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European Journal of Social Psychology

Impact factor: 1.667 5-Year impact factor: 2.221 Print ISSN: 0046-2772 Online ISSN: 1099-0992 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)

Subject: Social Psychology

Most recent papers:

  • ‘I have not witnessed it personally myself, but…’: Epistemics in managing talk on racism against immigrants in Ireland.
    Rahul Sambaraju, Anca Minescu.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 25, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Social psychologists who study racism or prejudice argue that various versions of these are constructed in ways to suppress or minimise their relevance. However, researchers have not particularly examined how knowledge‐claims about racism can also be variously made or negotiated in attending to the relevance of racism. We offer such an examination through a discursive psychological analysis of interview talk with Irish nationals on immigration, since in these settings issues of immigration and racism are not readily relevant. Findings show that participants treated how knowledge of racism can be accessed and who has the rights to make knowledge‐claims about racism, as relevant. Epistemic access and rights were negotiated in ways that showed sensitivity to possibilities for suppressing alternative claims about racism. These findings are discussed in relation to current social psychological and discursive approaches to racism. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 25, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2539   open full text
  • The Influence of Perceived Warmth and Competence on Realistic Threat and Willingness for Intergroup Contact.
    Arya Awale, Christian S. Chan, Gerry T. S. Ho.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 20, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Unwillingness for contact with outgroup members is a form of prejudice. In two studies, we tested the proposition that perceived competence has an indirect effect on willingness for intergroup contact through its effect on realistic threat, and that perceived warmth moderates this relationship. In Study 1, Hong Kong students (N = 144) rated the perceived warmth and competence of an outgroup, Mainland Chinese students, as well as the extent to which they perceived the group as presenting a realistic threat, and willingness for contact with them. In Study 2 (N = 205), we attempted to manipulate the warmth (high vs. low) and competence (high vs. low) of an unfamiliar outgroup, and tested the effects on realistic threat and willingness for intergroup contact. In both studies, we found an interaction effect between warmth and competence in the prediction of realistic threat. When the outgroup was perceived as warm, competence was found to have a negative association with realistic threat (Study 1), whereas when the outgroup was perceived as lacking warmth, competence was found to have a positive association with realistic threat (Study 2). In both studies, perceived warmth moderated the indirect effect of perceived competence on willingness for intergroup contact. Implications for the role of warmth and competence stereotypes in threat perception and prejudice are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 20, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2553   open full text
  • Exploring everyday experiences of cultural diversity: The construction, validation, and application of the normative multiculturalism scale.
    Jaimee Stuart, Colleen Ward.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The 3‐factor structure of the Normative Multiculturalism Scale (NMS)—Contact with Diversity (CD), Multicultural Ideology (MI), and Multicultural Policies and Practices (MPP)—was tested and confirmed with community samples from New Zealand (N = 381) and the United States (N = 311). Correlations with criterion measures (e.g., perceived minority disadvantage and attitudes to diversity) supported the criterion validity of the subscales. NMS factors were then examined as predictors of social connectedness in a British community sample (N = 347). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that MI predicted general trust, and MI and MPP predicted national attachment. While MPP was associated with greater perceived threat, this relationship was dampened by the joint influences of MI and CD. The research presents a novel perspective on multiculturalism by adopting a normative approach and examining the main and interaction effects of contact with diversity, multicultural ideology, and multicultural policies on interpersonal and intergroup outcomes. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2542   open full text
  • Why is it so hard to change? The role of self‐integrity threat and affirmation in weight loss.
    Christine Logel, William Hall, Elizabeth Page‐Gould, Geoffrey L. Cohen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 18, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract People are frequently dissatisfied with their body weight. Messages alleging that lower weight is esthetically preferable, healthier, and achievable likely trigger chronic self‐integrity threat, the sense that one's personal adequacy is in doubt. We examined whether self‐integrity threat, which creates stress and pressure to restore self‐integrity, contributes to the challenges of weight and behavior change. Weight‐dissatisfied women completed in‐lab tasks including a values affirmation manipulation and two‐month follow‐up. Affirmed women lost weight relative to controls, replicating previous research. Effects were primarily among those with higher initial body masses. Affirmed higher‐weighted women also ate more healthful foods compared to unhealthful foods in self‐reports and observation. Affirmed participants reported increased exercise, and an exploratory measure showed that their cortisol awakening responses synchronized with their coping needs, suggesting more adaptive physiological function. Results suggest that self‐integrity threat is an under‐recognized barrier to change, and reducing it can support healthy changes. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 18, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2536   open full text
  • Stereotype threat may not impact women's inhibitory control or mathematical performance: Providing support for the null hypothesis.
    Charlotte R. Pennington, Damien Litchfield, Neil McLatchie, Derek Heim.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Underpinned by the findings of Jamieson and Harkins (; Experiment 3), the current study pits the mere effort motivational account of stereotype threat against a working memory interference account. In Experiment 1, females were primed with a negative self‐ or group stereotype pertaining to their visuospatial ability and completed an anti‐saccade eye‐tracking task. In Experiment 2 they were primed with a negative or positive group stereotype and completed an anti‐saccade and mental arithmetic task. Findings indicate that stereotype threat did not significantly impair women's inhibitory control (Experiments 1 and 2) or mathematical performance (Experiment 2), with Bayesian analyses providing support for the null hypothesis. These findings are discussed in relation to potential moderating factors of stereotype threat, such as task difficulty and stereotype endorsement, as well as the possibility that effect sizes reported in the stereotype threat literature are inflated due to publication bias. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2540   open full text
  • Right‐wing adherence and objective numeracy as predictors of minority group size perceptions and size threat reactions.
    Megan Earle, Gordon Hodson.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Racial, ethnic, religious, and sexual minority populations are growing rapidly in the West. We investigate predictors and consequences of threat responses to perceived minority group size, and perceptions of minority group size itself. Study 1 (N = 274) finds that right‐wing adherence predicts greater size threat, whereas lower numerical ability predicts larger perceived group size (confirmed in Studies 2–3). Study 2 (Sample 1, N = 124; Sample 2, N = 263) finds that the relation between right‐wing adherence and prejudice toward minorities exhibits an indirect effect via group size threat (but not perceived size), explaining 35–66% of this relation. Study 3 (N = 310) finds a comparable indirect effect explaining 27–40% of this relation, even after statistically controlling for indirect effects of realistic, symbolic, and terroristic threat. These findings provide novel insights into psychological processes surrounding perceived minority group size, identifying size threat as especially crucial in understanding intergroup relations. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2538   open full text
  • A Model for Predicting Prejudice and Stigma Expression by Understanding Target Perceptions: The Effects of Visibility, Politicization, Responsibility, and Entitativity.
    Anna Kende, Craig McGarty.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The study of hostile orientations toward out‐groups is divided between three great kingdoms: a) overt (explicit, old‐fashioned, or hostile) prejudice, b) veiled (implicit, modern, aversive, or subtle) prejudice, and c) stigma. To date, there is no systematic account as to which form of hostility is likely to be expressed toward members of particular target groups. We propose a model that integrates the two forms of prejudice and the concept of stigma into a single framework. The contingency model of stigma and prejudice expression (SPEM) postulates that overt or veiled prejudice is a function of an interaction of prevailing perceptions of target groups within their cultural context. There are four major target perceptions that influence prejudice expression through increasing threat perception: visibility, target politicization, responsibility, and entitativity. These target perceptions describe the process and the qualitative conditions that determine the expression of prejudice toward members of different groups and social categories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2550   open full text
  • War Experiences and Emerging Rights Claims in Postwar Former Yugoslavia: The Role of Generalized Conflict Exposure and Collective Anomie.
    Dario Spini, Davide Morselli, Guy Elcheroth.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 02, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Violent conflicts have often been observed to generate social environments in which human rights violations are more easily tolerated and legitimized. However, recent research has documented cases in which communities exposed to violence react with increased condemnations of human rights violations. In this article, we focus on the distinction between generalized and particularized violence. Our findings show that, in the postwar ex‐Yugoslavia context, when local communities have been exposed to violence that was generalized across different ethno‐national groups, they strongly condemn human rights violations. Multilevel structural equation models show that the relationship between generalized victimization and the condemnation of human rights violations is mediated by a collective sense of anomie. The processes that move from collective exposure to violence to the collective reaffirmation of human rights are more likely to unfold in communities where violence transcended group boundaries than in communities where particular groups were disproportionately affected by the violence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 02, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2549   open full text
  • The power of nonviolence: Confirming and explaining the success of nonviolent (rather than violent) political movements.
    S. Nima Orazani, Bernhard Leidner.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 01, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Drawing on literatures on social movements and collective action, mentalization, and morality, four studies investigated whether a social movement's use of nonviolence can increase people's willingness to support and join the movement. In a correlational study with a nested design, across 23 movements perceived use of nonviolence predicted participants' willingness to support and join the movement (Study 1, n = 203). This effect was also found experimentally, with Americans supporting nonviolent movements more than violent ones, in hypothetical and real foreign countries (Study 2 and 3, ns = 606 and 373). Study 4 (n = 247) replicated the effects in participants' own country. The effects were transmitted by attribution of mental states to nonviolent movements and subsequent greater perceived morality (Study 2–4). This research demonstrates that nonviolence can benefit social movements in terms of support and mobilization potential, and that these benefits are rooted in perceptions of mental capacity, humanness, and morality. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 01, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2526   open full text
  • Social devaluation of African Americans and race‐related conspiracy theories.
    James Davis, Geoffrey Wetherell, P.J. Henry.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 01, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract African Americans in the United States endorse conspiracy theories at greater rates than Whites. The extant literature explains this pattern in terms of a rational motivation to blame the social system for prejudice and discrimination. However, little research distinguishes between race‐relevant conspiracy theories against African Americans and general conspiracy theories. We propose that African Americans may seek out race‐relevant conspiracy theories in particular because they satisfy a search for meaning that is brought about by chronic social devaluation. We present two studies that examine this social devaluation hypothesis. In Study 1 African Americans endorsed race‐relevant conspiracy theories, even when controlling for perceptions of discrimination, an aspect of system blame. Study 2 employed an experimental affirmation of social value that significantly reduced African Americans' endorsement of race‐relevant conspiracy theories consistent with the social devaluation hypothesis. These data indicate that there may be psychologically adaptive features of race‐relevant conspiracy theory endorsement. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 01, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2531   open full text
  • A Test of the Peak‐End Rule in Couples’ Conflict Discussions.
    Laura Sels, Eva Ceulemans, Peter Kuppens.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Despite its importance for well‐being, surprisingly little is known about what determines how couples feel after a conflict. Based on the peak‐end rule, we examined whether partners’ post‐conflict affect was mainly predicted by their most aversive or pleasant emotional experience (peaks) during the conflict, or by the emotional tone at the end of the interaction. 101 couples engaged in a conflict interaction and afterwards evaluated their momentary affect during the interaction. Post‐conflict affect (in terms of positive and negative feelings, and perceived partner responsiveness) was assessed immediately after the conflict, after a subsequent positive discussion, and upon returning to daily life (here, rumination about the relationship was assessed as well). Our results showed that the negative and positive peaks, but not the end emotion, predicted immediate and partly extended post‐conflict affect in individuals. This finding has clinical implications for the remediation of couple conflict. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    September 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2547   open full text
  • Right‐ and Left‐wing Prejudice Toward Dissimilar Groups in Cultural and Economic Domains.
    Gabriela Czarnek, Paulina Szwed, Małgorzata Kossowska.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract According to recent studies, people on both the political right and left show prejudice toward groups whose beliefs are in conflict with their own. This prediction applies both to cultural and economic dimensions of political beliefs. In three studies (N = 499) we demonstrate that people on both the cultural and economic right and left show negative attitudes toward groups on the other side of the given spectrum and that underlying this effect is the perception of value violation. In two out of three studies, we manipulated the extremity of target worldviews to further explore the causal chain between political beliefs, the perception of value violation and prejudice. Our results showed high degree of symmetry between the political left and right in their attitudes toward groups with dissimilar beliefs. However, although people on both sides of the political spectrum show prejudice toward each other, people on the cultural and economic right seem to be more sensitive to value violations than people on the left. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    September 29, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2548   open full text
  • The world may not be just for you but you'd better not say it: On the social value of expressing personal belief in a just world.
    Hélder Vinagreiro Alves, Cícero Roberto Pereira, Robbie M. Sutton, Isabel Correia.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The expression of personal belief in a just world (PBJW) has been discussed as a criterion of excellence in social judgments. In four experimental studies we hypothesized and found that targets who express high versus low PBJW are judged as more: (i) deserving of success and (ii) suited to socio‐organizational expectations. The four studies show that suitability to socio‐organizational expectations mediates the relation between PBJW expressed and success deservingness, even after controlling for judgments of likability, status, rationality, optimism, and targets as victims. Studies 2 and 3 show this pattern occurs regardless of target performance appraisal. Study 4 indicates that expressing low PBJW decreases the social value of individuals, but expressing high PBJW does not increase it. We discuss the impact of PBJW expression on people's lives, namely on upward social mobility of members of low‐status groups, and the influence of the negativity bias on judgments caused by PBJW expression. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2535   open full text
  • Personality in faces: Implicit associations between appearance and personality.
    Alex L. Jones, Jeremy J. Tree, Robert Ward.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract How accurate are the spontaneous trait inferences made to faces? Here we measured implicit associations between facial appearance and personality traits, using faces conveying objective appearances of Extraversion and Agreeableness. In the standard or “uncrossed” conditions of Experiment 1, we found that descriptions of high and low Agreeableness and Extraversion were spontaneously and accurately associated with their objective trait appearance. In Experiment 2, to test the specificity of this effect, we “crossed” the Implicit Association Tests, pairing faces conveying high and low Extraversion with words describing characteristics of high and low Agreeableness, and the reverse. We found evidence for associations specific to objective appearance of Agreeableness, and a general halo effect relating to Extraversion. We conclude that spontaneous assessment of personality from faces can be accurate, and can be based on trait‐specific as well as general visual cues. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2534   open full text
  • Age‐based stereotype threat and negative outcomes in the workplace: Exploring the role of identity integration.
    Claudia Manzi, Fabio Paderi, Verónica Benet‐Martínez, Sharon Coen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Previous studies have shown that the presence of age‐based stereotypes in the workplace is often associated with lower levels of work engagement and adjustment among older employees. This study examines possible mediators and moderators of this relationship using data from a sample of 2,348 older (age > 50) employees at the Italian national rail company. We test a model in which the effects of age‐based stereotype threat on organizational involvement, future time perspective, and psychological well‐being are mediated by work–age identity integration (how much individuals see their age and organizational identities as compatible and blended). Secondly, we explored whether these effects are moderated by gender and job status. Results indicate that age‐based stereotypes are associated with negative outcomes for employees’ work and personal adjustment, and that these relationships are partially mediated by variations in work–age identity integration. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2533   open full text
  • How I learned to stop fearing: Ideological differences in choice of reappraisal content.
    Racheli Cohen, Ruthie Pliskin, Eran Halperin.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In down‐regulating intergroup fear, an intense emotion common to intractable intergroup conflicts, people may employ various fear‐reducing appraisals. Adopting a motivated reasoning perspective, we posited that the contents of individuals’ ideological beliefs influence the contents they employ to down‐regulate fear, with rightists preferring ingroup‐empowering content and leftists preferring outgroup‐weakening content. In Study 1, rightists (vs. leftists) reported greater use of ingroup‐empowering reappraisal to down‐regulate fear, but no differences emerged in the use of outgroup‐weakening reappraisal. Study 2 manipulated the contents’ perceived instrumentality in reducing fear, to examine this as an alternative mechanism. Perceived instrumentality influenced participants’ behavioral content preferences ahead of a fear induction, but the manipulation did not mitigate the right‐left differences in ingroup‐empowering reappraisal use once participants were confronted with the stimulus, replicating Study 1. Study 3 extended these findings, identifying ideological differences in two additional fear‐reappraisal themes and in the attitudinal outcomes of fear regulation. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2527   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 21, 2018
    --- - - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, October 2018.
    September 21, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2537   open full text
  • Effects of a Companion Dog on Associations of Danger and Threat With Oriental‐Looking Targets.
    Nilüfer Aydin, Bartosz Gula, Julia Albrecht, Marcel Obermeier, Eva Lermer, Michaela Pfundmair.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In the current study we extend previous findings on the shooter bias towards targets with Arab ethnicity. In an adapted shooter task, we presented stereotypically oriental‐looking targets without explicit symbols of Islam (e.g., a turban) and additionally tested if presenting a “harmless” companion dog together with Arab vs. White targets, would affect the shooter bias. Participants responded faster and made fewer errors for armed Arab than for armed White targets. Moreover, compared to the “neutral” no dog condition, the presence of a dog triggered fewer false alarms for White but not for Arab targets and slowed down (correct) responses in general. Implications and potential underlying mechanisms are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    September 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2545   open full text
  • Coping with immigration detention:Social identities as cures and curses.
    Blerina Kellezi, Mhairi Bowe, Juliet R. H Wakefield, Niamh McNamara, Mary Bosworth.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Over 29,000 foreign nationals are detained yearly in British Immigration Removal Centres (IRCs) for undefined periods. This study investigated the role played by social identities in the way detainees are affected by, make sense of, and deal with detention. An opportunity sample of 40 detainees were interviewed on topics including support, identity, and well‐being, and data were analysed using theoretical thematic analysis. Participants struggled with loss of social networks, loss of rights, loss of agency and joining a stigmatised group. Social identities guided exchange of support, aided meaning‐making, and mitigated distrust, serving as ‘Social Cures’. However, shared identities could also be sources of burden, ostracism, and distress, serving as ‘Social Curses’. Inability to maintain existing identities or create new ones fuelled feelings of isolation. Participants also reported rejection/avoidance of social identities to maximise their benefits. This study is the first to apply the Social Identity Approach to the experience of immigration detention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    September 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2543   open full text
  • Culture, Psychological Proximity to the Past and Future, and Self‐Continuity.
    Li‐Jun Ji, Emily K. Hong, Tieyuan Guo, Zhiyong Zhang, Yanjie Su, Ye Li.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The present research explores how culture influences individuals’ psychological proximity to the past and future, which may predict differences in perceived self‐continuity across time. In Studies 1 and 2, we hypothesized and found that Chinese participants saw the past and future as more connected and subjectively closer to the present compared to Euro‐Canadians. Following this, we expected and found in Studies 3 and 4 that Chinese participants perceived greater self‐continuity over time than Euro‐Canadians. Additionally, perceived closeness to the past mediated the effect of culture on past‐present self‐continuity, which subsequently predicted present‐future self‐continuity. Study 5 further documented a causal effect of perceived distance to the past on self‐continuity. These results suggest that cultural differences in temporal attention to the past and future play a pivotal role in people's sense of self‐continuity across time. This has important implications for temporal focalism, intertemporal discounting, and social interactions between Chinese and Euro‐Canadians. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    September 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2544   open full text
  • Probing the history of social psychology, exploring diversity and views of the social: Publication trends in the European Journal of Social Psychology from 1971 to 2016.
    Valentina Rizzoli, Paula Castro, Arjuna Tuzzi, Alberta Contarello.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The European Journal of Social Psychology (EJSP), as the voice of the European Association of Social Psychology, aims to promote diversity and a distinctively ‘European’, more ‘social’, social psychology (SP). However, whether and how these objectives have been accomplished over time remains controversial. This article enters this debate, tracing the history of SP as depicted by EJSP publications, via two types of lexicometric analyses of all abstracts of the Journal (1971–2016). Themes, processes, methods, and their organisation in cycles and clusters over time, were identified and analysed. Regarding diversity, findings indicate that the publications reflect several of the new theoretical proposals that emerged over the years, but do not fully reflect the variety of perspectives and methods of the discipline. It further indicates that lately the ‘social’ is predominantly present in attention to pressing social issues, albeit the processes involved in them are mostly theorised at an individualistic level. This pattern suggests the importance of keeping open the quest for epistemological and methodological diversity, and of re‐problematising what the ‘social’ in SP means. By contributing to mapping the history of SP, offering a more comprehensive and reflexive view for it, the present analyses also help in forging a stronger discipline. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2528   open full text
  • Fear of death mediates ostracism distress and the moderating role of attachment internal working models.
    Erez Yaakobi.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 10, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Ostracism is known to cause psychological distress; however, it remains unclear why ostracism evokes this response. Two experiments tested empirically whether fear of death mediates ostracism effects and whether attachment internal working models moderate this role. A total of 288 participants played Cyberball with two other ostensible players. After the game the accessibility of their death‐related thoughts was assessed by a word completion task, and the Needs Satisfaction Scale was used to measure their distress. Participants’ attachment orientation was measured using the Experiences in Close Relationship scale. Death anxiety fully mediated ostracism distress. However, this effect was stronger in low‐anxiety individuals. These studies contribute to the ostracism literature by providing further empirical support that death anxiety mediates ostracism distress, and to the attachment literature by documenting the moderation effect of attachment anxiety. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2532   open full text
  • When Goals Loom Darker: Goal Ambivalence Moderates the Effect of Goal Proximity on Goal‐Related Motivation.
    Veronika Brandstätter, Svenja H. Koletzko, Martin Bettschart.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 05, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This research extends previous work on the self‐regulation of goal striving as well as effects of temporal and psychological distance on motivation. Borrowing from classic work on goal gradients and approach‐avoidance conflicts, we predicted that the experience of ambivalence toward a personal goal moderates the extent to which feeling or being close to goal attainment affects motivation, such that greater proximity to the goal has a negative effect on motivation at higher levels of experienced goal ambivalence. We find evidence for the hypothesized effect across three studies examining different goals (pursuing a degree, running a half‐marathon) with varying operationalizations of goal proximity (self‐reported, manipulated, temporal) and motivation (goal commitment, intention strength). These results validate that classic concepts of motivation science such as goal gradients and approach‐avoidance conflict are both relevant and applicable to the everyday pursuit of self‐set personal goals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    September 05, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2541   open full text
  • Re‐identifying residential mixing: Emergent identity dynamics between incomers and existing residents in a mixed neighbourhood in Northern Ireland.
    Clifford Stevenson, Niamh McNamara, Blerina Kellezi, Matthew Easterbrook, Ian Shuttleworth, Deborah Hyden.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Research on residential diversification has neglected its impact on neighbourhood identity and overlooked the very different identity‐related experiences of new and existing residents. The present research examines how incoming and established group members relate to their changing neighbourhood in the increasingly desegregated city of Belfast, Northern Ireland. Thematic analysis of interviews with 24 residents (12 Protestant long‐term residents, 12 Catholic incomers) from an increasingly mixed neighbourhood identified asymmetrical concerns and experiences: Incomers reported undergoing an ‘identity transition’ between local communities, while long‐term residents faced an ‘identity merger’ within their neighbourhood. Where their identity concerns diverged, emergent intergroup perceptions of the residents were negative and divisive; where they accorded, positive intergroup perceptions and a shared neighbourhood identity evolved. From this, we propose a Social Identity Model of Residential Diversification (SIMRD) to encourage future research into how different identity concerns shape emergent intergroup dynamics between long‐term residents and incomers within diversifying neighbourhoods. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2529   open full text
  • Social norms are enforced by friends: The effect of relationship closeness on bystanders’ tendency to confront perpetrators of uncivil, immoral, and discriminatory behaviors.
    Alexandrina Moisuc, Markus Brauer.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract When witnessing an uncivil, immoral, or discriminatory behavior, bystanders have the opportunity to “speak up” and confront the perpetrator about his/her act. We examined whether the closeness of the relationship between the bystander and the perpetrator affects the bystander's reaction. We asked middle schoolers, high schoolers, and university students (N = 1,386) to indicate how they would react if they were to witness each of 26 uncivil, immoral, or discriminatory behaviors. We experimentally manipulated the relationship to the perpetrator, who was described as a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Results showed that the closer the relationship to the perpetrator the greater the bystander's self‐reported likelihood of “speaking up.” The findings speak to the role of close relationships in the perpetuation of social norms. They also suggest ways to curb anti‐social behaviors in a variety of school and organizational settings. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 29, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2525   open full text
  • Belief in conspiracy theories: Basic principles of an emerging research domain.
    Jan‐Willem Prooijen, Karen M. Douglas.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this introduction to the EJSP Special Issue on conspiracy theories as a social psychological phenomenon, we describe how this emerging research domain has developed over the past decade and distill four basic principles that characterize belief in conspiracy theories. Specifically, conspiracy theories are consequential as they have a real impact on people's health, relationships, and safety; they are universal in that belief in them is widespread across times, cultures, and social settings; they are emotional given that negative emotions and not rational deliberations cause conspiracy beliefs; and they are social as conspiracy beliefs are closely associated with psychological motivations underlying intergroup conflict. We then discuss future research and possible policy interventions in this growing area of enquiry. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2530   open full text
  • Gender stereotypes underlie child custody decisions.
    Luiza Lopes Franco Costa, Ana Beatriz Dillon Esteves, Roxana Kreimer, Noel Struchiner, Ivar Hannikainen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Using hypothetical divorce cases we examine the role of gender stereotypes in decisions about child custody. Good mothers received greater custody allocations than did good fathers across a tightly matched pair of vignettes in three culturally distinct samples: Argentina, Brazil, and the United States (Study 1). Two follow‐up studies indicated that the warmth dimension of stereotype content partly accounted for the asymmetry in custody awards: The proportion of maternal‐primary custody was predicted by the tendency to ascribe warmth‐related traits—such as friendliness, generosity, or trustworthiness—to mothers (Study 2) and associate them with female over male nouns (Study 3). We also found that endorsing shared custody mitigated the asymmetry in custody awards documented in our studies. Together, these results highlight the interplay of stereotyped attitudes and egalitarian commitments in the context of judicial decisions about child custody. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2523   open full text
  • The role of right‐wing authoritarianism and political sophistication in shaping attitudes toward redistribution.
    Alexander Jedinger, Axel M. Burger.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Using data from the Austrian National Election Study (Study 1) and the American National Election Study (Study 2), this research investigated the role of right‐wing authoritarianism (RWA) in shaping attitudes toward governmental action related to the redistribution of wealth. We show that RWA is a relevant variable in explaining attitudes toward redistribution policies, and that the association between RWA and redistribution attitudes is moderated by political sophistication. RWA was associated with opposition to redistribution policies among individuals high in political sophistication, while among individuals low in political sophistication, RWA was either associated with support for redistribution policies (Study 1) or unrelated to redistribution attitudes (Study 2). Results suggest that exposure to the political discourse in a society affects how psychological needs and motives are related to preferences regarding the redistribution of wealth through the government. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2524   open full text
  • Protesting to challenge or defend the system? A system justification perspective on collective action.
    Danny Osborne, John T. Jost, Julia C. Becker, Vivienne Badaan, Chris G. Sibley.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Social identity, shared grievances, and group efficacy beliefs are well‐known antecedents to collective action, but existing research overlooks the fact that collective action often involves a confrontation between those who are motivated to defend the status quo and those who seek to challenge it. Using nationally representative data from New Zealand (Study 1; N = 16,147) and a large online sample from the United States (Study 2; N = 1,513), we address this oversight and demonstrate that system justification is negatively associated with system‐challenging collective action, but positively associated with system‐supporting collective action, for members of both low‐status and high‐status groups. Group identification, group‐based injustice, group‐based anger, and system‐based dissatisfaction/anger mediated these relationships. These findings constitute the first empirical integration of system justification theory into a model of collective action that explains when people will act collectively to challenge—and, just as importantly, defend—the status quo. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2522   open full text
  • Positive experiences of high arousal martial arts rituals are linked to identity fusion and costly pro‐group actions.
    Christopher M. Kavanagh, Jonathan Jong, Ryan McKay, Harvey Whitehouse.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract A cross‐sectional study was conducted with 605 practitioners of Brazilian Jiu Jitsu (BJJ) to test the hypothesis that high arousal rituals promote social cohesion, primarily through identity fusion. BJJ promotion rituals are rare, highly emotional ritual events that often feature gruelling belt‐whipping gauntlets. We used the variation in such experiences to examine whether more gruelling rituals were associated with identity fusion and pro‐group behaviour. We found no differences between those who had undergone belt‐whipping and those who had not and no evidence of a correlation between pain and social cohesion. However, across the full sample we found that positive, but not negative, affective experiences of promotional rituals were associated with identity fusion and that this mediated pro‐group action. These findings provide new evidence concerning the social functions of collective rituals and highlight the importance of addressing the potentially diverging subjective experiences of painful rituals. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2514   open full text
  • Powerless people don't yell but tell: The effects of social power on direct and indirect expression of anger.
    Katerina Petkanopoulou, Rosa Rodríguez‐Bailón, Guillermo B. Willis, Gerben A. van Kleef.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 31, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Expressing anger can engender desired change, but it can also backfire. In the present research we examined how power shapes the expression of anger. In Study 1, we found that powerless individuals were less inclined to express their anger directly but more inclined to express it indirectly by sharing it with others. Powerless participants’ reluctance to express anger directly was mediated by negative social appraisals. In Study 2, we replicated the effect of power on direct anger expression in a situation in which participants had actual power (or not). Anger was evoked in the laboratory using an ecologically valid procedure, and participants were given an opportunity to express anger. Study 3 showed that powerless participants expected direct anger expression to arouse more anger than fear in the target, whereas the opposite was true for indirect anger expression. Powerful participants always expected to elicit more fear than anger in the target. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 31, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2521   open full text
  • Tuning in emotionally: Associations of cultural exposure with distal and proximal emotional fit in acculturating youth.
    Alba Jasini, Jozefien De Leersnyder, Karen Phalet, Batja Mesquita.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The more immigrant minorities are exposed to the majority culture, the more their emotional pattern fits that of majority culture members—a phenomenon termed emotional acculturation. To assess emotional fit, earlier studies compared minorities’ emotional experience with that of separate samples of “distant” majority members in their country of residence. We added “proximal” fit with the emotional experience of majority members in their social environment. Drawing on large random samples of immigrant minority and majority youth in Belgian high schools (N = 2,543), our study aimed (i) to test majority culture exposure and contact as predictors of emotional fit and (ii) to distinguish emotional fit with distal and proximal variants of majority culture. Minorities’ majority culture exposure predicted both distal and proximal emotional fit. In addition, contact with majority peers better predicted proximal fit. Our findings suggest that emotional acculturation is socially grounded in interactions with proximal majority members. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 27, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2516   open full text
  • Not all positive categories are alike: Exploring the superiority of the self as a positive source for associative attitude change via intersecting regularities.
    Simone Mattavelli, Juliette Richetin, Marco Perugini.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 25, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In associative evaluative learning, attitudes can originate from intersecting regularities between a target and both positive‐ and self‐related stimuli. Liking for a focal target is primarily driven by its reference to one source, but it might be qualified by the reference to a contrast target. This contribution focuses on how the nature of positive and contrast sources affects learning via intersecting regularities. In two studies (N = 199 and N = 185), the self and another positive category lead to increased implicit and explicit liking, regardless of the contrast source's valence. In Study 3 (N = 128), confronting the self and the positive category in the same paradigm yields only implicit preferences for self‐related targets. Both implicitly and explicitly, this preference for self‐ over positive‐related target was moderated by self‐positivity. Our findings confirm the robustness of learning via intersecting regularities and suggest that the self is a special evaluative source. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 25, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2518   open full text
  • Social identification and depression: A meta‐analysis.
    Tom Postmes, Lenka J. Wichmann, Anne M. Valkengoed, Hanneke Hoef.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 25, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract A meta‐analysis of 76 studies (N = 31,016) examined the relationship between social identification and depression. Overall, individuals who identify highly with a group tend to report less depression (average rz = −.15). However, a large amount of variability between studies was observed. The 95% prediction interval, which indicates the true effect size that can be expected in future research, ranged from rz = −.50 to .19. The relationship between depression and social identification is more complex than previously assumed. Some variability is related to the social identification measure used. Studies that focused on identification with interactive groups (rz = −.28) had larger effect sizes than studies that focused on social categories (rz = −.11). Moreover, studies of non‐stigmatized groups (rz = −.24) had larger effect sizes than studies of stigmatized groups (rz = −.10). In conclusion, the structure and social identity content of groups appear to play an important role in the relationship between depression and social identification. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 25, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2508   open full text
  • Need for closure and compensatory rule‐based perception: The role of information consistency.
    Piotr Dragon, Małgorzata Kossowska.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract When making comparisons, people tend to use routinized standards, rules, and knowledge structures. Compensatory rules (e.g., “if competent, then cold”, “if incompetent, then warm”) allow for the quick and easy evaluation of groups when they are compared. We claim that the application of these rules is especially attractive for people who are motivated to seek quick and firm answers (people high in the need for closure—NFC). However, we assume that when people are confronted with expectancy‐inconsistent information, higher levels of NFC lead to a lower reliance on these rules. This is because the inconsistency may serve as a signal that the rules no longer provide guidance on how to act. We demonstrated these effects in three studies set in different group contexts, where we manipulated expectancy‐consistent and expectancy‐inconsistent information. These findings allow for a more comprehensive view of the dynamic and diverse effects of NFC. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2512   open full text
  • A little bird told me…: Consequences of holding an implicit association between women and birds.
    Corey Columb, E. Ashby Plant.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Past research has shown that humans possess implicit associations that, when activated, affect subsequent behavior. In three studies, we demonstrated a novel implicit association held by some men: an association between women and birds. Additionally, we demonstrated three consequences of possessing and activating a Women–Birds association. For those who strongly associated women and birds, activating the association caused an increase in dehumanization of women, perceptions of female incompetence, and sexist hiring decisions. Perceptions of female incompetence mediated the effect of Women–Birds implicit association activation on sexist hiring decisions. These findings provide insight into a potential cause of bias toward women that should be accounted for when attempting to reduce discrimination toward women and speak to the need for careful consideration when making analogies linking social groups to animals or objects. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2517   open full text
  • How nostalgia infuses life with meaning: From social connectedness to self‐continuity.
    Wijnand A. P. Tilburg, Constantine Sedikides, Tim Wildschut, Ad J. J. M. Vingerhoets.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Nostalgia increases meaning in life (MIL), but how so? In four experiments—using varied operationalizations of nostalgia, diverse populations, and complementary methodologies—we identified a serial process. We hypothesized and found, in Experiment 1, that self‐continuity boosts MIL. We hypothesized and found, in Experiment 2, that nostalgia increases MIL through self‐continuity. Finally, we hypothesized and found, in Experiments 3–4, that nostalgia fosters social connectedness, which plausibly heightens self‐continuity, which in turn strengthens MIL. The findings clarify an intricate pathway through which nostalgia renders life more meaningful. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2519   open full text
  • Improving intergroup relations between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland via E‐contact.
    Fiona A. White, Rhiannon N. Turner, Stefano Verrelli, Lauren J. Harvey, Jeffrey R. Hanna.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Northern Ireland is characterised by extensive segregation between its predominantly Catholic and Protestant communities. With the aim of overcoming this segregation, the current study experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of electronic or E‐contact as a novel indirect contact and prejudice‐reduction strategy. Here, Catholic and Protestant participants were not required to meet physically but were involved in a collaborative and goal‐orientated online interaction with a member of the other community. As predicted, E‐contact improved both Catholics’ and Protestants’ outgroup attitudes via improved contact expectancies and reduced intergroup anxiety. These findings provide support for the contemporary role of online interactions in actively overcoming the physical and psychological barriers that often prevent prejudice reduction in segregated communities. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2515   open full text
  • “They've conspired against us”: Understanding the role of social identification and conspiracy beliefs in justification of ingroup collective behavior.
