample (N = 1,104) reported on their use of physical aggression and controlling behavior, to partners and to same‐sex non‐intimates. Contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same‐sex non‐intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same‐sex non‐intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as “intimate terrorists,” which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21499   open full text
  • Reactive/proactive aggression and the development of internalizing problems in males: The moderating effect of parent and peer relationships.
    Paula J. Fite, Sonia L. Rubens, Teresa M. Preddy, Adrian Raine, Dustin A. Pardini.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 18, 2013
    The current study examined whether reactive and/or proactive aggression in adolescent males prospectively predicted increased levels of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety) in late adolescence. It was postulated that reactive aggression would be robustly related to later internalizing problems, but only among adolescent males who had problematic family or peer social relationships. Participants were a racially diverse group of 289 adolescent males (Mean age = 16). Measures of reactive and proactive aggression, peer rejection, and poor parent–adolescent communication were examined as predictors of both depression and anxiety symptoms assessed approximately 3 years later. The interactive effects between the two facets of aggression and measures of peer rejection and poor parent–adolescent communication in predicting internalizing problems was also examined. Adolescents with high levels of reactive aggression were more likely to exhibit elevated internalizing problems during late adolescence, even when controlling for pre‐existing levels of anxiety/depression. However, this association only emerged for adolescents who had high levels of peer rejection and/or poor communication with their parent. Consistent with expectations, proactive aggression was unrelated to internalizing symptoms regardless of social relationship quality. Adolescent reactive, but not proactive, aggression is a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. However, the findings suggest that interventions designed to foster positive social relationships among reactively aggressive youth may help protect them from developing significant internalizing problems over time. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1–10, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    July 18, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21498   open full text
  • Behind bullying and defending: Same‐sex and other‐sex relations and their associations with acceptance and rejection.
    René Veenstra, Marina Verlinden, Gijs Huitsing, Frank C. Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 16, 2013
    Relatively little is known about bullying and defending behaviors of children in early elementary school. However, this period is crucial for children's development as at this age they start to participate in a stable peer group, and difficulties in social interactions can be detected early by professionals. An interactive animated web‐based computer program was used in this study to assess peer relationships among young children. The computerized assessment was conducted among 2,135 children in grades 1–2 from 22 elementary schools to examine the association of bullying, victimization, and defending with being accepted or rejected. Same‐sex and other‐sex peer relations were distinguished using dyadic data. Both boys and girls were more likely to accept same‐sex classmates than other‐sex classmates, and boys were more often nominated than girls as perpetrators of bullying against both boys and girls. It was found that bullies were rejected by those for whom they posed a potential threat, and that defenders were preferred by those classmates for whom they were a potential source of protection. Bullies chose victims who were rejected by significant others, but contrary to expectations, children who bullied boys scored low on peer affection. It is possible that these bullies were not strategic enough to select the “right” targets. Overall, the current findings provide evidence for strategies involved in bullying and defending at early age. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    July 16, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21495   open full text
  • Bullying and victimization in early adolescence: Relations to social information processing patterns.
    Yair Ziv, Inbal Leibovich, Zipora Shechtman.
    Aggressive Behavior. July 01, 2013
    There is a gap in the literature on the social information processing (SIP) patterns of adolescents exposed to victimization in school. Therefore, we examine the SIP patterns of young adolescents characterized by their teachers and by their own reports as victims, bullies, bullies/victims, and neither bullies nor victims. The 105 adolescents participating in this study were asked to respond to hypothetical social scenarios in which a protagonist is either rebuffed or provoked by peers. The scenarios were ambiguous in nature and thus could have been processed in different ways. Indeed, distinctive processing patterns were found for each of these groups: victims tended to avoid challenging social situations while expecting others to be purposefully hostile or ignoring; bullies tended to interpret others as purposefully hostile and stated their desire to retaliate; bullies/victims showed patterns more similar to those of the bullies than the victims; and those who were neither victims nor bullies tended to view the same challenging social situations as non hostile and more likely to end well for them. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    July 01, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21494   open full text
  • Long‐term consequences of membership in trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in an urban sample: Violence, drug use, interpersonal, and neighborhood attributes.
