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The Journal of Special Education

Impact factor: 1.278 5-Year impact factor: 2.195 Print ISSN: 0022-4669 Publisher: Sage Publications

Subject: Special Education

Most recent papers:

  • Using Self-Monitoring With Guided Goal Setting to Increase Academic Engagement for a Student With Autism in an Inclusive Classroom in China.
    Xu, S., Wang, J., Lee, G. T., Luke, N.
    The Journal of Special Education. November 22, 2016

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using self-monitoring with guided goal setting was effective in increasing academic engagement for a student with autism who frequently displayed disruptive behaviors in an inclusive classroom in China. A 9-year-old male student with autism participated in this study. A changing criterion single-subject design was used. Training on self-monitoring took place outside of the classroom prior to the implementation of self-monitoring and guided goal setting in the language art class in an inclusive classroom. The goal was gradually increased and determined by the student’s best performance on the previous phase. Results showed an increase in the student’s academic engagement during intervention. The student also maintained a high level of academic engagement during 1-week follow-up sessions without self-monitoring.

    November 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916679980   open full text
  • School Personnel Perceptions of Youth With Disabilities Returning to High School From the Juvenile Justice System.
    Sinclair, J. S., Unruh, D. K., Griller Clark, H., Waintrup, M. G.
    The Journal of Special Education. October 25, 2016

    Little is known about the perceptions of teachers of their students returning from the juvenile justice system, which can influence student relationships and student engagement, both of which are critical to reduce recidivism rates. This study utilized an online survey to examine the perceptions of a convenience sample of 283 school personnel (e.g., special educators, administrators) from across the country on available transition services, school climate, self-efficacy, barriers faced during reentry, and supportive strategies. Findings indicate transition services are implemented inconsistently; personnel believe they have the ability to positively influence youth, yet they have low expectations for youth after graduation. Findings suggest opportunities for professional development on holding high expectations for youth, services to prevent negative outcomes. Implications for future research call for examination of wraparound services and analysis of transition services utilized across different states and regions of the country.

    October 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916676089   open full text
  • Working Conditions in Self-Contained Settings for Students With Emotional Disturbance.
    Bettini, E. A., Cumming, M. M., Merrill, K. L., Brunsting, N. C., Liaupsin, C. J.
    The Journal of Special Education. October 13, 2016

    Students with emotional disturbance (ED) depend upon special education teachers (SETs) to use evidence-based practices (EBPs) to promote their well-being. SETs, in turn, depend upon school leaders to provide working conditions that support learning and implementation of academic and social EBPs. We conducted an integrative narrative review of research examining working conditions SETs experience serving students with ED in self-contained schools and classes, to better understand whether SETs in these settings experience conditions necessary to effectively implement academic and social EBPs. Our findings suggest that conditions necessary for learning and implementing EBPs are seldom present in these settings. In addition, the extant research on SETs’ working conditions in these settings is largely disconnected from research investigating teachers’ use of EBPs.

    October 13, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916674195   open full text
  • Modeling the Time-Varying Nature of Student Exceptionality Classification on Achievement Growth.
    Nese, J. F. T., Stevens, J. J., Schulte, A. C., Tindal, G., Elliott, S. N.
    The Journal of Special Education. September 27, 2016

    Our purpose was to examine different approaches to modeling the time-varying nature of exceptionality classification. Using longitudinal data from one state’s mathematics achievement test for 28,829 students in Grades 3 to 8, we describe the reclassification rate within special education and between general and special education, and compare four alternative growth models for students with and without disabilities with different specifications of disability classification as time-variant (TVC) or time-invariant (TIC) covariates. Although model fit statistics were inconsistent in endorsing a single model, we found that the TIC results were generally preferable to the TVC; however, the choice of model specification may rest on the purpose of the researcher and goals of representing the influence of covariates on growth.

    September 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916668164   open full text
  • Meta-Analysis of Criterion Validity for Curriculum-Based Measurement in Written Language.
    Romig, J. E., Therrien, W. J., Lloyd, J. W.
    The Journal of Special Education. September 26, 2016

    We used meta-analysis to examine the criterion validity of four scoring procedures used in curriculum-based measurement of written language. A total of 22 articles representing 21 studies (N = 21) met the inclusion criteria. Results indicated that two scoring procedures, correct word sequences and correct minus incorrect sequences, have acceptable criterion validity with commercially developed and state- or locally developed criterion assessments. Results indicated trends for scoring procedures at each grade level. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

    September 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916670637   open full text
  • A Direct Instruction and Precision Teaching Intervention to Improve the Sentence Construction of Middle School Students With Writing Difficulties.
    Datchuk, S. M.
    The Journal of Special Education. August 24, 2016

    Being able to construct simple sentences is necessary for effective written expression. The present study investigated effects of a sentence construction intervention on small groups of middle school students with disabilities and writing difficulties. The intervention entailed sentence instruction and frequency building to a performance criterion, a type of timed practice emphasizing fluency. A single case design, multiple-baseline across small groups, was used. Three middle school teachers delivered intervention to three small groups of students (a total of 15 students). As a result of intervention, the average number of correct minus incorrect word sequences per small group gradually increased. Results are discussed in the context of the sentence construction literature and within a framework of direct instruction and precision teaching.

    August 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916665588   open full text
  • What Is Different About Deaf Education? The Effects of Child and Family Factors on Educational Services.
    Luft, P.
    The Journal of Special Education. July 25, 2016

    Deaf education is characterized by several distinctive aspects, beginning with qualities unique to deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children and their families. Consisting of approximately 1.2% of the special education K-12 population, educational and disability systems often struggle to meet the unique challenges that these children and their families present. The result is that services and practices may be atypical and unlike those found to be successful with other populations. Despite new technological and personnel accommodations, far greater numbers placed in general education classrooms, and access to the general education curriculum, these children remain unable to perform commensurate with their abilities or at levels equivalent to their peers either with or without disabilities. Achievement has improved little over four decades, further attesting to the complexity of successfully mitigating the effects of early childhood hearing loss and that educating DHH children is different.

    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916660546   open full text
  • Examination of the Evidence Base for Using Visual Activity Schedules With Students With Intellectual Disability.
    Spriggs, A. D., Mims, P. J., van Dijk, W., Knight, V. F.
    The Journal of Special Education. July 18, 2016

    We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature to establish the evidence base for using visual activity schedules (VAS) with individuals with intellectual disability. Literature published after 2005 was evaluated for quality using the criteria developed by Horner et al.; a total of 14 studies were included as acceptable. Findings suggest that VAS is an evidence-based practice for teaching a variety of daily living, navigation, vocational, recreation, and academic skills to adolescents and adults with intellectual disability. Results also show increases in independence and on-task behaviors. We conclude the article by discussing limitations and recommendations for future research.

