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Journal of Community Psychology

Impact factor: 1.082 5-Year impact factor: 1.634 Print ISSN: 0090-4392 Online ISSN: 1520-6629 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)

Subjects: Multidisciplinary Psychology, Public, Environmental & Occupational Health, Social Work

Most recent papers:

  • The mediating and moderating effects of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and depression in heroin addicts.
    Lei Wang, Banghua Xu, Yiwen Gu, Jianbo Zhu, Ying Liang.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 22, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating and moderating roles of resilience on the relationship between perceived stress and depression among heroin addicts. A total of 138 heroin addicts completed the measures of perceived stress, resilience, and depression. Correlation analysis indicated that perceived stress was positively associated with depression. Resilience was negatively correlated with perceived stress and depression. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and depression. However, resilience did not moderate the influence of perceived stress on depression. These findings might provide a better understanding of the mental health among heroin addicts. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 22, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22133   open full text
  • Psychological capital and life satisfaction of refugees in Canada: Evidence from a community‐based educational support program.
    Jaswant Bajwa, Mulugeta Abai, Sidonia Couto, Sean Kidd, Aytak Dibavar, Kwame McKenzie.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Drawing on a 2‐year community‐based participatory research project, and grounded in the theories of positive psychology, this article examines the effects of targeted educational support on refugee participants’ psychological capital (PsyCap)–hope, self‐efficacy, resilience, and optimism–as well as life satisfaction. Two groups of participants attended a 14‐week trauma‐informed, educational support program in 2 consecutive sessions. The program was designed in collaboration with George Brown College, the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Wellesley Institute, and the Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture. The study aimed to understand the link between psychological capital and life satisfaction among refugees. Findings show that the participants’ psychological capital–particularly PsyCap‐resilience and PsyCap‐optimism–improved consistently, which in turn was reflected in the participants’ improved life satisfaction. The result also indicated a relationship between the four main characteristics of psychological capital and life satisfaction. We conclude that these indications of a potential positive association between refugees’ psychological capital and life satisfaction should be further examined. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22134   open full text
  • Queering Black activism: Exploring the relationship between racial identity and Black activist orientation among Black LGBTQ youth.
    Kristen N. Pender, Elan C. Hope, Kristen N. Riddick.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Linked fate, or connection to the Black community, may be a pathway to engagement in social justice action for Black liberation. The purpose of this study is to understand the role of racial identity on Black queer youths’ orientation toward Black activism. We used hierarchical linear regression to examine relationships between dimensions of racial identity and Black activism orientation among 142 queer‐identified youth. We found that racial centrality and racial ideologies predicted high‐risk activism orientation. Additionally, assimilationist ideology moderated the relationship between racial centrality and high‐risk activism orientation. The degree to which Black queer youth feel race is central to their self‐concept relates with their intent to engage in Black activism. These findings demonstrate that racial ideologies matter distinctively to activism orientation and offer that perception of risk nuances linked fate as a pathway to activism for Black queer youth. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22136   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Journal of Community Psychology. October 12, 2018
    --- - - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 953-957, November 2018.
    October 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21928   open full text
  • Measuring national resilience: A new short version of the scale (NR‐13).
    Shaul Kimhi, Yohanan Eshel.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This article is aimed at describing and validating a new short version of the National Resilience Scale (NR‐13). The available 25‐item National Resilience Scale has been employed and validated by several studies. However, the present data show that it can be substantially shortened without losing either its reliability or its validity. The new short version of the scale has been examined by the responses of an Israeli sample of adults (N = 1022). Results indicate, as expected, that national resilience promoting factors (community resilience and sense of coherence) significantly and positively predict NR‐13. A resilience‐suppressing factor (sense of danger) negatively and significantly predicts NR‐13. These predictions have been replicated in an additional sample of Israeli higher education students (N = 423). These results support the reliability and the validity of the short National Resilience Scale (NR‐13). - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22135   open full text
  • Effect of marital relationship on women's quality of life: Testing the mediating role of subjective well‐being.
    Hua Wang, Congde Xu, Xiaoyan Fan.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Because of a large number of Chinese women and the widespread concern about women's living conditions, this study aimed to examine how subjective well‐being mediates the association between marital relationship and women's quality of life in Chinese context. The data used in this study were collected by conducting a multi‐stage cluster random sampling method of 756 women in Huai'an city of Mainland China. Data included women's basic demographics, women's quality of life and marital quality, and women's subjective well‐being. Structural equation modeling was adopted to analyze the data. The results of structural equation modeling analysis suggested a good fit for the sample. Overall findings showed that marital relationship has a significantly direct effect on women's quality of life, and subjective well‐being can partially mediate the impact of marital relationship on women's quality of life. The implications on theory and social policy were also discussed. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22123   open full text
  • “We almost had the whole block's phone number on the wall”: A mixed methods investigation of informal helping in a predominantly rural sample.
    Matthew Hagler, Sherry Hamby, Victoria Banyard, John Grych.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Community psychologists have noted the limitations of professional models of mental health treatment, demonstrating that people are more likely to use informal familial or community support during adversity. However, relatively little is known about the forms and functions of informal help seeking and provision. Semistructured interviews (N = 170), in which a sample of predominantly rural‐dwelling adolescents and adults described significant life experiences, were coded for instances of receiving help. Codes thematically categorized the type of adversity, role of the helper, and nature of the help received. Most participants (67.64%) reported the presence of at least one informal helper; only 8.82% of participants discussed receiving professional help. Chi‐square analyses suggested that the nature of the help received varied by the types of helper and adversity being experienced and that different helpers were more likely to aid with particular adversities. The presence of a nonfamilial, nonprofessional helper was associated with higher posttraumatic growth, generativity, and perceived social support. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22132   open full text
  • “We make a direct impact on people's lives”: Youth empowerment in the context of a youth‐led participatory budgeting project.
    Astraea Augsberger, Whitney Gecker, Mary Elizabeth Collins.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 20, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Participatory budgeting [PB] is a democratic process whereby community members determine how to spend governmental funds. Youth‐led PB is relatively new, occurring in select U.S. cities. During youth‐led PB, youth collect ideas, develop proposals, and advertise community improvement projects for which they, citywide, cast deciding votes. The study examined opportunities for the empowerment youth at each stage of a youth‐led PB project. Data collection included individual interviews with 31 youths and adult stakeholders, 3 focus groups with youths, and 7 observations of meetings. The data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods. Findings align well with the psychological empowerment literature and demonstrate several opportunities for empowerment throughout the PB project, including feeling in charge of the process, understanding and allocating resources, and influencing positive community change. Findings also demonstrate potential barriers to empowerment, including understanding bureaucratic decision making, and influencing policy. PB is relevant to furthering our understanding of the empowerment of youth. The youths who participated in the present study expressed feelings of competence, purpose, and an ability to use the skills learned to engage fellow youths in the PB process. Additional empirical research is needed to examine the dimensions of empowerment at each stage of the PB process. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 20, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22131   open full text
  • “It's like all of his attention is on you”: A mixed methods examination of attachment, supportive nonparental youth–adult relationships, and self‐esteem during adolescence.
    Mark Vincent B. Yu, Nancy L. Deutsch, Valerie A. Futch Ehrlich, Miriam R. Arbeit, Haley E. Johnson, Theresa N. Melton.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 20, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the relationship between attachment, supportive nonparental youth‐adult relationships, and self‐esteem during adolescence. First, in a quantitative path analysis, we found that perceived social support from nonparental adults partially mediated the relationship between adolescent attachment and self‐esteem. In our follow‐up mixed methods analysis, we analyzed youth reflections of support experienced in relationships with significant non‐parental adults (VIPs). As compared to youth with positive attachment models, youth with negative attachment models reported fewer instances of emotional support but more instances of validation support. The youth with negative attachment models described (1) the importance of trust and (2) receiving emotional support specific to their needs. In instances of validation support, these youth described how their VIPs (1) provided them with honest and realistic feedback, (2) challenged their negative thinking and (3) created opportunities for them to recognize and showcase their strengths. Our findings underscore the importance of considering youths' individual attributes in the context of their ongoing relationships in order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the role and dynamics of supportive nonparental youth‐adult relationships in youths' lives. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 20, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22129   open full text
  • Does ethnic identity buffer or intensify the stress of discrimination among the foreign born and U.S. born? Evidence from the Miami‐Dade Health Survey.
    Krysia N. Mossakowski, Turro Wongkaren, Terrence D. Hill, Robert Johnson.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 20, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study examines the extent to which ethnic identity is a protective factor and buffers the stress of discrimination among the foreign born compared to the U.S. born in Miami‐Dade County. Data were drawn from the 2011 Miami‐Dade Health Survey (N = 444), which is a countywide probability sample of adults in South Florida. Two interaction effects were observed: (a) a stronger ethnic identity was associated with less distress among the foreign born than the U.S. born; and (b) a stronger ethnic identity exacerbated the relationship between everyday discrimination and distress among the U.S. born. Ethnic identity, which involves ethnic pride, participation in cultural practices, and cultural commitment or sense of belonging, was associated with better psychological well‐being among the foreign born than the U.S. born. Ethnic identity, however, was not a protective factor for the U.S. born, but rather it intensified the distressing effect of discrimination. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 20, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22130   open full text
  • Social and community program approaches to participants: Exploring best practices.
    Maria Minas, Maria Teresa Ribeiro, James P. Anglin.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This article presents the results of a deepened study of the best practices and outcomes of 15 programs (across 9 countries) that work with socioeconomically disadvantagedd communities. Using thematic analysis, we identified best practices that participants, community leaders, and professionals recognized as key. Data collection involved in loco observation and semistructured interviews with participants and professionals, and focus groups with professionals. Associated with best practices, programs adopted two central perspectives on approaching participants: approaching participants as users and approaching participants as contributors. Such approaches were crossed with best practices and outcomes identified througout the analysis. For programs that approached participants as users, the best practices were valuing, facilitating the access to resources, showing availability, and promoting competencies and openness, and the main outcome was participants’ improved self‐confidence. For programs that approached participants as contributors, the best practices were contributing, encouraging participation, valuing participants, becoming masters, and reciprocity, and the main outcome was participants having an impact. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22128   open full text
  • An exploration of posttraumatic growth, loneliness, depression, resilience, and social capital among survivors of Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.
    Joohee Lee, Bret J. Blackmon, Joo Young Lee, David M. Cochran, Tim A. Rehner.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among posttraumatic growth (PTG), loneliness, depression, psychological resilience, and social capital among survivors of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The survey was administered to a spatially stratified, random sample of households in the three coastal counties of Mississippi. A total of 216 participants were included in this study who lived in close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico coastline during both disasters. Results from structural equation modeling analyses indicated that there was a significant and inverse relationship between PTG and loneliness. Conversely, a direct relationship was not found between PTG and depressive symptoms; instead, the results revealed an indirect relationship between PTG and depressive symptoms through loneliness. Social capital was related to loneliness only indirectly through PTG, while psychological resilience was related to loneliness both directly and indirectly through PTG. Understanding the relationships among these factors, particularly the importance of PTG, can provide insight into the long‐term adaptation among those who have survived multiple disasters. Further, these findings may lead to nuanced methods for behavioral health practitioners in assessing and treating individuals with symptoms of depression in disaster‐prone communities. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22125   open full text
  • Psychometric validation of the identity abuse scale among LGBTQ individuals.
    Jillian R. Scheer, Julie M. Woulfe, Lisa A. Goodman.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Identity abuse (IA) comprises a set of abuse tactics that exploit discriminatory systems including homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia (Tesch & Berkerian, 2015). This study examined the factorial validity of the IA Scale (Woulfe & Goodman, 2018) with a large independent sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals. Participants included 1,049 LGBTQ‐identified participants (Mage = 27.3, 71.9% White, 52.6% cisgender women, and 18.7% as other nonheterosexual identity in their sexual orientation), recruited through listservs. Participants completed an online survey measuring past‐year and adult exposure to identity, physical, and psychological abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the measurement model had good fit to the data, and strong factor loadings were found across the seven items, confirming a unidimensional factor structure. Findings demonstrate the IA Scale's validity and reliability, supporting its use to assess the frequency of IA tactics experienced within intimate partnerships among LGBTQ individuals. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22126   open full text
  • Birds of a feather: Is matching based on shared interests and characteristics associated with longer youth mentoring relationships?
    Elizabeth B. Raposa, Adar Ben‐Eliyahu, Lauren E.W. Olsho, Jean Rhodes.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 11, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Youth mentoring practitioners and researchers have shown a growing interest in determining the ways in which mentor–youth matching practices might influence the duration and effectiveness of mentoring relationships. The current project tested whether mentor–youth similarities at baseline, in terms of demographic variables and interests in certain activities (e.g., sports, art), predicted a longer duration of mentoring relationships. Analyses used baseline and follow‐up data from over 9,000 youth who participated in community‐based mentoring programs in the northeastern United States, as well as their volunteer mentors. Racial and ethnic similarity between mentor and youth was predictive of longer match duration. Moreover, a shared dislike of activities was associated with longer matches than either shared interests or discordant interests in activities. Findings have important implications for determining the ways in which mentor–youth matching practices influence the length and effectiveness of mentoring relationships. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22127   open full text
  • Sense of place attitudes and quality of life outcomes among African residents in a multicultural Australian society.
    Victor Counted.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 11, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The study examines the association between sense of place (SOP) attitudes (e.g., place attachment, place identity, and place dependence) and health‐related quality of life (HQOL) in a sample of 261 African residents in New South Wales (Australia). Participants completed measures of the Sense of Place Scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life‐BREF questionnaire, and demographic variables. Study findings are as follows: (a) levels of SOP and place attachment are positively associated with all outcomes of HQOL; (b) place identity is also positively related to HQOL in terms of better environmental health, psychological health, and physical health, but not statistically significant for social relationship and general QOL; (c) place dependence is statistically associated with outcomes of HQOL, except for general QOL which remained insignificant in both the unadjusted and adjusted models. Further ad hoc analyses suggest that African residents from Eastern Africa are more likely to develop the “aussie” place identity than those from Central Africa; and (e) African migrants who have been residents of Australia for more than 5 years, and those who are less educated are more likely to have a stronger SOP and to develop place attachment and behavioral place commitments compared with newly arrived and educated migrants, respectively. Study limitations and implications are carefully discussed. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22124   open full text
  • Neighborhood collective efficacy and collective action: The role of civic engagement.
    Jason T. Carbone, Stephen Edward McMillin.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 31, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Theory suggests that by strengthening collective efficacy among neighbors, neighborhoods can more effectively engage in collective action. The research linking the two components of collective efficacy–social cohesion and social control–with collective action is limited. This study uses structural equation modeling with a nationally representative sample from the United States Census Bureau's American Housing Survey (N = 22,106) to analyze these relationships. This analysis finds that neither component of collective efficacy is directly associated with collective action. Instead, social cohesion is negatively, directly associated with civic engagement, social control is positively directly associated with civic engagement, and civic engagement is positively associated with collective action. Social cohesion and social control are indirectly associated with collective action when including civic engagement. Understanding the associations between collective efficacy, civic engagement, and collective action is informative for understanding effective and efficient community participation to facilitate change. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 31, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22122   open full text
  • A qualitative study to explore paraprofessionals’ role in school‐based prevention and early intervention mental health services.
    Dana Rusch, Angela L. Walden, Erika Gustafson, Davielle Lakind, Marc S. Atkins.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study explored the role of paraprofessionals within a school‐based prevention and early intervention program to promote children's engagement in learning and positive parenting practices. Study aims were designed to understand how paraprofessionals perceive their role in high‐need communities and how they define their work within schools. Two focus groups were conducted with school family liaisons (SFLs) during the 2015–2016 school year. Transcribed audio recordings were coded using thematic analysis wherein 2 authors coded independently, followed by audited discussion and final consensus codes. SFLs acknowledged the importance of serving high‐need communities and relationship building was central to their role. They leveraged contextual knowledge (culture, language, and neighborhood) to engage parents, allowing them to serve as effective advocates for parents/families in the school setting. Findings support the importance of paraprofessionals in prevention‐focused services and highlight how leveraging shared experiences and prioritizing relationship building facilitates their work as advocates within schools. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22120   open full text
  • The role of community psychology in Christian community development.
    Sara M. Perisho Eccleston, Douglas D. Perkins.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 28, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This project examines the connections between community psychology and faith‐based community development. We investigate whether and how 4 major principles of community psychology—neighboring, sense of community, empowerment, and citizen participation—are found in the theory and philosophy of practice of the Christian Community Development Association (CCDA), a national faith‐based community development network. We employ content analysis of four official CCDA publications to identify whether and how these four principles are embedded in the organization's espoused principles of practice. Our findings are as follows: (a) All four principles are found within CCDA theory and philosophy of practice, with the greatest emphasis on neighboring and sense of community and a less robust application of empowerment and citizen participation; (b) CCDA primarily focuses on the individual‐level impact of these principles; and (c) CCDA Bases their application of these principles in Christian scripture and tradition. Our results indicate that the field could be strengthened by examining religious approaches to these principles and considering how organizations engage these concepts in both the theory and the practice. Additionally, faith‐based organizations may foster a more effective application of these concepts in their social change efforts by partnering with community researchers and practitioners. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 28, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22121   open full text
  • Migration and sociodemographic factors associated with sense of place attitudes among migrants of African background in Northern and Western Netherlands.
    Victor Counted, Ahmed Moustafa, Andre Renzaho.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This article investigates migration and sociodemographic factors associated with attitudes toward specific geographic settings (place attachment [PA], place identity, place dependence [PD]) in a cross‐sectional data (N = 175) of sub‐Saharan African residents in the Northern Netherlands and the Western Netherlands. Overall, it was found that scores of PA and PD were stronger in long‐term African residents (more than 5 years) than among short‐term residents (less than 5 years). The region of residence was positively related to PD, with participants in western Netherlands having stronger PD compared to those in the northern region. Language proficiency was inversely associated with PD among participants with a little knowledge of Dutch compared to those who could speak Dutch fluently. Older African residents (aged 46–55 years) were more likely to develop PA and PD than their younger counterparts (aged 18–25 years). PA scores were significantly lower for participants with a tertiary education background compared to those with a high school education or less educational attainment. PD scores were lower in females than males, and participants from Western Africa had stronger levels of PD compared to those from Central Africa. Implications of these findings are discussed. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22118   open full text
  • Trust, sense of community, and civic engagement: Lessons from Australia.
    Riyana Miranti, Mark Evans.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 20, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This article examines the association between trust, sense of community, and civic engagement, with a particular focus on the socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, using data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey. Through the use of panel logit and binary panel data models, we draw three core observations. First, there is evidence that trust is associated with civic engagement in Australia, particularly in the case of volunteering. Trust is a prerequisite for women to participate in volunteering but not for men, where a sense of community matters more. Second, a high sense of community matters for both types of participation, political and volunteering. Third, the relationships between trust, sense of community, and civic engagement are present among the Baby Boomer and Generation X generations but not the Generation Y generation, which participates differently. The study makes an important contribution to the literature by unmasking the gender and generation stories and debunking popular myths about the unwillingness of new Australians to engage in associative behavior. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 20, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22119   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Journal of Community Psychology. August 08, 2018
    --- - - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 823-827, September 2018.
    August 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21927   open full text
  • African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: Perceived neighborhood disadvantage and depression.
    Julia F. Hastings, Lonnie R. Snowden.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 02, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The purpose of this study was to advance a theoretical understanding of the effects of impoverished neighborhoods on mental health and to inform policy measures encouraging residents to leave such neighborhoods. To do this, we investigated whether individuals’ perceived neighborhood disadvantage served as a risk factor for clinical depression in a nationally representative sample of African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. We performed logistic regression analysis on stratified socioeconomic status (SES) subsamples from the National Survey of American Life sample of 5,019 African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. The association between perceived neighborhood social disorder and past‐year depression was statistically significant for low‐SES individuals (at or below the federal poverty line; odds ratio [OR] = 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.07, 2.81], p = 0.026) and at the boundary of significance for middle‐SES individuals (between 100% and 300% of the poverty line; OR = 1.74, 95% CI [1.00, 3.02], p = 0.052), but not for high‐SES individuals (at or above 300% of the poverty line). Results suggest, at least for low‐ and middle‐income African Americans, perceived neighborhood social disorder is a risk factor for depression. U.S. housing policies aimed at neighborhood improvement and poverty de‐concentration may benefit the mental health of low‐income African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 02, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22117   open full text
  • The influence of sense of community on the relationship between community participation and mental health for individuals with serious mental illnesses.
    Rachel Terry, Greg Townley, Eugene Brusilovskiy, Mark S. Salzer.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The goal of the current study is to better understand the association between community participation and mental health by investigating sense of community as a potential mediating factor between community participation, psychological distress, and mental health functioning. A survey was administered to 300 adults with serious mental illnesses using community mental health services in the United States in a cross‐sectional design. Hayes PROCESS macro (model 4, version 2.16; Hayes, 2013) was employed to test all of the hypotheses. Results indicate that sense of community partially mediated the association between community participation and psychological distress, as well as mental health functioning. Implications include contributing to the current knowledge base about the influence of community factors on mental health and informing future interventions aimed at promoting community participation of adults with serious mental illnesses. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22115   open full text
  • Does having a similar disability matter for match outcomes?: A randomized study of matching mentors and mentees by visual impairment.