    Maria Chayinska, Anca Minescu.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The present research investigates conditions under which beliefs in conspiracy theories predict the desire to justify ingroup behavior in the context of intergroup conflict. We propose that within the context of Ukraine's intergroup conflict over the annexation of Crimea, supporters (but not opponents) of the “Euromaidan” social movement are likely to validate protesters’ collective actions as just to the extent that they believe that the authorities are engaged in annexation‐related conspiracies. We also examine the moderating role of perceived political corruption in these processes. Using a public opinion survey of 315 Ukrainians, we found support for our hypothesized moderated mediation model—identification with “Euromaidan” increased beliefs in the annexation‐related conspiracy theories, which in turn, increased justification of protesters’ actions in the setting of intergroup conflict. However, this mediation was only observed among those supporters of the Euromaidan who perceived political corruption to be at a low or average level. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    July 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2511   open full text
  • How the interplay of imagined contact and first‐person narratives improves attitudes toward stigmatized immigrants: A conditional process model.
    Juan‐José Igartua, Magdalena Wojcieszak, Nuri Kim.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This article assesses the mechanisms whereby first‐person narratives featuring stigmatized immigrants improve outgroup attitudes and encourage intergroup contact among prejudiced individuals. We rely on a 2 (imagined contact vs. control) × 2 (similar vs. dissimilar message protagonist) experiment on a systematic sample of native British adults. Results show that encouraging imagined contact prior to reading a short testimonial featuring an immigrant protagonist who is similar to the recipients in terms of social identity enhances identification with the protagonist, thereby improving outgroup attitudes and encouraging intergroup contact, and especially strongly among those who are prejudiced toward immigrants (i.e., high on modern racism). Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for the work on imagined contact, narrative persuasion, and identification, as well as for public communication campaigns, are discussed. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 27, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2509   open full text
  • Implicit theories of shyness in American and Chinese children.
    Zengxiu Zhang, Yiyuan Xu.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study examined whether implicit theories of shyness differed between American and Chinese children and how this difference helped explain cultural variations in stereotypical views about shy children and relationship with shy peers. We found that regardless of cultural group, children's implicit theories of shyness were not related to their own shyness, but were associated with stereotypical views about shy children (positively) and relationship with shy peers (negatively). American children reported stronger entity theories of shyness, i.e., they were more likely to view shyness as a stable and immutable trait than Chinese children, which partly explained why they had worse relationships with shy peers. These findings highlight the important roles implicit theories may play in understanding cultural similarities and differences in interpersonal perception and relationship. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 27, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2510   open full text
  • The benefits of collective responsibility: How ingroup reputation concern motivates prosociality in intergroup contexts.
    Peter Kardos, Bernhard Leidner, Emanuele Castano, Brian Lickel.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 26, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Collective responsibility processes have been investigated from the perspectives of the outgroup (e.g., collective blame) and the ingroup (e.g., collective guilt). This article extends theory and research on collective responsibility with a third perspective, namely that of the individual actor whose behavior triggers the attribution of collective blame. Four experiments (n = 78, 118, 208 and 77, respectively) tested the hypotheses that collective responsibility processes influence the individual actors' appraisals, emotions and behavior. The possibility of collective blame for their individual action prompted more prosocial behavior among participants (Experiment 1). Participants also experienced more ingroup reputation concern and in turn more negative emotions (Experiment 2–4) for a past wrongdoing if it could reflect negatively on the ingroup in the eyes of outgroups. The increased negative emotions then motivated participants to improve the ingroup's image (Experiment 4). The effects were moderated by perceived ingroup entitativity, in that activating collective blame increased ingroup reputation concern and negative emotions only for ingroups perceived as highly entitative (Experiment 3). - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2506   open full text
  • Suspicious binds: Conspiracy thinking and tenuous perceptions of causal connections between co‐occurring and spuriously correlated events.
    Reine C. Wal, Robbie M. Sutton, Jens Lange, João P. N. Braga.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 26, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Previous research indicates that conspiracy thinking is informed by the psychological imposition of order and meaning on the environment, including the perception of causal relations between random events. Four studies indicate that conspiracy belief is driven by readiness to draw implausible causal connections even when events are not random, but instead conform to an objective pattern. Study 1 (N = 195) showed that conspiracy belief was related to the causal interpretation of real‐life, spurious correlations (e.g., between chocolate consumption and Nobel prizes). In Study 2 (N = 216), this effect held adjusting for correlates including magical and non‐analytical thinking. Study 3 (N = 214) showed that preference for conspiracy explanations was associated with the perception that a focal event (e.g., the death of a journalist) was causally connected to similar, recent events. Study 4 (N = 211) showed that conspiracy explanations for human tragedies were favored when they comprised part of a cluster of similar events (vs. occurring in isolation); crucially, they were independently increased by a manipulation of causal perception. We discuss the implications of these findings for previous, mixed findings in the literature and for the relation between conspiracy thinking and other cognitive processes. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2507   open full text
  • Investigating stereotype structure with empirical network models.
    Pablo Sayans‐Jiménez, Frenk Harreveld, Jonas Dalege, Antonio J. Rojas Tejada.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 26, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this work we present empirical network models as a new approach in the investigation of stereotype structure. We will argue that empirical network models can provide more insight into stereotype structure because they do not suffer from the inherent constraints of factor analysis and multidimensional scaling (e.g., group features interpreted homogeneously only on the basis of their shared variance, impossibility to adequately represent cognitive schemas, difficulties to make inferences on the basis of dimensions potentially overlapping). In the present research we show how empirical network models can represent stereotypes as dynamic cognitive structures clustered in different substructures. These structures will be based on both the stereotype content and the co‐occurrence of features in each group target. Additionally, this research shows how using empirical networks can contribute to broadening the interpretation of stereotypes representing them in the framework of prejudice or intergroup attitudes. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2505   open full text
  • The illusion of explanatory depth and endorsement of conspiracy beliefs.
    Joseph A. Vitriol, Jessecae K. Marsh.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The average person possesses superficial understanding of complex causal relations and, consequently, tends to overestimate the quality and depth of their explanatory knowledge. In this study, we examined the role of this illusion of explanatory depth (IOED) in politics—inflated confidence in one's causal understanding of political phenomena—for endorsement of conspiracy beliefs. Utilizing a pre‐/post‐election panel design and a large sample of U.S. Citizens (N = 394) recruited in the context of the 2016 presidential election, we provide evidence that political IOED, but not a non‐political IOED, was associated with increased support for general and election‐specific conspiracy beliefs, particularly among political novices and supporters of the losing candidate. We find this pattern of results net the influence of a broad range of variables known to covary with conspiracy beliefs. Implications for theory and the need for future research are discussed. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 15, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2504   open full text
  • Loyal peripherals? The interactive effects of identification and peripheral group membership on deviance from non‐beneficial ingroup norms.
    Torsten Masson, Immo Fritsche.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 14, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract For ensuring the well‐being of groups, people are needed who deviate from ingroup norms that harm the group (“loyal deviance”). Qualifying previous results that loyal deviants have to be highly identified with the group, we hypothesize and show that this is only true when group members at the same time feel that they are highly prototypical for the group. No such effects occurred for peripheral members. In all three studies (N1 = 207, N2 = 115, N3 = 107), we measured people's intention to conform to a non‐beneficial (vs. beneficial; Study 1) ingroup norm, self‐investment in the group, and perceived (manipulated in Study 3) marginalization. Obviously, dissent from non‐beneficial norms requires both a deep psychological investment in the group as well as secure ingroup membership. Implications are discussed. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 14, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2501   open full text
  • Empowerment and threat in response to mass protest shape public support for a social movement and social change: A panel study in the context of the Bersih movement in Malaysia.
    Hema Preya Selvanathan, Brian Lickel.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract One path to social change is through sustained collective action. Although such actions often explicitly target the public audience to raise support for a movement's cause, we know little about how the public psychologically responds to protests. To examine this question, a sample of Malaysians was surveyed before and immediately after the occurrence of mass street protests in Malaysia (N = 422) using a two‐wave longitudinal design. Analyses revealed that (beyond pre‐existing levels of movement identity and support for social change) experiencing empowerment in response to the protests promoted a supportive movement identity and more support for social change after the protests, whereas experiencing threat in response to the protests promoted an oppositional movement identity and less support for social change after the protests. This research suggests that the psychological impact of ongoing protests on the public can determine subsequent public support for the movement and its goals. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 13, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2502   open full text
  • Lost in the crowd: Conformity as escape following disbelief in free will.
    Andrew B. Moynihan, Eric R. Igou, Wijnand A. P. van Tilburg.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Belief in free will is founded on the idea that people are responsible for their behavior. People who believe in free will derive meaning in life from these beliefs. Conformity refers to succumbing to external pressures and imitating others’ behaviors. Sometimes, conformity involves a loss of self‐awareness, which reduces perceived meaninglessness. We tested if disbelief in free will increases perceived meaninglessness and if people subsequently become more conformist to address this negative existential perception. We conducted three studies to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, experimentally induced disbelief in free will resulted in perceived meaninglessness. In Study 2, perceived meaninglessness correlated with conformity. Finally, in Study 3, perceived meaninglessness mediated the relationship between disbelief in free will and conformity, especially under high self‐awareness. We conclude that perceptions about meaning play a central role in the relationship between disbelief in free will and conformity. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 13, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2499   open full text
  • Pathways to intercultural accuracy: Social projection processes and core cultural values.
    Shira Mor, Claudia Toma, Martin Schweinsberg, Daniel Ames.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The present research examines intercultural accuracy—people's ability to make accurate judgments about outgroup values—and the role of social projection processes. Across four studies, U.S. and British participants showed low overall levels of intercultural accuracy for Chinese students’ individualistic and collectivistic values. In line with recent changes toward individualism in China, we observed different levels of intercultural accuracy, hinging on whether the criterion values of Chinese were assessed before (2001) or after (2015) this shift. Important for the study of social projection, we observed that U.S./British participants projected their values onto the outgroup. Social projection tendency (measured in Study 2 and manipulated in Study 3) was associated with greater intercultural accuracy. The relationship between projection and accuracy also depended on the shifts in individualistic values of Chinese. Important for the study of intergroup relations, accuracy was positively associated with interest in future relationships with the Chinese. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 13, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2387   open full text
  • Stigmatized beliefs: Conspiracy theories, anticipated negative evaluation of the self, and fear of social exclusion.
    Anthony Lantian, Dominique Muller, Cécile Nurra, Olivier Klein, Sophie Berjot, Myrto Pantazi.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 05, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Can conspiracy theories be a source of social stigma? If it is true, it would follow that people may expect to be socially excluded when they express endorsement of conspiracy theories. This effect should be partially explained by the knowledge of the negative perceptions associated with conspiracy theories. In Study 1, inducing French internet users to write a text endorsing (vs. criticizing) conspiracy theories about the Charlie Hebdo shooting, led them to anticipate fear of social exclusion. This effect was mediated by anticipated negative evaluation of the self. In Study 2, inducing French internet users to imagine defending (vs. criticizing) conspiracy theories about the Charlie Hebdo shooting in front of an audience led them to anticipate fear of social exclusion. The effect was again mediated by anticipated negative evaluation of the self. To conclude, our findings demonstrate that conspiracy theories can be viewed as a source of social stigma. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 05, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2498   open full text
  • Attachment to groups: Relationships with group esteem, self‐esteem, and investment in ingroups.
    Tina C. DeMarco, Anna‐Kaisa Newheiser.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 04, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We apply a model of interpersonal attachment style to the group domain, examining how attachment to ingroups relates to self‐views, group esteem, and ingroup investment. In Study 1 (N = 306), participants completed measures of self‐esteem, group esteem, group attachment insecurity, and investment. Study 2 (N = 316) implemented a within‐subjects experimental design in which participants completed the same measures as in Study 1 with regard to ingroups they held in high versus low esteem. In both studies, the negative relationship between group esteem and group attachment avoidance was stronger among participants with higher self‐esteem, and the negative relationship between self‐esteem and group attachment anxiety was stronger for more esteemed ingroups. Over and above group esteem, group attachment anxiety was positively and avoidance negatively related to investment in ingroups. We integrated frameworks spanning group dynamics and close relationships to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of how individuals perceive their relationships with ingroups. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 04, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2500   open full text
  • Collective narcissism and the growth of conspiracy thinking over the course of the 2016 United States presidential election: A longitudinal analysis.
    Agnieszka Golec de Zavala, Christopher M. Federico.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 01, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Using data from a longitudinal study of American adults collected between July and November 2016, we examine the hypothesis that American collective narcissism (CN) would uniquely predict increases in conspiracy thinking during the 2016 presidential campaign. Going beyond previous findings, our results indicate that CN (but not in‐group identification) predicted growth in general conspiracy thinking—that is, a tendency to view political events in terms of group‐based conspiracies—over the course of the 2016 US presidential campaign. This relationship is found even after accounting for other predictors such as demographics, political knowledge, social trust, authoritarianism, and need for cognitive closure. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    June 01, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2496   open full text
  • Longitudinal effects of human supremacy beliefs and vegetarianism threat on moral exclusion (vs. inclusion) of animals.
    Ana C. Leite, Kristof Dhont, Gordon Hodson.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 31, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Stronger beliefs in human supremacy over animals, and stronger perceived threat posed by vegetarianism to traditional practices, are associated with stronger speciesism and more meat consumption. Both variables might also be implicated in the moral exclusion of animals. We tested this potential in a 16‐month longitudinal study in the USA (N = 219). Human supremacy showed longitudinal effects on the moral exclusion of all animals. Vegetarianism threat only predicted moral exclusion of food animals (e.g., cows and pigs), and, unexpectedly, appealing wild animals (e.g., chimps and dolphins). These findings demonstrate the importance of both human supremacy and perceived threat in explaining moral exclusion of animals and highlight potential paradoxical negative consequences of the rise of vegetarianism. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 31, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2497   open full text
  • A direct replication: Unconscious arithmetic processing.
    Andrew Karpinski, Jessie C. Briggs, Miriam Yale.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Across two experiments involving four presentation times in total, Sklar et al. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 2012, 19614) found that complex subtraction equations can be solved without awareness of the equations. These findings challenge the current position that consciousness is necessary for performing abstract, rule‐following tasks. Given the important implications of their work, we aimed to directly replicate Sklar's findings using a larger sample (n = 94) from a different population. Using continuous flash suppression, we investigated if people were able to solve an equation after subliminal (1,300 ms) exposure to it. We found evidence of unconscious subtraction consistent with Sklar et al., albeit the effect is weak. Critical review of our results and implications for further research are discussed. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2390   open full text
  • How paranoid are conspiracy believers? Toward a more fine‐grained understanding of the connect and disconnect between paranoia and belief in conspiracy theories.
    Roland Imhoff, Pia Lamberty.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Public discourse and scholarly literature often make a strong connection between paranoid thought and belief in conspiracy theories. We report one meta‐analysis and two correlational studies across two distinct cultural contexts (total N = 578) to provide an estimate for their association but also evidence for their distinctiveness via a multi‐trait‐multi‐method approach. Whereas the meta‐analysis (k = 11 studies) provided support for a reliable association between paranoia and conspiracy beliefs, the two additional studies provide direct evidence for their distinctiveness and divergent associations with other constructs. Although both assume sinister intentions of others, beliefs in conspiracy theories are more specific in who these others are (powerful groups) than paranoia (everyone). In contrast, paranoia was more restricted in terms of who the target of the negative intentions is (the self) than conspiracy theorizing (society as a whole). In light of this and distinct associations of conspiracy beliefs with political control and trust but not (inter‐)personal control and trust (like paranoia), we propose to treat the two as distinct (albeit correlated) constructs with conspiracy beliefs reflecting a political attitude compared to paranoia as a self‐relevant belief. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2494   open full text
  • The role of system identity threat in conspiracy theory endorsement.
    Christopher M. Federico, Allison L. Williams, Joseph A. Vitriol.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Conspiracy theories (CTs) about government officials and the institutions they represent are widespread, and span the ideological spectrum. In this study, we test hypotheses suggesting that system identity threat, or a perception that society's fundamental, defining values are under siege due to social change, will predict conspiracy thinking. Across two samples (N = 870, N = 2,702), we found that system identity threat is a strong predictor of a general tendency toward conspiracy thinking and endorsement of both ideological and non‐ideological CTs, even after accounting for numerous covariates. We also found that the relationship between system‐identity threat and conspiracy‐theory endorsement is mediated by conspiracy thinking. These results suggest that conspiracy‐theory endorsement may be a compensatory reaction to perceptions that society's essential character is changing. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 29, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2495   open full text
  • Socioeconomic status is not judged equally: Target race shifts standards in interpersonal judgments of SES.
    Matthew Weeks.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 18, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Across three studies, respondents made SES judgments of targets varying in Race (White or Black) and SES (Low or High), including global subjective SES, financial success, and educational attainment. As Whites and Blacks are stereotypically associated with upper and lower SES, respectively, the Shifting Standards Model (SSM) of stereotype judgments predicted the pattern of interpersonal objective and subjective judgments. In Study 1, in a between‐subjects design, respondents rated Black targets significantly higher on subjective measures than White targets, even as the targets were rated as comparable on objective measures. Study 2 replicated these effects with a broader range of stimulus materials. In Study 3, the shifting standards effect was replicated using a within‐subjects design, further supporting the effect. The findings support the application of the SSM to race‐based shifts in interpersonal judgments of SES and are discussed regarding their implications for intergroup relations and workplace evaluations. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 18, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2392   open full text
  • Connected guys: Endorsement of masculine honour predicts more frequent contact with members of criminal organisations.
    Giovanni A. Travaglino, Lisbeth Drury.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Italian criminal organisations (COs) engage in contact with community members to assert their control over local populations in Southern Italy. According to intracultural appropriation theory, COs’ presence in these regions is legitimised by values of masculinity and honour. Here, we test the role of these values in drawing people closer to COs, facilitating more frequent contact with COs’ members. Study 1 (NT1 = 176, NT2 = 170) used a two‐wave longitudinal design demonstrating that endorsement of masculine honour predicts more frequent contact with COs after five months. In contrast, results revealed no longitudinal effect of contact frequency on masculine honour endorsement. Using a cross‐sectional design, Study 2 (N = 314) extended these results by revealing an indirect effect of masculine honour on the tendency to see COs as embodying honour and respect (romanticisation), through more frequent contact with COs’ members. Limitations, directions for future research and implications of these results are discussed. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2389   open full text
  • Approach and avoidance relationship goals and couples’ nonverbal communication during conflict.
    Katharina Bernecker, Mirjam Ghassemi, Veronika Brandstätter.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Approach relationship goals are pursued in order to achieve desirable outcomes, whereas avoidance relationship goals are pursued to prevent undesirable outcomes in relationships. We investigated how partners’ approach and avoidance relationship goals are related to their nonverbal communication during conflict. A sequential analysis of observational data from 365 couples (28,470 observations) revealed that individuals with more (vs. fewer) approach goals displayed more positive involvement (e.g., head nods, smiles) and less avoidant withdrawal (e.g., shaking head, folded arms). The reverse pattern emerged for avoidance goals. Furthermore, women (but not men) matched their partner's positive involvement to a greater extent the more approach goals and the fewer avoidance goals they pursued. In contrast, approach/avoidance relationship goals were not associated with how much individuals matched their partner's avoidant withdrawal. Results suggest that relationship goals are related to partners’ nonverbal communication and the extent to which women match their partner's positive involvement during conflict. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2379   open full text
  • Imagined contact with famous gay men and lesbians reduces heterosexuals’ misidentification concerns and sexual prejudice.
    Jennifer LaCosse, E. Ashby Plant.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Gay men and lesbians experience bigotry at alarmingly high rates. Traditionally, researchers have focused on reducing sexual prejudice; however, research indicates that heterosexuals’ concerns about being misidentified as gay/lesbian also contribute to the derogation of gay/lesbian individuals. Thus, reducing misidentification concerns is a critical part of decreasing negativity toward gay/lesbian individuals. In the current work, we explored a novel addition to the imagined contact paradigm—imagined contact with famous outgroup members—for reducing misidentification concerns. We found that imagined contact with famous gay men/lesbians reduced misidentification concerns within the imagined interaction and engendered an eagerness to befriend the famous gay/lesbian interaction partner. Moreover, we found that the reduction of these misidentification concerns led to fewer general contagion concerns, and increased eagerness to befriend led to decreased sexual prejudice. The current work develops a useful intervention for improving multiple responses toward gay men and lesbians. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2391   open full text
  • The influence of war on moral judgments about harm.
    Hanne M. Watkins, Simon Laham.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract How does war influence moral judgments about harm? While the general rule is “thou shalt not kill,” war appears to provide an exception to the moral prohibition on intentional harm. In three studies (n = 263, n = 557, n = 793), we quantify the difference in moral judgments across peace and war contexts, and explore two possible explanations for the difference. The findings demonstrate that third‐party observers judge a trade‐off of one life for five as more morally acceptable in war than in peace, especially if the one person is from an outgroup of the person making the trade‐off. In addition, the robust difference in moral judgments across “switch” and “footbridge” trolley problems is attenuated in war compared to in peace. The present studies have implications for moral psychology researchers who use war‐based scenarios to study broader cognitive or affective processes. If the war context changes judgments of moral scenarios by triggering group‐based reasoning or altering the perceived structure of the moral event, using such scenarios to make decontextualized claims about moral judgment may not be warranted. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 15, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2393   open full text
  • The approach–avoidance dilemma at the heart of group‐based support: Evidence that group identification increases willingness to seek support at the same time that identity‐based support threat reduces it.
    Tamara L. Butler, Blake M. McKimmie, S. Alexander Haslam.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Despite the benefits of shared group membership, group members often experience an approach–avoidance dilemma when seeking support. At the same time that group members’ willingness to seek support is increased by the positive implications of group identification (the approach hypothesis), it is reduced by negative implications, including the capacity for support to threaten their standing in the group (the avoidance hypothesis). As this dilemma predicts, we find evidence that as participants’ group identification increases, their willingness to seek support increases, but that this willingness is simultaneously reduced by increased identity‐based support threat (Study 1, N = 125; Study 2, N = 161). Furthermore, manipulated support threat decreases willingness to seek support. In a team‐based game (Study 3, N = 117), support threat is reduced when group norms encourage support‐seeking, leading to increases in support‐seeking behavior through increases in willingness to seek support, as predicted by the avoidance‐reduction hypothesis. Implications for strategies to promote effective social support in intragroup contexts are discussed. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 15, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2384   open full text
  • Interpersonal feedback in everyday life: Empirical studies in Germany and the United States.
    Anne‐Marie B. Gallrein, Kathryn L. Bollich‐Ziegler, Daniel Leising.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 10, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The present research examines occurrences of interpersonal feedback in everyday life. Drawing upon retrospective self‐reports from three student samples in Germany and the US, we investigate why, how, and with what effect such feedback is shared. We found that feedback was common, occurring mostly within stable interpersonal relationships, and that positive feedback was reported to occur more often than negative feedback. Positive and negative feedback was provided to achieve different goals (acknowledgement vs. behavioral change), and feedback senders perceived negative feedback as less successful than positive feedback. Negative feedback was withheld primarily when potential senders perceived it as futile or potentially dangerous to their relationship with the recipient. However, negative feedback that was shared was not seen as particularly harmful in that regard. We discuss potential barriers to feedback effectiveness, whether and how the exchange of interpersonal feedback in everyday life may be promoted, and give recommendations for future research. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2381   open full text
  • A dual‐process motivational model of attitudes towards vegetarians and vegans.
    Madeline Judge, Marc S. Wilson.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 10, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Vegetarians and vegans comprise a minority of most western populations. However, relatively little research has investigated the psychological foundations of attitudes towards this minority group. The following study employs a dual process model of intergroup attitudes to explore the motivational basis of non‐vegetarians' attitudes towards vegetarians and vegans. Participants were 1,326 individuals recruited through advertisements in a national newspaper in New Zealand. Non‐vegetarian participants first completed measures of ideological attitudes and social worldviews, and then were randomly assigned to complete a measure of outgroup attitudes towards either vegetarians or vegans. Although non‐vegetarians' attitudes towards both vegetarians and vegans were generally positive, attitudes towards vegans were significantly less positive than attitudes towards vegetarians, and male participants expressed significantly less positive attitudes towards both outgroups than female participants. The structural equation model predicting attitudes towards vegetarians and vegans fit the data well and explained a significant amount of the variance in attitudes. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2386   open full text
  • Exposure to national flags reduces tax evasion: Evidence from the United States, Australia, and Britain.
    Eugene Y. Chan.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 10, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract There have been numerous theories from numerous academic fields explaining why individuals engage in tax evasion. Drawing broadly on Social Identity Theory, we predict that exposure to one's national flag can reduce tax evasion by making salient one's national identity, motivating one to sacrifice one's self‐interests for one's country—which would presumably include paying one's fair share of taxes. In three experiments, we found that exposure to American, Australian, and British flags reduced Americans', Australians', and Britons' tax evasion in financially incentivized tasks (Experiments 1, 3) and increased tax‐paying attitudes (Experiment 2). The effects arose because flag primes made salient participants' national identities that then motivated them to help their country. We ruled out social norms and trust in authorities as alternative explanations. As such, flag primes might reduce tax evasion and in doing so improve the economic and societal welfare of a country. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2388   open full text
  • Exploring the social side of self‐compassion: Relations with empathy and outgroup attitudes.
    Giulia Fuochi, Chiara A. Veneziani, Alberto Voci.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 10, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Self‐compassion is a disposition involving compassionate attitudes toward the self when facing difficulties. We argued that specific self‐compassion components might influence indicators of openness to others, such as empathy and outgroup attitudes. We hypothesized that the component called common humanity versus isolation, involving the acknowledgement that one's sufferings are shared with all the other humans, would be positively related to the other‐oriented aspects of empathy, perspective taking and empathic concern, and to improved outgroup attitudes. We also hypothesized that the mindfulness versus over‐identification component, i.e., having a balanced view of one's situation avoiding exaggerations, would be associated with lowered personal distress. In three studies, with three independent samples, we regressed empathy and outgroup attitudes on self‐compassion components, while controlling for concurrent predictors such as self‐construal and attachment styles. Results supported our hypotheses, suggesting that improvements in empathy and outgroup attitudes may be fostered by positive individual dispositions. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 769-783, October 2018.
    May 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2378   open full text
  • When and how social movements mobilize action within and across nations to promote solidarity with refugees.
    Emma F. Thomas, Laura G.E. Smith, Craig McGarty, Gerhard Reese, Anna Kende, Ana‐Maria Bliuc, Nicola Curtin, Russell Spears.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 09, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract When and how do social movements form to mobilize action across national boundaries? In the context of the 2015 movement to support Syrian refugees, we develop an integrative model of transnational social movement formation shaped by pre‐existing world‐views (social dominance orientation and right‐wing authoritarianism) and social media exposure to iconic events, resulting in an emergent group consciousness (“we are”, “we believe”, “we feel”). Group consciousness is, in turn, the proximal predictor of solidarity with refugees. Participants were from six countries: Hungary (N = 267), Romania (N = 163), Germany (N = 190), the United Kingdom (N = 159), the United States (N = 244) and Australia (N = 344). Multi‐group structural equation models confirmed that group consciousness, shaped by individual differences and exposure to events through social media, was the proximal predictor of solidarity. The subjective meaning of group consciousness varied across samples, reflecting national differences. Results support the importance of considering individual and national differences, and group processes in understanding emergent social movements. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 09, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2380   open full text
  • ‘Would it not be better to get someone out workin?’: ‘Safe prejudice’ against Polish workers.
    Chris McVittie, Andy McKinlay.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract One recurring criticism of immigrant groups is their alleged failure to be employed and contribute to the host society. Here we examine how speakers mobilise a criticism that has attracted less research attention: that through their economic activity immigrant groups usurp others’ employment entitlements. Discourse analysis of data from seven focus group discussions about pre‐Brexit Polish immigration into the UK, involving 31 UK nationals, shows that participants accomplish exclusionary outcomes in two divergent ways. The first attributes qualities to Polish workers but also makes explicit the consequences of these attributions for UK nationals, rendering speakers’ investment in such claims visible. The second relies on the production of category pairs, within which claims can be made for the category that excludes Polish workers. This use of categories comprises ‘safe prejudice’, a form of prejudice not previously identified but which is less open to challenge than other forms of prejudiced talk. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2382   open full text
  • Monkey see, monkey do: The effect of social influence on selective‐exposure bias.
    John Milton Adams, Will Hart, Kyle Richardson, Gregory K. Tortoriello, Abby Rentschler.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Selective‐exposure bias refers to the tendency to predominantly seek out attitude‐consistent information and avoid attitude‐inconsistent information. Although researchers have proposed and tested several underlying psychological factors that might contribute to this tendency, the potential role of social influence has not been addressed. In the present research, we address this issue. In four experiments (total N = 645), participants’ selective‐exposure bias was significantly reduced when the bias was portrayed as non‐normative (vs. normative). In Experiment 4, we obtained evidence for the possibility that this social‐norm manipulation could result in effects on attitudes through information selection. Overall, this research contributes novel evidence for the effect of social influence on selective‐exposure bias. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 850-865, October 2018.
    May 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2375   open full text
  • Room for advancement: The regulatory fit of bottom‐rank intermediate feedback.
    Melvyn R. W. Hamstra, Bert Schreurs.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This research tests the hypothesis that promotion‐focused individuals experience regulatory fit from bottom rank, intermediate performance‐feedback. Prior research suggests promotion‐focused individuals experience fit in high social ranks (power). Bottom performance ranks may appear psychologically opposite to high power, which might lead one to expect that promotion‐focused individuals experience fit at top ranks. We propose that the opposite occurs in intermediate performance ranking feedback, in that promotion‐focused individuals experience regulatory fit at a bottom rank, because bottom rank implies having something to gain (yielding eagerness), whereas top rank implies having something to lose (yielding vigilance). Study 1 (N = 261) supports the notion that ranks affect eagerness/vigilance. Study 2 (N = 199) extends these findings by examining engagement from regulatory fit. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 890-896, October 2018.
    May 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2374   open full text
  • The evolving normative dimensions of ‘riot’: Towards an elaborated social identity explanation.
    Clifford Stott, Roger Ball, John Drury, Fergus Neville, Stephen Reicher, Andrea Boardman, Sanjeedah Choudhury.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 07, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The question of how normative form changes during a riot, and thus how collective behaviour spreads to different targets and locations, has been neglected in previous research, despite its theoretical and practical importance. We begin to address this limitation through a detailed analysis of the rioting in the London borough of Haringey in 2011. A triangulated analysis of multiple sources of data (including police reports, media accounts, and videos) finds a pattern of behaviour shifting from collective attacks on police targets to looting. A thematic analysis of 41 interview accounts with participants gathered shortly after the events suggests that a shared anti‐police identity allowed local postcode rivalries to be overcome, forming the basis of empowered action not only against the police but to address more long‐standing grievances and desires. It is argued that collective psychological empowerment operated in a ‘positive feedback loop’, whereby one form of collective self‐objectification (and perceived inability of police to respond) formed the basis of further action. This analysis of the development of new targets in an empowered crowd both confirms and extends the elaborated social identity model as an explanation for conflictual intergroup dynamics. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 834-849, October 2018.
    May 07, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2376   open full text
  • With a little help from our friends: The impact of cross‐group friendship on acculturation preferences.
    Tabea Hässler, Roberto González, Siugmin Lay, Brian Lickel, Hanna Zagefka, Linda R. Tropp, Rupert Brown, Jorge Manzi Astudillo, Michelle Bernardino.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 04, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Despite extensive research on intergroup contact and acculturation, our understanding of how contact affects receiving society members’ preferences for acculturation orientation of immigrants over time is still relatively rudimentary. This longitudinal study examined how perceived group similarity and outgroup trust mediate the effects of cross‐group friendship on acculturation preferences (culture maintenance and culture adoption) of the receiving society. It was predicted that cross‐group friendship would affect acculturation preferences over time, and that these relationships would be partly mediated by outgroup trust and perceived group similarity. A three‐wave full longitudinal sample (N = 467 Chilean school students) was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results confirmed that cross‐group friendship longitudinally predicted majority members’ support for the adoption of Chilean culture (via perceived group similarity) and Peruvian culture maintenance (via outgroup trust). Conceptual and practical implications are discussed. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 04, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2383   open full text
  • Broadening the individual differences lens on party support and voting behavior: Cynicism and prejudice as relevant attitudes referring to modern‐day political alignments.
    Jasper Van Assche, Alain Van Hiel, Kristof Dhont, Arne Roets.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Social‐cultural and economic‐hierarchical ideological attitudes have long been used to explain variation in political partisanship. We propose two additional, stable attitudes (political cynicism and ethnic prejudice) that may help in explaining contemporary political alignments. In a Belgian (N = 509) and Dutch sample (N = 628), we showed that party support can be segmented into four broad families: left, libertarian, traditionalist, and far‐right parties. Both studies revealed that social‐cultural and economic‐hierarchical right‐wing attitudes were negatively related to left party support and positively to libertarian, traditionalist and far‐right support. Importantly, additional variance was consistently explained by political cynicism (lower libertarian and traditionalist support), ethnic prejudice (lower left support), or both (higher far‐right support). Study 2 additionally demonstrated these patterns for self‐reported voting. - European Journal of Social Psychology, EarlyView.
    May 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2377   open full text
  • Studying the emergence of a new social representation: Changes in thinking about nanotechnologies in early 21st‐century Italy.
    Sonia Brondi, Federico Neresini.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 02, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We investigated the emergence of a new social representation (SR) of a techno‐scientific innovation—nanotechnologies—among the Italian public. We reviewed how nanotechnologies entered parliamentary debates and the media agenda in the early third millennium. We conducted cross‐sectional surveys in 2006 (N = 246) and 2011 (N = 486) to examine the emerging SR of nanotechnologies. We sought to observe processes of anchoring and objectification ‘in action’, by analyzing roles of (i) social groups, and (ii) neighboring SRs of science and of technology, over time. Several changes from 2006 to 2011 were identified: From a ‘descriptive’ to an ‘evaluative’ approach; from a ‘neutral’ to a ‘controversial’ issue; from a ‘concrete’ to an ‘abstract’ object; and from a ‘technological’ to a ‘scientific’ phenomenon. We conclude that nanotechnologies finally became ‘relevant enough’ by 2011 to be considered a proper object of SR, and an emerging SR can be observed. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 815-833, October 2018.
    May 02, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2369   open full text
  • Superstars are not necessarily role models: Morality perceptions moderate the impact of competence perceptions on supervisor role modeling.
    Kim Peters, Niklas K. Steffens, Thekla Morgenroth.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract There is a general assumption that we choose role models from the ranks of those who have demonstrated extraordinary competence. However, the person perception literature supports the expectation that morality may also matter, and that we may be most likely to role model competent individuals if we also believe that they have good moral character. To test this possibility, we conducted four studies of adults’ role modeling of workplace supervisors. Study 1 (N = 245) and Study 2 (N = 110) showed that workplace supervisors’ perceived competence was most strongly associated with role model perceptions when the supervisor was also seen as moral. Study 3 (N = 492) and 4 (N = 335) replicated these findings with pre‐registered experiments, and revealed indirect effects of supervisor attributes on role modeling through emulation. Results suggest that we choose organizational role models who have achieved success in ways that are in line with our moral values. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 725-746, October 2018.
    April 30, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2372   open full text
  • Why do we self‐punish? Perceptions of the motives and impact of self‐punishment outside the laboratory.
