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A Model for Predicting Prejudice and Stigma Expression by Understanding Target Perceptions: The Effects of Visibility, Politicization, Responsibility, and Entitativity


European Journal of Social Psychology

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--- - |2 Abstract The study of hostile orientations toward out‐groups is divided between three great kingdoms: a) overt (explicit, old‐fashioned, or hostile) prejudice, b) veiled (implicit, modern, aversive, or subtle) prejudice, and c) stigma. To date, there is no systematic account as to which form of hostility is likely to be expressed toward members of particular target groups. We propose a model that integrates the two forms of prejudice and the concept of stigma into a single framework. The contingency model of stigma and prejudice expression (SPEM) postulates that overt or veiled prejudice is a function of an interaction of prevailing perceptions of target groups within their cultural context. There are four major target perceptions that influence prejudice expression through increasing threat perception: visibility, target politicization, responsibility, and entitativity. These target perceptions describe the process and the qualitative conditions that determine the expression of prejudice toward members of different groups and social categories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.