    Eline C. M. Heppe, Janis B. Kupersmidt, Sabina Kef, Carlo Schuengel.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Mentoring is modestly effective for youth with a chronic illness or physical disability; however, program effectiveness may be enhanced when mentors and mentees are matched on shared interests and experiences. To test this hypothesis, mentees were randomly assigned to having a mentor with or without visual impairment (VI). Results showed that mentors without VI were younger and more likely to work or be educated in a helping profession and less likely to have a fixed mindset and extremely high positive expectations than mentors with VI. The main analyses on match outcomes showed that mentors with VI had significantly fewer and shorter match meetings, had a weaker relationship with their mentees, and were more likely to end their match prematurely. Mentor age, helping profession background, and fixed mindset were confounds in several analyses and reduced the significance of the relationship between VI group and match meeting quantity. The only relationship that remained significant controlling for covariates showed that matches including a mentor with VI were significantly more likely to end in premature closure than matches including a mentor without VI. Implications of the findings for future research and program practices related to matching were discussed. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 27, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22116   open full text
  • Postforced eviction communities: The contribution of personal and environmental resources to the sense of belonging to the community.
    Drorit Levy, Yuval Friedman.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This article aims to examine the contribution of personal and environmental resources to the sense of belonging to the community among postforced eviction communities. The study included 140 participants who experienced forced eviction, and ranged in age from 20 to 79 years. Slightly more than half were women (52.4%, 74). Nearly half of the participants continued living alongside their fellow community members, while others left for different communities. The participants filled out self‐report questionnaires assessing their sense of belonging, social and family support, sense of mastery, and self‐esteem. We used 2 complementary instruments: the stepwise regression and the mediation model. Results indicated that the level of social and family support was found to be higher in the unified communities. Lower levels of the sense of belonging were found in the split communities. The sense of mastery was found to positively contribute to the sense of belonging. The self‐esteem resource was not found to contribute to the sense of belonging, whereas social and family support was found to positively contribute to the sense of belonging. The mediation model presented an interesting finding insofar that an indirect positive association was found regarding the sense of belonging via social support within different types of communities. The discussion refers to the findings and their contribution to both theory and practice. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22103   open full text
  • Understanding the relationship between alcohol outlet density and life expectancy in Baltimore City: The role of community violence and community disadvantage.
    C. Debra M. Furr‐Holden, Elizabeth D. Nesoff, Victoria Nelson, Adam J. Milam, Mieka Smart, Krim Lacey, Roland J. Thorpe, Philip J. Leaf.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 11, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This research investigated the relationship between alcohol outlet density (AOD) and life expectancy, as mediated by community violence and community disadvantage. We used linear regression models to assess bivariate and multivariate relationships. There was a negative bivariate association between liquor store density and average life expectancy (β = −7.3370, p < 0.001). This relationship was partially attenuated when controlling for community disadvantage and fully attenuated when controlling for community violence. Bars/taverns (i.e., on‐premise) were not associated with average life expectancy (β = −0.589, p = 0.220). Liquor store density is associated with higher levels of community disadvantage and higher rates of violence, both of which are associated with lower life expectancies. Future research, potential intervention, and current related policies are discussed. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22099   open full text
  • Assessment of age‐related differences in smoking status and health‐related quality of life (HRQoL): Findings from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
    Shanta R. Dube, Jin Liu, Amy Z. Fan, Martin I. Meltzer, William W. Thompson.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 10, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Despite significant declines in the use of cigarettes, a significant proportion of adults smoke. This study explores the association between smoking and health‐related quality of life (HRQoL) by age. The 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey was administered to adults in 50 states and District of Columbia (n = 437,195). Physically unhealthy days (PUDs) and mentally unhealthy days (MUDs)) were regressed on age strata (18–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, ≥ 65 years) and smoking status (never, former, someday, and everyday) using negative binomial regression models with adjustment for sociodemographic covariates. For each age group, everyday smoking highly predicted PUDs and MUDs. Predicted PUDs increased with age; predicted MUDs decreased with age. Among adults aged 45–54 and 55–64 years, 3‐day difference in PUDs was observed between never smokers and everyday smokers. Among young adults (18–24 years), a 4.3‐day difference in MUDs was observed between everyday and never smokers. The discrepancies were nonlinear with age. The observed relationship between smoking and HRQoL provides novel information about the need to consider age when designing community‐based interventions. Additional research can provide needed depth to understanding the relationship between smoking and HRQoL in specific age groups. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22101   open full text
  • Using propensity score matching to estimate treatment effects of afterschool programs on third‐grade reading outcomes.
    Scott K. Baker, Akihito Kamata, Annie Wright, Dylan Farmer, Regina Nippert.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 05, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Evidence on whether afterschool programs enhance academic achievement is limited and mixed. In this study, a group of community providers delivered interventions to students to improve academic achievement. We used propensity score matching to estimate the impact of these afterschool interventions on third‐grade reading achievement. A significant effect of moderate magnitude was found favoring students who participated in afterschool programming. Propensity score matching and other methodological considerations are described to support the importance and value of conducting rigorous evaluations of afterschool programs. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 05, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22104   open full text
  • Understanding mutuality: Unpacking relational processes in youth mentoring relationships.
    Ashlee M. Lester, Courtney L. Goodloe, Haley E. Johnson, Nancy L. Deutsch.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 05, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Evidence suggests that a close interpersonal bond is important for the success of youth–adult mentoring relationships. Mutuality has been suggested to be important for developing a close interpersonal bond (Rhodes, 2002, 2005), but mutuality remains an abstract construct, difficult to understand and cultivate. Using thematic analysis of mentor and mentee (n = 42) interviews, we investigate how mentoring pairs reflect on mutuality. Results suggest that mutuality is understood as a combination of 2 dimensions: shared relational excitement and experiential empathy. Shared relational excitement is felt when there is a genuine desire by both the mentor and the mentee to invest in the relationship. Experiential empathy is the process through which mentors connect with, advise, and normalize the experiences of their mentees by sharing their own relevant experiences. This work has implications for mentor training, program development, and future research on youth–adult relationships. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 05, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22106   open full text
  • The influence of parenting practices and neighborhood characteristics on the development of childhood aggression.
    Grace Maloney Miller, Patrick H. Tolan.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 22, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The present study examined the way in which neighborhood impoverishment, neighborhood social processes, and parenting practices relate to the development of aggressive behavior among children aged 6–8 years raised in low‐income neighborhoods. A total of 424 children (male = 207, female = 217) and their families participated in the study. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that neighborhood impoverishment, neighborhood social processes, and parental monitoring/supervision were associated with childhood aggression 2 years later. Neighborhood social processes did not mediate the relation between neighborhood impoverishment and childhood aggression, nor did parental monitoring/supervision mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and childhood aggression. Children residing in neighborhoods with substantial poverty are at greater risk of developing aggressive behavior. Strong neighborhood social processes and high levels of parental supervision/monitoring are associated with lower levels of aggression. Despite the protective benefits of neighborhood social processes and high‐quality parenting, neighborhood economic deprivation continues to elevate risk of developing aggressive behavior. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 22, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22105   open full text
  • Stressful life events among homeless people in León (Nicaragua): Quantity, types, timing, and perceived causality.
    José Juan Vázquez, Alexia Suarez, Alberto Berríos, Sonia Panadero.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Nicaragua is one of Latin America's least developed countries and has a lack of data on homeless people, a stigmatized group living in extreme poverty. We conducted structured interviews with homeless people living in the city of León (Nicaragua; n = 41) to obtain data on the quantity, types, timing, and perceived causality of stressful life events (SLEs) experienced during their childhood and adolescence as well as throughout their adult lives. The findings showed that our participants had experienced a high number of extremely severe SLEs at very early ages and most of these SLEs occurred before they first became homeless. In terms of the perceived causal relationship between SLEs and homelessness, the interviewees mainly attributed being homeless to material, affective, or relationship factors, or an excessive consumption of alcohol and/or drugs. Suffering from multiple and serious SLEs, largely due to living in socioeconomically disadvantaged environments, appears to be an important vulnerability factor in both becoming homeless and chronic homelessness. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22102   open full text
  • Public exposure and attitudes about homelessness.
    Jack Tsai, Crystal Y. S. Lee, Jianxun Shen, Steven M. Southwick, Robert H. Pietrzak.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this study, we conducted a survey among a large sample of U.S. adults to assess attitudes and beliefs about the causes of homelessness, policies to address homelessness, and programs for homeless individuals. In 2016, we surveyed a national sample of 541 adults from 47 different U.S. states using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Of the total sample, 78% reported that homelessness was a problem in their communities and 60% believed homelessness would increase in the next 5 years. The majority expressed compassion for homeless individuals and endorsed structural, intrinsic, and health factors as causes of homelessness. Most participants (73%–88%) believed the federal government should dedicate more funds and policies for homeless individuals. These attitudes were substantially more likely to be reported by participants who were female, lower income, Democrat, and personally exposed to homelessness. Most Americans care about homelessness as a major problem but there are divergent perspectives on solutions to address homelessness based on gender, income level, and political affiliation. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22100   open full text
  • Communitarianism and youth empowerment: Motivation for participation in a community‐based substance abuse prevention coalition.
    Autumn M. Bermea, David T. Lardier, Brad Forenza, Pauline Garcia‐Reid, Robert J. Reid.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In recent years, collaborative efforts between universities and community‐based coalitions have helped develop prevention–intervention efforts to decrease the prevalence of drug and alcohol use among youth in low‐income, majority–minority urban areas.  One theory often employed to understand the efficacy of community member involvement is McMillian and Chavis's (1986) sense of community (SOC) model. This model posits how 4 main tenants (i.e., sense of belonging, emotional connection, needs fulfillment, and influence) lead to increased empowerment. The present study examines how individual SOC affected substance abuse coalition members’ (N = 17) motivations for serving on a coalition. Findings explore how all four tenants of McMillian and Chavis's (1986) model influenced community members’ involvement in the coalition, which have implications for prevention, policy, and further research. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22098   open full text
  • Social networks of unaccompanied women experiencing homelessness.
    Danielle B. Groton, Melissa Radey.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study explored strengths, barriers, and role of social networks among unaccompanied women experiencing homelessness. Twenty women from two local shelters participated in semistructured, face‐to‐face interviews. A constant comparative analysis revealed 4 themes: support as a coping mechanism, loss of support as a path to homelessness, support as a drain, and support as a way to give. Almost universally, women experienced considerable barriers to housing, including physical health, mental health, substance abuse, or domestic violence. Despite precarious circumstances, women showed optimism, interest, and readiness to move forward and exit homelessness. Most women utilized social networks to cope with their difficult situations. Their networks, however, were limited such that abusive relationships and substance abuse commonly contributed to homelessness and delayed entrance into secure housing. Together with identifying unaccompanied women as a subgroup in the homeless population, targeted interventions can help women capitalize on healthy relationships to promote housing security and well‐being. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22097   open full text
  • Supporting adults to support youth: An evaluation of two social justice trainings.
    Amy J. Anderson, Bernadette Sánchez, Graig Meyer, Brian P. Sales.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The current research examined pre‐ and post survey data in two social justice trainings for adults who support youth, including staff and volunteers (Study 1, N = 44) at youth‐serving organizations and adults who mentor young Black men and boys (Study 2, N = 72). We investigate whether training participants’ self‐report scores of cultural competences (studies 1 and 2), self‐efficacy for race equity (Study 1) and racial self‐efficacy to support mentee (Study 2) changed between the beginning of the training and after the training. Furthermore, we examine whether the changes depend upon whether training participants share cultural background with the youth with whom they work. In Study 1, findings indicated that training participants reported significantly increased scores of cultural sensitivity and self‐efficacy for race equity. Individuals who were not first‐generation college students saw higher increases in sociopolitical awareness. In Study 2, participants reported significantly higher scores of cultural sensitivity and racial self‐efficacy to support their mentees. Furthermore, non‐Black and women participants showed greater increases in self‐efficacy than Black and male participants. These results fill a gap in the literature on the potential role of social justice trainings to increase cultural competencies among adults who work with diverse youth. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 1092-1106, November 2018.
    June 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22093   open full text
  • Systems change in the context of an initiative to scale up Housing First in Canada.
    Geoffrey Nelson, S. Kathleen Worton, Eric Macnaughton, Sam Tsemberis, Tim MacLeod, Julian Hasford, Paula Goering, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Tim Aubry, Jino Distasio.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this study, we examine changes in the homeless‐serving system in the context of a training and technical assistance initiative to scale up Housing First (HF) in 6 Canadian communities. Based on qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews with key stakeholders (k = 7, n = 35) and field notes gathered over a 3‐year period (n = 146), we found 2 main system changes: (a) changes in the capacity of the service delivery system at multiple levels of analysis (from individual to policy) to implement HF, and (b) changes in the coordination of parts of the service delivery system and collaboration among local stakeholders to enhance HF implementation. These changes were facilitated or constrained by the larger context of evidence, climate, policy, and funding. The findings were discussed in terms of systems change theory and implications for transformative systems change in the mental health and homelessness sectors. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22095   open full text
  • The role of perceived friend depression and perceived stigma on self‐reported depression among individuals who use drugs.
    Melissa A. Davey‐Rothwell, Norah L. Crossnohere, Atsumi Kimura, Kathleen Page, Karin Tobin, Carl Latkin.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 11, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Depression and substance use are highly comorbid, and stigmatized, mental health conditions influenced by social network factors. The objective of this study was to explore the role of perceived depression and perceived mental health stigma among friends on self‐reported depression over time. Between 2009 and 2012, 527 participants who used drugs completed baseline and 6‐month follow‐up surveys in Baltimore, Maryland. Logistic regression was used to assess whether perceived depression and stigma among friends were associated with personal depressive status before and after accounting for depressive status at baseline. A total of 309 participants (58.6%) had depressive symptoms at baseline, while 207 participants (39.3%) had depressive symptoms at follow‐up. Not accounting for baseline depression, perceiving friends as being depressed (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.12, 1.56]) and as having stigmatizing attitudes toward mental health conditions (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI [1.31, 2.79]) were associated with increased odds of personal depression. After accounting for baseline depression, the relationship between personal depression and perceived stigma was marginally significant, while the relationship between personal depression and perceived depression among friends was attenuated. These results suggest that baseline depression is the largest predictor of follow‐up depression. Future research should explore whether specific aspects of perceived stigma independently account for personal depression. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 1107-1113, November 2018.
    June 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22094   open full text
  • Community coalitions as spaces for collective voice, action, and the sharing of resources.
    David T. Lardier, Carrie Bergeson, Autumn M. Bermea, Kathryn G. Herr, Brad Forenza, Pauline Garcia‐Reid, Robert J. Reid.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 11, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study examined how a community coalition, focused on prevention efforts, can aid in bridging resources between community organizations in a resource‐deprived area. We also explored how it may serve as a venue to support significant changes to the community, adults, and youth who live there. Drawing on 18 individual interviews with adult coalition members from various community organizations, in a large, underserved city in the northeastern United States, we examined these data for narrations of the coalition's place within the broader prevention community and how the coalition may be an organizational venue for collective voice. We were specifically interested in hearing if these adult community members saw the coalition as filling a gap within their community. Our data revealed that while organizations within the community have been decimated due to reduced funding, the present coalition aided in meeting a variety of needs. These needs included the facilitation of community voice while helping to bridge resources between organizations, which would otherwise work alone. - Journal of Community Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22096   open full text
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder in the short and medium term following the World Trade Center attack among Asian Americans.
    Winnie W. Kung, Xinhua Liu, Emily Goldmann, Debbie Huang, Xiaoran Wang, Keon Kim, Patricia Kim, Lawrence H. Yang.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 09, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study investigated patterns of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and their predictors among 2,431 Asian American and 31,455 non‐Hispanic White World Trade Center (WTC) Registry participants 2–3 years and 5–6 years after the WTC attack. Participants were divided into four PTSD pattern groups: resilient, remitted, delayed onset, and chronic. Asians had a lower proportion in the resilient group (76.5% vs. 79.8%), a higher proportion in the chronic (8.6% vs. 7.4%) and remitted (5.9% vs. 3.4%) groups, and a similar proportion in the delayed onset group (about 9%) compared to Whites. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, disaster exposure, immigrant status, lower income, pre‐attack depression/anxiety, and lower respiratory symptoms were associated with increased odds of chronic and delayed onset PTSD (vs. resilience) among both races. Education and employment were protective against chronic and delayed onset PTSD among Whites only. These results can inform targeted outreach efforts to enhance prevention and treatment for Asians affected by future events. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 1075-1091, November 2018.
    June 09, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22092   open full text
  • Validation of the Brief Sense of Community Scale among youth of color from an underserved urban community.
    David T. Lardier, Robert J. Reid, Pauline Garcia‐Reid.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 31, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Neighborhood sense of community (SOC) is a key construct in the community psychology literature. While the research on neighborhood SOC has progressed significantly, there is a need to further validate the Brief Sense of Community Scale (BSCS) among youth. A critical area of scholarship, therefore, is to examine the factor structure of the BSCS among a cohort of adolescents, particularly from the United States. This study tested the factor structure of the BSCS among a sample of urban youth of color (N = 383) using SPSS AMOS, a structural equation modeling software. After testing the factor structure, we examined the relationships between each of the BSCS subscales and conceptually related variables (e.g., psychological empowerment, relational power, and school importance). Results from this study confirm the first‐ and second‐order factor structure of the BSCS among youth. BSCS and its underlying subscales were both correlated with one another and correlated with the intrapersonal component of psychological empowerment, relational power, and school importance. Our findings have critical implications for the field of community psychology and the development and use of the BSCS among adolescents. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 1062-1074, November 2018.
    May 31, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22091   open full text
  • “A unique little microcosm”: Exploring a self‐sustaining community project which harnessed social action in a public space.
    Hannah C. Waters, Sarah Davidson.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Government policy in England encourages communities to capacity build from within. Community psychology has explored the role of community resilience in this process. But what happens if a community appears to lack formalized resources? This article considers such a community in which a grassroots community center thrives outside the boundaries of formalized community organizations. It aimed to find out how this community mobilized, the benefits for those connected, and how the center survives. A grounded theory ‘center as a living organism’ was constructed from the accounts of eleven participants. Results indicate how community centers play a role in promoting individual and community level well‐being and preventing distress. The importance of learning from progressive community initiatives and more partnership working between National Health Service, statutory, voluntary, and community groups is indicated. Effective engagement with and across communities to promote resilience and well‐being is also a theme of the responses to recent events in England, such as the terrorist attacks and the Grenfell Tower fire. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 1045-1061, November 2018.
    May 29, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22090   open full text
  • Validation of an abbreviated Sociopolitical Control Scale for Youth among a sample of underresourced urban youth of color.
    David T. Lardier, Robert J. Reid, Pauline Garcia‐Reid.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 21, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Empowerment is a higher order multilevel framework that is used to understand and evaluate individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as they engage in the practice and execution of the participatory process. The intrapersonal component of psychological empowerment has been examined through sociopolitical control and occupies two dimensions: leadership competence and policy control. Though the Sociopolitical Control Scale for Youth (SPCS‐Y) has been examined using a 17‐item scale, Christens, Krauss, and Zeldin (2016) recently assessed the factorial validity of an abbreviated SPCS‐Y among a sample of Malaysian adolescents. Yet, there is a need to further examine this abbreviated SPCS‐Y among a sample of U.S adolescents. This study tested the factor structure of the abbreviated SPCS‐Y among a sample of urban youth of color (N = 383). Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) we examined the relationship leadership competence and policy control had with conceptually related variables. Analyses supported the bidimensional factor structure and the factorial validity of the abbreviated SPCS‐Y. MANOVA results also indicate that participants with both higher leadership competence and policy control also had higher composite scores among conceptually related variables. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 996-1009, November 2018.
    May 21, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22087   open full text
  • The development of the Systems and Individual Responsibility for Poverty (SIRP) Scale.
    Rachel Shor, Jenna M. Calton, Lauren B. Cattaneo.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 21, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Poverty is a widespread social problem that affects a substantial number of Americans each year. Attitudes can affect a range of judgments, behavioral intentions, and actions related to addressing this problem. However, existing tools that measure attitudes toward those in poverty do not fully capture the deficit ideology that is a critical component of beliefs about social class. We developed the Systems and Individual Responsibility for Poverty (SIRP) Scale to address this gap. This article describes the development of an initial pool of 20 items, and then the refinement and validation of the final 17‐item measure. Exploratory factor analysis (N = 260) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 280) yielded 2 factors: Individual Responsibility and Systems Responsibility. The Individual Responsibility factor comprises two subscales, differentiating between reasons for getting into and not getting out of poverty. The SIRP is a new tool for evaluating community psychologists’ efforts to shift deficit‐oriented thinking about poverty, and is likely to be particularly useful in education contexts. In future work, community psychologists might adapt the measure to assess deficit oriented thinking about other problems, and to explore how such attitudes are related to behavior. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 1010-1025, November 2018.
