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Population Space and Place

Impact factor: 1.861 5-Year impact factor: 2.054 Print ISSN: 1544-8444 Online ISSN: 1544-8452 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)

Subjects: Demography, Geography

Most recent papers:

  • Residential segregation and the fertility of immigrants and their descendants.
    Ben Wilson, Jouni Kuha.
    Population Space and Place. October 02, 2017
    Measures of community population composition, such as residential segregation, are important theoretical mechanisms that have the potential to explain differences in fertility between immigrants, their descendants, and destination natives. However, only a handful of studies explore these mechanisms, and most are limited by the fact that they carry out cross‐sectional analysis. This study proposes a new approach, which focuses on community composition in childhood. It uses longitudinal census data and registered births in England and Wales to investigate the relationship between completed fertility and multiple measures of community composition, including residential segregation. The results show that the fertility of immigrants is closer to native fertility if they grow up in less segregated areas. This provides evidence in support of the childhood socialisation hypothesis. Furthermore, residential segregation explains some of the variation in completed fertility for second‐generation women from Pakistan and Bangladesh, the only second‐generation group to have significantly higher completed fertility than natives. This suggests one reason why the fertility of some South Asians in England and Wales may remain “culturally entrenched.” All of these findings are consistent for different measures of community composition. They are also easier to interpret than the results of previous research because exposure is measured before childbearing has commenced, therefore avoiding many issues relating to selection, simultaneity, and conditioning on the future.
    October 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2098   open full text
  • Connectivity as the facilitator of intra‐European student migration.
    Vladimír Baláž, Allan M. Williams, Martina Chrančoková.
    Population Space and Place. September 25, 2017
    Student migration represents the major form of international human capital training and has significant implications for knowledge transfer and economic development, but its highly uneven geography remains relatively underresearched. This paper addresses two gaps in the research literature. First, it provides a temporal perspective by analysing intra‐European tertiary student exchange in three subperiods, within the time frame of 1998–2012, capturing both continuities and major changes in the strong polarisation of intra‐European student exchanges against a backdrop of significant institutional changes in Europe. Alongside the dominant polarisation, there is also regionalisation of exchange within some parts of Europe. Second, the determinants of the changing spatial concentration of international human capital training are analysed in terms of not only traditional migration push–pull factors but also connectivity. The findings indicate that connectivity factors, such as language and/or spatial proximity, and established flows of labour, trade, and knowledge are the most significant determinants and underpin the persistent stability in the polarisation of exchange. In contrast, traditional push–pull factors, such as income and employment differentials or differences in tertiary education quality and investment, are less important.
    September 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2101   open full text
  • Why are marriage and family formation increasingly disconnected across Europe? A multilevel perspective on existing theories.
    Trude Lappegård, Sebastian Klüsener, Daniele Vignoli.
    Population Space and Place. September 07, 2017
    Childbearing outside of marriage has increased drastically in recent decades. However, the existing explanations for this development are not coherent. Proponents of the Second Demographic Transition framework view the rise in nonmarital childbearing as part of a pattern of progress driven by processes such as emancipation from traditional social norms, whereas other scholars perceive this trend in the context of a “pattern of disadvantage,” as nonmarital births are often concentrated among lower socioeconomic groups. In this paper, we posit that the relevance of the aforementioned theoretical explanations might vary depending on the geographic scale at which variation occurs: that is, across nation states, subnational regions, or individuals. To explore this hypothesis, we analyse harmonised survey data from 16 European countries. We apply hierarchical models to study how the likelihood that a woman living in a couple will have her first child either within nonmarital cohabitation or within marriage is linked to national and subnational regional variation in socioeconomic conditions that are related to explanations based on the existing theoretical considerations. Our results suggest that the Second Demographic Transition framework is very important for understanding variation between countries, whereas arguments pointing to a pattern of disadvantage seem to be more relevant at the individual and subnational regional level. It thus appears that taking a multilevel perspective can help us better understand why the existing theoretical explanations are not fully coherent.
    September 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2088   open full text
  • The impact of regional economic performance on intergenerational geographical distance in China.
    Kezhong Zhang, Junpeng Wang, Yuanyuan Ma.
    Population Space and Place. September 07, 2017
    Using data from a national representative survey, China Family Panel Studies, we assess the impact of regional economic performance on intergenerational geographical distance in China, which is one of the largest developing economies and which has experienced a drastic economic and social transition. Employing an ordered probit model, we find that the economic performance of the region where the parents live is negatively associated with the geographical distance between parents and their adult children. This negative association is mainly driven by individuals from rural areas. This association is stronger for adult children who are younger, better educated, male, and without siblings. Further analysis shows that longer intergenerational geographical distances are negatively related to the instrumental support that is received by older parents. The findings have critical implications for social and health policies in a country that has the largest elderly population and is one of the most rapidly ageing societies in the world.
    September 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2091   open full text
  • Room for Manoeuvre: Rethinking the Intersections Between Migration and the Informal Economy in Post‐Industrial Economies.
    M. Anne Visser, Luis E. Guarnizo.
    Population Space and Place. September 06, 2017
    Dominant scholarly and policy discourse implicitly connect growth in immigration to growth in the informal economy and negative socio‐economic outcomes in post‐industrial societies. In this introduction, we highlight some of the broader questions and implications raised by the multidisciplinary work of our contributors that challenge this immigration‐informality hypothesis. We argue that existing studies of the informal economy in post‐industrial societies underscore the multiscalar economic, social, and political facets and dimensions that shape the intersection between migration and the spread of informal economic practices in the global north. However, this body of work does not adequately connect the ways in which these processes influence immigrants' economic and labour market integration. The contributions to this special issue focus on these dimensions seeking to identify how they are constructed and the opportunities, challenges, and possibilities they present for migrant workers and migrant‐receiving societies. Collectively, the contributions challenge dominant narratives surrounding the relationship between migration and the informal economy and contribute to theorise them as co‐constituted at multiscalar relational processes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 06, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2085   open full text
  • Effects of female commuting on partnership stability in suburban and other residential regions.
    Stefanie A. Kley, Michael Feldhaus.
    Population Space and Place. August 31, 2017
    Long‐distance commuting between home and the place of work is a means to combine both labour market participation and staying embedded in family and local social networks. But commuters often report high stress levels due to their commute and negative outcomes on their family life. Recent findings suggest that long commutes are harmful for partnership stability, especially if women commute. This contribution analyses the questions whether these findings can be replicated with a representative cohort panel study from Germany (pairfam), whether the expected negative outcome of female commuting is robust against partnership quality and labour division, and whether the risk of separation varies systematically across urban, suburban, and rural areas. Discrete event history models are applied to estimate the risk of separation for about 2,500 couples over 3 years (N = 49,408 person‐months). The findings indicate that women's long commuting is normally harmful for partnership stability but with one important exception: not if the couple lives in a suburban area. The article discusses whether the spatial variation in the influence of female commuting might be due to self‐selection processes in the course of family formation.
    August 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2093   open full text
  • How far is a long distance? An assessment of the issue of scale in the relationship between limiting long‐term illness and long‐distance migration in England and Wales.
    Sam Wilding, David Martin, Graham Moon.
    Population Space and Place. August 30, 2017
    Research consistently shows that those in poor health are less likely to migrate over long distances, but analyses rarely consider what constitutes a long distance in this context. Additionally, the migration literature often fails to account for place of residence effects on migration behaviour. This paper addresses these issues through analysis of the distance of residential moves by working age adults in the year preceding the 2011 Census. Multilevel logistic regression models predict the odds of having moved long‐distance relative to short distance, for different definitions of long distance: ≥10 km, ≥20 km and ≥50 km. We test whether those reporting a limiting long‐term illness (LLTI) are less likely to move long distance in all models, controlling for local authority at the time of the 2011 Census. We find no evidence for health selection in long‐distance migration in the 10 and 20 km models, but uncover a significant effect in the 50 km model. By age, the odds of having moved long distance do not vary for middle‐working age adults (25–54) by LLTI, whereas those with an LLTI in the pre‐retirement age group (55–64) are less likely to move long distance in all models. We uncover clusters of local authorities where those with an LLTI are more likely to have moved long distance in the 10 and 20 km models, but in the 50 km model, only two of these areas remain significantly positive. We conclude that health selection in distances moved occurs above a cut‐off somewhere between 20 and 50 km.
    August 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2090   open full text
  • Variation in mortality among migrants from Islamic countries: Do religious holidays and socio‐economic situation affect mortality rates?
    John Östh.
    Population Space and Place. August 29, 2017
    The number of migrants to Sweden from the Middle East and the Horn of Africa has increased strongly over the last decades. Many of these migrants come as refugees from regions of conflict, with limited social and financial resources, and many of the migrants face discrimination on labour market. Most newly arrived migrants find their homes in poor suburbs in the outskirts of the metropolitan regions in Sweden. In this paper, the mortality rates for all immigrants from predominately Islamic countries that officially resided in Sweden at any time between 1991 and 2010 are analysed using Cox proportional hazard regressions. The research questions in this paper focus on finding the associations between mortality rate and socio‐economic situations as well as the relationship between seasonal variations in religious activity and mortality. This large‐scale longitudinal study reveals that for men, especially men between 16 and 55 years of age, mortality rates are significantly lowered during Ramadan. Other factors affecting mortality rates include being a recent immigrant, civil, employment, and educational status as well as residing in immigrant dense areas.
    August 29, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2092   open full text
  • The effects of labour migration on rural household production in inland China: Do landform conditions matter?
