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International Migration Review

Impact factor: 1.188 5-Year impact factor: 1.839 Print ISSN: 0197-9183 Online ISSN: 1747-7379 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subject: Demography

Most recent papers:

  • Migration Disruption: Crisis and Continuity in the Cambodian Mass Returns.
    Maryann Bylander.
    International Migration Review. October 17, 2017
    In 2014, Thailand experienced the mass exodus of 220,000 Cambodian migrant workers, an event precipitated by a military coup and rumors of an impending migrant crackdown. This movement was reportedly the largest in South‐East Asia since the 1970s. Yet while the mass returns were outwardly articulated as a “crisis” moment, migrants largely understood the exodus as a more extreme version of the everyday. The most significant features of the exodus—financial loss, indebtedness, involuntary immobility, and fear of violence and deportation—have been and continue to be regular features of the Cambodian–Thai migration system. In light of these findings, I suggest that taking migration disruptions seriously requires (1) decentering the language and logic of “crisis” and (2) considering what migration disruptions reveal about ordinary times.
    October 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imre.12342   open full text
  • Negotiating Identity and Belonging through the Invisibility Bargain: Colombian Forced Migrants in Ecuador.
    Jeffrey D. Pugh.
    International Migration Review. September 22, 2017
    This article argues that an “invisibility bargain” constrains migrants’ identities and political participation, demanding their economic contributions plus political and social invisibility in exchange for tolerance of their presence in the host country. In response, migrants negotiate their visible identity differences, minimize social distance from the host population, and build informal coalitions with non‐state brokers to avoid citizen backlash against overt political activism. Examining Colombian forced migrants in Ecuador, the article challenges state‐centric governance approaches, underscoring migrant agency in negotiating identity to influence social hierarchies, coexistence, and human security. Its findings advance the broader understanding of migration in the Global South.
    September 22, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imre.12344   open full text
  • Reconceptualizing Context: A Multilevel Model of the Context of Reception and Second‐Generation Educational Attainment.
    Renee Luthra, Thomas Soehl, Roger Waldinger.
    International Migration Review. April 26, 2017
    This paper seeks to return scholarly attention to a core intellectual divide between segmented and conventional (or neo‐)assimilation approaches, doing so through a theoretical and empirical reconsideration of contextual effects on second‐generation outcomes. We evaluate multiple approaches to measuring receiving country contextual effects and measuring their impact on the educational attainment of the children of immigrants. We demonstrate that our proposed measures better predict second‐generation educational attainment than prevailing approaches, enabling a multilevel modeling strategy that accounts for the structure of immigrant families nested within different receiving contexts.
    April 26, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imre.12315   open full text
  • Determinants of Homeownership among Immigrants: Changes during the Great Recession and Beyond.
    Kusum Mundra, Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere.
    International Migration Review. March 24, 2017
    In this paper, we explore factors correlated with immigrant homeownership before and after the Great Recession. We focus solely on immigrants because of recent evidence that suggests homeownership rates declined less for immigrants than natives in the United States during the recession and onward. Specifically, we examine to what extent an immigrant's income, savings, length of stay in the destination country, citizenship status, and birthplace networks affected the probability of homeownership before the recession, and how these impacts on homeownership changed since the recession. We examine these questions using microdata for the years 2000–2012. Our results suggest that citizenship status, birthplace network, family size, savings, household income, and length of stay are significant for an immigrant's homeownership. In comparing the pre‐recession period to the period afterward, we find that the impact of birthplace networks on homeownership probabilities doubled while the impact of savings slightly declined.
    March 24, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imre.12311   open full text
  • Varieties of Transnationalism and Its Changing Determinants across Immigrant Generations: Evidence From French Data.
    Mirna Safi.
    International Migration Review. March 23, 2017
    In this article, I use the French Trajectories and Origins survey to describe patterns and trends of cross‐border ties across immigrant generations. Transnational activities are measured through a wide range of cross‐border ties, grouped into three dimensions: sociopolitical, economic, and a third dimension that I call re‐migration. Three sets of determinants are taken into account: variables measuring exposure to the country of origin, variables describing incorporation in the host country, and variables that are specific to each generation. Conversely to the straight‐line assimilation paradigm, the findings put the analytical power of the generational variable into perspective by (1) highlighting the wide variability of transnationalism within each generation and (2) measuring distinct intergenerational trends along different types of cross‐border engagement. A thorough investigation of the sources of within‐generation heterogeneity emphasizes the explanatory power of state‐level, religious, and ethnoracial variables.
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imre.12314   open full text
  • Job Mobility as a New Explanation for the Immigrant‐Native Wage Gap: A Longitudinal Analysis of the German Labor Market.
    Hanna Brenzel, Malte Reichelt.
    International Migration Review. March 22, 2017
    In industrialized countries, wages between migrants and natives usually differ. Previous studies that mostly focused on human capital theory and cross‐sectional wage differences failed to fully explain the wage gap. We offer a new explanation and assume that differences in the employment trajectories of migrants and natives contribute to diverging wages after labor market entrance. Utilizing longitudinal data for Germany, we analyze the job mobility of migrants and natives and distinguish among voluntary, involuntary, and internal job changes. Indeed, we find evidence for differences in transition patterns and — using several fixed‐effects regressions — are able to explain a substantial part of the gap in hourly wages. The results suggest that the higher number of involuntary changes among migrants increases the wage gap. In contrast, support for more voluntary and internal job changes among migrants should help to counteract diverging earnings trajectories.
    March 22, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imre.12313   open full text
  • Migration Industries and the State: Guestwork Programs in East Asia.
    Kristin Surak.
    International Migration Review. January 29, 2017
    Studies of migration industries have demonstrated the critical role that border‐spanning businesses play in international mobility. To date, most research has focused on meso‐level entrepreneurial initiatives that operate in a legal gray area under a state that provides an environment for their growth or decline. Extending this work, the present article advances a taxonomy of the ways states partner with migration industries based on the nature of their relationship (formal or informal) and the type of actor involved (for‐profit or non‐profit). The analysis focuses on low‐paid temporary migrant work programs — schemes that require substantial state involvement to function — and examines cases from the East Asian democracies with strong economies that have become net importers of migrants: Taiwan, Japan, and South Korea. The conclusion, incorporating cases beyond Asia, explicates the properties and limits of each arrangement based on the degree of formality and importance of profit.
    January 29, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imre.12308   open full text
  • International Migration and the Academic Performance of Mexican Adolescents.
    Bryant Jensen, Silvia Giorguli Saucedo, Eduardo Hernández Padilla.
    International Migration Review. December 19, 2016
    We analyze path models of a nationally representative sample of Mexican adolescents in 2008 to explore how migration variables interact with school retention to shape their migration plans, effort in school, and achievement on a standardized measure of Spanish literacy. Among other findings, we discover that more immediate plans are associated with lower performance for students considering migration and that this relationship varies by family socioeconomic status. We also find that parent migration exposure negatively affects achievement for some groups. We interpret findings in terms of structural inequalities in Mexico and conclude with recommendations to enrich academic learning opportunities for children and youth within migrant families and communities.
    December 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12307   open full text
  • Self‐Selection and Host Country Context in the Economic Assimilation of Political Refugees in the United States, Sweden, and Israel.
    Debora Pricila Birgier, Christer Lundh, Yitchak Haberfeld, Erik Elldér.
    International Migration Review. December 19, 2016
    We study the interplay between host countries' characteristics and self‐selection patterns in relation to refugees' economic assimilation using a natural experiment in which immigrants from one region migrated to three destinations under similar circumstances. We focus on emigrants fleeing from Argentina and Chile during the military regimes there to the United States, Sweden, and Israel. We find that those refugees show patterns of selection and assimilation similar to those of economic immigrants. Immigrants to the United States and Israel exhibit better selection patterns and consequently faster assimilation than immigrants to Sweden even considering the positive effect of the Swedish market structure.
    December 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12309   open full text
  • Selections Before the Selection: Earnings Advantages of Immigrants Who Were Former Skilled Temporary Foreign Workers in Canada.
    Feng Hou, Aneta Bonikowska.
    International Migration Review. November 28, 2016
    This study examines the earnings advantage of economic immigrants who initially arrived as temporary foreign workers (TFWs) over immigrants who were directly selected from abroad. Using the Longitudinal Immigration Database, this study finds that skilled versus non‐skilled prior Canadian work experience matters significantly to after‐immigration earnings. Former skilled TFWs had much higher initial earnings than immigrants who first arrived in Canada as landed immigrants. This earnings gap narrowed in the first 10 years but did not disappear. In comparison, former non‐skilled TFWs had significantly lower initial earnings and slower earnings growth than immigrants without prior Canadian experience.
    November 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12310   open full text
  • Spiritual Citizenship: Immigrant Religious Participation and the Management of Deportability.
    Melissa Guzman Garcia.
    International Migration Review. November 22, 2016
    This article advances the concept of spiritual citizenship to examine how some religiously active migrants employ religion to see themselves as, and to try to become, less deportable. Drawing from ethnographic observations and interviews with Central American and Mexican immigrants in the United States, I find that undocumented migrants use religion to redefine their own sense of self and to position themselves as spiritual citizens of “good moral character.” This research examines how the priorities of religious organizations can operate in relation to and through a neoliberal context. While religion supports migrants as they endure criminalization, my discussion of spiritual citizenship shows how the benefits of religious participation can also depend on migrants’ willingness to become deserving neoliberal citizens.
    November 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12306   open full text
  • Age at Immigration and the Educational Attainment of Foreign‐born Children in the United States: The Confounding Effects of Parental Education.
    Andrew Clarke.
    International Migration Review. October 11, 2016
    A substantial empirical literature confirms an educational disadvantage for foreign‐born children that arrive in their host countries at older ages. In the presence of a negative correlation between parental education and age at immigration, estimates of the educational attainment age at immigration gradient, neglecting controls for parental education, will tend to overestimate this disadvantage. The results indicate a considerable overestimation (up to almost 28%) of the disadvantage for immigrant children that arrive at older ages. Moreover, a considerable portion (69%) of the total bias associated with omitted controls for parental education reflects the non‐random educational selection of immigrant parents across the age at immigration distribution.
    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12294   open full text
  • Types of Migration: The Motivations, Composition, and Early Integration Patterns of “New Migrants” in Europe.
    Renee Luthra, Lucinda Platt, Justyna Salamońska.
    International Migration Review. October 03, 2016
    Applying latent class analysis to a unique data source of 3,500 Polish migrants in Western Europe, we develop a new typology of Polish migrants under “free movement” following the 2004 expansion of the European Union. We characterize these diverse migrant types in terms of their premigration characteristics and link them to varied early social and economic integration outcomes. We show that alongside traditional circular and temporary labor migration, European Union expansion has given rise to new migrant types who are driven by experiential concerns, resulting in a more complex relationship between their economic and social integration in destination countries.
    October 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12293   open full text
  • How Period Data Influence the Estimates of Recently Arrived Immigrants in the American Community Survey.
    Elizabeth M. Grieco, Luke J. Larsen, Howard Hogan.
    International Migration Review. October 03, 2016
    The American Community Survey (ACS) includes a “year‐of‐entry” question that asks the foreign born when they came “to live in the United States.” Researchers have used these data to analyze “recent” immigrants — usually defined as arriving within the last five to 10 years — noting that the number of new arrivals is considerably lower than those who arrived in prior years and suggesting the size of the recent immigrant population may be underestimated. This paper shows the primary cause of the lower‐than‐expected estimates to be the ACS data collection methodology, which causes an inherent downward bias in survey‐year arrivals.
    October 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12296   open full text
  • Economic Integration of Skilled Migrants in Japan: The Role of Employment Practices.
    Hilary J. Holbrow, Kikuko Nagayoshi.
    International Migration Review. October 03, 2016
    Scholars argue that institutional arrangements shape migrants' economic integration trajectories, and yet few studies empirically substantiate this. This study identifies employment institutions in Japan that affect skilled foreign workers. We demonstrate that practices ostensibly introduced to benefit these workers are associated with lower pay, after adjusting for human capital and firm characteristics. High levels of gender inequality also severely disadvantage female skilled migrants. These findings demonstrate that in the Japanese case, detrimental employment institutions often cancel out skilled foreign workers' returns to human capital. The results may explain why Japan has failed to attract and retain more skilled migrants.
    October 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12295   open full text
  • Social Reproduction of Religiosity in the Immigrant Context: The Role of Family Transmission and Family Formation — Evidence from France.
    Thomas Soehl.
    International Migration Review. September 23, 2016
    This paper compares two aspects of the social reproduction of religion: parent‐to‐child transmission, and religious homogamy. Analysis of a survey of immigrants in France shows that for parent‐to‐child transmission, immigrant status/generation is not the central variable — rather, variation is across religions with Muslim families showing high continuity. Immigrant status/generation does directly matter for partner choice. In Christian and Muslim families alike, religious in‐partnering significantly declines in the second generation. In turn, the offspring of religiously non‐homogamous families is less religious. For Muslim immigrants this points to the possibility of a non‐trivial decline in religiosity in the third generation.
    September 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12289   open full text
  • The Impact of 9/11 on the Self‐Employment Outcomes of Arab and Muslim Immigrants.
    Chunbei Wang.
    International Migration Review. August 28, 2016
    This paper examines the effects of 9/11 on the self‐employment outcomes of Arab and Muslim immigrants. Using CPS Data 2000–2005 and a difference‐in‐differences approach, I analyze the changes in their self‐employment entry/exit decisions and earnings after 9/11 using native whites as the main comparison group. I find that the Arab and Muslim immigrants are less likely to enter self‐employment after 9/11, especially into industries that require higher levels of capital investment. However, there is no evidence that 9/11 has negative impacts on their exit decisions or earnings. The paper further documents a shift of Arab and Muslim immigrants’ businesses toward industries such as construction, finance/real estate/insurance services, and professional services after 9/11, areas in which they have performed well.