    May 21, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22088   open full text
  • Family social capital mediates the effect of poverty on children's anxiety and depression.
    Chunkai Li, Zurong Liang, Xican Yin, Qiunv Zhang.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 21, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study aims to examine how family social capital mediates the relationship between poverty and children's anxiety and depression in mainland China. Data were collected with multistage cluster random sampling method in Xiushui City in mainland China. The sample comprised 1,314 school‐aged children (Grades 4–9). Data included children's basic demographics, internalizing symptoms, and parenting process. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. The results demonstrated a good fit for the sample. The overall model explained 12.7% and 16.1% of the variance for children's anxiety and depression, respectively. Poverty had a significantly direct effect on children's anxiety and depression, and family social capital could partially mediate the influence of poverty on children's internalizing symptoms. Family social capital plays an important mediating role between poverty and children's mental health. Our findings provide strong evidence for social work intervention. Family social capital is essential for parent–child interactions, especially in underprivileged families. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 983-995, November 2018.
    May 21, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22086   open full text
  • Violence as a health disparity: Adolescents’ perceptions of violence depicted through photovoice.
    Megan Bennett Irby, DeWanna Hamlin, Lynn Rhoades, Nathan Ross Freeman, Phillip Summers, Scott D Rhodes, Stephanie Daniel.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Violence is a public health issue that disproportionately affects adolescents from historically marginalized communities. In response to growing concerns of local violence, our community–academic partnership explored adolescents’ perspectives about violence, including perceptions of its causes, consequences, and potential solutions. Ten adolescents participated in a 12‐week photovoice project. They received training in basic research methodologies, documented representations of violence through digital photography and creative writing, engaged in empowerment‐based photo‐discussions, and presented their work to influential advocates in a community forum. Adolescents and staff conducted a thematic analysis of photographs and narratives from which 10 themes emerged across 3 domains: a culture of violence and oppression, structural violence, and mental and physical health. Adolescents presented their work to community stakeholders in a public forum to foster additional discussions regarding violence in the community. This photovoice project yielded rich qualitative insight into adolescents’ experiences with and perceptions of violence. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 1026-1044, November 2018.
    May 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.22089   open full text
  • What is the role of sense of community in multiracial societies? A contribution to the community–diversity dialectic: A genetic psychology approach.
    Alessia Rochira.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Interconnecting the construct of sense of community (SOC), elaborated by McMillan and Chavis, with the notion of social representations, elaborated by Moscovici, this article aims to contribute to advancing an understanding of the relationship between SOC and respect for diversity. Utilizing a genetic psychology approach and the intergroup contact theory, the article articulates 3 levels through which the social representation of community and SOC can be formed and transformed (i.e., microgenetic, ontogenetic, and sociogenetic) to enhance the investigation of the relationship between the 2 phenomena beyond the intraindividual and interindividual levels that tend to emphasize homophily, or preference for similarity. In particular, the article elaborates on the sociogenetic formation of SOC by examining the macro‐level forces that participate in establishing what a community should be and who is entitled to be part of it. Examples from 2 previous studies are discussed. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 972-982, November 2018.
    May 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21985   open full text
  • Effects of unsupportive social interactions, stigma, and symptoms on patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome.
    Stephanie L. McManimen, Damani McClellan, Jamie Stoothoff, Leonard A. Jason.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 04, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Prior research has found a heightened risk of suicide in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). It is possible that a number of factors including stigma, unsupportive social interactions, and severe symptoms could lead to the development of depression, suicidal ideation, and heightened risk of suicide in this patient population. Prior studies have indicated that patients often report the legitimacy of their illness being questioned by family, friends, and even their physicians. This study aimed to determine whether stigma experienced, social support, symptomology, and functioning may be associated with depression and endorsement of suicidal ideation (SI) in patients with a self‐reported diagnosis of ME or CFS. Findings indicated that participants that endorsed both SI and depression, in contrast to those that did not, experienced more frequent unsupportive social interactions in the form of blame for their illness, minimization of its severity, and social distancing from others. In addition, 7.1% of patients with ME and CFS endorsed SI but do not meet the criteria for clinical depression These findings highlight the importance of stigma and unsupportive social interactions as risk factors for suicidal thoughts or actions among patients with ME and CFS. Community psychologists have an important role to play in helping educate health care professionals and the public to these types of risk factors for patients marginalized by ME and CFS. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 8, Page 959-971, November 2018.
    May 04, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21984   open full text
  • Process evaluation of a community outpatient program treating substance use disorders.
    James L. Sorensen, Jasmin D. Llamas.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 04, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Addiction treatment can improve its impact by providing evidence‐based care for the variety of problems that accompany substance use disorders. We conducted a retrospective evaluation of a new treatment program in California that aimed at providing multifaceted services through affiliated licensed and certified outpatient providers. The process evaluation used a logic model, focusing on program inputs, activities, and outputs, to understand the services received by the initial 18 clients who entered treatment. Results indicated that clients received a variety of services: On average, clients contracted for 118 treatment sessions and received 143 sessions. Among the many types of services provided, the most frequently received were integrative healthcare (averaging 42 sessions), group therapy (32 sessions), and individual therapy (32 sessions). This logic‐model process evaluation indicated that a range of services were provided. The comprehensive approach may have promise for extending addiction treatment beyond its usual boundaries. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 844-855, September 2018.
    May 04, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21976   open full text
  • Effects of an entertaining, culturally targeted narrative and an appealing expert interview on the colorectal screening intentions of African American women.
    May G. Kennedy, Donna McClish, Resa M. Jones, Yan Jin, Diane B. Wilson, Diane L. Bishop.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Universal screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) is recommended for individuals 50–75 years of age, but screening uptake is suboptimal and African Americans have suffered persistent racial disparities in CRC incidence and deaths. We compared a culturally tailored fictional narrative and an engaging expert interview on the ability to increase intentions to be screened for CRC among African American women. In a post‐only experiment, women (N = 442) in face‐to‐face listening groups in African American churches heard audio recordings of either a narrative or an expert interview. Questionnaires were completed immediately afterward and 30 days later. Women who heard narratives reported stronger intentions to be screened with a home stool blood test than women who heard the interview; the effect lasted at least 30 days. Culturally tailored, fictional narratives appear to be an effective persuasive strategy for reducing racial disparities in CRC outcomes. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 925-940, September 2018.
    April 27, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21983   open full text
  • The influence of school sense of community on students’ well‐being: A multilevel analysis.
    Gabriele Prati, Elvira Cicognani, Cinzia Albanesi.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated the role of students’ school sense of community (i.e., emotional connection and bonds with other students at school and sense of belonging to the school as a community) in predicting well‐being (presence of positive feelings and positive functioning in life). Specifically, these studies have found that individual sense of community in the school is associated with well‐being. However, individual sense of community in the school does not constitute a school‐level characteristic, and the influence of sense of community at the school level on students’ well‐being was not investigated. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a study investigating the influence of sense of community at the school level on students’ well‐being, using multilevel analysis. Our sample comprised 1,800 students (age ranged from 11 to 20 years) from public lower and upper secondary schools in Italy. Results showed that higher sense of community scores at the school level were associated with higher well‐being scores, while controlling for individual sense of community, gender, and age. These results provide support for a school‐level theory of school sense of community (i.e., moving school sense of community theory from the individual to the school level). - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 917-924, September 2018.
    April 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21982   open full text
  • The university campus environment as a protective factor for intimate partner violence against women: An exploratory study.
    Miriam Marco, Enrique Gracia, Antonio López‐Quílez.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Some neighborhood characteristics linked to social disorganization theory have been related to intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). The study of other neighborhood‐level factors that may influence IPVAW risk, however, has received less attention. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of university campuses on IPVAW risk. To conduct the study, IPVAW cases from 2011 to 2013 in the city of Valencia, Spain, were geocoded (n = 1,623). Census block groups were used as the neighborhood analysis unit. Distance between each census block group and the nearest university campus was measured. A Bayesian spatial model adjusted for census block group‐level characteristics was performed. Results showed that the distance from a university campus was associated with an approximate 7% increase in IPVAW risk per kilometer. These results suggest that university campuses integrated in the city are related to IPVAW risk. Further research is needed to explain the mechanisms involved. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 903-916, September 2018.
    April 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21980   open full text
  • Community–academic partnerships in implementation research.
    Melanie Pellecchia, David S. Mandell, Heather J. Nuske, Gazi Azad, Courtney Benjamin Wolk, Brenna B. Maddox, Erica M. Reisinger, Laura C. Skriner, Danielle R. Adams, Rebecca Stewart, Trevor Hadley, Rinad S. Beidas.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Community–academic partnerships(CAPs) are a critical component of implementing and sustaining evidence‐based practices (EBPs) in community settings; however, the approaches used and mechanisms of change within CAPs have not been rigorously studied. The first step to advancing the science of CAP is to operationally define and contextualize the approaches used in CAP as part of the implementation process. Our research group has gleaned valuable lessons about the best ways to develop, support, and nurture community partnerships within the context of implementation. In this article, we share these lessons learned and relate them to implementation strategies that are most relevant to community‐partnered implementation endeavors. The implementation strategies most relevant to CAPs are as follows: (a) building a coalition, (b) conducting local consensus discussions, (c) identifying barriers and facilitators to implementation, (d) facilitating interactive problem solving, (e) using an advisory board or workgroup, (f) tailoring strategies, (g) promoting adaptability, and (h) auditing and providing feedback. We offer suggestions for future research to systematically evaluate these strategies, with an eye toward advancing the science of CAP and implementation science and the goal of guiding future research and improving the implementation of EBPs in community settings. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 941-952, September 2018.
    April 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21981   open full text
  • LET's CONNECT community mentorship program for youths with peer social problems: Preliminary findings from a randomized effectiveness trial.
    Cheryl A. King, Polly Y. Gipson, Alejandra Arango, Cynthia Ewell Foster, Michael Clark, Neera Ghaziuddin, Deborah Stone.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study examined the effectiveness of LET's CONNECT (LC), a community mentorship program for youths who report peer social problems, which is based on a positive youth development framework. Participants were 218 youths (66.5% girls), aged 12 to 15 years, who were recruited from an urban medical emergency department and screened positive for bullying victimization, bullying perpetration, and/or low social connectedness. Youths were randomized to LC (n = 106) or the control condition (n = 112). Six‐month outcomes were assessed with self‐report measures of youth social connectedness, community connectedness, thwarted belongingness, depression, self‐esteem, and suicidal ideation. LC was associated with a significant increase in only one of these outcomes, social connectedness (effect size = 0.4). It was associated consistently with trend‐level positive changes for thwarted belongingness (decreased), depression (decreased), community connectedness, and self‐esteem (effect sizes = 0.2). There was no effect on suicidal ideation (effect size = 0.0), and although not a primary outcome, eight youths in the LC condition and seven youths in the control condition engaged in suicidal behavior between baseline and follow‐up. Although LC effect sizes are consistent with those from previous studies of community mentorship, there were multiple challenges to LC implementation that affected dosage and intervention fidelity, and that may account for the lack of stronger positive effects. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 885-902, September 2018.
    April 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21979   open full text
  • Information‐seeking tactics and sense of workplace community in Korea.
    Yongjun Shin, Hee Sun Park, Seung Soo Han, Woo‐Sung Chang.
    Journal of Community Psychology. March 31, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This research examined how information‐seeking tactics and sense of workplace community are related to one another. Data from Korea showed that workers (n = 314) who preferred overt tactics of seeking information (i.e., direct questioning) also reported a stronger sense of workplace community. Information types and sources did not moderate the relationship between information‐seeking tactics and sense of workplace community. Information types, however, moderated the relationship between importance of information and sense of workplace community and the relationship between coworker availability as an information source and sense of workplace community. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 856-870, September 2018.
    March 31, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21977   open full text
  • Bully victimization, depression, and the role of protective factors among college LGBTQ students.
    Theresa E. Moran, Cliff Yung‐Chi Chen, Georgiana Shick Tryon.
    Journal of Community Psychology. March 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study surveyed 347 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning college students from across the United States concerning their bully victimization, depressive symptoms, and sources of support. Participants responded to an online survey that asked them about their victimization experiences during the 3 months prior to the survey. The results indicate that four types of bully victimization (verbal, relational, cyber, and physical) occur during the college years, and that victimization relates positively to depressive symptomatology in sexual minority college students. The 4 forms of bullying did not relate to depression in the same manner for each of the 5 sexual minority subgroups. Peer support, but not family and campus support, provided a buffer against depression for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students. This study involved a sample exclusively comprising sexual minority college students, and the findings show the need for colleges to address bully victimization and its effects in this population. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 871-884, September 2018.
    March 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21978   open full text
  • Neighborhood disadvantage, residents' distress, and online social communication: Harnessing Twitter data to examine neighborhood effects.
    Jaime M. Booth, Yu‐Ru Lin, Kai Wei.
    Journal of Community Psychology. March 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study aims to examine the role of place‐based online social communications in buffering the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and psychological distress using geo‐located Twitter feeds. We collected 1,981,802 geo‐tagged tweets posted within the physical boundaries of 78 neighborhoods located in Pittsburgh for 16 consecutive months, beginning July 15, 2013. Psychological distress was measured using sentiments expressed in tweets, and within‐ and between‐neighborhood online social communications were assessed using users’ Twitter activity. This study reveals differential effects of within‐ and between‐neighborhood online social communications. More online social communications within a neighborhood were associated with increased psychological sadness, anxiety, and distress in high‐poverty neighborhoods; a relationship that was not found in low‐poverty neighborhoods. This study suggests the buffering effects of online social communications may follow the same patterns as off‐line social support in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Considering the interactions between online spaces and neighborhoods may be important for planning and implementing neighborhood‐level interventions. - Journal of Community Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 7, Page 829-843, September 2018.
    March 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21975   open full text
  • In it together: Exploring how belonging to a youth activist group enhances well‐being.
    Anne C. Montague, Francisco Jose Eiroa‐Orosa.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 17, 2017
    Despite some evidence that being an activist, particularly during adolescence, can positively affect well‐being, activism has been relatively neglected in both psychology and youth civic engagement research. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring how being an activist as a teenager can positively affect personal development and well‐being. Seven focus groups comprising adolescent human rights activists were conducted in classrooms throughout the United Kingdom. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify four dominant themes–A place to go, Power in numbers, Skilling‐up, and In it together—which are discussed in relation to existing literature. Because findings from this study suggest that there are a number of positive psychological benefits to being a youth activist, implications for psychology and youth civic engagement are also considered.
    October 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21914   open full text
  • Measuring citizenship among U.S. veterans with chronic mental illness: A psychometric evaluation.
    Jack Tsai, Laurie Harkness, Katelyn Kang, Mary Sperrazza.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 13, 2017
    Many U.S. military veterans experience difficulties reintegrating into civilian society after their military service, especially veterans with chronic mental illness. Few studies have examined the sense of citizenship among veterans and citizenship has rarely been examined in psychological studies. As part of a larger experimental trial, this study piloted the Yale Citizenship Scale on a sample of 199 U.S. veterans with chronic mental illness in Connecticut and Houston. A factor analysis found that the scale comprised 7 factors labeled as Personal Responsibilities, Government and Infrastructure, Caring by Others, Civil Rights, Legal Rights, Choices, and World Stewardship. Veterans with chronic mental illness reported moderate scores on each factor and the total scale. Each factor as well as the total scale showed good convergent validity with mental health and quality of life measures and discriminant validity from pain and physical health measures. The total scale and its factors demonstrated acceptable‐to‐excellent internal consistency and there was fair‐to‐excellent test‐retest reliability on 6 of the 7 factors. Together, the findings demonstrated that the Yale Citizenship Scale can be adapted for use for U.S. veterans with chronic mental illness and that helping veterans achieve high levels of citizenship may an important social and clinical goal.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21919   open full text
  • Neighborhood sexual violence moderates women's perceived safety in urban neighborhoods.
    Erin E. Hoffman, Tanisha T. M. Mair, Bronwyn A. Hunter, Dana M. Prince, Jacob Kraemer Tebes.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 12, 2017
    Perceptions of neighborhood safety are positively associated with perceptions of neighborhood violence. However, research has yet to examine whether specific types of violence such as sexual violence moderate this relationship that are more salient for women. Using street‐intercept interviews with 343 adults in 9 neighborhoods of a U.S. city with high rates of poverty, unemployment, and crime, we examine the relationship of perceived neighborhood violence to perceived safety in the context of gender while controlling for neighborhood assets that moderate perceptions of neighborhood safety and violence. We hypothesized that gender would moderate the relationship between perceived neighborhood violence and safety, and that women's perceptions of neighborhood safety would be significantly influenced by neighborhood sexual violence, but not other types of violence. Although women and men in these high crime, urban neighborhoods did not differ in their perceptions of neighborhood safety or violence, perceived sexual violence did significantly moderate safety by gender; women's perceptions of neighborhood sexual violence predicted perceived safety in their neighborhood. Importantly, gender did not moderate perceived safety for other types of violence. These results illustrate the importance of taking gender and perceived sexual violence into account to understand neighborhood safety in adults, particularly women.
    October 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21917   open full text
  • Validating the formative nature of psychological empowerment construct: Testing cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and relational empowerment components.
    Mariana Rodrigues, Isabel Menezes, Pedro D. Ferreira.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 10, 2017
    The literature has recently raised the need to clarify the nature of psychological empowerment. There are theoretical and empirical evidences that this conceptualization may not be appropriate, and therefore other alternatives to the reflective measurement model should be considered. Consequently, serious problems may arise from the measurement model misspecification, undoubtedly compromising the development of empowerment theory and measurement. This empirical study constitutes an attempt to contribute to this debate, not only testing both reflective and formative models of psychological empowerment, to find the most appropriate modeling approach as a higher‐order multidimensional construct, but also validating a measure that assesses cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and relational components in a Portuguese youth community‐organizing context (N = 861). Confirmatory tetrad analyses results suggest a formative operationalization of psychological empowerment construct. These findings are supported by additional theoretical and empirical considerations. Additionally, the 46‐item index for measure psychological empowerment reveals satisfactory psychometric properties.
    October 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21916   open full text
  • Interdependent self‐construal matters in the community context: Relationships of self‐construal with community identity and participation.
    Ziqiang Xin, Zhixu Yang, Xihuan Ling.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 10, 2017
    Two studies investigate the relationship between self‐construal (SC), community identity, and community participation among Chinese urban residents. Study 1 (n = 261) measured SC, community identity, and community participation behavior. Using cluster analysis, 4 distinct subgroups emerged: those with (a) independent SC, (b) interdependent SC, (c) dual SC, and (d) marginal SC. Results indicated that individuals in the interdependent SC subgroup reported higher community identity, particularly emotional identity, and more participation behavior than those in the independent and dual SC subgroups. Study 2 (n = 53) experimentally activated SC before measuring community identity and community participation intention. Results indicated that individuals primed with interdependent SC reported greater community identity, particularly emotional identity, and higher participation intention than those primed with independent SC. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications.
    October 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21910   open full text
  • Neighborhood and cultural stressors associated with delinquency in Latino adolescents.
    Sonia L. Rubens, Omar G. Gudiño, Jena Michel, Paula J. Fite, Michelle Johnson‐Motoyama.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 10, 2017
    Research has demonstrated a link between community violence exposure (CVE) and delinquency in adolescence, but little is known about the role of cultural stressors in this relation. This study examined the moderating role of acculturation dissonance and ethnic/racial discrimination in the link between CVE and delinquency engagement in a sample of Latino adolescents. Participants for this study included 134 Latino adolescents (46% males, mean age of 16.14, standard deviation = 1.31) recruited from an urban charter high school located in a large Midwestern city. Findings from hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that higher levels of CVE and acculturation dissonance, as well as male gender, were associated with higher levels of delinquency engagement. A significant interaction was also found between CVE and ethnic/racial discrimination. Interaction probing showed that CVE was significantly associated with delinquency engagement at low but not high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination. Findings suggest that it is important to consider multiple types of cultural and neighborhood stressors when assessing and addressing the needs of Latino adolescents.
    October 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21918   open full text
  • Racial disparities in perceived social support and social service use: Associations with maternal depression and head start participation.
    Kyunghee Lee, Kristin Rispoli.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 28, 2017
    Using the Head Start Impact Study data, this study examined racial disparities in maternal perceptions of social support and social service receipt, and their associations with depression. Associations between Head Start participation and these variables were also studied. A total of 3,269 mothers were included (n = 971 Black, 1,086 Hispanic, and 1,212 White). Compared to White mothers, Hispanic mothers indicated perceiving less assistance from social supports. Black and Hispanic mothers were less likely to use social services and reported lower levels of depression than White mothers. Head Start mothers perceived more helpfulness from social supports than non‐Head Start mothers. Head Start, however, was not associated with social service use or maternal depression. Results suggest Head Start participation may be related to greater ability to reap benefits from relationships with friends and family among low‐income mothers.