    July 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916658483   open full text
  • An Analysis of Teacher Sorting in Secondary Special Education and Alternative Schools.
    Mason-Williams, L., Gagnon, J. C.
    The Journal of Special Education. June 27, 2016

    This study provides nationally representative information about the qualifications and preparation of secondary content and special education teachers in special education and alternative school settings, as compared with teachers in regular schools. Findings demonstrate that a statistically significant relationship did not exist between school types and many teacher inputs. However, a relationship between special education preparation and setting did exist among secondary content teachers. Moreover, results highlight the inadequate number of secondary teachers, both in content areas and in special education, who held a degree and/or certification in special education. Practical and policy implications of these findings are discussed, and limitations are addressed.

    June 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916656174   open full text
  • Using a Multicomponent Function-Based Intervention to Support Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
    Cho, S.-J., Blair, K.-S. C.
    The Journal of Special Education. June 20, 2016

    The current study evaluated the effects of a multicomponent function-based intervention on students with other health impairment (OHI) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a private special education school. The focus of the intervention was to prevent problem behaviors and to increase academic engagement by modifying classroom activities, teaching replacement skills, and changing behavior consequences. Data using a multiple-baseline design across academic subjects revealed that target problem behaviors decreased and academic engagement increased in reading, writing, and mathematical activities for students. Social validity with the classroom staff indicated that the intervention process and outcomes were highly acceptable and effective. In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence that a multicomponent function-based intervention can be successfully applied to students with both ADHD and problem behaviors.

    June 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916655186   open full text
  • Effects of Mother-Delivered Social Stories and Video Modeling in Teaching Social Skills to Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Acar, C., Tekin-Iftar, E., Yikmis, A.
    The Journal of Special Education. May 09, 2016

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare mother-developed and delivered social stories and video modeling in teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers’ opinions about the social validity of the study were also examined. Three mother–child dyads participated in the study. Results showed that mothers could develop social stories and video images with 100% accuracy and implement them with high treatment integrity. Results also showed that both interventions were effective in teaching social skills to children with ASD, and both mothers and children could maintain and generalize their acquired skills; video modeling was more efficient for two children and social stories were more efficient for one child. Finally, mothers’ opinions about the social validity of both interventions were positive. Future research is needed to support these findings.

    May 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916649164   open full text
  • Relationships Between Working Conditions and Special Educators Instruction.
    Bettini, E. A., Crockett, J. B., Brownell, M. T., Merrill, K. L.
    The Journal of Special Education. April 29, 2016

    Students with disabilities (SWDs) depend upon special education teachers (SETs) to provide effective instruction. SETs, in turn, depend upon school leaders to provide conditions necessary to learn and engage in effective instructional practices for students with the most significant learning needs. A promising body of research indicates that working conditions such as administrative support and school culture influence general educators’ effectiveness and their students’ achievement. This literature review examines research investigating relationships between SETs’ working conditions and instructional quality and SWDs’ academic achievement, to provide insights into how working conditions might be leveraged to improve SETs’ instruction and SWDs’ achievement.

    April 29, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916644425   open full text
  • Documenting the Experiences of Special Education Advocates.
    Burke, M. M., Goldman, S. E.
    The Journal of Special Education. April 15, 2016

    Many parents struggle to advocate for their children with disabilities to obtain services at school. Subsequently, parents may turn to special education advocates to help ensure that their children receive appropriate services. However, it is unclear how special education advocates support families and secure services for children with disabilities. Before determining whether special education advocacy is effective, the advocacy process used by special education advocates needs to be understood. In this study, 33 special education advocates participated in individual interviews about advocacy. Participants reported that they used an advocacy process with five main stages: developing rapport with the parent, establishing clear expectations, learning about the child and the family, educating and empowering the parent, and participating in Individualized Education Program (IEP) meetings. Details about the advocacy process are provided, and implications for future research, policy, and practice are discussed.

    April 15, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916643714   open full text
  • The Voices of Parents: Post-High School Expectations, Priorities, and Concerns for Children With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
    Blustein, C. L., Carter, E. W., McMillan, E. D.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 23, 2016

    The expectations of parents can shape the post-school pathways of young people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Yet little is known about how parents view the employment prospects and priorities of their sons and daughters after high school. We examined expectations, preferences, and concerns of 1,065 parents of children and youth with IDD (below age 22) related to outcomes after leaving high school. We found parents prioritized paid community employment over sheltered options, valued qualitative aspects of the workplace (e.g., personal fit and interaction opportunities) over common employment outcome metrics (e.g., pay and hours), and held substantial concerns about their child’s future employment success. We found that multiple factors shaped parental expectations and the extent to which their daughters or sons accessed early career development experiences. We offer recommendations for research and practice aimed at raising expectations for and access to community employment for young people with IDD.

    March 23, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916641381   open full text
  • Racial and Ethnic Diversity of Participants in Research Supporting Evidence-Based Practices for Learners With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
    West, E. A., Travers, J. C., Kemper, T. D., Liberty, L. M., Cote, D. L., McCollow, M. M., Stansberry Brusnahan, L. L.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 07, 2016

    Selection of a special education evidence-based practice (EBP) requires developing an understanding of what interventions work as well as for whom they are effective. This review examined participant characteristics in the EBP literature for learners with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) identified by the National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders. Results indicated very limited representation of diverse participants in the entire body of research, and when reported, White youth represented a large majority of study participants. This work is an attempt to begin to better understand the extent that various contextual factors are reported in a body of literature used to identify EBPs. Implications for ASD research are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

    March 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916632495   open full text
  • Toward the Development of a Self-Management Intervention to Promote Pro-Social Behaviors for Students With Visual Impairment.
    Ivy, S. E., Lather, A. B., Hatton, D. D., Wehby, J. H.
    The Journal of Special Education. February 27, 2016

    Students with visual impairment (VI) lack access to the same models and reinforcers as students with sight. Consequentially, behaviors that children with sight acquire through observation must be explicitly taught to children with VI. In addition, children with VI have difficulty maintaining such behaviors. Therefore, interventions that promote self-management of students’ own behavior are desirable. In this study, three adolescents used self-talk to increase chewing with a closed mouth during mealtimes. We used explicit instruction to teach students the target behavior and to use a small vibrating device as a reminder to self-talk during mealtimes. Prompts were faded as participants increased chewing with a closed mouth. Following mealtimes, performance feedback and reinforcement were provided. All students increased percentage of intervals chewing with a closed mouth immediately at the start of intervention and maintained this behavior for up to 1 month post-intervention. Implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.