    Judith S. Brook, Jung Yeon Lee, Stephen J. Finch, Elaine N. Brown, David W. Brook.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 27, 2013
    Research on stability and change in delinquent behavior over time has important implications for both the individual and the criminal justice system. The present research looks at this issue by examining the associations between the trajectories of delinquent behavior in adolescence and adult functioning. Data for the present study are from a four‐wave longitudinal study of African American and Hispanic participants. Participants provided information at mean ages 14, 19, 24, and 29. We used growth mixture modeling to extract trajectory groups of delinquent behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Regression analyses were conducted to examine whether memberships in the trajectory groups of delinquent behavior from mean age 14 to mean age 24 were associated with violence, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high‐crime neighborhood at mean age 29 when compared with the reference trajectory group of participants with low or no delinquent behavior. Four trajectory groups of delinquent behavior were identified: the no/low, the decreasing, the moderate, and the high persistent trajectory groups. Memberships in the trajectory groups were significantly correlated with variations in adult functioning. Memberships in some trajectory groups of delinquent behavior are significant predictors of later violent behavior, substance abuse and dependence, partner discord, peer substance use, and residence in a high‐crime neighborhood. The findings reinforce the importance of investing in interventions to address different patterns of delinquent behavior. Findings are discussed in relation to previous investigations with non‐Hispanic White samples. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    June 27, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21493   open full text
  • Read anything mean lately? Associations between reading aggression in books and aggressive behavior in adolescents.
    Laura A. Stockdale, Sarah M. Coyne, David A. Nelson, Laura M. Padilla‐Walker.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 26, 2013
    Although there have been hundreds of studies on media violence, few have focused on literature, with none examining novels. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine whether reading physical and relational aggression in books was associated with aggressive behavior in adolescents. Participants consisted of 223 adolescents who completed a variety of measures detailing their media use and aggressive behavior. A non‐recursive structural equation model revealed that reading aggression in books was positively associated with aggressive behavior, even after controlling for exposure to aggression in other forms of media. Associations were only found for congruent forms of aggression. Implications regarding books as a form of media are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    June 26, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21492   open full text
  • Poor Motor Skills: A Risk Marker for Bully Victimization.
    Susanne Bejerot, Stephanie Plenty, Alice Humble, Mats B. Humble.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 19, 2013
    Children who are clumsy are often bullied. Nevertheless, motor skills have been overlooked in research on bullying victimization. A total of 2,730 Swedish adults (83% females) responded to retrospective questions on bullying, their talents in physical education (i.e., coordination and balls skills) and school academics. Poor talents were used as indicators of poor gross motor skills and poor academic skills. A subset of participants also provided information on educational level in adulthood, childhood obesity, belonging to an ethic minority in school and socioeconomic status relative to schoolmates. A total of 29.4% of adults reported being bullied in school, and 18.4% reported having below average gross motor skills. Of those with below average motor skills, 48.6% were bullied in school. Below average motor skills in childhood were associated with an increased risk (OR 3.01 [95% CI: 1.97–4.60]) of being bullied, even after adjusting for the influence of lower socioeconomic status, poor academic performance, being overweight, and being a bully. Higher odds for bully victimization were also associated with lower socioeconomic status (OR 2.29 [95% CI: 1.45–3.63]), being overweight (OR 1.71 [95% CI: 1.18–2.47]) and being a bully (OR 2.18 [95% CI: 1.53–3.11]). The findings indicate that poor gross motor skills constitute a robust risk‐marker for vulnerability for bully victimization. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley‐Blackwell
    June 19, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21489   open full text
  • Honor Killing Attitudes Amongst Adolescents in Amman, Jordan.
    Manuel Eisner, Lana Ghuneim.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 06, 2013
    The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age = 14.6, SD = 0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 39:405–417, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21485   open full text
  • Excuses, Excuses: A Meta‐Analytic Review of How Mitigating Information Can Change Aggression and an Exploration of Moderating Variables.