    September 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21912   open full text
  • Multiple senses of community and acculturation strategies among migrants.
    Terri Mannarini, Cosimo Talò, Monica Mezzi, Fortuna Procentese.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 25, 2017
    Based on the theoretical framework of multiple psychological sense of community (MPSOC) and acculturation models, the study explored the relationships between territorial (TPSOC) and ethnic PSOC (EPSOC) and the acculturation behaviors of 2 groups of immigrants who settled in Italy, namely, Albanians (N = 230) and Sri Lankans (N = 131). Based on survey data and quantitative analyses (general linear models), TPSOC and EPSOC were considered first separately and then combined, according to a bidimensional model of MPSOC that resulted in four combinations (dual membership, receiving society membership, ethnic membership, and no membership). The findings highlighted significant variations across groups. Among Albanian participants, both TPSOC and EPSOC were positively associated with integration and negatively with marginalization. Dual membership was positively associated with integration, prevailing ethnic membership with separation, and no membership with marginalization. Among Sri Lankan participants, EPSOC showed a positive association with separation. Dual membership was associated with marginalization, prevailing receiving society membership with assimilation, prevailing ethnic membership with separation, and no membership with integration.
    September 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21913   open full text
  • A quasi‐experimental evaluation of rent assistance for individuals experiencing chronic homelessness.
    Courtney Pankratz, Geoffrey Nelson, Marie Morrison.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 20, 2017
    This study investigated the effectiveness of the addition of rent assistance to existing housing and support services in the Waterloo region of Ontario for people experiencing chronic homelessness. A nonequivalent comparison group design was used to compare the outcomes between (a) participants selected to receive rent assistance plus support services (n = 26) and (b) participants receiving support services only (n = 25). Participants were interviewed at baseline and 6 months later. Participants in the rent assistance condition showed significantly greater improvements over time relative to the comparison group in housing stability and quality of life. They also demonstrated significantly better perceived housing quality, and there were trends of greater improvement in community functioning, social support, and food security. The findings demonstrate that rent assistance is associated with superior program outcomes for people experiencing chronic homelessness and is a necessary component of supported housing models, such as Housing First.
    September 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21911   open full text
  • A longitudinal examination of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, public ethnic regard, and depressive symptoms in Latino youth.
    Gabriela Livas Stein, Laura Taylor, Andrea Kulish, Laura McLaughlin Gonzalez.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 14, 2017
    This longitudinal study examined the role of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination and public ethnic regard on depressive symptoms in an adolescent Latino sample (n = 141) living in an emerging immigrant community. Using a cross lagged model, this study found that Time 1 (T1) discrimination did not predict T2 depressive symptoms, nor did depressive symptoms predict T2 discrimination. However, public ethnic regard served as a significant moderator of the longitudinal association of discrimination. For youth who reported high public ethnic regard and high racial/ethnic discrimination at T1, they reported greater discrimination at T2 compared to those who reported low public ethnic regard. These findings suggest that an internalized positive perception of the public's view of one's ethnic group is a potential vulnerability factor that needs to be better understood. These findings imply the need for additional research on the unique role of public ethnic regard in emerging immigrant communities.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21904   open full text
  • Understanding the influence of resilience for people with a lived experience of mental illness: A self‐determination theory perspective.
    Dana Perlman, Christopher Patterson, Lorna Moxham, Ellie K. Taylor, Renee Brighton, Susan Sumskis, Tim Heffernan.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 09, 2017
    Behaviors associated with resilience can be seen as tantamount to coping with stress and vulnerability. This is important for people who live with mental illness. This study aimed to determine whether key basic psychological needs influence resilience among people with a lived experience of mental illness. A total of 159 consumers with a lived experience of mental illness completed self‐report surveys measuring resilience and the basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) espoused in self‐determination theory. A 2‐step analysis was conducted, including Pearson product correlations and stepwise multiple regression. Higher levels of relatedness significantly predicted resilience. Competence and autonomy did not have a significant influence on resilience. Reconnecting or establishing social relationships within ones community is important for people living with mental illness. The link between resilience and relatedness ought to be considered in treatment plans.
    September 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21908   open full text
  • Children's experiences and perceptions of street culture, parental supervision, and parental mediation in an urban neighborhood.
    Maartje Dijken, Geert‐Jan Stams, Micha Winter.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 09, 2017
    Local street cultures may appear more or less “extreme,” depending on several contextual factors. Using focus groups, the current study aimed to explore what children, aged 7 to 12 years, think of the assumption that parents play an important role on the street to increase safety in the public domain. Involvement of parents can either be helpful or contribute to escalation of the conflict. Children's biggest concern was that parents are not able to be neutral or that children did not know the parent who intervened. They can imagine intervening being helpful when the intervening parents are known and trusted. We expect that when the public environment is safe and social cohesion is strong, the amount of conflicts will reduce and the help of parents will be generally accepted. We expect that increasing public familiarity and strengthening social control in disadvantaged neighborhoods can further limit the negative influences of street culture.
    September 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21906   open full text
  • Resident characteristics and neighborhood environments on health‐related quality of life and stress.
    John P. Barile, Gabriel P. Kuperminc, William W. Thompson.
    Journal of Community Psychology. September 01, 2017
    Relatively little research has attempted to disentangle the individual and neighborhood conditions underlying health disparities. To address this, survey data were collected from 1,107 residents living in one of the 114 census tracts. Results from a multilevel structural equation model found an individual's perceptions of the social and built environment were significantly associated with their current physical health, mental health, and perceived stress. Associations between household income and poor physical health were more pronounced for participants who lived in low‐income neighborhoods compared to participants who lived in high‐income neighborhoods. Additionally, Black residents reported significantly better mental health than White residents when they lived in high‐income neighborhoods, while Black residents who lived in low‐income neighborhoods reported significantly more stress than White residents in low‐income neighborhoods. Results of this study advance scientific understanding of social determinants of health and may aid in the development of programs and policies.
    September 01, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21907   open full text
  • Impact of trauma exposure and acculturative stress on internalizing symptoms for recently arrived migrant‐origin youth: Results from a community‐based partnership.
    M. Alexander Thibeault, Julia L. Mendez, Rosemery O. Nelson‐Gray, Gabriela L. Stein.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 23, 2017
    Migrant youth face cultural challenges upon initial adjustment into the United States. Although there is considerable empirical evidence that trauma impacts interpersonal relations, there is a dearth of research examining the association between adverse events and the initial social and cultural exchange experience, and whether this is associated with psychological adjustment. This study examined self‐report data for 87 newly arrived migrant‐origin students in Grades 5–10 from Latin American, Caribbean, Asian, and African backgrounds attending a public alternative school in the Southeastern United States. Data were collected as part of a community‐based partnership. The relation between cumulative trauma exposure and internalizing symptoms was fully mediated by acculturative stress (p < .05), suggesting prior trauma exposure negatively affected these students’ capacity to navigate a new cultural milieu, which in turn is directly associated with internalizing symptoms. Behavioral health care practitioners can use screening procedures early in the academic year to detect which migrant students may be experiencing difficult cultural transitions.
    August 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21905   open full text
  • How do homeless adults change their lives after completing an intensive job‐skills program? A prospective study.
    Heather M. Gray, Sarah E. Nelson, Howard J. Shaffer, Patricia Stebbins, Andrea Ryan Farina.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 10, 2017
    Among people experiencing homelessness, difficulty securing housing is often compounded by concurrent challenges including unemployment, chronic illness, criminal justice involvement, and victimization. The Moving Ahead Program (MAP) is a vocational rehabilitation program that seeks to help adults facing these challenges secure competitive employment. We prospectively studied how MAP graduates (N = 97) changed from the beginning of MAP to about 6 months after graduation. We observed a variety of positive outcomes in not just employment and housing but also health, substance use, and criminal justice involvement. However, these gains were not universal; for instance, participants were less likely to report positive outcomes at follow‐up if they started MAP with a serious mental illness, made relatively small gains in work skills, or did not seek mental health treatment during the 6 months after they completed MAP. These findings might encourage program staff to devote additional resources toward supporting at‐risk students.
    August 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21900   open full text
  • Perceptions of social disorder in public spaces in a disadvantaged neighborhood: The example of Cologne‐Chorweiler.
    Sebastian Kurtenbach.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 31, 2017
    Residents of segregated neighborhoods perceive social disorder in their neighborhoods differently. Starting from the broken‐windows theory and the social organization approach, the paper develops a deeper understanding of the role of place for the perception of social disorder. Participant structural observations were conducted, along with a photo survey and collection of ethnographic data about six locations within the studied neighborhood. Comparison of perceptions of the locations and social practices within them shows that social disorder is perceived not by residents who live directly at the location, but by others. This pattern is independent of the type and intensity of social disorder observed.
    July 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21903   open full text
  • Different actions for different crimes: Explaining individual action in local crime problems.
    Lacey Schaefer, Lorraine Mazerolle, Marianne Kapnoulla.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 31, 2017
    The crime prevention literature finds extensive support for crime‐specific approaches to organized interventions in crime problems. Yet within the communities and crime literature, little is known about the crime‐specific (or generalized) way that individuals respond to different types of crime problems in their neighborhood. Using data from the Australian Community Capacity Study, this paper examines how individual characteristics, perceptions of agents of formal social control, and perceptions of informal community processes influence the decision a person makes to do something about different types of local crime problems. Results indicate that individual characteristics (prior police contact and previous victimization) and positive perceptions of informal community processes (frequency of neighboring) are positively associated with action; yet when people perceive agents of formal social control as effective, they are less likely to take informal crime control action. We conclude that the mechanisms that prompt community action are best understood from a crime‐specific approach.
    July 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21902   open full text
  • How to support me in connected learning: Youth perspectives on adult supportive behavior and its benefits.
    Danielle Vaclavik, Bernadette Sánchez, Kathleen Buehler, Tené Gray, Elsa Rodriguez.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 18, 2017
    This study examined the various ways adults engage and support youth in connected learning settings, which are focused on supporting youth in their interests or passions. Youth from 5 Chicago community‐based, out‐of‐school time (OST) programs participated in focus groups on the topic of adult–youth relationships. Participants reported characteristics and behaviors of supportive adults as well as the outcomes associated with those behaviors. Analyses revealed that the following characteristics of adults enabled engagement and relationship development: (a) mutual respect, (b) genuine interest, (c) ongoing communication and friendship, and (d) going above and beyond. Youth also identified the specific ways that adults supported them: (a) guidance and motivation, (b) skill‐based support, (c) role modeling, (d) connecting, (e) emotional support, and (f) cultivating youth voice. Finally, participants reported the following outcomes related to such support: (a) social capital, (b) a sense of empowerment and control of their futures, and (c) a sense of acceptance and validation. This study is a contribution to the literature on adult–youth relationships in connected learning sites and draws attention to the potential socioemotional and instructional benefits of such programs. Our study also highlights the various ways that adults in OST programs can successfully engage youth and form relationships.
    July 18, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21901   open full text
  • Determinants of the use of community‐based mental health services after mobile crisis team services: An empirical approach using the Cox proportional hazard model.
    Seokjoo Kim, HyunSoo Kim.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 20, 2017
    It is crucial for people to have an immediate link to community‐based mental health services (CMHSs) after psychiatric crisis. This study aims to identify the determinants of people's use of CMHSs after Mobile Crisis Team (MCT) intervention. This study integrated four local administrative records and selected 1,771 adults who received MCT intervention in 2008. The authors measured the length between the last day of crisis period and the first date of using CMHSs and used the Cox proportional hazard model to estimate its predictors. Of the sample, 44.2% used CMHSs within 30 days after MCT intervention. Cox proportional hazards model identifies predictors of using CMHSs such as clients’ diagnosis, substance abuse issues, treatment history, and the interventions during the crisis period. The findings reconfirm the vital roles of MCT intervention such as linking resources and referral services. Because this study simultaneously observes the process and postphase of psychiatric crisis intervention, its findings not only assist in improving interventions for people with psychiatric crisis but also support social policy and programs that strengthen the continuum of care.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21899   open full text
  • Place‐based loss and resilience among disaster‐affected youth.
    Leila Scannell, Robin S. Cox, Sarah Fletcher.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 08, 2017
    As research on young people's disaster experiences is accumulating, one important yet understudied factor underlying their vulnerability and resilience is their connection to certain places. Youth affected by the 2013 floods in Southern Alberta, Canada, provided photographs of places important to their flood experiences and engaged in peer‐to‐peer interviews to discuss place loss and place‐based strength. Damaged or changed places disrupted youth's reliance on place for activities, resources, social ties, sense of continuity, and a connection to the past. Places provided strength when they offered escape from the postdisaster chaos, enabled youth to contribute to recovery, supported physical and psychological need satisfaction, and symbolized strength, renewal, or hope. These findings demonstrate the relevance of place to youth's disaster experiences and inform future qualitative and quantitative work in this area.
    June 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21897   open full text
  • What would your neighbor do? An experimental approach to the study of informal social control of intimate partner violence in South Korea.
    Clifton R. Emery, Hyerin Yang, Oksoo Kim, Carmen Arenas, Andres Astray.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 11, 2017
    Although research on bystander intervention and informal social control of intimate partner violence (IPV) is increasingly common, empirical anomalies remain and experimental studies on population samples are rare. This study reports the effects of a new experimental approach to the study of informal social control of IPV by neighbors on a small population sample of 100 married men in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that men randomly assigned to a high‐perceived informal social control condition would have lower self‐estimated likelihoods of IPV perpetration in response to a vignette. We also hypothesized that the effect of random assignment would be different for that portion of the sample that reported perpetration of family violence (IPV or child abuse). Compared to the nonperpetrating portion of the sample, perpetrators of family violence in the sample randomly assigned to the high perceived control condition experienced a significant drop in self‐estimated likelihood of IPV perpetration.
    May 11, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21882   open full text
  • Waiting for shelter: Perspectives on a homeless shelter's procedures.
    Molly Brown, Martina Mihelicova, Jennifer Lyons, Jennifer DeFonzo, Samantha Torello, Andrés Carrión, Allison N. Ponce.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 08, 2017
    Research on homeless shelter implementation is limited. Some shelters have lengthy waitlists, which raises important questions about implications of waitlists for individuals with immediate shelter needs. This study used qualitative methods to understand the experiences of shelter seekers who were on a shelter waitlist (N = 59), including individuals who entered the shelter from the waitlist, and those removed from the shelter waitlist for procedural reasons. The average waitlist time was nearly 3 weeks, and 22.0% stayed at least one night on the street or another public place while on the waitlist. Responses to open‐ended questions regarding barriers and effectiveness of the shelter referral procedures revealed 4 themes: procedural challenges, procedural benefits, benefits of the temporary stay, and communication challenges. Further research is needed to inform shelter implementation on a larger scale in accordance with current community‐wide efforts to coordinate shelter services.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21896   open full text
  • Experiences of oppression, liberation, and well‐being among Moroccans in Andalusia.
    Violeta Luque‐Ribelles, Isabel M. Herrera‐Sánchez, Manuel García‐Ramírez.
    Journal of Community Psychology. May 08, 2017
    This qualitative study explores the settlement experiences of Moroccan migrants living in Andalusia (southern Spain). Taking a liberation psychology approach, we focus on the roles that power relations, oppression, well‐being, and liberation play in the newcomers’ adaptation to the host country from a sociopolitical point of view. Based on grounded theory, we analyze the narratives of 28 Moroccan migrants across two different contexts within Andalusia; 15 participated in in‐depth interviews and 13 in 2 separate focus groups. A series of theoretical propositions emerged from the analysis, taking into account (a) conditions of oppression, (b) responses to conditions of oppression, and (c) the well‐being continuum. These interrelated dimensions were found to shape different migration trajectories, leading to either maintaining the unjust living conditions or choosing to confront them. In the latter case, migrants actively engaged in transformative civic actions promoting social justice and symmetrical power relations between the migrant and native‐born populations. The main contribution of this study is to value migrants by defining their migratory experiences and how, in their view, the liberation process is achieved.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21895   open full text
  • Changing youth attitudes toward the police through community policing programming.
    Elisabeth J. Leroux, Kelly McShane.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 28, 2017
    This article presents an evaluation of a community policing program designed to increase youths’ positive attitudes toward the police. A total of 45 youth attended the program and were surveyed at 3 time points: before program commencement, after program completion, and after a 4‐month follow‐up time period. Four program outcomes were examined: global attitudes toward the police, perception of the police, distributive justice of the police, and perception of police discrimination. Overall, participation in the program was effective in reducing perceptions of police discrimination and increasing attitudes toward the police among all youth. Findings also support the program as a remedial intervention for youth with past negative encounters with the police. The evaluation is discussed in the context of promoting the successful implementation of future community policing programs targeted toward at‐risk youth.
    April 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21894   open full text
  • The effectiveness of online, family‐based media literacy education for substance abuse prevention in elementary school children: Study of the Media Detective Family Program.
    Tracy M. Scull, Janis B. Kupersmidt, Tara N. Weatherholt.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 28, 2017
    The present study investigates the effectiveness of a family‐based, online media literacy education (MLE) program for substance abuse prevention in children from rural areas. A total of 83 families were randomly assigned to receive Media Detective Family (MDF; n = 47) or a control computer program (n = 36) between pre‐ and posttest questionnaires. A total of 51% (N = 42) completed a 3‐month follow‐up questionnaire. Children receiving MDF reported a significant reduction in their use of substances over time compared to children in the control group (d = −.80). Parents receiving MDF reported that the program was convenient and engaging. The current study showed that an online substance use prevention program using MLE and designed for families is an effective intervention method for reducing children's substance use.
    April 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21893   open full text
  • Construction and validation of the Sport Sense of Community in Adolescence Questionnaire (SSCAQ).
    Silvia Scotto di Luzio, Emma Guillet‐Descas, Fortuna Procentese, Guillaume Martinent.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 25, 2017
    The purpose of the present study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a measure of sport sense of community (SoC) for adolescents grounded in McMillan and Chavis’ framework: the Sport Sense of Community in Adolescence Questionnaire (SSCAQ). A calibration sample of 256 and a validation sample of 257 adolescent athletes voluntarily participated in the study. Data were analyzed pertaining to reliability, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs), and multigroup CFAs as well as with correlational analyses. Results showed that the 5‐factor, 19‐item hierarchical model of the SSCAQ fit the data adequately on the calibration and validation samples. Multigroup CFAs showed that the SSCAQ scores were invariant across sex of the participants and type of sport (individual versus team sports). Furthermore, both convergent and discriminant validity of the SSCAQ scores were established by finding interrelations between perceived autonomy support from the coach, future sport intentions, and the SSCAQ subscales. The SSCAQ is a measure that will be useful for research on sport SoC.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21892   open full text
  • Examining the risk and protective factors of gang involvement among Hispanic youth in Maryland.
    L. Sergio Garduno, Julie Mestre Brancale.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 21, 2017
    Research on the risk and protect factors of gang membership as they apply to Hispanic youth is limited and inconclusive. This study seeks to advance the literature on the risk and protective factors of gang involvement among a sample of Hispanic youth living in a Maryland county. This study used self‐report data from 936 Hispanic youth about their interaction with gang members, their family, their education, immigration and acculturation status, and self‐concept. Logistic regression was used to determine whether certain factors increased the likelihood of gang membership. Youth with greater levels of sadness and loneliness, those who have been approached by a gang to be recruited, and those who have siblings in gangs are significantly more likely to become gang members. In addition, the more risk factors a youth has, the higher their risk of gang membership. None of the protective factors analyzed had a significant influence on gang membership.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21891   open full text
  • Developing a sustainable child and family service system after a community tragedy: Lessons from Sandy Hook.
    Kimberly Eaton Hoagwood, Su‐chin Serene Olin, Nicole M. Wang, Michele Pollock, Mary Acri, Elizabeth Glaeser, Emma D. Whitmyre, Amy Storfer‐Isser, Sarah McCue Horwitz.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 21, 2017
    This article describes a systematic approach to assessing community services post‐Sandy Hook shooting. An evaluation team was invited to develop a sustainability plan for community services in Newtown. Service organizations, providers, and families were interviewed. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the range of services; respondent perspectives were coded using content analysis. We found that Newtown has a broad array of community services, but respondent groups varied in their perceptions of service adequacy. Consensus existed about core components of an ideal service system, including centralizing access; coordinating care, personalizing and tailoring services for families, and providing evidence‐based care. The strategic community assessment approach developed here may inform how communities examine their service capacity and develop sustainability plans post‐disaster.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21890   open full text
  • Age‐old care and support practices in Southern Africa functioning robustly as sophisticated social technology interventions.