    August 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12292   open full text
  • Growing Restrictiveness or Changing Selection? The Nature and Evolution of Migration Policies.
    Hein Haas, Katharina Natter, Simona Vezzoli.
    International Migration Review. August 01, 2016
    This paper demonstrates that, since 1945, migration policies have overall become less restrictive. Challenging common assumptions, this long‐term trend is robust across most of the 45 countries included in the DEMIG POLICY database. While the period after 1989 is characterized by a slowing down of the rapid post‐WWII liberalization of migration policies, liberal policy changes have continued to outnumber restrictive policy changes until today. Yet policy developments differ across policy types and migrant categories: Entry and integration policies have become less restrictive, while border control and exit policies have become more restrictive. Also, while policies towards irregular migrants and family migrants have been tightened in recent years, less restrictive changes have dominated policies targeting high‐ and low‐skilled workers, students, and refugees. The essence of modern migration policies is thus not their growing restriction, but their focus on migrant selection.
    August 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12288   open full text
  • From Refuge to Riches? An Analysis of Refugees' Wage Assimilation in the United States.
    Animesh Giri.
    International Migration Review. July 25, 2016
    Given that refugees may be fleeing from political, social, racial, ethnic, or religious persecution, they are not expected to be economically independent upon arrival to the United States. Considerable state and federal resources are specifically aimed at the economic assimilation of refugees in the United States. In this article, I examine the extent to which average refugee wages have assimilated toward those of their native counterparts in the United States. Among synthetic cohorts from 1990 to 2000, most recent young refugees increase average refugee wages by approximately 17 percent within a decade. Similarly, in the period between 2000 and 2010, the gains for young and recent refugees increase average refugee wages by approximately 22 percent. In contrast, across both decades, duration effects for the oldest refugee cohorts — irrespective of their length of stay in the United States — exert a considerable downward push on average refugee wages. The contrasts in wage contributions for the oldest and youngest cohorts are less extreme for non‐refugee immigrants. These findings underscore the importance of age at entry into the United States for wage assimilation, especially in the case of refugees.
    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12285   open full text
  • Locking the Borders: Exclusion in the Theory and Practice of Immigration in America.
    Amy Buzby.
    International Migration Review. June 30, 2016
    This paper highlights the means for the exclusion of groups deemed undesirable within the Lockean liberal tradition, particularly as the American Federalists modified it. It further explores the consequences of the practical application of this vision for immigration in the American case. The author contends that controversies about immigration in America demonstrate a deeply communitarian strain within Lockean liberalism that feeds rationalized exclusionary practice. This argument turns on an analysis of liberal theories of consent in Locke and early American thinkers. The goal of the paper is to make the Lockean tradition and its American adaptations speak more clearly about immigration, so that the issue can be better defined. In framing both the use and abuse of immigrants and the foundations of such behavior as problematic, the author hopes to provoke fresh thinking about the nature of and possible solutions to American exclusionism.
    June 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12291   open full text
  • Weathering the Storm? The Great Recession and the Employment Status Transitions of Low‐Skill Male Immigrant Workers in the United States.
    Blake Sisk, Katharine M. Donato.
    International Migration Review. June 30, 2016
    Using matched data from the Current Population Survey from 2005 to 2011 (n = 5,507), we use multinomial and binary logistic regression models to examine employment transitions related to the Great Recession for five groups of men with less than a high school degree: foreign‐born Mexicans, other foreign‐born, and US‐born whites, blacks, and Latinos. We find that, during the recession, Mexican immigrants were the most likely to remain continuously employed. However, immigrant workers also experienced high levels of involuntary part‐time employment during the recession, suggesting that their relative success in remaining employed was not without its costs.
    June 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12260   open full text
  • Male Migration and Female Labor Market Attachment: New Evidence From the Mexican Family Life Survey.
    Qing Wang.
    International Migration Review. June 23, 2016
    This study examines the impact of male migration to the United States on female labor market outcomes in Mexico, using the longitudinal data set from the Mexican Family Life Survey. I differentiate between domestic and cross‐border migration, as well as other types of absence, and account for their differential effects. The first‐difference approach is employed to address the econometric issues of endogeneity and self‐selection. Findings show that the effects of cross‐border migration on the labor market outcomes of left‐behind women appear to be limited in the short term. Domestic migration is not a major factor that influences the labor market outcomes of women.
    June 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12290   open full text
  • Life Satisfaction of Cross‐Border Marriage Migrants in South Korea: Exploring the Social Network Effects.
    Sojin Yu, Feinian Chen.
    International Migration Review. June 15, 2016
    This study examines the recent phenomenon of “cross‐border marriage” in South Korea: foreign brides migrating into Korea to get married to Korean bachelors. Using data from the National Survey of Multicultural Families 2009, one of the biggest data sets on marriage migrants, we analyze how the difference in migrants' initial methods of entry affects the level of their life satisfaction. The findings show greater life satisfaction for those who used personal social networks, when compared with those who used commercial brokers as a method of entry. The analyses also reveal the importance of current social networks and their role in moderating the effect of the initial methods of entry after a prolonged period of residence.
    June 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12287   open full text
  • Mexican‐American Educational Stagnation: The Role of Family‐Structure Change.
    Richard Neil Turner, Brian Thiede.
    International Migration Review. June 15, 2016
    High school dropout rates among Mexican Americans decline markedly between the first and second immigrant generations and, consequently, move closer to non‐Hispanic white levels. However, the third generation makes little progress in closing the remaining gap with whites despite their parents having more schooling on average than those of the second generation. Utilizing 2007–2013 Current Population Survey data, we examine whether an inter‐generational shift away from two‐parent families contributes to this educational stagnation. We also consider the effect of changes in sibship size. The analysis involves performing a partial regression decomposition of differences between second‐ and third‐generation Mexican‐American adolescents (aged 16–17 years) in the likelihood of having dropped out. We find that Mexican third‐generation teens are close to nine percentage points less likely than second‐generation peers to live with two parents. The decomposition results suggest that this change in family structure offsets a substantial portion of the negative influence of rising parental education on third‐generation dropout risk.
    June 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12286   open full text
  • The Effect of Visas on Migration Processes.
    Mathias Czaika, Hein Haas.
    International Migration Review. May 11, 2016
    The effectiveness of migration policies has been widely contested. However, because of methodological and conceptual limitations, evidence has remained inconclusive. Moreover, prior studies focus on the effects of policies on inflows and fail to assess the simultaneous effect of policies on outflows. This is essential from a theoretical point of view as immigration restrictions may reduce both inflows and outflows and, hence, overall circulation. This renders the effect of immigration restrictions on net migration theoretically ambiguous. To fill this gap, and using unique migration and visa data from the Determinants of International Migration (DEMIG) project, this paper assesses the short‐ and long‐term effects of travel visa policy regimes on bilateral immigration and emigration dynamics. The results suggest that travel visa policies significantly decrease inflows, but this effect is undermined by decreasing outflows of the same migrant groups. This confirms that migration restrictions decrease circulation and tend to encourage long‐term settlement, and thereby sharply reduce the responsiveness of migration to economic fluctuations in destination and origin societies. We also identify asymmetric policy effects with migration flows declining only very gradually after a visa introduction but increasing almost immediately after visa removal.
    May 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12261   open full text
  • Family Structure and the Well‐Being of Immigrant Children in Four European Countries.
    Matthijs Kalmijn.
    International Migration Review. May 11, 2016
    Data on secondary school children in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden show that large differences exist in family structure within the minority population: In some groups, father absence is more common than among natives; in others, it is less common. These patterns reflect the differences in family structure in the origin countries, but the migration process also plays a role. Next, it is found that father absence has negative effects on immigrant children's well‐being, but these effects appear weaker in minority groups where father absence is more common. Heterogeneous effects are interpreted in terms of different degrees of institutionalization of father absence in different minority groups.
    May 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12262   open full text
  • What Do You Fear? Anti‐Immigrant Sentiment in Latin America.
    Covadonga Meseguer, Achim Kemmerling.
    International Migration Review. April 27, 2016
    In this article, we study the material determinants of anti‐immigrant sentiment in Latin America. Based on new data on immigration to non‐Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) countries, we use the workhorse distributive theories that anticipate who wins and who loses from immigration and test their predictive capacity in labor‐abundant countries. We exploit the variation in regional immigration rates, in the skill composition of natives versus migrants, and in the relative generosity of Latin American welfare states. We find that fears of labor‐market competition are weak predictors of anti‐immigrant sentiment. In contrast, fears of greater tax burdens are strong and robust predictors of anti‐immigrant sentiment. We conclude that studying Latin American public opinion opens new avenues for theorizing about anti‐immigrant sentiment in developing countries.
    April 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12269   open full text
  • Enrollment in Religious Schools and the Educational Achievements of Children of High‐Skill Immigrants.
    Svetlana Chachashvili‐Bolotin, Sabina Lissitsa.
    International Migration Review. April 14, 2016
    The present study examines the effect of studying in schools of different levels of religiosity on academic achievements of first‐ and second‐ generation immigrant students from English‐, Spanish‐, and French‐speaking countries in Israel. The sample included 52,043 students who completed twelfth grade in 2011. The findings of the Israeli case study indicate that choice of school based on religiosity interferes with the educational achievements of immigrant students. In spite of high socio‐economic background of immigrant students, those who were enrolled in religious schools were less likely to earn matriculation certificates, as compared to those attending other types of schools.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12266   open full text
  • Internal versus International Migration: Impacts of Remittances on Child Labor and Schooling in Vietnam.
    Michele Binci, Gianna Claudia Giannelli.
    International Migration Review. April 14, 2016
    This paper focuses on the effects of domestic and international remittances on child labor and schooling. Using data from the 1992–1993 and 1997–1998 Vietnam Living Standards Surveys, we investigate school attendance and child labor in remittance recipient and non‐recipient households. The results of our binomial logit and two‐sided censored regression panel analysis indicate that remittances increase schooling and reduce child labor. Although international remittances are found to have a stronger beneficial impact than domestic remittances in the cross‐section, the panel analysis, taking account of fixed effects, reverses this result, showing that the only significant impact stems from domestic remittances.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12267   open full text
  • Remittances for Collective Consumption and Social Status Compensation: Variations on Transnational Practices among Chinese International Migrants.
    Min Zhou, Xiangyi Li.
    International Migration Review. April 14, 2016
    This paper focuses on a special type of remittances — monetary remittances sent by international migrants to their hometowns to build symbolic structures and cultural facilities for collective consumption. We develop an analytical framework to examine the motives behind migrants’ remitting behavior and the mechanisms for realizing their remitting objectives based on a comparative study of two emigrant groups from China. We find that the sending of remittances for collective consumption serves as a unique mechanism for social status compensation. Such behavior is not only affected by migrants’ socioeconomic circumstances or government policies, but also by intersecting contextual and institutional factors at multiple levels transnationally.
    April 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12268   open full text
  • The Role of Migration Policy Changes in Europe for Return Migration to Senegal.
    Marie‐Laurence Flahaux.
    International Migration Review. March 17, 2016
    This study questions the role of migration policy changes in France, Italy, and Spain for return migration to Senegal, by analyzing biographic data from the Migration between Africa and Europe (MAFE‐Senegal) survey and the contextual data of the Determinants of International Migration (DEMIG) VISA and DEMIG POLICY databases that cover major changes in migration policies in these destination countries for the different categories of migrants. Event history logistic regressions reveal that Senegalese migrants are less likely to return when the entry restrictions have become tighter. This result suggests that the decision to return depends on the possibility of migrating again after the return, which is crucial for both theory and policy regarding Western democracies' attempts to regulate migration.
    March 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12248   open full text
  • Foreign Student Emigration to the United States: Pathways of Entry, Demographic Antecedents, and Origin‐Country Contexts.
    Kevin J. A. Thomas, Christopher Inkpen.
    International Migration Review. March 17, 2016
    This study uses data from various sources to examine the determinants of trends in international student migration to the United States. Our results highlight the differential contributions to these trends made by various entry pathways. For example, we find that the overall growth was driven by students using visas that offered the least possibility of US employment following the completion of their studies. We also find that overall student migration trends were significantly affected by global demographic changes. For example, student emigration from Europe was negatively affected by declining fertility trends, percentage of youths, and youth population size. In Asia and Africa, contrasting demographic trends explained the substantial student migration increases observed from these regions. Increases in youth population size had a particularly positive effect on student migration in contexts of economic growth. Finally, the analysis finds a declining significance of English language contexts for fueling overall student migration trends.
    March 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12265   open full text
  • From Work to Welfare: Institutional Arrangements Shaping Turkish Marriage Migrants’ Gendered Trajectories into a New Society.
    Vibeke Jakobsen, Anika Liversage.
    International Migration Review. March 01, 2016
    Using a mixed methods approach, this article examines gendered patterns of employment and of unemployment benefit uptake among Turkish marriage migrants in Denmark. The results show that men use co‐ethnic networks to access entry positions. Subsequent eligibility for unemployment benefits enable these men to search for better jobs. Women enter employment more slowly and tell of such entry being related to entering the unemployment insurance system, enabling them to periodically conform to gendered expectations as homemakers. Pakistani marriage migrants display similar patterns, indicating the centrality of this institutional arrangement in low‐skilled marriage migrants’ active adaptation to a new society.
    March 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12264   open full text
  • Rethinking the Hispanic Paradox: The Mortality Experience of Mexican Immigrants in Traditional Gateways and New Destinations.
    Andrew Fenelon.
    International Migration Review. March 01, 2016
    Previous research suggests that favorable health outcomes among Mexican immigrants reflect high levels of social support in enclave communities with high co‐ethnic density. This study examines the mortality outcomes of Mexican immigrants in the United States in traditional gateways versus new and minor destinations. Mexican immigrants in new and minor destinations have a significant survival advantage over those in traditional gateways, reflecting less established communities in new destinations. This finding casts doubt on the protective effects of enclaves, since non‐traditional destinations have less established immigrant communities. Future research should reevaluate the relationship between community ethnic composition, social support, and immigrant health.