    Christopher P. Barlett.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 06, 2013
    Research in the aggression domain has been mixed regarding the effectiveness of using mitigating information (e.g., excuses, apologies) to reduce aggressive behavior after a provocation. Aggression theory (e.g., general aggression model) posits that mitigating information may cues re‐appraisal processes to potentially change aggressive behavior. If re‐appraisal processes are engaged, aggressive behavior is likely to decrease. Currently, no published study has synthesized the literature to test such theoretical claims. The current study used meta‐analysis to test this effect and examine the influence of several possible moderators. Results showed a significant negative effect size, suggesting that mitigating information does indeed reduce aggressive behavior after a provocation. However, these results were qualified by several significant moderators. Results showed that mitigating information reduces aggression when (a) the information did not come from an apology, (b) the non‐apologetic mitigating information was high quality, and c) the provocation was mild (vs. strong). Theoretical extensions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX–XX, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21491   open full text
  • Gender bias in the measurement of peer victimization: An application of item response theory.
    Katherine B. Bevans, Catherine P. Bradshaw, Tracy E. Waasdorp.
    Aggressive Behavior. June 05, 2013
    There continues to be great debate regarding the conceptualization and measurement of peer victimization, particularly with respect to gender differences in children's victimization experiences. We employed traditional and modern psychometric methods (e.g., item response theory) to evaluate a 10‐item youth‐report measure of peer victimization (e.g., threatening, spreading rumors/lies, and cyberbullying) among 17,198 students in Grades 6–12. A two‐factor model that differentiated between direct and indirect victimization subtypes best characterized students' experiences and substantially reduced the potential for gender‐based measurement bias. Implications for the gender‐sensitive assessment of peer victimization are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 39:370–380, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    June 05, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21486   open full text
  • Adolescent disclosure and concealment: Longitudinal and concurrent associations with aggression.
    Chelom E. Leavitt, David A. Nelson, Sarah M. Coyne, Craig H. Hart.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 29, 2013
    This longitudinal study assessed the association between prior (preschool) and concurrent physical and relational aggression as they relate to Russian adolescents' disclosure and concealment patterns with their parents. In the initial preschool study, there were 106 boys and 106 girls (mean age = 60.24 months, SD = 7.81). Both peer nominations and teacher ratings of aggression were obtained for these children. Ten years later, the majority of these children (72.2%; n = 153) completed a longitudinal follow‐up battery of assessments. Included in these measures was a self‐reported measure of aggression as well as an assessment of the extent to which these adolescents disclosed to and concealed information from their parents. Separate models were estimated by gender of child for the 153 children who participated in both Time 1 and Time 2 data collections. Preschool physical aggression proved an important longitudinal predictor of adolescent disclosure and concealment for girls. Concurrently, self‐rated relational aggression was also significantly associated with concealment for both boys and girls. Aggr. Behav. 39:335–345, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 29, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21488   open full text
  • Do perceived social stress and resilience influence the effects of psychopathy‐linked narcissism and CU traits on adolescent aggression?
    Rebecca Kauten, Christopher T. Barry, Lacey Leachman.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 15, 2013
    The current study explored the influences of social stress and resilience on the relation between psychopathy‐linked personality characteristics (i.e., narcissism, dimensions of CU traits) and aggression with the expectation that social stress would exacerbate the relation, whereas resilience would mitigate it. In a sample of 154 at‐risk adolescents (ages 16–18; 84% male), contrary to expectations, high social stress attenuated the relations of narcissism and callousness with aggression. Self‐reported resilience attenuated the relation between callousness and aggression. The implications for understanding the role that these moderators might play in the association between adolescent psychopathic tendencies, particularly callousness, and aggression are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 39:381–390, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 15, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21483   open full text
  • High testosterone levels and sensitivity to acute stress in perpetrators of domestic violence with low cognitive flexibility and impairments in their emotional decoding process: A preliminary study.