    Liesel Ebersöhn, Tilda Loots, Ruth Mampane, Funke Omidire, Marlize Rooyen.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 13, 2017
    High‐need contexts, such as those in postcolonial Southern Africa, require interventions that provide psychosocial and socioeconomic care and support. This comparative case study uses the lens of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) to supplement predominantly Western knowledge of care and support interventions. Participatory reflection and action (PRA) were used in 7 conveniently selected Southern African regions reflective of bounded systems with high adversity and likely to portray indigenous belief systems on a regional basis (n = 430; elders = 240; youth = 190; men = 150 and women = 280). Interactive PRA sessions, focusing on generating narratives about traditional care and support strategies, were recorded and analyzed. It emerged that the IKS care and support interventions still being practised are fundamentally relational and pragmatic pathways of resource management, and include reciprocal donations, shared savings in societies, and partnerships and borrowing/lending. Rather than being outdated vestiges of previous times, these age‐old structures continue to function as robust and sophisticated social technologies of care and support.
    April 13, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21889   open full text
  • Impact of executive function on efficacy obtaining resources following intimate partner violence.
    Michelle Seulki Lee, Anne P. DePrince.
    Journal of Community Psychology. March 16, 2017
    Following intimate partner violence (IPV), women risk losing resources needed to meet their basic needs, such as food and housing. To identify potential points of community intervention, the current study examined the role of executive function (EF) in women's efficacy to obtain resources following a police‐reported physical IPV incident. Participants were 199 women from diverse, urban, and largely lower‐income backgrounds. As predicted, greater physical abuse was associated with worse EF performance and worse EF was associated with less efficacy in obtaining resources 1 year later. Greater physical abuse was indirectly related to less efficacy in obtaining resources via EF, even when controlling for income. Results provide information regarding EF as a potential link in the relationship between IPV and obtaining resources among women of lower‐income backgrounds. In the context of limited resources, preparing community service professionals to use EF‐focused interventions (e.g., to structure tasks, repeat instructions) may support women's efforts to access resources.
    March 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21887   open full text
  • School environments and obesity: The mediating role of personal stress.
    Adam J. Milam, Chandria D. Jones, Katrina J. Debnam, Catherine P. Bradshaw.
    Journal of Community Psychology. March 07, 2017
    Background: Youth spend a large amount of time in the school environment. Given the multiple influences of teachers, peers, and food and physical activity options, youth are likely to experience stressors that can influence their weight. This study examines the association between school climate and weight status. Method: Students (n = 28,582; 58 schools) completed an online, anonymous school climate survey as part of the Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools Project. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to explore the association between school climate, personal stress, and obesity. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results: At the individual level, poor school climate (bullying, physical safety, and lack of whole‐school connectedness) was associated with an increased likelihood of being overweight among females (β = .115, p = .019) but not males (β = .138; p = .244), after controlling for age, race, and physical activity. There was no association between school climate at the school level and being overweight among males or females. A second model included stress as a potential mediator; stress attenuated the relationship between poor school‐related climate and being overweight (β = .039; p = .048) among females. Conclusion: Findings suggest that stress related to school climate can play a role in the health and weight status of youth.
    March 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21888   open full text
  • Impact of victimization, community climate, and community size on the mental health of sexual and gender minority youth.
    Megan S. Paceley, Jacob Goffnett, Megan Gandy‐Guedes.
    Journal of Community Psychology. March 03, 2017
    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are at risk of stigma and victimization, which may lead to increased mental health symptoms, including depression, anxiety, and stress. The role of the community in exacerbating or mitigating the frequency of victimization and mental health symptoms among SGM youth has been understudied. Using a minority stress framework, this study examined the association between physical and nonphysical anti‐SGM victimization, perceived community climate, and community size and their effects on depression, anxiety, and stress among SGM youth. An online survey was completed by 296 SGM‐identified youth (aged 14–18 years). Results revealed that nonphysical forms of victimization were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress above and beyond physical victimization and community variables. Both types of victimization were more common in communities that participants perceived to be hostile and small towns. Practice implications include ways to reduce victimization and improve mental health via community climate and community interventions.
    March 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21885   open full text
  • The long‐term effects of youth mentoring on student mentors' civic engagement attitudes and behavior.
    Limor Goldner, Daphna Golan.
    Journal of Community Psychology. March 01, 2017
    The current study was designed to explore the delayed effect of participating in youth mentoring programs, training in civic engagement, and activism on a sample of 337 Israelis 5 to 10 years after serving as student mentors. Qualitative and quantitative findings showed that these former mentors' perception of the contribution of mentoring was correlated with their current civic engagement attitudes and activism. Further, the perceived quality of training during mentoring was correlated with the overall perceived contribution of mentoring and current civic engagement attitudes. A mediation model showed that the perceived quality of training was correlated with the former mentors' perceived mentoring contribution. This in turn was correlated with current civic engagement attitudes, which themselves were correlated with their current civic engagement activism. The former mentors' narratives revealed their attainment of new skills and abilities, including an increased ability to relate to and understand young children and disadvantaged populations.
    March 01, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21886   open full text
  • Mentor suitability and mentoring relationship quality: lessons from the Glasgow Intergenerational Mentoring Network.
    Katie McArthur, Alastair Wilson, Katie Hunter.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 27, 2017
    Inequality in educational attainment is a serious and increasing problem in Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom, and youth mentoring is gaining popularity as an intervention to address this issue. However, evidence for the effectiveness of mentoring is weak, and research suggests that a large proportion of mentoring relationships end prematurely, which can be harmful to young people. This article draws on data from the Glasgow Intergenerational Mentoring Network, an ongoing research and development project facilitating mentoring for secondary school pupils in socially disadvantaged areas, employing retired professionals as volunteer mentors. Case material is presented to discuss the nature of mentoring and the role of the mentor. This article conceptualizes volunteer mentors as relational experts, relational learners, and nonrelational mentors. The implications of these categories are discussed in terms of recruitment, training, and support of mentors, to facilitate ethical and effective mentoring relationships.
    February 27, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21884   open full text
  • Mentoring program practices as predictors of match longevity.
    Janis B. Kupersmidt, Kathryn N. Stump, Rebecca L. Stelter, Jean E. Rhodes.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 13, 2017
    Mentoring has been shown to have a small to moderate effect on youth outcomes; however, implementation of research‐based practices improves program efficacy. Benchmark program practices and Standards in the Elements of Effective Practice for Mentoring (MENTOR, 2009) were assessed in the current study as predictors of match longevity. Secondary data analyses were conducted on a national agency information management database from 45 Big Brothers Big Sisters agencies and 29,708 matches from across the U.S. Agency leaders completed a web‐based survey describing their policies, procedures, and practices. Results revealed that the only individual Standard that was predictive of match length was the Training Standard. In addition, the sum total of both Benchmark program practices and Standards were associated with match length and long‐term relationships; however, neither predicted premature match closure. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of implementation of evidence‐based practices, particularly mentor training, for achieving effective mentoring outcomes.
    February 13, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21883   open full text
  • Understanding Community Issues Of Interfaith Groups.
    Nathan R. Todd, Jaclyn D. Houston‐Kolnik, Rachael L. Suffrin.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 08, 2017
    Community psychologists are interested in community‐based organizations that work to address community issues. To extend research in this area, we use k‐means cluster analysis with a sample of 81 interfaith groups from across the United States to understand what types of issues they work on in their local communities. We demonstrate three typologies of how groups work on explicitly religious and/or more general social issues (i.e., religious and social issues, social but not religious issues, religious but not social issues). Moreover, we show typologies differ on group characteristics such as religious and racial diversity, the degree of religious and community information sharing at meetings, and the extent groups sponsor events or organize protests. Overall, this study furthers an understanding of the different ways interfaith groups contribute to community change efforts by working on distinct sets of issues in their community. Limitations and directions for future research and collaboration are discussed.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21840   open full text
  • A Comparative Study Of Mental Health Care Utilization Between Foreign‐Born Adults And U.S.‐Born Adults.
    Yuqi Guo, Tyrone C. Cheng.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 08, 2017
    This secondary data analysis of 4,341 adults examined and compared factors associated with mental health service utilization between U.S.‐born adults and foreign‐born adults. Logistic regression was used to investigate how participants’ mental health care use was associated with (a) predisposing factors, (b) enabling resources, and (c) perceived mental health needs. Two patterns of mental health care utilization were identified based on adults’ nativity statuses in our study. The findings show that the likelihood of foreign‐born adults’ mental health care use associates positively with education, public health insurance coverage, and depression, but such likelihood associated negatively with Asian ethnicity and male gender; compared to the likelihood of U.S.‐born adults’ mental health care use associates positively with education, perceived general mental health condition, depression, and drug abuse, but such likelihood associated negatively with age. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21839   open full text
  • Self‐Control And Adolescent Internalizing And Externalizing Problems: Neighborhood‐Based Differences.
    Elana R. McDermott, Alice E. Donlan, Sara Anderson, Jonathan F. Zaff.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 08, 2017
    Self‐control may act as a protective factor against the development of internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents. However, little research has examined how self‐control functions within and across different types of communities. Using two cohorts from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,072; 51.40% female), we examined how self‐control and neighborhood characteristics were independently and jointly associated with these behaviors. Using latent profile analysis, we categorized neighborhoods based on several characteristics known to be associated with youth outcomes, including violence, concentrated disadvantage, and collective efficacy. Then we examined how self‐control was associated with youth internalizing and externalizing problems within and across neighborhoods. Results suggest that self‐control was a protective feature in only some types of disadvantaged and dangerous neighborhoods. We discuss findings in terms of implications for programs and policies to support youth mental health.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21848   open full text
  • Coproduction For Sustainability: Seeking The Perspectives Of Informal Dementia Carers’ On Capacity Building For Community Services.
    Kate‐Ellen J. Elliott, Christine M. Stirling, Angela J. Martin, Andrew L. Robinson, Jennifer L. Scott.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 08, 2017
    Dementia is a worldwide health priority and much of the burden of care for people with dementia is placed on family members and informal systems of care in the community. The perspectives of 36 informal dementia carers on current and future community‐based services for people with dementia in Tasmania, Australia, are reported using a mixed methods design. Qualitative data were collected, thematically analyzed, and double coded. Quantitative data were collected and analyzed to determine carers’ level of satisfaction with services. Three main themes were identified: (a) quality support for carers and people with dementia; (b) adaptive, tailored, and flexible organizations; and (c) development of the workforce. Although most carers were highly satisfied with the current support services they received, they wanted organizational and workforce changes to meet their varied and complex needs. Results suggest a community‐driven agenda for a coproduction approach for aged and dementia care reform in Australia.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21847   open full text
  • “Out Of Place” In The City: Development Of Sociospatial Disorder Sensitivity Scale In Urban Settings.
    Michał Jaśkiewicz, Tomasz Besta.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 08, 2017
    The construction and validation of an original scale was pursued to measure individual differences within perception of order violation in the city. It was assumed that socio‐spatial order may beviolated by two categories of situations: (a) when in a given place there is a person who is not an expected and desired user of the space or/and (b) when the place is utilized in a manner different than expected. In two studies (N = 696 and N = 74) reliability and construct validity of the scale was assessed. In study 1, principal component analysis as well as confirmatory factor analysis confirmed factorial structure in line with our presumptions. Additionally, sociospatial disorder sensitivity was predicted by bonding social capital (inversely), quality of neigbourhood ties (inversely) and level of city identification. In study 2, Space Intrusion subscale was a predictor of the negative feeling toward the target person behaving according to the definition of SI (unwelcome presence of certain category of people e.g., beggars, homeless), whereas Place Transgression scale was a predictor of the negative emotions toward the person violating norms of behaviors and meanings assigned to a place.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21846   open full text
  • Assessing Parenting And Family Functioning Measures For Urban American Indians.
    Stephanie L. Ayers, Stephen Kulis, Monica Tsethlikai.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 08, 2017
    Urban American Indian (AI) families often “live in two worlds,” and widely used parenting measures may not adequately capture their parenting styles. Drawing from baseline surveys of AI parents living in 3 urban communities in Arizona (n = 606), this study examines the applicability of using 6 previously validated measures with urban AI parents: parent self‐agency, parental supervision, positive parenting practices, discipline, family cohesion, and parent–adolescent conflict. A 4‐step factor analytic sequential procedure was employed, and results indicate the only measure remaining as a single factor is discipline. The χ2 difference tests of the remaining 5 measures indicate multiple factors fit the data significantly better than the previously validated single factor. These findings indicate previously validated measures are not adequate holistic descriptions of the parenting and familial experiences of urban AIs. Understanding how urban AIs conceptualize parenting provides a foundation for strengthening urban AI families.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21844   open full text
  • Testing A Theory Of Sense Of Community And Community Responsibility In Organizations: An Empirical Assessment Of Predictive Capacity On Employee Well‐Being And Organizational Citizenship.
    Neil M. Boyd, Branda Nowell.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 08, 2017
    This study attempts to advance our understanding of the experience of community in organizational settings by empirically testing a theory of sense of community responsibility (SOC‐R) in relation to traditional measures of sense of community [SOC] on outcomes of employee well‐being and organizational citizenship. Findings support the notion that SOC is a better predictor of employee well‐being, while SOC‐R more strongly predicts organizational citizenship behavior. The findings add new knowledge to the literature on the experience of community in organizations, as well as representing an important contribution to our understanding of the factors that drive employee action and well‐being at work.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21843   open full text
  • Who's Left Out And Who's Still On The Margins? Social Exclusion In Community Psychology Journals.
    Tanya M. Graham.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 08, 2017
    Although community psychology claims to have a social justice‐oriented value base, archival studies of publications in the field have identified deficits in marginalized group representation and a tendency for published work to perpetuate social exclusion. This disjuncture has implications for our understanding of power relations in community psychology scholarship. In this article, I analyze who is included and excluded in the participant choices of 895 empirical studies published in 4 international community psychology journals over a decade. The analysis shows that studies largely report on minority world populations that signify privileged social groups or fail to foreground groups affected by processes of social exclusion. I argue that understanding how knowledge creation may perpetuate social exclusion is fundamental to the role of community psychologists. The article highlights the consequences for the field of the choices of groups we choose to study and report on, as well as those we neglect, in knowledge‐making enterprises.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21842   open full text
  • A Social Network Approach To Understanding Community Partnerships In A Nontraditional Destination For Latinos.
    Brian A. Eiler, Daniele A. Bologna, Lisa M. Vaughn, Farrah Jacquez.
    Journal of Community Psychology. February 08, 2017
    Cincinnati, like other new migration areas, has recently experienced tremendous growth in the Latino immigrant population. Because greater health disparities exist for Latinos compared to both majority and other minority groups, it is essential to understand how migratory patterns and healthcare infrastructure are related. In this study, social network analysis (SNA), which quantitatively assesses and evaluates network formation and network relationships, was used to investigate the structure of the Greater Cincinnati Latino health network. Referral and collaboration networks were assessed for 29 individuals serving the Latino community. Results indicated the desired collaboration network was nearly twice as dense as either the physical or the mental health referral networks. The physical network was also denser than the mental health network. Similar results were found when analyzing network centralization. Taken together, results indicate a need for additional strategic partnerships between Latino‐serving providers and the Latino‐serving community. Specific recommendations are briefly discussed.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21841   open full text
  • A mixed methods analysis of housing and neighbourhood impacts on community integration among vulnerably housed and homeless individuals.
    John Ecker, Tim Aubry.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    The current longitudinal study used mixed methods to examine the relationship of housing and neighborhood characteristics and community integration among a population of homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. Participants were recruited at homeless shelters, meal programs, and rooming houses in Ottawa, Canada, and participated in 3 in‐person interviews, each approximately 1 year apart. Participants were placed into either a “high” or a “low” integration group based on their community integration scores at Follow‐up 1 and Follow‐up 2. There were 14 high and 32 low integration participants at Follow‐up 1, and 17 high and 35 low participants at Follow‐up 2. A general inductive approach to analyzing qualitative data was used to code the data. The most salient themes that affected community integration involved substance use in one's housing and neighborhood, neighborhood safety and location, and housing quality. Implications for service provision and policy advancements to better address community integration are discussed.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21864   open full text
  • Associations of parent and staff factors with parent engagement in after‐school programs.
    Esther K. Malm, Schell M. Hufsteler, Stephanie L. Dietz, Mariya V. Malikina, Christopher C. Henrich.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    This 2‐study research examined staff and parent predictors of parent engagement in after‐school programs. A parent engagement measure tailored to after‐school programs was developed based on existing theory and literature. Two distinct factors, parent engagement and parent participation, emerged from factor analyses and were subsequently tested. A 2‐level model was run on 4 program/staff and 6 parent predictors using staff and parent data from 26 after‐school program sites (Study 1) and nine sites (Study 2). Program quality, staff educational levels, and length of employment in the after‐school program were significantly associated with parent engagement and parent participation but in opposite directions, with other findings contrary to hypotheses. For parent factors of engagement and participation, there was a significant positive association between parental age and parent engagement, while having more than 2 children in a program was significantly and positively associated with parent participation only. Results and implications are discussed.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21859   open full text
  • Trajectories of organized activity participation among urban adolescents: Associations with young adult outcomes.
    Andria B. Eisman, Sarah A. Stoddard, José A. Bauermeister, Cleopatra H. Caldwell, Marc A. Zimmerman.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    Organized activity participation provides opportunities for adolescents to develop assets that may support favorable outcomes in young adulthood. Activity participation may be especially beneficial for marginalized youth because they are likely to face stressors that increase risk of negative outcomes. We used growth mixture modeling to identify activity participation trajectories among African American adolescents in an urban, disadvantaged community (Wave 1: mean age = 14.86 years, standard deviation = 0.64; 49% male, N = 681). We also investigated if young adult outcomes differed by participation trajectory subgroups, the results of which suggested that a 3‐class model best fit the data: low initial and decreasing levels of participation (74%); moderate initial and consistent (21%); and moderate initial and increasing (5%). Adolescents in the increasing class reported higher life satisfaction and lower substance use in young adulthood compared to the decreasing class. Youth who increase participation in activities over time may experience greater opportunities for building assets related to positive development that support health and well‐being into young adulthood.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21863   open full text
  • Improving community readiness for change through coalition capacity building: Evidence from a multisite intervention.
    Kaston D. Anderson‐Carpenter, Jomella Watson‐Thompson, Marvia D. Jones, Lisa Chaney.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    Often, community coalitions are facilitators of community‐level changes when addressing underage drinking. Although studies have shown that enhancing coalition capacity is related to improved internal functioning, the relationship between enhanced capacity and community readiness for change is not well established. The present study used a pretest–posttest design to examine whether enhancing coalition capacity through training and technical assistance was associated with improved community readiness and coalition‐facilitated community‐level changes. Seven Kansas communities engaged in an intensive capacity building intervention through implementation of the Strategic Prevention Framework. The results indicated strong correlations between increased coalition capacity, changes in community readiness stages, and the number of community changes facilitated. The results suggest that strengthening coalition capacity through training and technical assistance may improve community readiness for change and enable the implementation of community‐wide program and environmental changes.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21860   open full text
  • A Pilot Study Of The Impact Of The Peraj Mentoring Program On School Dropout Risk Of Mexican Children.
    David Moreno‐Candil, Maria Garza.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    The purpose of the Peraj Mentoring Program is to aid in the social, emotional, and academic development of children from disadvantageous family, cultural, and socioeconomic contexts. School dropout has been recognized as a serious problem in the Mexican Educational System. The present study explored the effect of the participation in Peraj on school dropout risk of children. A questionnaire was specifically designed and administered in a pretest/posttest model to mentees and control subjects. The findings suggest that, in general, after participating in the Peraj program, the mentees showed a decrease in their risk of dropping out of school. In contrast, the control subjects, who did not participate in the Peraj program, showed an increase in dropout risk. Thus, there is evidence to support that Peraj mentoring can be a useful tool to reduce the dropout problem in Mexico.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21849   open full text
  • Child health in low‐income neighborhoods: The unexpected relationship with neighborhood disorder and other aspects of distress.
    Anita Zuberi, Samantha Teixeira.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    There is substantial evidence linking child health and neighborhood of residence. However, most studies focus on poverty, paying less attention to other social and environmental factors that vary across low‐income neighborhoods. Using data from the Making Connections initiative, we examine the relationship between child health and neighborhood factors, including safety, social cohesion, informal social control, collective efficacy, disorder, and poverty, across a sample of children living in low‐income neighborhoods (N = 3,013). We use multilevel modeling to account for clustering at the household and block level. Results show that neighborhood disorder is related to child health in an unexpected direction: More disorder is related to lower odds of a child having fair or poor health. Similarly, informal social control and safety are related to greater odds of child fair or poor health. We underscore the importance of neighborhood conditions for child health and highlight the unexpected direction of these relationships.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21858   open full text
  • Are we ready for citywide learning? Examining the nature of within‐ and between‐program pathways in a community‐wide learning initiative.
    Thomas Akiva, Stacy Kehoe, Christian D. Schunn.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    Learning and development occur over time across multiple settings both in‐ and out‐of‐school. However, educational programs have not been designed for coordination across settings. Successfully supporting community‐wide youth learning requires greater understanding of how youth may move between settings and the learning pathways available to them. We investigated this topic with data from the adult leaders of 17 programs that participated in a regional summer learning initiative. Respondents tended to conceptualize within‐program pathways (e.g., offering more advanced activities in their organization to current participants) but rarely described actively encouraging youth to move to related programs in other organizations. The results suggest that realization of supportive communities for cross‐program learning and development will require shifts in models of knowledge sharing and program incentive structures.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21856   open full text
  • Early Head Start start–up planning: Implications for staff support, job satisfaction, burnout, and turnover.