    Melissa Vel‐Palumbo, Lydia Woodyatt, Michael Wenzel.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 19, 2018
    --- - |2+ Abstract This study explores perceptions of why people punish themselves in response to feelings of moral failure. Experimental research has posited some of self‐punishment's functions, but it remains unclear whether the perceived motives and outcomes for those engaging in spontaneous self‐punishment are fundamentally distinct from those in experimental settings. This study explores and interprets laypersons’ experiences of their own self‐punishment, using qualitative and quantitative data collected in an online survey. Self‐punishers responded to a series of questions examining what kinds of self‐punishment behaviours they engage in and why, and their effects on emotions, cognitions, and relationships. Key themes identified via thematic analysis included self‐punishment as an emotion regulation strategy, as an opportunity to reflect and learn from the transgression, and the notion that self‐punishment becomes normalised. Analysis of these themes suggests that self‐punishment can reflect both psychological avoidance and resolution of problems, and that these two functions have different implications for reconciliation. Key message Our analysis of naturalistic self‐punishment experiences revealed dimensions of self‐punishment neglected in the empirical literature, in particular the notion of self‐punishment as an exploration (rather than an evasion) of one's guilt. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 756-768, October 2018.
    April 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2368   open full text
  • Identity centrality moderates the relationship between acceptance of group‐based stressors and well‐being.
    Monique Frances Crane, Winnifred R. Louis, Jacqueline K. Phillips, Catherine E. Amiot, Niklas K. Steffens.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Two two‐wave studies were used to examine the proposition that identity centrality enhances the effectiveness of stressor acceptance in the face of group‐based stressors. Study 1 was conducted in newly commencing psychology students (N = 154). Stressor intensity, psychology student identity centrality, and attempted stressor acceptance were measured at two‐time points over 6‐weeks. Study 2 was conducted in a group of early to late career veterinarians (N = 92) and extended Study 1 by assessing stressor frequency as an indicator of the level of demand. Veterinarian identity centrality and stressor acceptance were measured twice over 12‐months. Both studies provided support for the predicted three‐way interaction. Only when Time 1 stressors and identity centrality were both high was stressor acceptance related to a reduction in perceived stressor intensity (Study 1) or burnout symptoms (Study 2) at Time 2. These findings suggest that identity centrality enhances the effectiveness of stressor acceptance for supporting wellbeing and resilience. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 866-882, October 2018.
    April 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2367   open full text
  • Affordances for drinking alcohol: A non‐participant observation study in licensed premises.
    Kimberley M. Hill, Michael Pilling, David R. Foxcroft.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Alcohol misuse is a pressing area of public health concern. This non‐participant observational study investigated the functional characteristics of on‐licensed premises where alcohol is consumed. Seven different licensed premises from South Central England were visited and observed for similar three hour periods on Saturday evenings. Observations within these ecological niches were grouped using a functional taxonomy of affordances and effectivities related to alcohol drinking. Affordances provide a theoretically grounded and useful concept for evaluating how individuals behave in drinking contexts, while identifying action opportunities for inhibiting and promoting consumption. Identified alcohol‐related affordances were related to: Alcohol access, regulations, furnishing, alternative opportunities for action, décor and lighting, drink and accessory availability, and action opportunities provided by others. This research has implications for understanding alcohol consumption in real‐time, social environments, with direct implications for preventing excessive consumption within community alcohol outlets. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 747-755, October 2018.
    April 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2366   open full text
  • The effect of self‐identity alongside perceived importance within the theory of planned behaviour.
    Matthew Reid, Paul Sparks, Donna C. Jessop.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Self‐identity often predicts behavioural intentions after standard theory of planned behaviour (TPB) components are accounted for. However, it has been claimed this is due to conceptual similarity between self‐identity and perceived importance of the behaviour. We examined this claim within the context of recycling food waste. Participants (N = 113) completed questionnaires assessing intentions, attitude, perceived behavioural control, perceived norms, perceived importance, self‐identity, and past behaviour. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that self‐identity and perceived importance were distinct constructs. Further, after accounting for TPB components and perceived importance, self‐identity explained a significant amount of additional variance in intentions. The present findings therefore do not support this particular argument against the predictive utility of self‐identity. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 883-889, October 2018.
    April 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2373   open full text
  • Admissions of racism in discourse on migration in Greece: Beyond the norm against prejudice?
    Maria Xenitidou, Antonios Sapountzis.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The turn to language in social psychology is closely related to the study of prejudice as racist discourse has been the subject matter of some of the ground‐breaking discourse analytic work. A widely accepted argument was that there seems to be a norm against prejudice informing Western societies: people commonly engage in denials of prejudice when they make negative comments about minorities. Recent work has argued that, due to ideological shifts in the wider societal context or because denying prejudice may not be people's only rhetorical concern, it is possible to find people admitting prejudice. We examine how people in Greece, Greek majority and immigrants, formulate admissions of racism in interviews on migration and citizenship in Greece. Drawing on Ideological Dilemmas and Critical Discursive Social Psychology, we argue that these admissions ironically operate within the norm against prejudice and discuss our findings in relation to the wider socio‐political Greek context. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 801-814, October 2018.
    April 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2364   open full text
  • Positive and negative intergroup contact: Interaction not asymmetry.
    Katrín Árnadóttir, Simon Lolliot, Rupert Brown, Miles Hewstone.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. March 25, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This research reports a novel investigation into the comparative effects of positive and negative direct and extended intergroup contact on intergroup orientations. It tested the generality of the positive–negative asymmetry effect among majority (N = 357) and minority (N = 101) group members in Iceland. Little evidence of asymmetry was observed: the beneficial effects of positive contact were mostly as strong as the detrimental effects of negative contact, for both direct and extended contact. However, evidence was found for alternative interaction models in which positive contact buffers the negative effects of negative contact, and negative contact enhances the benefits of positive contact. These interaction effects were found only for direct contact and principally in the majority group, but were also found for the minority group, though more weakly. No interaction was observed for extended contact. It appeared that differential group salience elicited by positive and negative contact could partly contribute to the explanation of the observed effects, at least in the majority sample. - European Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 48, Issue 6, Page 784-800, October 2018.
    March 25, 2018   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2365   open full text
  • The Role of Threat, Emotions, and Prejudice in Promoting Collective Action Against Immigrant Groups.
    Lee Shepherd, Fabio Fasoli, Andrea Pereira, Nyla R. Branscombe.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 21, 2017
    In two studies we assessed the role of distinctiveness threat, group‐based emotions (angst, fear and anger), and prejudice on people's willingness to engage in collective action against immigrant groups. In Study 1 (N = 222) White British participants were either informed that in the next 40 years the proportion of immigrants in the UK is unlikely to change (control condition) or that there will be more immigrants than White British people living in Britain (threat condition). We obtained support for a sequential multiple mediator model in which threat predicted British people's willingness to engage in collective action via the emotions first and then prejudice. This finding was replicated in Study 2 with an Italian sample (N = 283). These results enhance understanding of when and why advantaged groups undertake collective action against disadvantaged groups by demonstrating that distinctiveness threats and emotions promote such actions.
    October 21, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2346   open full text
  • What Makes Displaced Revenge Taste Sweet: Retributing Displaced Responsibility or Sending a Message to the Original Perpetrator?
    Arne Sjöström, Zoe Magraw‐Mickelson, Mario Gollwitzer.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 20, 2017
    The present research investigates the psychological dynamics underlying displaced revenge. We examine (1) the effect of entitativity on displaced revenge tendencies, including potential mediators of this effect, and (2) the conditions under which taking displaced revenge is satisfying for avengers. In three studies, we show that (a) perpetrator group entitativity predicts the tendency to take displaced revenge via perceptions that the vengeful action is effective in delivering a message to the original perpetrator, (b) that displaced revenge is satisfying when the group continues to exist in its original form, but not when the perpetrator has left the group or when the group has dissolved, and (c) that displaced revenge is most satisfying when both the original perpetrator and the target of revenge understand why revenge has been taken. These findings imply that sending a message to the original perpetrator is an important aspect of the psychological dynamics underlying displaced revenge.
    October 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2345   open full text
  • Does intergroup contact affect personality? A longitudinal study on the bidirectional relationship between intergroup contact and personality traits.
    Loris Vezzali, Rhiannon Turner, Dora Capozza, Elena Trifiletti.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 18, 2017
    We conducted a longitudinal study to test whether, in addition to being predicted by personality, intergroup contact is longitudinally associated with personality traits. Participants were 388 majority (Italian) and 109 minority (immigrant) first‐year high school students. Results revealed a bidirectional relationship between contact and personality: Quality of contact was longitudinally associated with greater agreeableness and openness to experience, whereas agreeableness and openness to experience were longitudinal predictors of contact quality. An unexpected negative longitudinal association also emerged between quantity of contact and agreeableness. These effects were not moderated by group of belonging (majority vs. minority). Our findings highlight the importance of integrating research on intergroup contact with research on personality.
    October 18, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2313   open full text
  • When identity hurts: How positive intragroup experiences can yield negative mental health implications for ethnic and sexual minorities.
    Christopher T. Begeny, Yuen J. Huo.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 18, 2017
    Two studies (longitudinal, N = 510; cross‐sectional; N = 249) explain how feeling valued in one's ethnic/sexual minority group has benefits for mental health but also certain costs through the way it shapes minorities' identity. Drawing from the intragroup status and health (ISAH) model, we posit that when individuals feel valued in their minority group it bolsters group identification; with greater identity‐centrality, individuals tend to view daily social interactions through the “lens” of their minority group and ultimately perceive more discrimination. Discrimination, in turn, negatively shapes health. Thus, feeling valued in one's minority group has benefits for health but also indirect costs, perhaps counterintuitively by strengthening minority group identity. Results of both studies supported these predictions. Study 2 also supported an adapted ISAH model for use in the context of concealable stigmatized identities (sexual minorities). Overall, the ISAH model explains why feeling valued and having strong social identities are not always beneficial, yielding certain costs for stigmatized individuals' health.
    October 18, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2292   open full text
  • The evil eye: Eye gaze and competitiveness in social decision making.
    Mauro Giacomantonio, Jennifer Jordan, Francesca Federico, Martijn J. Assem, Dennie Dolder.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 18, 2017
    We demonstrate that a person's eye gaze and his/her competitiveness are closely intertwined in social decision making. In an exploratory examination of this relationship, Study 1 uses field data from a high‐stakes TV game show to demonstrate that the frequency by which contestants gaze at their opponent's eyes predicts their defection in a variant on the prisoner's dilemma. Studies 2 and 3 use experiments to examine the underlying causality and demonstrate that the relationship between gazing and competitive behavior is bi‐directional. In Study 2, fixation on the eyes, compared to the face, increases competitive behavior toward the target in an ultimatum game. In Study 3, we manipulate the framing of a negotiation (cooperative vs. competitive) and use an eye tracker to measure fixation number and time spent fixating on the counterpart's eyes. We find that a competitive negotiation elicits more gazing, which in turn leads to more competitive behavior.
    October 18, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2336   open full text
  • Effects of exposure to alcohol‐related cues on racial discrimination.
    Elena V. Stepanova, Bruce D. Bartholow, J. Scott Saults, Ronald S. Friedman.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 16, 2017
    Prior research has shown that exposure to alcohol‐related images exacerbates expression of implicit racial biases, and that brief exposure to alcohol‐related words increases aggressive responses. However, the potential for alcohol cue exposure to elicit differential aggression against a Black (outgroup) relative to a White (ingroup) target—that is, racial discrimination—has never been investigated. Here, we found that White participants (N = 92) exposed to alcohol‐related words made harsher judgments of a Black experimenter who had frustrated them than participants who were exposed to nonalcohol words. These findings suggest that exposure to alcohol cues increases discriminatory behaviors toward Blacks.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2325   open full text
  • Putting identity into the community: Exploring the social dynamics of urban regeneration.
    Stacey C. Heath, Anna Rabinovich, Manuela Barreto.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 16, 2017
    The present paper adopts a social identity perspective to examine the relationship between community‐based identification and well‐being, resilience and willingness to pay back in the context of urban regeneration. A sample of 104 residents across five deprived urban areas in the southwest of England that have recently undergone or are about to undergo regeneration projects completed a survey. The results demonstrate that areas where a more community‐centred, bottom‐up, approach to regeneration was taken (i.e., ‘culture‐led’) showed higher levels of community cohesion than areas where the community dynamics were ignored (i.e., a ‘top‐down’ approach to regeneration). Increased community identification was linked to greater perceived social support, community‐esteem, personal self‐esteem and self‐efficacy. These psychological processes were, in turn, linked to increased resilience and well‐being, as well as a stronger willingness to pay back to the community. The results are consistent with the social identity approach. Implications for urban regeneration strategies are discussed.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2296   open full text
  • Pride and punishment: Entitled people's self‐promoting values motivate hierarchy‐restoring retribution.
    Liz Redford, Kate A. Ratliff.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 16, 2017
    What is the purpose of punishment? The current research shows that for entitled people—those with inflated self‐worth—justice is about maintaining societal hierarchies. Entitled people more strongly hold self‐enhancing values (power and achievement; Studies 1 and 3). They are also more likely, when thinking about justice for offenders, to adopt a hierarchy‐based justice orientation: Perceptions that crime threatens hierarchies, motives to restore those hierarchies, and support for retribution (Studies 2 and 3). Further, the relationship of entitlement to justice orientation is mediated by self‐enhancing values when entitlement is measured (Study 3) and manipulated (Studies 4, 5 and 6). Together these studies suggest that entitlement—and the resultant preoccupation with one's status—facilitates a view of justice as a hierarchy‐based transaction: one where criminal offenders and their victims exchange power and status. These findings reveal the self‐enhancing and hierarchy‐focused nature of entitlement, as well as the roots of retribution in concerns about status, power, and hierarchies.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2328   open full text
  • Exploring social identity change during mental healthcare transition.
    Niamh McNamara, Imelda Coyne, Tamsin Ford, Moli Paul, Swaran Singh, Fiona McNicholas.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 16, 2017
    Adolescents attending Child & Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) requiring ongoing care are transferred to adult services (AMHS) at eighteen. Many young people with service needs are not being referred, or are refusing referral to AMHS. This study explored these issues from a social identity change perspective. Transcripts of interviews conducted with young people (n = 11), their parents (n = 5) and child (n = 11) and adult (n = 8) psychiatrists were thematically analysed. Transition to AMHS confirmed an illness identity. Young people adopting this identity saw continued service engagement as identity‐congruent. Disengagement was attributed to failure to adopt an illness identity or to an emerging adult identity associated with greater independence. Fractious professional relationships hindered transition and delayed the formation of a therapeutic alliance with AMHS staff. Disengagement post‐transfer was linked to incompatibility between the AMHS service remit and specific illness identities. This study demonstrates how an intersection between identities shapes service engagement and disengagement.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2329   open full text
  • Cultural Variation in Individuals’ Responses to Incivility by Perpetrators of Different Rank: The Mediating Role of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms.
    Chanki Moon, Mario Weick, Ayse K. Uskul.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 16, 2017
    The present research sought to establish how cultural settings create a normative context that determines individuals’ reactions to subtle forms of mistreatment. Two experimental studies (n = 449) examined individuals’ perceptions of high‐ and low‐ranking individuals’ incivility in two national (Study 1) and two organizational (Study 2) cultural settings that varied in power distance. Consistent across studies, the uncivil actions of a high‐ranking perpetrator were deemed more acceptable than the uncivil actions of a low‐ranking perpetrator in the large power distance cultural settings, but not in a small power distance cultural setting. Differing injunctive norms (acceptability), but not descriptive norms (perceived likelihood of occurrence), contributed to cultural variations in the level of discomfort caused by incivility. In addition, perceptions of descriptive and injunctive norms coincided, but differed markedly in their associations with discomfort. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2344   open full text
  • Community identity and collective efficacy: A social cure for traumatic stress in post‐earthquake Nepal.
    Orla T. Muldoon, Khagendra Acharya, Sarah Jay, Kamal Adhikari, Judith Pettigrew, Robert D. Lowe.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 13, 2017
    Post‐Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was initially conceptualized as a psychopathology that arose as a consequence of war time experiences. More recently, available evidence has demonstrated that post‐traumatic stress (PTS) as a consequence of war is buffered by social identity processes. In such contexts, identity resources are arguably more readily accessible given the integral relationship between social identities and intergroup violence. There is no evidence as yet to suggest that social identity processes may act to reduce PTS responses to naturally occurring disasters such as earthquakes and even less data pertaining to non‐Western contexts where the impact of such disasters tends to be particularly catastrophic. This article reports on a study undertaken in earthquake‐affected regions in Nepal devastated by the April 2015 quake and its major aftershock a month later. Participants (n=399) completed measures of their earthquake experience, Post‐Traumatic Stress and Post Traumatic growth (PTG), as well as measures of community identification and collective efficacy. In total 399 people completed the measures approximately six months after the quakes. Results of the study indicated that consistent with tenets of the social identity framework, ethnic and gender group memberships impacted on reported experiences during the earthquake. Reported experience during the quakes and ethnic group membership were both related to increased symptoms of PTS. Ethnicity was also linked to the proportion of respondents reporting clinical levels of PTSD symptoms. The relationship between earthquake experience and PTG was mediated by community identification and collective efficacy. Earthquake experience also had an indirect effect on PTS through collective efficacy. Implications of these findings for those working with traumatized groups are discussed.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2330   open full text
  • Gaming Motivation and Problematic Video Gaming: The Role of Needs Frustration.
    Devin J. Mills, Marina Milyavskaya, Nancy L. Heath, Jeffrey L. Derevensky.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 10, 2017
    Motivation is often used as a predictor of a problematic style of video game engagement, implying that individuals’ gaming undermines optimal functioning. Drawing from recent advances in Self‐Determination Theory (SDT), the present study explores the links between gaming motivations, the daily frustration of basic psychological needs, and reports of problematic video gaming (PVG). A sample of 1,029 participants (72.8% male; M = 22.96 years; SD = 4.13 years) completed items regarding their gaming engagement and gaming motivation as well as their experience of needs frustration and PVG symptoms. Results revealed positive associations between gaming motivations and PVG, and between daily needs frustration and PVG. Finally, after comparing several competing models, a mediational model whereby needs frustration explained the association between individuals’ gaming motivation and PVG emerged as best fitting the data. The discussion addresses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings in the context of recent research.
    October 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2343   open full text
  • Women's attraction to benevolent sexism: Needing relationship security predicts greater attraction to men who endorse benevolent sexism.
    Emily J. Cross, Nickola C. Overall.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 05, 2017
    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men should cherish and protect women in intimate relationships. Despite the romantic tone of these attitudes, prior research indicates that benevolent sexism undermines women's competence, ambition, and independence. Ambivalent sexism theory proposes that benevolent sexism is able to incur these costs because the promise of a chivalrous and protective partner offers women security in their intimate relationships. We tested this key proposition by examining whether women who intensely need relationship security—women higher in attachment anxiety—are more attracted to men who endorse benevolent sexism. Highly anxious women (N = 632) rated men described as endorsing benevolent sexism as relatively more attractive, and reported greater preferences for partners to hold benevolently sexist attitudes. These results advance understanding regarding the underlying reasons women find benevolent sexism appealing and identify who will be most vulnerable to the potential costs of benevolent sexism.
    October 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2334   open full text
  • Developing cognitions about race: White 5‐ to 10‐year‐olds' perceptions of hardship and pain.
    Rebecca A. Dore, Kelly M. Hoffman, Angeline S. Lillard, Sophie Trawalter.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 03, 2017
    White American adults assume that Blacks feel less pain than do Whites, but only if they believe that Blacks have faced greater economic hardship than Whites. The current study investigates when in development children first recognize racial group differences in economic hardship and examines whether perceptions of hardship inform children's racial bias in pain perception. Five‐ to 10‐year‐olds (N = 178) guessed which of two items (low versus high value) belonged to a Black and a White child and rated the amount of pain a Black and a White child would feel in 10 painful situations. By age 5, White American children attributed lower‐value possessions to Blacks than Whites, indicating a recognition of racial group differences in economic hardship. The results also replicated the emergence of a racial bias in pain perception between 5 and 10. However, unlike adults', children's perceptions of hardship do not account for racial bias in pain perception.
    October 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2323   open full text
  • Darkness into light? Identification with the crowd at a suicide prevention fundraiser promotes well‐being amongst participants.
    Michelle Kearns, Orla T. Muldoon, Rachel M. Msetfi, Paul W. G. Surgenor.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 03, 2017
    Suicide is recognised to be subject to social contagion, with an elevated risk of adverse outcomes amongst those affected. Drawing upon research within the social identity approach, we hypothesised that, for those bereaved by suicide, identifying with similar others could provide ‘a social cure’. A large cross‐sectional study and a longitudinal study were carried out at a charity fundraiser for suicide prevention, with participants completing an online survey before and after the event. Results showed that, for those who lost someone they knew (Study 1) or a family member (Study 2) to suicide, there was a significant increase in psychological well‐being after the event. This was mediated by identification with the crowd. These findings demonstrate that collective participation in a suicide awareness event can be an effective social intervention for those bereaved by suicide in terms of psychological well‐being, with implications for informing best‐practice interventions targeting this at‐risk group.
    October 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2304   open full text
  • The role of retributive justice and the use of international criminal tribunals in post‐conflict reconciliation.
    Mengyao Li, Bernhard Leidner, Nebojša Petrović, Seyed Nima Orazani, Mostafa Salari Rad.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 03, 2017
    Four experiments examined people's responses to intergroup violence either committed or suffered by their own group. Experiment 1 demonstrated that Serbs who strongly glorified Serbia were more supportive of future violence against, and less willing to reconcile with, Bosniaks after reading about Serbian victimization by Bosniaks rather than Serbian transgressions against Bosniaks. Replicating these effects with Americans in the context of American–Iranian tensions, Experiment 2 further showed that demands for retributive justice explained why high glorifiers showed asymmetrical reactions to ingroup victimization vs. perpetration. Again in the Serb and the American context, respectively, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated that post‐conflict international criminal tribunals can help satisfy victim group members' desire for retributive justice, and thereby reduce their support for future violence and increase their willingness to reconcile with the perpetrator group. The role of retributive justice and the use of international criminal justice in intergroup conflict (reduction) are discussed.
    October 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2326   open full text
  • "Poor is Pious": Distinctiveness Threat Increases Glorification of Poverty among the Poor.
    Nechumi Yaffe, Nevin Solak, Eran Halperin, Tamar Saguy.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 03, 2017
    The current study examines whether a threat to group distinctiveness motivates the poor to glorify poverty as an identity management strategy. Research shows that threat to ingroup distinctiveness can motivate people to positively differentiate their group from similar outgroups on relevant dimensions of comparison. Little is known however about whether such processes would occur also with respect to devalued group characteristics that are not reflective of explicit group norms. This question is of high theoretical and practical importance because it can illustrate that people internalize and glorify even adverse traits as means of managing their social identity when faced with threat. We therefore tested whether among a poor community, individuals would glorify poverty when faced with distinctiveness threat. We collected data from Haredim (ultra‐Orthodox Jews), a poor and highly religious population in Israel. Across two experiments, we manipulated distinctiveness threat via inducing similarity between Haredim and seculars in Israel. We found that poverty was reconstrued as positive and desirable following distinctiveness threat, but only among Haredim who have a high commitment to group norms (Study 1) and who strongly justify their own social system (Study 2). Theoretical and applied implications of the findings are discussed.
    October 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2342   open full text
  • Social identity, self‐esteem, and mental health in autism.
    Kate Cooper, Laura G. E. Smith, Ailsa Russell.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 02, 2017
    We investigated Autism social identity and mental health in autistic people. Autistic people have social and communication deficits, and experience social stigma—factors that could interfere with the development of positive social identity. Indeed, autistic participants (N = 272) had significantly lower personal self‐esteem, and higher levels of depression and anxiety than typically developing controls (N = 267). Autism social identification was positively associated with personal self‐esteem, and this relationship was mediated by collective self‐esteem (perceived positivity of Autism identity). Furthermore, there were significant negative indirect effects between Autism identification and anxiety, and between Autism identification and depression, through increases in collective self‐esteem and personal self‐esteem. Thus, while autistic participants reported poorer mental health than average, having a positive Autism social identity appeared to offer a protective mechanism. This implies that to improve mental health in the Autism population, clinical approaches should aim to facilitate development of positive Autism identities.
    October 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2297   open full text
  • What do I gain from joining crowds? Does self‐expansion help to explain the relationship between identity fusion, group efficacy and collective action?
    Tomasz Besta, Michał Jaśkiewicz, Natasza Kosakowska‐Berezecka, Rafał Lawendowski, Anna Maria Zawadzka.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 02, 2017
    Four studies were carried out to examine how identity fusion, self‐ and group efficacy, and collective action are related and what role self‐expansion plays in these relationships. In the pilot study, participants recalled their experience of participating in mass gatherings. The three other studies were conducted during mass gatherings organized for collective purposes: a music concert (Study 1), a bicycle activist event (Study 2), and Equality Days (Study 3). The results showed (a) a significant positive relationship between personal and group identity fusion, self‐expansion, and self‐efficacy (Study 1); (b) a significant mediating effect of self‐expansion on the relationship between personal and group identity fusion and group efficacy (Studies 1 and 2); and (c) a significant mediating effect of self‐ expansion and group efficacy on the relationship between identity fusion and collective action tendency (Studies 2 and 3).
    October 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2332   open full text
  • The effects of leader illegitimacy on leaders' and subordinates' responses to relinquishing power decisions.
    Nathaniel J. Ratcliff, Theresa K. Vescio.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 02, 2017
    This research examined how leader illegitimacy affects leaders' and subordinates' responses to relinquishing power decisions. The processes underlying responses to leader illegitimacy and relinquishing power were also examined. Across four studies, participants were placed in leader roles (Studies 1a/1b) or subordinate roles (Studies 2a/2b) in an online competition. In Studies 1a/1b, participants assigned a leadership role learned, via a leadership skills test, that their leadership was illegitimate or legitimate. By contrast, in Studies 2a/2b, participants assigned a subordinate role were confronted with either an illegitimate leader who retained their power after performing poorly or a legitimate leader who received the leader role after a poor‐performing leader had relinquished their power. Results demonstrated that leaders who felt they did not belong in their leadership role relinquished more power when their leadership was illegitimate (vs. legitimate) and subordinates who felt less in control and greater anger supported illegitimate (vs. legitimate) leaders less.
    October 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2335   open full text
  • Ethnic identification, discrimination, and mental and physical health among Syrian refugees: The moderating role of identity needs.
    Elif Çelebi, Maykel Verkuyten, Sabahat Cigdem Bagci.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 28, 2017
    Using a risk and resilience framework and motivated identity construction theory, we investigated the moderating role of identity needs in the association between social identification and perceived discrimination with mental and physical health among a sample of Syrian refugees (N = 361) in Turkey. Results showed that there were two clusters of interrelated identity needs, namely, belonging (belonging, continuity, and esteem) and efficacy (efficacy, meaningfulness, and distinctiveness). Higher perceived ethnic discrimination was found to be associated with poorer mental and physical health but not for respondents who derived a sense of efficacy from their Syrian identity. Higher Syrian identification was associated with lower depression and anxiety but more strongly for refugees who derived a sense of belonging and continuity from their Syrian identity. The findings indicate that investigating the motivational aspects of identity formation is important for understanding when discrimination and group identification undermine or rather contribute to the well‐being and health of refugees. These findings are discussed in relation to the growing research on social identities and health.
    September 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2299   open full text
  • University socialization and the acceptance of anti‐egalitarian ideology: The underlying role of extrinsic life goals.
    Aida Muheljic, Sasa Drace.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 28, 2017
    Past research suggests that students in social science often become more egalitarian while students in business and economics show a trend in the opposite direction. Using a cross‐sectional study in which we compared first and third year students from different academic environments, we wanted to explore these issues and to test whether life goals may account for potential ideological differences among them. Psychology and economics students at first and third year of their respective academic group completed both the Aspiration index and social dominance orientation scale. Consistent with the socialization hypothesis, economics students reported higher levels of social dominance orientation than psychology students but only at the third year of study. A similar pattern of results was observed for extrinsic life goals (but no differences were found for intrinsic life goals). Importantly, the interaction between academic year and academic major on social dominance orientation was mediated by the measure of extrinsic life goals.
    September 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2316   open full text
  • ‘Healthy’ identities? Revisiting rejection‐identification and rejection‐disidentification models among voluntary and forced immigrants.
    Magdalena Bobowik, Borja Martinovic, Nekane Basabe, Lisa S. Barsties, Gusta Wachter.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 28, 2017
    Rejection‐identification and rejection‐disidentification models propose that low‐status groups identify with their in‐group and disidentify with a high‐status out‐group in response to rejection by the latter. Our research tests these two models simultaneously among multiple groups of foreign‐born people living in two cultural contexts. We examined these effects on representative samples of 2446 refugees in the Netherlands (Study 1) and 1234 voluntary immigrants in Spain (Study 2). We found that both ethnic and host national identification are ‘healthy’ and thus predominantly conducive to greater hedonic and eudaimonic well‐being. Further, perceived discrimination was associated with host national disidentification among refugees in the Netherlands and voluntary immigrants in Spain. However, our findings regarding the rejection‐identification link were less consistent. We discuss the importance of ethnic and host national identification for the well‐being of immigrants.
    September 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2306   open full text
  • Social identity and health at mass gatherings.
    Nick Hopkins, Stephen David Reicher.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 28, 2017
    Identifying with a group can bring benefits to physical and psychological health. These benefits can be found with both small‐scale and large‐scale social groups. However, groups can also be associated with health risks: A distinct branch of medicine (‘Mass Gathering Medicine’) has evolved to address the health risks posed by participating in events characterised by large crowds. We argue that emphasising either the positive or the negative health consequences of group life is one‐sided: Both positive and negative effects on health can occur (simultaneously). Moreover, both such effects can have their roots in the same social psychological transformations associated with a group‐based social identification. Reviewing evidence from across a range of mass gatherings, we offer a conceptual analysis of such mixed effects. Our account shows (i) how social identity analyses can enrich mass gathering medicine and (ii) how social identity analyses of health can be enriched by examining mass gatherings.
    September 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2288   open full text
  • Connecting the dots: Illusory pattern perception predicts belief in conspiracies and the supernatural.
    Jan‐Willem Prooijen, Karen M. Douglas, Clara De Inocencio.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 25, 2017
    A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated coin toss outcomes. In Study 2, pattern search instructions exerted an indirect effect on irrational beliefs through pattern perception. Study 3 revealed that perceiving patterns in chaotic but not in structured paintings predicted irrational beliefs. In Study 4, we found that agreement with texts supporting paranormal phenomena or conspiracy theories predicted pattern perception. In Study 5, we manipulated belief in a specific conspiracy theory. This manipulation influenced the extent to which people perceive patterns in world events, which in turn predicted unrelated irrational beliefs. We conclude that illusory pattern perception is a central cognitive mechanism accounting for conspiracy theories and supernatural beliefs.
    September 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2331   open full text
  • The Two‐Sided Nature of Individual and Intragroup Experiences in the Aftermath of Collective Victimization: Findings from Four Diaspora Groups.
    Johanna Ray Vollhardt, Rashmi Nair.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 15, 2017
    Most social psychological research on collective victimhood has examined its consequences for intergroup relations. Less attention has been paid to individual and intragroup processes associated with collective victimization, which the present study aimed to examine. We conducted eight focus group interviews among four diaspora communities (Armenian Americans, Burundian refugees, Jewish Americans, Nepali‐speaking Bhutanese refugees) with historical or more recent experiences of collective victimization. Thematic analysis revealed three major foci shared across communities (but with different emphases within each focus), which included juxtaposed themes that highlight the two‐sided nature of experiencing and coping with collective victimization and its aftermath: vulnerability and struggle versus resilience and strength; loss versus continuity and renewal; and silence about versus transmission of knowledge about ingroup victimization. These findings illustrate how groups integrate seemingly opposite poles of collective victimization that characterize this complex and multifaceted experience, which has important theoretical implications.
    September 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2341   open full text
  • The Impact of Acknowledgment and Denial of Responsibility for Harm on Victim Groups’ Perceptions of Justice, Power, and Intergroup Attitudes.
    Yeshim Iqbal, Rezarta Bilali.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 05, 2017
    Acknowledgement of responsibility for in‐group harmdoing is considered a precondition for reconciliation. However, we know little about its impact on victim groups. Using a mixed methods approach, in two studies in Bangladesh we examine the role of acknowledgment and denial of responsibility on intergroup outcomes. Study 1 used an open‐ended survey to assess Bangladeshis’ perceptions about acknowledgement and denial of responsibility for the mass violence committed by the Pakistani army on Bangladeshis during the 1971 war. Study 2 experimentally examined the effects and the potential mechanisms (emotional reactions, perceived injustice, and relative power) through which acknowledgment and denial of responsibility impact two intergroup outcomes: out‐group animosity and willingness for contact. Both studies demonstrated the importance of anger and perceived injustice as mediators of the effects of acknowledgment and denial of responsibility on intergroup outcomes. We draw implications for theory and for strategies to address past victimization across different contexts of conflict.
    September 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2338   open full text
  • What's in an Accent? General Spontaneous Biases Against Nonnative Accents – An Investigation with Conceptual and Auditory IATs.
    Janin Roessel, Christiane Schoel, Dagmar Stahlberg.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 05, 2017
    Nonnative accents are prevalent in our globalized world and constitute highly salient cues in social perception. Whereas previous literature has commonly assumed that they cue specific social group stereotypes, we propose that nonnative accents generally trigger spontaneous negatively biased associations (due to a general nonnative accent category and perceptual influences). Accordingly, Study 1 demonstrates negative biases with conceptual IATs, targeting the general concepts of accent versus native speech, on the dimensions affect, trust, and competence, but not on sociability. Study 2 attests to negative, largely enhanced biases on all dimensions with auditory IATs comprising matched native‐nonnative speaker pairs for four accent types. Biases emerged irrespective of the accent types that differed in attractiveness, recognizability of origin, and origin‐linked national associations. Study 3 replicates general IAT biases with an affect IAT and a conventional evaluative IAT. These findings corroborate our hypotheses and assist in understanding general negativity toward nonnative accents.
    September 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2339   open full text
  • Validating the Semantic Misattribution Procedure as an Implicit Measure of Gender Stereotyping.
    Yang Ye, Bertram Gawronski.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 04, 2017
    The current research tested the validity of the semantic misattribution procedure (SMP)—a variant of the affect misattribution procedure—as an implicit measure of gender stereotyping. In three studies (N = 604), prime words of gender‐stereotypical occupations (e.g., nurse, doctor) influenced participants’ guesses of whether unknown Chinese ideographs referred to male or female names in a stereotype‐congruent manner. Priming scores of gender stereotyping showed high internal consistency and construct‐valid correlations with explicit measures of sexism. Discriminant validity of gender stereotyping scores was tested by investigating relations with priming effects involving grammatical gender (e.g., mother, father). Evidence for discriminant validity was obtained when (1) trials from the two priming measures were presented in a blocked rather than interspersed manner and (2) the measure of stereotypical gender priming preceded the measure of grammatical gender priming. Overall, the SMP showed good psychometric properties and construct validity for the assessment of gender stereotyping.
    September 04, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2337   open full text
  • Contact with bisexual individuals reduces binegativity among heterosexuals and lesbian women and gay men.