    February 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466916630961   open full text
  • Childhood Placement in Special Education and Adult Well-Being.
    Chesmore, A. A., Ou, S.-R., Reynolds, A. J.
    The Journal of Special Education. January 07, 2016

    The present study investigates the relationship between childhood placement in special education and adult well-being among 1,377 low-income, minority children participating in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Roughly 16% of the sample received special education services in Grades 1 to 8. After accounting for sociodemographic factors and early academic achievement, children receiving special education services tended to have lower rates of high school completion and fewer years of education, as well as greater rates of incarceration, substance misuse, and depression. Eighth-grade academic achievement significantly mediated the association between childhood placement in special education and adult well-being outcomes. The study contributes to the literature by providing support for a pathway from childhood special education placement to adult outcomes among an inner-city minority cohort.

    January 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466915624413   open full text
  • Preschool Childrens Use of Thematic Vocabulary During Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention.
    Rahn, N. L., Coogle, C. G., Storie, S.
    The Journal of Special Education. January 05, 2016

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood themes. For each theme, five vocabulary words were randomly assigned to Dialogic Reading, Activity-Based Intervention, or a control condition. Intervention was delivered 2 times per day for 5 days across 2 weeks. Results suggest both methods increased children’s use of target vocabulary and were similarly effective for increasing expressive use of thematic vocabulary by preschoolers with disabilities.

    January 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0022466915622202   open full text
  • Self-Regulated Strategy Development Instruction for Teaching Multi-Step Equations to Middle School Students Struggling in Math.
    Cuenca-Carlino, Y., Freeman-Green, S., Stephenson, G. W., Hauth, C.
    The Journal of Special Education. December 23, 2015

    Six middle school students identified as having a specific learning disability or at risk for mathematical difficulties were taught how to solve multi-step equations by using the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) model of instruction. A multiple-probe-across-pairs design was used to evaluate instructional effects. Instruction was provided 4 days per week, 45 min per session, for 12 weeks as part of the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework. Results showed a functional relation between SRSD instruction and students’ ability to solve multi-step equations. All but one student were able to maintain gains. Students’ self-efficacy increased as a result of instruction, instruction was provided with high degrees of fidelity by a special educator, and student interviews revealed an overall satisfaction with SRSD instructional procedures.

    December 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0022466915622021   open full text
  • Systematic Instruction of Phonics Skills Using an iPad for Students With Developmental Disabilities Who Are AAC Users.
    Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Browder, D. M., Wood, L., Stanger, C., Preston, A. I., Kemp-Inman, A.
    The Journal of Special Education. December 15, 2015

    A phonics-based reading curriculum in which students used an iPad to respond was created for students with developmental disabilities not able to verbally participate in traditional phonics instruction due to their use of augmentative and assistive communication. Time delay and a system of least prompts used in conjunction with text-to-speech software enabled students to participate in phonics instruction that included segmenting, decoding, sight words, and comprehension after reading a decodable short passage. Students were randomly assigned to a treatment group who received the phonics instruction or a control group who received sight word instruction on the iPad. A repeated-measures ANOVA found that students who received the iPad-based phonics curriculum outperformed the control students. Hierarchical linear model (HLM) analysis supports a two-level model with a time by group membership interaction effect, the inclusion of student-level variables was not statistically significant.

    December 15, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0022466915622140   open full text
  • Teaching Area and Volume to Students With Mild Intellectual Disability.
    Hord, C., Xin, Y. P.
    The Journal of Special Education. April 09, 2014

    In the current educational climate, teachers are required to find methods to give all students, including students with mild intellectual disability, access to the general education curriculum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of the concrete–semiconcrete–abstract instructional sequence and model-based problem solving to teach area and volume to sixth-grade students with mild intellectual disability. The researchers in this study utilized a multiple probe design, a variation of the multiple baseline design, to establish the functional relationship between the intervention and students’ performance on area and volume problems. The participants solved a high percentage of the sixth-grade-level problems addressed on the criterion tests, but success with more complex problems will be necessary for proficiency at grade level with the Common Core Standards for Mathematics.

    April 09, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0022466914527826   open full text
  • Developing Student, Family, and School Constructs from NTLS2 Data.
    Shogren, K. A., Garnier Villarreal, M.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 26, 2014

    The purpose of this study was to use data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study–2 (NLTS2) to (a) conceptually identify and empirically establish student, family, and school constructs; (b) explore the degree to which the constructs can be measured equivalently across disability groups; and (c) examine latent differences (means, variances, and correlations) in the constructs across disability groups. Conceptual analysis of NLTS2 individual survey items yielded 21 student, family, and school constructs, and 16 were empirically supported. Partial strong metric invariance was established across disability groups, and in the latent space, a complex pattern of mean and variance differences across disability groups was found. Disability group moderated the correlational relationships between multiple predictor constructs, suggesting the key role of disability-related characteristics in understanding the experiences of youth with disabilities. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

    March 26, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0022466913513336   open full text
  • Relationships Between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children With Disabilities.
    Rieger, A., McGrail, J. P.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 18, 2014

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES IV) and the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ). The FACES IV measured several dimensions of family functioning: cohesion, flexibility, communication, and satisfaction. Cohesion and flexibility were variously scored to indicate whether a balanced or unbalanced propensity for these existed within the family. The HSQ was used to examine whether two adaptive styles of humor (affiliative and self-enhancing) and two maladaptive styles of humor (aggressive and self-defeating), were associated with balanced and unbalanced cohesion and flexibility, as well as with the presence of communication and satisfaction. The most significant results indicated a persistent correlation between prosocial humor styles and family communication and satisfaction. Further exploratory research is urged.

    March 18, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0022466914525994   open full text
  • Randomization and Data-Analysis Items in Quality Standards for Single-Case Experimental Studies.
    Heyvaert, M., Wendt, O., Van den Noortgate, W., Onghena, P.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 17, 2014

    Reporting standards and critical appraisal tools serve as beacons for researchers, reviewers, and research consumers. Parallel to existing guidelines for researchers to report and evaluate group-comparison studies, single-case experimental (SCE) researchers are in need of guidelines for reporting and evaluating SCE studies. A systematic search was conducted for quality standards (QSs) for reporting and/or evaluating SCE studies. In total, 11 unique QSs were retrieved. In this article, we discuss the extent to which there is agreement with regard to randomization and data analysis of SCE studies among the 11 proposed sets of QSs. We provide recommendations regarding the inclusion of a randomization and data-analysis standard.