    Sukhdeep Gill, Laura L. Nathans, Amber J. Seidel, Mark T. Greenberg.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    This study examined the quality of start–up planning of two Early Head Start (EHS) agencies and its association with staff satisfaction, burnout, and turnover a year after program implementation. Respondents (N = 65) completed interviews and surveys at two time points. Data were analyzed in the context of the Head Start's EHS Organizational Readiness Chart. Both programs addressed salient aspects of organizational readiness, including establishment of a leadership team, forging of community partnerships, and hiring and training of staff. The two agencies differed on several elements including goals and timeframes, dynamics of start–up planning teams, challenges encountered, and utilization of community partnerships. Higher quality of start–up planning was associated with lower burnout, higher satisfaction, and lower staff turnover during the first year of program implementation. These results indicated that strategic start–up planning is an important predictor of EHS staff well–being and stability, especially during early stages of program implementation.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21857   open full text
  • The Impact Of Community Violence, Personal Victimization, And Paternal Support On Maternal Harsh Parenting.
    Wan‐Yi Chen, Yookyong Lee.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21854   open full text
  • “It's Like A Shoulder To Lean On”: Social Support Provided By An Inner‐City Workforce Development Program.
    Terrinieka W. Powell, Meghan Jo, Christopher Martin, Winston Philip, Nan M. Astone.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    The goal of this study was to examine the types of social support provided by STRIVE, an inner‐city‐based workforce development program. Life history interviews were conducted with 20 African American graduates (aged 18–24 years) of the workforce development program. Nearly half of the sample was male (45%). Over half of the sample was employed at the time of the interview (65%). Participants described receiving extensive informational and emotional support from the workforce development program. After participating in the workforce development program, respondents described themselves as being less stressed and more self‐confident. Participants described using the skills gained and support offered to gain employment, enroll in educational programs, and interact more effectively with others. Thus, workforce development programs may be a viable option to address employment needs and provide meaningful support to vulnerable young people during their transition into adulthood.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21850   open full text
  • Substance use and depression in home visiting clients: Home visitor perspectives on addressing clients’ needs.
    Sarah Dauber, Frances Ferayorni, Craig Henderson, Aaron Hogue, Jessica Nugent, Jeannette Alcantara.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 31, 2017
    Substance use and depression are prevalent among mothers enrolled in home visiting programs and are significant risk factors for child maltreatment, yet most home visiting programs are staffed by workers who lack the training and clinical skills to address these risks. Emanating from one state network's interest in advancing its practice in this area, the current study surveyed 159 home visitors on their current practices, training, knowledge, and perceived self‐efficacy, and perceived system‐ and client‐level barriers regarding client substance use and depression. Home visitors reported managing maternal depression more extensively than substance use, though overall management of both risk areas was low. More training was associated with more extensive management of both risk domains, as was greater home visitor knowledge and self‐efficacy. Implications for the development of strategies to improve home visitor management of client behavioral health risks, including enhanced skills‐based training and supervision, are discussed.
    January 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21855   open full text
  • Promoting informal and professional help‐seeking for adolescent dating violence.
    Jasmine M. Hedge, Matthew D. Hudson‐Flege, James R. McDonell.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 30, 2017
    The present study examined factors that differentiate adolescents with varied intentions of informal and professional help seeking for dating violence. Help‐seeking intentions among 518 ethnically diverse adolescents from a rural South Carolina county who participated in a longitudinal study of teen dating violence were categorized into 3 groups: adolescents unlikely to seek any help, adolescents likely to seek only informal help, and adolescents likely to seek informal and professional help. Multinomial logistic regression found that gender, family functioning, problem‐solving competency, dating status, having an adult to talk to about a dating relationship, and acceptability of family violence significantly predicted membership in the help‐seeking groups. Implications for promoting informal and professional help seeking and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    January 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21862   open full text
  • Social Development Assets And Law‐Abidingness Among Urban Adolescents: Implications For Positive Youth Development.
    Allyson M. Drinkard, Nicolle Estevez, Richard E. Adams.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 30, 2017
    In this study, we argue that researchers should look to prevention efforts that capitalize on youth’s potential for positive development and law‐abidingness in order to develop interventions that facilitate their successful transition to young adulthood. We draw from the positive youth development framework to assess the association between individual, family, and community assets and law‐abidingness among a sample of adolescents living in Chicago, Illinois, neighborhoods. Data come from the first wave of the Program on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,258). We focus on cohorts 12 and 15, since developmental assets have a significant impact on adolescents during these ages. After controlling for a range of individual and demographic variables, we find that greater levels of positive family communication were associated with greater odds of law‐abidingness in our multilevel logistic regression models. The findings of this study are discussed in the context of a sociological perspective on positive youth development.
    January 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21853   open full text
  • Assessment Of Risk And Protection In Native American Youth: Steps Toward Conducting Culturally Relevant, Sustainable Prevention In Indian Country.
    Katarina Guttmannova, Melissa J. Wheeler, Karl G. Hill, Teresa A. Evans‐Campbell, Lacey A. Hartigan, Tiffany M. Jones, J. David Hawkins, Richard F. Catalano.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 30, 2017
    This study constitutes a building block in the cultural adaptation of Communities That Care (CTC), a community‐based prevention system that has been found to be effective in reducing youth problem behaviors. Using the data from the CTC normative survey dataset that comprises more than a quarter million youth nationwide, this study examines the reliability and validity of scores derived from the CTC Youth Survey (CTC‐YS), one of the primary assessment tools for gathering community data on risk and protective factors related to problem behaviors including substance use. The reliability and criterion validity analyses are conducted overall for both the nationwide sample of youth and the student subsample of Native American youth. The results of this study indicate that the existing CTC‐YS assessments of risk and protective factors in the domains of community, family, school, and peer groups as well as within individuals yield scores that are reliable and valid within the Native American sample of youth. This study informs the third step in the CTC prevention planning process, which involves the assessment of risk and protective factors to be targeted in preventive interventions. The question of how the assessment of risk and protective factors among Native American youth might be further improved and a description of efforts related to the cultural adaptation of the CTC program currently underway also are addressed in the discussion.
    January 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21852   open full text
  • Identifying community risk factors for violence against indigenous women: A framework of historical oppression and resilience.
    Catherine E. Burnette, Timothy S. Hefflinger.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 20, 2017
    Violence against Indigenous women tends to be disproportionately high, yet little is known about the historical and community factors that may exacerbate and perpetuate intimate partner violence (IPV). Using a framework of historical oppression, the purpose of this article is to uncover community‐level risk factors identified by Indigenous women who have experienced IPV, and the professionals who work with them. As part of a larger critical ethnography, this study focused on data derived from 49 semistructured interviews with Indigenous women who had experienced IPV and the professionals who work with those affected by IPV. Critical thematic analysis identified various themes related to historical oppression, including cultural disruption, IPV imposed and then internalized as a community norm, community divides, and community inequity, which likely exacerbated or perpetuated IPV. Given the causes of IPV have historical and structural roots, interventions and solutions must be designed with these structural determinants in mind.
    January 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21879   open full text
  • Engaging populations living with vulnerable conditions in community‐based research: A concept mapping approach to understanding positive practices.
    Holly Stack‐Cutler, Laurie Schnirer, Lynn Dare.
    Journal of Community Psychology. January 06, 2017
    The goal of this research is to identify positive practices used when conducting community‐based research with people living with vulnerable conditions. Community‐based research practitioners who participated in the research included 37 researchers, community partners, program planners, and government employees, working in health, human services, children and youth, and education sectors. Concept mapping, a participatory stakeholder‐driven process, was used to generate a framework of how community‐based research practitioners responded to the complex environments of people living with vulnerable conditions when conducting research. Respondents generated positive practices, determined relationships among practices, and rated practices on frequency of use and perceived effectiveness. This study revealed 7 clusters of positive practices: ethical practices, participant supports, social accountability, community involvement, language competence, financial compensation, and project management.
    January 06, 2017   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21880   open full text
  • Methodological Pluralism And Mixed Methodology To Strengthen Community Psychology Research: An Example From Oxford House.
    Emily M. May, Bronwyn A. Hunter, Leonard A. Jason.
    Journal of Community Psychology. December 13, 2016
    This article evaluates how a plurality of research methods has served a research program that has functioned in a much‐needed area of research: the role of housing and recovery residences in addiction recovery. The review focuses on one mutually supportive recovery residence model, called Oxford House, which represents more than 1,700 democratic, self‐governing residences. To date, there has been no comprehensive evaluation of the research methods used with Oxford House or any other recovery residence. In this article, research methods, including study designs and data analyses, are summarized for 114 peer‐reviewed empirical studies that included data on Oxford Houses or Oxford House residents. This review of a pluralistic research program can inform community researchers about the value of recovery residences, the many ways in which recovery residences may be assessed, and the benefits of using multiple methods. Implications for future recovery residence research are discussed.
    December 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21838   open full text
  • Geographic Differences In Subjective Well‐Being Among Indigenous And Non‐Indigenous Australian Adolescents And Adults.
    Adrian J. Tomyn, David Mellor, Matthew Fuller‐Tyszkiewicz, Robert A. Cummins, Robert Tanton.
    Journal of Community Psychology. December 13, 2016
    Published data that describe the subjective well‐being (SWB) of Indigenous people across Australia are scarce. This study reports differences in the SWB of 3 sample groups–mainstream Australian adults, Indigenous adolescents, and non‐Indigenous adolescents–in 5 geographic areas classified by remoteness. Both groups of adolescents were participating in a national program for disengaged youth. Consistent with results from general population samples, the SWB for people living in rural centers was higher than for those in either major cities or very remote areas. This suggests that there may be an optimum size of community that acts as a buffer to the well‐being of both Indigenous and non‐Indigenous adolescents and adults. This may be achieved through greater community connection, as well as having a reasonable level of amenities available. The results of this study are likely relevant to Indigenous populations in other countries, and the implications of these findings for service delivery are discussed.
    December 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21835   open full text
  • Predictors Of The Physical And Psychological Integration Of Homeless Adults With Problematic Substance Use.
    Rebecca A. Cherner, Tim Aubry, John Ecker.
    Journal of Community Psychology. December 13, 2016
    This study examined predictors of physical and psychological integration in homeless adults with problematic substance use. Homeless adults with problematic substance use (n = 115) in Ottawa, Canada, completed questionnaires regarding their demographics (age, gender, Aboriginal ethnicity), health and social functioning (physical health, mental health, alcohol use problems, drug use problems, social skills), environmental factors (satisfaction with personal safety, social support), physical integration, and psychological integration. Participants reported low physical integration (i.e., participation in activities in the community) and did not feel strongly psychologically integrated (i.e., sense of belonging). The final models accounted for 36% and 19% of the variance in physical and psychological integration, respectively. Higher levels of social skills and social support were associated with greater physical integration. Higher levels of mental health functioning and satisfaction with safety were related to greater psychological integration. Implications of the findings for community support services are discussed.
    December 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21834   open full text
  • Residential Distance To Public Housing And Its Differential Influence On Infant Mortality Across Race.
    Phillip W. Archer, Meaghan S. Munn, Saba W. Masho.
    Journal of Community Psychology. December 13, 2016
    Infant mortality is a major problem in the United States. Understanding the relationship between geographic variation and birth outcomes is important to develop and implement targeted interventions. This study examined the relationship between contextual residential distance to public housing and infant mortality. All singleton births (N = 30,554) and infant deaths (N = 361) occurring between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2007 in Richmond, VA were analyzed. Maternal race, education, smoking during pregnancy, method of payment, gestational age, and sex of the infant were significantly associated with infant mortality. African Americans were 1.6 times as likely to reside 1 to 2 miles or less closer to public housing (p<.0001) than European Americans. Residential contextual variables play a role in poor birth outcomes, and public health professionals should be aware of this association when developing interventions.
    December 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21833   open full text
  • Yup'ik Understanding Of Stress Within The Context Of Rapid Cultural Change.
    Inna Rivkin, Samuel Johnson, Ellen D. S. Lopez, Joseph E. Trimble, Tonie Quaintance, Eliza Orr.
    Journal of Community Psychology. December 13, 2016
    Alaska Native communities shoulder a disproportionately high burden of stress, stemming in part from historical trauma and rapid changes in culture and lifestyle. The Yup'ik Experiences of Stress and Coping Project originated from rural Yup'ik communities' concerns about stress and its effects. Understanding local conceptions of stress as grounded in the experiences and perceptions of the Yup'ik community participants is critical to inform culturally‐based interventions. Sixty adults in two Yup'ik communities in Southwest Alaska participated in semi‐structured interviews exploring their understanding and experience of stress and coping. Participants' understanding of stress included causes of stress, stressful experiences, responses to stress (emotions, physical responses, trouble in the mind), and broader family and community effects of stress. Many described current stressors as being quite different than those of the past. Findings highlight the intersection between traditional ways of thinking about stress and Western influences in remote Yup'ik communities undergoing cultural changes.
    December 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21831   open full text
  • Evaluating Community Engagement In Research: Quantitative Measure Development.
    Melody S. Goodman, Vetta L. Sanders Thompson, Cassandra Arroyo Johnson, Renee Gennarelli, Bettina F. Drake, Pravleen Bajwa, Maranda Witherspoon, Deborah Bowen.
    Journal of Community Psychology. December 13, 2016
    Although the importance of community engagement in research has been previously established, there are few evidence‐based approaches for measuring the level of community engagement in research projects. A quantitative community engagement measure was developed, aligned with 11 engagement principles (EPs) previously established in the literature. The measure has 96 Likert response items; 3–5 quality items and 3–5 quantity items measure each EP. Cronbach's alpha is used to examine the internal consistency of items that measure a single EP. Every EP item group had a Cronbach's alpha > .85, which indicates strong internal consistency for all question groups across both scales (quality and quantity). This information determines the level of community engagement, which can be correlated with other research outcomes.
    December 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21828   open full text
  • “There goes the fear”: feelings of safety at home and in the neighborhood: The role of personal, social, and service factors.
    Mirjam Allik, Ade Kearns.
    Journal of Community Psychology. November 30, 2016
    Safety has been shown to be an important contributor to mental well‐being and is often identified as a key element of sustainable communities. Drawing on the fear of crime literature this study investigates the determinants of feelings of indoor and outdoor safety for people living in deprived areas, using both cross‐sectional and longitudinal samples from household surveys in 15 communities in Glasgow. Across the different models social cohesion, satisfaction with services, and perceived empowerment emerge as the most robust predictors of feeling very safe indoors and outside. Our findings suggest useful extensions to several theoretical models of the fear of crime: The vulnerability hypothesis should include social vulnerability more generally; environmental models should focus on local amenities and services as well as on disorder; and social–psychological models should consider not only informal social control but also resident empowerment in relation to housing and neighborhood issues.
    November 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21875   open full text
  • Sense of Community and Life Satisfaction in Chinese Older Adults: Moderating Roles of Personal and Partner Resilience.
    Jinfeng Zhang, Nancy Xiaonan Yu, Jianxin Zhang, Mingjie Zhou.
    Journal of Community Psychology. November 24, 2016
    From an ecological perspective, this study aimed to examine the relationship between a sense of community and life satisfaction as moderated by personal resilience and partner resilience among Chinese older adults. Using a cross‐sectional design, a total of 258 Chinese couples (age range 60–97 years) completed measures related to sense of community, resilience, and life satisfaction. The results showed that (a) sense of community was positively associated with life satisfaction after controlling for personal resilience, partner resilience, and other covariates, and (b) a three‐way interaction between sense of community, personal resilience, and partner resilience emerged to predict life satisfaction. Specifically, the effect of sense of community on life satisfaction under the condition of low personal resilience–low partner resilience was weaker than it was under other conditions. Tailored interventions to enhance community resources, individual resilience, and couples’ strengths are recommended to promote the life satisfaction of Chinese older adults.
    November 24, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21878   open full text
  • Volunteer Retention: The Importance Of Organisational Support And Psychological Contract Breach.
    Arlene Walker, Rebecca Accadia, Beth M. Costa.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 19, 2016
    Volunteer organizations face issues related to the retention of volunteers, not unlike those found in the paid workforce; however, management and authority structures and practices are different. In previous research, support factors and psychological contracts have been found to contribute to retention of employees. Few studies of volunteers have investigated the appropriateness of these variables. Survey data from 721 Australian volunteers from diverse organizations were analyzed to learn to what degree perceived organizational support, coworker support, and psychological contract breach explained volunteer intention to remain, having controlled for age and tenure. Psychological contract breach explained much more of the variance in volunteer intention to remain than tenure, coworker support, or perceived organizational support. The relationship between psychological contract breach and volunteer intention to remain is similar to that found in the paid workforce, despite the differences in management in the 2 sectors.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21827   open full text
  • Factors Associated With Civic Engagement In Adolescence: The Effects Of Neighborhood, School, Family, And Peer Contexts.
    Giulia Rossi, Michela Lenzi, Jill D. Sharkey, Alessio Vieno, Massimo Santinello.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 19, 2016
    Research on youth civic engagement has emphasized the importance of growing up in a civic context. We examined the relative influence of neighborhood characteristics (neighborhood opportunities and intergenerational closure), civic education at school, friends’ civic engagement, and parents’ civic engagement on civic attitudes and civic behaviors among youths. Participants were 403 11‐ to 15‐year‐old adolescents randomly selected from the city register of a midsized city in Italy. The hierarchical regression analysis found that all analyzed contexts were related to adolescent civic engagement. In particular, intergenerational closure, friends’ civic engagement, and parents’ civic engagement were associated with both civic attitudes and civic behaviors. Findings highlighted the importance of considering multiple contexts to understand what factors are associated with youth civic engagement. We discuss ways that findings can be transmitted into further research and practice to address the multiple contexts in which youths are embedded and their relative influence on adolescent civic engagement.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21826   open full text
  • Rural–Urban Disparities In Adolescent Risky Behaviors: A Family Social Capital Perspective.
    Guohe Jiang, Fei Sun, Flavio F. Marsiglia.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 19, 2016
    This study examined differences in adolescent risky behaviors between rural communities and urban communities and identified specific factors predicting these differences from a family social capital perspective. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2012 state‐wide representative youth survey (N = 61,321) in Arizona, United States. The results mostly confirmed the already documented differences between rural–urban youth and related health disparities. The rates of cigarette use, alcohol use and driving after drinking were higher in rural respondents than those in urban respondents. However, the rate of drug use such as marijuana and methamphetamines was lower in rural respondents. The findings highlighted the importance of family structure, family relationships, and socio‐economic status as contributor to these rural/urban differences. These results were discussed from family capital perspective and practice and policy recommendations were provided for the United States and other societies like China that face similar rural–urban disparities in youth behavioral health.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21825   open full text
  • Persisting Generalized Anxiety Disorder And Physical Health Symptoms 18 Months After The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Community Sample.
    Sydneyjane Varner, Jennifer Langhinrichsen‐Rohling, Tyler R. Bell.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 19, 2016
    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a subtype of anxiety that often presents in primary care settings and is typically associated with a myriad of somatic complaints. Few studies have investigated the connection between this disorder and physical health symptoms after disasters such as oil spills. This study aims to analyze the relationship between GAD symptomology and physical health symptoms at different levels of exposure 18 months after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. A community sample was surveyed about their contact with the oil spill, GAD symptoms, and physical health symptoms. Levels of GAD symptomology continued to be elevated above typical prevalence rates in the community at time of assessment. Individuals with direct contact to the oil reported significantly greater levels of GAD and more physical health symptoms than those without direct contact. These significant relationships have important implications in faster identification and treatment of disaster‐related mental and physical health problems.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21824   open full text
  • Preventing Substance Use Among Native American Early Adolescents.
    John Lowe, Huigang Liang, Jim Henson, Cheryl Riggs.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 19, 2016
    The overall objective of this study was to examine the effects of an innovative culturally appropriate school‐based intervention. Cherokee Talking Circle (CTC), for the prevention of substance use among 100 Keetoowah‐Cherokee 6th graders as they transition to middle school. The impact of the CTC on substance use involvement (measured by the Global Assessment of Individual Needs – Quick) and Cherokee self‐reliance (measured by the Cherokee Self‐Reliance Questionnaire) was assessed using a two‐condition quasi‐experimental design, comparing the CTC to standard substance use education (SE). Findings from this study suggest that prevention from a cultural perspective is an obvious course of action against substance use among Native American early adolescents.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21823   open full text
  • The Effects Of Head Start Duration On The Behavioral Competence Of Socially Disadvantaged Children.