    Ashley Lytle, Christina Dyar, Sheri R. Levy, Bonita London.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 10, 2017
    Although binegativity, the stigmatization of bisexuality, is prevalent among heterosexual and lesbian and gay communities, little research has addressed how the quantity and quality of intergroup contact affect binegativity. Drawing on intergroup contact theory, this study examined contact with and attitudes toward bisexuals among heterosexual undergraduates, heterosexual adults, and lesbians and gay men. Knowing more bisexuals (quantity) predicted more positive attitudes toward and decreased intergroup anxiety with male and female bisexuals. A multilevel structural equation model indicated that contact quality simultaneously predicted higher perceived stability of female bisexuality (but not male bisexuality) and tolerance of and less intergroup anxiety with male and female bisexuals when contact quantity was controlled for. This research suggests that both quantity and quality of contact with bisexuals predicts improved intergroup attitudes. Implications for future research on reducing binegativity are discussed.
    July 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2241   open full text
  • Personal autonomy in group‐based interventions.
    Namkje Koudenburg, Jolanda Jetten, Genevieve A. Dingle.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 10, 2017
    Marginalized individuals are often caught in a vicious cycle of economic or health problems, a lack of social connection and disempowerment. The present research examines interventions that provide opportunities for social inclusion to break this cycle. Specifically, in two longitudinal field studies, we examined the effect of social inclusion on self‐efficacy and hope in two vulnerable groups, namely, 68 residents in a drug and alcohol rehabilitation centre (Study 1) and 48 marginalized adults taking part in activities organized by a community organization (Study 2). Although somewhat counterintuitive, we hypothesized that social inclusion would affect self‐efficacy by fostering feelings of personal autonomy. The hypothesis was supported by results from both studies revealing an indirect effect from social inclusion via personal autonomy on self‐efficacy and hope. The findings are discussed in relation to how group inclusion may stimulate the development of personal autonomy in disadvantaged adults, an important factor in their recovery and mental health.
    July 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2230   open full text
  • The helping orientations inventory: Measuring propensities to provide autonomy and dependency help.
    Alexander Maki, Joseph A. Vitriol, Patrick C. Dwyer, John S. Kim, Mark Snyder.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 06, 2017
    Research on helping behavior distinguishes between giving recipients the tools to solve problems for themselves (autonomy‐oriented help) and direct solutions not requiring recipients' involvement (dependency‐oriented help). Across three studies, we examined whether individuals can be characterized by dispositional propensities toward offering autonomy‐oriented and/or dependency‐oriented help. In initial studies, factor analyses revealed the two hypothesized Helping Orientations Inventory scales along with an additional scale capturing opposition to helping, all acceptable in internal consistency and test–retest reliability (Studies 1a–1c). Next, we found that the three scales related in distinct ways to constructs from the intergroup (e.g., social dominance orientation) and interpersonal (e.g., empathic concern) helping literatures (Studies 1d and 1e). Additionally, these orientations predicted satisfaction with volunteer behavior (Study 2) and interest in future volunteering (Study 3). Overall, people vary in their helping orientations, and these orientations implicate a range of variables relevant to intergroup and interpersonal helping.
    July 06, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2267   open full text
  • Imagined intergroup contact promotes support for human rights through increased humanization.
    Francesca Prati, Steve Loughnan.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 06, 2017
    Dehumanization concerns the denial of others' human uniqueness (animalistic dehumanization) or human nature (mechanistic dehumanization). Imagined intergroup contact has been suggested to be an effective technique for reducing dehumanization. We examined whether this intervention might primarily work by increasing the type of humanness the group specifically lacks. Study 1 revealed that after imagining contact with an animalized out‐group (i.e., Gypsy people), participants attributed higher levels of human uniqueness. Study 2 replicated this finding, eliminating improved intergroup attitudes as an alternative explanation. Further, it demonstrated that imagined contact increased support for human rights, and that this was mediated by increased adscription of human uniqueness. Study 3 confirmed previous evidence by showing that after imagining contact with a mechanized out‐group (i.e., Japanese people), participants attributed higher levels of human nature that explains support for human rights. Overall, imagined contact specifically works at increasing the type of humanness the group is typically denied.
    July 06, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2282   open full text
  • Beyond ‘nothing to hide’: When identity is key to privacy threat under surveillance.
    Avelie Stuart, Mark Levine.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 06, 2017
    Privacy is psychologically important, vital for democracy, and in the era of ubiquitous and mobile surveillance technology, facing increasingly complex threats and challenges. Yet surveillance is often justified under a trope that one has ‘nothing to hide’. We conducted focus groups (N = 42) on topics of surveillance and privacy and using discursive analysis, identify the ideological assumptions and the positions that people adopt to make sense of their participation in a surveillance society. We find a premise that surveillance is increasingly inescapable, but this was only objected to when people reported feeling misrepresented, or where they had an inability to withhold aspects of their identities. The (in)visibility of the surveillance technology also complicated how surveillance is constructed. Those interested in engaging the public in debates about surveillance may be better served by highlighting the identity consequences of surveillance, rather than constructing surveillance as a generalised privacy threat.
    July 06, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2270   open full text
  • The effect of the validity of co‐occurrence on automatic and deliberate evaluations.
    Tal Moran, Yoav Bar‐Anan, Brian A. Nosek.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 04, 2017
    Co‐occurrence of an object and affective stimuli does not always mean that the object and the stimuli are the same valence (e.g., false accusations that Richard is a crook). Contemporary theory posits that information about the (in)validity of co‐occurrence has stronger influence on deliberate than automatic evaluation. However, available evidence supports that hypothesis only when the (in)validity information is delayed. Further, the existing evidence is open to alternative methodological accounts. In six high‐powered experiments (total N = 1750), we modified previous procedures to minimize alternative explanations and examine whether delayed (in)validity information has a discrepant effect on automatic versus deliberate evaluation. Casting doubt on the generality of the hypothesis, we found more sensitivity of deliberate than automatic evaluation to delayed validity information only when automatic evaluation was measured with the Implicit Association Test and not with the evaluative priming task or the affective misattribution procedure.
    July 04, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2266   open full text
  • In or out? How the perceived morality (vs. competence) of prospective group members affects acceptance and rejection.
    Romy Lee, Naomi Ellemers, Daan Scheepers, Bastiaan T. Rutjens.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 03, 2017
    When is an individual likely to be accepted or rejected by a group? This research investigates responses towards prospective group members depending on how they compare to the group in terms of their perceived morality or competence. Because morality is of particular importance to groups, we hypothesized that the perceived morality of prospective group members has more impact on the group's tendency to accept versus reject them than their competence. Across three experiments, employing self‐report, psychophysiological and behavioural measures, results supported this hypothesis: Immoral (vs. incompetent) individuals were perceived as more different from the group and were more likely to be rejected. Additionally, the rejection of prospective group members with perceived inferior morality (but not those with inferior competence) was mediated by the group threat they imply. Inclusion success thus seems to be mainly contingent upon how a group evaluates the individual's morality relative to the group's standards.
    July 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2269   open full text
  • The power of politics: How political leaders in Serbia discursively manage identity continuity and political change to shape the future of the nation.
    Sandra Obradović, Caroline Howarth.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 03, 2017
    The construction of national identities through political discourse is a growing field of interest to social psychologists, particularly as many countries face changing demographics, borders and social realities as part of globalization, immigration and continued political integration and conflict. Through an analysis of 17 key speeches by Serbian politicians over the past 25 years, the present paper explores the question of how politicians, as entrepreneurs of identity, discursively manage the relationship between identity continuity and political change over time, in attempts to construct the future of a nation. We particularly explore this issue in the context of Serbia's present political aspirations toward joining the European Union. The findings indicate that (i) political change becomes negotiated within the framework of established and legitimized identity discourses that have developed over time, and (ii) while history is frequently drawn on to support political agendas, it is successful to the extent that this history offers a sense of cultural continuity rather than a coherent narrative of historical events and time periods. We conclude by arguing for the benefits that a diachronic approach to political discourse can offer social psychologists interested in the discursive construction of national identity.
    July 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2277   open full text
  • Are highly numerate individuals invulnerable to attribute framing bias? Comparing numerically and graphically represented attribute framing.
    Hamutal Kreiner, Eyal Gamliel.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 03, 2017
    Judgments and decisions are frequently biased by attribute framing, presenting either positive or negative attributes of an object. This paper focused on two factors previously shown to moderate the attribute‐framing bias: mode of presentation and participants' numeric ability. Whereas many studies demonstrated that graphical display reduced the bias, recent findings suggest that graphical manipulation can nevertheless elicit significant framing bias. Numeracy has been shown to moderate attribute‐framing bias when the quantitative information was represented by numbers. The present study examined to what extent numeracy would still moderate the framing bias when it is graphically elicited. The results showed a significant framing bias for graphically as well as for numerically represented framing scenarios. Critically, whereas numeracy moderated the framing bias in numerically represented scenarios, it did not have a similar moderating effect when the quantitative information in the scenario was graphically represented. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
    July 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2272   open full text
  • Are your cross‐ethnic friends ethnic and/or national group identifiers? The role of own and perceived cross‐ethnic friend's identities on outgroup attitudes and multiculturalism.
    Sabahat Cigdem Bagci, Elif Çelebi.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 03, 2017
    We investigated how own ethnic and national identities and perceived ethnic and national identities of close cross‐ethnic friends may predict outgroup attitudes and multiculturalism among Turkish (majority status, N = 197) and Kurdish (minority status, N = 80) ethnic group members in Turkey (Mage = 21.12, SD = 2.59, 69.7% females, 30.3% males). Compared with Turkish participants, Kurdish participants were more asymmetrical in rating their cross‐ethnic friend's identities relative to their own, reporting higher ethnic identity, but lower national identity for themselves. Own ethnic identity was negatively associated with attitudes and multiculturalism, whereas own national identity was positively associated with only attitudes. Perceived cross‐ethnic friend's national identity was positively related to both outgroup attitudes and multiculturalism. Shared national identification (high levels of own and friend's national identity) led to most positive outgroup attitudes and highest support for multiculturalism. Findings were discussed in the light of social identity and common ingroup identity models.
    July 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2278   open full text
  • Family identity and severe mental illness: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.
    Ángela R. Acero, Adrián Cano‐Prous, Gabriel Castellanos, Raquel Martín‐Lanas, Ana Canga‐Armayor.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 20, 2017
    There is a growing amount of research showing that a shared social identity and the sense of belonging to a family have a potential effect on health. However, little is known about the effects of severe mental illness on family identity. The authors carried out this thematic synthesis based on a systematic review of literature on family narratives of severe mental illness and family identity. The main findings indicate that in many families (i) their identity—as a shared social identity—undergoes a transformation process by which the identity aspects of being a family are reinforced; (ii) family members often take on a caring role as their main family role; and finally, (iii) a cultural component shapes this transformation process. The authors describe implications for research and application in the mental health field. All in all, family identity is transformed by the experience of severe mental illness.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2240   open full text
  • An application of the prototype willingness model to drivers' speeding behaviour.
    Mark A. Elliott, Rebecca McCartan, Sarah E. Brewster, Dionne Coyle, Lindsey Emerson, Kayleigh Gibson.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 20, 2017
    We tested the prototype willingness model (PWM). The participants (N = 198) completed online questionnaire measures of PWM constructs (Time 1) and subsequent speeding behaviour (Time 2). Path analyses showed that the PWM accounted for 89% of the variance in subsequent (self‐reported) speeding behaviour. This significantly exceeded the variance accounted for by the theory of planned behaviour. In line with the PWM, both behavioural intention and behavioural willingness had direct effects on behaviour. Behavioural willingness had a significantly larger effect. Attitude and subjective norm both had indirect effects on behaviour through both behavioural intention and behavioural willingness. Prototype (similarity) perceptions had indirect effects on behaviour through behavioural willingness only. The findings support the notion that driving is governed by reactive decision‐making (willingness), underpinned by prototype perceptions, attitudes and subjective norms, to a greater extent than it is deliberative decision‐making (intentions), underpinned by attitudes and subjective norms. The implications for safety interventions are discussed.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2268   open full text
  • It is not quite cricket: Muslim immigrants' accounts of integration into UK society.
    Saliha Anjum, Chris McVittie, Andrew McKinlay.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 20, 2017
    Recent events demonstrate the need for greater understanding of intercultural relations between Muslim minorities and majority of cultures in host societies. We examine British Muslims' descriptions of their experiences of acculturation. Data from interviews with first‐generation Muslims were analysed by using discourse analysis. Participants' descriptions reflect the acculturation possibilities made available in local interactional contexts. Where invited to choose between assimilation and separation, participants provide ‘trouble‐telling’ accounts that detail the difficulties involved. In contexts involving integration, participants account for their own efforts. By contrast, contexts that allow participants to introduce acculturation in their own terms lead to descriptions of acculturation success. Thus, participants' accounts of relations with British culture reflect not simply orientations towards acculturation but rather how acculturation is framed and negotiated in local contexts: The success or failure of intercultural relations reflects as much how the issues are presented as they do immigrants' acceptance or non‐acceptance of British culture.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2280   open full text
  • Present but invisible: Physical obscurity fosters social disconnection.
    Megan L. Knowles, Kristy K. Dean.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 20, 2017
    Research suggests that we feel invisible and disconnected when others avoid our gaze. In three studies, we examine whether similar feelings may arise when others are unable to meet our gaze—when they are unaware of our presence altogether. We posit that feelings of loneliness and disconnection can arise when others are unable to sense one's physical presence. To test whether invisibility engenders loneliness, we primed participants with the invisibility construct (Studies 1 and 2) and manipulated actual visibility (Study 3) prior to assessing feelings of loneliness and isolation. Results revealed that being present, but unseen, is sufficient to induce loneliness. Findings are related to the ostracism and intersectional invisibility literatures, and the social costs of physical obscurity are discussed.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2274   open full text
  • Collective victimhood and acknowledgement of outgroup suffering across history: Majority and minority perspectives.
    Eva G.T. Green, Emilio Paolo Visintin, Antoaneta Hristova, Ana Bozhanova, Adrienne Pereira, Christian Staerklé.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 07, 2017
    This paper examines how temporally differentiated representations of ingroup victimhood and acknowledgment of outgroup suffering relate to present intergroup attitudes. A mixed‐methods research was conducted in Bulgaria where both the ethnic majority and the Bulgarian Turkish minority can be viewed as victims and perpetrators in the past. Multigroup path models (Study 1) revealed that for the majority (N = 192) collective victimhood was positively related to social distance through reduced forgiveness and through reduced collective guilt for a different historical era. Acknowledgment of outgroup suffering, in turn, was associated with reduced social distance through heightened guilt and through forgiveness for another era. Among the Bulgarian Turks (N = 160), the result pattern differed. Collective victimhood was unrelated to forgiveness. Moreover, the relationship between guilt and social distance was positive. Semi‐directive interviews (Study 2) revealed different meanings attributed to the events by the two groups. The impact of intertwined historical representations on current‐day prejudice is discussed in light of power asymmetry between groups.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2237   open full text
  • Inter‐group forgiveness in the aftermath of symmetric and asymmetric communal violence: Contact density and nationalistic climates as contextual mediators.
    Sandra Penic, Guy Elcheroth, Davide Morselli.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 07, 2017
    In this study, we examine how communal exposure to war violence is related to the inhabitants' forgiveness. Based on multilevel analyses of representative survey data collected in the post‐war former Yugoslavia (N = 18 351), we show that forgiveness depends on the type of communal violence: It is lowest in communities exposed to asymmetric and strongest in communities exposed to symmetric violence. We further show the mediating role of the inter‐ethnic bonds and nationalistic climates in the communities: while asymmetric violence breaks local inter‐ethnic bonds and fuels norms of unconditional nationalism, in communities exposed to symmetric violence, inter‐ethnic contact is preserved, and nationalism rejected, more strongly than elsewhere. Our findings thus show that individuals' reconciliatory attitudes depend on the social context in which they are embedded; in particular, on the type of violence that affected their community and on the resulting communal climate that fosters or inhibits inter‐ethnic contact and exclusionary identities.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2248   open full text
  • The appraisal gap: Why victim and transgressor groups disagree on the need for a collective apology.
    Matthew J. Hornsey, Tyler G. Okimoto, Michael Wenzel.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 07, 2017
    After an intergroup transgression, victims often advocate for a collective apology that the transgressor group is reluctant to provide. We argue that this is partly caused by a discrepancy in the extent to which victim and perpetrator group members appraise transgressions through an intergroup lens. In three experiments, participants read about individuals assaulting members of a racial out‐group. Consistent with predictions, victim group members were more likely than transgressors and third parties to see the events as typical of the transgressor group, more likely to appraise the events as intergroup in nature, and through these processes were more desiring of a collective apology. Transgressors' reluctance to issue a collective apology was not a sign of harm minimization. Indeed, they were more likely than victims to seek an interpersonal apology and less forgiving of the individual transgressors. Cognitive and motivational mechanisms were proposed, although evidence for the latter was limited.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2279   open full text
  • Perpetual ingroup victimhood as a distorted lens: Effects on attribution and categorization.
    Noa Schori‐Eyal, Yechiel Klar, Yarden Ben‐Ami.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 07, 2017
    Although the effects of group‐based victimhood on attitudes and emotions have been demonstrated in previous research, the ways it affects cognitive processes remain unclear. Four studies examined how a perpetual ingroup victimhood orientation (PIVO) affects cognitive biases. High levels of PIVO were associated with the categorization of more outgroups as hostile to the ingroup, and more rapid responses when using an enmity criterion (Study 1). PIVO was also associated with more attributions of malevolent intentions and fewer attributions of neutral intentions to outgroup members in ambiguous situations (Study 2a); when primed with reminders of historical group trauma, attribution of malevolent intentions increased among high‐ but not low‐ PIVO individuals (Study 2b). However, the effect extended to all participants when using a larger sample (Study 2c). The implications of these categorization and attributional biases are discussed in particular as regards the self‐perpetuating nature of perceived group victimhood.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2250   open full text
  • The rhetorical complexity of competitive and common victimhood in conversational discourse.
    Andrew McNeill, Samuel Pehrson, Clifford Stevenson.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 07, 2017
    Much current research on collective victimhood acknowledges the role of rhetoric but does not fully address the implications for micro‐level variation in personal expressions of victimhood. The focus has tended to be on individual differences in collective victimhood construals where people may either see their group as the sole possessor of victim status or may incorporate other groups into an inclusive category. Although recent research sees a strategic element in some ‘inclusivity’, we argue that all claims of victimhood are strategic. By using a discursive approach, we show variability in the expression of victimhood and how this accomplishes different activities in conversations. Several focus groups consisting of victims from Northern Ireland were analysed to identify presentations of victimhood and their relation to the unfolding dynamics of the conversation. We demonstrate that presentation of victimhood is an interactional concern, link this to the concept of ‘needs’ and suggest implications this might have.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2255   open full text
  • Competition over collective victimhood recognition: When perceived lack of recognition for past victimization is associated with negative attitudes towards another victimized group.
    Laura De Guissmé, Laurent Licata.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 07, 2017
    Groups that perceive themselves as victims can engage in “competitive victimhood.” We propose that, in some societal circumstances, this competition bears on the recognition of past sufferings—rather than on their relative severity—fostering negative intergroup attitudes. Three studies are presented. Study 1, a survey among Sub‐Saharan African immigrants in Belgium (N = 127), showed that a sense of collective victimhood was associated with more secondary anti‐Semitism. This effect was mediated by a sense of lack of victimhood recognition, then by the belief that this lack of recognition was due to that of Jews' victimhood, but not by competition over the severity of the sufferings. Study 2 replicated this mediation model among Muslim immigrants (N = 125). Study 3 experimentally demonstrated the negative effect of the unequal recognition of groups' victimhood on intergroup attitudes in a fictional situation involving psychology students (N = 183). Overall, these studies provide evidence that struggle for victimhood recognition can foster intergroup conflict.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2244   open full text
  • A century of victimhood: Antecedents and current impacts of perceived suffering in World War I across Europe.
    Pierre Bouchat, Laurent Licata, Valérie Rosoux, Christian Allesch, Heinrich Ammerer, Inna Bovina, Susanne Bruckmüller, Rosa Cabecinhas, Xenia Chryssochoou, J. Christopher Cohrs, István Csertő, Sylvain Delouvée, Federica Durante, Andreea Ernst‐Vintila, Christine Flassbeck, Denis Hilton, Chantal Kesteloot, Resit Kislioglu, Alice Krenn, Irina Macovei, Silvia Mari, Nebojša Petrovic, Tibor Pólya, Alberto Sá, Inari Sakki, Vladimir Turjacanin, Laurence Ypersele, Chiara Volpato, Michal Bilewicz, Olivier Klein.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 07, 2017
    The present study addresses antecedents and consequences of collective victimhood in the context of World War I (WWI) across 15 European nations (N = 2423 social science students). Using multilevel analysis, we find evidence that collective victimhood is still present a hundred years after the onset of the war and can be predicted by WWI‐related objective indicators of victimization at national and family levels. This suggests that collective victimhood is partly grounded in the actual experience of WWI. In addition, we show that sense of collective victimhood positively predicts acknowledgment of the suffering inflicted by one's nation on other countries during WWI. This is consistent with a social representation of WWI as involving a vast massacre in which nations were both victim and perpetrator. Finally, we find that objective indicators of victimization predict pacifism in divergent ways, with an indicator at the national level associated with more pacifist attitudes and an indicator at the family level being associated with less pacifist attitudes. This finding suggests that war‐torn societies may have developed social representations favouring peaceful coexistence whereas, at the family level, victimization may still foster retaliatory tendencies.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2232   open full text
  • Right‐wing authoritarianism, societal threat to safety, and psychological distress.
    Michele Roccato, Silvia Russo.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 05, 2017
    In two quasi‐experimental vignette studies, we have analyzed how societal threat to safety moderates the relation between right‐wing authoritarianism (RWA) and psychological distress. In Study 1 (Italian community sample, N = 343), we focused on depressive symptoms (measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the General Health Questionnaire). Two moderated regressions showed that the relation between RWA and both measures of depressive symptoms was positive and significant only among people exposed to a socially threatening scenario. In Study 2 (Italian student sample, N = 219), we focused on state anxiety and replicated Study 1's results. The findings indicated that, in conditions of societal threat to safety, RWA is a risk factor for psychological distress. Strengths, limitations, and possible developments of this research are discussed.
    June 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2236   open full text
  • Verbs as linguistic markers of agency: The social side of grammar.
    Magdalena Formanowicz, Janin Roessel, Caterina Suitner, Anne Maass.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 05, 2017
    Basic grammatical categories may carry social meanings irrespective of their semantic content. In a set of four studies, we demonstrate that verbs—a basic linguistic category present and distinguishable in most languages—are related to the perception of agency, a fundamental dimension of social perception. In an archival analysis of actual language use in Polish and German, we found that targets stereotypically associated with high agency (men and young people) are presented in the immediate neighborhood of a verb more often than non‐agentic social targets (women and older people). Moreover, in three experiments using a pseudo‐word paradigm, verbs (but not adjectives and nouns) were consistently associated with agency (but not with communion). These results provide consistent evidence that verbs, as grammatical vehicles of action, are linguistic markers of agency. In demonstrating meta‐semantic effects of language, these studies corroborate the view of language as a social tool and an integral part of social perception.
    June 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2231   open full text
  • Holding your flag: The effects of exposure to a regional symbol on people's behavior.
    Nicolas Guéguen, Angélique Martin, Jordy Stefan.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 30, 2017
    Research has shown that exposure to the national flag alters people's behavior and political and intergroup judgments. In several field studies conducted in an area of France with a strong regional identity, we examined the effect of the presence of the regional flag versus the national flag versus no flag on behaviors. Various situations (e.g., money solicitation, implicit helping behavior, food tasting) were tested in Brittany, on the French west Atlantic coast. Car drivers, passersby in the street, and patrons in bakeries were exposed to no flag versus the French flag versus the Brittany flag held by requesters or presented on a product or on a car. Findings showed that the regional flag increased helping behavior dramatically. Other studies also revealed that the presence of the Brittany flag reduced aggressiveness and influenced preference for food products. The power of a flag as a symbol that could increase in‐group membership is discussed.
    May 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2239   open full text
  • Paradoxes of praise: Identity‐inconsistent praise results in praise‐inconsistent responses.
    Anna Rabinovich, Thomas A. Morton.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 30, 2017
    In four experimental studies, we explored the effect of consistency between central group values and the content of group‐directed praise on group‐based esteem, group identification, and willingness to express attitudes and intentions (in)consistent with the content of praise. Study 1 used pre‐existing groups with clearly defined central values, Study 2 relied on individual differences in perceptions of central group values within the same social group, and Studies 3 and 4 manipulated the centrality of group values experimentally. The results demonstrated that identity‐inconsistent praise resulted in lower group‐based esteem (Studies 1–4), and reduced group identification (Study 4), as compared to identity‐consistent praise. In addition, in all studies, identity‐inconsistent praise led to stronger willingness to reaffirm (the ignored) central group characteristics than identity‐consistent praise. The results are consistent with extensions of the self‐verification approach to the collective self.
    May 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2243   open full text
  • Too hot to help! Exploring the impact of ambient temperature on helping.
    Liuba Y. Belkin, Maryam Kouchaki.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 30, 2017
    Building on the conservation of resources model, we conducted three studies to explore the link between ambient temperature and individual prosocial behavior. In study 1, analyzing the two‐wave field data from a chain of retail stores in Eastern Europe, we find that, in hot, as opposed to normal temperatures, employees are less likely to act in a prosocial manner. In study 2, we replicate and extend these findings in a randomized controlled experiment by identifying mechanisms underlying the relationship between hot ambient temperature and helping behavior. Specifically, we find that heat increases fatigue that leads to reduction in positive affect and subsequently reduces individual helping. Finally, in study 3, we replicate these findings in a field experiment. Taken together, our study helps to explain how and through what mechanisms ambient temperature influences individual helping. The theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed.
    May 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2242   open full text
  • Men in pink collars: Stereotype threat and disengagement among male teachers and child protection workers.
    Elise K. Kalokerinos, Kathleen Kjelsaas, Steven Bennetts, Courtney Hippel.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 30, 2017
    Male employees are a traditionally advantaged group, but when working in a female‐dominated industry they may be vulnerable to negative gender stereotypes. The current research examined stereotype threat among men in two traditionally feminine jobs. Study 1 measured stereotype threat among primary school teachers and found that men experienced more stereotype threat than women, and that feelings of stereotype threat were related to negative job attitudes for men but not women. Study 2 manipulated the direction of social comparisons to elicit stereotype threat among male child protection workers. For men but not women, upward social comparisons with a successful feminine target elicited stereotype threat. In turn, stereotype threat was associated with intentions to resign and feeling expected to perform stereotypic masculine work tasks. These results suggest that despite their advantaged status, men in pink‐collar jobs are susceptible to workplace stereotype threat.
    May 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2246   open full text
  • Choosing between conciliatory and oppositional leaders: The role of out‐group signals and in‐group leader candidates’ collective action tactics.
    Leda Blackwood, Winnifred Louis.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 26, 2017
    In this paper we examine the role of out‐group signals and in‐group leader tactics in the choice and evaluation of rival in‐group leader candidates. Study 1 found preference for a negotiating in‐group leader over an oppositional leader, mediated by perceived leader effectiveness and prototypicality. In Study 2 participants chose a leader who had received out‐group endorsement and in Studies 3 and 4, participants chose a negotiating in‐group leader where the out‐group was prepared to negotiate and an oppositional leader where the out‐group was not prepared to negotiate. In the latter three studies, there was evidence for participants being strategic in their choices: effects were mediated by effectiveness but not prototypicality. These findings suggest our understanding of collective action will be enriched through attention to the situational cues provided by out‐groups, and to the context of competing voices of collective action leadership.
    May 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2249   open full text
  • Explaining Unexplainable Food Choices.
    Marieke A. Adriaanse, Floor M. Kroese, Jonas Weijers, Peter M. Gollwitzer, Gabriele Oettingen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    In recent years, psychologists have started to investigate the downstream consequences of nonconsciously activated behaviour (acting in an ‘explanatory vacuum’). Results have shown that when such behaviour is norm‐violating, people experience a need to confabulate reasons for this behaviour. The present paper aims to add more convincing evidence for this assumption. Study 1 addresses this question by replicating Study 2 of Adriaanse et al. (2014) while adding a condition in which people are post‐hoc provided with an explanation for their behaviour. Study 2 addresses this question by explicitly demanding an explanation for a nonconsciously steered choice. Both studies were conducted in the context of eating behaviour. Results of both studies were indicative of confabulation as a downstream consequence of nonconsciously steered eating behaviour (Study 1) or food choice (Study 2). Future research should address the potential of confabulated reasons spilling over to next occasions.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2273   open full text
  • When Criticism is Ineffective: The Case of Historical Trauma and Unsupportive Allies.
    Gilad Hirschberger, Uri Lifshin, Stephanie Seeman, Tsachi Ein‐Dor, Tom Pyszczynski.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    Three studies examined the effect of historical trauma reminders and criticism from international allies on attitudes toward current conflicts. In Study 1, Israeli participants (N = 116) were primed with the Holocaust, and read either that US President Obama supports Israel's right to defend itself and attack Iran, or that he opposes such action. Then, support for preemptive violence was assessed. Study 2 (N = 133) replicated this design, comparing inclusive and exclusive framings of the Holocaust. Study 3 (N = 478), examined the effect of Holocaust reminders and criticism from the EU on attitudes toward militant policies against Palestinians. All three studies found that Holocaust primes juxtaposed with international criticism increased support for aggression, especially under exclusive framings of the Holocaust. Study 3, however, found this effect only among left‐wing participants. These findings indicate that when historical trauma is salient, international criticism may be ineffective and may even backfire (150 words).
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2253   open full text
  • Values‐Related Goals and Vocational Choice: The Effect of Temporal Distance.
    Yaron Elias, Ravit Nussinson, Sonia Roccas.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2286   open full text
  • Dissonance and abstraction: Cognitive conflict leads to higher level of construal.
    Sebastian Cancino‐Montecinos, Fredrik Björklund, Torun Lindholm.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    This study investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on abstract thinking. According to action‐identification theory, an ambiguous and unfamiliar situation might propel an individual to a more abstract mindset. Based on this premise, cognitive conflict was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter‐attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that an abstract mindset was in fact activated in the induced compliance paradigm, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. The results suggest that the experience of cognitive conflict is closely related to increased abstraction.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2287   open full text
  • Wealth inequality and activism: Perceiving injustice galvanizes social change but perceptions depend on political ideologies.
    Crystal L. Hoyt, Aaron J. Moss, Jeni L. Burnette, Annette Schieffelin, Abigail Goethals.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    What motivates people to engage in activism against wealth inequality? The simple answer is, perceiving injustice. However, the current work demonstrates that these perceptions depend on political ideologies. More specifically, for political liberals who frequently question the fairness of the economic system, messages simply describing the extent of the inequality (distributive injustice) are enough to motivate activism (Study 1). For political conservatives, who are inclined to believe that inequality results from fair procedures, messages must also detail how the system of economic forces is unjust (procedural injustice; Studies 2 and 3). Together, these studies suggest perceiving injustice can galvanize social change, but for conservatives, this means more than simply outlining the extent of the inequality.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2289   open full text
  • Why are Conservatives Happier than Liberals? Comparing Different Explanations Based on System Justification, Multiple Group Membership, and Positive Adjustment.
    Sebastian Butz, Pascal Kieslich, Herbert Bless.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    The present study examined the relation between conservatism and life satisfaction. Analyses based on data from a representative German survey (ALLBUS 2010) revealed a positive relation between conservatism and self‐reported life satisfaction, thus supporting prior claims of this link. Different accounts have been proposed for this relationship, suggesting system justification, positive adjustment, or multiple group membership as potential mediators. Going beyond prior research, the present study allowed for a comparison between these different mechanisms. Analyses revealed that system justification and one of the three examined constructs related to positive adjustment (i.e., religiosity) were significant mediators of the positive relationship between political conservatism and life satisfaction. Comparable results were obtained after controlling for a number of sociodemographic variables.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2283   open full text
  • Attachment insecurities, life satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction from a dyadic perspective: The role of positive and negative affect.
    Fernando Molero, Phillip Shaver, Itziar Fernández, Patricia Recio.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    The purpose of this research is to examine the association between attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and both subjective well‐being (positive and negative affect and life satisfaction) and relationship satisfaction. 174 Spanish heterosexual couples with a mean length of relationship of 13.9 years participated in the study. The hypotheses were tested according to the Actor‐Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). We proposed a model in which positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) could mediate the association between attachment insecurities and life and relationship satisfaction. Results show that: 1) actor effects are more frequent than partner effects; 2) anxious attachment tends to be related to NA and avoidant attachment to PA; 3) avoidance is more detrimental than anxiety for relationship satisfaction at individual and dyadic levels, and 4) there are some mediational effects of NA and PA in the association between attachment insecurities and life and relationship satisfaction.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2276   open full text
  • From Segregation to Intergroup Contact and Back: Using Experiments and Simulation to Understand the Bidirectional Link.
    Elmar Schlüter, Johannes Ullrich, Andreas Glenz, Peter Schmidt.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    Research on intergroup contact has mostly viewed desegregation as a necessary condition for contact to unfold its power to reduce prejudice. Through residential and school choices, however, prejudice also contributes to segregation. To shed light on this bidirectional link, we conducted two survey‐based experiments with stratified quota samples of German adults. In Study 1, respondents with less contact and more prejudice indicated a lower likelihood of renting an apartment in a neighborhood with a larger proportion of minority members, although housing quality and crime rate were held constant. In Study 2, similar results were obtained for the likelihood of enrolling their child at a school with a larger proportion of minority students. Building on these results in a computer simulation, we find that because contact only reduces prejudice, but does not produce pro‐minority preferences, spontaneous desegregation is unlikely to occur even under the most favorable structural and economic conditions.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2284   open full text
  • Interpersonal Attraction in Dyads and Groups: Effects of the Hearts of the Beholder and the Beheld.
    Thomas E. Malloy.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    Dyadic interpersonal attraction (IA) was studied within groups of very highly acquainted family members, friends and co‐workers. IA was determined by the perceiver (i.e., the heart of the beholder), the target (i.e., the heart of the beheld), and in specific dyads, by the unique combination of the two. The consistency of one‘s attraction to others and others‘ attraction to the person across groups were addressed using the key person design. Attraction to a person in one group was independent of attraction to that person in another, although people predicted that members of different groups were similarly attracted to them. A new model (ARRMA) was specified to simultaneously study assumed reciprocity, actual reciprocity, and metaperception accuracy of attraction (i.e., accurate predictions of others‘ attraction to oneself). Assumed reciprocity of IA was substantial at the individual and dyadic levels. Reciprocity of attraction at the individual level, a heretofore unconfirmed “plausible hypothesis” (Newcomb, 1979), was supported; dyadic reciprocity was weak. Meta‐accuracy of IA was observed among individuals but was weak in dyads. Perceived interpersonal similarity predicted IA among individuals and in specific dyads. Considering dyadic attraction within and between groups, and the use of componential analysis permitted the specification of new IA phenomena and resolved a long standing theoretical problem regarding the reciprocity of attraction.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2324   open full text
  • Nostalgia Motivates Pursuit of Important Goals by Increasing Meaning in Life.
    Constantine Sedikides, Wing‐Yee Cheung, Tim Wildschut, Erica G. Hepper, Einar Baldursson, Bendt Pedersen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    This research focused on existential and motivational implications of the emotion of nostalgia. Nostalgia (relative to control) increased meaning in life, which, in turn, galvanised intentions to pursue one‘s most important goal (Experiment 1) and to pursue one‘s most important, but not least important, goal (Experiment 2). The basic pattern held in two cultures (British and Danish) independently of positive affect. This is first evidence that nostalgia has specific motivational consequences (i.e., pursuit of more, but not less, important goals) and transmits these consequences via meaning in life. Also, this is first evidence that meaning is associated with specific motivational consequences. Discussion considers the relevance of the findings for the emotion and motivation literatures.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2318   open full text
  • I feel you feel what I feel: Perceived perspective‐taking promotes victims‘ conciliatory attitudes because of inferred emotions in the offender.