    Ángel Romero‐Martínez, Marisol Lila, Patricia Sariñana‐González, Esperanza González‐Bono, Luis Moya‐Albiol.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 15, 2013
    Hormonal and neuropsychological impairment in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could play a role in domestic violence. For characterizing whether there is a specific psychobiological response to stress, participants who had previously been jailed for IPV and controls were compared for testosterone and cortisol levels, tested for 2D:4D ratio (as an indicator of masculinization), and given several trait questionnaires and neuropsychological tests related to executive functions and theory of mind. After performing the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), IPV perpetrators experienced decreases in salivary testosterone (T) levels, a moderate worsening of mood, slight anxiety, and a salivary cortisol (C) level increase. Moreover, high basal T was related with high levels of anger and anxiety and worse mood. However, that basal mood does not significantly alter T levels in response to stress. Nonetheless, controls experienced smaller changes in T and larger changes in C and psychological mood. With respect to neuropsychological and cognitive empathic features, IPV perpetrators showed poorer executive performance and emotional recognition than controls. In addition, deficits in both neuropsychological domains were positively associated. Regarding emotional empathy, IPV perpetrators showed higher levels of personal distress than controls. The 2D:4D ratio was lower in IPV perpetrators than in controls. Moreover, only in the former a smaller 2D:4D ratio was related to large increases in T in response to stress and poor emotional recognition. Together with social aspects involved in IPV, differences in psychobiological variables and their relationships could play a relevant role in the onset and perpetuation of violent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 39:355–369, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 15, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21490   open full text
  • Virtually justifiable homicide: The effects of prosocial contexts on the link between violent video games, aggression, and prosocial and hostile cognition.
    Seth A. Gitter, Patrick J. Ewell, Rosanna E. Guadagno, Tyler F. Stillman, Roy F. Baumeister.
    Aggressive Behavior. May 06, 2013
    Previous work has shown that playing violent video games can stimulate aggression toward others. The current research has identified a potential exception. Participants who played a violent game in which the violence had an explicitly prosocial motive (i.e., protecting a friend and furthering his nonviolent goals) were found to show lower short‐term aggression (Study 1) and show higher levels of prosocial cognition (Study 2) than individuals who played a violent game in which the violence was motivated by more morally ambiguous motives. Thus, violent video games that are framed in an explicitly prosocial context may evoke more prosocial sentiments and thereby mitigate some of the short‐term effects on aggression observed in previous research. While these findings are promising regarding the potential aggression‐reducing effects of prosocial context, caution is still warranted as a small effect size difference (d = .2–.3), although nonsignificant, was still observed between those who played the explicitly prosocial violent game and those who played a nonviolent game; indicating that aggressive behavior was not completely eliminated by the inclusion of a prosocial context for the violence. Aggr. Behav. 39:346–354, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    May 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21487   open full text
  • Men and women as perpetrators and victims of sexual aggression in heterosexual and same‐sex encounters: A study of first‐year college students in Germany.
    Barbara Krahé, Anja Berger.
    Aggressive Behavior. April 29, 2013
    This study examined the prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a large convenience sample of N = 2,149 first‐year college students from different universities in Germany. Participants were asked about both victimization by, and perpetration of, sexual aggression since the age of 14. Both same‐sex and heterosexual victim–perpetrator constellations were examined. Prevalence rates were established for different victim–perpetrator relationships (partners, acquaintances, strangers) and for incidents involving alcohol consumption by one or both partners. The overall perpetration rate was 13.2%, for men and 7.6% for women. The overall victimization rate was 35.9% for women and 19.4% for men. A disparity between victimization and perpetration reports was found for both men and women. Perpetration and victimization rates were highest among participants who had sexual contacts with both opposite‐sex and same‐sex partners. Sexual aggression and victimization rates were higher between current or former partners and acquaintances than between strangers. Alcohol consumption by one or both partners was involved in almost 75% of all victimization and almost 70% of all perpetration incidents. The findings portray a comprehensive picture of the scale of sexual aggression and victimization in college students with different sexual lifestyles. Aggr. Behav. 39:391–404, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    April 29, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ab.21482   open full text