    Zehan Pan, Wei Xu, Zuyu Huang, Guixin Wang.
    Population Space and Place. August 29, 2017
    The large‐scale rural to urban migration, generating sizable remittances, is often considered as an important means to help reduce poverty in rural China. However, penury is still stubbornly haunting the mountainous rural areas of inland China where numerous rural–urban migrants originate. Neglected in the current literature, the landform conditions are vital to explain the diverse effects of labour migration on rural household production in China. By adopting a revised simultaneous equation model, this study explores empirically how variations in regional landform conditions configure the effect of labour migration on rural household production using the data from our 2013 survey of migration intentions among rural labourers in China. The results show that remittances exert a substitution effect on agricultural production of rural households in the mountainous areas but have a promotive effect in the plain and hilly areas. Labour cutback imposes a less negative influence on agricultural production of rural households residing in the plain and hilly areas than in the mountainous areas. The effects of remittances and labour cutback on nonagricultural production of rural households are positive and negative, respectively, although these effects are insensitive to the variation in landform conditions. As a consequence, local wage level of rural households is more difficult to be improved by labour migration in the mountainous areas. Therefore, it is likely to lead to excessive labour migration and poverty trap.
    August 29, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2086   open full text
  • Parents, local house prices, and leaving home in Britain.
    Sait Bayrakdar, Rory Coulter.
    Population Space and Place. August 25, 2017
    Leaving the parental home is a significant step in young adults' housing careers and pathways to independence. Although a large literature examines how life course trajectories influence leaving home, much less is known about how the “linked lives” of parents and the local cost of housing shape young people's departures from the family residence. By enriching the U.K. Household Longitudinal Study with house price data, this study investigates how parental attributes and the geography of local housing costs influence home leaving in contemporary Britain. The results show that higher local house prices are associated with delayed departure from the parental home, although the relative magnitude of this effect is modest. By contrast, the effects of parental factors are more nuanced. Parental characteristics have little impact on the odds of leaving home to form partnerships, whereas the likelihood of departing to live alone or in shared accommodation is reduced by parental homeownership or living with both biological parents. Taken together, these findings suggest that young adults' residential pathways are shaped by the complex patterns of choice and constraint that are generated by disparities in family circumstances and local opportunity structures.
    August 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2087   open full text
  • “On the move, or staying put?” An analysis of intrametropolitan residential mobility and ageing in place.
    Mariana T. Atkins.
    Population Space and Place. August 25, 2017
    Population ageing and urbanisation are worldwide phenomena that are transforming societies and having profound economic and social effects on cities and countries throughout the world. Ageing is not taking place evenly, and in many developed cities, ageing growth rates are greater in peripheral areas than in the centre. This paper determines how intrametropolitan residential mobility and ageing‐in‐place patterns vary across age categories and geographical scales, explored through a case study of metropolitan Perth, a rapidly growing, low‐density, sprawling city. Using a life course perspective, this study examines Australian residential mobility census data between 2006 and 2011 and disaggregates this into 4 age categories: preretirement (ages 55–64), seniors in active retirement (ages 65–74), mature‐aged seniors (ages 75–84), and older aged seniors (over 85 years). This study adds to the internal migration literature by offering new insights into the age‐specific mobility patterns of older populations within metropolitan areas. The results reveal that the overriding dynamic is one of stability across the metropolitan area with the dominant trend being “ageing in place.” It was found that the likelihood of residential mobility varies by age, and a 2‐peak mobility pattern was identified, with the preretirement and the older aged seniors exhibiting the most mobility. Additionally, although the majority of moves were short distance, younger ages moved farther than did the older aged categories. The study makes empirical and conceptual contributions to our understanding of ageing residential mobility trends within metropolitan areas.
    August 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2096   open full text
  • The geographical distance between nonresident parents and children in Norway.
    Lars Dommermuth.
    Population Space and Place. August 25, 2017
    As union dissolution rates increase in most modern societies, a growing number of children are living in post‐separation families. The geographical distance between parental households shapes the possibilities for contact between nonresident parents and children, but empirical studies are lacking. This study investigates the geographical distance between nonresident parents and children in Norway using a total population sample, including exact geographical coordinates for residency. Results show that most children are registered in the maternal household, indicating a strong social norm favouring motherhood after union dissolution. The majority of nonresident parents live within a 10‐km radius of their child, but the average distance is greater for nonresident fathers than for nonresident mothers. Multilevel analysis show that the distance between the parental households decreases with regional level of urbanisation. There is evidence that the distance between the two parental households is greater if the child was either relatively young or old at parents' union dissolution. Parents' income at this time is negatively correlated with distance. This underlines the long‐lasting impact of family characteristics at the time of parents' union dissolution on subsequent residential moves. Also different events after parents' union dissolution are associated with the geographical distance between nonresident parents and children. Time since the break‐up, the formation of a new coresidential union, and the birth of subsequent children are positively correlated with the distance between the two parental households. If children move from one parental household to the other, this is associated with longer distances, especially to nonresident mothers.
    August 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2089   open full text
  • Spatial patterns of international migrant resident settlement and incorporation in Winnipeg Manitoba.
    Sheryl‐Ann Simpson.
    Population Space and Place. June 19, 2017
    Comparing the settlement patterns of two cohorts of international movers (2001–2006 and 2010–2011) in Winnipeg, Manitoba, highlights the relationships between the settlement choices and actions of immigrant residents, and the economic, social, and built environmental conditions in place. Data from the Canadian census are analyzed through a spatial lag negative binomial regression model with results interpreted through a relational incorporation framework. Findings raise doubts about the connection between spatial concentration and social isolation, and complicate the idea of migrant resident housing trajectories as progressive and linear. In addition to the influence of formal state and nongovernmental supports, the interactions between the formal and informal also play an important role in settlement patterns in Winnipeg. Concentrated settlement is found to be persistent for both cohorts, alongside a persistent positive relationship between percent visible minority resident and settlement. The spatial patterns in the case suggest that settling near co‐ethnic and co‐national residents could be an important informal strategy to reduce the costs of migration and settlement. Additionally, the results suggest that multifamily households are an informal strategy to address failures in the more formalized employment and housing markets. The continued importance of multifamily households for the earlier 2001–2006 cohort additionally suggests the need to pay attention to the possibility of a type of second settlement that begins after initial formal housing supports expire. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2060   open full text
  • Paid domestic work, globalization, and informality.
    Luis Eduardo Guarnizo, Guadalupe Rodriguez.
    Population Space and Place. June 19, 2017
    This paper examines the local demand for, and the level of informality of, domestic help in the Sacramento metropolitan area of California. It departs from the prevalent analytical approach that looks at domestic work from the supply side (i.e., the workers' perspective), and instead examines it from the demand side (i.e., the employers' perspective). Using a quantitative analytical strategy, it looks at the employer–employee relationship as embedded in specific social and economic conditions, including the sociodemographic characteristics of the household and its head, and structured by the different types of the housework workers are hired to perform. We present four main findings. First, a sizable, domestic‐work market of global scale exists in the Sacramento metropolitan area; almost three fourths of the hired domestic workers are immigrants coming from three continents. Second, although almost half of the households sampled face a care deficit, only one third of them actually hire domestic help. Third, what determines the likelihood of hiring domestic help is not the presence of a household care deficit but the configuration of the household and its class position. Fourth and finally, informality of domestic work is gendered and varies proportionally to the level of intimacy of the task performed: the more intimate the task, the more feminine it is perceived of to be, the higher the level of informality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2084   open full text
  • Geographic variation in parity progression in Australia.
    Edith Gray, Ann Evans.
    Population Space and Place. June 07, 2017
    Australia has moderately high fertility compared to many Western‐industrialized countries. The current total fertility rate is around 1.88, but fertility levels are not uniform across the country. There is a distinct geographic pattern with the total fertility rate about 0.5 higher in remote and very remote Australia (2.33) compared to major cities (1.82). In this paper, we examine 2 explanations for this pattern: the compositional hypothesis and the contextual hypothesis. Using event‐history methods with joint modelling to investigate parity progression, we find that after taking into account differences in age, country of birth, indigenous status, relationship status, education levels, and economic activity, women living in smaller towns in regional Australia are more likely to have a first, second, and third birth. Further, there is lower propensity to have a first child in inner or middle city areas that are characterized by smaller and more expensive housing than suburban or regional areas.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2080   open full text
  • Migrant Identities in a New Immigration Destination: Revealing the Limitations of the ‘Hard working’ Migrant Identity.
    Ruth McAreavey.
    Population Space and Place. May 28, 2017
    Migrant labour has transformed local economies in many places, often helping to reverse long‐term decline. The emergence of new immigration destinations (NID) globally brings mixed opportunities for the individuals involved. This paper uses empirical evidence, focusing on the workplace, to show the performance, construction, and significance of migrant identity. By using social identity theory to examine what it means to be a ‘migrant’, it follows from Goffman's overarching concern with social interactions and his promotion of microanalysis as analytical lenses. The paper reveals the ambiguity of the label ‘migrant’. It shows how the external application or internal enactment of migrant identities bestows particular status that represents an asset or an obstacle to integration. It can mean ‘hard‐working’, ‘less deserving’, and ‘exploitable’, and it also denotes ‘lazy’ individuals. While some individuals assume the hard‐working and ‘exploitable’ migrant identity in certain circumstances because of the benefits that it brings, this status can also cause high levels of dissatisfaction and distress among migrants. The research shows how the creation of a migrant identity limits the structures and networks from which migrants may draw resources and in so doing curtails the possibilities for social change due to migration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2044   open full text
  • Explaining geographic patterns of small group internal migration.