    Minjong Youn.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 19, 2016
    This study examined the influence of Head Start duration on teacher‐reported children's approaches to learning, behavioral problems, and cooperative classroom behaviors at the end of kindergarten. Propensity score matching was used to create comparable samples of children who experienced different durations of Head Start. Analysis of the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey showed that children who attended 2 years of Head Start showed a higher level of approaches to learning (effect size [ES] = .53), cooperative classroom behaviors (ES = .35), and fewer problematic behaviors (ES = ‐.43) in kindergarten. The effects of 2 years of attendance of Head Start were most prominent for children raised in families with high‐risk factors and for Black children, particularly with improvement in approaches to learning. This finding supports the argument that a longer exposure from an earlier age to a preschool program may contribute to improving school readiness for children from economically disadvantaged families.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21822   open full text
  • Childhood Mental Health: An Ecological Analysis Of The Effects Of Neighborhood Characteristics.
    Gail N. Kemp, David A. Langer, Martha C. Tompson.
    Journal of Community Psychology. October 19, 2016
    Research on childhood mental illness traditionally examines risk factors most proximal to the child. However, current trends reflect growing interest in how broader contextual factors contribute to psychopathology risk. In this study, we examined neighborhood‐level indicators as potential sources of chronic strain in a sample of 156 mother–child dyads; children were 8 to 12 years old. For most neighborhood indicators, data were collected at the level of census tracts using publicly available data sets. We hypothesized that these indicators would be both associated with greater overall mental health symptoms and specifically predictive of childhood symptoms of depression. We also examined potential mediators (maternal functioning and family cohesion) and moderators (maternal depression). Neighborhood indicators correlated with parents’ ratings of children's overall mental health problems, but did not correlate with children's self‐report of depression symptoms. Maternal functioning mediated neighborhood effects on children's overall mental health problems. Implications and directions for future research are presented.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21821   open full text
  • Support, Sense Of Community, And Psychological Status In The Survivors Of The Yaan Earthquake.
    Yunong Huang, Ngoh Tiong Tan, Junqiang Liu.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 09, 2016
    This research examined associations among social support, governmental support, sense of community, and psychological status, including depression and life satisfaction, in Yaan earthquake survivors, based on a cross‐sectional survey conducted in June 2014. The survey applied a nonprobability sampling method and a total of 495 survivors aged 18 years and older completed the questionnaire. Regression analyses revealed that social support and sense of community were associated with depression. Sense of community mediated the relationships between depression and both social and governmental support. Governmental support and sense of community were associated with life satisfaction. Sense of community mediated the relationships between life satisfaction and both social and governmental support. The findings suggest that social support, governmental support, and sense of community would enhance the psychological well‐being of disaster survivors.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21818   open full text
  • Opportunity Role Structure, Social Support, And Leadership: Processes Of Foster Youth Advisory Board Participation.
    Brad Forenza.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 09, 2016
    Youth aging out of foster care constitute a vulnerable and understudied population. In spite of evidence that suggests civic participation may be an empowering, developmental process for youth in the general population, few community psychology studies have investigated civic participation among youth aging out of state systems. This qualitative study used in‐depth interviewing with foster Youth Advisory Board leaders as the primary means to explore this intersection. Triangulated data collection also included (a) descriptive survey research with youth leaders, (b) in‐depth interviewing and descriptive research with civic youth workers/adult coordinators, and (c) nonparticipant observation of Youth Advisory Board meetings. Directed content analysis revealed 3 emergent themes (civic literacy, Youth Advisory Board as family, and privileged positions) related to foster youth civic participation. These themes are assumed to support and extend processes allied with intraorganizational empowerment (opportunity role structure, social support, and leadership). Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21817   open full text
  • Predictors Of Civic Engagement Among Highly Involved Young Adults: Exploring The Relationship Between Agency And Systems Worldview.
    Stephanie S. Moore, Elan C. Hope, Andria B. Eisman, Marc A. Zimmerman.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 09, 2016
    Civic engagement maintains the viability of democratic society and promotes positive outcomes for those who participate. Young adults' patterns of civic engagement differ according to the type of activity, yet little is known about the psychological mechanisms that lead to different types of participation. We tested the relationship between two types of sociopolitical beliefs (sense of agency and systems worldview) and two distinct forms of civic engagement: political involvement and community service. We hypothesized that agency would predict both forms of engagement and that systems worldview would moderate the relationship between agency and political involvement, but have little effect on community service. Using data from a racially diverse national sample of highly engaged young adults (n = 259), we conducted hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses and found that agency predicted both political involvement and community service. We found that systems worldview moderated the relationship between agency and both forms of civic engagement.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21815   open full text
  • The Effect Of Cultural Factors On Daily Coping And Involuntary Responses To Stress Among Low‐Income Latino Adolescents.
    Catherine DeCarlo Santiago, Stephanie A. Torres, Stephanie K. Brewer, Anne K. Fuller, Jaclyn M. Lennon.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 09, 2016
    This study used daily diary methodology to examine associations between cultural factors and daily coping and responses to stress among predominantly low‐income Latino adolescents. A total of 58 middle school students (53% male, mean age = 13.31, 95% Latino) completed baseline measures assessing demographic characteristics, familism, ethnic identity, and family ethnic socialization. They subsequently completed 7 consecutive daily diaries assessing daily stress, coping, and involuntary stress responses. Results yielded main effects of stress, gender, familism, and ethnic identity on adolescents’ coping and involuntary stress responses. In addition, interactions between stress and familism, ethnic identity, and family ethnic socialization emerged. Results suggest that familism may promote adaptive responses to stress, while adolescents who report more family ethnic socialization may rely more on maladaptive responses at high levels of stress. Findings related to ethnic identity were mixed and varied depending on levels of ethnic identity exploration versus commitment.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21814   open full text
    Amanda L. Roy, Erin B. Godfrey.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 09, 2016
    This study examines relationships between family and neighborhood income and depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and financial satisfaction among first‐generation immigrant Dominican (N = 255), Puerto Rican (N = 242), and Mexican (N = 212) adults. Results from random intercept regression models revealed family income to be consistently predictive of outcomes across samples. However, this relationship was moderated by neighborhood income. The interaction between family and neighborhood income was related to life satisfaction among Puerto Rican and Mexican samples and to financial satisfaction among all three samples, although the shape of the interactions differed. For lower income Dominican and Puerto Rican adults, living in a higher income neighborhood was associated with increases in satisfaction. In comparison, living in a higher income neighborhood was associated with decreases in satisfaction among lower income Mexican adults. Access to neighborhood resources and social comparisons are proposed as potential underlying mechanisms.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21813   open full text
  • Housing First, But What Comes Second? A Qualitative Study Of Resident, Staff And Management Perspectives On Single‐Site Housing First Program Enhancement.
    Seema L. Clifasefi, Susan E. Collins, Nicole I. Torres, Véronique S. Grazioli, Jessica L. Mackelprang.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 09, 2016
    Single‐site Housing First (HF) is associated with reduced publicly funded service utilization and costs and alcohol‐related harm for chronically homeless individuals with severe alcohol problems. Many residents, however, continue to experience alcohol‐related problems after their move into single‐site HF. Thus, it is necessary to explore areas for program enhancement after individuals move into single‐site HF. To this end, we collected qualitative data via 30 hours of naturalistic observation, staff focus groups (n = 3), and one‐on‐one interviews with single‐site HF residents (n = 44), program staff (n = 7), and agency management (n = 4). Qualitative analyses were used to construct a conceptual or thematic description of residents’, staff's, and management's suggestions for program enhancement, which comprised 3 areas: (a) enhancing training and support for staff, (b) increasing residents’ access to meaningful activities, and (c) exploring alternate pathways to recovery. Development of programming addressing these areas may help residents continue to reduce alcohol‐related harm and improve health and quality of life after their move into single‐site HF.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21812   open full text
  • A New Perspective On National Resilience: Components And Demographic Predictors.
    Yohanan Eshel, Shaul Kimhi.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 09, 2016
    A new definition of national resilience (NR) is developed, based on strength to vulnerability ratio (perceived NR divided by sense of danger). Four resilience‐promoting variables predict components of this NR: gender, religiosity, political attitudes, and level of exposure to war. The study was conducted 4 months after the 2014 Israel‐Gaza war. The sample comprised a total of 510 Jewish Israeli civilians (age range 18–85 years): 251 live in southern Israel and were threatened by this war and 259 live in northern Israel and were not threatened by this war. Results showed that the 4 predictors indeed predicted components of NR. The explained variance of NR determined by the strength to vulnerability ratio was higher than the explained variance of a conventional measure of this resilience. No significant differences were found in NR between the 2 samples. The advantages of the new definition of NR are discussed.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21811   open full text
  • Alcohol Outlets And Substance Use Among High Schoolers.
    Adam J. Milam, Sarah Lindstrom Johnson, C. Debra M. Furr‐Holden, Catherine P. Bradshaw.
    Journal of Community Psychology. August 09, 2016
    Few studies have considered the potential role of the built environment in increasing adolescent substance use. The current study explored the relationship between alcohol outlets, a potential malleable component of the neighborhood environment, and adolescent behavioral outcomes. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between alcohol outlet density, perceived alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) availability, perception of substance use as a problem at the school, and self‐reported ATOD use. Data come from Maryland Safe and Supportive Schools (MDS3) Initiative, a statewide project focused on measuring and improving school climate. The sample includes 25,308 adolescents from 58 high schools (Grades 9–12) across 12 counties. Multilevel path models indicated a positive relationship between the count of alcohol outlets and perceived availability of ATOD among girls but not boys. Perceived availability was associated with increased ATOD use at both individual and school levels as well as other students’ ATOD use. Findings provide support for the potential role of the built environment in adolescent risk for substance use, particularly among girls.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21802   open full text
  • Development And Validation Of The Trauma‐Informed Practice Scales.
    Lisa A. Goodman, Cris M. Sullivan, Josie Serrata, Julia Perilla, Joshua M. Wilson, Jennifer E. Fauci, Craig D. DiGiovanni.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 11, 2016
    Spurred by research demonstrating the pervasiveness and impact of trauma, domestic violence programs are increasingly adopting a trauma‐informed approach. In the absence of measurement tools, however, they are unable to determine whether indeed clients experience their practices as trauma‐informed. The aim of this study was to create and validate a set of scales that measure the degree to which DV programs are using trauma informed practices (TIP) from survivors' perspectives. We generated measure items based on a literature review, interviews with experts, and focus groups with survivors and advocates; administered the draft measure in the context of a survey of 370 survivors from 15 DV programs; and evaluated its factor structure, reliability, and validity. Results supported the validity and reliability of the TIP Scales, which assess six domains: Environment of Agency and Mutual Respect, Access to Information on Trauma, Opportunities for Connection, Emphasis on Strengths, Cultural Responsiveness/Inclusivity, and Support for Parenting.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21799   open full text
  • Systematic Observation Of Disorder And Other Neighborhood Conditions In A Distressed Caribbean Community.
    Devon Johnson, Edward R. Maguire, Stephanie A. Maass, Julie Hibdon.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 11, 2016
    There is a growing recognition that physical and social disorder and other neighborhood conditions play an important role in shaping the attitudes, behaviors, and well‐being of residents. Most research that seeks to measure neighborhood conditions relies on census or survey data, yet systematic observation often provides a more objective measure of observable neighborhood conditions. However, almost all of the research that has used systematic observation to measure neighborhood conditions has been conducted in developed nations. We describe the conceptual and methodological issues that arose during our use of systematic observation to measure disorder and other neighborhood conditions in Trinidad and Tobago, a two‐island Caribbean nation. Adapting this methodology for use in a distressed community in a developing nation raised challenges not yet addressed in the literature. We describe these issues and reflect on the applicability of systematic observation techniques and current conceptualizations of disorder across different contexts.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21798   open full text
  • Mothers’ Perceptions Of Neighborhood Disorder Are Associated With Children's Home Environment Quality.
    Joyce Lin, Stephanie M. Reich.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 11, 2016
    This study examines how low–income mothers' perceptions of their neighborhoods are associated with the home environments they provide for their young children. The connection between neighborhoods and homes is important since they are nested systems that are critical to children's healthy development. Women's perception of their neighborhoods may affect the way they set up their homes and interact with their young children. Given that various women may perceive the same neighborhood differently, this study uses subjective, rather than typical objective measures of neighborhood disadvantage. After controlling for maternal background characteristics, including stress and depression, these data find that the more women perceive their neighborhood to be disordered, the less likely they are to provide high–quality home environments and be responsive to their infants. Establishing a link between neighborhood and home environments is important and illuminates avenues for potentially improving the contexts of young children's lives.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21796   open full text
  • Gender Differences In Emergency Volunteering.
    Liat Kulik, Ronit Bar, Aya Dolev.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 11, 2016
    The main goal of the study was to examine gender differences in the emergency volunteer experiences of Israeli men (n = 180) and women (n = 305) who volunteered during Operation Protective Edge (military operation). We examined the experience of volunteering from different perspectives: antecedents of volunteering, feelings at the time of the event, and aspects related to volunteering in the future. For both genders, the main motive for volunteering was social solidarity, but personal empowerment was a stronger motive for men. The expected frequency of future volunteer activity and the willingness to volunteer in a field similar to the one in Operation Protective Edge were higher for men than women. The women's future intentions to volunteer were explained mainly by antecedents of volunteering such as motives for volunteering, whereas the men's intentions were explained mostly by the experience of volunteering itself.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21795   open full text
  • Hairdressers’ Preparedness To Be Informal Helpers For Their Clients.
    Krystal M. Sattler, Frank P. Deane.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 11, 2016
    Hairdressers have the potential to be gatekeepers for their clients. They are placed in the role of informal helpers because clients often raise personal and emotional problems with them during appointments. In the current study, 136 hairdressers completed self‐report surveys about the types of problems raised by clients, hairdresser responses, ability to select appropriate helping responses to disclosures, interest in training, and preparedness to help. Of the problem types discussed, 43% comprised moderate to severe problems. Greater years of hairdressing experience were related to a better ability to identify appropriate responses. The multiple regression model found that 44.8% of the variance in hairdresser preparedness was predicted by whether substance use and violence problems were raised, supportive responses, unhelpful responses, and supportive emotions. Results provide support for hairdressers as potential gatekeepers and identify areas of training that may lead to increased preparedness for this role.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21794   open full text
  • Network Structure, Multiplexity, And Evolution As Influences On Community‐Based Participatory Interventions.
    Rong Wang, Sora Park Tanjasiri, Paula Palmer, Thomas W. Valente.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 11, 2016
    This study applies an ecological perspective to the context of community‐based participatory research (CBPR). Specifically, it examines how endogenous and exogenous factors influence the dynamics of CBPR partnerships, including the tendency toward reciprocity and transitivity, the organizational type, the level of resource sufficiency, the level of organizational influence, and the perceived CBPR effect on organizations. The results demonstrate that network structure is related to the selection and retention of interorganizational networks over time, and organizations of the same type are more likely to form partnerships with each other. It shows that the dynamics of the CBPR initiative presented in this article were driven by the structure of the interorganizational networks rather than their individual organizational attributes. Implications for sustaining CBPR partnerships are drawn from the findings.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21801   open full text
  • Serious Psychological Distress Among African Americans: Findings From The National Survey Of American Life.
    Dawne M. Mouzon, Robert Joseph Taylor, Ann W. Nguyen, Linda M. Chatters.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 11, 2016
    Despite their low social standing, there remains a paucity of research on psychological distress among African Americans. We use data from the 2001–2003 National Survey of American Life to explore a wide array of social and economic predictors of psychological distress among African American adults aged 18 years and older, including previous incarceration, history of welfare receipt, and having a family member who is either currently incarcerated or homeless. Younger age, lower income, lower educational attainment, and lower self‐rated health and childhood health are associated with higher levels of psychological distress among African Americans. We also find a strong association between higher levels of material hardship, previous incarceration history, and the presence of a family member who is either incarcerated or homeless and higher levels of psychological distress. The findings highlight the importance of considering unique types of social disadvantage experienced by African Americans living in a highly stratified society.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21800   open full text
  • School Inclusion: A Multidimensional Framework And Links With Outcomes Among Urban Youth With Disabilities.
    Susan D. McMahon, Christopher B. Keys, Luciano Berardi, Ronald Crouch, Crystal Coker.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 17, 2016
    As schools move toward inclusion of students with disabilities, there is need for a common framework for school inclusion, as well as assessment of inclusion in relation to student educational experiences. We propose an ecological framework that suggests school inclusion is best examined as a multidimensional construct with subtypes of inclusive best practices (organizational, academic, assessment and planning, and social). This study examines the extent to which schools (N = 11) are practicing each type of inclusion and the links between teacher‐reported inclusion practices and student‐ and school‐reported academic and social outcomes among African American and Latina/o youth with disabilities (N = 76). Results show that organizational inclusion and assessment and planning were associated with greater school belonging and school satisfaction; academic inclusion was associated with higher academic achievement, school belonging, and school satisfaction; and social inclusion was associated with higher academic achievement and school belonging. Implications for research, theory, and school practices are discussed.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21793   open full text
  • Hardiness Scripts: High‐Achieving African American Boys In A Chicago Charter School Navigating Community Violence And School.
    Desmond U. Patton, Reuben J. Miller, James Garbarino, Adrian Gale, Emma Kornfeld.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 17, 2016
    Youth exposure to violence, criminal activities and deviant peer affiliation may impact overall development and the transition into adulthood. Low income African American youth are disproportionately exposed to chronic stressors, but little is known about how they conceptualize challenges and success once they enter adulthood. We examine how low incomes African Americans reflect on exposure to chronic stressors during adolescence that impact their description of challenges and successes in emerging adulthood. We interviewed thirteen African American males and females who are former participants of Chicago Youth Programs. Participants identified three challenges: neighborhood violence, familial stress and financial instability as barriers to success in emerging adulthood. Participants identified conditions that facilitated success in emerging adulthood: perseverance and access to Chicago Youth Programs. Understanding challenges and successes associated with emerging adulthood for low‐income African Americans may lead to better informed support services for low income African Americans across the life course.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21791   open full text
  • Confirming The Psoc Through Discourse: Toward A Grounded Theory Of Discursive Sense Of Community (Dsoc).
    Kristin Comeforo.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 17, 2016
    The psychological sense of community (PSOC) is a valued yet quantitatively underconfirmed construct that forms the foundation of our understanding of community. The current study aimed at and succeeded in confirming the factors, where traditional methods have failed. Using grounded theory as an alternate route to reaching this goal, the current study of 2,298 Facebook comments, surrounding anti‐lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, queer (LGBTQ) remarks made by the CEO of the Barilla pasta brand, revealed cogent communities of LGBTQ, allies, Christians, and opponents, which used each of McMillan and Chavis’ (1986) factors in their discourse, thus confirming PSOC. The discursive residue of PSOC indicated a new phenomenon, discursive sense of community (DSOC), which emerged from factors of expectations and empowerment. The DSOC appeared as a defensive strategy to mitigate minority stress. Testing the model against other datasets is recommended, to determine the extent to which this particular incident (i.e., a member of one group making an offensive comment to members of another group) shaped the qualitative findings.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21790   open full text
  • Trajectories Of School And Community Connectedness In Adolescence By Gender And Delinquent Behavior.
    Kathleen A. Bolland, Anneliese C. Bolland, John M. Bolland, Wesley T. Church, Lisa M. Hooper, Jeremiah W. Jaggers, Sara Tomek.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 17, 2016
    Previous studies suggest that both school and community connectedness among adolescents are associated with prosocial behaviors and positive outcomes. While delinquency is associated with lack of connectedness to school and community, little research has considered how delinquency affects this relationship for adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods. This study estimated gendered trajectories of school and community connectedness for adolescents in impoverished neighborhoods as a function of their levels of delinquency. Results showed that delinquency was negatively correlated and that age was positively correlated with school connectedness for both genders. In contrast, community connectedness increased with age for boys, but decreased with age for girls. In addition, delinquency was negatively related to community connectedness for boys, but not for girls. These findings suggest that for adolescents in impoverished neighborhoods, gender‐informed interventions to decrease delinquency could have positive effects on school and community connectedness.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21789   open full text
  • A First Look At Natural Mentoring Among Preadolescent Foster Children.
    Johanna K. P. Greeson, Lindsey M. Weiler, Allison E. Thompson, Heather N. Taussig.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 17, 2016
    This study describes natural mentoring among preadolescent children placed in out‐of‐home care and examines the association between natural mentoring and demographic, maltreatment, placement, and psychosocial characteristics. Cross‐sectional data from a sample of 263 children and their out‐of‐home caregivers were analyzed. Caregivers rated children's social skills, and children reported on their perceived opportunities and attachment to peers and adults, including natural mentors. About half the sample endorsed having natural mentors, with school personnel being the most common type of mentor. Children with natural mentors were older, more likely to be living in congregate care, and had stronger attachment to friends. Marginally significant findings suggested that children with natural mentors had been in out‐of‐home care for fewer months, and children who were sexually abused were less likely to have natural mentors with whom they had current contact. Future research is needed that examines the longitudinal course of natural mentoring among this population.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21788   open full text
  • Sustaining Motivation Among Community Health Workers In Aids Care In Kwazulu‐Natal, South Africa: Challenges And Prospects.