    March 17, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0022466914525239   open full text
  • Postsecondary Education Persistence of Adolescents With Specific Learning Disabilities or Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.
    Lee, I. H., Rojewski, J. W., Gregg, N., Jeong, S.-O.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 07, 2014

    While experiences of students with disabilities transitioning from high school to college have been well documented, the influence exerted by selected factors on these experiences is less well understood. Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, the influence of selected risk and resilience factors on the short-term postsecondary educational outcomes, that is, persistence, of adolescents with specific learning disabilities or emotional/behavioral disorders was examined. A logistic model revealed group differences between individuals with disabilities and peers without disabilities. All selected risk and resilience factors significantly predicted educational persistence. No significant differences were observed between adolescents with specific learning disabilities or emotional/behavioral disorders, but three factors—grade point average, socioeconomic status, and number of friends having plans to attend a 4-year college—were significant predictors of educational persistence for adolescents with disabilities. Implications of these findings are discussed.

    March 07, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0022466914524826   open full text
  • Improving Comprehension of Narrative Using Character Event Maps for High School Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
    Williamson, P., Carnahan, C. R., Birri, N., Swoboda, C.
    The Journal of Special Education. February 25, 2014

    Few studies examine specific interventions for increasing narrative text comprehension for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, both the cognitive reading profiles common in ASD and the focus on access to complex text for all learners suggest the need for interventions to support narrative text comprehension. Using a multiple baseline design, the current study examined the effectiveness of an intervention package that included scaffolded completion of a character event map paired with a review of the previous session’s map to make a prediction about the coming chapter on the narrative text comprehension of three male adolescents with ASD. There was an immediate change in comprehension scores for all three participants during intervention. Comprehension for all participants remained high through intervention and follow-up. Implications for research and practice are addressed.

    February 25, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0022466914521301   open full text
  • Building Strategically Aligned Individualized Education Programs for Transition.
    Flannery, K. B., Hellemn, L. A.
    The Journal of Special Education. February 12, 2014

    The Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students 16 years of age or above must address specific transition components. Studies to date have focused on the presence and quality of these transition components, yet the alignment of these components and their role in leading the development of the IEP is just as critical. This qualitative study examines the change in teachers’ understanding of and alignment between IEP components (i.e., present levels, annual goals, postsecondary goals, course of study) after participation in professional development. The results indicate that after the targeted intervention, teachers are more fluent in describing the components of the IEP, as well as in their awareness of alignment and ability to describe the relationship between these components.

    February 12, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0022466914521771   open full text
  • Using an iPad Application to Promote Early Literacy Development in Young Children With Disabilities.
    Chai, Z., Vail, C. O., Ayres, K. M.
    The Journal of Special Education. February 03, 2014

    This investigation evaluated the effects of using an iPad application to teach young children with developmental delays to receptively identify initial phonemes through 0- to 5-s constant time delay procedures in the context of a multiple-probe design across three sets of behaviors and replicated across three students. The dependent variable was the percentage of unprompted correct receptive identification responses for target phonemes during instruction and probes. All students mastered their target phonemes, generalized the skills across materials, and maintained the skills at or above 50% of accuracy 4 and 7 weeks after the intervention was completed. This study expands the knowledge on using touch screen iPad application for early literacy instruction of young children with disabilities.

    February 03, 2014   doi: 10.1177/0022466913517554   open full text
  • A Syllable Segmentation, Letter-Sound, and Initial Sound Intervention With Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Use Sign Language.
    Tucci, S. L., Easterbrooks, S. R.
    The Journal of Special Education. October 18, 2013

    This study investigated children’s acquisition of three aspects of an early literacy curriculum, Foundations for Literacy (Foundations), designed specifically for prekindergarten students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH): syllable segmentation, identification of letter-sound correspondences, and initial-sound identification. Three prekindergarten students with hearing loss, who used some form of signed communication, participated in this multiple baselines across content design study. Phonological and phonics activities are embedded within the Foundations curriculum, which is built around strong visual manipulatives to provide access to phonemic content. A Visual Phonics (VP) strategy was incorporated into two of the three targeted outcomes. Results indicated that the signing DHH students in this study were able to learn syllable segmentation, letter-sound correspondences, and initial sounds.

    October 18, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913504462   open full text
  • Administrator Views on Providing Self-Determination Instruction in Elementary and Secondary Schools.
    Carter, E. W., Lane, K. L., Jenkins, A. B., Magill, L., Germer, K., Greiner, S. M.
    The Journal of Special Education. October 01, 2013

    We report findings from a statewide study of 333 administrators focused on (a) the extent to which they prioritize each of seven self-determination skills, (b) whether and where staff at their schools are providing instruction on these seven skills, and (c) potential avenues for equipping educators to learn strategies for fostering self-determination. Administrators attributed considerable importance to providing instruction on all seven skills: choice making, decision making, goal setting and attainment, problem solving, self-advocacy and leadership skills, self-awareness and self-knowledge, and self-management and self-regulation. Although administrators reported educators at their school taught these skills with only moderate frequency, the range of classrooms and settings in which each skill was addressed was considerable. Overall, few differences in ratings of importance or frequency of instruction were found based on student disability status or school level.

    October 01, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913502865   open full text
  • Effects of a Professional Development Package to Prepare Special Education Paraprofessionals to Implement Evidence-Based Practice.
    Brock, M. E., Carter, E. W.
    The Journal of Special Education. September 13, 2013

    Although paraprofessionals have become an increasingly integral part of special education services, most paraprofessionals lack training in evidence-based instructional strategies. We used a randomized contolled experimental design to examine the efficacy of a professional development training package and its individual components to equip 25 paraprofessionals to implement constant time delay. The effect of the training package on implementation fidelity was statistically significant and large in magnitude (d = 2.67; p < .001). Video modeling and coaching components were effective, although the effect of coaching alone (d = 2.23; p < .01) was larger than video modeling alone (d = .55; p = .18). Recommendations for further refining effective professional development opportunities for special education paraprofessionals are offered along with discussion of future research needs.

    September 13, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913501882   open full text
  • Examining Teachers' Decisions on Test-Type Assignment for Statewide Assessments.
    Cho, H.-j., Kingston, N.
    The Journal of Special Education. September 06, 2013

    Recent studies have raised concerns about the vagueness of alternate assessment eligibility guidelines, specifically, that students with mild disabilities (SWMD) have been inappropriately assigned to alternate assessment–alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). In this study, special education teachers (N = 317) were surveyed about SWMD in vignettes to explore (a) perceptions of the clarity of eligibility guidelines, (b) teachers’ test-type decisions, (c) factors considered when making test-type decisions, and (d) teachers’ priority rankings of these factors. Teachers’ test-type decisions varied by state, subjectivity, and noninstructional factors. Findings raise concerns about the inconsistency and lack of specificity of the current state guidelines, their vulnerability to subjective interpretation of eligibility, and states’ different alternate assessment systems. Directions for future research, implications of the current findings, and limitations are discussed.