    Philip Sapiro.
    Population Space and Place. May 22, 2017
    Internal migration plays a key role in shaping the demographic characteristics of areas. In this paper, data from the 2011 England and Wales census are used to assess the geographic patterns of migration for 4 small cultural groups that each constitute about 0.5% of the population—Arabs, Chinese, Jews, and Sikhs—with a White British “benchmark” group. It examines the sensitivity of the scale of intercommunity moves to distance, having controlled for other migrant characteristics, through the development of spatial interaction models. The analysis finds that, where a choice exists, Jews are more averse to making a longer move than other small groups, all of whom favour shorter moves than the White British. The paper also investigates the influence of origin location and socioeconomic characteristics on the choice of migration destination using multinomial logistic regression. It finds that the influence of student status, age, qualifications, and home tenure vary by group though a number of patterns are shared between groups. Finally, it probes the presence in these smaller groups of patterns found historically in the wider population, such as counter‐urbanisation. Overall, this paper broadens the understanding of minority group migration patterns by examining, for the first time, Arabs (identified separately only in the 2011 census) and 2 groups based on religion (Jews and Sikhs) and by revisiting, with new questions, the White British and Chinese groups using the latest census data.
    May 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2078   open full text
  • Study choices and returns of international students: On the role of cultural and economic capital of the family.
    Miloslav Bahna.
    Population Space and Place. May 22, 2017
    Our study analyses connections between the economic and cultural capital of the families of international students, their study choices, and postgraduation returns. Thus far, research on brain drain has focused either on actual returns or on the intentions of students to return. Literature exploring the selectivity of international student mobility interpreted the middle class background of the students as a distinction strategy in a situation of expanding tertiary education in the source country. However, the connection between the cultural and economic capital of the student's family and postgraduation returns has not yet been analysed. Our results, based on a survey of parents of internationally mobile students from Slovakia, confirm the previously reported selectivity of international student mobility. Internationally mobile students come more often from families with a higher level of cultural capital. Moreover, students from families with high cultural capital have a higher probability of studying in more prestigious study destinations. The study destination is, however, not influenced by the economic capital of the family. We use structural equation modelling to describe the connection observed between cultural and economic capital and postgraduation returns. Although a high level of cultural capital increases the odds of nonreturn, a high level of economic capital increases the chance of postgraduation return. We suggest that such a “cultural capital drain” could have positive consequences on vertical labour market mobility in the source country. We discuss the connection between international student mobility and labour migration in the case of international students from low income families.
    May 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2082   open full text
  • Urban growth, population, and recession: Unveiling multiple spatial patterns of demographic indicators in a Mediterranean City.
    Luca Salvati, Margherita Carlucci.
    Population Space and Place. May 22, 2017
    Recessions have traditionally influenced population dynamics, leading to increasing social disparities and a polarised distribution of economic activities. This study identifies differences in short‐term demographic trends before and during the 2007 recession in a metropolitan area of southern Europe. Using vital statistics, indicators were calculated over two distinct time intervals representative of expansion (2000–2007) and recession (2008–2014) waves in Athens, Greece, at the spatial scale of municipalities. Local‐scale changes in population dynamics were considered key indicators to evaluate the crisis' impact on recent urban transformations. Demographic polarisations in urban and rural areas have progressively increased the gap between wealthy and economically disadvantaged districts. In Athens, short‐term population dynamics were influenced by a combination of socioeconomic factors and processes acting at different spatial scales due to suburbanisation, recession, and demographic transition. As a result, the use of nonlinear analysis proves to be a useful tool to investigate urban systems in their complexity and supports the debate over the future development of contemporary cities.
    May 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2079   open full text
  • Migration destinations in the urban hierarchy in China: Evidence from Jiangsu.
    Pu Hao, Shuangshuang Tang.
    Population Space and Place. May 19, 2017
    Over the past quarter century, the mobilization of the human resources stored in China's rural hinterland has propelled the country's economic boom and urban explosion. Whereas the “first‐tier” cities and a couple dozen provincial capitals exert a strong pull on rural citizens, towns and cities in the middle and lower orders of the urban hierarchy also attract tens of millions of rural migrants. The pattern of migration and the settlement intention of the migrants who currently float between the urban and rural realms critically determine where and how China's urbanization is yet to progress. This paper explores the destination choice of rural migrants in the Jiangsu province. A multinomial logit model of intraprovincial migration is estimated, in which rural migrants choose from the 4 tiers in the urban hierarchy: large and extralarge cities, medium‐sized cities, small cities, and townships. Regression results suggest that rural migrants with different backgrounds and origins are attracted to different tiers of urban destinations. Culture, gender, educational attainment, occupation, and rural landholdings together function as a selection mechanism to sort rural migrants into various cities and towns. Other factors such as age, marital status, and income disparities, which typically drive migration, are not influential factors in deciding the destination choice. Among the migrant population, the choices of those who take up jobs (migrant workers) and those who seize business opportunities (migrant entrepreneurs) are dissimilarly affected by their socioeconomic characteristics and rural landholdings.
    May 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2083   open full text
  • All circular but different: Variation in patterns of Ukraine‐to‐Poland migration.
    Agata Górny.
    Population Space and Place. May 14, 2017
    In many of the “newest” immigration countries of Central and Eastern Europe, temporary migration prevails and rates of migrants' settlement are low. This article examines variations in temporary migration patterns and what distinguishes migrants who choose “more permanent” time–space strategies in such temporary migration regimes. Taking Ukrainian migration to Poland as a case study, and applying cluster analysis to survey data from 2010, we propose an empirical typology of migrants based on parameters of their overall mobility history. The majority consists of circular migrants who can be described as either regular or intermittent circulants. Those who represent more permanent mobility patterns can be termed circular transmigrants and long‐term migrants. The latter are more likely than circulants to work outside agriculture, construction, and domestic services—seen as migrant sectors in Poland—and are less involved in family duties in Ukraine. Further, women are more likely than men to be involved in temporary migration for sustained time. The article contributes to the migration literature by proposing a typology of temporary migrants based on detailed parameters of their mobility and by examining how selected characteristics of migrants correlate with their mobility patterns in a temporary migration regime such as posed by Poland.
    May 14, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2074   open full text
  • The “three ages” of left‐behind Moroccan wives: Status, decision‐making power, and access to resources.
    Audrey Lenoël.
    Population Space and Place. May 09, 2017
    The migration and development literature increasingly interrogates the effects of emigration on sociocultural change in the countries of origin, especially in relation to gender relations. Various studies conducted in the context of patriarchal societies have posited that male emigration may result in an empowerment of the women staying behind, with very mixed conclusions. Analysing in‐depth interviews with 12 women living in a southwestern Moroccan town in a region of historic emigration to France, this contribution seeks to further this investigation by considering how migration and remittances impact women's bargaining and decision‐making power within the household left behind. It examines how migration affects what is generally regarded as an enabling factor of women's empowerment, that is, the process of household nuclearisation through which migrants' wives can emancipate themselves from the control of their in‐laws and gain more control over finances. It shows how women's power and status change over time, following the important stages of the domestic cycle and the migratory trajectory of their husbands. This paper distinguishes three “ages” for wives left behind, corresponding to different power configurations in the local and transnational households. In contrast with the empowerment hypothesis, the interviews suggest that migration may actually contribute to the resilience of the traditional extended household structure rather than its demise. Overall, this contribution argues that migration systems predicated on a patriarchal social and family order are unlikely to bring about sustainable women's empowerment in the origin household and community.
    May 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2077   open full text
  • On the location dynamics of highly educated people migrating to peripheral regions of Denmark.
    Høgni Kalsø Hansen, Louise G. Aner.
    Population Space and Place. May 09, 2017
    Since the late 1990s, the concentration of economic growth has increased in the urban areas of Denmark while peripheral regions of the country struggle with stagnating or decreasing population and increasing unemployment rates. This paper analyses the migration patterns and motives of highly educated people who relocate from urban areas to settle in Denmark's peripheral regions. The study makes a novel empirical contribution to the counter urbanisation literature by using socioeconomic microdata along with interviews to identify trends and motives of counter‐urban migration among highly educated people. The article demonstrates that counter‐urban migration decreases in times of financial crisis, and that the motives for highly educated people to relocate to peripheral areas relate to their preferences for housing conditions, local natural, and social amenities, together with job opportunities. Additionally, age and household composition play important roles in the motives for relocating. While families with children perceive the new location as permanent, the young and newly graduated perceive it as a stepping stone for a future career.
    May 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2076   open full text
  • Unravelling urban–rural health disparities in England.
    Rebecca Allan, Paul Williamson, Hill Kulu.
    Population Space and Place. May 08, 2017
    Previous research shows significant health and mortality variations by residential context. Numerous studies report better health and lower mortality among rural populations in comparison to urban residents, whereas other research shows the opposite, with poor health and high mortality in rural areas. This study investigates health variations in England by residential contexts and the causes of such differences. Further, it examines the sensitivity of results to different rural–urban classifications. Applying logistic regression models to individual‐level data from the 2001 UK census we demonstrate significant health variation by residential context. A clear urban–rural positive health gradient is apparent, with levels of ill health increasing parallel to levels of urbanisation. Briefly, people living in rural areas have better health than those living in cities and other urban contexts. However, the capital city (London) provides an exception to the gradient, with its inhabitants having better health than anticipated. Once we control for individual sociodemographic characteristics, including occupational status and educational level, the urban–rural health variations are reduced, but significant differences still persist. Most notably, Outer London residents have health expectations similar to those residing in the most rural locations. Clearly, our results support the existence of a positive urban–rural health gradient, with the exception of a protective “capital city” effect. These findings persist regardless of the precise urban–rural classification used. Finally we show that, having accounted for composition and the rural–urban context, there still remains a North–South divide in health outcomes.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2073   open full text
  • International academic mobility across space and time: The case of Indian academics.