    March 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12263   open full text
  • Are Inter‐Minority Contacts Guided by the Same Mechanisms as Minority–Majority Contacts? A Comparative Study of Two Types of Inter‐Ethnic Ties in the Netherlands.
    Judith Koops, Borja Martinovic, Jeroen Weesie.
    International Migration Review. February 25, 2016
    Research on inter‐ethnic contacts in European countries has mainly focused on the interaction between ethnic minorities and the native majority. Our contribution is to examine inter‐minority contacts and compare them to minority–majority contacts. Drawing on a theory of preferences, opportunities, and third parties, we expected some determinants of contacts with natives to relate similarly and others differently to inter‐minority contacts. Using data on four non‐Western minorities in the Netherlands, we found that education, Dutch language proficiency, and outgroup size are positively associated with both inter‐minority and minority–majority contacts. Further, occupational status relates positively to contacts with natives and negatively to contacts with other minorities, whereas ingroup identification is positively associated with inter‐minority contacts and negatively with contacts with natives. These diverging findings underline the importance of studying interaction between minorities as a separate phenomenon.
    February 25, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12247   open full text
  • The Influence of Partner Choice and Country of Origin Characteristics on the Naturalization of Immigrants in Sweden: A Longitudinal Analysis.
    Jonas Helgertz, Pieter Bevelander.
    International Migration Review. February 16, 2016
    Using data for the period 1968–2001, this article assesses the influence of partner choice and origin country characteristics on the propensity of immigrants to naturalize in Sweden. Marriage to a foreign‐born Swedish citizen increases the naturalization propensity, and its effect increases strongly when the spouse naturalizes during the same year. The analysis suggests that a lower level of civic and political freedom or relative GDP per capita in the individual's country of origin is associated with an elevated probability of naturalization. During the period of study, originating from a country which allows for dual citizenship did not systematically elevate the probability to naturalize; this probability was accentuated, however, if the individual originated from a context characterized by a low degree of civic and political freedom.
    February 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12244   open full text
  • Immigrant Bilingualism in Spain: An Asset or a Liability?
    Maria Medvedeva, Alejandro Portes.
    International Migration Review. January 11, 2016
    This study contributes to the ongoing debate about bilingual advantage and examines whether bilingual immigrant youths fare better, as well as, or worse academically than the matching group of monolinguals. Using data from Spain, where close to half of immigrants speak Spanish as their native language, we found no evidence of costs of bilingualism: bilingual youths did benefit from their linguistic skills. Their advantage, however, manifested itself not uniformly across discrete outcomes, but in a direct trajectory toward higher educational attainment. Bilingualism neutralized the possible negative effect of ethnic origins and extended the positive effect of high parental ambition. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    January 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imre.12243   open full text
  • Multiplying Diversity: Family Unification and the Regional Origins of Late‐Age US Immigrants.
    Marta Tienda.
    International Migration Review. December 21, 2015
    We use administrative data about new legal permanent residents to show how family unification chain migration changed both the age and regional origin of US immigrants. Between 1981 and 1995, every 100 initiating immigrants from Asia sponsored between 220 and 255 relatives, but from 1996 through 2000, each 100 initiating immigrants from Asia sponsored nearly 400 relatives, with one‐in‐four ages 50 and above. The family migration multiplier for Latin Americans was boosted by the legalization program: from 1996 to 2000, each of the 100 initiating migrants from Latin America sponsored between 420 and 531 family members, of which 18–21 percent were ages 50 and over.
    December 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12241   open full text
  • The Effect of Immigration from Mexico on Social Capital in the United States.
    Morris Levy.
    International Migration Review. December 18, 2015
    Has mass migration from Mexico since the 1980s contributed to a well‐documented decline in US social capital? Theories linking ethnic diversity to lower social cohesion and participation (e.g., Putnam 2007, 30, 137) would strongly predict this effect. Yet the impact of immigration in particular, rather than ethno‐racial diversity generally, on US social capital has not been examined. Assessing the impact of immigration is important because some have speculated that associations between measures of diversity and social capital found in the United States are a byproduct of the country's distinctively fraught history of black–white relations. This scope condition would greatly limit the applicability of Putnam's thesis. To assess the impact of Mexican immigration, this study leverages a dynamic measure of social capital and an instrumental variables design. The results address an important recent methodological critique of the broader literature and strongly corroborate the hypothesis that immigration erodes social capital.
    December 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12231   open full text
  • Estimating Mortality Levels and Patterns among Natives, Immigrants, and Selected Ethnic Groups in Greece: 2010–2012.
    Georgia Verropoulou, Cleon Tsimbos.
    International Migration Review. December 18, 2015
    This study addresses for the first time in Greece the issue of levels and patterns of mortality among natives and immigrants, using vital statistics and census data by citizenship. Life tables are constructed for the two most numerous communities, Albanians and Bulgarians as well as for all immigrant populations combined; standardized mortality ratios are estimated for smaller migrant groups. Albanian males have a slight mortality advantage compared to natives; all other groups experience higher mortality. Some support for the “selectivity of migrants” hypothesis is provided as immigrants in several cases have significantly lower mortality compared to their countries of origin. Implications for public health policy in Greece are discussed.
    December 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12242   open full text
  • The Influence of Attitudes toward Immigrants on International Migration.
    Cédric Gorinas, Mariola Pytliková.
    International Migration Review. December 15, 2015
    We investigate whether anti‐immigrant attitudes affect migrant inflows in Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) countries. Using longitudinal exhaustive data, we find that natives’ hostility, particularly natives’ propensity to discriminate on the labor market, reduces immigration. This effect is comparable to more conventional migration factors. We obtain robust results when we, for example, capture hostility with far‐right parties’ popularity instead and control for tighter immigration policies or multilateral resistance to migration. We find a stronger effect for EU‐to‐EU migrants, migrants from developed countries and linguistically close countries. Our results raise a challenge for policy makers when the demand for foreign workers and anti‐immigrant sentiment are present.
    December 15, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12232   open full text
  • Becoming Overweight without Gaining a Pound: Weight Evaluations and the Social Integration of Mexicans in the United States.
    Claire E. Altman, Jennifer Van Hook, Jonathan Gonzalez.
    International Migration Review. December 08, 2015
    Mexican women gain weight with increasing duration in the United States. In the United States, body dissatisfaction tends to be associated with depression, disordered eating, and incongruent weight evaluations, particularly among white women and women of higher socioeconomic status. However, it remains unclear how being overweight and obesity are interpreted by Mexican women. Using comparable data of women aged 20–64 from both Mexico (the 2006 Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion; N = 17,012) and the United States (the 1999–2009 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; N = 8,487), we compare weight status evaluations among Mexican nationals, Mexican immigrants, US‐born Mexicans, US‐born non‐Hispanic whites, and US‐born non‐Hispanic blacks. Logistic regression analyses, which control for demographic and socioeconomic variables and measured body mass index and adjust for the likelihood of migration for Mexican nationals, indicate that the tendency to self‐evaluate as overweight among Mexicans converges with levels among non‐Hispanic whites and diverges from blacks over time in the United States. Overall, the results suggest a US integration process in which Mexican‐American women's less critical self‐evaluations originate in Mexico but fade with time in the United States as they gradually adopt US white norms for thinner body sizes. These results are discussed in light of prior research about social comparison and negative health assimilation.
    December 08, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12220   open full text
  • The Political Effects of Immigrant Naturalization.
    Alex Street.
    International Migration Review. December 08, 2015
    Immigration is transforming the societies of Europe and North America. Yet the political implications of these changes remain unclear. In particular, we lack credible evidence on whether, and how, becoming a citizen of the country of residence prompts immigrants to engage with the political system. This paper used panel data from Germany to test theories of citizenship and immigrant politics. I found that naturalization can promote political integration, but that this is more likely if new citizens have the chance to pick up habits of political engagement during the formative years of early adulthood.
    December 08, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12229   open full text
  • Between the Public and the State: The Shipping Lobby's Strategies against US Immigration Restrictions 1882–1917.
    Torsten Feys.
    International Migration Review. December 02, 2015
    Based on Freeman's model of interest group‐driven migration policies, the article gives a qualitative inside look on a neglected actor during the formative years of US immigration reform. It analyzes the central role of the shipping companies in coordinating the pro‐immigration campaign with and against other interest groups. Their lobbying is divided into two complementary sections: inside top‐down efforts (lobbyists) to influence legislators and outside bottom‐up efforts (migrant communities and the press) to mobilize the public. It assesses the importance of public opinion in their lobby campaigns and the shipping companies’ success in delaying far‐reaching restrictions until 1917.
    December 02, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12223   open full text
  • Mother Tongue, Host Country Earnings, and Return Migration: Evidence from Cross‐National Administrative Records.
    Jan Saarela, Kirk Scott.
    International Migration Review. December 02, 2015
    Using a unique database constructed through the merging of administrative records from Sweden and Finland, we provide the first detailed examination of differential return migration risks by people's mother tongue within a given nationality. We analyze whether the divergence in return migration risk between Swedish‐speaking and Finnish‐speaking Finns in Sweden relates to host country earnings, considering that the former group are in parity with native Swedes. Host country earnings and other background variables are found to explain only a modest part of the difference in return migration risk. Variation in the return migration risk of labor migrants is consequently not solely a result of earnings differentials.
    December 02, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12230   open full text
  • Labor Force Participation of Immigrant Women in the Netherlands: Do Traditional Partners Hold Them Back?
    Yassine Khoudja, Fenella Fleischmann.
    International Migration Review. November 13, 2015
    Female labor force participation (FLFP) rates often vary across ethnic groups. This study examined the role of the partner's labor market resources and gender role attitudes for FLFP in different ethnic groups. Cross‐sectional data of women in partnerships from the four biggest immigrant groups in the Netherlands and from a native Dutch control group were analyzed. Traditional gender role attitudes of partners were negatively related to FLFP and partly explained ethnic differences therein. Moreover, across all groups, the relation between partners’ labor market resources and FLFP was more negative for traditional women and rather absent for egalitarian women.
    November 13, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12228   open full text
  • Tu Casa, Mi Casa: Naturalization and Belonging among Latino Immigrants.
    Maria Abascal.
    International Migration Review. November 10, 2015
    Previous studies reach contradictory conclusions regarding the relationship between residential concentration and naturalization. This paper tackles the impasse by exploring the pathways through which immigrant communities influence individual naturalization. Specifically, this study examines naturalization among Latino immigrants using the 2006 Latino National Survey linked to county data. Multilevel model results indicate that the county concentration of naturalized co‐ethnics positively predicts individual naturalization, and this relationship operates through two channels: information dissemination and perceived belonging. Regarding the latter, Latino immigrants who live among naturalized co‐ethnics identify more strongly as “American,” and strength of American identification mediates nearly one‐half of the relationship between concentration and naturalization.
    November 10, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12221   open full text
  • Migration and the Currency Denomination of Trade.
    Luigi Ventura, Mark David Witte.
    International Migration Review. November 10, 2015
    Using a large, transaction‐level dataset of Italian exports and imports with non‐European Union countries, we assess the role of migrants’ networks in shaping the currency denomination of trade. Our results, new to the literature, show sizable, significant effects of migration on the currency denomination of trade. Generally, more migrants lead to more invoicing in the exporter's and importer's currency relative to a vehicle currency, higher educated migrants increase invoicing in the exporter's and importer's currency relative to a vehicle currency, and Italian migrants living in foreign countries have a greater impact relative to foreign migrants living in Italy.
    November 10, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12222   open full text
  • Has Migration Been Beneficial for Migrants and Their Children?
    Carolina V. Zuccotti, Harry B. G. Ganzeboom, Ayse Guveli.
    International Migration Review. November 03, 2015
    The study compares the social mobility and status attainment of first‐ and second‐generation Turks in nine Western European countries with those of Western European natives and with those of Turks in Turkey. It shows that the children of low‐class migrants are more likely to acquire a higher education than their counterparts in Turkey, making them more educationally mobile. Moreover, they successfully convert this education in the Western European labor market, and are upwardly mobile relative to the first generation. When comparing labor market outcomes of second generations relative to Turks in Turkey, however, the results show that the same level of education leads to a higher occupation in Turkey. The implications of these findings are discussed.
    November 03, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12219   open full text
  • Constructing Immigrants: Portrayals of Migrant Groups in British National Newspapers, 2010–2012.
    Scott Blinder, William L. Allen.
    International Migration Review. October 23, 2015
    Public opposition to immigration in Britain reflects perceptions of immigrants that focus disproportionately on “illegal” immigration and asylum seekers, rather than more numerous workers, students, and family members. This study examines coverage of immigration in the British national press, to see whether press portrayals of migrants provide a basis for these images of immigration underlying public attitudes. We use corpus linguistic methods to analyze 43 million words of news from 2010 to 2012. Among other findings, we show that press portrayals match public perceptions of migrants, with “illegal immigrants” and “failed asylum seekers” as predominant depictions in broadsheet and tabloid newspapers.
    October 23, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12206   open full text
  • Generational Peers and Alcohol Misuse.
    Michael Niño, Tianji Cai, Gabe Ignatow, Philip Yang.
    International Migration Review. October 05, 2015
    This study investigates the influence of generational peers on alcohol misuse among immigrant youth. We derive hypotheses from sociological theories of generations regarding race/ethnicity, gender, and immigrant generation and test these hypotheses using a measure that accounts for the proportion of peers within a given peer network that are of the same immigrant generation. Results show that generational ties decreased the odds of alcohol misuse for immigrants and that these effects depend partly on race/ethnicity and gender. We conclude that generational ties play a meaningful role in the health and well‐being of immigrant youth, and discuss possible future avenues for research on immigrant generational peers.