    Mariëtte Berndsen, Michael Wenzel, Emma F. Thomas, Breeanna Noske.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 25, 2017
    In the context of bullying in a nursing workplace, we test the argument that an offender‘s perspective‐taking promotes victim conciliation, mediated by perceived perspective‐taking, that is, the extent to which the victim perceives the offender as taking their perspective. Perceived perspective‐taking facilitates the attribution of moral emotions (remorse, etc.) to the offender, thereby promoting conciliatory victim responses. However, perceived perspective‐taking would be qualified by the extent to which the severity of consequences expressed in the offender‘s perspective‐taking matches or surpasses the severity for the victim. In Studies 1 and 2 (Ns = 141 and 122), victims indicated greater trust and/or forgiveness when the offender had taken the victim‘s perspective. This was sequentially mediated by perceived perspective‐taking and victim‘s inference that the offender had felt moral emotions. As predicted, in Study 2 (but not Study 1) severity of consequences qualified victims‘ perceived perspective‐taking. Study 3 (N = 138) examined three potential mechanisms for the moderation by severity. Victims attributed greater perspective‐taking to the offender when the consequences were less severe than voiced by the offender, suggesting victims‘ appreciation of the offender‘s generous appraisal. Attributions of perspective‐taking and of moral emotions to the offender may play an important role in reconciliation processes.
    May 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2321   open full text
  • The Visual Influence of Ostracism.
    Marius Golubickis, Arash Sahraie, Amelia R. Hunt, Aleksandar Visokomogilski, Pavlos Topalidis, C. Neil Macrae.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Reflecting the fundamental human need to establish and maintain positive connections with others, it has been suggested that an Ostracism Detection System (ODS) is sensitized to targets by which one has been ostracized. Evidence supporting the operation of this system has yet to be provided, however. Accordingly, using binocular rivalry to explore attentional processing, here we considered the extent to which targets previously associated with ostracism dominate visual awareness. Participants initially performed a virtual ball‐tossing game (i.e., Cyberball) in which they were ‘ostracized’ or ‘included’ by the other players. Afterwards, the faces of these players were presented together with houses in a binocular rivalry task. The results revealed that targets associated with ostracism (vs. inclusion) dominated longest in visual awareness.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2305   open full text
  • When Intergroup Apology is Not Enough: Seeking Help and Reactions to Receiving Help among Members of Low Status Groups.
    Samer Halabi, John F. Dovidio, Arie Nadler.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Relations between groups are characterized by competition and suspicion. As a consequence, members of low status groups may question the meaning of apologies offered by a high status group, especially under unstable status relations. In two experiments, the present research investigated the role of the intergroup versus interpersonal apology and the potential moderating effect of the stability of intergroup relations on low status group members’ (a) help seeking (Study 1) and (b) responses to receiving help (Study 2) from a high status group. Consistent with our hypotheses, when status relations were unstable rather than stable, following a formal intergroup relative to an interpersonal apology by an Israeli official, Israeli‐Arab students sought less dependency‐oriented and more autonomy‐oriented help from an Israeli‐Jewish study coordinator (Study 1) and Jewish‐Ethiopian newcomers reacted more negatively when they read about an Ethiopian‐Jewish student receiving unsolicited dependency‐oriented help from an Israeli‐Jewish college student (Study 2). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2309   open full text
  • Group identity as a source of threat and means of compensation: Establishing personal control through group identification and ideology.
    Chris Goode, Lucas A. Keefer, Nyla R. Branscombe, Ludwin E. Molina.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Compensatory control theory proposes that individuals can assuage threatened personal control by endorsing external systems or agents that provide a sense that the world is meaningfully ordered. Recent research drawing on this perspective finds that one means by which individuals can compensate for a loss of control is adherence to ideological beliefs about the social world. This prior work, however, has largely neglected the role of social groups in defining either the nature of control threat or the means by which individuals compensate for these threats. In four experiments (N = 466) we test the possibility that group‐based threats to personal control can be effectively managed by defensively identifying with the threatened group and its values. We provide evidence for the specificity of these effects by demonstrating that defensive identification and ideology endorsement are specific to the content of the group‐based threat.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2259   open full text
  • Addicted to answers: Need for cognitive closure and the endorsement of conspiracy beliefs.
    Marta Marchlewska, Aleksandra Cichocka, Małgorzata Kossowska.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Conspiracy theories offer simple answers to complex problems by providing explanations for uncertain situations. Thus, they should be attractive to individuals who are intolerant of uncertainty and seek cognitive closure. We hypothesized that need for cognitive closure (NFCC) should foster conspiracy beliefs about events that lack clear official explanations, especially when conspiracy theories are temporarily salient. In Experiment 1 NFCC positively predicted the endorsement of a conspiracy theory behind the refugee crisis, especially when conspiratorial explanations were made salient. Experiment 2 showed that when conspiratorial explanations were made salient, NFCC positively predicted beliefs in conspiracies behind a mysterious plane crash. However, the link between NFCC and beliefs in conspiratorial explanations was reversed in the case of a plane crash with an official, non‐conspiratorial, explanation for the accident. In conclusion, people high (vs. low) in NFCC seize on conspiratorial explanations for uncertain events when such explanations are situationally accessible.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2308   open full text
  • Superheroes for Change: Physical Safety Promotes Socially (but Not Economically) Progressive Attitudes among Conservatives.
    Jaime L. Napier, Julie Huang, Andrew J. Vonasch, John A. Bargh.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Across two studies, we find evidence for our prediction that experimentally increasing feelings of physical safety increases conservatives’ socially progressive attitudes. Specifically, Republican and conservative participants who imagined being endowed with a superpower that made them invulnerable to physical harm (vs. the ability to fly) were more socially (but not economically) liberal (Study 1) and less resistant to social change (Study 2). Results suggest that socially (but not economically) conservative attitudes are driven, at least in part, by needs for safety and security.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2315   open full text
  • Stigma Consciousness Modulates Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress in Women.
    David Matthew Doyle, Lisa Molix.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Abstract The aim of the current study was to examine whether stigma consciousness shapes cortisol responses to social stress among women in the lab. Undergraduate women (N = 45) completed background measures and then participated in a public speaking task, with assessments of cortisol prior to the stressor as well as 20‐ and 40‐minutes post stressor onset. Results from multilevel models revealed that women higher in stigma consciousness evidenced blunted cortisol reactivity following social stress across the study session compared to women lower in stigma consciousness. This interaction was robust to adjustment for a number of covariates, including demographic (e.g., age), physiological (e.g., menstrual cycle) and psychological (e.g., depressive symptomatology) factors. Potential explanations for observed cortisol patterns are discussed, including hypo‐reactivity of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis and elevated anticipatory stress. To conclude, implications for health disparities research are considered.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2310   open full text
  • Is regulatory focus related to minimal and maximal standards? Depends on how you ask!
    Fanny Lalot, Alain Quiamzade, Juan Manuel Falomir‐Pichastor.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Regulatory focus theory suggests that hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) function like maximal goals, whereas duties and responsibilities (prevention focus) function like minimal goals (Brendl & Higgins, 1996). However, past research has not always reliably found such a link between regulatory focus and maximal/minimal goals or standards. In the present research, we hypothesised that this inconsistency can be explained, at least in part, by conceptual differences resulting in the use of different, specific wording. In four studies, we compared wording in terms of the relative magnitude of the goals to wording in terms of their absolute versus gradual perception. Results showed that regulatory focus (manipulated or measured) consistently relates to maximal versus minimal standards framed as goals of different magnitudes, but not to the goals framed according to an absolute/gradual perception. Implication of the results for regulatory focus research is discussed.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2314   open full text
  • Dancing is belonging! How social networks mediate the effect of a dance intervention on students’ sense of belonging to their classroom.
    Madeleine Kreutzmann, Lysann Zander, Gregory D. Webster.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    What does it take to feel you belong? Using a sample of 606 students in 30 classrooms, with 15 classrooms participating in a school‐based dance intervention, we examined intra‐ and extrapsychic sources of social belonging using social network analysis. Whereas outdegree (the number of outgoing liking nominations to classmates) served as a proxy variable for students’ active acceptance of others, indegree (the number of ingoing liking nominations from other peers) served as a proxy variable for the passive acceptance by others. Both measures should account for changes in students’ sense of belonging to their classroom. Multilevel longitudinal mediation analyses supported our predictions—increased belonging related to increasing acceptance by others and of others, which were experienced by students participating in the dance intervention for a year (vs. a non‐treated control group). We discuss our findings within the current debate on the use of distal variables to explain intrapsychic constructs.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2319   open full text
  • Fighting Ageism through Nostalgia.
    Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides, Rhiannon Turner.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Two experiments tested whether nostalgia a resource for fighting ageism. In Experiment 1, younger adults who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary) encounter with an older adult showed a more positive attitude toward older adults, mediated by greater inclusion of older adults in the self (IOGS). In Experiment 2, these findings were replicated and extended with a subtle nostalgia manipulation. Younger adults identified an older, familiar adult, before writing about an encounter with this person that was characterised by either central (e.g., “keepsakes,” “childhood”) or peripheral (e.g., “wishing,” “daydreaming”) features of the construct of nostalgia (i.e., prototype). Participants who recalled a central (vs. peripheral) nostalgic encounter reported greater social connectedness, which predicted increased IOGS. In turn, increased IOGS was associated with lower desire to avoid older adults. Several alternative explanations for the intergroup benefits of nostalgia were ruled out. The research established that nostalgia qualifies as a resource for combatting ageism.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2317   open full text
  • When ‘who we are’ and ‘who I desire to be’ appear disconnected: Introducing collective/personal self‐discrepancies and investigating their relations with minority students’ psychological health.
    Regine Debrosse, Maya Rossignac‐Milon, Donald M. Taylor.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    According to Self‐Discrepancy Theory research, perceiving mismatches between personal aspects of the self‐concept is associated with negative psychological consequences, including depression and anxiety. However, the impact of perceiving mismatches between collective and personal self‐aspects is still unknown. In a first step to address this gap, we introduce collective/personal self‐discrepancies—perceived mismatches between a desired self‐aspect and a collective identity. For ethnic minority group members (n = 147), collective/ personal self‐discrepancies were associated with more severe anxiety and depression symptoms. Bootstrapping analyses suggest that these relations are mediated by self‐discrepancies experienced at the personal level, but only for group members presenting average or high levels of ethnic identification. This study reaffirms the importance of collective identities, especially as potential antecedents of issues with personal aspects of the self‐concept. The findings are further discussed in terms of their significance for ethnic minority group members, who often highly identify with their minority groups.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2320   open full text
  • Racial phenotypicality bias in educational expectations for both male and female teenagers from different socioeconomic backgrounds.
    Joke Meeus, Javiera Paredes Mayor, Roberto González, Rupert Brown, Jorge Manzi.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    In three experiments (N = 56, 99, and 225) we showed that racial phenotypicality bias characterizes educational expectations for Chilean mestizo students: Participants displayed more positive educational expectations for light complexioned than for dark complexioned high school students. In Study 1, with male high school target students, the relation between racial phenotypic appearance and educational expectations was mediated by differences in perceived competence. Study 2 suggests that the gender of the target student did not influence the occurrence of racial phenotypicality bias. Study 3 showed that racial phenotypicality bias occurs in both university students and high school teachers’ judgements. Although socio‐economic (SES) background of the target student partially explained the effects of racial phenotypic appearance (especially in teachers), the latter exerted an additional and independent influence on educational expectations. These results underline the fact that effects of racial phenotypicality bias should not be overlooked in the educational domain. As mediational analyses suggested, these effects only partly occur because of stereotypical associations between racial phenotypic appearance and SES background, but also because of stereotypical associations between racial phenotypic appearance and attributed competence.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2247   open full text
  • Implicit Self and the Right Hemisphere:Increasing Implicit Self‐Esteem and Implicit Positive Affect by Left Hand Contractions.
    Markus Quirin, Stephanie Fröhlich, Julius Kuhl.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Unilateral hand contraction typically activates the contralateral hemisphere and has led to changes in psychological states and performances in previous research. Based on a right hemisphere model of the implicit self, we hypothesized and found that left hand contraction increases momentary levels of implicit self‐esteem (Studies 1 and 2) and implicit positive affect (Study 3). The findings are discussed with respect to potential differences between the hemispheres in implicit and explicit affective processing and how they can be integrated in the existing literature on hemisphere asymmetries.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2281   open full text
  • Trust Maintenance as a Function of Construal Level and Attributions: The Case of Apologies.
    Gijs Houwelingen, Marius Dijke, David De Cremer.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    When do recipients of an apology (‘trustors’) base their decision to trust a perpetrator (a ‘trustee’) on the attributional information embedded in an apology? Attributions provide a detailed account of the trustee's causal involvement in committing a transgression. We therefore argue that trustors in a low construal level mindset use this information in their trusting decision. However, trustors in a high construal level mindset likely consider all apologies as simple statements of regret, regardless of the attributional information they contain. We find support for this argument in four laboratory experiments. This research nuances the idea that to restore trust by means of an apology, the trustee must only use an effective attribution for a negative outcome. We also present a more realistic understanding of the process leading from apologies to trust than has been offered in previous work by simultaneously considering the role of the trustor and that of the trustee in the trust restoration process.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2291   open full text
  • Observers' Judgments of Identification Accuracy are Affected by Non‐Valid Cues: A Brunswikian Lens Model Analysis.
    Kristina S. Kaminski, Siegfried L. Sporer.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    This study investigated persuasive effects of behavior cues on observers’ judgments of eyewitness identification decisions. Forty‐eight positive identification statements (50% of which were objectively correct) were evaluated regarding witness likeability, trustworthiness, knowledge and impression of confidence. Moreover, ratings of different speech style characteristics (e.g., hedges, hesitations, gestures, speech rate, answer length) and of different person and event description qualities were collected. It was investigated (1) whether these cues were related to objective identification accuracy and (2) whether observers used them to make their judgments and how they weighted them. Observers heavily relied on the impression of witness confidence and overestimated the discriminative value of several description qualities, although none of these cues was a valid indicator of identification accuracy. Effects of speech style characteristics depended on the presence of additional descriptions. Recommendations for the evaluation of identification decisions in criminal proceedings are discussed.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2293   open full text
  • Using Nostalgia to Reduce Immigration Prejudice.
    Maria Gravani, Anastasia Soureti, Sofia Stathi.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2294   open full text
  • Competence and confusion: How stereotype threat can make you a bad judge of your competence.
    Una Tellhed, Caroline Adolfsson.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Women tend to have competence doubts for masculine‐stereotyped domains (e.g. math), while men tend to think they can handle both feminine‐stereotyped and masculine‐stereotyped domains equally well (e.g. Watt, 2010). We suggest that perhaps women's more frequent experience with stereotype threat (Pillaud et al., 2015) can partly explain why. Our results showed that when stereotype threat was primed in high school students (n = 244), there was no relationship between their performance on an academic test (the SweSAT) and their assessment of their performance (how well they did), while in a non‐stereotype threat condition, there was a medium‐sized relationship. The effect was similar for both men and women primed with stereotype threat. The results imply that stereotype threat undermines performance assessments.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2307   open full text
  • Seeking revenge or seeking reconciliation? How concern for social‐image and felt shame helps explain responses in reciprocal intergroup conflict.
    Nicolay Gausel, Colin Wayne Leach, Agostino Mazziotta, Friederike Feuchte.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    In conflicts with reciprocal violence, individuals belong to a group that has been both perpetrator and victim. In a field experiment in Liberia, West Africa, we led participants (N = 146) to focus on their group as either perpetrator or victim in order to investigate its effect on orientation toward inter‐group reconciliation or revenge. Compared to a perpetrator focus, a victim focus led to slightly more revenge orientation and moderately less reconciliation orientation. The effect of the focus manipulation on revenge orientation was fully mediated, and reconciliation orientation partly mediated, by viewing the in‐group's social‐image as at risk. Independent of perpetrator or victim focus, shame (but not guilt) was a distinct explanation of moderately more reconciliation orientation. This is consistent with a growing body of work demonstrating the pro‐social potential of shame. Taken together, results suggest how groups in reciprocal conflict might be encouraged toward reconciliation and away from revenge by feeling shame for their wrongdoing and viewing their social‐image as less at risk.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2295   open full text
  • Uncertainty and Prejudice: The Role of Religiosity in Shaping Group Attitudes.
    Maciej Sekerdej, Małgorzata Kossowska, Aneta Czernatowicz‐Kukuczka.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 24, 2017
    Past research indicates that being religious is frequently motivated by the need to avoid uncertainty, and associated with prejudice against value‐violating groups. The present research clarifies these previous findings and shows for the first time a causal link between a sense of uncertainty and group attitudes through religiosity and the perception of the target group's mindset. Study 1 demonstrates that belief in God is associated with uncertainty avoidance, and increases prejudice against value‐violating groups, but simultaneously increases positive attitudes towards value‐consistent groups. Study 2 demonstrates experimentally that a sense of uncertainty shapes intergroup attitudes when the relationship is mediated through the belief in God, and the perception that a target group actually violated perceiver's values. The results corroborate and broaden previous findings on religiosity, ambiguity avoidance and prejudice, and for the first time show a causal link between a sense of uncertainty and attitudes towards value‐violating and value‐consistent groups.
    May 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2298   open full text
  • Hurt feelings and four letter words: Swearing alleviates the pain of social distress.
    Michael C. Philipp, Laura Lombardo.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    Methods for alleviating physical pain are increasingly found to attenuate social pain. Recent evidence suggests that swearing may attenuate sensitivity to physical pain. This study examined whether swearing similarly attenuates two consequences of social distress: social pain and exclusion‐induced hyperalgesia. Sixty‐two people wrote about an autobiographical experience of exclusion or inclusion. Then they repeated a swear or neutral word for 2 minutes followed by measures of social and physical pain. Excluded non‐swearers reported feeling more social pain and greater sensitivity to physical pain compared with included non‐swearers. Excluded swearers reported less social pain than excluded non‐swearers and no heightened sensitivity to physical pain. The findings suggest that social and physical pain are functionally similar and that swearing attenuates social pain.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2264   open full text
  • In‐group relevance facilitates learning across existing and new associations.
    Zahra Zargol Moradi, Jie Sui, Miles Hewstone, Glyn William Humphreys.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    Studies have shown that attention prioritizes stimuli associated with the in‐group. However, the extent to which this so‐called in‐group favoritism is driven by relevance is not clear. Here, we investigated this issue in a group of university rowers using a novel perceptual matching task based on the team label–color associations. Across three experiments, participants showed enhanced performance for the in‐group stimulus regardless of its familiarity level. These findings confirmed the role of relevance in in‐group favoritism. In a further control study, the advantage for certain stimuli was not found in an independent sample of participants who were not identified with the teams but were familiar with the label–color associations, indicating that in‐group relevance was necessary for the in‐group favoritism. Together, these findings suggest that in‐group relevance facilitates learning across existing and new associations. The consequences of these findings for understanding in‐group effects on perceptual processing are discussed.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2257   open full text
  • Are the ethnically tolerant free of discrimination, prejudice and political intolerance?
    Boris Bizumic, Amanda Kenny, Ravi Iyer, Juliet Tanuwira, Elizabeth Huxley.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    We hypothesized that the ethnically tolerant (i.e., people who are anti‐ethnocentric and score very low on a measure of ethnocentrism) would perceive people with extremely incompatible values and beliefs as out‐groups and would engage in discrimination, prejudice and political intolerance against them. Experiments among Australian citizens in Studies 1 (N = 224) and 2 (N = 283) showed that the ethnically tolerant perceived supporters of a message in favour of mandatory detention of asylum seekers as out‐groups and consequently exhibited discrimination, prejudice and political intolerance against them. Study 3 with 265 U.S. citizens showed that, controlling for liberalism, ethnic tolerance led to prejudice against out‐groups. This was replicated with 522 UK citizens in Study 4, which also showed that social identity, and not moral conviction, mediated the link between ethnic tolerance and prejudice. The findings suggest that the ethnically tolerant can be discriminatory, prejudiced and politically intolerant against fellow humans.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2263   open full text
  • Allowing the victim to draw a line in history: Intergroup apology effectiveness as a function of collective autonomy support.
    Frank J. Kachanoff, Julie Caouette, Michael J. A. Wohl, Donald M. Taylor.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    We tested whether intergroup apology effectiveness increases when the apology is collective autonomy supportive (i.e., victimized group members are told they have the choice to accept or reject the apology). In Experiment 1, university students who received a collective autonomy supportive (compared to a collective autonomy unsupportive or basic) apology for derogatory remarks made by a rival university perceived the apology as more empathic. This, in turn, heightened intergroup forgiveness. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this effect in the context of the friendly fire killing of Canadian soldiers in Afghanistan by the United States. Canadians in the collective autonomy supportive condition felt more empowered and were less critical of the apology. Sequential mediation analyses revealed that collective autonomy support had an indirect effect on intergroup forgiveness through empowerment and empathic support of the apology. Findings suggest the apology–forgiveness link strengthens when the victimized group's collective autonomy is explicitly acknowledged.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2260   open full text
  • Too special to be duped: Need for uniqueness motivates conspiracy beliefs.
    Roland Imhoff, Pia Karoline Lamberty.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    Adding to the growing literature on the antecedents of conspiracy beliefs, this paper argues that a small part in motivating the endorsement of such seemingly irrational beliefs is the desire to stick out from the crowd, the need for uniqueness. Across three studies, we establish a modest but robust association between the self‐attributed need for uniqueness and a general conspirational mindset (conspiracy mentality) as well as the endorsement of specific conspiracy beliefs. Following up on previous findings that people high in need for uniqueness resist majority and yield to minority influence, Study 3 experimentally shows that a fictitious conspiracy theory received more support by people high in conspiracy mentality when this theory was said to be supported by only a minority (vs. majority) of survey respondents. Together, these findings support the notion that conspiracy beliefs can be adopted as a means to attain a sense of uniqueness.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2265   open full text
  • Seeing faces: The role of brand visual processing and social connection in brand liking.
    Ulrich R. Orth, T. Bettina Cornwell, Jana Ohlhoff, Christiane Naber.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    This paper investigates how brands ‐ through visuals ‐ can fill a void for consumers experiencing a lack of social connection. Using psychometric measures and mock advertisements with visuals of human faces and non‐faces, Study 1 shows that seeing faces relates to greater brand liking with processing fluency mediating, and individual loneliness and tendency to anthropomorphize moderating the effect. Study 2 replicates findings with other‐race faces corroborating that fluency but not ethnic self‐referencing underlies the effect. Study 3 complements the psychometric measures of Studies 1 and 2 with eye tracking data to demonstrate that fluency correlates with distinct patterns of attention. Study 4 uses actual brand stimuli to show that effects are robust and extend beyond advertisements. Taken together, the findings show that communicating brand names in conjunction with visuals seen by consumers as human faces, can increase brand liking.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2245   open full text
  • It's written all over your face: Socially rejected people display microexpressions that are detectable after training in the Micro Expression Training Tool (METT).
    Kelly McDonald, Ian R. Newby‐Clark, Jennifer Walker, Kallee Henselwood.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    Social rejection is a powerful negative emotional experience, yet rejected people often appear stoic and unmoved. That is, their macroexpressions of emotion are not accurate reflections of their emotional states. Yet, there is reason to believe that rejected people exhibit involuntary microexpressions of negative emotion. We contrasted people's macroexpressions of emotion with their microexpressions subsequent to an acceptance or rejection experience. Observers coded microexpressions after being trained with the Micro Expression Training Tool (METT). Rejected participants expressed more sad and angry microexpressions than did accepted participants. This research demonstrates that socially rejected people display negative microexpressions that are detectable by observers trained in the METT.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2301   open full text
  • Congruity of Observed Social Support Behaviors and Couple Relationship Quality.
    Chong Man Chow, Holly Ruhl.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    This study examined the role of congruity in couples' social support behaviors on relational outcomes. Participants (N=123 couples, Mage=26.91, SD=8.46) completed surveys on relationship satisfaction and discord. Positive and negative behaviors were then observed during supportive interactions. Results revealed that the detrimental effect of negative behaviors on satisfaction was buffered by a partner's engagement in fewer negative behaviors or intensified by more negative behaviors. Further, the beneficial effect of positive behaviors on reducing discord was amplified by a partner's engagement in more positive behaviors or offset by fewer positive behaviors. Lastly, the detrimental effect of negative behaviors on discord was buffered by a partner's engagement in more positive behaviors. These findings highlight the complex nature of dyadic relationships and provide insights for developing interventions focused on improving romantic relationship quality.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2302   open full text
  • Will We Be Harmed, Will It Be Severe, Can We Protect Ourselves? Threat Appraisals Predict Collective Angst (and Its Consequences).
    Nassim Tabri, Michael J. A. Wohl, Julie Caouette.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    Across four studies, we applied the cognitive model of anxiety (Clark & Beck, 2010) to explicate the appraisals that elicit collective angst (i.e., concern for the ingroup's future vitality). In Study 1a, consistent with the model, Québécois experienced collective angst when they appraised a threat 1) as likely to harm their group, 2) as severely harming their group, and 3) appraised Québécois as not having efficacy to protect their group. In Study 1b, results were replicated in the context of the realistic threat that Islamic extremists pose to Christian‐Lebanese. In Studies 2a and 2b, we manipulated the three appraisals and found a similar pattern of results in the context of a potential terrorist attack on American soil by Islamic extremists. Importantly, collective angst mediated the threat appraisal effect on (non‐Muslim) Americans' prejudice towards Muslims. The utility of the appraisal model for regulating collective angst (and thus its consequences) are discussed.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2303   open full text
  • Intergroup Threat, Social Dominance and the Malleability of Ideology: The Importance of Conceptual Replication.
    Elodie Roebroeck, Serge Guimond.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    The theory of malleable ideology of Knowles, Lowery, Chow and Hogan (2009) predicts that, under intergroup threat, anti‐egalitarian individuals will exploit the malleable character of color‐blindness and strategically claim to be strong supporters of it. In three studies conducted in France, we found no support for this theory when measuring color‐blindness but strong support when using measures of laïcité, an ideology of secularism. Indeed, those who score low on social dominance orientation (SDO) were more likely to support laïcité than anti‐egalitarian individuals. However, a situational threat (Study 1), a symbolic threat experimentally induced (Study 2), and a perceived symbolic threat (Study 3) were all related to increased support for laïcité by people high in SDO, without affecting those low in SDO. Thus, laïcité is a malleable ideology which can be adopted by individuals having contrasting motivations, as color‐blindness in the USA. Implications for the role of exact and conceptual replications in the development of a psychological science are discussed.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2311   open full text
  • High self‐monitors modulate their responses as a function of relevant social roles.
    Katherine E. Adams, James M. Tyler.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 23, 2017
    We reasoned that high self‐monitors’ responses may be influenced by the characteristic traits and behaviors associated with social roles. Results across four studies confirmed expectations. The findings from Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that exposure to a particular role (e.g., nurse) led high self‐monitors to respond in a manner consistent with the relevant role. Results from Experiment 4 showed that the effect found in the first three experiments was attenuated when the behavioral guidance of the particular role was reduced. Low self‐monitors’ responses were not influenced by exposure to the role. Showing that high self‐monitors use information embedded in a social role to tailor their behavior provides a novel finding that has heretofore been absent from the literature.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2312   open full text
  • Nostalgia in Response to Group‐Based Exclusion: The Role of Attachment‐Related Avoidance.
    Georgios Abakoumkin, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides, Maria Bakarou.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 22, 2017
    We proposed that nostalgia, by virtue of its sociality, can be an indirect strategy to counteract relational deficiencies stemming from group‐based exclusion. We instructed Greek participants to recall an event in which they experienced exclusion on the basis of their nationality versus a control event. We anticipated that participants would react to group‐based exclusion with increased nostalgia. Specifically, because low attachment‐related avoidance facilitates proximity‐seeking in response to distress, we hypothesised that group‐based exclusion would increase nostalgia (a form of proximity‐seeking) more strongly when avoidance is low. Results supported this moderation hypothesis. In turn, increased nostalgia in response to group‐based exclusion predicted stronger ingroup identification. For low‐avoidants, then, group‐based exclusion fortified ingroup identification via increased nostalgia (moderated mediation).
    May 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2235   open full text
  • Romantic Love vs. Reproduction Opportunities: Disentangling the Contributions of Different Anxiety Buffers under Conditions of Existential Threat.
    Annedore Hoppe, Immo Fritsche, Nicolas Koranyi.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 22, 2017
    Romantic relationships and offspring are discussed as anxiety buffers in terror management processes. We examined the relationship between these possible buffers and tested whether romantic relationships reduce existential threat due to reproduction opportunities or if they represent a distinct anxiety buffer. Contrary to our initial expectations, thinking about a positive romantic relationship without (vs. with) own children increased partner affect (Study 1) and commitment (Study 2) and decreased punishment intentions (Study 2) after mortality salience. These effects were mediated by participants’ desire for romantic love. Furthermore, thinking about positive non‐parental (vs. parental) romantic relationships lowered death‐thought accessibility (Study 3). Together, these findings suggest that romantic relationships form a distinct anxiety buffer which is only effective when the cultural (romance) instead of the biological (having children) nature of the relationship is highlighted. We discuss the role of anxiety buffer salience for determining whether offspring concerns buffer or increase existential threat.
    May 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2322   open full text
  • Belonging to a Majority Reduces the Immediate Need Threat from Ostracism in Individuals with a High Need to Belong.
    Jennifer Eck, Christiane Schoel, Rainer Greifeneder.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 22, 2017
    Ostracism—being ignored and excluded—threatens the basic human needs for belonging, self‐esteem, control, and meaningful existence. This work introduces belonging to a majority as a buffer against the immediate negative impact of ostracism on basic needs for individuals with a high need to belong, for whom social groups are especially relevant. Three studies show that for individuals high in the need to belong, need threat was attenuated by membership in a majority group, but not by membership in a minority group (Studies 1 and 3) or a group of unknown size (Study 2). By contrast, individuals low in the need to belong—who place less importance on group membership in general—did not benefit from belonging to a majority group. The general pattern replicated across different manipulations of group membership and social exclusion, two measures of need threat, and with participants from two different countries.
    May 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2233   open full text
  • Ask and you might receive: The actor–partner interdependence model approach to estimating cultural and gender variations in social support.
    Biru Zhou, Dara Heather, Alessia Di Cesare, Andrew G. Ryder.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 21, 2017
    As an essential part of close relationships, social support is a dynamic interactive process. This paper aims to simultaneously investigate social support‐seeking and provision behaviours using the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Ninety‐two friendship dyads participated in this study. Supportive versus negative friendship qualities were used to predict different support‐seeking and support‐provision behaviours during an experimental task. Cultural and gender variations were also examined. Results showed that self‐reported friendship qualities influence support‐seeking and provision behaviours intrapersonally and interpersonally. Female participants were more likely to provide emotion‐focused support than were male participants. After accounting for friendship qualities in the dyads, there was no evidence of cultural group differences on support‐seeking or provision behaviours among same‐sex friends. These results demonstrate the conceptual and empirical advantages of using APIM to unpack cultural and gender variations in social support processes.
    May 21, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2251   open full text
  • The empowering effect of punishment on forgiveness.
    Peter Strelan, Carolyn Di Fiore, Jan‐Willem Van Prooijen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 21, 2017
    We examined the process by which punishment enables forgiveness, testing the proposition that punishment restores a sense of justice to victims, an experience that is empowering. In Study 1 (N = 69), university students received insulting feedback and were given the opportunity (or not) to sanction the offender. In Study 2 (N = 91), participants imagined having the opportunity (or not) to recommend punishment for a person who had vandalized their house. A two‐step mediation model (punishment justice restoration empowerment forgiveness) was supported in these two studies. In Study 3 (N = 227), punishment options were expanded to test the role of victim voice in the context of third‐party and personal retributive and restorative justice responses to workplace bullying, as well as taking into account revenge as an alternative to justice restoration. When victims had voice, empowerment again played a central indirect role in relations between punishment and forgiveness.
    May 21, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2254   open full text
  • Prosocial thinkers and the social transmission of justice.
    Garriy Shteynberg, Michele Gelfand, Lynn Imai, David M. Mayer, Chris Bell.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 19, 2017
    Feeling the sting of another's injustice is a common human experience. We adopt a motivated information processing approach and explore how individual differences in social motives (e.g., high vs. low collectivism) and epistemic motives (e.g., high vs. low need for closure) drive individuals' evaluative and behavioral reactions to the just and unjust treatment of others. In two studies, one in the laboratory (N = 78) and one in the field (N = 163), we find that the justice treatment of others has a more profound influence on the attitudes and behaviors of prosocial thinkers, people who are chronically higher (vs. lower) in collectivism and lower (vs. higher) in the need for closure. In all, our results suggest that chronically higher collectivism and a lower need for closure work in concert to make another's justice relevant to personal judgment and behavior.
    May 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2256   open full text
  • The effect of red color on perceived self‐attractiveness.
    Anne Berthold, Gerhard Reese, Judith Martin.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 19, 2017
    Recent research showed that individuals are perceived as more attractive when presented with the color red. We seek to extend these findings by studying the effects of red color on individuals' perception of self‐attractiveness, rather than the attractiveness of others. Based on the color‐in‐context theory, we hypothesized that individuals would perceive themselves as more attractive under red chromatic conditions. In three experiments, participants were asked to wear a red or a blue shirt and rated their own attractiveness. As expected, participants in the red shirt condition indicated a higher level of self‐attractiveness than participants in the blue condition. Moreover, the results showed that the self‐perception red effect was mediated by the individuals' self‐perceived sexual receptivity and self‐perceived status.
    May 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2238   open full text
  • Friend or foe? Evidence that anxious people are better at distinguishing targets from non‐targets.
    Tsachi Ein‐Dor, Adi Perry‐Paldi, Gilad Hirschberger.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 18, 2017
    Armed conflict necessitates the ability to quickly distinguish friend from foe. Failure to make accurate shooting decisions may result in harm either to oneself or to innocent others. The factors that predict such rapid decision making, however, remain unclear. Based on social defense theory, we contend that people high on attachment anxiety possess characteristics that are particularly advantageous in this domain such that anxiously attached individuals will show greater vigilance and accuracy in a realistic shooting paradigm in which they must quickly distinguish between militants (people holding a gun) and innocents (people holding an item with the same color and shape as a gun—Coca‐Cola bottle, black wallet, and black mobile phone). Using signal detection theory algorithms, we calculated sensitivity in performing the behavioral shooting task [D(prime)]. Results indicate that as expected, anxious people demonstrated significantly better shooting accuracy. Implication for contemporary violent conflict is discussed.
    May 18, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2262   open full text
  • Generalized and specific components of prejudice: The decomposition of intergroup context effects.
    Cecil Meeusen, Fiona Kate Barlow, Chris G. Sibley.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 15, 2017
    Although different types of prejudice tend to be highly correlated, target‐specific and more generalized components can nevertheless be distinguished. Here, we analyze whether indicators of the intergroup context—threat, contact, and neighborhood composition—predict the target‐specific and/or generalized components of prejudice. Using data from the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study (N = 4629), we build a multilevel model that captures the relationship between social dominance orientation, general levels of neighborhood heterogeneity, symbolic and realistic threat and cross‐group friendship (averaged across target groups), and generalized prejudice. Our model simultaneously estimates the relationship between target‐specific levels of these intergroup context indicators and target‐specific prejudice. Results indicated that social dominance orientation remained the strongest predictor of generalized prejudice when adjusting for other variables and that indicators of the intergroup context primarily explain differences between target group ratings. Aggregate levels of cross‐group friendship also had a small effect on generalized prejudice.