    Mathias Czaika, Sorana Toma.
    Population Space and Place. May 05, 2017
    Internationalisation has become a central feature of academic careers as academics are increasingly expected to be mobile. Yet, we still know relatively little about the actual patterns and drivers of academic mobility across space and time. Using unique data from a recent survey of around 4,600 Indian academics across the globe, this article examines the dynamics of international academic mobility among one of the largest global academic diasporas. Overall, we find a strong “path dependence” for academic career and mobility trajectories, demonstrating the considerable importance of prior career steps in shaping future mobility choices. Working abroad as an academic, particularly in an Anglo‐Saxon destination, becomes very unlikely without some early international study experience. However, contextual and individual‐level factors may moderate this path dependence. Younger generations of Indian researchers, men, high‐performing students, and those with (Indian) degrees that are more valued internationally, have higher chances of breaking the path. In addition, socioeconomic background seems to be an important driver for early career and mobility steps but becomes much less relevant for later academic employment.
    May 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2069   open full text
  • What drives ‘soft deportation’? Understanding the rise in Assisted Voluntary Return among rejected asylum seekers in the Netherlands.
    Arjen Leerkes, Rianne Os, Eline Boersema.
    Population Space and Place. May 04, 2017
    States experience difficulties in realizing the return of rejected asylum seekers, but migration control policies are becoming increasingly sophisticated. Against this background, we consider explanations for the increase in Assisted Voluntary Return from the Netherlands in the 2005–2011 period. Both macro‐level factors (source country societal conditions and characteristics of the Dutch “deportation regime”) and individual‐level factors (applicants' demographic characteristics and variation in status determination time) are examined. The study, which is based on a unique multilevel dataset (N = 15,682) with data from governmental and other sources (including International Organisation for Migration), is the first to quantitatively test assumed Assisted Voluntary Return determinants and contributes to the study of policy effects in migration studies. We find that states are capable of increasing return rates by expanding the use of “hard” and “soft” power. We propose the term “soft deportation” as a way to go beyond the dichotomy of “voluntary” and “forced” return.
    May 04, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2059   open full text
  • Moving to a better place? Residential mobility among families with young children in the Millennium Cohort Study.
    Ludovica Gambaro, Heather Joshi, Ruth Lupton.
    Population Space and Place. May 04, 2017
    This paper assesses how far residential moves can result in improvement or deterioration of the housing and neighbourhood circumstances for families with young children. It uses data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study concentrating on the time between infancy and age 5, 2001 to 2006. First, we ask which families moved home and in what circumstances. We then examine how moving changed several aspects of housing: space standards, damp problems, and tenure. We show that the majority of moves resulted in improvements to housing conditions, especially in reducing overcrowding. We also consider neighbourhood circumstances, proxied by a measure of local poverty at small‐area level. Movers generally ended up in neighbourhoods with lower levels of poverty, or no worse, but almost one fifth of moves were downward or remained in the 30 percent poorest areas. We ask whether locating in an area with more local poverty may help achieve a larger home. There is evidence of such a trade‐off—1 in 5 families moved to a larger home, which was either in a poorer area than before or remained in the 30 percent poorest areas. We conclude by showing how the path of upward housing mobility, while numerically dominant, was far less common among families with relatively low resources and whose moves were attendant on partnership changes. For them, moves often result in smaller homes in poorer areas.
    May 04, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2072   open full text
  • Informalisation in Low‐wage Labour Markets: a Case Study of the UK Food Industry.
    Sam Scott.
    Population Space and Place. April 11, 2017
    Informalisation is a process that involves the lowering of the floor for pay and working conditions, sometimes legally and sometimes illegally, and it may occur in both formal and informal labour market settings. This paper examines what informalisation looks like in practice in the UK context. Drawing on the experiences of 62 low‐wage migrant workers, employed in the UK food industry, the paper identifies five facets of ‘informalisation’, namely, job insecurity, work intensification, worker expendability, worker subordination, and employment intermediation. The identification of these five facets of informalisation is important in its own right. In addition, the UK case study also serves to emphasise the fact that the degradation of work is not something that is simply confined to the margins but is evident in the mainstream (beyond irregular workers and beyond the informal economy). Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 11, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2043   open full text
  • Negotiating Neoliberalism: Informalisation and Reformalisation of Industrial Relations in Norway's Agricultural Industry in the 21st Century.
    Johan Fredrik Rye.
    Population Space and Place. April 10, 2017
    The flow of flexible and inexpensive low‐skilled manual labour across national borders has become a defining feature of the contemporary global political economy, often accompanied by neoliberalist labour market reforms and growth in the informalisation of labour relations in receiving economies. As a result, immigrant workers experience precarious and deteriorating wage and work arrangements. I discuss whether these are inevitable processes by analysing one particular case, that of the Norwegian agricultural industry since the turn of the century. In the first years after 2000, a growing number of low‐skilled Eastern European immigrants in Norway's agricultural industry faced precarious work arrangements as the industry drifted toward informalisation. Yet labour relations in Norwegian agriculture have since seen signs of reformalisation, resulting in higher wages and improved working conditions. I examine the characteristics of Norwegian society and its agricultural industry that have facilitated the reformalisation process. Important is the presence of strong and long‐lasting institutionalised structures of cooperation and negotiation between state agents and representatives of labour and capital, which promote more than economic rationalities among the industry's employers. The analysis builds on a mixed methods approach that addresses both macro and micro levels, as well as both institutionalised ‘objective facts’ and actors' subjective interpretations, by use of various quantitative and qualitative materials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2042   open full text
  • Fertility and urban context: A case study from Ghana, West Africa, using remotely sensed imagery and GIS.
    Magdalena Benza, John R. Weeks, Douglas A. Stow, David López‐Carr, Keith C. Clarke.
    Population Space and Place. April 05, 2017
    Sub‐Saharan Africa has the highest levels of fertility in the world, despite rapid urban growth in most nations of the region. While there are many reasons for the fact that fertility decline is slow in Africa, we hypothesize that the relationship between fertility and urbanization is obscured by the fact that urbanization takes place along a gradient. In the most urban places (e.g., neighborhoods of the largest cities), fertility is apt to be very low, but most urban residents are residing in places that are somewhere along a continuum from completely rural to the most urban possible. All previous attempts to define that urban gradient and relate it to fertility levels rely in one form or another on census data. Because sub‐Saharan‐African countries are among the least prolific in terms of census gathering, a measure that relies solely on satellite imagery to gage a place's position along the urban gradient could be extremely useful. This paper describes a methodology for doing this and then uses data from the West African country of Ghana to examine how spatial patterns of land cover are associated with fertility. Satellite imagery and landscape metrics are used to create an urban context definition based on landscape patterns using a gradient approach. Census data are used to model the association between urban context and fertility through ordinary least square regression and spatial autoregressive models. Results indicate that there are significant differences in fertility between different urban contexts.
    April 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2062   open full text
  • Relationship Trajectories, Living Arrangements, and International Migration Among Ghanaians.
    Kim Caarls, Helga A.G. Valk.
    Population Space and Place. April 05, 2017
    Despite the linked nature of life events, the existing literature mainly analyses union formation, living arrangements, and international migration separately. In this paper we explore how Ghanaian couples' relationship trajectories are related to international migration. Data come from the Migration between Africa and Europe‐Ghana survey (n = 868) and capture unique retrospective life histories of Ghanaians between age 21 and 35 (migrants and non‐migrants), enabling us to analyse relationship histories and their development over time in a context of international migration while taking the socio‐cultural practice of non‐residential unions into account. We applied sequence analyses to describe trajectories and optimal matching to identify clusters of typical trajectories. Using multinomial logit models, we investigated the association between migration and the four identified relationship paths. Our results show that relationships and living arrangements evolve in a wide variety of ways, underlining the importance of a dynamic approach. The complexity in relationship trajectories is reflected in the four typical clusters that captured this diversity in a more simplified way: (1) co‐residential marriages; (2) singles; (3) mixed trajectories; and (4) non‐residential marriages. Our results further suggest that socialisation and disruption of family behaviours are both occurring among migrants. We also found that non‐residential unions are commonplace among migrants and non‐migrants alike, demonstrating that this living arrangement is not necessarily related to international migration. However, non‐residential relationships are most common among migrants, and migrant women in particular. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2046   open full text
  • Clergy in place in England: Bias to the poor or inverse care law?
    Michael Hirst.
    Population Space and Place. April 05, 2017
    Faith traditions frequently proclaim priority for the poor and socially marginalised, emphasising individual and collective responsibility towards those in poverty. Ordained ministers or clergy—possibly the main investment of religious organisations—play a key role in encouraging and fulfilling that commitment in their local settings. This paper considers the availability of clergy to provide pastoral care in areas of high socio‐economic deprivation. Data from the 2011 census of England are used to correlate area variations in the number of clergy with household and neighbourhood deprivation. Findings show that clergy are distributed inversely to socio‐economic deprivation at the ecological level. Fewer clergy are available or readily accessible in the most deprived areas, raising questions about their ability to respond pastorally and act politically on behalf of the poor. Market forces that draw clergy deployments towards less deprived areas warrant further investigation.