    Wenche Dageid, Olagoke Akintola, Therese Sæberg.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 17, 2016
    A substantial part of community‐based AIDS care in South Africa is currently undertaken by poor, female volunteer community health workers (CHWs). Retention of volunteers over time is challenging, however. In this study, 12 female AIDS care volunteers in KwaZulu‐Natal, South Africa, were interviewed about their motivations for becoming volunteers, perceived challenges in care work, and reasons for sustained volunteering. All women reported altruism and empathy as their main motivation for volunteering. Motivations for sustained volunteering included supportive networks, hopes of future employment in the formal health care system, personal growth, and appreciation from patients and community members. Despite reporting several challenges, all women were motivated to continue volunteering. To encourage retention, policy makers should pay attention to personal and professional rewards gained from volunteering, create career paths and clarify CHWs' roles and rights in the health care sector, and provide various coordination and support measures, including remuneration and stigma reduction.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21787   open full text
  • An Ecological Perspective Of Mentor Satisfaction With Their Youth Mentoring Relationships.
    Rachael L. Suffrin, Nathan R. Todd, Bernadette Sánchez.
    Journal of Community Psychology. June 17, 2016
    Research shows the benefits of mentoring in promoting positive youth development. Yet less is known about mentors and what predicts mentor satisfaction. Such knowledge is vital to understanding how to recruit and retain adult mentors for youth. Thus, in the current study, we examine mentors as embedded in a social ecology of relationships, such as relationships with their mentee, mentee's family, and mentoring organization they volunteer with. We use data from 247 mentors to test how each of these relationships (mentor with the mentee, mentee's family, and mentoring organization) independently and interactively predict mentor satisfaction. Findings indicate that all relationships are unique predictors of mentor satisfaction, and that relationships with the mentee's family and mentors’ mentoring organization interact in predicting mentor satisfaction. Overall, considering multiple relationships shows how various dimensions of the social ecology uniquely and interactively predict mentor satisfaction. Limitations and implications for mentoring practice are discussed.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21785   open full text
  • Demographic Group Differences In Domain‐Specific Well‐Being.
    Carolyn L. Rubenstein, Johnathan Duff, Isaac Prilleltensky, Ying Jin, Samantha Dietz, Nicholas D. Myers, Ora Prilleltensky.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 14, 2016
    Although research is available on group differences for overall well‐being, little research has explored group differences for domain‐specific well‐being. Therefore, we examined differences in overall and domain‐specific well‐being across several demographic variables: gender, income, marital status, age, ethnicity, education level, employment status, occupation, and housing tenure. We analyzed data from 1,087 participants on the I COPPE Scale, which provides scores for overall, interpersonal, community, occupational, physical, psychological, and economic well‐being. Group differences were found across multiple domains with small to large effect sizes. While there were no gender differences, compared with those in the same demographic variable, higher income earners, married, elderly, Hispanic, educated, white‐collar professionals, and homeowners reported the highest levels of well‐being. The unemployed reported the lowest level of well‐being on all but one of the domains–the interpersonal domain. Findings suggest people report different levels of well‐being based on their unique demographic and life circumstances.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21784   open full text
  • When Housing First Lasts: Exploring The Lived Experience Of Single‐Site Housing First Residents.
    N. Stahl, S. E. Collins, S. L. Clifasefi, A. Hagopian.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 14, 2016
    Single‐site Housing First (HF) entails the provision of immediate, permanent, low‐barrier supportive housing to chronically homeless individuals within a single building. Studies have shown that greater time spent in HF is associated with reduced publicly funded service utilization and improved health outcomes, but more research is needed to clarify how HF programs might maximize housing stability. In this study, semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted (N = 11) to document the experiences of continuously and discontinuously housed residents of single‐site HF. Grounded theory methods led to the identification of 3 dialectic themes: sense of community (seeking connection while seeking space), stability (seeking stability while having concerns about stagnation), and control (gaining autonomy while relinquishing control). Findings suggest that the community environment and the stability offered by single‐site HF support longer stays in housing and that ensuring adequate privacy and providing additional programming could further enhance residents’ ability to remain stably housed.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21783   open full text
  • Mentoring Relationships, Positive Development, Youth Emotional And Behavioral Problems: Investigation Of A Mediational Model.
    Gizem Erdem, David L. DuBois, Simon Larose, David Wit, Ellen L. Lipman.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 14, 2016
    Mentoring programs show promise for preventing emotional and behavioral problems among at‐risk youth, but little is known about processes that may be most critical to achieving this end. This study explored indicators of positive youth development (PYD; competence, confidence, connection, care and compassion, character) as mediators of associations of mentoring support with youth emotional and behavioral problems. The sample included 501 youth participating in a study of the Big Brothers Big Sisters program in Canada (mean = 11.16 years old; 52% girls, and 44% White). Measures were youth self‐report, with the exception of the use of both youth and parent report measures of emotional and behavioral problems. Results of structural equation modeling analyses were consistent with PYD mediating the association between mentoring support and emotional and behavioral problems, regardless of informant. The association between mentor support and PYD, however, was limited to youth in active mentoring relationships.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21782   open full text
  • If You Build It, Will They Come? Explaining Participation In Family Violence Councils.
    Emily R. Dworkin, Shabnam Javdani, Nicole E. Allen.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 14, 2016
    Member participation in multidisciplinary collaborative efforts is a critical component of their effectiveness, yet fostering regular participation from key stakeholders can be challenging. While the literature on the factors that explain participation in collaborative efforts focuses mostly on member characteristics, characteristics of collaborative settings (e.g., councils) itself may also be important. Thus, the current study used a mixed‐method approach to examine member participation in family violence councils with attention to member‐ and setting‐level characteristics. Our findings suggest that a number of factors are related to participation at both member (e.g., members’ community sector, years of experience) and council levels (e.g., engaging regional organization of the council, having fewer committees, securing greater breadth of council membership), perhaps because they affect members’ capacity and desire to participate. These findings suggest a number of ways that councils can best structure limited resources in particular geographic spaces to facilitate participation.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21780   open full text
  • Peer Victimization: Exploring Psychosocial Correlates And Reciprocal Longitudinal Relationship.
    Sukkyung You, Jina Yoon.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 14, 2016
    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the peer victimization among a Korean adolescent sample (N = 3,449; female = 1,724). First, we examined the differences among peer victimization subgroups (bully, bully–victim, victim, and noninvolved) on psychosocial characteristics. We conducted a multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationship between peer victimization categories and individual, peer, and family factors. Findings showed that, compared with the nonaggressor/victim group, the aggressor‐only group reported lower levels of behavioral self‐control and higher levels of aggression and social skills; the victim‐only group reported lower levels of social skills and higher levels of stress over appearance; and the combined aggressor and victim group reported lower levels of behavioral self‐control, higher levels of aggression and social skills, and higher levels of stress over appearance. Second, we examined the reciprocal, longitudinal relationship between aggressor and victim experiences over 3 years using autoregressive cross‐lagged modeling. Results showed that adolescents who bullied others were highly likely to be bullied by others in the following year. Implications of these findings are discussed.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21779   open full text
  • Validation Of The French Version Of The Parenting Stress Index–Short Form (Fourth Edition).
    Malorie Touchèque, Anne‐Marie Etienne, Céline Stassart, Corinne Catale.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 14, 2016
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21778   open full text
  • Sense Of Community, Identity Statuses, And Loneliness In Adolescence: A Cross‐National Study On Italian And Belgian Youth.
    Elvira Cicognani, Theo Klimstra, Luc Goossens.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 07, 2014
    The aim of this cross‐national study was to assess the relationships among sense of community (SoC) vis‐à‐vis the residential community (i.e., one's home town), identity formation processes, and feelings of loneliness toward parents and peers. The sample included 431 Italian adolescents (59.4% females) and 221 Belgian (Flemish) adolescents (54.3% females) aged 14–23 years. Results indicate that the more adolescents developed firm and sustained commitments, the more they developed positive feelings toward the residential community. SoC toward the home town is lower among youth in less advanced identity statuses. Parent‐ and peer‐related loneliness differentially predicted Italian and Belgian adolescents’ SoC. Results have significant theoretical and methodological implications for the study of SoC, identity, and loneliness.
    April 07, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21618   open full text
  • A Method For Articulating Grassroots Community Organizing Outcomes.
    Rebecca Orsi.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 07, 2014
    Concept mapping (Trochim, ) was used to visually articulate the full range of organizing outcomes from a grassroots community organization (GCO) in a western United States city. Outcomes belong to five general categories: (a) victories, (b) personal development, (c) public leadership skills, (d) organizational relationships with power people, and (e) building an organizational culture of civic engagement. Results from the concept map have been triangulated with other GCO data sources to determine whether the concept map presents a credible representation of the range of outcomes which can be expected from community organizing. Advantages of concept mapping as a method for community‐based research are discussed. Names of places and organizations have been changed to protect the privacy of participants.
    April 07, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21617   open full text
  • Women's Community Mobilization And Well‐Being: Local Resistance To Gendered Social Inequities In Nicaragua And Tanzania.
    Shelly Grabe, Anjali Dutt, Shari L. Dworkin.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 07, 2014
    Although it is well‐documented that globalization has exacerbated structural factors that contribute to rising levels of gender inequality, social actors from diverse local contexts demonstrate that women are not mere victims, but rather have worked actively to resist oppression and promote women's well‐being worldwide. Self‐mobilized groups of women throughout the world are engaging in complex processes of renegotiating structural and relational injustices that transform women's well‐being. The current article focuses on how two groups of women–one in Nicaragua and one in Tanzania–use land rights to reconfigure gendered power relations that have been exacerbated during realignments of global power. We examine how conscientization, or a critical consciousness surrounding experiences of gender discrimination, motivated resistance, collective mobilization, and social change. The analysis provides evidence for theories of struggle and everyday resistance that represent how community contexts enable and support women's struggle for justice in an increasingly globalized world.
    April 07, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21616   open full text
  • Social Reactions To Sexual Assault Disclosure, Coping, Perceived Control, And Ptsd Symptoms In Sexual Assault Victims.
    Sarah E. Ullman, Liana Peter‐Hagene.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 07, 2014
    The social reactions that sexual assault victims receive when they disclose their assault have been found to relate to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Using path analysis and a large sample of sexual assault survivors (N = 1863), we tested whether perceived control, maladaptive coping, and social and individual adaptive coping strategies mediated the relationships between social reactions to disclosure and PTSD symptoms. We found that positive social reactions to assault disclosure predicted greater perceived control over recovery, which in turn was related to less PTSD symptoms. Positive social reactions to assault disclosure were also associated with more adaptive social and individual coping; however, only adaptive social coping predicted PTSD symptoms. Negative social reactions to assault disclosure were related to greater PTSD symptoms both directly and indirectly through maladaptive coping and marginally through lower perceived control over recovery.
    April 07, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21624   open full text
  • Me MandÓ A Traer: Weak “Strong Ties” In Latina Immigrants’ Social Networks.
    Alejandra Hurtado‐de‐Mendoza, Felisa A. Gonzales, Adriana Serrano, Stacey Kaltman.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 07, 2014
    The impact of social capital in immigrant communities is well acknowledged. However, research has heavily relied on quantitative studies and has tended to emphasize its positive impact. There has been a paucity of qualitative research that examines the complex dynamics of accessing support from social networks, especially when it entails family reunification and trauma. Twenty‐eight Latina immigrant women participated in an interview focused on traumatic and stressful experiences that included questions about accessing support from informal networks. Women used the expression “me mandó a traer” (I was brought in) when describing others' involvement in their immigration decision and initial settlement. This expression captured the ambivalence of receiving assistance from relatives or friends and also their challenges accessing support in a context of family reunification, scarce resources, and trauma exposure. This study contributes to the literature on immigrants' individual social capital further expanding a nuanced understanding of family reunification experiences.
    April 07, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21623   open full text
  • Food Insecurity And Depressive Symptoms: Comparison Of Drug Using And Nondrug‐Using Women At Risk For Hiv.
    Melissa A. Davey‐Rothwell, Laura J. Flamm, Hilina T. Kassa, Carl A. Latkin.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 07, 2014
    Food insecurity has been linked to poor physical and mental health as well as HIV risk behaviors. While prior research has shown that drug users are prone to food insecurity it is unclear if drug use exacerbates the physical and psychosocial consequences. A sample of women who used drugs (DU; specifically heroin and cocaine) and women who did not use drugs (NDU) were examined to determine if the relationship between food insecurity and depression varied by drug use status. Approximately 29% (n = 128) of the total sample experienced food insecurity. DU women were more likely to be food insecure. There were no differences in receiving food stamps. After controlling for demographics and receiving food stamps, a significant association between food insecurity and depression existed for both DU and NDU women. The strength of this association was approximately double for NDU women. The study results suggest that it is critical to integrate mental health, food assistance, and other services.
    April 07, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21622   open full text
  • Leadership Through A Youth Lens: Understanding Youth Conceptualizations Of Leadership.
    Jennifer Mortensen, Lauren Lichty, Pennie Foster‐Fishman, Sarah Harfst, Sara Hockin, Kelly Warsinske, Kareemah Abdullah.
    Journal of Community Psychology. April 07, 2014
    There is agreement in the literature that we need to develop more youth leaders. Research has focused on the outcomes of youth leadership programs that typically use adult theories to guide program activities. Little formative work has been done to assess whether adult theories actually map onto youth definitions of leadership. Therefore, a critical first step toward developing more youth leaders is understanding how youth define leadership (Dempster & Lizzio, ). This study sought to understand leadership from a youth perspective. Using qualitative methods, 5 ideas emerged in the youths’ narratives: leadership is available to anyone in any context and involves creating change, collective action, modeling and mentoring, and strong character. This suggests youth share some views with adults but also have unique perspectives. We describe how youth talk about leadership and compare this to adult theories in an effort to advance our understanding of leadership through a youth lens.
    April 07, 2014   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21620   open full text
  • The Influence Of Race And Ethnicity In Clients’ Experiences Of Mental Health Treatment.
    Oanh L. Meyer, Nolan Zane.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 22, 2013
    Clinicians and researchers have pointed to the need for culturally sensitive mental health interventions. Yet it has not been determined if the inclusion of cultural elements affects the way mental health clients experience services. This study examined 102 clients who had received mental health treatment from outpatient mental health clinics to investigate whether culturally related elements involving race and ethnicity were important to clients and whether they were related to client satisfaction and perceived treatment outcomes. Ethnic minority clients generally felt that issues regarding race and ethnicity were more important than did White clients. When these elements were considered important but were not included in their care, clients were less satisfied with treatment. Consistent with the notion of cultural responsiveness, these findings provide empirical evidence that culturally relevant aspects of the mental health service experience are salient to ethnic minority clients and can affect how they respond to services.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21580   open full text
  • Alcohol Environment, Perceived Safety, And Exposure To Alcohol, Tobacco, And Other Drugs In Early Adolescence.
    Adam J. Milam, C. Debra Furr‐Holden, Catherine P. Bradshaw, Daniel W. Webster, Michele C. Cooley‐Strickland, Philip J. Leaf.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 22, 2013
    This study examined the association between the count of alcohol outlets around children's homes and opportunities to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) during preadolescence. Data were collected in 2007 from 394 Baltimore City children aged 8–13 years (86% African American). Participants’ residential address and alcohol outlet data were geocoded with quarter mile (i.e., walking distance) buffers placed around each participant's home to determine the number of outlets within walking distance. The unadjusted logistic regression models revealed that each unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of children seeing people selling drugs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, p = .04) and a 15% increase in the likelihood of seeing people smoking marijuana (OR = 1.15, p < .01). After adjusting for neighborhood physical disorder, the relationship between alcohol outlets and seeing people selling drugs and seeing people smoking marijuana was fully attenuated. These results suggest that alcohol outlets are one aspect of the larger environmental context that is related to ATOD exposure in children. Future studies should examine the complex relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and the presence of alcohol outlets.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21579   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Psychological Empowerment And Organizational Identification.
    Gabriele Prati, Bruna Zani.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 22, 2013
    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between psychological empowerment and organizational identification as well as the impact that these two constructs have on turnover intention and job satisfaction (focal outcomes). Participants were 5,195 employees from 730 teams in 6 Italian local health organizations. Two competing conceptual models were tested for goodness of fit using multilevel path analysis. In the first model, psychological empowerment predicts organizational identification, which, in turn, predicts focal outcomes. In the second model, organizational identification predicts psychological empowerment, which, in turn, predicts focal outcomes. Fit indices of the path analysis indicated that the second model obtained the best fit to the data as compared with other models. Moreover, mediation analysis showed that psychological empowerment mediated the relationship between organizational identification and focal outcomes.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21578   open full text
  • Reducing No‐Show Behavior At A Community Mental Health Center.
    Q. Dieren, M.J.N. Rijckmans, J.J.P. Mathijssen, J. Lobbestael, A.R. Arntz.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 22, 2013
    The objective of this study was to examine whether an easy to apply no‐show policy can substantially reduce no‐show behavior of 16–25‐year‐old clients undergoing individual outpatient treatment at a community mental health center. After introduction of the new no‐show policy, the no‐show percentage was significantly reduced with 32.1%. This reduction was not due to terminating significantly more treatments of clients with no‐show behavior. It seems likely that this easy‐to‐apply no‐show policy can substantially reduce no‐show behavior of clients with a broad variety of mental disorders undergoing individual outpatient treatment.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21577   open full text
  • Bonding And Bridging: Transition To School And Social Capital Formation Among A Community Of Indigenous Australian Children.
    Karen Thorpe, Rachel Bell‐Booth, Sally Staton, Catherine Thompson.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 22, 2013
    This study reports on an intervention program designed to facilitate transition to school of a whole community of Indigenous Australian children who had previously not been attending. The children were from families displaced from their traditional lands and experienced on‐going social marginalisation and transience. A social capital framework was employed to track change in the children's social inclusion and family‐school engagement for two years, from school entry. Sociometric measurement and interview techniques were applied to assess the children's social connectedness and peer relationship quality. Using these data, analyses examined whether bonding within the group supported or inhibited formation of new social relationships. Although transience disrupted attendance, there was a group trend towards increased social inclusion with some evidence that group bonds supported bridging to new social relationships. Change in family‐school engagement was tracked using multi‐informant interviews. Limited engagement between school and families presented an on‐going challenge to sustained educational engagement.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21576   open full text
  • Quality Of Life And Sense Of Community. A Study On Health And Place Of Residence.
    Silvia Gattino, Norma Piccoli, Omar Fassio, Chiara Rollero.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 22, 2013
    The aim of the study is to assess the predictive role of the affective link with the place of residence (place attachment) and the perception of one's own community of residence (sense of community) on health and quality of life. Other variables were considered: size of place of residence, income, level of education, marital status, age, and gender. Participants included 344 adult subjects living in Piedmont, Italy. The instruments used were the Italian Sense of Community Scale, the Residential Attachment Scale, and the Italian version of the WHOQOL‐BREF questionnaire. Data showed that (a) quality of life is affected by sense of community, but not by place attachment, and (b) living in a small town enhances the environmental, psychological, and relational quality of life.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21575   open full text
  • Using Gis To Describe Risk And Neighborhood‐Level Factors Associated With Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes.
    Natasha S. Mendoza, Lindsey Conrow, Adrienne Baldwin, Jaime Booth.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 22, 2013
    Neighborhood‐level geographic factors may put individuals at risk of developing substance abuse problems. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the spatial distribution of risk in Buffalo, New York. The study serves as an example of how neighborhood geographical markers can be used to determine areas with elevated risk that may lead providers to better target and address substance use disorder prevalence in communities. Results showed highest risk for negative treatment outcomes in areas with either high socioeconomic or physical environmental risk; maximum total risk was largely located on the Lower West Side, West Side, and East Sides of Buffalo, while maximum socioeconomic and physical environmental risks were dispersed throughout the city. This landscape model and risk assessment delineates the distribution of risk factors associated with negative treatment outcomes and is therefore a useful tool for treatment providers who wish to better target interventions.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21572   open full text
  • The Relationship Of Cumulative Stressors, Chronic Illness And Abuse To The Self‐Reported Suicide Risk Of Black And Hispanic Sexual Minority Youth.
    Shelley L. Craig, Lauren McInroy.
    Journal of Community Psychology. July 22, 2013
    Sexual minority youth [SMY] are a population who experience considerable stress related to their sexual identities. Previous investigations have identified individual risk factors that contribute to suicide among SMY, yet little research has focused on cumulative stressors that may exacerbate negative outcomes for multiethnic sexual minority youth [MSMY]. This study used hierarchical logistic regression to explore the relationship between cumulative risks and their relationship to self‐reported suicide risk for MSMY. The community‐based clinical sample (n = 137) reported high co‐occurrence of risks, with an average of 9. Overall, MSMY with a higher number of cumulative risk factors were twice as likely to express self‐reported suicide risk. Specifically, experiencing chronic illness and physical or sexual abuse resulted in threefold higher odds of self‐reported suicide risk among MSMY. These findings address a gap in the literature about the relationship of cumulative and specific stressors to the self‐reported suicide risk for an understudied, vulnerable population.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1002/jcop.21570   open full text