    May 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2252   open full text
  • Queen Bees and Alpha Males: Are successful women more competitive than successful men?
    Klea Faniko, Naomi Ellemers, Belle Derks.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2017
    Two studies carried out in Switzerland examined different explanations for the “Queen Bee (QB)‐phenomenon.” In Study 1 (N = 315), female managers (vs. subordinates) identified with successful women and supported measures that would benefit these women—even though they are their direct competitors. However, they were disinclined to identify with women who put their family first, viewed themselves as different (more masculine) than junior women, and were reluctant to endorse measures to support them. Study 2 (N = 277) compared QB‐responses of women to Alpha Male (AM) responses of men. We found evidence of QB and AM effects: both female and male managers rated their own masculinity as higher than that of same‐gender junior colleagues. Compared to their male colleagues, women in managerial positions were more inclined to identify with successful same‐gender colleagues. This counters explanations for the QB effect as being due to increased competitiveness of successful women.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2198   open full text
  • Affirmative action policies in job advertisements for leadership positions: How they affect women's and men's inclination to apply.
    Christa Nater, Sabine Sczesny.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2017
    This research investigates how affirmative action policies in job advertisements for leadership positions affect women's and men's inclination to apply. Management students (N = 389) received advertisements that differed in the strictness of announced gender policies: no statement, women explicitly invited to apply, preferential treatment of equally qualified women, or quota of 40% women. When women were treated preferentially, female participants reported higher self‐ascribed fit, which resulted in higher inclinations to apply compared with the control condition and with men. However, when quota regulations were active, female participants showed neither an increased self‐ascribed fit nor higher inclinations to apply. Interestingly, the underlying mechanism was not different when a quota regulation or no statement was announced: participants with higher agency levels reported higher inclinations to apply owing to an increase in self‐ascribed fit. This study provides evidence that only some preferential treatment policies may be successful in increasing women's interest in leadership positions.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2200   open full text
  • Diverse and just? The role of quota‐based selection policies on organizational outcomes.
    Brooke Shaughnessy, Susanne Braun, Tanja Hentschel, Claudia V. Peus.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2017
    Quota‐based selection systems are viewed as a way to overcome biases; however, they may produce negative effects on the individuals as well as on the organizations that enact said procedures. To date, the processes underlying these negative effects have been relatively neglected in the literature and thus warrant further investigation. The current paper specifically seeks to address the process through which quota‐based selection policies influence applicant evaluations of the organization and ultimately their decision to pursue employment. We demonstrate that quota‐based selection policies negatively impact procedural justice perceptions, which in turn influenced perceptions of anticipated organizational support, organizational prestige, and organizational attractiveness. Ultimately, these organizational evaluations worked together to predict job pursuit intentions. The findings suggest that organizations need to carefully consider how they present their selection policies to applicant pools as they may harm organizational attractiveness and job pursuit intentions. The present study comes at a timely point in the discussion and implementation of quotas in Europe, and specifically in Germany, and provides some initial insights into how organizations are likely to be affected by such policies.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2208   open full text
  • The endorsement of unity in diversity: The role of political orientation, education and justifying beliefs.
    Maykel Verkuyten, Borja Martinovic, Anouk Smeekes, Mathijs Kros.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2017
    Using data from three national surveys, the present research investigates among the native Dutch (Studies 1 to 3) and three immigrant‐origin groups (Study 3) the endorsement of a shared sense of national belonging across cultural differences. The endorsement is examined in relation to political orientation and education, and sociocultural (deprovincialization) and egalitarian (autochthony) beliefs. In all three studies, a more right‐wing orientation and lower education were associated with lower endorsement of common national belonging. Furthermore, deprovincialization and autochthony were independent mediating beliefs in these associations. The findings were similar for native majority members and immigrants, with the exception of the role of autochthony belief. The results are discussed in relation to future research on cultural diversity and the societal importance of developing a shared sense of belonging despite group differences.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2210   open full text
  • Engaging with diversity: Framing multiculturalism as a learning opportunity reduces prejudice among high White American identifiers.
    Kimberly Rios, Ashley N. Wynn.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2017
    Multiculturalism (i.e., acknowledgment and appreciation of diversity), despite its positive consequences, is often met with resistance among majority group members, particularly those whose race/ethnicity is central to their self‐concept. Building upon findings that multiculturalism lowers White Americans' prejudice when presented as an abstract relative to concrete concept, we tested whether and when even concrete forms of multiculturalism can improve intergroup attitudes. Across two experiments, highly identified White Americans exhibited less racial prejudice when induced to view multiculturalism as a concrete learning opportunity than as a concrete set of policies (Study 1) or a concrete ideology more generally (Study 2). This effect was mediated by high identifiers' increased perceptions that diversity benefits themselves and society as a whole. Implications for prejudice reduction and fostering majority group members' active involvement in diversity‐relevant issues, as well as the applicability of our studies to other cultural contexts, are discussed.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2196   open full text
  • Multicultural experiences reduce prejudice through personality shifts in Openness to Experience.
    David J. Sparkman, Scott Eidelman, John C. Blanchar.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2017
    Across two studies we test the prediction that multicultural experiences reduce intercultural prejudice by increasing Openness to Experience. In Study 1, frequency of self‐reported multicultural experiences was associated with greater openness and less ethnic prejudice, and openness explained the relationship between multicultural experiences and ethnic prejudice. In Study 2, we experimentally manipulated a multicultural experience. Compared to those in a control condition, participants exposed to the cultural members and elements of foreign cultures reported being higher in Openness to Experience and expressed less prejudice toward these cultural groups. There was also some evidence that multicultural exposure, through openness, caused secondary transfer effects in prejudice reduction. Our findings suggest that exposure to multicultural environments can improve intercultural attitudes by personality shifts in Openness to Experience.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2189   open full text
  • Effects of majority members' positive intergroup contact on minority members' support for ingroup rights: Mobilizing or demobilizing effects?
    Mathias Kauff, Eva G. T. Green, Katharina Schmid, Miles Hewstone, Oliver Christ.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2017
    While some research suggests that ethnic and cultural diversity hinders societal cohesion, other studies show that it promotes intergroup contact opportunities, which, if exploited, help to overcome intergroup prejudice. Recently, however, intergroup contact theory has been criticized for neglecting the wider social context as well as for ignoring potential demobilizing contact effects for minority members. Using two cross‐sectional general population surveys (European Social Survey in 22 countries, Swiss MOSAiCH), we address these criticisms by examining whether ethnic majority members' positive contact influences ethnic minority members' support for ingroup rights at the social context level. Applying multilevel path analysis, we show that minority members are more likely to support anti‐discrimination laws and immigrant rights when living in social contexts in which majority members have positive intergroup contact experiences. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed for understanding how minority groups are affected by the climate of the social context they reside in.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2194   open full text
  • Perceived social diversity and neighbourhood attachment: The role of intergroup ties and affective appraisals of the environment. Evidence from Poland.
    Sabina Toruńczyk‐Ruiz, Maria Lewicka.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2017
    This paper investigates the relationship between perceived ethnic, age and income diversity and neighbourhood attachment, accounting for measures of objective diversity calculated for small, individualised neighbourhoods. With data from Warsaw in Poland, we examine whether neighbourhood ties with people of different ethnicity, age and income moderate the relationship between perceived diversity and attachment. We also test affective appraisals of the environment (excitement and irritation) as a mediator between perceived diversity and attachment. Perceived ethnic diversity was positively related to neighbourhood attachment, and this link was mediated by the emotion of excitement. Perceived income diversity undermined attachment regardless of the neighbourhood ties, and this link was not mediated by affective appraisals. Perceived age diversity was related to lower neighbourhood attachment only for individuals who had few ties with neighbours of different ages. We argue that the effects of diversity may depend on the socio‐cultural context, specifically on the level and meaning of diversity in a given society.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2209   open full text
  • The association between actual and perceived ethnic diversity: The moderating role of authoritarianism and implications for outgroup threat, anxiety, and mistrust.
    Jasper Van Assche, Arne Roets, Kristof Dhont, Alain Van Hiel.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2017
    The present study investigated the role of authoritarianism in the association between the actual proportion of ethnic minorities (objective diversity) within a neighborhood and majority members' subjective perception thereof (perceived diversity). Additionally, we tested how authoritarianism affects the direct and indirect relationships between objective diversity and outgroup threat, anxiety, and mistrust. Analyses in a nationally stratified sample of Dutch citizens (N = 848) without migration background from 706 different neighborhoods showed that higher levels of authoritarianism have a dual effect on the relationship between objective diversity and negativity towards outgroups. In particular, authoritarianism (i) boosts the indirect relationship between objective diversity and greater outgroup negativity through perceived diversity, and (ii) curbs the direct association of objective diversity with reduced outgroup negativity. These findings shed light on how majority members with different levels of authoritarianism differentially perceive diversity in their neighborhood, and how this relates to their responses to ethnic minorities.
    April 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2211   open full text
  • Ostracism, resources, and the perception of human motion.
    Jamie L. Gorman, Kent D. Harber, Maggie Shiffrar, Karen S. Quigley.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. January 12, 2017
    Is perception of human motion affected by psychosocial resources? According to the Resources and Perception Model, perception is jointly affected by subjective threat and psychosocial resources that buffer threat. Two experiments tested whether social threat (i.e., ostracism) and psychosocial resources affect perception of human motion. Observers attempted to identify human movement in ambiguous point‐light displays after being ostracized or not ostracized. Additionally, trait resources (self‐esteem plus social support) were measured (Studies 1 and 2), and self‐affirmation was manipulated (Study 2). Study 1 showed that ostracism reduced sensitivity for detecting human motion but not among people with ample trait resources. Study 2 replicated this ostracism‐by‐trait resources interaction. It also showed that self‐affirmation improved human motion perception for all included participants but only benefited ostracized participants with ample trait resources. These studies show that a basic visual skill—detecting human motion—is jointly affected by social threats and psychosocial resources.
    January 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2213   open full text
  • Self‐image and schadenfreude: Pleasure at others' misfortune enhances satisfaction of basic human needs.
    Marco Brambilla, Paolo Riva.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. January 12, 2017
    The present research tested whether observing the failure of another individual and experiencing schadenfreude (i.e., pleasure at others' misfortune) enhance the satisfaction of basic psychological needs in terms of self‐esteem, control, belongingness, and meaningful existence. Considering hypothetical scenarios (Experiments 1 and 4), real‐life experiences (Experiment 2), and ostensibly real interactions (Experiment 3), four experiments revealed that individuals reported higher levels of need satisfaction when another's setback occurred in a competitive circumstance rather than in a non‐competitive circumstance. Moreover, the increased feeling of schadenfreude accounted for the effect of observing the misfortune befalling a competitor on the subsequent satisfaction of human needs. Results are discussed in terms of their theoretical implications for research on schadenfreude, and future research directions are outlined.
    January 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2229   open full text
  • The moral contents of anti‐atheist prejudice (and why atheists should care about it).
    Ain Simpson, Kimberly Rios.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. January 11, 2017
    Anti‐atheist prejudice is pervasive worldwide. Past research indicates that this is driven by perceptions of atheist immorality, yet such perceptions have not been explored in detail. Using Moral Foundations Theory and samples of U.S. Christians, we investigated whether anti‐atheist prejudice is explained by atheists' perceived adherence to certain foundational moral values more than others. Study 1 participants completed measures of moral value endorsements from the perspective of a typical atheist. Study 2 participants read that either atheists or people in general strongly endorse one of five moral foundations. Anti‐atheist prejudice was consistently explained best by perceived atheist concern for values of caring/compassion rather than fairness/justice, loyalty, deferential respect, or purity/decency. Findings suggest that efforts to reduce anti‐atheist prejudice should emphasize atheists' capacity for kindness and caring.
    January 11, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2219   open full text
  • Value tradeoffs propel and inhibit behavior: Validating the 19 refined values in four countries.
    Shalom H. Schwartz, Jan Cieciuch, Michele Vecchione, Claudio Torres, Ozlem Dirilen‐Gumus, Tania Butenko.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. January 11, 2017
    We assess the predictive and discriminant validity of the basic values in the refined Schwartz value theory by examining how value tradeoffs predict behavior in Italy, Poland, Russia, and the USA. One thousand eight hundred and fifty‐seven respondents reported their values and rated their own and a partner's behavior. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported the distinctiveness of the 19 values and the 19 self‐rated and other‐rated behaviors. Multidimensional scaling analyses supported the circular motivational order of the 19 values. Findings affirmed the theorizing that behavior depends upon tradeoffs between values that propel and values that inhibit it. Across four countries, value importance, behavior frequency, and gender failed to moderate the strength of value–behavior relations. This raises the question of the conditions under which the widely cited assumption that normative pressure weakens value–behavior relations holds.
    January 11, 2017   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2228   open full text
  • Effects of diversity versus segregation on automatic approach and avoidance behavior towards own and other ethnic groups.
    Juliane Degner, Iniobong Essien, Regina Reichardt.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. November 29, 2016
    We present the results of a study in which we measured automatic intergroup behavior and evaluations in ethnic majority and minority group members. We focus our attention on the level of segregation and diversity of immediate life contexts as indicators of outgroup exposure. Specifically, Dutch ethnic minority and majority students enrolled at ethnically segregated and diverse schools completed a measure of automatic approach and avoidance behavior and reported explicit intergroup attitudes. The research is framed into prevailing theories in the field: Social Identity Theory and System Justification Theory. Results of our study suggest that segregation of minority group members' immediate life context may be an important moderator of evaluations as well as approach and avoidance behavior toward ingroup and outgroup. In particular, minority members in segregated schools showed an approach bias towards their ingroup, whereas minority members in diverse schools showed an approach bias towards the majority outgroup.
    November 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2234   open full text
  • Fit between decision mode and processing style predicts subjective value of chosen alternatives.
    Koen A. Dijkstra, Joop Pligt, Gerben A. Kleef.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 25, 2016
    Intuition is associated with a global processing style, whereas deliberation is associated with a local processing style. Drawing on previous research on the effects of decisional fit on the subjective value attached to chosen alternatives, we examined the possibility that a fit between processing style and decision mode results in greater subjective value than a lack of fit. In three experiments employing various combinations of naturally occurring and experimentally manipulated processing styles and decision modes, we found that when congruence was high (i.e., global processing style and intuitive judgment, or local processing style and deliberative judgment), participants judged their chosen item to be more expensive than when congruence was low. These findings indicate that increased fit resulted in higher estimated value. We discuss implications for judgment and decision‐making.
    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2217   open full text
  • Religious identification and interreligious contact in Indonesia and the Philippines: Testing the mediating roles of perceived group threat and social dominance orientation and the moderating role of context.
    Agnieszka Kanas, Peer Scheepers, Carl Sterkens.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 19, 2016
    This study integrates three theoretical perspectives provided by social identity theory, realistic group conflict theory, and social dominance theory to examine the relationship between religious identification and interreligious contact. It relies on a unique dataset collected among Christian and Muslim students in ethnically and religiously diverse regions of Indonesia and the Philippines, where social cleavages occur along religious lines. Religious identification directly predicts a higher quality of interreligious contact, whereas it indirectly predicts a lower quantity and quality of contact, mediated by higher perception of group threat, and a higher quality of contact, mediated by lower social dominance orientation. Furthermore, these direct and indirect relationships are moderated by religious group membership and relative group size. We conclude that religious identification functions as a ‘double‐edged sword’ predicting both higher quality and lower quantity and quality of interreligious contact through various pathways and with a varying strength depending on intergroup context.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2212   open full text
  • From marginal to mainstream: The role of perceived social norms in the rise of a far‐right movement.
    Isabelle Portelinha, Guy Elcheroth.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 19, 2016
    The present research intends to shed light on the processes enabling political minorities to transition into normatively acceptable groups, by investigating how a previously marginalised far‐right movement (the French National Front) is progressively becoming mainstream. Drawing on the social representations approach, we argue that perceived social norms play a pivotal role in this process. Using a longitudinal and experimental design, the study (N = 233) was implemented in the ecological context of the 2012 French presidential election at a Parisian university campus, a traditional anti‐far‐right bastion. We tested whether the electoral campaign altered the perceptions of social norms, whether the perceived social norms were easily malleable in this specific context and, most important, whether they influenced people's willingness to speak out in public against the far‐right movement. The findings support affirmative answers to all three questions. We conclude that, in periods of collective uncertainty, changing perceptions of social norms might play an important role in the weakening of public opposition to far‐right movements. This, in turn, helps to explain the recent transition to mainstream recognition of a number of previously marginalised political movements in Europe and around the globe.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2224   open full text
  • Self‐transcendence as a psychological parenthood motive: When mortality salience increases the desire for non‐biological children.
    Annedore Hoppe, Immo Fritsche, Nicolas Koranyi.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 13, 2016
    Reminders of existential threat increase people's desire for offspring. In line with terror management theory, we explain these effects by the motivation to transcend the self via offspring which complements biological accounts of reproduction motivation under threat. Accordingly, Study 1 shows that mortality salience increases self‐transcendence motivation but not other parenthood motivations. Furthermore, mortality salience increased willingness to adopt children (Study 2) or a 14‐year‐old child (Study 3) only for those participants who were told that the personality of children is the product of nurture (and thus determined by their parent's self). In addition, mortality salience increased general willingness to adopt, irrespective of whether nurture or genetic influence was made salient in Study 3, where participants imagined being unable to have biological offspring. We discuss how these findings contribute to explaining increased reproduction intentions under existential threat and processes of terror management.
    July 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2218   open full text
  • When being far away is good: Exploring how mortality salience, regulatory mode, and goal progress affect judgments of meaning in life.
    Matthew Vess, Ross Rogers, Clay Routledge, Joshua A. Hicks.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 11, 2016
    Research indicates that death‐relevant thoughts (mortality salience) have a nuanced effect on judgments of life's meaningfulness. Thoughts of death diminish meaning in life only among people who lack or do not readily engage psychological structures that confer meaning. Building on this past research, the current research examined how an important source of meaning, long‐term goal progress, affects the ways that death‐relevant cognitions impact judgments of life's meaning. In Study 1 (N = 118), mortality salience decreased perceptions of meaning in life only among participants who were induced to feel closer to (vs. farther from) completing a long‐term goal. Study 2 (N = 259) extended these findings by demonstrating the moderating influence of individual differences in locomotion. Mortality salience again decreased perceptions of meaning in life among participants who felt closer to accomplishing a long‐term goal, but it only did so among people who do not quickly adopt new goals to pursue (i.e., those low in locomotion). The implications of these findings for better understanding how people maintain meaning in the face of existential concerns and how aspects of goal pursuit affect these processes are discussed.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2192   open full text
  • Janus‐faced nature of colorblindness: Social dominance orientation moderates the relationship between colorblindness and outgroup attitudes.
    Kumar Yogeeswaran, Thomas Davies, Chris G. Sibley.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 11, 2016
    Colorblindness is a popular diversity ideology promoted as a means to intergroup harmony in ethnically diverse nations. While some research suggests that colorblindness reduces intergroup bias, other work suggests that colorblindness may increase it. The present research utilizes a national sample of European New Zealanders to examine whether the relationship between colorblind endorsement and outgroup attitudes is moderated by perceivers' individual differences in social dominance orientation (SDO). Data revealed that for participants low in SDO, colorblind beliefs predicted more negative attitudes toward ethnic minorities. However, for those high in SDO, colorblind beliefs predicted more positive attitudes toward ethnic minorities. Taken together, these findings suggest that colorblindness is not all good or bad for intergroup relations—instead, its effects may depend on perceivers' own egalitarian sentiments.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2225   open full text
  • Exploring cooperation and competition in the Centipede game through verbal protocol analysis.
    Eva M. Krockow, Andrew M. Colman, Briony D. Pulford.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 11, 2016
    The Centipede game is an abstract model of reciprocal relationships in which two individuals alternate in helping each other at relatively small personal cost. Whereas mutual cooperation can benefit both individuals in the long run, a paradoxical but logically compelling backward induction argument suggests that cooperation is irrational. Empirical studies have reported reliable deviations from the non‐cooperative backward induction solution, but their exclusively quantitative methods allow only a limited range of predefined motives to be explored. Our study uses verbal (‘think aloud’) protocols and qualitative data analysis to identify motives for cooperation in the Centipede game. The results provide little evidence for sophisticated backward induction reasoning. Instead, a wide range of motives emerged, their relative saliences varying according to the stage of the game. Activity bias affected decisions mainly at the beginning of the game, whereas cooperative and altruistic social value orientations most frequently accounted for cooperation towards its natural end.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2226   open full text
  • Are economic conditions related to non‐normative life satisfaction development? Evaluating the relative impact of economic conditions, personality, and subjective health.
    Heike Heidemeier.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 11, 2016
    This study examined the relative contribution of psychological and socioeconomic resources to explaining qualitative individual differences in life satisfaction development. We used growth mixture modeling and a cohort‐sequential design to investigate life satisfaction development from age 25 to 65, in a nationally representative panel (the SOEP). Eighty‐three percent of the participants experienced stability in life satisfaction. In a subgroup of individuals (10%) life satisfaction declined. This subgroup lived under less favorable economic conditions, and reported downward moves on an index of socioeconomic status. In another subgroup (7%) life satisfaction was low at age 25, and increased up to age 65. This group was also socioeconomically disadvantaged, but scored higher on adaptive personality traits and experienced upward social mobility. Generally, personality traits explained level differences in life satisfaction better than economic conditions. However, economic conditions explained non‐normative life satisfaction development better than generalized control beliefs and the Big Five traits.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2227   open full text
  • Empowering and legitimizing the fundamental attribution error: Power and legitimization exacerbate the translation of role‐constrained behaviors into ability differences.
    Stéphane Jouffre, Jean‐Claude Croizet.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 07, 2016
    Our daily interactions are influenced by the social roles we endorse. People however underestimate these role constraints in their everyday explanation relying on individual dispositions to make sense of behaviors. Two studies investigated whether this bias is exacerbated when role structure is legitimated and when power matches the advantages conferred by the social roles of a quiz game. Legitimacy as well as power increased the tendency for both advantaged (questioner) and disadvantaged (answerer) actors (Study 1) as well as naïve observers of the quiz game (Study 2) to attribute to ability the behaviors elicited by social roles. These results extend previous findings. People are more prone to explain constrained behaviors by differences in ability when role structure is legitimated and when power asymmetry matches role structure. Legitimacy and power may then play an important role in the translation of role constraints into inferences about ability.
    July 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2191   open full text
  • Does avoidance‐attachment style attenuate the benefits of being listened to?
    Dotan R. Castro, Avraham N. Kluger, Guy Itzchakov.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 01, 2016
    We tested both Rogers's hypothesis that listening enables speakers to experience psychological safety and our hypothesis that the benefit of listening for psychological safety is attenuated by avoidance‐attachment style. We tested these hypotheses in six laboratory experiments, a field correlational study, and a scenario experiment. We meta‐analyzed the results of the laboratory experiments and found that listening increased psychological safety on average but that the variance between the experiments was also significant. The between experiment variance in the effect of listening manipulation on psychological safety exposes a methodological challenge in choosing a research paradigm of good‐versus‐normal listening, as opposed to normal‐versus‐poor listening. More importantly, we found, as expected and across all designs, that the higher the avoidance‐attachment style was, the lower the effect of listening on psychological safety. This finding has implications both for practice and for placing a theoretical boundary on Rogers's theory.
    July 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2185   open full text
  • Perceived collective continuity and attitudes toward outgroups.
    Ruth H. Warner, Ana H. Kent, Kristin L. Kiddoo.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 01, 2016
    In a series of six studies, we examined the role that perceived collective continuity (PCC) plays in intergroup attitudes. While the extant literature focuses on attitudes toward ingroups, the current studies chose to expand upon this research by concentrating on three types of outgroups (national, religious, and organizational). Results indicated that for groups perceived as neutral or positive, increased PCC was associated with more positive attitudes, while for enemy groups, increased PCC was associated with more negative attitudes. Entitativity played a mediating role such that as the outgroup was perceived as more continuous, it was also seen as more entitative. Higher entitativity led to less negative attitudes toward a past ally but more negative attitudes toward a past enemy. Results held whether past conflict and PCC were measured or manipulated, further supporting our findings. PCC has negative or positive implications for judgments of outgroups depending on intergroup history. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2202   open full text
  • (Still) Modern Times: Objectification at work.
    Luca Andrighetto, Cristina Baldissarri, Chiara Volpato.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 01, 2016
    A great deal of research has investigated gender‐related objectification. In the current work, we aim to extend the empirical research on this phenomenon to the working domain. Consistent with several theoretical assumptions, we expected that factory workers would be objectified as a consequence of their work. In Study 1, we showed that each of the critical features of factory work (i.e., repetitiveness of movements, fragmentation of activities and dependence on the machine) significantly affected the view of the worker as an instrument (vs. a human being) and as less able to experience human mental states. Coherently, we found that factory workers, unlike artisans, were perceived as more instrument‐like (Study 2) and as less able to experience mental states (Study 3) when participants were asked to focus on the target's manual activities rather than on the target as a person. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are considered.
    July 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2190   open full text
  • Reactions to tokenism: The role of individual characteristics in shaping responses to token decisions.
    Moran Anisman‐Razin, Tamar Saguy.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 01, 2016
    When only a handful of members from a disadvantaged group occupy positions of power, they are considered tokens. Previous research suggests that observers tend to consider tokenism as an egalitarian practice. Given its ambiguous nature, we hypothesized that reactions to tokenism would be shaped by individuals' sensitivity to inequality. In Study 1, we showed that women (vs. men) and individuals low (vs. high) on social dominance orientation differentiated more between a token and an egalitarian decision in the context of gender‐related practices. Similar findings were observed in Study 2, which involved gender and feminist identification as independent variables. Additional support, particularly for the role of social dominance orientation, was found in Study 3, which involved an ethnic token. Together, results demonstrate the role of individuals' chronic sensitivity to inequality in shaping their reactions to token practices. Theoretical and practical implications regarding the effect of tokenism on individuals' evaluations and responses to inequality are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2215   open full text
  • The good, the bad and the central of group identification: Evidence of a U‐shaped quadratic relation between in‐group affect and identity centrality.
    Frank J. Kachanoff, Renate Ysseldyk, Donald M. Taylor, Roxane Sablonnière, Jonathan Crush.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 01, 2016
    The present research investigates the interrelation between two widely studied dimensions of social group identity—in‐group affect and centrality. Specifically, we test the validity of a quadratic curvilinear relation between in‐group affect and identity centrality. We propose that group members who feel either decidedly positive affect or decidedly negative affect towards their group are more likely to feel that their identity is a central component of their self‐concept relative to group members with neutral affect. We find evidence for a quadratic relation between in‐group affect and identity centrality with respect to people's cultural identity (N = 512), ethnic identity (N = 462), religious identity (N = 61, N = 384) and racial identity (N = 3600, N = 2400). Theoretical and practical implications for the measurement and conceptualization of group identification are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2199   open full text
  • Making sense of positive self‐evaluations in China: The role of sociocultural change.
    Rui Zhang, Kimberly A. Noels, Yanjun Guan, Liping Weng.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 01, 2016
    Recent research points to Chinese people's elevated tendency to make positive self‐evaluations, despite the general claim that East Asians do not self‐enhance. We present three studies in support of a novel prediction that sociocultural change in China plays an important role in augmenting self‐enhancement. We operationalized self‐enhancement primarily in terms of the better‐than‐average effect (BTAE) and accounted for trait desirability or importance. We found that: (i) compared with Chinese Canadians, Chinese showed a stronger BTAE; (ii) within the Chinese, identification with contemporary Chinese culture uniquely predicted a stronger BTAE; and (iii) priming contemporary (vs. traditional) Chinese culture led to a stronger BTAE. Finally, we provided further evidence that motivation, in part, underlies the rising Chinese BTAE. We conclude by discussing the importance of both socioeconomic and cultural perspectives for understanding how and when of self‐enhancement in contemporary China and other societies undergoing social change.
    July 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2214   open full text
  • Faking revisited: Exerting strategic control over performance on the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure.
    Sean Hughes, Ian Hussey, Bethany Corrigan, Katie Jolie, Carol Murphy, Dermot Barnes‐Holmes.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 01, 2016
    Across four studies, we demonstrate that effects obtained from the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure, like those obtained from other indirect procedures, are not impervious to strategic manipulation. In experiment 1, we found that merely informing participants to “fake” their performance without providing a concrete strategy to do so did not eliminate, reverse, or in any way alter the obtained outcomes. However, when those same instructions orientated attention toward the core parameters of the task, participants spontaneously derived a strategy that allowed them to eliminate their effects (experiment 2). When the participants were provided with a viable response strategy, they successfully reversed the direction of their overall Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure effect (experiment 3). By refining the nature of those instructions, we managed to target and alter individual trial‐type effects in isolation with some success (experiment 4).
    July 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2207   open full text
  • Predicting aggressive collective action based on the efficacy of peaceful and aggressive actions.
    Rim Saab, Russell Spears, Nicole Tausch, Julia Sasse.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 01, 2016
    We examine whether aggressive forms of collective action are predicted by their perceived efficacy and the perceived efficacy of peaceful collective action, and whether the two predictors interact. We present data from surveys examining support for and tendencies toward aggressive collective action among university students who are opposed to increases in tuition fees in Britain (Study 1) and support for suicide bombings against Israeli civilians among Palestinians during the Second Intifada (Study 2). Our results reveal an interaction between the efficacy of peaceful and aggressive collective actions: The more efficacious aggression is perceived to be, the greater its appeal and the less it is assuaged by the efficacy of peaceful action. This implies that (i) people may consider aggressive action whenever it works, even if peaceful action is efficacious, and (ii) people may consider aggressive action even when it seems unpromising, if peaceful action is not efficacious, in an apparent nothing‐to‐lose strategy.
    July 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2193   open full text
  • The legitimizing role of accent on discrimination against immigrants.
    Luana Elayne Cunha Souza, Cicero Roberto Pereira, Leoncio Camino, Tiago Jessé Souza Lima, Ana Raquel Rosas Torres.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 01, 2016
    This article analyses the influence of accent on discrimination against immigrants by examining the hypothesis that accent leads to discrimination only in more prejudiced individuals, merely because people speaking with a native accent are perceived to be better qualified than those whose accent is non‐standard. In Study 1 (N = 71), we found that only prejudiced individuals use accent to discriminate against immigrants. In Study 2 (N = 124), we replicated this effect and found that the influence of accent on discrimination is mediated by the perceived quality of the accent. Study 3 (N = 105) replicated the previous results even after controlling for the effect of stereotyping. These results are the first experimental illustration of the hypothesis that accent triggers intergroup discrimination only among prejudiced individuals because they evaluate native accents as being qualitatively better than accents of immigrants, thereby legitimizing ingroup bias.
    July 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2216   open full text
  • System‐justifying behaviors: When feeling dependent on a system triggers gender stereotype‐consistent academic performance.
    Virginie Bonnot, Silvia Krauth‐Gruber.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 29, 2016
    Based on system‐justification theory, we hypothesized that men and women would perform in accordance with gender stereotypes mainly when justification of the system is necessary. In this research, system‐justification motivation was triggered using a system‐dependency manipulation. Study 1 shows that when feeling highly (vs. less) dependent on the system, people endorsed system‐justifying beliefs more. In Study 2, men performed better in math than in verbal domains, while women showed the reverse pattern, but only when they felt highly dependent on the system. Similar results were obtained on performance self‐evaluation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2201   open full text
  • Perspective taking and member‐to‐group generalization of implicit racial attitudes: The role of target prototypicality.
    Andrew R. Todd, Austin J. Simpson.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 29, 2016
    Actively considering an individual outgroup member's thoughts, feelings, and other subjective experiences —perspective taking— can improve attitudes toward that person's group. Here, we tested whether such member‐to‐group generalization of implicit racial attitudes is more likely when perspective‐taking targets are viewed as prototypical of their racial group. Results supported a gendered‐race‐prototype hypothesis: The positive effect of perspective taking on implicit attitudes toward Black people and Asian people, respectively, was stronger when the perspective‐taking target was a Black man or Asian woman (gender–race prototypical) versus a Black woman or Asian man (gender–race nonprototypical). These findings identify a boundary condition under which perspective taking may not improve intergroup attitudes and add to a growing literature on social cognition at the intersection of multiple social categories.
    June 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2204   open full text
  • Re‐construing politics: The dual impacts of abstraction on political ideology.
    Eugene Y. Chan.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 27, 2016
    The influence of construal level on political ideology is unclear. Some research says that abstraction polarizes political attitudes by making liberals more liberal and conservatives more conservative. Other research instead argues that an abstract construal causes people to exhibit similar political attitudes as each other. The current research presents two experiments in which abstraction polarizes political attitudes on issues of social inequality. However, abstraction also increases traditionalism, and so it increases a preference for maintaining the societal status quo, such as by increasing one's disagreement with or opposition to homosexuality. The dual impacts of abstraction parallel the two distinct dimensions of political ideology (i.e., acceptance of social inequality and preference for the status quo), both of which prior research on construal level has not yet considered. Overall, the current findings indicate that the effects of construal level and the dimensions underlying political ideology need to be teased apart to fully understand the exact relationship between the two.
    June 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2188   open full text
  • Meaning threat can promote peaceful, not only military‐based approaches to intergroup conflict: The moderating role of ingroup glorification.
    Daniel R. Rovenpor, Bernhard Leidner, Peter Kardos, Thomas C. O'Brien.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 27, 2016
    Most research on threat documents its negative consequences. Similarly, most research on intergroup contexts has emphasized their negative behavioral effects. Drawing on the Meaning Maintenance Model and recent perspectives on the potential for positivity in intergroup conflict, we predicted that meaning threat can produce both antisocial and prosocial responses to intergroup conflict, depending on people's preexisting meaning frameworks. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that under meaning threat, low ingroup glorifiers strengthened their support for peaceful conflict resolution, whereas high ingroup glorifiers strengthened their support for military‐based conflict resolution. In the context of the Israel–Palestinian conflict, Study 3 found that low glorification was associated with greater support for peace during “hot” (but not “cold”) conflict, because hot conflict reduced their meaning in life. These findings are consistent with the notion that when meaning is threatened, people affirm their preexisting values—whether prosocial or antisocial—even in the context of intergroup conflict.
    June 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2183   open full text
  • On the generalization of attitude accessibility after repeated attitude expression.
    Mathilde Descheemaeker, Adriaan Spruyt, Russell H. Fazio, Dirk Hermans.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 21, 2016
    The more accessible an attitude is, the stronger is its influence on information processing and behavior. Accessibility can be increased through attitude rehearsal, but it remains unknown whether attitude rehearsal also affects the accessibility of related attitudes. To investigate this hypothesis, participants in an experimental condition repeatedly expressed their attitudes towards exemplars of several semantic categories during an evaluative categorization task. Participants in a control condition performed a non‐evaluative task with the same exemplars and evaluated unrelated attitude objects. After a 30‐minute interval, participants in the experimental condition were faster than controls to evaluate not only the original exemplars but also novel exemplars of the same categories. This finding suggests that the effect of attitude rehearsal on accessibility generalizes to attitudes towards untrained but semantically related attitude objects. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2206   open full text
  • Mortality salience effects on reckless driving intentions in a motorcyclist sample: The moderating role of group riding.