    April 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2068   open full text
  • (Im)Mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants and material culture: A multigenerational perspective on gift‐giving.
    Nazia Ali, Rukeya Suleman.
    Population Space and Place. April 05, 2017
    The purpose of the paper is to discuss, from a multigenerational perspective, the (im)mobilities of older Pakistani women migrants in the United Kingdom and the material culture of gift‐giving that moves with (and without) them to and from the ancestral homeland of Pakistan. A multigenerational perspective allows us to comprehend the collective importance of the mobilities of older Pakistani female migrants in upholding the culturally significant ritualistic custom of gift‐giving. The research is situated within the theoretical context of the “New Mobilities Paradigm” to understand the mobility patterns of older migrants and the mobilisation of material culture. We find that the process of coordinating and exchanging gifts leads to a great deal of physical mobility, within localities and national spaces, but also internationally across different diasporic locations. In doing so, older Pakistani women migrants perform an important role as “gift‐agents” in the host and home countries, assuring their own social status as well as that of their families. Importantly, the resulting mobility of older Pakistani women empowers their less mobile peers to also participate in gift‐giving. This paper concludes by extending the concept of ‘mobility practices’ to include the mobility of gifts as a practice that can compensate for physical immobility in older age due to ill health, fragility, or other factors.
    April 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2067   open full text
  • Expatriate as a ‘Good’ Migrant: Thinking Through Skilled International Migrant Categories.
    Sophie Cranston.
    Population Space and Place. March 29, 2017
    In this paper, I explore how British migrants in Singapore utilise the term ‘expatriate’ to denote themselves as being a different kind of migrant. The way in which a migrant is distinguished from an expatriate is the question of return – the migrant is expected to stay, while an expatriate is expected to return to their home country. Yet the term ‘expatriate’ often becomes one that is axiomatically applied to Western migrants living abroad. This paper argues that we should not see the term ‘expatriate’ as axiomatic in describing this type of mobility, as we need to pay attention to the political context in which the term is enmeshed. The paper therefore argues that we need to understand how expatriation is not only understood as an identity in relation to the place of stay abroad, but also in comparison to migration as a whole. To do this, the paper looks first at how British migrants in Singapore draw upon racialised understandings of immigration debates to portray expatriates as being ‘good’ migrants. Second, it considers how the term expatriate is deployed in social sciences literature itself. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 29, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2058   open full text
  • Are Refugees' Labour Market Outcomes Different from Those of Other Migrants? Evidence from the United Kingdom in the 2005–2007 Period.
    Isabel Ruiz, Carlos Vargas‐Silva.
    Population Space and Place. March 29, 2017
    We compare the labour market outcomes of recent refugees in the 2005–2007 period with those of other migrants in the UK. We compare refugees with a full sample of migrants and with a sample of recent migrants. Controlling for relevant characteristics, we find that 8 and 15 months after the grant of protection, refugees have significantly worse outcomes than other migrants, including a lower likelihood of being in employment and higher likelihood of unemployment (i.e. not currently employed, but looking for work). However, 21 months after the grant of protection, the labour market outcomes of recent refugees are not statistically different from those of recent migrants, and the difference with those in the full sample of migrants becomes smaller. Results also show that female refugees are at a substantial economic disadvantage compared with male refugees and other female migrants. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 29, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2049   open full text
  • Internal and International Mobility as Adaptation to Climatic Variability in Contemporary Mexico: Evidence from the Integration of Census and Satellite Data.
    Stefan Leyk, Dan Runfola, Raphael J. Nawrotzki, Lori M. Hunter, Fernando Riosmena.
    Population Space and Place. March 29, 2017
    Migration provides a strategy for rural Mexican households to cope with, or adapt to, weather events and climatic variability. Yet prior studies on environmental migration in this context have not examined the differences between choices of internal (domestic) or international movement. In addition, much of the prior work relied on very coarse spatial scales to operationalise the environmental variables such as rainfall patterns. To overcome these limitations, we use fine‐grain rainfall estimates derived from NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. The rainfall estimates are combined with population and agricultural census information to examine associations between environmental changes and municipal rates of internal and international migration during 2005–2010. Our findings suggest that municipal‐level rainfall deficits relative to historical levels are an important predictor of both international and internal migration, especially in municipalities with predominantly rainfed agriculture. Although our findings do not contradict results of prior studies using coarse spatial resolution, they offer clearer evidence and a more spatially nuanced examination of migration as related to social and environmental vulnerability. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 29, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2047   open full text
  • The Impact of Siblings on the Geographic Distance Between Adult Children and Their Ageing Parents. Does Parental Need Matter?
    Thijs Broek, Pearl A. Dykstra.
    Population Space and Place. March 17, 2017
    Research consistently shows that children with siblings live at a greater distance from their parents than do only children. We extend this literature by assessing whether this difference varies as a function of parental need. Multinomial logistic regression analyses of German Ageing Survey data enriched with indicators at the district (Nomenclature of Statistical Territorial Units level three) level (n = 2,028) show that, in general, children with a sibling are less likely than only children to share a household with a parent. We do not find that children with a sibling are more likely than only children to live at great distance, that is, more than 2 hours away, from their parents. The differences between only children and children with siblings in parent–child proximity are most pronounced when parents are coping with severe health limitations. It is well established that only children are more likely than children with siblings to provide support and care to ageing parents. Our findings suggest that, in addition, only children might be more compelled than their counterparts with siblings to adjust their living arrangements in order to facilitate caregiving when parent care needs manifest themselves. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2048   open full text
  • Mobility experience and mobility decision‐making: An experiment on permanent migration and residential multilocality.
    Knut Petzold.
    Population Space and Place. March 17, 2017
    In the course of increasing labour market flexibility, more complex forms of circular mobility, such as residential multilocality, have evolved. A life course approach may help understand moving intentions and moving behaviours across the life span. However, the dependencies between various phases of circular residential mobility in individual biographies have been under‐explored. Applying a general cost–benefit approach, we assume that a previous experience with circular mobility may help reduce uncertainties in decision‐making on subsequent residential mobility, and may strengthen specific mobility dispositions. A factorial survey experiment was employed to analyse whether and how the prior experience with residential multilocality affects subsequent decision‐making on permanent migration and residential multilocality. A sample of academic staff of a university for science and technology in Switzerland (ETH Zurich) received hypothetical job offers in order to measure their mobility intentions. Results show that, on receiving a sufficiently beneficial job offer, multilocality is slightly favoured by respondents having experience in this kind of mobility. Migration costs impede migration intentions and encourage intentions for multilocality. The assessment of the transition costs varies and housing costs play a minor role. When considering multilocal living, respondents with and without experience with residential multilocality exhibited substantial differences in how transition and housing costs are evaluated. This was not the case, however, when they considered migrating.
    March 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2065   open full text
  • The care pentagon: Older adults within Sri Lankan‐Australian transnational families and their landscapes of care.
    Menusha De Silva.
    Population Space and Place. February 28, 2017
    Much of the scholarship on care for older parents within transnational families concentrates on challenges migrants encounter when providing care across transnational space. This paper focuses attention on older adults as transnational care recipients, their agency, and alternative sources of care. Drawing on the experiences of 35 affluent, urban older parents residing in Sri Lanka with at least one adult child who is a skilled, permanent migrant in Australia, I examine how the older parents adapt to the migration of their traditional caregivers, and how the family, community, market and state respond to this care gap to varying degrees. I propose a “care pentagon” as a framework to interrogate older persons' negotiations with these multiple caregivers in the home and host countries, and the manner these agents operate to form a tiered network of caregivers. Through the analysis, I highlight the care‐receiver's tendency to self‐care and the agency they exert within their relationships of care. The paper demonstrates that older persons' landscapes of care change both temporally and spatially as their levels of health and independence vary over time.
    February 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/psp.2061   open full text
  • Does Neighbourhood Ethnic Concentration in Early Life Affect Subsequent Labour Market Outcomes? A Study across Ethnic Groups in England and Wales.
    Carolina V. Zuccotti, Lucinda Platt.
    Population Space and Place. July 26, 2016
    The impact of neighbourhood ethnic concentration on ethnic minorities' outcomes is a contested topic, with mixed empirical results. In this paper, we use a large‐scale longitudinal dataset of England and Wales, covering a 40‐year period, to assess the impact of neighbourhood co‐ethnic concentration in childhood on subsequent adult labour market outcomes. We distinguish the five main minority groups in the UK and develop theoretical expectations about how social interaction mechanisms in the neighbourhood might influence their employment and social class outcomes, given different group (cultural values and ethnic capital) and individual (gender) characteristics. By separating in time explanatory and outcome variables and by controlling for factors that mediate or confound co‐ethnic concentration – such as neighbourhood deprivation, household resources in childhood (i.e. parental social class), and individuals' own education – our analytical model tackles potential problems of self‐selection and endogeneity. Among other findings, we show that greater concentration of co‐ethnics in the neighbourhood results in substantially lower labour market participation and lower social class for Pakistani and Bangladeshi women but better social class outcomes for Indian men. We link the outcomes for Pakistani and Bangladeshi women to cultural maintenance of more traditional norms, facilitated by greater social interaction. The results for Indian men, instead, suggest the positive role that high levels of group resources or ‘ethnic capital’ can play. Our study is, we believe, the first to demonstrate a role for co‐ethnic concentration in childhood in explaining Pakistani and Bangladeshi women's low labour market participation and Indian men's labour market success. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2041   open full text
  • International Experience in the Academic Field: Knowledge Production, Symbolic Capital, and Mobility Fetishism.