    October 05, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12204   open full text
  • Immigrant Occupational Composition and the Earnings of Immigrants and Natives in Germany: Sorting or Devaluation?
    Boris Heizmann, Anne Busch‐Heizmann, Elke Holst.
    International Migration Review. September 08, 2015
    In this article, the influence of immigrant occupational composition on the earnings of immigrants and natives in Germany is examined. Using data from the German Socio‐Economic Panel Study and the German Microcensus, several relevant concepts are tested. The notion of quality sorting states that the differences in wages that are associated with the immigrant share within occupations are due only to differences in qualification requirements. Cultural devaluation assumes a negative influence over and above that of quality sorting. The findings indicate that both processes are at work. Additional analyses reveal that the impact of immigrant occupational composition is largely restricted to white‐collar occupations, which underlines the importance of considering historical differences between occupation types in classic migration destinations such as Germany.
    September 08, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12209   open full text
  • Venues and Filters in Managed Migration Policy: The Case of the United Kingdom.
    Sam Scott.
    International Migration Review. August 28, 2015
    The United Kingdom, like many developed world economies, has witnessed unprecedented immigration since the early 1990s. Also in line with other developed world economies, the United Kingdom has adopted a “managed migration” policy paradigm. The paper argues that the operation of this paradigm is best understood with reference to two key concepts: migration policy “venues” and migration policy “filters.” In terms of the former, the paper argues that managed migration policy is associated with outward, upward, and downward rescaling and commensurate venue growth and diversification. In terms of the latter, the paper argues that six policy filters (legal, geographical, credential, transfer‐based, monetary, and humanitarian) are commonly used to determine legitimate forms of migration but that one (the geographical filter) has been particularly prominent within the United Kingdom's managed migration policy paradigm.
    August 28, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12189   open full text
  • Does Life in the United States Take a Toll on Health? Duration of Residence and Birthweight among Six Decades of Immigrants.
    Julien Teitler, Melissa Martinson, Nancy E. Reichman.
    International Migration Review. August 18, 2015
    We used data from the 1998–2009 waves of the National Health Interview Survey to investigate cohort differences in low birthweight among US‐born children of mothers arriving in the United States between 1955 and 2009, cohort‐adjusted patterns in low birthweight by maternal duration of residence in the United States, and cohort‐adjusted patterns in low birthweight by maternal duration of US residence stratified by age at arrival and region of origin. We found a consistent deterioration in infant health with successive immigrant cohorts and heterogeneous effects of cohort‐adjusted duration in the United States by age at arrival and region. Most notably, we found evidence that maternal health (as proxied by low birthweight) deteriorates with duration in the United States only for immigrant mothers who came to the United States as children. For mothers who arrived as adults, we found no evidence of deterioration. The findings underscore the importance of considering age at arrival and place of origin when studying post‐migration health trajectories and provide indirect evidence that early life exposures are a key to understanding why the United States lags other developed nations in health.
    August 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12207   open full text
  • Back to Square One: Socioeconomic Integration of Deported Migrants.
    Anda M. David.
    International Migration Review. August 18, 2015
    This paper addresses the issue of socioeconomic integration of forced return migrants, focusing on the Maghreb countries. Starting from the hypothesis that the return has to be prepared, I tested whether a disruption in the migration cycle (such as deportation) increases the individual's vulnerability and affects his integration from both a structural and sociocultural point of view, using the 2006 Migration de Retour au Maghreb (MIREM, or Return Migration to the Maghreb) survey. I found that forced returnees are more vulnerable to negative labor market outcomes compared to voluntary returnees. The absence of forced returnees from the labor market, or their underperformances, creates a net loss for the origin country and also incentives to re‐migrate. The negative effect is statistically significant not only immediately after return, but also in the long run, at survey time. Forced return is also significantly and negatively correlated with sociocultural integration, reflecting a marginalization of deported migrants in their home environment, which may act as a re‐emigration incentive.
    August 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12208   open full text
  • Second‐Generation Decline or Advantage? Latino Assimilation in the Aftermath of the Great Recession.
    Van C. Tran, Nicol M. Valdez.
    International Migration Review. August 14, 2015
    This article addresses the debate on second‐generation advantage and decline among Latinos by providing a post‐recession snapshot based on geocoded data from the Current Population Survey (2008–2012). It reports three findings. First, second‐generation Mexicans and Puerto Ricans are at a disadvantage, whereas other Latinos have achieved parity with native majority peers. Second, second‐generation Latinos report significant progress compared to their parents and there is no evidence of a second‐generation decline. Third, there is no difference in outcomes among second‐generation Mexicans by immigrant destination type. Overall, these analyses yield an optimistic assessment of second‐generation progress, while noting potential stagnation among third‐ and higher‐generation Mexicans.
    August 14, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12192   open full text
  • Does Size Really Matter? On the Relationship between Immigrant Group Size and Anti‐Immigrant Prejudice.
    Yolande Pottie‐Sherman, Rima Wilkes.
    International Migration Review. July 23, 2015
    Group threat theory understands prejudice as a manifestation of the threat, either actual or assumed, that minority groups pose to majority groups. This theory is often operationalized by analyzing the impact of group size on anti‐immigrant prejudice. We test this hypothesis with a new dataset documenting 487 effects of group size on prejudice provided in 55 studies. More than half of these results show no relationship and the remainder shows both positive and negative relationships. Three explanations for this divergence are that there are (1) differences in the measurement of prejudice and immigrant group size across studies; (2) differences in the model through which size is hypothesized to lead to prejudice; and (3) differences in the geographic unit of analysis at which these relationships have been considered. Our analyses support the measurement explanation: results vary across studies because they reflect different measures of group size and prejudice.
    July 23, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12191   open full text
  • Close Encounters: Minority and Majority Perceptions of Discrimination and Intergroup Relations in Antwerp, Belgium.
    Ahu Alanya, Marc Swyngedouw, Veronique Vandezande, Karen Phalet.
    International Migration Review. July 23, 2015
    Increasing numbers of second‐generation Muslims are highly qualified and locally embedded in today's European cities. This does not protect them, however, from experiencing discrimination in intergroup encounters in school, at work, or in the street. Taking an approach from local intergroup relations between ethnic minorities and the majority society, we draw on the TIES (The Integration of the European Second Generation) surveys to compare Turkish and Moroccan minorities and majority Belgians in Antwerp, Belgium. Our research aims (1) to establish minority and majority perspectives on (reverse) personal discrimination (2) in different life domains, and (3) to differentiate internally between gender, socioeconomic attainments, and local climates. Structural equation models show minority and majority group perspectives on discrimination as gendered and situated intergroup encounters in socioeconomic and civic domains of life.
    July 23, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12203   open full text
  • How to Succeed in a Transnational Labor Market: Job Search and Wages among Hungarian, Slovak, and Czech Commuters in Austria.
    Roland Verwiebe, Christoph Reinprecht, Raimund Haindorfer, Laura Wiesboeck.
    International Migration Review. July 16, 2015
    This paper deals with job search strategies and wages among cross‐border commuters residing in the Central European Region (CENTROPE). Our main aim is to investigate the role of social networks as constitutive for job searching and for successful labor market integration. We build upon a theoretical framework developed by Aguilera and Massey, reflecting on the nexus of social networks, job search methods, and related labor market outcomes. Methodologically, we use a new quantitative survey on the employment careers of cross‐border commuters residing in the regions of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary bordering on Austria, conducted in the winter/spring of 2012/2013 (N = 2,573). Our results corroborate the hypothesis that human and social capital resources as well as labor market characteristics serve as key factors for job search and labor market integration among cross‐border commuters in the CENTROPE transnational labor market.
    July 16, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12193   open full text
  • Opting in to Opt out? Emigration and Group Participation in Albania.
    Cristina Cattaneo.
    International Migration Review. July 14, 2015
    The objective of this paper is to determine whether the participation in social organizations represents a complement or a substitute with respect to international emigration. To address this research question, an instrumental variable approach is used, as group participation and international migration are potentially jointly determined. This is the case if the family considers emigration and group participation as alternative strategies to cope with uncertainty or a liquidity need, or alternatively when the family decides to invest in group participation in order to gain information helpful to emigrate. The results of the empirical estimation reveal that families participating in social organizations are more likely to migrate internationally and therefore social networks act as a complement for emigration. This may indicate that families recourse to social networks in order to collect important information that facilitates international migration.
    July 14, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12171   open full text
  • The Effect of Residential Concentration on Voter Turnout among Ethnic Minorities.
    Yosef Bhatti, Kasper M. Hansen.
    International Migration Review. July 14, 2015
    Utilizing a large and unique dataset composed of government records, we study the widely contested effect of co‐ethnic residential concentrations on voter turnout. Non‐Western immigrants are moderately affected by the concentration of co‐ethnic voters in their neighborhoods. As the local concentration of same‐ethnicity voters increases, so does the individual's propensity to turn out for the election. In general, the concentration of non‐Western immigrants in the neighborhood has only a very limited impact on an immigrant's propensity to vote. Finally, we investigate the possible mobilizing effect of local candidates and, in particular, local co‐ethnic candidates on voter turnout. We find that the presence of candidates in general and co‐ethnic candidates running for office in a neighborhood has a moderate positive mobilization effect. However, taking this factor into account, the effect of residential concentrations was not eliminated.
    July 14, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12187   open full text
  • The Interaction between Race and Nativity on the Housing Market: Homeownership and House Value of Black Immigrants in the United States.
    Rebbeca Tesfai.
    International Migration Review. July 14, 2015
    There is extensive research investigating race and nativity disparities in the US housing market, but little focuses on the group representing the intersection of the two literatures. This study investigates whether black immigrants are disadvantaged due to racial stratification or are able to leverage human or ethnic capital into positive housing market outcomes compared to US‐born blacks. I find that racial stratification affects the housing market outcomes of black immigrants. However, high homeownership and house value relative to US‐born blacks suggest that immigrants are able to use ethnic community capital to avoid some of the disadvantage experienced by native‐born blacks.
    July 14, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12190   open full text
  • Migrating Gender Inequalities? Immigrant Women's Participation in Political Survey Research.
    Antoine Bilodeau.
    International Migration Review. July 14, 2015
    This study examines the participation of immigrant women in political surveys in Canada as a form of political participation. Investigating immigrant women's participation in the various components of the Canadian Election Studies, this study highlights the structuring impact of pre‐migration experiences with gender inequalities from two different perspectives. The larger the gender inequalities in immigrant women's country of origin, the lower their retention rate to the post‐election surveys, and the greater their propensity to provide non‐responses to political survey‐items. This study contributes to a better understanding of immigrant political integration and the related impact of pre‐migration experiences.
    July 14, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12194   open full text
  • Divine Development: Transnational Indian Religious Organizations in the United States and India.
    Rina Agarwala.
    International Migration Review. July 03, 2015
    This article examines how Indian Americans’ religious organizations send not only financial remittances to India, but also social remittances that shape development ideologies. Comparing Indian‐American Hindu and Muslim organizations, I find both groups draw from their socioeconomic experiences in India and use their position as elite immigrants in the United States to identify and empower their respective religious constituencies in India and overturn different social relations (not just religious practices). Hindu Americans draw from their majority status in India to overturn India's lower position in the world system and support poverty alleviation efforts within a neoliberal development framework. Indian‐American Muslims draw from their poor status in India to overturn economic inequities within India by shifting India's development rhetoric from identity to class. Collective religious identities (expressed through organizations) not only affect the intensity of immigrants’ development efforts, but also their content and ideology. These findings urge us to fold transnational religious organizations into contemporary discussions on migration and development.
    July 03, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12188   open full text
  • Non‐Citizen Mexican Youth in US Higher Education: A Closer Look at the Relationship between State Tuition Policies and College Enrollment.
    Robert Bozick, Trey Miller, Matheu Kaneshiro.
    International Migration Review. May 21, 2015
    This paper examines state policies that extend or deny in‐state tuition to children of undocumented immigrants in the United States. Using the Current Population Survey (1997–2010), we assess changes in college enrollment among Mexican‐born non‐citizens — a proxy for the undocumented population. In contrast to previous analyses, we find that policies extending in‐state tuition to undocumented youth do not directly affect rates of college enrollment. However, we find that Mexican‐born non‐citizen youth residing in states that deny in‐state tuition have a 12.1 percentage point lower probability of being enrolled in college than their peers living in states with no such policies.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12167   open full text
  • Comparing Immigration Policies: An Overview from the IMPALA Database.
    Michel Beine, Anna Boucher, Brian Burgoon, Mary Crock, Justin Gest, Michael Hiscox, Patrick McGovern, Hillel Rapoport, Joep Schaper, Eiko Thielemann.
    International Migration Review. May 21, 2015
    This paper introduces a method and preliminary findings from a database that systematically measures the character and stringency of immigration policies. Based on the selection of that data for nine countries between 1999 and 2008, we challenge the idea that any one country is systematically the most or least restrictive toward admissions. The data also reveal trends toward more complex and, often, more restrictive regulation since the 1990s, as well as differential treatment of groups, such as lower requirements for highly skilled than low‐skilled labor migrants. These patterns illustrate the IMPALA data and methods but are also of intrinsic importance to understanding immigration regulation.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12169   open full text
  • Ethnic Composition and School Performance in the Secondary Education of Turkish Migrant Students in Seven Countries and 19 European Educational Systems.
    Gert‐Jan Martijn Veerman, Jaap Dronkers.
    International Migration Review. May 19, 2015
    This article examines the effect of the ethnic composition on school performances in secondary education for Turkish students, using both cross‐national and Swiss national PISA 2009 data. At the school level our results show no effect of the proportion of natives or the proportion of coethnics and a negative association between ethnic diversity (we employ a residualized score of diversity on the proportion of migrants) and math performances. Consequently, we find no evidence for social capital advantages and an indication of barriers. Finally, we find no association between social capital variables on national or educational system level and math performance.