    September 06, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913498772   open full text
  • Experience of Adult Facilitators in a Virtual-Reality-Based Social Interaction Program for Children With Autism.
    Ke, F., Im, T., Xue, X., Xu, X., Kim, N., Lee, S.
    The Journal of Special Education. September 04, 2013

    This phenomenological study explored and described the experiences and perceptions of adult facilitators who facilitated virtual-reality-based social interaction for children with autism. Extensive data were collected from iterative, in-depth interviews; online activities observation; and video analysis. Four salient themes emerged through the process of data generation, analysis, and comparison of participants: heterogeneity in group-based facilitation, coexistence of virtual and physical interaction spaces, sparkle and out-of-track moments, and pretraining for individualized facilitation. The findings should enrich the research area of technology-enhanced special education by delineating the dynamic processes and patterns of facilitating Internet-based social interactions for children with special needs.

    September 04, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913498773   open full text
  • Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Struggling Elementary Readers With Disabilities.
    Regan, K., Berkeley, S., Hughes, M., Kirby, S.
    The Journal of Special Education. August 16, 2013

    Despite a lack of conclusive evidence, many researchers in the field view computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as an opportunity for improved instruction for students with disabilities. This study examined the effects of a CAI program, Lexia Strategies for Older Students (SOS)™ on the word recognition skills of four, upper elementary students with mild disabilities. This study used a multiple-probe design across three targeted reading skill conditions per student. Findings revealed that some students were able to meet mastery of basic word reading skills with Lexia SOS alone, while others needed additional direct instruction. Student perceptions of Lexia SOS were positive. Results have particular implications for instruction in classrooms beyond the primary grades (K-3) when the focus of the curriculum shifts away from basic decoding instruction. Directions for future research are discussed.

    August 16, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913497261   open full text
  • Relationships Between Self-Determination and Postschool Outcomes for Youth With Disabilities.
    Shogren, K. A., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Rifenbark, G. G., Little, T. D.
    The Journal of Special Education. June 25, 2013

    This article reports the results of a follow-up analysis of 779 students with disabilities who participated in group-randomized, control group studies designed to examine the efficacy of self-determination interventions in secondary school to examine the relationship between self-determination status when exiting high school and adult outcomes 1 and 2 years post-high school. Findings suggest that self-determination status upon exiting high school predicts positive outcomes in the domains of achieving employment and community access 1 year post-school, and that exposure to self-determination interventions in secondary school may lead to more stability in student outcomes over time. The complexity of the relationship between self-determination intervention and outcomes is discussed, as are recommendations for future research and practice.

    June 25, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913489733   open full text
  • Test Design Considerations for Students With Significant Cognitive Disabilities.
    Anderson, D., Farley, D., Tindal, G.
    The Journal of Special Education. June 25, 2013

    Students with significant cognitive disabilities present an assessment dilemma that centers on access and validity in large-scale testing programs. Typically, access is improved by eliminating construct-irrelevant barriers, while validity is improved, in part, through test standardization. In this article, one state’s alternate assessment data were analyzed to determine the impact of (a) administration supports based on students’ level of independence and (b) a scaffold test administration format. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the extent to which students’ level of independence mediated the relation between disabilities and latent content knowledge scores. We then tested the invariance of the measurement model across administration formats. The results provide evidence that these supports help students access the test without compromising the validity of test-based inferences.

    June 25, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913491834   open full text
  • Effects of Self-Directed Summary of Performance on Postsecondary Education Students' Participation in Person-Centered Planning Meetings.
    Mazzotti, V. L., Kelley, K. R., Coco, C. M.
    The Journal of Special Education. April 16, 2013

    Teaching students to develop and use a Summary of Performance (SOP) may be one method for teaching self-advocacy skills to ensure students with intellectual disability can advocate for accommodations and supports during Person-Centered Planning (PCP) meetings and in postschool employment settings. This study used a multiple-probe across participants design to investigate the effects of the Self-Directed Summary of Performance (SD-SOP) on participation in PCP meetings for students with intellectual disability. Results indicated increased participation during PCP meetings for all participants. In addition, participants were able to generalize use of the SD-SOP to employment settings. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

    April 16, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913483575   open full text
  • Special Education Services Received by Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders From Preschool Through High School.
    Wei, X., Wagner, M., Christiano, E. R. A., Shattuck, P., Yu, J. W.
    The Journal of Special Education. April 16, 2013

    Little is known about how special education services received by students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) differ by age, disability severity, and demographic characteristics. Using three national data sets, the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study, the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study, and the National Longitudinal Transition Study–2, this study examined the age trends in special education services received by students with ASDs from preschool through high school. Elementary school students with ASDs had higher odds of receiving adaptive physical education, specialized computer software or hardware, and special transportation, but lower odds of receiving learning strategies/study skills support than their preschool peers. Secondary school students had lower odds of receiving speech/language or occupational therapy and of having a behavior management program, but higher odds of receiving mental health or social work services than their elementary school peers. Disability severity and demographic characteristics were associated with differences in special education service receipt rates.

    April 16, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913483576   open full text
  • Patterns of Internet Use and Risk of Online Victimization for Youth With and Without Disabilities.
    Wells, M., Mitchell, K. J.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 08, 2013

    Findings from a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,560 young Internet users revealed youth receiving special education services in schools were more likely to report receiving an online interpersonal victimization in the past year, even after adjusting for other explanatory factors. These findings suggest that special education staff and other professionals should assess students for risk of online victimization.

    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913479141   open full text
  • Effects of Ratio Strategies Intervention on Knowledge of Ratio Equivalence for Students With Learning Disability.
    Hunt, J. H., Vasquez, E.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 01, 2013

    Students with mathematics learning disabilities have a weak understanding of mathematical concepts that underlie success in Algebra I, such as ratios and proportional reasoning. In this study, researchers used a multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of a intervention based on a instructional trajectory of how students come to understand ratios through build-up, emergent unit, and unit strategies on performance on a test of ratio equivalence. Student performance during intervention indicated a functional relationship between the instruction and higher scores on a curriculum-based measure across three students. Student use of increasingly sophisticated strategies over the course of the intervention also increased. Results as well as possible implications and future research are discussed.