    Igor Ivanov, Tobias Vogel.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 21, 2016
    Campaigns against reckless driving often mention the risk of dying. Research on terror management theory indicates that death claims may backfire and foster reckless driving. Here, we studied such mortality salience effects in a motorcyclist sample. Two moderating variables, particularly interesting regarding the sample of motorcyclists, were considered: group riding (vs. riding alone) and driving‐related self‐esteem. Motorcyclists were exposed to a campaign, either highlighting mortality or not. Orthogonally, cyclists were primed with riding in a group (vs. riding alone). Driving‐related self‐esteem was assessed via a questionnaire. We predicted that reminders of riding in a group would buffer against ironic mortality effects. Supporting this hypothesis, mortality salience effects interacted with the group prime. The results indicate that death appeals are likely to backfire with cyclists riding alone rather than cyclists riding in a group, especially if motorcycling is relevant to the self.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2197   open full text
  • Going to political extremes in response to boredom.
    Wijnand A. P. Van Tilburg, Eric R. Igou.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 21, 2016
    Boredom makes people attempt to re‐establish a sense of meaningfulness. Political ideologies, and in particular the adherence to left‐ versus right‐wing beliefs, can serve as a source of meaning. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that boredom is associated with a stronger adherence to left‐ versus right‐wing beliefs, resulting in more extreme political orientations. Study 1 demonstrates that experimentally induced boredom leads to more extreme political orientations. Study 2 indicates that people who become easily bored with their environment adhere to more extreme ends of a political spectrum compared with their less easily bored counterparts. Finally, Study 3 reveals that the relatively extreme political orientations among those who are easily bored can be attributed to their enhanced search for meaning. Overall, our research suggests that extreme political orientations are, in part, a function of boredom's existential qualities.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2205   open full text
  • Leaders' achievement goals and their integrative management of creative ideas voiced by subordinates or superiors.
    Roy B. L. Sijbom, Onne Janssen, Nico W. Van Yperen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 21, 2016
    The purpose of this research was to examine the joint impact of leader achievement goals and hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas (subordinate vs. superior) on the extent to which leaders (intent to) integrate these voiced creative ideas with their own ideas (integrative idea management). In a scenario‐based survey (study 1; N = 189), in which we measured participants' achievement goals, we found that the relationship between leaders' performance goals and their intention to integrate voiced creative ideas is contingent on the hierarchical position of the idea voicer. Similarly, in an experimental study (study 2; N = 94), in which we experimentally induced achievement goals, we found that leaders display lower integrative intentions when ideas are voiced by a subordinate rather than a superior, but this was only true for leaders pursuing performance goals. Furthermore, the results of an additional, exploratory analysis suggest that the hierarchical position of the voicer of creative ideas had an indirect effect on integrative behavior through integrative intentions for performance goal leaders and no effect for mastery goal leaders. Together, these findings advance our understanding of how middle management leaders are influenced by their own achievement goals when managing the creative ideas voiced by subordinates and superiors.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2223   open full text
  • The effect of the belief in free market ideology on redressing corporate injustice.
    Peter Kardos, Bernhard Leidner, Laszlo Zsolnai, Emanuele Castano.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 20, 2016
    Many people in the major Western economies (e.g., United States, UK, and Germany) subscribe to free market ideology (FMI), which claims that institutional oversight of the market is unnecessary for public reaction can force corporations to regulate their own behavior. The question then becomes how people's belief in FMI affects their reactions to corporate transgressions. Given its ingroup‐centered values, we hypothesized that FMI beliefs would bias reactions to corporate transgressions. We report results of a pilot study showing that FMI beliefs are predicted by selfishness, tradition, conformity, and lack of universalism. We then report three experiments, which showed that stronger FMI beliefs predict weaker demands to redress corporate injustices committed by ingroup (but not outgroup) corporations (Studies 1–3), especially when victims of corporate wrongdoings belong to an outgroup (rather than the ingroup; Study 3). The findings inform our conceptual understanding of FMI and give insights about its implications for market justice.
    June 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2222   open full text
  • A qualitative exploration of alcohol use among student sportspeople: A social identity perspective.
    Jin Zhou, Derek Heim.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 13, 2016
    Research indicates that university student sportspeople are a high‐risk subgroup for hazardous alcohol consumption. Adopting a social identity perspective, we explored the social and psychological processes linking sports participation and alcohol use. Twenty‐two individual semi‐structured interviews were conducted with UK student sportspeople (male: 12; female: 10). A deductive thematic analysis identified three core themes: social identification and sports group membership, identity processes in (alcohol) behaviours and sport context‐specific significance of alcohol. Results suggest that the consumptive practices among student sportspeople were strategic activities underpinned by social identity processes, and which served to provide a positive sports experience at the group level. Our findings highlight the interactions between the sport environment, the social structure of sport participation and the multipurpose function of alcohol in this context. We discuss the implications of these results in support of a social identity approach to sport‐related drinking.
    June 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2195   open full text
  • Examining the indirect effects of religious orientations on well‐being through personal locus of control.
    Danny Osborne, Petar Milojev, Chris G. Sibley.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. March 02, 2016
    Religiosity often positively correlates with well‐being. Some orientations towards religion may, however, adversely affect well‐being by decreasing perceptions of personal locus of control—a critical antecedent of mental health. We examined this possibility in a New Zealand‐based national sample of religiously identified adults (N = 1486). As predicted, fundamentalism had a negative indirect effect on life satisfaction, but a positive indirect effect on psychological distress. Conversely, people's intrinsic religious orientation had a positive indirect effect on life satisfaction, but a negative indirect effect on psychological distress. Notably, all four indirect effects were transmitted through personal, but not God, locus of control. These results highlight the diversity of religious orientations and show that religious orientations that deemphasize people's personal locus of control have negative consequences for well‐being.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2182   open full text
  • Acculturation preferences and behavioural tendencies between majority and minority groups: The mediating role of emotions.
    Lucía López‐Rodríguez, Isabel Cuadrado, Marisol Navas.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. March 02, 2016
    The main goal of this research was twofold. First, we aimed at determining how acculturation preferences and emotions were related to specific intergroup behavioural tendencies towards majority and minority groups. Second, we aimed at developing an intergroup behavioural tendencies scale that differentiates between valence (facilitation and harm) and intensity (active and passive). The role of intergroup contact was also examined, as it is a known predictor of intergroup prejudice. In order to fulfil these goals, we carried out two studies. In Study 1, Spanish participants (N = 279) answered a questionnaire about Moroccans (a devalued group) or Ecuadorians (a valued group) by reporting their acculturation preferences for immigrants, their positive and negative emotions, quantity of contact with them and behavioural tendencies towards them. In Study 2, Moroccans (N = 92) and Ecuadorians (N = 87) assessed Spaniards on these measures. Results confirmed the structure of the new behavioural tendencies scale across four groups of participants. Overall, findings also showed that acculturation preferences and quantity of contact indirectly predicted behavioural tendencies through positive emotions. This research contributes to knowledge on how the majority and minority's acculturation preferences are related to their emotions and specific dimensions of intergroup behavioural tendencies, confirming the predominant mediating role of positive emotions in this process.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2181   open full text
  • Testing the subtractive pattern of cultural identification.
    Roxane Sablonnière, Catherine E. Amiot, Diana Cárdenas, Nazgul Sadykova, Galina L. Gorborukova, Marie‐Elaine Huberdeau.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. February 24, 2016
    Identity integration, and more specifically, the subtractive pattern of cultural identification, is investigated in this article. This pattern is hypothesized to occur when individuals integrate a new group identity of higher and legitimate status than their original identity, resulting in lower identification with the original group. The first study examined how relative status predicts the subtractive pattern of identification in immigrants living in Canada. Studies 2 and 3—conducted among Kyrgyz and Canadian participants—extended these results by measuring the impact of legitimacy on the subtractive pattern of identification. Results support the hypothesis that the subtractive pattern of identification takes place when the new identity has a higher and legitimate status compared with the original one, highlighting the possible different patterns of identity integration.
    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2178   open full text
  • Thinking about “why” eliminates retrieval‐induced forgetting: Levels of construal affect retrieval dynamics.
    Kenji Ikeda, Yosuke Hattori, Masanori Kobayashi.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. February 12, 2016
    The present study examined how levels of construal affect retrieval‐induced forgetting. Higher‐level construal is associated with the focus on the similarities among stimuli, suggesting that high‐level construal promotes relational processing. Based on this fact, retrieval‐induced forgetting may be reduced or eliminated under high‐level construal condition because of the effect of relational processing. Two experiments were conducted using a retrieval‐practice paradigm with different stimuli while priming the level of construal. A meta‐analysis synthesizing the results showed that retrieval‐induced forgetting occurred under the low‐level construal condition, whereas forgetting did not occur under the high‐level construal condition. These results suggest that abstract thinking can eliminate retrieval‐induced forgetting because of relational processing, demonstrating the role of the levels of construal on memory inhibition.
    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2180   open full text
  • The observing self: Diminishing egocentrism through brief mindfulness meditation.
    Marius Golubickis, Lucy B.G. Tan, Johanna K. Falben, C. Neil Macrae.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. February 10, 2016
    Reflecting the egocentrism that permeates contemporary society, people often believe they stand out in the eyes of others (i.e., the spotlight effect), a conviction that is entirely misplaced. Although considerable efforts have focused on elucidating the consequences of the spotlight effect, much less is known about factors that may attenuate this illusory perception. Accordingly, the current study explored the possibility that, via shifts in perspectives on the self (i.e., first person vs. third person), brief mindfulness‐based meditation may reduce a future‐oriented variant of this bias. The results revealed that, compared with responses in the control conditions (i.e., control meditation or no mediation), brief mindfulness‐based meditation fostered the adoption of a third‐person vantage point during mental imagery and diminished perceptions of personal salience.
    February 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2186   open full text
  • Reassuring sex: Can sexual desire and intimacy reduce relationship‐specific attachment insecurities?
    Moran Mizrahi, Gilad Hirschberger, Mario Mikulincer, Ohad Szepsenwol, Gurit E. Birnbaum.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. February 10, 2016
    Past research has shown that attachment orientations shape sexual processes within relationships. Yet, little has been done to explore the opposite direction. In the present research, we examined whether sexual desire and emotional intimacy reduce attachment insecurities over time in emerging relationships. In an 8‐month longitudinal study, we followed 62 newly dating couples across three measurement waves. At Time 1, romantic partners discussed sexual aspects of their relationship and judges coded their displays of sexual desire and intimacy. Participants also completed measures of relationship‐specific attachment anxiety and avoidance in each wave. The results indicated that men's displays of desire predicted a decline in their own and their partner's relationship‐specific insecurities. Conversely, women's displays of desire inhibited the decline in their partner's relationship‐specific insecurities, whereas women's displays of intimacy predicted a decline in their partner's relationship‐specific insecurities. These findings suggest that different sex‐related processes underlie attachment formation in men and women.
    February 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2184   open full text
  • Legitimate lies: The relationship between omission, commission, and cheating.
    Andrea Pittarello, Enrico Rubaltelli, Daphna Motro.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. February 10, 2016
    Across four experiments, we show that when people can serve their self‐interest, they are more likely to refrain from reporting the truth (lie of omission) than actively lie (lie of commission). We developed a novel online “Heads or Tails” task in which participants can lie to win a monetary prize. During the task, they are informed that the software is not always accurate, and it might provide incorrect feedback about their outcome. In Experiment 1, those in the omission condition received incorrect feedback informing them that they had won the game. Participants in commission condition were correctly informed that they had lost. Results indicated that when asked to report any errors in the detection of their payoff, participants in the omission condition cheated significantly more than those in the commission condition. Experiment 2 showed that this pattern of results is robust even when controlling for the perceived probability of the software error. Experiments 3 and 4 suggest that receiving incorrect feedback makes individuals feel more legitimate in withholding the truth, which, in turn, increases cheating.
    February 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2179   open full text
  • How remembering less acts of gratitude can make one feel more grateful and satisfied with close relationships: The role of ease of recall.
    Rogelio Puente‐Diaz, Judith Cavazos‐Arroyo.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. February 10, 2016
    Two studies were conducted to examine the influence of ease of recall on state gratitude and satisfaction with close relationships among college students from Mexico. Participants were randomly assigned to remembering and writing down two versus six acts for which they should be grateful. Participants then completed a battery of questionnaires measuring state gratitude, negative affect, satisfaction with close relationships, ease of recall and trait gratitude and extroversion (for Study 2 only). Results from both studies showed that recalling two acts was perceived as easier than recalling six acts. This experience of ease of recall had a positive influence on state gratitude, even after controlling for the effects of trait gratitude and extroversion, which then had positive relationship with satisfaction with close relationships.
    February 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2177   open full text
  • Unconscious arithmetic processing: A direct replication.
    Andrew Karpinski, Miriam Yale, Jessie C Briggs.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. February 04, 2016
    Across two experiments involving four conditions, Sklar et al. (2012) found that complex subtraction equations can be solved without awareness of the equations. These findings challenge the current position that consciousness is necessary for performing abstract, rule‐following tasks. Given the important implications of their work, we directly replicate Sklar's findings using a larger sample (n = 94) from a different population. Using Continuous Flash Suppression, we investigated if people were able to solve an equation after subliminal (1300 ms) exposure to it. We found evidence for unconscious addition but not subtraction. The effect of unconscious addition was eliminated when participants reported subjective awareness of the primes. Critical review of our results and implications for further research are discussed.
    February 04, 2016   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2175   open full text
  • When and how forgiving benefits victims: Post‐transgression offender effort and the mediating role of deservingness judgements.
    Peter Strelan, Ian McKee, N. T. Feather.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. December 14, 2015
    For all the well‐established benefits of forgiveness for victims, when and how is forgiving more likely to be beneficial? Three experimental studies found that forgiving is more likely to be beneficial when victims perceived reparative effort by offenders such that offenders deserve forgiveness. Deservingness judgements were elicited by manipulating post‐transgression offender effort (apology/amends). When offenders apologized (Study 1; recall paradigm) or made amends (Study 2; hypothetical paradigm) and were forgiven—relative to transgressors who did not apologize/make amends but were still forgiven—forgiving was beneficial. These findings—that deserved forgiveness is more beneficial for victims than undeserved forgiveness—were replicated when forgiving itself was also manipulated (Study 3). Moreover, Study 3 provided evidence to indicate that if a victim forgives when it is not deserved, victim well‐being is equivalent to not forgiving at all. Of theoretical and practical importance is the mediating effect of deservingness on relations between post‐transgression offender effort and a victim's personal consequences of forgiving.
    December 14, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2167   open full text
  • Oral approach‐avoidance: A replication and extension for European–Portuguese phonation.
    Sandra Godinho, Margarida Vaz Garrido.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. December 08, 2015
    Previous research revealed that mouth movements influence attitudes. Covert subvocal articulations inducing muscular contractions resembling ingestion movements were preferred over expectoration‐like movements, unveiling a relationship between vocal muscles' wandering and motivational states such as approach and avoidance. These findings, explained in terms of embodied cognition, suggest that specific movements are directly connected to, and more importantly, automatically activate concordant motivational states. The oral approach‐avoidance effect was replicated using the original stimulus set and a new set of stimulus developed for Portuguese. Results from two high‐powered (total N = 407), independent replications, revealed that the preference for inward words (over outwards) exists in both sets but to a greater extent in the pool phonetically adapted for Portuguese.
    December 08, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2172   open full text
  • Social identities promote well‐being because they satisfy global psychological needs.
    Katharine H. Greenaway, Tegan Cruwys, S. Alexander Haslam, Jolanda Jetten.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. December 08, 2015
    Social identities are known to improve well‐being, but why is this? We argue that this is because they satisfy basic psychological needs, specifically, the need to belong, the need for self‐esteem, the need for control and the need for meaningful existence. A longitudinal study (N = 70) revealed that gain in identity strength was associated with increased need satisfaction over 7 months. A cross‐sectional study (N = 146) revealed that social identity gain and social identity loss predicted increased and reduced need satisfaction, respectively. Finally, an experiment (N = 300) showed that, relative to a control condition, social identity gain increased need satisfaction and social identity loss decreased it. Need satisfaction mediated the relationship between social identities and depression in all studies. Sensitivity analyses suggested that social identities satisfy psychological needs in a global sense, rather than being reducible to one particular need. These findings shed new light on the mechanisms through which social identities enhance well‐being.
    December 08, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2169   open full text
  • Political involvement moderates the impact of worldviews and values on SDO and RWA.
    Luigi Leone, Stefano Livi, Antonio Chirumbolo.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. December 08, 2015
    The Dual Process Model (DPM) of social attitudes and prejudice proposes that Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) reflect two distinct motivational processes. In two studies, we investigated how political involvement moderates the impact of social worldviews and value‐based dimensions on SDO and RWA. We proposed that political involvement constrains SDO, RWA and their antecedents into a tighter left–right ideological dimension, therefore transforming the double dissociation pattern of the DPM into a double additive pattern. As expected, for stronger political involvement, Study 1 (N = 237) showed that SDO and RWA were a function of both the competitive jungle and the dangerous world worldviews, whereas Study 2 (N = 143) pointed out that SDO and RWA were both connected with the value dimensions of self‐enhancement and conservation.
    December 08, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2170   open full text
  • Greater family identification—but not greater contact with family members—leads to better health: Evidence from a Spanish longitudinal study.
    Juliet R. H. Wakefield, Fabio Sani, Marina Herrera, Sammyh S. Khan, Pat Dugard.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. December 08, 2015
    We investigated the effect of family identification (one's subjective sense of belonging to and commonality with the family) on self‐reported ill‐health in 206 Valencian undergraduates, with eight months between Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2). While greater family identification T1 predicted lower ill‐health T2, ill‐health T1 did not predict family identification T2. Family contact T1 (one's intensity of interaction with family) was unrelated to ill‐health T2. This shows that family identification impacts positively on health over time (rather than health impacting positively on family identification over time), and this is not reducible to effects exerted by family contact. These findings indicate that encouraging patients to engage in group activities might produce negligible health gains unless the patient identifies with the group in question.
    December 08, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2171   open full text
  • The vicious circle of religious prejudice: Islamophobia makes the acculturation attitudes of majority and minority members clash.
    Jonas R. Kunst, Talieh Sadeghi, Hajra Tahir, David Sam, Lotte Thomsen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. November 25, 2015
    Public discourse often portrays Islam as the main obstacle for Muslim minorities' integration, paying little attention to the contextual factors hindering this process. Here, we focus on islamophobia as one destructive factor that hinders the mutual integration between Muslim minority and Western majority members, affecting both groups. In Study 1, the more islamophobic majority members were, the more they expected Muslims to give up their heritage culture and the less they wanted them to integrate. In Study 2, only when Muslims experienced substantial religious discrimination did religious identity negatively relate to national engagement and particularly positively relate to ethnic engagement. Together, the studies suggest that religious prejudice in the form of islamophobia is a major obstacle to Muslims' integration because it increases the incongruity between majority and minority members' acculturation attitudes.
    November 25, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2174   open full text
  • Exposure to sexism can decrease implicit gender stereotype bias.
    Miguel R. Ramos, Manuela Barreto, Naomi Ellemers, Miguel Moya, Lúcia Ferreira, Jimmy Calanchini.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 20, 2015
    Two studies examined the effect of exposure to sexism on implicit gender bias, focusing specifically on stereotypes of men as competent and women as warm. Male and female participants were exposed to sexism or no sexism. In both Experiment 1 (Implicit Association Task; N = 115) and Experiment 2 (Go/No‐go Association Task; N = 167), women who had been exposed to sexist beliefs demonstrated less implicit gender stereotype bias relative to women who were not exposed to sexism. In contrast, exposure to sexism did not influence men's implicit gender stereotype bias. In Experiment 2, process modelling revealed that women's reduction in bias in response to sexism was related to increased accuracy orientation and a tendency to make warmth versus competence judgments. The implications of these findings for current understandings of sexism and its effects on gender stereotypes are discussed.
    October 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2165   open full text
  • Affect and the weight of idealistic versus pragmatic concerns in decision situations.
    Axel M. Burger, Herbert Bless.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 20, 2015
    Individuals consider abstract values and principles important aspects of their identities. Nonetheless, they often make judgments and decisions that contradict these values and principles for the sake of pragmatic benefits. Assuming that the process of weighting idealistic and pragmatic concerns is context sensitive, the present research argues that affect influences the relative weight of idealistic versus pragmatic concerns in decision situations owing to its influence on the level of abstraction at which individuals represent situations mentally. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that more positive affect increases the prominent weighting of idealistic over pragmatic concerns while less positive affect leads to less differentiation between the relevance of idealistic and pragmatic concerns. Studies 3 and 4 test the assumption that affective influences on mental abstraction are crucial for affect‐dependent shifts in the weighting of idealistic and pragmatic concerns. By bringing together theorizing on affect and cognition with recent theorizing on the role of mental abstraction for decision processes, this article highlights a mechanism through which decisions can be influenced by feelings that goes beyond the mechanisms that have typically been discussed in the affect and cognition literature so far.
    October 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2164   open full text
  • The evolutionary psychology of small‐scale versus large‐scale politics: Ancestral conditions did not include large‐scale politics.
    Glenn Geher, Rachael Carmen, Amanda Guitar, Bernadine Gangemi, Gökçe Sancak Aydin, Andrew Shimkus.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 20, 2015
    The current research question sought to examine political psychology as it relates to evolutionary mismatch. The basic hypothesis is that people will be more cognitively prepared to think about political situations that are relatively small in scale compared with political situations that are large in scale. This research also examined the effects of whether the political situation is highly relevant to oneself. To test these questions, 49 young adults were presented with four sets of instructions. They were asked to write paragraphs describing (i) a large‐scale, self‐relevant political situation, (ii) a large‐scale non‐self‐relevant political situation, (iii) a small‐scale self‐relevant political situation, and (iv) a small‐scale non‐self‐relevant political situation. Paragraphs generated by the participants were analyzed using Tyler's (2013) Writing Sample Readability Analyzer. Results demonstrated that paragraphs designed for large‐scale political situations had more sentences and were less readable than paragraphs designed for small‐scale situations—while paragraphs designed for small‐scale political situations were relatively readable and included more words per sentence, suggesting that, consistent with the core hypothesis, participants had an easier time processing information related to small‐scale political situations than large‐scale political situations. Implications for the nature of modern politics are discussed.
    October 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2158   open full text
  • The role of ordinary conversation and shared activity in the main effect between perceived support and affect.
    William C. Woods, Brian Lakey, Travis Sain.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 15, 2015
    People with high perceived support have better mental health, but how this occurs is not well understood. We tested hypotheses from relational regulation theory that the main effect between perceived support and affect primarily reflects ordinary conversation and shared activity. In two studies (n = 193; n = 149), students rated three important network members and psychological reactions to each. In a third study (n = 72) strangers shared an activity in a round‐robin design. Affect was strongly determined by with who participants were interacting or thinking about. Perceived support, ordinary conversation, and shared activity were strongly linked, and each was related to high positive affect, low negative affect, perceived similarity, and few negative thoughts. Perceived support's link to affect emerged when strangers shared a brief activity. Thus, much of perceived support's main effect with affect could be explained as resulting from ordinary conversation and shared activity.
    October 15, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2149   open full text
  • Sometimes inclusion breeds suspicion: Self‐uncertainty and belongingness predict belief in conspiracy theories.
    Jan‐Willem Prooijen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 13, 2015
    In the present contribution, the author investigated the idea that messages communicating inclusion by others lead to stronger conspiracy beliefs about impactful societal events than messages communicating exclusion by others. These effects of belongingness, however, were expected only among people who experience high levels of self‐uncertainty. In Study 1, a manipulation of belongingness predicted belief in conspiracy theories only among people with unstable self‐esteem (an individual difference indicator of self‐uncertainty), while controlling for self‐esteem level. In Study 2, a manipulation of belongingness influenced belief in conspiracy theories only among participants who were experimentally induced to feel uncertain about themselves. It is concluded that among self‐uncertain people, inclusion breeds suspicion about the causes of impactful and harmful societal events.
    October 13, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2157   open full text
  • Connectedness to the criminal community and the community at large predicts 1‐year post‐release outcomes among felony offenders.
    Johanna B. Folk, Debra Mashek, June Tangney, Jeffrey Stuewig, Kelly E. Moore.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 13, 2015
    Connectedness to one's community relates to positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. But what implications do connectedness to distinct communities—the criminal community and the community at large—have for inmates about to be released from jail? This study (N = 383) prospectively examined connectedness to the criminal community and community at large prior to release from jail and functioning at 1‐year post‐release. Connectedness to the community at large positively predicted community adjustment, whereas connectedness to the criminal community positively predicted recidivism. Targeting both types of community connectedness may enhance interventions intended to undermine recidivism and increase positive outcomes for inmates.
    October 13, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2155   open full text
  • Responses to exclusion are moderated by its perceived fairness.
    Taylor Tuscherer, Donald F. Sacco, James H. Wirth, Heather M. Claypool, Kurt Hugenberg, Eric D. Wesselmann.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. October 07, 2015
    Experimental exclusion manipulations may induce exclusion in a way that participants perceive as unfair. Groups often use exclusion punitively to correct inappropriate behavior, however, which may lead to perceptions that it is potentially justified or fair. The current studies examined if individuals' perceptions of fairness with respect to an exclusion experience moderated their reactions. Participants wrote about or imagined a time in which they were excluded after they did something wrong (fair exclusion) or excluded even though they did nothing wrong (unfair exclusion) or about a mundane experience unrelated to exclusion (control). Compared with fair exclusion, unfair exclusion resulted in significantly weaker efficacy needs satisfaction (Studies 1, 2, and 4), greater antisocial intent (Study 3), and greater sensitivity to signs of interpersonal acceptance and rejection in a visual search task (Study 4). These results suggest that it is important to consider the role of perceived fairness in shaping responses to exclusion.
    October 07, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2152   open full text
  • Effects of trustors' social identity complexity on interpersonal and intergroup trust.
    Sufei Xin, Ziqiang Xin, Chongde Lin.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 22, 2015
    Although previous literature has revealed the effect of a single social identity on trust, only few studies have examined how multiple social identities affect trust in others. The present research examined the effects of trustors' social identity complexity on their level of trust toward another person (interpersonal trust), outgroup members (outgroup trust), and ingroup members (ingroup trust). Study 1, which was a correlational study, indicated that trustors' social identity complexity was positively related to their interpersonal and outgroup trust. Three experimental studies were performed to identify causal relationships. Study 2 found that activating trustors' high social identity complexity produced high levels of interpersonal trust, and Studies 3 and 4 found that this effect was more pronounced when the trustee was an outgroup member (outgroup trust) rather than an ingroup member (ingroup trust). The implications of these results for social harmony are discussed.
    September 22, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2156   open full text
  • Not “just words”: Exposure to homophobic epithets leads to dehumanizing and physical distancing from gay men.
    Fabio Fasoli, Maria Paola Paladino, Andrea Carnaghi, Jolanda Jetten, Brock Bastian, Paul G. Bain.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 13, 2015
    We examined whether homophobic epithets (e.g., faggot) function as labels of deviance for homosexuals that contribute to their dehumanization and physical distance. Across two studies, participants were supraliminally (Study 1) and subliminally (Study 2) exposed to a homophobic epithet, a category label, or a generic insult. Participants were then asked to associate human‐related and animal‐related words to homosexuals and heterosexuals. Results showed that after exposure to a homophobic epithet, compared with a category label or a generic insult, participants associated less human‐related words with homosexuals, indicating dehumanization. In Study 2, we also assessed the effect of a homophobic epithet on physical distance from a target group member and found that homophobic epithets led to greater physical distancing of a gay man. These findings indicate that homophobic epithets foster dehumanization and avoidance of gay people, in ways that other insults or labels do not.
    September 13, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2148   open full text
  • Does authoritarianism imply ethnocentric national attitudes: A revised look at the “authoritarian triad” and right‐wing ideology.
    Piotr Radkiewicz.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 13, 2015
    Dozens of studies have shown that authoritarian people are ethnocentric. They are described as nationalistic, prejudiced, and hostile toward ethnic/national out‐groups. However, it can be argued that this critical claim remains unproven, as researchers do not take into consideration the very conservative right‐wing views typical of authoritarian people. To address this problem, two theoretical approaches were contrasted: the most commonly used right‐wing authoritarianism (RWA) approach and the group authoritarianism approach. Both approaches define authoritarianism as the covariance of submission, aggression, and conventionalism, but they differ in that the former is inextricably related to right‐wing ideology while the latter is not. This paper presents the results of two survey studies conducted on samples of 600 and 400 respondents. In Study 1, it was found that RWA and group authoritarianism had different patterns of relationships with in‐group and out‐group national attitudes, providing strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that the right‐wing ideology generated ethnocentric national attitudes. Study 2 showed a strong direct effect of right‐wing ideology on ethnocentric national attitudes, while the impact of “pure” authoritarian covariance is marginal and sometimes even seems to be negative (e.g., ethnic prejudices). These findings suggest that authoritarianism has little to do with ethnocentric national attitudes. It is not the covariance of authoritarian attitudes that results in growing ethnocentrism. The true perpetrator can be found in the large component of right‐wing ideology contained in such measurement instruments as the RWA scale.
    September 13, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2147   open full text
  • One ring to rule them all: Master discourses of enlightenment—and racism—from colonial to contemporary New Zealand.
    James H. Liu, Angela R. Robinson.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. September 09, 2015
    We interrogated historical continuity and change in discourses of enlightenment and racism through the analysis of 160 years of New Zealand Speeches from the Throne (1854–2014, 163 speeches). Enlightenment discourses of benevolence and perfectibility were prevalent in all periods, much more so than racism. ‘Old‐fashioned’ racism took the form of an assumed civilizational superiority (including accusations of ‘barbarism’) during colonization, with ‘modern’ racism taking forms like blaming Māori for not ‘productively’ using the land. Both declined to almost zero by the 20th century, undermining the idea of ‘old‐fashioned’ versus ‘modern’ racism. Utilitarian discourses peaked in the late 19th to early 20th centuries as justification for Māori land alienation. ‘Master discourses of enlightenment’ consisted of a central core of social representations that changed at the periphery, with a gradual expansion of symbolic inclusion of Māori in discourses of national identity to the point where biculturalism is the dominant discourse for elites today.
    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2141   open full text
  • Emergent social identity and observing social support predict social support provided by survivors in a disaster: Solidarity in the 2010 Chile earthquake.
    John Drury, Rupert Brown, Roberto González, Daniel Miranda.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 31, 2015
    Survivors of disasters commonly provide each other with social support, but the social‐psychological processes behind such solidarity behaviours have not been fully explicated. We describe a survey of 1240 adults affected by the 2010 Chile earthquake to examine the importance of two factors: observing others providing social support and social identification with other survivors. As expected, emotional social support was associated with social identification, which in turn was predicted by disaster exposure through common fate. Observing others' supportive behaviour predicted both providing emotional social support and providing coordinated instrumental social support. Expected support was a key mediator of these relationships and also predicted collective efficacy. There was also an interaction: social identification moderated the relationship between observing and providing social support. These findings serve to develop the social identity account of mass emergency behaviour and add value to disaster research by showing the relevance of concepts from collective action.
    August 31, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2146   open full text
  • ‘I don't think racism is that bad any more’: Exploring the ‘end of racism’ discourse among students in English schools.
    Eleni Andreouli, Katy Greenland, Caroline Howarth.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 31, 2015
    In this paper, we present findings on lay constructions of racism from a focus group study (11 groups, n = 72) with a mixed sample of secondary‐school students in England. We show that racism was, on the whole, ‘othered’: It was located in other times, places, and people or was denied altogether. We show that this way of talking about racism had different uses depending on the identity stakes involved in different interactional contexts. Even in the cases where racism was constructed as common, participants worked hard to make an ‘irrefutable’ argument, which suggests that they were anticipating reputational damage by making a claim for the persistence of racism. We discuss these findings with regard to the different levels of analysis involved in constructions of racism (micro‐interactional, local and broader normative context) and with regard to an ‘end of racism’ discourse that appeared to provide the normative framework for participants' accounts.
    August 31, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2143   open full text
  • Discursive constructions of otherness in populist radical right political blogs.
    Inari Sakki, Katarina Pettersson.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 26, 2015
    This article provides a comparative study of the discursive construction and use of Otherness among anti‐immigration populist radical right politicians in Sweden and Finland. Based on rhetorical and critical discursive psychology, our analyses of discourse within nine political blogs identified three distinct representations of Otherness. These representations of a deviant group of people, of a threatening ideology and of inner enemies are highly familiar from previous research on radical right discourse. However, what seems to characterize populist radical right discourse in the Nordic context is the strong reliance on the rhetorical juxtaposition between the welfare system and immigration. Our study furthermore highlights how populist radical right politicians exploit the digital discursive tools provided by political blogging. These tools, first, create a sense of connectedness and mutual understanding between blogger and reader and, second, allow the blogger to convey messages that are hostile towards immigrants and ethnic minorities without expressing an explicit personal opinion. In combination, the features provided by political blogging and the discursive and rhetorical strategies that deny racism make discourse within a populist radical right political blog especially powerful and convincing. We conclude that research must be sensitive to this ‘digital discourse’, as it reaches a public far beyond the sphere of a political blog through its potential to spread and influence mainstream media.
    August 26, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2142   open full text
  • The impact of different procedures to arouse mortality awareness on various worldview dimensions.
    Agustin Echebarria Echabe, Saioa Perez.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 19, 2015
    An experimental study was carried out in order to explore two aspects of the terror management theory that have received little attention until now. The first objective was to see whether the different procedures to arouse mortality awareness have the same effects in certain dimensions included within the general construct of ‘worldviews’ (namely, commitment to life‐after‐death beliefs, Eurocentrism and xenophobia, European identity and the importance attached to the family and offspring in personal growth). The second objective was to study the role played by three mediators (emotions, death‐thoughts accessibility and self‐esteem) in the effects of mortality awareness on worldviews. The results revealed that different death reminders influenced different worldview dimensions and that emotions played a major role in the process.
    August 19, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2144   open full text
  • The influence of social, para‐social, and nonsocial misleading post‐event sources on memory performance.
    Malwina Szpitalak, Mateusz Polak, Romuald Polczyk, Karolina Dukała.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 17, 2015
    Misinformation encountered after witnessing an event is known to influence subsequent memory reports about this event. In most research, misleading information was introduced impersonally, for example, by means of a written description, but it is now well established that delivering it in a social interaction is effective as well. Less is known about the relative effectiveness of impersonal post‐event misinformation compared with a socially presented one. The present research provides a direct empirical comparison between social, para‐social, and impersonal methods of delivering misinformation. Results indicate that the way in which post‐event information is provided does not affect the number of false recall items, source monitoring, or remember–know distinction, with a high Bayesian probability of the obtained no‐difference effects. Results show that the social conformity factor does not significantly influence the impact of misleading post‐event information. The paper also provides a theoretical comparison of the two effects.
    August 17, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2136   open full text
  • Memory distortion and attitude change—Two routes to cognitive balance.
    Anne Berthold, Hartmut Blank.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 13, 2015
    We report novel research investigating memory distortion as an alternative route to cognitive balance, comparing it with attitude change as a well‐known balancing mechanism. Participants received statements from multiple communicators about a controversial topic (national pride in Study 1 and climate protection in Study 2) and remembered these statements immediately or 1 week later. This resulted in initially balanced or unbalanced combinations of the liking for individual communicators and the communicators' statements and in subsequent balance increases due to liking change or misremembering of statements. The contribution of memory distortion to balance was significant but weaker and less efficient than that of liking change, and the contributions were empirically independent (i.e., uncorrelated and differentially related to third variables—specifically, memory strength and individual cognitive consistency motivation). They also had a different temporal trajectory (liking change fast and memory distortion slow). We discuss theoretical and practical implications.