    May 19, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12185   open full text
  • Cultural Integration in the Muslim Second Generation in the Netherlands: The Case of Gender Ideology.
    Mieke Maliepaard, Richard Alba.
    International Migration Review. May 08, 2015
    In the Netherlands, relations between Muslims and non‐Muslims have become polarized around issues of religion and gender. On the basis of a dataset with 669 parent–child dyads, we assess attitudes among the second generation concerning the gendered division of paid work and family responsibilities, that is, gender ideology, as compared to their parents. The aggregate picture indicates movement toward more egalitarian attitudes, indicating mainstream assimilation. At the same time, a sizable subgroup turns out to be more traditional than their parents, indicative of reactive ethnicity. Embeddedness in the ethnic community and education are shown to explain part of these divergent patterns.
    May 08, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12118   open full text
  • The Effect of Rainfall on Migration from Mexico to the United States.
    Gerónimo Barrios Puente, Francisco Perez, Robert J. Gitter.
    International Migration Review. May 08, 2015
    There has been very little work on the impact of rainfall on migration from Mexico or even elsewhere. We use satellite data from NASA to examine the effect of the lagged level of rainfall relative to an area's historical average, on migration from small Mexican communities to the United States. Controlling for the level of education, proportion married, and historic migration levels, we find higher levels of rainfall significantly reduce Mexican migration to the United States and a 20 percentage point higher‐than‐normal level of rainfall leads to a predicted 10.3 percent decrease in migration.
    May 08, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12116   open full text
  • Migration Decisions, Acculturation, and Overweight among Asian and Latino Immigrant Adults in the United States.
    Bridget K. Gorman, Cynthia Novoa, Rachel Tolbert Kimbro.
    International Migration Review. May 04, 2015
    Using the 2002–2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we examine relationships between acculturation, migration decisions, and overweight among Latino and Asian immigrants. Pooled logistic regression models showed no evidence that acculturation and migration decisions were related to overweight among Asians, but models for Latinos indicated that aspects of acculturation (duration of US residence and English proficiency) and migration decisions (moving to find a job) were significantly associated with overweight status. However, interaction models also highlighted the gendered nature of the acculturation–weight relationship, such that country‐of‐origin ties can have different implications for the overweight status of male and female immigrants.
    May 04, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12168   open full text
  • Does Where I Live Affect Whether I Apply? The Contextual Determinants of Applying for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals.
    Tom K. Wong, Angela S. García.
    International Migration Review. May 04, 2015
    The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program provides temporary relief from deportation and legal work authorization for eligible undocumented youth in the United States. This study investigates the factors that help or hinder undocumented youth in applying for DACA. We focus on contexts of reception to understand the determinants of DACA applications, as studies of previous legalization programs indicate that the communities in which immigrants live help shape application decisions. Our analysis shows that more immigrant‐serving organizations in a state translate into more applications, that DACA implementation rates are not statistically significantly lower in states with hostile policy climates, and that socioeconomic factors are most significantly related to DACA applications. In identifying the collective factors that influence applying to DACA, we demonstrate that the structural opportunities and barriers present in receiving locales shape undocumented youths’ decisions to regularize their immigration status, which has significant implications for their resulting incorporation trajectories.
    May 04, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12166   open full text
  • Unionization and Income Growth of Racial Minority Immigrants in Canada: A Longitudinal Study.
    Anil Verma, Jeffrey G. Reitz, Rupa Banerjee.
    International Migration Review. May 04, 2015
    This study examines the effect of unionization on the labor market integration of newly arrived immigrants in Canada. We find that non‐white recent immigrants gain access to unionized jobs at a slower rate than do white recent immigrants. The effect of unionization on earnings is somewhat lower for non‐white recent immigrants than for visible white recent immigrants. These findings are based on growth curve modeling of longitudinal data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). Therefore, unionization does not contribute to reducing the earnings gap of non‐white recent immigrants relative to white immigrants and the native‐born.
    May 04, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12172   open full text
  • As French as Anyone Else: Islam and the North African Second Generation in France.
    Jean Beaman.
    International Migration Review. May 04, 2015
    Amid growing Islamophobia throughout Europe, Muslims in France have been described as “ethnoracial outsiders” (Bleich 2006, 3–7) and framed as a cultural challenge to the identity of the French republic. Based on ethnographic research of 45 middle class adult children of North African, or Maghrébin, immigrants, I focus on the actual religious practices of this segment of the French Muslim population, the symbolic boundaries around those practices, and the relationship between how middle class, North African second‐generation immigrants understand their marginalization within mainstream society and how they frame their religiosity to respond to this marginalization. How respondents frame their practices reveals their allegiance with the tenets of French Republicanism and laïcité as well as shows how Muslim religious practices are being accommodated to the French context. This religiosity is not a barrier to asserting a French identity. Individuals frame their religious practices in ways that suggest they see themselves as just as French as anyone else.
    May 04, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12184   open full text
  • Party Discourse and Prejudiced Attitudes toward Migrants in Western Europe at the Beginning of the 2000s.
    Romana Careja.
    International Migration Review. May 04, 2015
    Building on framing research and on cognitive dissonance theory, the paper examines the differentiated moderating effect of party discourse on prejudiced attitudes against immigrants. Using ESS 2002 data, the study finds that individuals who are positively oriented toward immigrants become more so when confronted with party discourses with anti‐immigrant tones. This effect is, however, visible only when it comes to acceptance in one's private sphere, that is, acceptance of inter‐ethnic marriage. The study also found some evidence that friendship with immigrants is not strong enough to impede natives to accept the idea of deporting unemployed immigrants.
    May 04, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12174   open full text
  • Consanguineous Marriage in Turkish Families in Turkey and in Western Europe.
    Helen Baykara‐Krumme.
    International Migration Review. May 04, 2015
    The paper compares the prevalence and development of consanguineous marriages between Turkish migrants in Western Europe and stayers from the same regions of origin in Turkey. Analyses draw from three‐generational family data of the 2000 Families study. Findings suggest a decline of kin marriage over generations and time in both groups, but a higher prevalence of kin marriage among migrants. Parental impact was influential, but effects of transmission were lower among migrants. Kin marriage was strongly linked with cross‐border partner choice. The results support previous findings and indicate the specific effect of migration on seemingly traditional patterns of marriage.
    May 04, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12176   open full text
  • The Immigrant Advantage in Adolescent Educational Expectations.
    Cynthia Feliciano, Yader R. Lanuza.
    International Migration Review. May 04, 2015
    Previous research has shown uniquely high expectations among children of immigrants. However, existing studies have not focused on why children of immigrants have an expectations advantage over their native‐born counterparts or if this has changed over time. This study shows that an immigrant advantage in graduate school expectations persists among adolescent children of immigrants today. Regression analyses reveal that this advantage is largely explained by higher parental expectations, greater interest in school, and foreign language use in early childhood. We argue that these factors can be conceptualized as forms of cultural capital stemming from unique aspects of the immigrant experience that are common across immigrant families.
    May 04, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12183   open full text
  • Birthing, Nativity, and Maternal Depression: Australia and the United States,.
    Melissa L. Martinson, Marta Tienda.
    International Migration Review. May 02, 2015
    This study analyzes two birth cohort surveys, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, to examine variation in maternal depression by nativity, duration of residence, age at migration, and English proficiency in Australia and the United States. Both countries have long immigrant traditions and a common language. The results demonstrate that US immigrant mothers are significantly less depressed than native‐born mothers, but maternal depression does not differ by nativity in Australia. Moreover, the association between duration of residence and maternal depression is not linear: Recent arrivals and long‐term residents exhibit the highest depression levels. Lack of English proficiency exacerbates maternal depression in Australia, but protects against depression in the United States. Differences in immigration regimes and welfare systems likely contribute to the differing salience of nativity for maternal depression.
    May 02, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12173   open full text
  • The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Stereotypes of Men and Women with Arabic Names,.
    Mahmood Arai, Moa Bursell, Lena Nekby.
    International Migration Review. May 02, 2015
    We examine differences in the intensity of employer stereotypes of men and women with Arabic names in Sweden by testing how much work experience is needed to eliminate the disadvantage of having an Arabic name on job applications. Employers are first sent curriculum vitaes (CVs) of equal merit in a field experiment setup. Arabic‐named CVs are thereafter enhanced with more relevant work experience than Swedish‐named CVs. The results indicate a reverse gender gap in employer stereotypes because initial differences in the number of callbacks disappear for female applicants when Arabic‐named CVs are enhanced but remain strong and significant for male applicants. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed about the interaction of gender and ethnicity, we find that Arabic men face stronger discrimination in the labor market than Arabic women.
    May 02, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12170   open full text
  • A Foreigner Who Does Not Steal My Job: The Role of Unemployment Risk and Values in Attitudes toward Equal Opportunities.
    Marco Pecoraro, Didier Ruedin.
    International Migration Review. April 29, 2015
    Immigration has become systematically politicized and opposed by many individuals. We examine individual attitudes toward equal opportunities for foreigners and Swiss citizens, using cross‐sectional data from the Swiss Household Panel. Individuals with low levels of education tend to oppose foreigners, while the opposition by individuals with high levels of education increases with the risk of unemployment. Values and beliefs explain the negative attitudes of individuals with low levels of education, but not the association with the risk of unemployment for individuals with high levels of education. Clearly, both values and economic factors are important for explaining attitudes toward foreigners.
    April 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12162   open full text
  • The Politics of Migration, Church, and State: A Case Study of the Catholic Church in Ireland.
    Breda Gray.
    International Migration Review. April 29, 2015
    This article investigates the ways in which a shift from post‐colonial nation building to neoliberal state restructuring has shaped church and Irish state relations regarding migrant welfare. It develops the extensive work of Bäckström and Davie (2010) and Bäckström et al. (2011) on how majority churches in European countries are reclaiming a social welfare role as the state relinquishes this responsibility: first, by examining the domain of migrant welfare which is not developed in their work; and second, by arguing that majority church pro‐migrant service provision, as it has evolved in recent decades, can be understood in relation to an emergent neoliberal mode of collective responsibility for migrant welfare. It suggests that in spite of other factors and forces that undermine Irish Catholic Church authority, the marketization of more domains of life in the first decades of the twenty‐first century has given new significance to Catholic Social Teaching and pro‐migrant church initiatives.
    April 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12165   open full text
  • Long‐Term Effects of Language Course Timing on Language Acquisition and Social Contacts: Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in Western Europe.
    Jutta Hoehne, Ines Michalowski.
    International Migration Review. April 10, 2015
    This article investigates long‐term effects of the timing of language course participation among immigrants, focusing on self‐assessed immigration country language skills and interethnic social contacts among immigrants from Turkey and Morocco who came to Western Europe mainly during the guest worker period. Data stem from the 2008 Six Country Immigrant Integration Comparative Survey. We find a positive, long‐term impact of course participation in the first four years after immigration on language skills and social contacts. Results support linguistic theories on the benefits of early language instruction and sociopsychological theories on long‐term effects of (even short) social belonging interventions on participants' perseverance in achieving educational success.
    April 10, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12130   open full text
  • Does Cultural Recognition Obstruct Immigrant Integration? Evidence From Two Historic Case Studies.
    Melanie Kolbe.
    International Migration Review. April 10, 2015
    Is multiculturalism compatible with immigrant integration? While effects of minority rights and cultural recognition are controversial, I argue that not only the analysis of multicultural policies in their interaction with other structures and policies deserves more attention, but also that a historical discussion may inform current debates. Comparing and analyzing the French Huguenots in Brandenburg‐Prussia (1685–1809) and Germans in the Volga region (1764–1878), I find that incorporation outcomes, despite similarly extensive cultural rights, are driven by differing opportunity structures. These findings contribute to the growing literature on multiculturalism in Europe and advocate a new approach to its analysis.
    April 10, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12131   open full text
  • Migration, Household Tasks, and Gender: Evidence from the Republic of Georgia.
    Karine Torosyan, Theodore P. Gerber, Pilar Goñalons‐Pons.
    International Migration Review. March 23, 2015
    We examine whether migration affects the gender division of household tasks and participation in leisure within origin‐country households using survey data from the Republic of Georgia. Our theoretical framework identifies two sets of mechanisms whereby migration might influence gender differences in home activities: migrant experience effects and migrant absence effects. We test for both types of effects on the probability that men and women perform gender atypical household tasks and engage in leisure activities by comparing households with and without currently absent and return migrants using probit regressions. We find evidence for both migration absence and migration experience effects on gender differences in housework and leisure. However, these effects are complex and contradictory: Generally, male migration tends to exacerbate gender differences in the sending household while female migration tends to ameliorate them.
    March 23, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12147   open full text
  • Alternative Approaches to the Governance of Transnational Labor Recruitment.
    Patricia Pittman.
    International Migration Review. February 11, 2015
    As globalization advances, the governance challenges relating to cross‐border labor recruitment have also grown. Transnational companies that manage the employment‐based migration process often take advantage of individuals seeking work abroad. While some states have implemented recruitment regulations, a combination of jurisdictional constraints and economic interests have limited states’ capacity and political will to take action. Supplemental strategies are emerging led by international organizations, non‐governmental organizations (NGOs), labor unions, and corporate trade groups. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of strategies led by each of these different types of actors and explores potential synergies among them.
    February 11, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12164   open full text
  • Negative Assimilation: How Immigrants Experience Economic Mobility in Japan.
    Ayumi Takenaka, Makiko Nakamuro, Kenji Ishida.