    March 01, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466912474102   open full text
  • An Analysis of Preference Relative to Teacher Implementation of Intervention.
    Johnson, L. D., Wehby, J. H., Symons, F. J., Moore, T. C., Maggin, D. M., Sutherland, K. S.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 01, 2013

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a preference trial as a preliminary test of preference effects on teacher behavior relative to implementation (adoption, adherence, quality). Teachers were randomly assigned to "preference" or "no-preference" groups and then trained to implement the intervention. Direct observation occurred immediately after initial training, after 6 weeks of coaching support, and after 4 weeks of no support. Results showed that, when compared with the no-preference group, teachers who had the opportunity to exert a preference adopted the intervention sooner and sustained higher fidelity and quality of implementation independent of coaching. Furthermore, though most teachers in the no-preference group did adopt the intervention and demonstrate high fidelity following coaching, implementation did not sustain after the withdrawal of coaching.

    March 01, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913475872   open full text
  • Involvement in Transition Planning Meetings Among High School Students With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Griffin, M. M., Taylor, J. L., Urbano, R. C., Hodapp, R. M.
    The Journal of Special Education. February 25, 2013

    Although students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are least likely to attend and participate in transition planning meetings, little is known about factors related to their involvement. Using a national data set, we conducted regressions to identify predictors of the involvement of 320 youth with ASD. Attendance positively related to higher expressive language skills, greater time spent in general education, and more frequent discussions about postschool plans at home. Attendance negatively related to greater parent involvement at school. Active participation was shown by students who had higher self-advocacy skills, spent more time in general education, and more often discussed postschool plans at home. Active participants were also more likely to be younger and Caucasian. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

    February 25, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466913475668   open full text
  • Persuasive Writing and Self-Regulation Training for Writers With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Asaro-Saddler, K., Bak, N.
    The Journal of Special Education. February 13, 2013

    In this single-subject study, we examined the effects of a persuasive writing and self-regulation strategy on the writing of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Six children with ASD worked in pairs to learn a mnemonic-based strategy for planning and writing a persuasive essay using the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) approach. Postintervention analysis revealed increases for all students in number of essay elements and holistic quality. Evidence of planning and self-regulation behaviors was also noted. Results support the assertion that utilizing a peer component to teach strategy instruction coupled with self-regulation procedures can positively affect the writing of children with ASD.

    February 13, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466912474101   open full text
  • An Analysis of the Rise and Fall of the AA-MAS Policy.
    Lazarus, S. S., Thurlow, M. L., Ysseldyke, J. E., Edwards, L. M.
    The Journal of Special Education. January 29, 2013

    In 2005, to address concerns about students who might fall in the "gap" between the regular assessment and the alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), the U.S. Department of Education announced that states could develop alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). This article reports empirical evidence on characteristics of students participating in the AA-MAS, how students were assigned to test types, research on changes in assessment designs over a 4-year period, and changes in rates of participation and proficiency. The results suggest states and districts have struggled with how to appropriately assign students to this test option, and that there is a need to ensure this group of students has access to rigorous standards-based content. It concludes with a discussion of what can be learned from this policy attempt to resolve a very real problem as the United States moves toward the next generation of assessments.

    January 29, 2013   doi: 10.1177/0022466912472237   open full text
  • Development and Use of Curricular Adaptations for Students Receiving Special Education Services.
    Kurth, J. A., Keegan, L.
    The Journal of Special Education. November 30, 2012

    This study is a quasi-experimental descriptive design, with existing educator-made adaptations evaluated. The goals of this study were to (a) describe how educators develop adaptations and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of educator-made adaptations in facilitating the learning of students with disabilities. Findings suggest that (a) most adaptations were made in core general education classes; (b) experienced educators created more simplified curricular adaptations, whereas novice educators created more functional alternative adaptations; (c) educators are generally satisfied with the adaptation they have created and believe it was effective in teaching the student; (d) educators spent on average 59.1 min creating the adaptation; (e) educators in rural areas and novice educators provided adaptations that were rated lower in quality and clarity than experienced and urban educators; and (f) general education teachers provided adaptations that were of lower quality and clarity than special education teachers and paraeducators. Recommendations for practice are provided.

    November 30, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912464782   open full text
  • The Differential Role of Classroom Working Alliance in Predicting School-Related Outcomes for Students With and Without High-Incidence Disabilities.
    Toste, J. R., Bloom, E. L., Heath, N. L.
    The Journal of Special Education. September 18, 2012

    Although quality of the teacher–student relationship contributes to school adjustment, students who experience difficulties appear to be least likely to benefit from positive interactions with their teachers. It was of interest to explore a broadened conceptualization of teacher–student relationship that considers both emotional connection and collaborative partnership—classroom working alliance—among students with high-incidence disabilities. This study sought to examine ratings of classroom working alliance for students with and without disabilities, as well as the interaction of disability status with teacher- or student-rated alliance variables in predicting school-related outcomes. Results revealed that teachers had more negative perceptions of their alliances with students with disabilities. Strong working alliance, as rated by the teacher, predicted positive social and behavioral outcomes for all students. Furthermore, students’ ratings of the collaborative elements of alliance were found to predict greater academic competence and school satisfaction for students with disabilities when compared with their peers.

    September 18, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912458156   open full text
  • Effects of Using a Web-Based Individualized Education Program Decision-Making Tutorial.
    Shriner, J. G., Carty, S. J., Rose, C. A., Shogren, K. A., Kim, M., Trach, J. S.
    The Journal of Special Education. August 22, 2012

    This study explored the effects of a web-based decision support system (Tutorial) for writing standards-based Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). A total of 35 teachers and 154 students participated across two academic years. Participants were assigned to one of three intervention groups based on level of Tutorial access: Full, Partial, or Comparison. Direct effects of the intervention on procedural and substantive elements of IEPs revealed that, although all groups had initial IEPs of similar quality, the Full Intervention group’s post-Tutorial IEPs had a significantly higher proportion of substantive items rated as adequate than did the IEPs of other groups. The intervention’s indirect effects were examined using student scores on the State Reading Assessment. The Full Intervention group demonstrated a higher rate of reading score gain than the other two groups during the academic year in which the IEP prepared with access to the Tutorial was implemented. Implications for educational practices and future research directions are discussed.

    August 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912453940   open full text
  • A Simple Method to Control Positive Baseline Trend Within Data Nonoverlap.
    Parker, R. I., Vannest, K. J., Davis, J. L.
    The Journal of Special Education. August 22, 2012

    Nonoverlap is widely used as a statistical summary of data; however, these analyses rarely correct unwanted positive baseline trend. This article presents and validates the graph rotation for overlap and trend (GROT) technique, a hand calculation method for controlling positive baseline trend within an analysis of data nonoverlap. GROT is validated for controlling positive baseline trend and validated socially by visual analysis agreement. The flexibility and generality of GROT is demonstrated by using it with two alternative slope calculations: White and Haring’s bi-split and Tukey’s tri-split. In addition, GROT is presented as a technique that can be adapted for any non-overlap effect size method; examples here include the original percent of nonoverlapping data and newer nonoverlap of all pairs. examples here include the original percent of nonoverlapping data and newer nonoverlap of all pairs. Caution is urged to control baseline trend only when it is pronounced and reliable. GROT moves the field forward as a robust technique suitable for both visual and statistical analysis.