    August 13, 2015   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2137   open full text
  • Happy but unhealthy: The relationship between social ties and health in an emerging network.
    Jennifer L. Howell, Namkje Koudenburg, David D. Loschelder, Dale Weston, Katrien Fransen, Stefano De Dominicis, S. Gallagher, S. Alexander Haslam.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 16, 2014
    Social connections are essential to health and well‐being. However, when pursing social acceptance, people may sometimes engage in behavior that is detrimental to their health. Using a multi‐time‐point design, we examined whether the structure of an emerging network of students in an academic summer school program correlated with their physical health and mental well‐being. Participants who were more central in the network typically experienced greater symptoms of illness (e.g., cold/flu symptoms), engaged in riskier health behaviors (e.g., binge drinking), and had higher physiological reactivity to a stressor. At the same time, they were happier, felt more efficacious, and perceived less stress in response to a strenuous math task. These outcomes suggest that social ties in an emerging network are associated with better mental well‐being, but also with poorer physical health and health behaviors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 16, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2030   open full text
  • Positive and extensive intergroup contact in the past buffers against the disproportionate impact of negative contact in the present.
    Stefania Paolini, Jake Harwood, Mark Rubin, Shenel Husnu, Nicholas Joyce, Miles Hewstone.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 16, 2014
    Negative (vs positive) intergroup contact may have a disproportionately large impact on intergroup relations because of valence‐salience effects, whereby negative contact causes higher category salience (Paolini, Harwood, & Rubin, 2010). One correlational and three experimental studies in three conflict areas (Northern Ireland, Arizona's border area, and Cyprus; Ns = 405, 83, 76, and 91) tested the moderation of these valence‐salience effects by individuals' histories of outgroup contact. Consistent with a perceived fit principle valence‐salience effects of face‐to‐face, television‐mediated, and imagined contact held among individuals with negative or limited histories of outgroup contact; these effects were significantly reduced or nonsignificant among individuals with positive or extensive past outgroup contact. These moderation effects suggest that positive and diverse intergroup contact in the past buffers against the harmful effects of negative contact experiences in the present, thus limiting the potential for negative spiralling of intergroup relations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 16, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2029   open full text
  • On the perceived effectiveness of transformational–transactional leadership: The role of encouraged strategies and followers' regulatory focus.
    Melvyn R. W. Hamstra, Nico W. Van Yperen, Barbara Wisse, Kai Sassenberg.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 02, 2014
    The present research sought to examine when and why transformational and transactional leadership are perceived by followers to be effective. A series of five studies revealed that perceived effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership is influenced by the fit between leadership style‐driven encouraged strategies and followers' preferred strategies. Specifically, we found that transformational leadership primarily encourages promotion‐focused strategies and, accordingly, creates a regulatory fit for promotion‐focused followers. In contrast, transactional leadership primarily encourages prevention‐focused strategies, creating a regulatory fit for prevention‐focused followers. As a consequence of this regulatory fit, leadership is perceived as more effective and predictive of enhanced effort. By integrating literature on self‐regulation with insights from leadership research, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of the leadership process and of interpersonal influences on self‐regulatory experiences. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 02, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2027   open full text
  • When in Rome… Identification and acculturation strategies among minority members moderate the dehumanisation of the majority outgroup.
    Mariana Miranda, Maria Gouveia‐Pereira, Jeroen Vaes.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 02, 2014
    The study of humanness as a dimension of social judgment has received extensive attention over the past decade. Although the common reported finding is that people attribute more human characteristics to their ingroup than to the outgroup, similar tendencies are expected to be tempered for minority groups when judging the host society. In Study 1, carried out with Gypsy minority members, we tested the hypothesis that those group members who adopt an assimilative strategy identifying more with the host compared with the heritage culture will display the lowest levels of dehumanisation. In Studies 2 and 3, conducted with immigrants in Italy and in Portugal, respectively, the hypothesis was extended from an identification conceptualisation to an acculturation one. Despite significant variability in intergroup settings and measures, results confirmed our hypothesis that immigrants who choose to assimilate with the host culture dehumanise the outgroup less compared with those who adopt any of the other acculturation strategies. Implications for the ethnocentric nature of dehumanisation biases and for intergroup relations in general are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 02, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2025   open full text
  • Task structure, need for structure, and creativity.
    Eric F. Rietzschel, J. Marjette Slijkhuis, Nico W. Van Yperen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 02, 2014
    Although creativity is often seen as requiring spontaneity and flexibility, recent work suggests that there is creative potential in a structured and systematic approach as well. In a series of four experiments, we show that when Personal Need for Structure (PNS) is high, either chronic (Study 1) or situationally induced (Study 2), creative performance benefits from high task structure. Further, in line with earlier work on cognitive fixation effects, we show that when high task structure contains an example of noncreative task execution, creative performance is impaired, regardless of individuals' PNS. Nevertheless, participants high in PNS react relatively favorably to high task structure (Study 3) and are more likely to adopt a structured task approach when given the choice (Study 4). In sum, our results show that task structure can both stimulate and inhibit creative performance, particularly for people high in need for structure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 02, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2024   open full text
  • Social support from fellow group members triggers additional effort in groups.
    Joachim Hüffmeier, Katrin Wessolowski, Annette Randenborgh, Julia Bothin, Nikola Schmid‐Loertzer, Guido Hertel.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2014
    This research demonstrates social support from fellow group members as unique trigger of additional effort and performance in groups. Support‐induced effort gains are shown both compared with groups without social support and individual work. Study 1 examined existing beliefs about motivating group work among employees with professional group work experience (n = 130). The results revealed social support as one of the most frequently reported sources of group‐induced effort gains. Study 2 explored self‐reported effort intentions in group training scenarios among athletes (n = 94). Finally, Study 3 examined performance as a manifest indicator of effort in an experimental persistence task among students (n = 88). The results of Study 2 and Study 3 showed significant gains due to social support in both self‐reported effort and manifest performance, respectively. Together, the results demonstrate that receiving social support from fellow group members leads to higher effort in groups at the level of existing beliefs about motivating group work, at the level of effort intentions, and at the level of manifest performance behavior. The observed findings cannot be explained by established sources of motivation gains in groups such as social comparison or social indispensability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 25, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2021   open full text
  • The impact of middle names: Middle name initials enhance evaluations of intellectual performance.
    Wijnand A. P. Tilburg, Eric R. Igou.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 25, 2014
    Middle name initials often appear in formal contexts, especially when people refer to intellectual achievements. On the basis of this common link, the display of middle initials increases positive evaluations of people's intellectual capacities and achievements. We document this effect in seven studies: Middle initials in authors' names increased the evaluation of their writing performance (Study 1), and middle initials increased perceptions of status (Studies 2 and 4). Moreover, the middle initials effect was specific to intellectual performance (Studies 3 and 6), and it was mediated by perceived status (Studies 5–7). Besides supporting our hypotheses, the results of these studies yield important implication for everyday life. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 25, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2026   open full text
  • Mortality salience and evaluations of in‐group versus out‐group critics: The role of criticism legitimacy and perceived threat.
    Bernice L. Z. Khoo, Ya Hui Michelle See.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 10, 2014
    Significant terror management research has examined the impact of mortality salience on evaluations toward in‐group versus out‐group and attitudinally similar versus dissimilar others. However, relatively little research has examined evaluations when group membership is disentangled from attitude similarity. The current research examined the impact of mortality salience on evaluations toward in‐group and out‐group critics when people are less likely to rely on group membership as a heuristic. In Experiment 1, the results showed that in the control condition, participants rated an in‐group member who provided unjustified criticism more positively than an out‐group member who provided the same criticism. Under mortality salience, the reverse occurred: An in‐group member who provided unjustified criticism was rated more negatively than an out‐group member. Experiment 2 showed that under mortality salience, the derogation of an in‐group critic who provided unjustified criticism was mediated by perceptions of threat. Implications for reactions to group‐directed criticism as well as mortality salience effects are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2012   open full text
  • When do victim group members feel a moral obligation to help suffering others?
    Ruth H. Warner, Michael J. A. Wohl, Nyla R. Branscombe.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 10, 2014
    In four experiments, we assessed when the salience of ingroup historical victimization will encourage a sense of moral obligation to reduce the suffering of others. Historically victimized groups (Jews and women; Experiments 1 and 3) who considered the lessons of the past for their ingroup felt heightened moral obligation to help other non‐adversary victimized groups. However, when the suffering outgroup was an adversary, Jews (Experiment 2) and women (Experiment 4) who focused on the lesson of historical victimization for their ingroup reported lower moral obligation to reduce others' suffering. The lesson focus effect on moral obligation was mediated by benefit finding as well as perceived similarity to the outgroup. Means to facilitate moral obligation, as well as limiting factors, among victimized group members are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2010   open full text
  • How normative and social identification processes predict self‐determination to engage in derogatory behaviours against outgroup hockey fans.
    Catherine E. Amiot, Sophie Sansfaçon, Winnifred R. Louis.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 10, 2014
    Bringing together self‐determination theory, intergroup theories based on the social identity approach, and normative approaches, three studies conducted among hockey fans tested if social norms and social identity predict greater self‐determined motivation to engage in derogatory behaviours against an outgroup team and higher frequency of these behaviours. Higher self‐determination was conceptualised as an indicator of internalisation. In Study 1, hockey fans who identified more strongly as fans of the Montreal Canadiens (N = 181) displayed a stronger positive association between the perceived norm in favour of outgroup derogation and self‐determined motivation to engage in derogatory behaviours against fans of an outgroup team. This interaction also emerged on the frequency with which the derogatory behaviours were enacted. In Studies 2 and 3 (Ns = 105 and 116), this norm by social identity interaction was replicated on both the self‐determination and the frequency outcomes for fans of a diversity of teams in the National Hockey League. In Study 3, these findings were observed over and above a manipulation that framed derogatory behaviours as being either harmful or beneficial. Results are discussed in light of motivational theories, normative approaches, and intergroup theories based on the social identity approach. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2006   open full text
  • Consumer culture ideals, extrinsic motivations, and well‐being in children.
    Matthew J. Easterbrook, Mark L. Wright, Helga Dittmar, Robin Banerjee.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 03, 2014
    Internalising the consumer culture ideals of materialism and appearance has been shown to be negatively related to adults' well‐being. Similarly, adults who strive towards these ideals for extrinsic reasons, such as to improve their image or status, have been shown to have lower levels of well‐being than those who strive towards them for intrinsic reasons, such as to help others or support healthy relationships. However, to date, there is little evidence that these links exist in children. In the present research, we use new, age‐appropriate scales to test our predictions derived from self‐determination theory that being extrinsically motivated to achieve materialistic and appearance ideals will predict their internalisation, which, in turn, will negatively predict children's well‐being. An initial pilot study found that extrinsic motives were negatively related to well‐being in a sample of 150 children aged 8–11 years but that intrinsic motives were not. In our main study, we modelled materialism and appearance as indicators of a single underlying consumer culture construct, and, in a sample of 160 youths aged 8–15 years, found support for our hypothesis that being extrinsically motivated to achieve these consumer culture ideals predicts their internalisation, which negatively predicts well‐being. We discuss the possible mechanisms involved in these processes and the implications of these findings for future research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 03, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2020   open full text
  • Ethnically based rejection sensitivity and academic achievement: The danger of retracting into one's heritage culture.
    Christine Wolfgramm, Carolyn C. Morf, Bettina Hannover.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. April 03, 2014
    This study examined the relation between ethnically based rejection sensitivity and academic achievement in a sample of 936 immigrant students in Germany and Switzerland. The theory of race‐based rejection sensitivity that originated in North America was extended to immigrant students in Europe. The rough political climate against immigrants in Europe makes it probable that immigrant youth face particular difficulties and are affected by ethnically based rejection sensitivity, at least as much as—or even more than—minority youth in the United States. Using a standardized literacy performance test and multilevel analyses, we found that ethnically based rejection sensitivity was negatively related to academic achievement for immigrant students. This relation was partially mediated by a strong contingency of the students' self‐worth on the heritage culture, as well as by a low number of native German or Swiss majority‐group friends. We interpret these processes as immigrant students' efforts to cope with ethnically based rejection sensitivity by retracting into their heritage culture and avoiding majority‐group contact, which unfortunately, however, at the same time also results in lower academic achievement. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 03, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2018   open full text
  • Living in the north is not necessarily favorable: Different metaphoric associations between cardinal direction and valence in Hong Kong and in the United States.
    Yanli Huang, Chi‐Shing Tse, Kit W. Cho.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. March 27, 2014
    The Conceptual Metaphor Theory (e.g., Lakoff & Johnson, ) suggests that people represent abstract concepts in terms of concrete concepts via metaphoric association. Participants in the United States (US) showed that cardinal direction (north/south) is metaphorically associated with valence (positive/negative), as reflected by their estimate for where a person with high or low socioeconomic status (SES) lives in a fictional city or their own living preference (Meier, Moller, Chen, & Riemer‐Peltz, ). The present study tested whether the cardinal direction–valence metaphoric association could be moderated by cultural differences. Although US participants believed that high‐SES and low‐SES individuals were more likely to live in the northern and southern part of the city, respectively, the reverse was so for Hong Kong (HK) participants (Study 1). When asked where they themselves would like to live, HK participants preferred to live in a southern area, whereas US participants showed no preference (Studies 2 and 3). These findings demonstrate cultural differences in metaphoric associations between cardinal direction and valence for HK and US participants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 27, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2013   open full text
  • To help or not to help an outgroup member: The role of the target's individual attributes in resolving potential helpers' motivational conflict.
    Birte Siem, Katharina Lotz‐Schmitt, Stefan Stürmer.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. March 27, 2014
    When people are faced with the decision of whether or not to help an outgroup member, they often experience conflicting motivational tendencies due to the concurrent presence of factors prompting help and factors prompting non‐help. We argue that one way of how people deal with this conflict is by taking a closer look at the target's individual attributes, especially at those indicating the target's benevolence. Findings of Experiment 1 (N = 96), in which we manipulated intercultural dissimilarity between participants and a (fictitious) recipient of help and normative pressure to help as two factors affecting motivational conflict, support this basic assumption. Specifically, response latencies analyses confirmed that participants assigned a culturally highly dissimilar target spent more time on inspecting target‐related information when normative pressure, and thus motivational conflict, was high than when it was low. Experiment 2 (N = 141) extended these findings by demonstrating that providing potential helpers with explicit information about an outgroup member's benevolence increased helping intentions through reducing their negative interaction expectancies (and thus motivational conflict). As expected, this mediational relationship could only be observed for participants assigned a culturally highly dissimilar target. Experiment 3 (N = 46) replicated these mediation findings in a within‐subjects design. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 27, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2017   open full text
  • Late Abrahamic reunion? Religious fundamentalism negatively predicts dual Abrahamic group categorization among Muslims and Christians.
    Jonas R. Kunst, Lotte Thomsen, David L. Sam.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. March 16, 2014
    Although extensive research has documented the effectiveness of common or dual in‐groups on improving intergroup relations, little is known about how individual‐difference variables affect people's willingness to make such re‐categorizations in the first place. Here, we demonstrate that individual differences in religious fundamentalism predict willingness to categorize in terms of the common Abrahamic religious origins of Christianity and Islam among Christians and Muslims. Study 1 (n = 243 Christians, 291 Muslims) uses multigroup structural equation modeling and Study 2 (n = 80 Christians) an experimental manipulation to show that religious fundamentalism causes lower dual Abrahamic categorization, which, in turn, predicts more positive attitudes toward the respective out‐group, mediating the negative effects of religious fundamentalism on religious intergroup bias. While making the general case that individual differences may play important roles for dual categorizations, these results also highlight the specific positive potential of dual ecumenical categorizations for improving interreligious relations. Research and societal implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 16, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2014   open full text
  • Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement.
    Wiebren S. Jansen, Sabine Otten, Karen I. Zee, Lise Jans.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. March 13, 2014
    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal distinctiveness theory and self‐determination theory, we proposed that inclusion is a hierarchical two‐dimensional concept consisting of perceptions of belonging and authenticity. In addition, we posed that in the process of inclusion, it is the group rather than the individual that has primary agency. From this conceptualization, we developed and validated the 16‐item perceived group inclusion scale (PGIS). Data from two samples supported our proposed configuration of inclusion. In addition, the PGIS appeared to be a reliable measure of inclusion and was demonstrated to possess both nomological and predictive validity. Taken together, this research contributes to the conceptual refinement of the inclusion construct and offers researchers a reliable and valid tool to conduct future inclusion research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 13, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2011   open full text
  • Confabulating reasons for behaving bad: The psychological consequences of unconsciously activated behaviour that violates one's standards.
    Marieke A. Adriaanse, Jonas Weijers, Denise T. D. De Ridder, Jessie De Witt Huberts, Catharine Evers.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. February 21, 2014
    Numerous studies have been conducted to demonstrate that behaviours are frequently activated unconsciously. The present studies investigate the downstream psychological consequences of such unconscious behaviour activation, building on work on the explanatory vacuum and post‐priming misattribution. It was hypothesized that unconsciously activated behaviours trigger a negative affective response if the behaviour violates a personal standard and that this negative affect subsequently motivates people to confabulate a reason for the behaviour. Results provided evidence for this mediated moderation model. Study 1 showed that participants who were primed to act less prosocially indeed reported increased levels of negative affect and, as a result, were inclined to confabulate a reason for their behaviour. Study 2 replicated these findings in the domain of eating and provided evidence for the moderating role of personal standards as well as the entire mediated moderation model. These findings have relevant theoretical implications as they add to the modest number of studies that demonstrate that the effect of unconscious priming may extend well beyond performing the primed behaviour itself to influence subsequent affect and attribution processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 21, 2014   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2005   open full text
  • Negative attributes are gendered too: Conceptualizing and measuring positive and negative facets of sex‐role identity.
    Anja Berger, Barbara Krahé.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. August 05, 2013
    Measures of gender identity have almost exclusively relied on positive aspects of masculinity and femininity, although conceptually the self‐concept is not limited to positive attributes. A theoretical argument is made for considering negative attributes of gender identity, followed by five studies developing the Positive–Negative Sex‐Role Inventory (PN‐SRI) as a new measure of gender identity. Study 1 demonstrated that many of the attributes of a German version of the Bem Sex‐Role Inventory are no longer considered to differ in desirability for men and women. For the PN‐SRI, Study 2 elicited attributes characterizing men and women in today's society, for which ratings of typicality and desirability as well as self‐ratings by men and women were obtained in Study 3. Study 4 examined the reliability and factorial structure of the four subscales of positive and negative masculinity and femininity and demonstrated the construct and discriminant validity of the PN‐SRI by showing that the negative masculinity and femininity scales were unique predictors of select validation constructs. Study 5 showed that the new instrument explained variance in the validation constructs beyond earlier measures of gender identity. Key message: Even in the construction of negative aspects of gender identity, individuals prefer gender‐congruent attributes. Negative masculinity and femininity make a unique contribution to understanding gender‐related differences in psychological outcome variables. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 05, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1970   open full text
  • When Message Tailoring Backfires: The Role of Initial Attitudes in Affect–Cognition Matching.
    Ya Hui Michelle See, Greta Valenti, Angeline Y. Y. Ho, Michelle S. Q. Tan.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 11, 2013
    This research explores when and how tailoring messages to attitudinal bases backfires. Study 1 demonstrated that for attitudes (toward education subsidies) that were based more on beliefs than emotions, recipients whose initial attitudes were incongruent with the message position (i.e., message opponents) showed mismatching effects, such that the affective message was more persuasive than the cognitive message. Study 2 replicated these mismatching effects among message opponents for attitudes (toward a rival university) that were primarily affective. Study 3 controlled for effects of initial attitude certainty and replicated the mismatching effects of Study 2 for affective attitudes toward an increase in tuition. Finally, Study 4 suggested a potential mechanism for mismatching effects, revealing that for attitudes (toward an online course management system) that were based more on beliefs than emotions, message opponents counter‐argued with the cognitive appeal more intensely than the affective appeal. Contrary to the notion in the extant literature that mismatching effects are relatively rare compared with matching effects, the current research suggests that mismatching effects occur for both primarily affective and cognitive attitudes when the recipient is highly opposed to the message position. The present findings also demonstrate the utility of examining attitudinal bases at the object level in the context of message tailoring. Implications for message tailoring and for affective versus cognitive attitudes are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 11, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1967   open full text
  • Criminal victimisation fosters conservatism among people living in areas with high unemployment rates: A multilevel longitudinal study.
    Michele Roccato, Alessio Vieno, Silvia Russo.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 11, 2013
    Using a multilevel, longitudinal model, we tested the mugging thesis, which states that ‘a conservative is a liberal who has been mugged’, in a national sample of Italians (N = 457, nested in 54 counties) surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007. We predicted participants' increase in conservatism as a function of the cross‐level interactions between criminal victimisation on the one hand and the unemployment and the crime rates for their areas of residence on the other. Conservatism increased among victimised participants living in areas characterised by high unemployment rates, but not among those living in areas with low unemployment rates. The cross‐level interaction between victimisation and crime rate did not influence our dependent variable. The strengths, implications and limitations of this research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 11, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1968   open full text
  • Chameleonic social identities: Context induces shifts in homosexuals' self‐stereotyping and self‐categorization.
    Mara Cadinu, Silvia Galdi, Anne Maass.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 05, 2013
    Do people align their self‐concepts to the environment? It was predicted that low‐status (homosexuals), but not high‐status group members (heterosexuals), respond to environmental cues by shifting the type of self‐categorization and self‐stereotyping. In the presence (vs. absence) of environmental cues to sexual orientation, homosexual individuals felt more talented for typically homosexual jobs and showed greater self‐stereotyping on typically homosexual traits (Experiment 1). Using implicit measures of self‐categorization and self‐stereotyping, we observed parallel findings for homosexuals, but not for heterosexuals (Experiment 2). Results are discussed in relation to research on stigma, with particular attention to the potential benefits for low‐status group members of changing their implicit self‐concept flexibly across situations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 05, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1957   open full text
  • Hijab, visibility and the performance of identity.
    Nick Hopkins, Ronni Michelle Greenwood.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 02, 2013
    Theories concerning the relationship between social identification and behaviour are increasingly attentive to how group members emphasise or de‐emphasise identity‐related attributes before particular audiences. Most research on this issue is experimental and explores the expression of identity‐related attitudes as a function of participants' beliefs concerning their visibility to different audiences. We extend and complement such research with an analysis of group members' accounts of their identity performances. Specifically, we consider British Muslim women's (n = 22) accounts of wearing hijab (a scarf covering the hair) and how this visible declaration of religious identity is implicated in the performance of their religious, national and gender identities. Our analysis extends social psychological thinking on identity performance in three ways. First, it extends our understandings of the motivations for making an identity visible to others. Second, it sheds light on the complex relationship between the performance of one (e.g. Muslim) identity and the performance of other (e.g. gender/national) identities. Third, it suggests the experience of making an identity visible can facilitate the subsequent performance of that identity. The implications of these points for social identity research on identity performance are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 02, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1955   open full text
  • Social resources at a time of crisis: How gender stereotypes inform gendered leader evaluations.
    Floor Rink, Michelle K. Ryan, Janka I. Stoker.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 02, 2013
    Research suggests that women are more likely than men to be selected for leadership positions when organizations are in a performance crisis, a phenomenon labeled the glass cliff. Two scenario studies demonstrate that the glass‐cliff effect is attenuated when organizational stakeholders support the decision to appoint a new leader (i.e., indicating that the new leader can rely on social resources). The glass‐cliff effect remains when this decision is not fully supported (i.e., indicating that the new leader is unable to rely on social resources). This moderation seems driven by beliefs that men are more likely to possess agentic leadership traits and women more communal leadership traits. When there is no performance crisis, these gendered beliefs are less influential, and thus, social resources do not inform people's leader evaluations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 02, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1954   open full text
  • Less is more: The effect of multiple implementation intentions targeting unhealthy snacking habits.
    Aukje A. C. Verhoeven, Marieke A. Adriaanse, Denise T. D. Ridder, Emely Vet, Bob M. Fennis.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 02, 2013
    Implementation intentions have been shown to effectively change counter‐intentional habits. Research has, however, almost solely been concerned with the effectiveness of a single plan. In the present research, we investigated the behavioral and cognitive implications of making multiple implementation intentions targeting unhealthy snacking habits and its underlying processes, linking multiple habitual snacking cues to healthy alternatives. Study 1 revealed that formulating multiple implementation intentions was not effective in decreasing unhealthy snacking, whereas formulating a single plan successfully induced behavior change. By using a lexical decision task in Study 2, it was found that when making a single plan, but not multiple plans, the healthy alternative became cognitively more accessible in response to a critical cue prime than the habitual response. However, when making additional plans in an unrelated domain, the negative effects of making multiple plans were absent. In sum, the current findings suggest that formulating multiple implementation intentions is ineffective when changing unwanted behavior. These reduced effects of multiple implementation intentions do not occur when making the plan but are rather due to interference in the enacting phase of the planning process. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 02, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1963   open full text
  • Laughing and liking: Exploring the interpersonal effects of humor use in initial social interactions.
    Stanislav Treger, Susan Sprecher, Ralph Erber.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 02, 2013
    Humor is a common interpersonal phenomenon that may positively influence the trajectories of social interactions. In two social interaction experiments, we examined the association between humor and liking. The first study was a secondary analysis of data from a prior experiment (originally conducted for another purpose) in which unacquainted participants engaged in a self‐disclosure task and rated each other on various dimensions, including humor. In Experiment 2, unacquainted mixed‐sex dyads participated in a series of either humorous or similar but non‐humorous tasks. In both studies, humor was positively associated with liking and closeness; perceived reciprocal liking and enjoyment of the interaction mediated the association between humor and liking. Likewise, we found a positive association between liking and humor. Men and women did not differ in self‐reported humor use. The findings suggest that humor is a mechanism used to establish connections with others across all relationships and for both sexes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 02, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1962   open full text
  • Retribution and forgiveness: The healing effects of punishing for just deserts.
    Peter Strelan, Jan‐Willem Prooijen.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. July 02, 2013
    Although punishment and forgiveness frequently are considered to be opposites, in the present paper we propose that victims who punish their offender are subsequently more likely to forgive. Notably, punishment means that victims get justice (i.e. just deserts), which facilitates forgiveness. Study 1 reveals that participants were more likely to forgive a friend's negligence after being primed with punishment than after being primed with inability to punish. In Study 2, participants were more forgiving towards a criminal offender if the offender was punished by a judge than if the offender escaped punishment, a finding that was mediated by the just deserts motive. Study 3 was in the context of actual recalled ongoing interpersonal relations and revealed that punishment predicted forgiveness indirectly via just deserts, not via victims' vengeful motivations. It is concluded that punishment facilitates forgiveness because of its capacity to restore a sense of justice. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 02, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1964   open full text
  • Relative deprivation versus system justification: Polemical social representations and identity positioning in a post‐Soviet society.
    Larissa Kus, James Liu, Colleen Ward.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 06, 2013
    Societal changes involving power reversal may pose challenges to system justification by a subordinate minority group that had previously held a more privileged position. Derived from originally exploratory qualitative investigation, this paper presents an account of endorsement of justifying the status quo versus the voicing relative deprivation in the context of post‐Soviet Estonia. Experiences of alternative societal arrangements in history were actively deployed by (minority ethnic) Estonian Russians to generate temporal comparisons with the past as a cognitive alternative to the present status quo and give voice to experiences of relative deprivation. A struggle for positive social identity was interpreted to motivate Estonian Russians to mobilize the past as a cognitive alternative to delegitimize the status quo. By contrast, Russians were portrayed as invaders, and the Soviet past was represented as unjust by (the majority ethnic) Estonians, whereas the present system was depicted as fair and equitable. Mutually, polemical representations of history and narratives of identity provide the lenses through which the legitimacy of new societal arrangements following the major social change is interpreted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1958   open full text
  • Unwilling, but not unaffected—Imagined contact effects for authoritarians and social dominators.
    Frank Asbrock, Lisa Gutenbrunner, Ulrich Wagner.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 06, 2013
    According to a dual process model perspective, intergroup contact should be particularly effective for people high in right‐wing authoritarianism (RWA), but not for those high in social dominance orientation (SDO), because of different underlying motivational goals. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that imagined contact, that is, the mental representation of a positive intergroup encounter, improves intergroup relations for high RWAs. In two experimental studies, we showed that high RWAs, compared with low RWAs, show less negative emotions toward Turks (Study 1; N = 120) and more willingness to engage in future contact with Romani people (Study 2; N = 85) after imagined contact. As expected, people high in SDO did not benefit from imagined contact. Instead, people low in SDO showed less negative emotions after imagined contact in Study 1, but this effect was not replicated in the second study. Theoretical implications and the role of imagined contact as a possible intervention for highly biased individuals will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1956   open full text
  • Community identity as resource and context: A mixed method investigation of coping and collective action in a disadvantaged community.
    Niamh McNamara, Clifford Stevenson, Orla T. Muldoon.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 06, 2013
    Social identities enhance members' well‐being through the provision of social support and feelings of collective efficacy as well as by acting as a basis for collective action. However, the precise mechanisms through which identification acts to enhance well‐being can be complicated by stigmatisation, which potentially undermines solidarity and collective action. The present research examines a real‐world stigmatised community group in order to investigate the following: (1) the community identity processes that act to enhance well‐being and collective action and (2) the consequences of stigmatisation for these processes. Study 1 consisted of a household survey conducted in disadvantaged areas of Limerick city in Ireland. Participants (n = 322) completed measures of community identification, social support, collective efficacy, community action and psychological well‐being. Mediation analysis indicated that perceptions of collective efficacy are an important mediator of the effect of identification upon well‐being. However, levels of self‐reported community action were low and unrelated to community identification. In Study 2, 14 follow‐up multiple‐participant interviews with residents and community group workers were thematically analysed, revealing high levels of stigmatisation, which was reported to lead to disengagement from identity‐related collective action. These findings indicate the potential for stigma to reduce collective action through undermining solidarity and social support. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1953   open full text
  • Induced disgust affects implicit and explicit responses toward gay men and lesbians.
    Emily Cunningham, Catherine A. Forestell, Cheryl L. Dickter.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 06, 2013
    In the current study, disgust was induced using a carefully controlled odor manipulation to observe its effect on participants' implicit and explicit responses to homosexuals. Participants were presented with a vial containing an odor that was described as “body odor” (n = 47) that induced a high level of disgust, or “parmesan cheese” (n = 43) that induced a moderate level of disgust, or an odor‐free vial (n = 53). Subsequently, participants viewed images of homosexual and heterosexual couples, and their viewing times and ratings of the images' pleasantness were recorded. Additionally, they completed a “feelings thermometer” task, the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale that assessed feelings toward homosexuals, and the Three‐Domain Disgust Scale to measure sensitivity along three dimensions of disgust (pathogen, moral, and sexual). Results indicated that those in the body odor condition viewed images of gay (but not lesbian) couples for less time relative to images of heterosexual couples compared with participants in the other two conditions. With respect to explicit ratings, participants in the body odor condition reported colder feelings for gay relative to heterosexual men on the feelings thermometer compared with those in the no‐odor control condition. For pleasantness ratings, the odor manipulation served as a moderator, such that for those in the body odor condition only, higher sensitivity to sexual disgust predicted lower ratings for images of lesbian couples relative to straight couples. Thus, although induction of disgust biases implicit and explicit responses to gay couples, the degree to which this occurs for explicit ratings of lesbian couples depends on levels of sexual disgust. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1945   open full text
  • Failure cue priming and impaired cognitive performance—analyses of avoidance motivation as a mediator and fear of failure as a moderator.
    Julia Schüler, Veronika Brandstätter, Nicola Baumann.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. June 06, 2013
    The present research investigates whether and how learned symbols for failure reduce task performance. We tested the effect of number priming in two countries with different learning histories for numbers. Priming numbers associated with failure (6 in Germany and 1 in Switzerland) were hypothesized to reduce performance. As expected, in Switzerland, priming with the failure number 1 reduced performance (Study 1), whereas in Germany, priming with the failure number 6 impaired performance in analogy tasks (Study 2). Study 2 additionally analyzed the mechanism and showed that the relationship between failure number priming and performance was mediated by evoked avoidance motivation and that dispositional fear of failure moderated this mediation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1942   open full text
  • Uncertainty enhances the preference for narcissistic leaders.
    Barbora Nevicka, Annebel H. B. De Hoogh, Annelies E. M. Van Vianen, Femke S. Ten Velden.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 11, 2013
    Narcissistic leaders present us with an interesting paradox, because they have positive as well as negative characteristics. As such, we argue that the nature of the context determines how suitable narcissists are perceived to be as leaders. Here we propose that a specific contextual factor, that is, uncertainty, increases the preference for narcissists as leaders. As an initial test of this prediction, the first study showed that narcissistic characteristics were evaluated as more desirable in a leader in an uncertain context rather than a certain context. In Studies 2 and 3, we further hypothesized and found that high narcissists are chosen as leaders more often than low narcissists, especially in uncertain (rather than certain) contexts. In all of the studies, individuals were shown to be aware of the negative features of narcissistic leaders, such as arrogance and exploitativeness, but chose them as leaders in times of uncertainty, regardless. Thus, a narcissistic leader is perceived as someone who can help reduce individual uncertainty. These results reveal the importance of contextual uncertainty in understanding the allure of narcissistic leaders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 11, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1943   open full text
  • Combating the mental health stigma with nostalgia.
    Rhiannon N. Turner, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides, Mirona Gheorghiu.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 10, 2013
    We report research implicating nostalgia as an intrapersonal means of warding off the stigmatization of persons with mental illness. We hypothesized and found that nostalgia about an encounter with a person with mental illness improves attitudes toward the mentally ill. In Experiment 1, undergraduates who recalled an encounter with a mentally ill person while focusing on central (vs. peripheral) features of the nostalgia prototype reported a more positive outgroup attitude. This beneficial effect of nostalgia was mediated by greater inclusion of the outgroup in the self (IOGS). In Experiment 2, undergraduates who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary) interaction with a mentally ill person subsequently showed a more positive outgroup attitude. Results supported a serial mediation model whereby nostalgia increased social connectedness, which predicted greater IOGS and outgroup trust. IOGS and outgroup trust, in turn, predicted more positive outgroup attitudes. We ruled out alternative explanations for the results (i.e., mood, perceived positivity, and typicality of the recalled outgroup member). The findings speak to the intricate psychological processes underlying the prejudice‐reduction function of nostalgia and their interventional potential. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 10, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1952   open full text
  • Upright and left out: Posture moderates the effects of social exclusion on mood and threats to basic needs.
    Keith M. Welker, David E. Oberleitner, Samantha Cain, Justin M. Carré.
    European Journal of Social Psychology. May 10, 2013
    Adopting a powerful posture leads individuals to feel more confident and dominant. Social exclusion can strongly impact individuals' mood and basic social needs. The current research combines these bodies of research, investigating the effects of dominant and submissive poses on responses to social exclusion and inclusion. In two experiments, participants held a slouching or upright pose and were either socially included or excluded using the Cyberball social exclusion manipulation. Social exclusion only affected participants' mood when individuals took a powerful posture: Excluded participants in powerful postures had more negative mood after exclusion than included power‐posing participants, but effects of exclusion and inclusion did not differ among submissive‐posing participants (Experiments 1 and 2). Similarly, it was also found that social exclusion affected basic needs only when participants' adopted powerful poses (Experiment 2). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 10, 2013   doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1944   open full text