    International Migration Review. February 09, 2015
    This paper examines the economic mobility of foreign migrants in Japan. In a country that is largely regarded as homogeneous and closed to outsiders, how and to what extent do immigrants achieve economic success? A survey conducted by the authors revealed that the conventional assimilationist perspective does not fully explain immigrants’ economic success in Japan. Migrants from the West experience what Chiswick and Miller () refer to as “negative assimilation.” That is, their earnings decline over time in Japan. While negative assimilation was not clearly observed among immigrants from neighboring Asian countries, wages among them did not increase with the length of their stay in Japan. For both groups, the skills they brought from abroad were found to be largely accountable for their economic success, while locally specific human capital, such as education acquired in the host society, did not contribute to their earnings.
    February 09, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12129   open full text
  • Native Friends and Host Country Identification among Adolescent Immigrants in Germany: The Role of Ethnic Boundaries.
    Benjamin Schulz, Lars Leszczensky.
    International Migration Review. February 06, 2015
    Many studies find that high shares of native friends are positively related to immigrant youths' identification with the host country. By examining various immigrant groups together, these studies imply that having native friends matters in the same way for the national identification in different immigrant groups. In contrast, we argue that the extent to which having native friends affects immigrants' national identification depends on both immigrant group characteristics and the receiving context, especially on ethnic boundaries and related group differences in perceived discrimination and the compatibility of ethnic and national identities. Analyses based on data from the National Educational Panel Study in Germany that are representative of 15‐year‐old adolescents in secondary schools indeed reveal pronounced group differences: While national identification of ethnic German repatriates as well as of adolescents of former Yugoslavian and Southern European origin is related to the share of native friends, as hypothesized, we do not find this association for immigrants of Turkish and Polish origin. Our finding underlines the importance of theoretically as well as empirically accounting for group differences.
    February 06, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imre.12163   open full text
  • Is Money Enough?: The Effect of Migrant Remittances on Parental Aspirations and Youth Educational Attainment in Rural Mexico.
    Adam Sawyer.
    International Migration Review. September 02, 2014
    This research compares remittance‐receiving families in rural Mexico to non‐remittance receiving households in terms of how the presence of this financial source relates to variation in parent educational aspirations for their children and youth enrollment and completion at the non‐compulsory upper secondary schooling level. Using multivariate analysis of a comprehensive survey collected in a significant migrant‐sending state, no evidence is found of a remittance effect on the selected outcomes. Rather, other socio‐demographic background factors — namely, maternal education levels and to a lesser extent household wealth — are the factors most associated with variation in these educational outcomes. Implications for migration and education public policy and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    September 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12103   open full text
  • Social Position and Place‐Protective Action in a New Immigration Context: Understanding Anti‐Mosque Campaigns in Catalonia.
    Avi Astor.
    International Migration Review. September 02, 2014
    This article examines the structural conditions and cultural narratives underlying the high frequency and intensity of anti‐mosque campaigns in the Spanish region of Catalonia. Drawing on Blumer's theory of prejudice as a sense of group position, as it has been elaborated and extended to multi‐ethnic settings by subsequent scholarship, I contend that local reactions to mosques in Catalonia have been shaped by context‐specific configurations of identity and urban space. I show how longstanding socio‐economic and cultural divisions within Catalonia's native population, as well as the inscription of these divisions within the spatial ordering of the region, have heightened feelings of threat elicited by the large‐scale arrival of Muslim immigrants to working‐class neighborhoods in recent years. In advancing this argument, I build on the insights of geographers and urban sociologists to develop a spatially sensitive understanding of social position and perceived group threat that considers the importance of place identities and the interaction between distinct registers of territorial belonging.
    September 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12115   open full text
  • The Fertility of Married Immigrant Women to Canada.
    Alícia Adserà, Ana Ferrer.
    International Migration Review. September 02, 2014
    This paper uses the confidential files of the Canadian Census 1991–2006 to examine the fertility of married immigrant women (the presence of infants and preschool children in the household) around the time of migration. Then it estimates a proportional hazards model of first‐birth risks of migrants relative to natives from two years before to five years after arrival to Canada. While immigrants have relatively fewer births during the two years preceding migration, these rise after one year in Canada, consistent with both catchup and with concurrent events such as marriage happening during migration. Consistent with the socialization hypothesis, fertility levels vary across origins.
    September 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12114   open full text
  • Sorting or Shaping? The Gendered Economic Outcomes of Immigration Policy in Canada.
    Jennifer Elrick, Naomi Lightman.
    International Migration Review. August 15, 2014
    Using a growth model analysis of Canada's Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), we establish a significant relationship between application status — i.e., the distinction in immigration policy between primary and secondary migrants — and individual wages. This relationship is associated with an earnings disadvantage for secondary migrants, who are disproportionately female. The disadvantage persists over time, even when individual human capital and personal characteristics, household context, and pre‐existing differences in the relative employability of spouses are taken into account. We outline some possible explanations for this effect, as well as implications for immigration policy makers.
    August 15, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12110   open full text
  • Deporting Fathers: Involuntary Transnational Families and Intent to Remigrate among Salvadoran Deportees.
    Jodi Berger Cardoso, Erin Randle Hamilton, Nestor Rodriguez, Karl Eschbach, Jacqueline Hagan.
    International Migration Review. July 03, 2014
    One‐fourth of deportees from the United States are parents of US‐citizen children. We do not know how separation from families affects remigration among deportees, who face high penalties given unlawful reentry. We examined how family separation affects intent to remigrate among Salvadoran deportees. The majority of deportees with children in the United States were also separated from their spouse, and the vast majority had US‐citizen children. Family separation was the single most important factor affecting intent to remigrate. We interpret these findings in light of immigration policy debates.
    July 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12106   open full text
  • Do Pathways Matter? Linking Early Immigrant Employment Sequences and Later Economic Outcomes: Evidence from Canada.
    Sylvia Fuller.
    International Migration Review. May 26, 2014
    Employment mobility is a critical feature of immigrants' settlement experiences and longer‐term life chances. While current research typically treats mobility as a singular outcome, becoming established in a new labor market is a complex process that can entail multiple transitions in and out of employment and between different types of jobs over time. This article advances understanding of the process of immigrant labor market incorporation by engaging with its potentially multidimensional, cumulative, and path‐dependent aspects. Using data from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada, I test the impact of an empirically derived typology of month‐by‐month immigrant employment trajectories on the odds of occupational degradation and on weekly wages. I find that the pathways immigrants take through the labor market in their first four years constitute a distinct and important mechanism shaping later employment outcomes.
    May 26, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12094   open full text
  • Kick It Like Özil? Decomposing the Native‐Migrant Education Gap.
    Annabelle Krause, Ulf Rinne, Simone Schüller.
    International Migration Review. May 22, 2014
    We investigate second‐generation migrants and native children at several stages in the German education system to analyze the determinants of the persistent native–migrant gap. In particular, if migrant and native children shared the same socioeconomic family background, would we still observe differences in education outcomes? Applying linear and matching decomposition methods to carefully account for differences in background characteristics, we find no disparities in recommendations for and actual enrollment at secondary school types between migrant children and comparable native peers. Also, the native–migrant education gap at the age of 17 years can be entirely explained by differences in socioeconomic family background. We thus conclude that comparable natives face similar difficulties as migrant children in the German education system. There are more general inequalities in secondary schooling that are not migrant specific, but related to socioeconomic family background.
    May 22, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12107   open full text
  • Conceptualizing and Measuring Immigration Policies: A Comparative Perspective.
    Liv Bjerre, Marc Helbling, Friederike Römer, Malisa Zobel.
    International Migration Review. May 22, 2014
    In the last decade, researchers have developed many innovative ideas for the construction of indices measuring immigration policies. Methodological considerations have, however, been largely absent from the discussion. To close this gap, this paper investigates the characteristics of existing indices by critically comparing and discussing them. We start by providing a definition of immigration policy which may serve as a benchmark when assessing the indices. By means of the analytical framework developed by Munck and Verkuilen (2002), which we adapt and customize for our analysis, we then evaluate the conceptualization, measurement, and aggregation, as well as the empirical scope of thirteen immigration policy indices. We discuss methodological strengths and weaknesses of the indices, how these affect the research questions that can be answered and what the next steps in index building within the field of immigration policy should be.
    May 22, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12100   open full text
  • From Multiracial Subjects to Multicultural Citizens: Social Stratification and Ethnic and Racial Classification among Children of Immigrants in the United Kingdom.
    Christel Kesler, Luisa Farah Schwartzman.
    International Migration Review. May 22, 2014
    This study examines how immigrant parents' geographic origins correspond to their adult children's ethnic and racial self‐classification; whether discrepancies are associated with socioeconomic status; and the implications of these patterns for assessing socioeconomic inequality. Using linked British census data, we identify immigrants' children in 1971 and examine how they ethnically/racially self‐classify in 2001. We find that fluidity in classification varies across groups, but higher educational attainment is consistently associated with less white British classification. Therefore, grouping immigrants' children by ethnic/racial self‐classification underestimates socioeconomic disadvantage for these groups. However, grouping by parental birthplace overlooks variation in racialization and disadvantage among children of immigrants from the same country of origin.
    May 22, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12101   open full text
  • Destination Choices of Recent Pan–American Migrants: Opportunities, Costs, and Migrant Selectivity.
    Christoph Spörlein.
    International Migration Review. May 22, 2014
    This study examines the destination choices of pan‐American migrants using census data for migrants from 23 Latin‐American and Caribbean origin groups opting for one of ten North and South American destination countries. Descriptive findings suggests that Caribbean and Central American migrants overwhelmingly migrate to the United States, while South Americans are characterized by more diverse choice patterns. Using discrete choice models, the multivariate analysis shows that migrants are more likely to choose a country of destination which portrays a higher relative expected wage ratio, a lower relative income inequality, a smaller geographic as well as cultural distance, a larger co‐ethnic community and policy conditions that are more favorable towards immigrants. The results also indicate that some of these characteristics lead to skill selection differentials. Accordingly, destinations are more likely to attract highly educated migrants if the co‐ethnic community is small and relative political freedom, geographic distance and cultural distance are above average.
    May 22, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12104   open full text
  • The Globalization of Migration: Has the World Become More Migratory?
    Mathias Czaika, Hein Haas.
    International Migration Review. May 20, 2014
    Although it is commonly believed that the volume, diversity, geographical scope, and overall complexity of international migration have increased as part of globalization processes, this idea has remained largely untested. This article analyzes shifts in global migration patterns between 1960 and 2000 using indices that simultaneously capture changes in the spread, distance, and intensity of migration. While the results challenge the idea that there has been a global increase in volume, diversity, and geographical scope of migration, main migratory shifts have been directional. Migration has globalized from a destination country perspective but hardly from an origin country perspective, with migrants from an increasingly diverse array of non‐European‐origin countries concentrating in a shrinking pool of prime destination countries. The global migration map has thus become more skewed. Rather than refuting the globalization of migration hypothesis, this seems to reflect the asymmetric nature of globalization processes in general.
    May 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12095   open full text
  • Negative Acculturation and Nothing More? Cumulative Disadvantage and Mortality during the Immigrant Adaptation Process among Latinos in the U.S.
    Fernando Riosmena, Bethany G. Everett, Richard G. Rogers, Jeff A. Dennis.
    International Migration Review. May 20, 2014
    Foreign‐ and U.S.‐born Hispanic health deteriorate with increasing exposure and acculturation to mainstream U.S. society. Because these associations are robust to (static) socioeconomic controls, negative acculturation has become their primary explanation. This overemphasis, however, has neglected important alternative structural explanations. Examining Hispanic mortality using the 1998–2006 U.S. National Health Interview Survey‐Linked Mortality File according to nativity, immigrant adaptation measures, and health behaviors, this study presents indirect but compelling evidence that suggests negative acculturation is not the only or main explanation for this deterioration.
    May 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12102   open full text
  • The Decline of International Migration as an Economic Force in Rural Areas: A Mexican Case Study.
    Richard C. Jones.
    International Migration Review. May 03, 2014
    Since 2000, and especially since 2007, there has been a reduction in the importance of international migration and remittances in major global sending regions as a result of recession in receiving countries, anti‐immigrant policies, and improvement in economic opportunities in origin countries. A household survey in five rural communities in Zacatecas, Mexico, in 1995 and again in 2009 exemplifies these trends. Among youthful adults likely to have first migrated in the decade prior to each of these years, there was a significant drop in the proportion of active migrants. Among the active migrants, stays abroad became longer and more permanent, and their households exhibited fewer remittances, less family business ownership, and fewer local purchases, in 2009 compared to 1995. Finally, non‐migrant households greatly improved their economic status in relation to migrant households over the period, reaching approximate parity with their migrant counterparts.
    May 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12085   open full text
  • Occupational downgrading and wages of New Member States immigrants to Ireland.
    Sarah Voitchovsky.
    International Migration Review. May 03, 2014
    This paper explores the importance of occupational downgrading in explaining the pay gap of New Member States (NMS) immigrants to Ireland by taking advantage of two data sources, the Census and the Survey on Income and Living Conditions (SILC). The study identifies biases in the coverage of NMS immigrants in SILC that dampen their estimated earnings disadvantage. Corrections to population weights are suggested. These adjustments have a significant impact on results, increasing both the size of the wage penalty of NMS immigrants and the extent to which the pay gap can be explained by occupational downgrading. A replication of published results for the UK reveals similar patterns of penalties for NMS workers in both countries. Factors that may explain the concentration of NMS workers in low‐skill/low‐wage occupations are discussed.
    May 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12089   open full text
  • The Occupational Cost of Being Illegal in the United States: Legal Status, Job Hazards, and Compensating Differentials.
    Matthew Hall, Emily Greenman.