    August 22, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912456430   open full text
  • Transition Assessment and Planning for Youth With Severe Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
    Carter, E. W., Brock, M. E., Trainor, A. A.
    The Journal of Special Education. August 15, 2012

    Although federal law now mandates age-appropriate transition assessment as a key component of high-quality transition planning, little research exists to guide educators on what they might learn when undertaking this process. In this study, the authors examined teacher and parent assessments of the transition-related strengths and needs of 134 youth with severe intellectual and developmental disabilities who were eligible for the state’s alternate assessment. The perspectives of teachers and parents regarding the transition-related strengths and needs of particular students often diverged in key ways. Students with severe disabilities were perceived as having a range of transition-related strengths across the nine transition domains. Although a number of transition-related needs were identified by teachers, the transition profiles of individual students within this sample were quite heterogeneous. The authors offer recommendations for strengthening the transition assessment and planning process by incorporating multiple perspectives, and present important directions for future research on transition assessment.

    August 15, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912456241   open full text
  • Evaluating the Effectiveness of Roadside Instruction in Teaching Youth With Visual Impairments Street Crossings.
    Wright, T. S., Wolery, M.
    The Journal of Special Education. August 10, 2012

    A single-participant multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness of verbal rehearsal and graduated guidance to teach youth who were blind how to cross the street. This study replicated intervention procedures across settings along with the staggered entry of participants. Individuals learned to cross one or two intersections. Maintenance was assessed, and generalization was assessed at a third intersection. Visual analysis of graphed data indicated that verbal rehearsal and graduated guidance were effective for all participants who received instruction. The participants ranged from 13 to 20 years of age and had light perception or less. All participants who received instruction maintained at levels substantially above baseline and generalized the majority of skills to a third intersection.

    August 10, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912453770   open full text
  • Existing Research and Future Directions for Self-Regulated Strategy Development With Students With and At Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.
    Ennis, R. P., Jolivette, K.
    The Journal of Special Education. August 10, 2012

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) have academic deficits that affect their success in school. However, there are few research studies investigating what strategies work best for this population, especially in the area of writing. One promising intervention to support the writing skills of students with and at risk for E/BD is self-regulated strategy development (SRSD). SRSD is a six-stage explicit strategy instruction model that includes procedures for goal setting, self-monitoring, self-instruction, and self-reinforcement and can be generalized to a variety of writing tasks. This article summarizes the existing literature using SRSD with students with and at risk for E/BD, including 3 group design and 11 single-subject studies. Future directions for the field are outlined, including using teachers as interventionists, examining behavioral dependent variables, and conducting investigations within three-tiered models of positive behavioral interventions and supports.

    August 10, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912454682   open full text
  • Racial Disparity in Administrative Autism Identification Across the United States During 2000 and 2007.
    Travers, J. C., Krezmien, M. P., Mulcahy, C., Tincani, M.
    The Journal of Special Education. August 06, 2012

    Evidence of disparate identification of autism at national and local levels is accumulating, but there is little understanding about disparate identification of autism at the state level. This study examined trends in state-level administrative identification of autism under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were calculated for each state using enrollment counts for years 2000 and 2007. Results indicated increases in administrative prevalence of autism for all racial groups from 2000 to 2007, but increasing underidentification of Black and Hispanic students in 2007 compared with White students. Variability existed in the identification of autism among Black and Hispanic students across states over time. Implications for the findings are discussed in the context of the field’s need to establish rigorous policies and practices for eligibility determinations due to autism and equitable access to evidence-based intervention practices.

    August 06, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912454014   open full text
  • A Comparison of Activity-Based Intervention and Embedded Direct Instruction When Teaching Emergent Literacy Skills.
    Botts, D. C., Losardo, A. S., Tillery, C. Y., Werts, M. G.
    The Journal of Special Education. June 26, 2012

    This replication study focused on the effectiveness of two different intervention approaches, activity-based intervention and embedded direct instruction, on the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of phonological awareness, a key area of emergent literacy, by preschool children with language delays. Five male preschool participants with language delay were treated with a modified alternating-treatments design. Embedded direct instruction was more effective and efficient in the acquisition of phonological awareness skills for preschool children with language delays. Embedded direct instruction was also more effective in the generalization of emergent literacy skills to probe generalization sessions, as well as in the percentage of maintained skills. Preschool children who are at risk of acquiring foundational skills necessary for the development of conventional literacy would benefit from an explicit, systematic instructional approach. Embedded direct instruction provided the structure necessary to promote effective and efficient acquisition of skills, as well as generalization and maintenance of learning.

    June 26, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912449652   open full text
  • Parental Expectations About Adapted Physical Education Services.
    Chaapel, H., Columna, L., Lytle, R., Bailey, J.
    The Journal of Special Education. May 31, 2012

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the expectations of parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education services. Participants (N = 10) were parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews. Transcripts were analyzed through a constant comparative method. Three parental themes emerged from the analysis: (a) importance placed on physical activities, (b) ongoing and frequent communication and collaboration, and (c) teachers’ attributes. The results of this study demonstrated that parents wanted more communication with the adapted physical education teacher, a collaborative working relationship, attendance of the adapted physical education teacher at Individual Education Program meetings, and normalcy for their child.

    May 31, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912447661   open full text
  • Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Design Research.
    Gage, N. A., Lewis, T. J.
    The Journal of Special Education. May 11, 2012

    The identification of evidence-based practices continues to provoke issues of disagreement across multiple fields. One area of contention is the role of single-subject design (SSD) research in providing scientific evidence. The debate about SSD’s utility centers on three issues: sample size, effect size, and serial dependence. One potential method for addressing all three issues is hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) meta-analysis. This study explored the utility of HLM meta-analysis of SSD. A total of 206 functional behavior assessment–based intervention outcome graphs were aggregated to assess whether HLM meta-analysis could identify (a) an overall effect size and statistical significance for mean shift, slope, and variability; (b) how the results mapped to two additional effect size calculations; and (c) whether the procedure met SSD synthesis criteria outlined by Wolery, Busick, Reichow, and Barton.