    Harald Bauder, Charity‐Ann Hannan, Omar Lujan.
    Population Space and Place. July 11, 2016
    Academic researchers operate in their own labour market, or field, which has its own institutional infrastructure and professional practices that value international experience and mobility. In this paper, we explore if and how academics believe that international experience and mobility provide advantages for knowledge exchange and production and can be considered a symbolic form of capital that signifies value and thus renders them more competitive in the academic field. In addition, we investigate if international mobility is fetishised in the academic field and treated as an asset independent of the context in which it occurs. Results from a qualitative study involving 42 interviews with academic researchers in Canada and Germany show that international experience is valued as a form of capital but that mobility is rarely fetishised. Furthermore, the international academic field is organised hierarchically, with the USA and other English‐speaking countries exerting the greatest value as destinations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2040   open full text
  • The Impact of Internal Migration on Population Redistribution: an International Comparison.
    Philip Rees, Martin Bell, Marek Kupiszewski, Dorota Kupiszewska, Philipp Ueffing, Aude Bernard, Elin Charles‐Edwards, John Stillwell.
    Population Space and Place. June 09, 2016
    We know that internal migration shapes human settlement patterns, but few attempts have been made to measure systematically the extent of population redistribution or make comparisons between countries. Robust comparisons are hampered by limited data access, different space‐time frameworks, and inadequate summary statistics. We use new analysis software (IMAGE Studio) to assess the effects of differences in the number and configuration of geographic zones and implement new measures to make comparisons across a large sample of countries, representing 80% of global population. We construct a new Index of Net Migration Impact to measure system‐wide population redistribution and examine the relative contributions of migration intensity and effectiveness to cross‐national variations. We compare spatial patterns using the slope of a regression between migration and population density across zones in each country to indicate the direction and pace of population concentration. We report correlations between measures of population redistribution and national development and propose a general theoretical model suggesting how internal migration redistributes population across settlement systems during the development process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Population, Space and Place Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2036   open full text
  • The Transnational Migration Strategies of Chinese and Indian Students in Australia.
    George Tan, Graeme Hugo.
    Population Space and Place. June 09, 2016
    Countries engaged in a race for highly skilled labour are prepared to modify immigration regulations to attract those migrants; however, despite abundant research regarding the mobility of the highly skilled, the mobility of international students and their subsequent migration patterns is not well understood. Using the transnational lens, this approach elucidates the practices and connections between multiples places in international student migration. This paper uses a study of Chinese and Indian students in Australia to shed light on the intricacies of their transnational migration strategies by investigating how their interactions with Australia's skilled migration programme not only results in permanent migration outcomes but also facilitate onward migration to other destinations. The configuration of Australia, and/or Adelaide at a finer spatial level, as gateways to preferred destinations illustrates how educational choices and immigration regimes intersect and impinge on the decision‐making process of Chinese and Indian students in Australia. By doing so, it not only unpacks the ‘difference’ usually associated with international education by emphasising on the importance of attractive immigration policies but also argues for the need to consider the lifetime mobility aspirations of international students and their mobility beyond the ‘stay‐return’ framework. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2038   open full text
  • Collecting and Analysing Data on Climate‐related Local Mobility: the MISTIC Toolkit.
    Ricardo Safra de Campos, Martin Bell, Elin Charles‐Edwards.
    Population Space and Place. June 08, 2016
    It is widely recognised that environmental events may trigger permanent and seasonal migration but less attention has been given to the way they shape the everyday mobility that shapes household livelihood strategies. This dearth of attention can be traced to a lack of statistical data, the difficulties of collecting information on local space‐time trajectories and the absence of sound statistical measures by which to express them. We review prior work on the migration–environment nexus and trace the development of methods that aim to capture and measure temporary population movement. We identify nine discrete dimensions of mobility and introduce the Mobility in Space and Time among Individuals and Communities (MISTIC) toolkit that is designed to capture the spatio‐temporal patterns of household everyday mobility using a flexible, participant centred approach that facilitates data recording and subsequent analysis. We illustrate application of the toolkit using data from 90 smallholder, subsistence households in semi‐arid rural Northeast Brazil. The empirical evidence reveals systematic changes in the frequency and duration of both production and consumption‐related movements in response to the 2010–2013 drought. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 08, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2037   open full text
  • Long‐Distance Migration and Mortality in Sweden: Testing the Salmon Bias and Healthy Migrant Hypotheses.
    Gunnar Andersson, Sven Drefahl.
    Population Space and Place. June 03, 2016
    International migrants often have lower mortality rates than the native populations in their new host countries. Several explanations have been proposed, but in the absence of data covering the entire life courses of migrants both before and after each migration event, it is difficult to assess the validity of different explanations. In the present study, we apply hazard regressions to Swedish register data to study the mortality of long‐distance migrants from Northern to Southern Sweden as well as the mortality of return migrants to the North. In this way, we can study a situation that at least partly resembles that of international migration while still having access to data covering the full demographic biographies of all migrants. This allows us to test the relative roles of salmon bias and healthy migrant status in observed mortality rates of long‐distance migrants. We find no mortality differentials between residents in northern and southern Sweden, and no evidence of a selection of healthy migrants from the North to the South. In contrast, we provide clear evidence of ‘salmon effects’ in terms of elevated mortality of the return migrants to northern Sweden, which are produced when migrants return to their place of origin in relation to subsequent death. © 2016 The Authors. Population, Space and Place. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 03, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2032   open full text
  • Highly Skilled Migrants: Risks and Hedging Mechanisms.
    Cristina Bradatan.
    Population Space and Place. June 01, 2016
    This paper focuses on the specific issues of how highly skilled migrants encounter risks and the hedging mechanisms they employ when confronted with unfriendly policies or economic downturns in a host country. The paper also serves as an introduction to a special issue of Population, Space, and Place dedicated to understanding how highly skilled migration responded in different national contexts to the first great global economic recession of the 21st century. Although the individual papers do not necessarily employ a comparative perspective, these topics are explored in four different settings (UK, US, Israel, and Canada), allowing readers to see how the history and characteristics of the host country influence the issues facing skilled migrants Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2034   open full text
  • Residential Segregation from Generation to Generation: Intergenerational Association in Socio‐Spatial Context Among Visible Minorities and the Majority Population in Metropolitan Sweden.
    Björn Gustafsson, Katarina Katz, Torun Österberg.
    Population Space and Place. May 27, 2016
    In this paper, we investigate to what degree young adults live in neighbourhoods that are similar, in terms of relative average household income, to the neighbourhoods in which they grew up. We use regression analysis on register data for all individuals who were born in 1974 and lived in metropolitan Sweden in both 1990 and 2006. During this period, the distribution of income in Sweden became far more unequal, unemployment rose dramatically, earlier housing policies were dismantled, the share of ‘visible minorities’ increased dramatically, and residential segregation increased very considerably. We find a correlation between average neighbourhood incomes at these two points in the sample's life cycle of 0.44, which is more than three times as high as the household income correlation. We also find that half of the children of ‘visible minorities’ grew up in the poorer quartile of neighbourhoods, and of these, almost two‐thirds remained in the poorest quartile of neighbourhoods as adults. Several measures indicate that intergenerational persistency in context is lower in metropolitan Sweden than was found in a similar study in the US. However, it appears that if visible minority individuals lived in a neighbourhood in the lowest part of the distribution in Sweden as a child, the probability that they will do so also as adults is as high as the corresponding probability for an African‐American person in the US. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2028   open full text
  • International Climate Migration: Evidence for the Climate Inhibitor Mechanism and the Agricultural Pathway.
    Raphael J. Nawrotzki, Maryia Bakhtsiyarava.
    Population Space and Place. May 23, 2016
    Research often assumes that, in rural areas of developing countries, adverse climatic conditions increase (climate driver mechanism) rather than reduce (climate inhibitor mechanism) migration, and that the impact of climate on migration is moderated by changes in agricultural productivity (agricultural pathway). Using representative census data in combination with high‐resolution climate data derived from the novel Terra Populus system, we explore the climate–migration relationship in rural Burkina Faso and Senegal. We construct four threshold‐based climate measures to investigate the effect of heatwaves, cold snaps, droughts, and excessive precipitation on the likelihood of household‐level international outmigration. Results from multilevel logit models show that excessive precipitation increases international migration from Senegal while heatwaves decrease international mobility in Burkina Faso, providing evidence for the climate inhibitor mechanism. Consistent with the agricultural pathway, interaction models and results from a geographically weighted regression reveal a conditional effect of droughts on international outmigration from Senegal, which becomes stronger in areas with high levels of groundnut production. Moreover, climate change effects show a clear seasonal pattern, with the strongest effects appearing when heatwaves overlap with the growing season and when excessive precipitation occurs prior to the growing season. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 23, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2033   open full text
  • Ethnic Differentials in Health: the Additional Effect of Ethnic Density.
    Zhixin Feng, Athina Vlachantoni, Jane Falkingham, Maria Evandrou.