    International Migration Review. May 03, 2014
    Considerable research and pervasive cultural narratives suggest that undocumented immigrant workers are concentrated in the most dangerous, hazardous, and otherwise unappealing jobs in U.S. labor markets. Yet, owing largely to data limitations, little empirical work has addressed this topic. Using data from the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we impute legal status for Mexican and Central American immigrants and link their occupations to BLS data on occupational fatalities and occupational hazard data from the Department of Labor to explore racial and legal status differentials on several specific measures of occupational risk. Results indicate that undocumented workers face heightened exposure to numerous dimensions of occupational hazard – including higher levels of physical strain, exposure to heights, and repetitive motions – but are less exposed than native workers to some of the potentially most dangerous environments. We also show that undocumented workers are rewarded less for employment in hazardous settings, receiving low or no compensating differential for working in jobs with high fatality, toxic materials, or exposure to heights. Overall, this study suggests that legal status plays an important role in determining exposure to job hazard and in structuring the wage returns to risky work.
    May 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12090   open full text
  • Has Opposition to Immigration Increased in the U.S. after the Economic Crisis? An Experimental Approach.
    Mathew J. Creighton, Amaney Jamal, Natalia C. Malancu.
    International Migration Review. May 03, 2014
    We employ two population‐level experiments to accurately measure opposition to immigration before and after the economic crisis of 2008. Our design explicitly addresses social desirability bias, which is the tendency to give responses that are seen favorably by others and can lead to substantial underreporting of opposition to immigration. We find that overt opposition to immigration, expressed as support for a closed border, increases slightly after the crisis. However, once we account for social desirability bias, no significant increase remains. We conclude that the observed increase in anti‐immigration sentiment in the post‐crisis U.S. is attributable to greater expression of opposition rather than any underlying change in attitudes.
    May 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12091   open full text
  • Recent Immigration to Canada and the United States: A Mixed Tale of Relative Selection.
    Neeraj Kaushal, Yao Lu.
    International Migration Review. May 03, 2014
    Using large‐scale census data and adjusting for sending‐country fixed effect to account for changing composition of immigrants, we study relative immigrant selection to Canada and the U.S. during 1990–2006, a period characterized by diverging immigration policies in the two countries. Results show a gradual change in selection patterns in educational attainment and host‐country language proficiency in favor of Canada as its post‐1990 immigration policy allocated more points to the human capital of new entrants. Specifically, in 1990, new immigrants in Canada were less likely to have a B.A. degree than those in the U.S.; they were also less likely to have a high‐school or lower education. By 2006, Canada surpassed the U.S. in drawing highly educated immigrants, while continuing to attract fewer low‐educated immigrants. Canada also improved its edge over the U.S. in terms of host‐country language proficiency of new immigrants. Entry‐level earnings, however, do not reflect the same trend: Recent immigrants to Canada have experienced a wage disadvantage compared to recent immigrants to the U.S., as well as Canadian natives. One plausible explanation is that while the Canadian points system has successfully attracted more educated immigrants, it may not be effective in capturing productivity‐related traits that are not easily measurable.
    May 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12093   open full text
  • Forecasting Immigration in Official Population Projections Using an Econometric Model.
    Ådne Cappelen, Terje Skjerpen, Marianne Tønnessen.
    International Migration Review. April 29, 2014
    Although substantial research has been conducted to quantify the determinants of international migration, most official population projections do not include such determinants in a formal migration model. Statistics Norway forecasts gross immigration to Norway using an econometric model based on standard migration theories. The main variables include income level, unemployment, and population size in Norway and the sending countries, and the number of immigrants already living in Norway. Projections of exogenous variables are drawn from international and Norwegian sources. Three different alternatives are specified for the income variables, leading to three different forecasts for gross immigration until 2100.
    April 29, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12092   open full text
  • Redrawing the Contours of the Nation‐State in Uruguay? The Vicissitudes of Emigration Policy in the 2000s.
    Ana Margheritis.
    International Migration Review. April 18, 2014
    This study analyzes Uruguay's recently launched emigration policy. It argues that the redrawing of the boundaries of the nation‐state along non‐territorial basis is still an incipient and contested process. The findings highlight some relatively under‐explored explanatory factors: emigrants' profile; political junctures requiring immediate commitment; the impact of rhetorical changes and post‐neoliberal projects; presidents as policy drivers and sources of inconsistencies; and institutional deficiencies, inertias, lack of reform, and society's conflictive notions of nation and belonging as brakes. The conclusions indicate that the sustainability of emigration policy is contingent on state's progress toward internal reform and society's ability to acquire a greater voice and more organizational capacity. Exploring emigration policy characteristics and sources of setbacks in Uruguay unveils the inter‐mestic character of state transnational outreach efforts, qualifies and refines existing explanations, expands our understanding of new governance techniques, and provides some insights into the requirements for emigration policies to work effectively.
    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12088   open full text
  • Racialized Incorporation: The Effects of Race and Generational Status on Self‐Employment and Industry‐Sector Prestige in the U.S.
    Ali R. Chaudhary.
    International Migration Review. April 18, 2014
    This study examines how race and generational status shape self‐employment propensities and industry‐sector prestige among the self‐employed in the U.S. It draws on theories of assimilation, racialization, and a combined framework, racialized incorporation, to guide the analysis and interpret the results. It uses data from the U.S. March Current Population Survey (2000–2010) offering the first nationally representative examination of second‐generation self‐employment in the U.S. This study investigates three questions. First, do the odds of being self‐employed decline in the second and third generations? Second, do generational patterns in self‐employment propensities vary by race? And finally, do race and generational status affect the odds of being self‐employed in low‐, medium‐, and high‐prestige industry sectors? Results offer some support for the assimilation perspective: Immigrants are generally more likely than third‐generation groups to be self‐employed with the exception of Asians, where second‐generation Asians have the greatest odds of being self‐employed. However, results also reveal that generational patterns in self‐employment propensities vary by race and industry‐sector prestige. Accordingly, first‐ and second‐generation Whites have the greatest odds of being self‐employed (across all levels of industry‐sector prestige), and third‐generation Whites are more likely than all generations of Blacks and Hispanics to be engaged in high‐prestige self‐employment. These findings suggest that immigrants, their offspring, and native‐born groups undergo a racialized incorporation in which self‐employment is organized along hierarchical and racial lines associated with uneven levels of prestige.
    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12087   open full text
  • Intergenerational Mobility of the Mexican‐Origin Population in California and Texas Relative to a Changing Regional Mainstream.
    Julie Park, Dowell Myers, Tomás R. Jiménez.
    International Migration Review. April 18, 2014
    We combine two approaches to gauge the achievements of the Mexican‐origin second generation: one the intergenerational progress between immigrant parents and children, the other the gap between the second generation and non‐Latino whites. We measure advancement of the Mexican‐origin second generation using a suite of census‐derived outcomes applied to immigrant parents in 1980 and grown children in 2005, as observed in California and Texas. Patterns of second‐generation upward mobility are similar in the two states, with important differences across outcome indicators. Assessments are less favorable for men than women, especially in Texas. We compare Mexican‐Americans to a non‐Latino white reference group, as do most assimilation studies. However, we separate the reference group into those born in the same state as the second generation and those who have migrated in. We find that selective in‐migration of more highly‐educated whites has raised the bar on some, not all, measures of attainment. This poses a challenge to studies of assimilation that do not compare grown‐children to their fellow natives of a state. Our model of greater temporal and regional specificity has broad applicability to studies guided by all theories of immigrant assimilation, integration and advancement.
    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12086   open full text
  • English‐Language Proficiency Among Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs in the United States, 1980–2000.
    Uzi Rebhun.
    International Migration Review. April 09, 2014
    This study assesses the determinants of English‐language proficiency among three subgroups of Israeli immigrants in the United States, namely native‐born Israeli Jews, foreign‐born Israeli Jews, and Palestinian Arabs, and how these determinants have changed over time. Multivariate analyses of decennial censuses from 1980, 1990, and 2000 reveal substantial differences in the directions and significance of the relationships between the independent variables and English proficiency of the subgroups under investigation. Ethnoreligious affiliation per se is seen to be an important factor that consistently explains intra‐group variation in English proficiency. This lends support to the split approach over the lump approach in attempting to understand immigrants' linguistic dynamics in the new country. The findings are discussed in reference to three working hypotheses – “exposure,” “efficiency,” and “economic incentives” – and in the specific sociopolitical conditions of Jews and Arabs at both origin and destination.
    April 09, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12064   open full text
  • Transnationalism and Ethnic Identification among Adolescent Children of Immigrants in the Netherlands, Germany, England, and Sweden.
    Paulien Schimmer, Frank van Tubergen.
    International Migration Review. April 09, 2014
    Inspired by the emerging literature on transnationalism in the United States, this paper studies the return visits of adolescent children of immigrants in four European countries. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, cross‐classified multilevel analyses indicate that parental economic resources, ethnic motivations, and political suppression are related to adolescent children of immigrants' return visits. Furthermore, return visits are positively related to adolescents' identification with the origin country and negatively to adolescents' identification with the host country.
    April 09, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12084   open full text
  • How Watershed Immigration Policies Affect American Public Opinion Over a Lifetime.
    Marisa Abrajano, Lydia Lundgren.
    International Migration Review. April 08, 2014
    Important political events are known to influence political socialization and development (Green, Palmquist, and Schickler, ). It is also possible that such events impact political socialization within particular age cohorts, and also across important social groups who may be impacted differently by landmark events. This paper examines whether landmark immigration events can leave a permanent mark on an individual's views toward immigrants and immigration, and whether that impact varies across different ethnic/racial groups in the United States Specifically, we examine the cohort of individuals who were in their formative years during the passage of major US immigration bills that were proposed or enacted from 1965 to 2010. Altogether, we focus on four pieces of landmark immigration legislation. The findings reveal variations on the effect of these events depending on the group in question; a relationship also emerges between these landmark legislative events and attitudes on immigration policies. The analysis contributes to an ongoing debate regarding the ways in which political elites influence attitudes, and we discuss how the findings may apply to other contexts outside the US.
    April 08, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12082   open full text
  • Is there an Intermarriage Premium for Male Immigrants? Exogamy and Earnings in Sweden 1990–2009.
    Martin Dribe, Paul Nystedt.
    International Migration Review. April 03, 2014
    This paper analyzes the impact of intermarriage on the economic integration of immigrants in Sweden, measured by annual earnings. We use longitudinal register data for the period 1990–2009 for the total population of immigrant men born 1960–1974. The results reveal large intermarriage premiums, but overall this seems to be a result of selection effects as most of the premium is visible already at the time of marriage. For the most economically marginalized immigrants, however, an intermarriage premium arises within marriage implying that forming a union with a native triggers a more rapid earnings growth among them.
    April 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12081   open full text
  • Self‐Selection and Economic Assimilation of Immigrants: The Case of Iranian Immigrants Arriving to Three Countries During 1979–1985.
    Yitchak Haberfeld, Christer Lundh.
    International Migration Review. March 29, 2014
    The study is designed to evaluate the impact of the interaction between patterns of immigrants' self‐selection and the context of reception at destinations on economic assimilation of Iranian immigrants who came to three countries during 1979–1985. For that purpose, we studied immigrants at the age of 22 or higher upon arrival by utilizing the 5 percent 1990 and 2000 Public Use Microdata files (PUMS) of the United States census, the 20 percent demographic samples of the 1983 and 1995 Israeli censuses of population, and the 1990 and 2000 Swedish registers. The results indicate that the “most qualified” immigrants – both on observed and unobserved variables – who left Iran right after the Islamic revolution, arrived in the US Their positive self‐selection led them to reach complete earnings assimilation with natives there. Iranian immigrants who arrived in Israel and Sweden did not achieve full earnings assimilation with natives. Of these two groups, a smaller immigrant‐to‐native gap in average earnings was found in Sweden, but in the same time Iranian immigrants in Israel were more positively self‐selected and showed better assimilation than their counterparts in Sweden. Market structure played a certain role in immigrants' earnings assimilation mainly in Sweden.
    March 29, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12080   open full text
  • Social Capital and Livelihoods in Johannesburg: Differential Advantages and Unexpected Outcomes among Foreign‐Born Migrants, Internal Migrants, and Long‐Term South African Residents.
    Tyler W. Myroniuk, Jo Vearey.
    International Migration Review. March 25, 2014
    Foreign‐born migrants – a group rarely compared with both internal migrants and long‐term residents – are often positioned as the most disadvantaged South African urban population. We use data from a 2008 cross‐sectional household survey conducted in Johannesburg to compare a contextually relevant measure of social capital and livelihood advantages between foreign‐born migrants, internal migrants, and long‐term South African residents. Our findings are counterintuitive and emphasize the need to explore the heterogeneity of urban migrant populations, and the mechanisms in which they better their lives, by showing that (1) foreign‐born migrants have better urban livelihood outcomes, and (2) indicators of social capital are not necessarily associated with improved livelihood outcomes.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12076   open full text
  • Inducing Development: Social Remittances and the Expansion of Oil Palm.
    Marvin Joseph F. Montefrio, Yasmin Y. Ortiga, Ma. Rose Cristy B. Josol.
    International Migration Review. March 25, 2014
    This paper investigates the relationship between social remittances and land‐use change in the context of South–South migration. Focusing on the cyclical movement of Filipino oil palm workers between the Philippine province of Palawan and the Malaysian State of Sabah, we show how migrants transmit social remittances, such as ideas of prosperity associated with oil palm development and knowledge of production practices and land impacts of oil palm plantations. These social remittances affect farmers’ decisions to engage in oil palm development within the migrants’ home province, possibly transforming subsistence agricultural systems into large‐scale, monocrop plantations. We argue that such land development outcomes are an understudied aspect of how migration affects developing countries, especially in the context of South–South migration. Research findings also suggest how migrants’ social remittances are transmitted, diffused, and utilized at broader social and political units, beyond return migrants’ households and immediate communities in Palawan. Decision outcomes, however, are variable, with households and communities either engaging in or opposing oil palm development, depending on how social remittances are interpreted.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12075   open full text
  • “Big Fish in a Small Pond”: Chinese Migrant Shopkeepers in South Africa.