    May 11, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912443894   open full text
  • Fluent Persuasive Writing With Counterarguments for Students With Emotional Disturbance.
    Mastropieri, M. A., Scruggs, T. E., Cerar, N. I., Allen-Bronaugh, D., Thompson, C., Guckert, M., Leins, P., Hauth, C., Cuenca-Sanchez, Y.
    The Journal of Special Education. April 02, 2012

    Twelve seventh- and eighth-grade students with emotional disturbance participated in a multiple probe, multiple baseline design two-phase intervention study to improve persuasive writing skills. The first phase after baseline taught students to plan and write persuasive essays including counterarguments. In the second phase, students were taught to plan and write fluently in 10 min. Students were assessed on their essay writing, the Woodcock–Johnson Fluency subtest, writing probes, and were interviewed post instruction. Findings revealed that all students mastered the components of effective persuasive essay writing, included counterarguments, and improved from baseline to postinstruction and postfluency phases in length and essay quality. Although students’ performance decreased slightly on surprise maintenance and generalization measures, results remained substantially higher than baseline. Strategy reports revealed all students enjoyed using and seeing the benefits of instruction. Findings are discussed for future research and practice for students with emotional disturbance.

    April 02, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912440456   open full text
  • A Case Study of a Highly Effective, Inclusive Elementary School.
    McLeskey, J., Waldron, N. L., Redd, L.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 27, 2012

    Current federal legislation holds schools accountable for ensuring that all students, including those with disabilities, make adequate yearly progress on academic achievement measures, while also including students with disabilities in general education settings whenever possible. Schools are thus expected to be both excellent and equitable in addressing the needs of all students. Evidence reveals that only a limited number of schools have been successful in meeting these sometimes competing demands for excellence and equity. This investigation addressed these issues by conducting a case study of a highly effective, inclusive elementary school. The results reveal several key practices that were important contributors to meeting the needs of all students in this school.

    March 27, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912440455   open full text
  • The Additive Effects of Scripted Lessons Plus Guided Notes on Science Quiz Scores of Students With Intellectual Disability and Autism.
    Jimenez, B. A., Lo, Y.-y., Saunders, A. F.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 16, 2012

    This study examined the effects of scripted lessons (SLs) alone and in combination with guided notes during science instruction on science quiz scores of three elementary students with moderate to severe intellectual disability and autism. This study used a multiple probe across three science units design with replication across students and included four conditions of baseline, SLs, scripted lessons plus guided notes (SLs + GNs), and maintenance. Results showed a change in level from baseline to the SLs condition for all three participants and additional slight improvement in scores during the SLs + GNs condition for two participants. Furthermore, acquisition of science content was maintained over time for all participants. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

    March 16, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912437937   open full text
  • Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" After 20 Years?
    Berkeley, S., King-Sears, M. E., Hott, B. L., Bradley-Black, K.
    The Journal of Special Education. March 02, 2012

    Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students’ comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question types dispersed within and at the end of chapters, and highlighted new vocabulary. Conversely, inconsiderate texts can impede student learning because comprehension is influenced by coherence and clarity between and among new vocabulary, sentences, paragraphs, and passages at macro and micro levels throughout texts’ chapters. Results of this study indicate areas where today’s texts are more clear and coherent than those 20 years ago, and areas where improvements within textbooks are still needed. Implications for practice are discussed.

    March 02, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912436813   open full text
  • Development and Preliminary Analysis of a Rubric for Culturally Responsive Research.
    Trainor, A. A., Bal, A.
    The Journal of Special Education. February 29, 2012

    Researchers and practitioners have struggled to promote optimal academic, behavioral, and postschool outcomes for historically marginalized youth from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. While there is a growing body of evidence-based interventions in special education, the extent to which these interventions are culturally responsive remains unexplored. Culturally responsive research (CRR) has gained increased attention in social sciences. The authors developed a 15-item rubric to evaluate the cultural responsiveness of research. They applied the rubric to six studies in transition education identified as high-quality intervention studies to determine the extent to which these met the criteria for CRR. Results from this analysis demonstrated that while none of the studies were indicative of CRR across all rubric items, strengths in question relevancy, sampling, participant description, and data collection strategies were noted.

    February 29, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466912436397   open full text
  • Why IEP Teams Assign Low Performers With Mild Disabilities to the Alternate Assessment Based on Alternate Achievement Standards.
    Cho, H.-J., Kingston, N.
    The Journal of Special Education. February 15, 2012

    The purpose of this case study was to determine teachers’ rationales for assigning students with mild disabilities to alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). In interviews, special educators stated that their primary considerations in making the assignments were low academic performance, student use of extended standard modifications, and the inflexible 1% cap. None of the teachers provided their students with grade-level content or appropriate modifications. Some students were competent in grade-level reading, but were assigned to the 2010 AA-AAS because read-aloud accommodation is not permitted in the reading passages of the general assessment. Findings raised concerns about the susceptibility of eligibility guidelines to lead to subjective decisions. Future research, implications of these findings, and limitations of the study are discussed.

    February 15, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466911435416   open full text
  • Fine and Gross Motor Task Performance When Using Computer-Based Video Models by Students With Autism and Moderate Intellectual Disability.
    Mechling, L. C., Swindle, C. O.
    The Journal of Special Education. January 19, 2012

    This investigation examined the effects of video modeling on the fine and gross motor task performance by three students with a diagnosis of moderate intellectual disability (Group 1) and by three students with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (Group 2). Using a multiple probe design across three sets of tasks, the study examined the effectiveness of video modeling across differing types of motor response requirements (fine and gross motor) and whether effects would differ across disability groups. Results indicate an increase in the number of fine and gross motor tasks correctly performed following the introduction of video modeling. As a whole, students across both groups performed more gross motor than fine motor tasks independently correct and students in Group 1 performed more tasks independently correct than those in Group 2. Implications are discussed concerning evaluation of task requirements and the development of video models.

    January 19, 2012   doi: 10.1177/0022466911433859   open full text
  • Factors Associated With Where Secondary Students With Disabilities Are Educated and How They Are Doing.
    Wilson, G. L., Kim, S. A., Michaels, C. A.
    The Journal of Special Education. June 20, 2011

    The focus of this study was on increasing the knowledge base on students with disabilities at the secondary level. Data were gathered on 559 classified secondary students with disabilities served in four educational options: cotaught classes, resource rooms, alternate day support programs, and no direct supports. Results indicate that there are associations between classification and placement options, differences in full-scale IQ by placement option, differences in the numbers of related services and the number of testing accommodations students receive based on placement option, associations among placement option and both related services and testing accommodations, and no differences in grades by placement option. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

    June 20, 2011   doi: 10.1177/0022466911411575   open full text