    Population Space and Place. May 12, 2016
    It is well established that there are differentials in health among individuals of different Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) heritage. BME communities are unevenly concentrated across England and Wales. This paper examines the effect of residential density of one's own‐ethnic group on physical health outcomes in England and Wales. In addition, it explores whether the effects of ethnic density on physical health outcomes are concealed by area deprivation and whether individual economic deprivation and area deprivation play a role in this relationship. Data on BME and White British individuals from the first wave of the UK Household Longitudinal Study (Understanding Society) are linked with ethnic density characteristics from the 2011 UK Census and with the Index of Multiple Deprivation from the 2010 English and Welsh Governments. Multilevel logistic regression is then employed in the analysis. The results show that individuals from BME groups who live in areas with a high density of their own‐ethnic group are more likely to report poor health, but these effects are mediated by both individual economic deprivation and area deprivation. The results highlight that facilitating the improvement of economic and social conditions for individuals in deprived areas could help reduce the negative differentials in health outcomes experienced by individuals from BME communities. © 2016 The Authors Population, Space and Place Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    May 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2030   open full text
  • Residential Choice among Rural–Urban Migrants after Hukou Reform: Evidence from Suzhou, China.
    Xu Huang, Martin Dijst, Jan Weesep, Yixue Jiao, Ying Sun.
    Population Space and Place. May 12, 2016
    The reform of China's socialist residential registration system (hukou) led to a shift in the residential preferences of rural–urban migrants, whereby the meaning of ‘home’ has also been changing. Data from a 2009 survey conducted in Suzhou City in Jiangsu Province highlight some emerging strategies for residential choice. Compared with ‘first‐generation’ migrants who grew up under socialism and migrated before the hukou reform, members of the ‘new generation’ born after 1980 attach less value to hukou benefits. Instead, their choice of a future place of residence appears to be related to the institutional reforms that are gradually separating social welfare provisions from the hukou system. As the draw of a local hukou declines, the strategies of a migrant's family to leverage their financial resources are found to play a bigger role in one's aspirations to establish a home in Suzhou. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2035   open full text
  • Region of Origin: Settlement Decisions of Turkish and Iranian Immigrants in Sweden, 1968–2001.
    Siddartha Aradhya, Finn Hedefalk, Jonas Helgertz, Kirk Scott.
    Population Space and Place. May 10, 2016
    This paper focuses on the residential resettlement decisions of a sample of immigrants from Iran and Turkey living in Sweden between 1968 and 2001. Using the Swedish Longitudinal Immigrant database, we are able to link unique pre‐ and post‐migration data to understand whether region of origin is a better predictor of internal migration decisions than is country of origin, the more often used measure in existing research. More specifically, we test whether living in municipalities with a high number of individuals from the same country of origin is a similar phenomenon as a high number of individuals from the same region of origin. This is relevant, as large immigrant groups come from ethnically, religiously, and linguistically heterogeneous countries of origin where regional characteristics differ according to aforementioned aspects from that of the mainstream population. We indeed find that individuals are less likely to relocate from municipalities in which there is a large presence of other immigrants from the same region of origin. Instead, individuals residing in areas with a large number of individuals from their country of origin are observed with an elevated probability of resettlement. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2031   open full text
  • Modelling Skilled and Less‐Skilled Interregional Migrations in China, 2000–2005.
    Ye Liu, Jianfa Shen.
    Population Space and Place. May 05, 2016
    Previous analysis and modelling of interregional migration in China have treated migrants as a homogenous group. The flow of skilled migration is the focus of recent research. However, the skilled and less‐skilled migrations have not been systematically analysed and compared in terms of their determinants. Previous modelling of interregional migration in China does not take network autocorrelation into consideration. This paper attempts to fill this research gap by modelling skilled and less‐skilled migrations in China using the eigenvector spatially filtered method. It is found that both skilled and less‐skilled migrants tend to move away from the interior to the coastal region. Results from the eigenvector spatially filtered negative binomial regression model show that, compared with the migration of less‐skilled people, the migration of skilled people is less influenced by the friction of distance, the regional unemployment rate, and the concentration of foreign investment but is more affected by the regional wage disparity. With respect to the effect of amenities, climatic amenities exert a strong influence on skilled migration but have positive effect on less‐skilled migration at origin and no effect at destination. Quality medical services are influential for the migration of less‐skilled people to destinations but no effect on skilled people. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 05, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2027   open full text
  • International Student Mobility and After‐Study Lives: the Portability and Prospects of Overseas Education in Asia.
    Francis L. Collins, Kong Chong Ho, Mayumi Ishikawa, Ai‐Hsuan Sandra Ma.
    Population Space and Place. May 05, 2016
    Over the last few decades, international student mobility has come to be increasingly viewed in both scholarly and policy discourse as a valorised pathway to personal development, career success, and class reproduction. This framing of international study has been particularly prominent in accounts of mobility to Anglophone universities that have dominated the literature to date. Yet, despite these claims, most research has been undertaken with current students, and hence, the significance of international study has remained speculative and caught up with dominant discourses that tend to valorise this form of mobility. In this paper, we subject these claims to critical examination by analysing the narratives of alumni who have studied overseas in three leading universities in East Asia. We focus, in particular, on the ways in which international student mobility articulates through after‐study lives in terms of the forms of situated learning and cultural capital expressed by alumni, the geographical configurations and circulations that shape the portability of education, and altered sensibility and onward mobilities that are generated through international study. Through this discussion, we demonstrate that international study often does have value in after‐study lives, but that this value is highly situated in the networks and spaces that alumni move through and enact. Our paper then demonstrates that there is nothing automatic about the portability of overseas education, and that there is a need for scholars to examine not only student mobility itself but the way this unfolds into after‐study lives. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 05, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2029   open full text
  • Are People Changing Address Less? An Analysis of Migration within England and Wales, 1971–2011, by Distance of Move.
    Tony Champion, Ian Shuttleworth.
    Population Space and Place. May 03, 2016
    Expectations of migration and mobility steadily increasing in the longer term, which have a long currency in migration theory and related social science, are at odds with the latest US research showing a marked decline in internal migration rates. This paper reports the results of research that investigates whether England and Wales have experienced any similar change in recent decades. Using the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study of linked census records, it examines the evidence provided by its 10‐year migration indicator, with particular attention to a comparison of the first and latest decades available, 1971–1981 and 2001–2011. This suggests that, as in the US, there has been a marked reduction in the level of shorter‐distance (less than 10 km) moving that has involved almost all types of people. In contrast to this and to US experience, however, the propensity of people to make longer‐distance address changes between decennial censuses has declined much less, largely corroborating the results of a companion study tracking the annual trend in rates of between‐area migration since the 1970s (Champion & Shuttleworth, ). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2026   open full text
  • Is Longer‐Distance Migration Slowing? An Analysis of the Annual Record for England and Wales since the 1970s.
    Tony Champion, Ian Shuttleworth.
    Population Space and Place. May 03, 2016
    This paper is prompted by the widespread acceptance that the rates of inter‐county and inter‐state migration have been falling in the USA and sets itself the task of examining whether this decline in migration intensities is also the case in the UK. It uses annual inter‐area migration matrices available for England and Wales since the 1970s by broad age group. The main methodological challenge, arising from changes in the geography of health areas for which the inter‐area flows are given, is addressed by adopting the lowest common denominator of 80 areas. Care is also taken to allow for the effect of economic cycles in producing short‐term fluctuations on migration rates and to isolate the effect of a sharp rise in rates for 16–24 years old in the 1990s, which is presumed to be related to the expansion of higher education. The findings suggest that unlike for the USA, there has not been a substantial decline in the intensity of internal migration between the first two decades of the study period and the second two. If there has been any major decline in the intensity of address changing in England and Wales, it can only be for the within‐area moves that this time series does not cover. This latter possibility is examined in a companion paper using a very different data set. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2024   open full text
  • Reshaping Migrant Labour Market Geographies: Local Regularisations and the Informal Economy.
    M. Anne Visser.
    Population Space and Place. April 26, 2016
    Regularisation remains a strategic site for studying the political economy of migrant socio‐economic incorporation. Research suggests that immigrant regularisation policies improve labour market opportunities for undocumented migrant workers in host societies – particularly those engaged in the informal economy. However, research on regularisation remains focused on national‐level policy efforts, despite increased political activity by sub‐national levels of government on immigration issues across migrant‐receiving societies. This article identifies and examines local migrant labour market regularisations – a new political geography of labour market regulation – and explores the potential of these policies to influence labour market mobility and opportunity for irregular migrants in the US. Using data on 5,528 policy ordinances across 3,067 city, counties, and states, implementation trends across four local migrant labour market regularisation policy domains were analysed for the time period 2001–2014. Case studies of local‐level government activism within each policy domain are also presented. Findings indicate that the implementation of local migrant labour market regularisations in the US has become increasingly unfavourable towards migrant workers and that within these new political geographies, local governments are emerging as central actors in shaping migrant labour market opportunities. The article concludes by reflecting on the implications these new political geographies present for the economic incorporation of irregular migrants and their role in constructing a new scalar reality of migrant labour market regulation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2025   open full text
  • Power Through Problem Solving: Latino Immigrants and the Inconsistencies of Economic Restructuring.
    Nichola Lowe, Natasha Iskander.
    Population Space and Place. April 07, 2016
    Employment restructuring is a transformative process that brings about significant changes in how work is organised and experienced. Scholars who study restructuring in industries that employ large numbers of immigrant workers, including construction, food processing, or janitorial services, often point to the undermining effects of this transformation on industry wage standards, working conditions, and training supports. But often missing from these accounts is a recognition that restructuring is uneven and incomplete at best and often produces shortcomings and limitations that continue to frustrate and perplex immigrant and native‐born workers alike. Drawing on a multi‐year study of construction workers in Raleigh‐Durham, North Carolina, we find Latino immigrants are far from passive inheritors of the problems of restructuring that they and others encounter during their daily work. Rather, they respond to these challenges with innovative and lasting solutions, developing new work structures and routines that support industry skill development, knowledge sharing, and quality standards. Equally important, their native‐born supervisors and co‐workers have learned to value these solutions and ultimately have stepped in as influential allies, helping immigrant workers leverage these contributions to secure improved working conditions and higher compensation levels. These exchanges have tethered immigrant and non‐immigrant workers together and in ways that challenge standard narratives of native dominance and immigrant exploitation. The result is intensified interdependency and ultimately the creation of an enduring relational resource for promoting worker rights and also for guiding further immigrant advocacy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2023   open full text
  • Community Formation and Sense of Place – Seasonal Tourism Workers in Rural Sweden.