    Edwin Lin.
    International Migration Review. March 25, 2014
    The steady growth of Chinese migrants to South Africa in the past decade provides an opportunity to use Sen's (2001, Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press) capabilities approach in the field of immigration. This theoretical framing reveals that the Chinese employ, what I call, a small pond migration strategy – utilizing mobility to maximize their social, economic, and human capital. I argue that the Chinese move to South Africa because of a desire to venture out of China and pursue freedoms associated with being one's own boss. Once in South Africa, they choose to stay because of comfortable weather and a slower pace of life, despite losing freedoms associated with high crime in Johannesburg. The findings suggest alternative ways of understanding factors of migration as well as a model that explains migration from more developed countries to less developed ones.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12074   open full text
  • “Those who come to do harm”: The Framings of Immigration Problems in Costa Rican Immigration Law.
    Caitlin E. Fouratt.
    International Migration Review. March 25, 2014
    This article examines the political rationales at work behind the particularly repressive 2006 Costa Rican immigration law and subsequent immigration reform process and resulting 2010 law through an analysis of two rival framings of immigration in Costa Rica. First, I examine how the rushed nature of the 2006 law constructed a crisis in which migrants, particularly Nicaraguans, represented urgent threats to national security. Next, I examine the 2010 law that emerged from the reform process and the alternative framings of immigration as an issue of human rights and integration that migration advocates contributed to the new law. I argue that the juxtaposition of integration and security frameworks in the new law reinforces the law's most repressive measures, contributing to an overall project of securitization and marginalization of immigrants.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12073   open full text
  • Everyday Restriction: Central American Women and the State in the Mexico‐Guatemala Border City of Tapachula.
    Lindsey Carte.
    International Migration Review. March 25, 2014
    Media coverage and emerging scholarship have brought increasing international attention to the urgent humanitarian crisis facing Central American transmigrants as they navigate landscapes of violence in Mexico. While stories of Central American immigrants who remain in Mexico are largely absent from this coverage, there is arguably a “Central Americanization” occurring on the southern border through this permanent settlement. Central Americans choosing to establish themselves in the border state of Chiapas do so in a socio‐spatial and political context defined by the introduction of “progressive” state‐ and national‐level migration policies on the one hand and the persistence of discrimination and violence on the other. We know little about the implementation of these policies on the ground, namely how they are applied and the impacts they have on the immigrant experience in Mexico. To begin to fill this gap, this paper focuses on the experiences of Central American immigrant women living in the Mexico‐Guatemala border city of Tapachula. Employing a feminist geopolitical lens, which encourages conducting research and analysis at diverse scales, it examines their everyday interactions with low‐ to mid‐level representatives of the Mexican state as they seek to avail themselves of their legal and social citizenship rights, and the impacts of these interactions on their livelihoods. This article argues that low‐ to mid‐level officials’ actions reveal the importance of a form of extra‐official, subtle, yet pervasive regulation through which immigrant women are denied rights they are entitled to, inducing negative impacts to their livelihoods, which I term everyday restriction.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12072   open full text
  • Introduction to the Special Collection.
    Philippe De Lombaerde, Fei Guo, Helion Póvoa Neto.
    International Migration Review. March 25, 2014
    In this essay, the authors argue that although “South” and “North” are more and more becoming problematic categories in the social sciences, in general, and in migration studies, in particular, it still makes sense today to focus on South‐South migrations. Not only because of its mere quantitative importance, but for a number of reasons. Firstly, new South‐South migration patterns are observable and new data are becoming available. Secondly, South‐South migrations still have a number of distinct features, including: the role of borders, the composition of migration flows, the migration‐conflict nexus, regional migration governance, and the specific relationships with certain migration‐related concepts and variables.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12083   open full text
  • Host National Identification of Immigrants in the Netherlands.
    Thomas Vroome, Maykel Verkuyten, Borja Martinovic.
    International Migration Review. March 25, 2014
    This study examines immigrants' identification with the host country. We use survey data of more than 1,700 Turkish and Moroccan immigrants and more than 2,200 natives in the Netherlands. We answer four main questions in this study. First, do immigrants have lower national identification than natives? Second, does the level of national identification differ between immigrant groups? Third, do economic and social integration similarly affect national identification among immigrants and natives? And fourth, what are important additional determinants of national identification among immigrants? The results show that, compared to Dutch natives, Turkish but not Moroccan immigrants have lower national identification. Being employed and socially integrated is associated with higher national identification among immigrants as well as natives, but only among immigrants is higher occupational status associated with higher national identification. For immigrants, Dutch language proficiency, perceived discrimination, and contact with natives proved to be important conditions for national identification.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12063   open full text
  • Competing for Lebanon's Diaspora: Transnationalism and Domestic Struggles in a Weak State.
    Wendy Pearlman.
    International Migration Review. March 25, 2014
    Just as state strength influences relationships between state and society and among social forces within a national territory, so does it shape relationships between states and their emigrants and diasporas across territorial borders. Scholars debate how transnational migration affirms or challenges the dominance of the nation‐state. When sending states are weak, however, diaspora–homeland linkages can undermine the role of the state in a way that is not transformative, but sustaining of the status quo. Examining Lebanon, this paper explores how domestic actors extend their struggles to vie over and through kin abroad. Three realms of competition are paramount: demography, votes, and money. The resulting transnational outreach reproduces a politics in which both expatriates and the state function as resources as much as actors.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12070   open full text
  • The Great Recession and the Allure of New Immigrant Destinations in the United States.
    Mark Ellis, Richard Wright, Matthew Townley.
    International Migration Review. March 25, 2014
    In the 1990s, the immigrant population in the United States dispersed to non‐traditional settlement locations (what have become known as “new immigrant destinations”). This paper examines whether the allure of new destinations persisted in the 2000s with a particular focus on the internal migration of the foreign‐born during the recent deep recessionary period and its aftermath. Three specific questions motivate the analysis. First, are immigrants, much like the U.S.‐born population, becoming less migratory within the country over time? Second, is immigrant dispersal from traditional gateways via internal migration continuing despite considerable economic contraction in many new destination metropolitan areas? Third, is immigration from aboard a substitute for what appears to be declining immigrant internal migration to new destinations? The findings reveal a close correlation between the declining internal migration propensity of the U.S.‐born and immigrants in the last two decades. We also observe parallels between the geographies of migration of native‐ and foreign‐born populations with both groups moving to similar metropolitan areas in the 1990s. This redistributive association, however, weakened in the subsequent decade as new destination metropolitan areas lost their appeal for both groups, especially immigrants. There is no evidence to suggest that immigration from abroad is substituting for the decline in immigrant redistribution through internal migration to new destinations. Across destination types, the relationship between immigration from abroad and the internal migration of the foreign‐born remained the same during and after the Great Recession as in the period immediately before it.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imre.12058   open full text
  • “The Politics of the HealthCare Reform Debate: Public Support of Including Undocumented Immigrants and Their Children in Reform Efforts in the U.S.”.
    Gabriel R. Sanchez, Shannon Sanchez‐Youngman.
    International Migration Review. June 17, 2013
    Although U.S. immigration and health care policies appear to be highly correlated, scholarship has yet to gauge the public's views toward providing undocumented immigrants with health coverage at the state level. We analyze support for including undocumented immigrants in health care reform in New Mexico. Utilizing an original public opinion survey of New Mexico adults, we find that individuals are more supportive of the state providing health care to the children of undocumented immigrant than to their parents. Multivariate logistic regression analyses suggest that factors such as liberal ideology and perceptions of commonalities with Latinos increase support levels. Despite a lack of support among a majority of respondents, the influence of perceived commonalities with immigrants suggests that reform advocates and political elites who mobilize along ethnic or human solidarity may be successful in creating conditions for the inclusion of undocumented immigrants in the public provision of health care at the state level.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imre.12027   open full text
  • “The Paper that You Have in Your Hand is My Freedom”: Migrant Domestic Work and the Sponsorship (Kafala) System in Lebanon.
    Amrita Pande.
    International Migration Review. June 17, 2013
    A recent report on migrant domestic work in Lebanon has cited psychological disorder among Lebanese “Madams” as the leading cause of violence against their migrant maids (Jureidini, 2011, This report typifies much of the existing scholarship on the experiences of migrant domestic workers (MDWs) in the Middle East, where the focus is on employer–employee relationships, especially the abusive Arab “Madam.” In this paper, I argue that the portrayal of violations of MDW rights as abuse of one set of women by another is inherently problematic on several fronts. It privatizes the structural problem of workers’ and immigrant rights violations, delegates it to the household, and absolves the state of its responsibility. Moreover, the focus on abusive employers takes attention away from the root of the problem – the inherently exploitative system of migration and recruitment in the region, the sponsorship system. The sponsorship system not only creates conditions for much of these violations, but also systematically produces a new population of readily exploitable worker – the category of “illegal workers.” Oral histories and interviews with individual workers are employed to analyze the process by which illegal workers are “produced” in Lebanon. Finally, focus group discussions highlight critical policy recommendations made by the workers themselves, which address the systemic bases of their exploitation in Lebanon.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imre.12025   open full text
  • Needed but Not Liked – The Impact of Labor Market Policies on Natives’ Opinions about Immigrants.
    Romana Careja, Hans‐Jürgen Andreß.
    International Migration Review. June 17, 2013
    This article builds on the notion that immigrants’ integration into the labor market benefits migrants and shapes natives’ opinions about immigrants. Using insights from the newest literature on labor immigration and drawing upon the literature on attitudes toward immigrants, the article explores in a multilevel design the impact that regulations in the EU member states concerning immigrants’ access to domestic labor markets have on threat perceptions and on opinions about immigrants’ economic role. It finds that labor market regulations have a positive effect on opinions about immigrants’ economic role and reduce the negative relationships between precarious labor market status and opinions about the economic role. However, a robust effect of labor market regulations on threat perceptions was not found. Our results imply that labor market incorporation rules need to be accompanied by other measures to close the gap between natives and immigrants.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imre.12024   open full text
  • Relocating Prejudice: A Transnational Approach to Understanding Immigrants' Racial Attitudes.
    Wendy D. Roth, Nadia Y. Kim.
    International Migration Review. June 17, 2013
    Immigration is changing the racial composition of many societies. Yet leading theories of racial prejudice, even in a multiracial context, focus on dynamics in a single nation‐state and fail to account for the experiences of the foreign‐born. We adopt a transnational approach that incorporates processes creating prejudice from both inside and outside the receiving society and that shows how attitudes move across borders through immigration, transnationalism, and globalization. We draw upon two in‐depth studies of immigrants and those who stay in the home countries, focusing on Koreans' and Dominicans' attitudes toward Black Americans. By situating existing theories of racial prejudice within a transnational framework, we illustrate how models of transnationalism are relevant not just within immigration scholarship, but to more general processes of social change.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imre.12028   open full text
  • Compositional and Temporal Dynamics of International Migration in the EU/EFTA: A New Metric for Assessing Countries’ Immigration and Integration Policies.
    Jack DeWaard.
    International Migration Review. June 17, 2013
    In this article, I derive estimates of migrants’ expected years of residence in each of 31 countries in the European Union and European Free Trade Association each year from 2002 to 2007. A country‐level measure summarizing the temporal dynamics of international migration, I compare my results against the often used compositional measure of the percent foreign born, and show that these two measures reflect different population processes. I likewise demonstrate the utility of the measure derived here as a tool to assess countries’ integration policies on long‐term residence per their scores in the Migrant Integration Policy Index. Key theoretical and policy implications are discussed.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imre.12023   open full text
  • Giving from the Heart or from the Ego? Motives behind Remittances of the Second Generation in Europe.
    Tineke Fokkema, Eralba Cela, Elena Ambrosetti.
    International Migration Review. May 16, 2013
    The aim of this article is to investigate the remittance behavior of host country‐born children of migrants – the second generation – in various European cities. We address the following question: Are second‐generation remitters driven more by altruism or by self‐interest? Data from “The Integration of the European Second Generation” (TIES) survey are utilized and encompass individuals with at least one migrant parent from Morocco, Turkey, or former Yugoslavia. Using logistic models, we test different classical theories on microeconomic determinants of remittances and add some additional expectations for the second generation. The results show that those second‐generation Moroccans, Turks, and former Yugoslavs who send money are motivated by two main reasons: Emotional attachment to their parents' home country (altruism motive) or to pay people who look after their investments or other material assets that are likely to be part of their preparation for “returning” (self‐interest – exchange motive). These two motives are not necessarily exclusive: As part of a well‐prepared return, to integrate easily once back “home,” it is not only relevant to ensure that people take care of one's investments and other material assets, but also to strengthen social ties and be well informed about the situation in the country of origin. This interpretation fits closely with the return model, which deserves more attention in the theoretical literature on remittances.
    May 16, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imre.12032   open full text
  • Unauthorized Immigration to the United States: Annual Estimates and Components of Change, by State, 1990 to 2010.
    Robert Warren, John Robert Warren.
    International Migration Review. February 15, 2013
    We describe a method for producing annual estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United Sates and components of population change, for each state and DC, for 1990–2010. We quantify a sharp drop in the number of unauthorized immigrants arriving since 2000, and we demonstrate the role of departures from the population (emigration, adjustment to legal status, removal by the Department of Homeland Security [DHS], and deaths) in reducing population growth from one million in 2000 to population losses in 2008 and 2009. The number arriving in the U.S. peaked at more than one million in 1999–2001 and then declined rapidly through 2009. We provide evidence that population growth stopped after 2007 primarily because entries declined and not because emigration increased during the economic crisis. Our estimates of the total unauthorized immigrant population in the U.S. and in the top ten states are comparable to those produced by DHS and the Pew Hispanic Center. However, our data and methods produce estimates with smaller ranges of sampling error.
    February 15, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imre.12022   open full text