    Maria Thulemark.
    Population Space and Place. April 04, 2016
    Seasonal tourism workers in the Swedish mountains can be conceptualised as members of occupational communities. For members of such a community, the dual relationship between the job and other members are important. However, a place perspective might be fruitful, as place amenities are expected drivers of job acceptance. By studying seasonal workers' relation to place, through the lens of their ‘membership’ of an occupational community, it is possible to capture both the individual sense of place and the group's shared sense of place. The former is highly important, as social relations among the workers are particularly significant. In this study, the conceptual framework of occupational communities is modified to better suit temporary and mobile workers in amenity‐rich rural areas. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate how seasonal tourism employees can be analysed as an occupational community. Further, it studies the ways in which a particular tourism‐related occupational community perceives and connects to its location, as well as the ways in which seasonal tourism workers perceive the role of place and community in their everyday lives and future plans. Hence, this article concludes that members of an occupational community have a dual attachment to place. This type of community could exist and move around without being affected by the geographical place, but the place has affective possibilities influencing the workers, and in an isolated rural place, the community has more space to grow stronger. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 04, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2018   open full text
  • From ‘Trailing Wives’ to the Emergence of a ‘Trailing Husbands’ Phenomenon: Retirement Migration to Rural Areas.
    Aileen Stockdale.
    Population Space and Place. March 29, 2016
    Migration and gender studies have focused on economically active heterogeneous couples and traditionally highlight a dominant male role in migration decision‐making. The female partner is commonly portrayed as a ‘trailing wife’ or ‘trailing mother’ with the move found to have a negative effect on her employment prospects. Much less is known about if or how the balance of power shifts between husbands and wives when employment or career‐motivated moves are removed from the decision‐making process. This is analysed with reference to retirement migration to rural areas of the UK and involved interviews with both partners present. For this cohort of retired couples, and in common with the literature, migration during economically active life course stages demonstrates strong ‘trailing wife’ and ‘trailing mother’ tendencies. The male's decision to retire signalled the commencement of a retirement life course stage for the couple. However, in contrast to the earlier male‐dominated decision‐making, retirement migration saw the emergence of a ‘trailing husband’ phenomenon. Wives appear to adapt most successfully to the new rural environment, while many husbands found it difficult to adjust (at least initially) to the multiple life changes: moving from largely urban areas to a rural setting alongside exiting the workforce. The findings suggest that the role of leader/follower changed during the course of these couples' lives together and in relation to their reasons for moving. © 2016 The Authors Population, Space and Place Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2022   open full text
  • Onward Migration as a Coping Strategy? Latin Americans Moving from Spain to the UK Post‐2008.
    Rosa Mas Giralt.
    Population Space and Place. March 11, 2016
    Research has highlighted that increasing numbers of third‐country migrants who have acquired European Union (EU) citizenship in one EU Member State employ the freedom of movement that it provides to onward migrate to other EU destinations. A range of socio‐economic, cultural, and educational factors have been found to drive migrants to move onward to try to fulfil their migration aspirations across multiple locations. This paper suggests that analysing onward migration through the relational lens proposed by the mobility paradigm better acknowledges the processual and dynamic nature of this migration pattern and its motivations. Drawing from a small‐scale project focusing on Latin American migrants (with EU citizenship) who have relocated from Spain to the UK post‐2008, the paper presents a distinctive form of reactive onward migration. Research is based on secondary data analysis and semi‐structured interviews with key informants from voluntary and statutory organisations in Spain and the UK. It finds that, as their socio‐economic conditions deteriorate in Spain, some Latin Americans decide to mobilise their civic and social capital (EU citizenship, transnational networks) to move to the UK in search of employment. Yet, the full mobilisation of this civic capital is jeopardised by their limited linguistic and economic capital and the structural constraints that these onward migrants encounter in the UK. By considering the factors that mediate some Latin Americans' post‐2008 experiences of stasis and movement between Spain and the UK, this study enhances conceptualisations of onward migration and illuminates cross‐border dynamics of migration and precarity within the EU. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2017   open full text
  • Governmentality in Asian Migration Regimes: the Case of Labour Migration from Vietnam to Taiwan.
    Lan Anh Hoang.
    Population Space and Place. March 11, 2016
    The phenomenon of ‘runaway’ migrant contract workers in Asia has attracted considerable media attention. Drawing on a qualitative study in Vietnam and Taiwan, I examine the critical links between the neoliberal governmentality rationalities and technologies, the structural vulnerabilities that they produce, and the migrant worker's ‘technologies of the self’. In so doing, I point out that the ‘manufacturing’ of the ‘ideal’ migrant subject is a multi‐actor and multilayered process that involves not only state and market actors but also the migrants themselves through their internalisation of subordination. I emphasise that illegality is not just a legal status but also a political tool for the state and its proxies to discipline neoliberal subjects and a social image that informs individual practice in the context of transnational labour migration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2019   open full text
  • A Life‐Course Analysis of Geographical Distance to Siblings, Parents, and Grandparents in Sweden.
    Martin Kolk.
    Population Space and Place. February 26, 2016
    This study makes a contribution to the demography and geography of kinship by studying how internal migration and demography shape the geographical availability of kin in contemporary Sweden. Age structures an individual's relationship with their parents and other kin, and this is reflected in how geographical distance to kin varies over the life course. This study uses a longitudinal approach in which the distance to siblings, parents, and grandparents is measured for the same individuals at different ages. The study follows all men and women in Sweden born in 1970 (N = 74,406) and their kin from age 10 (in 1980) to age 37 (in 2007), examining changes in distances to kin at ages when the cohort leave the parental home and often begin a new family. Swedish administrative registers containing yearly information on residence of everyone in Sweden are used to examine how geographical proximity changes over the life course. The study reveals overall continuity in geographical distance to family members after age 25. Overall, results show that Swedes live close to parents, siblings, and grandparents and have a large family network in their proximity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2020   open full text
  • Projections of Older Immigrants in France, 2008–2028.
    Jean‐Louis Rallu.
    Population Space and Place. February 16, 2016
    Projections of elderly international migrants in France can provide data for social and health services to serve culturally and linguistically diverse elderly populations. In this regard, projections of future demographic trends are more useful than consideration of current migrant age structures, as the latter are biased. Often, immigrant children born in a host country are not counted with their parents for a variety of reasons. The paper evaluates the nature of return migration flows by older migrants. Although the volume of movement is lower than at younger working ages, immigration to France at older ages is significant and is made up mostly of women. However, the main component influencing trends in elderly migrants is age structure, which varies according to origin and migration history; were moves pre‐independence or post‐independence in relation to the country of origin: did they occur during an economic boom or bust; and how were they timed in relation to the policy environment? The paper shows how France's ‘closed‐border’ policy from 1975 onwards and subsequent family reunification impacted on migration trends of older people by sex. Looking to the future, the migrant communities of longest standing will increase slightly. Exceptions include the Italians and Spanish who will decline in size. Those who arrived later – Moroccans, Turks, and ‘others’ – will increase more than twofold, and sub‐Saharan Africans up to sixfold. The numbers of women will increase more rapidly than men. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 16, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2012   open full text
  • The Effects of Transnational Parenting on the Subjective Health and Well‐Being of Ghanaian Migrants in the Netherlands.
    Bilisuma B. Dito, Valentina Mazzucato, Djamila Schans.
    Population Space and Place. February 12, 2016
    Migrant parents from the Global South who migrate to the Global North often leave their children in the origin country either by choice or as a result of stringent migration policies in migrant‐receiving countries that make family migration impracticable. Small‐scale, qualitative studies have indicated that these transnational parents experience emotional and health difficulties due to separation. Few studies have investigated these effects on a larger scale using quantitative data, and no previous studies compared their findings with a control group. The current paper used a survey that was conducted with 303 Ghanaian migrant parents living in the Netherlands to examine the effects of transnational family life on self‐reported health and subjective well‐being (as measured through satisfaction with life and emotional well‐being). The study shows that migrant parents who are separated from their children display worse outcomes than their counterparts who live with their children in the destination country. Importantly, however, these differences were mediated by these parents' lower socio‐economic and undocumented status. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2006   open full text
  • Modelling Interregional Migration in China in 2005–2010: the Roles of Regional Attributes and Spatial Interaction Effects in Modelling Error.
    Jianfa Shen.
    Population Space and Place. February 12, 2016
    Traditional migration modelling involves an estimation of a migration model, using population at origin, population at destination, distance and other social, economic and environmental variables to explain migration flows. Modelling performance is assessed for the migration model as a whole. However, it remains unclear if a migration model can fit the relative emissiveness and attractiveness of specific regions better than the spatial interaction effect between pairs of regions. Recent studies show that the parameters of the log‐linear model for a migration matrix can fully describe the relative emissiveness Pi, attractiveness Qj of specific regions and the spatial interaction effect between pairs of regions Fij. By calculating and comparing the contributions of the modelling errors of the relative emissiveness Pi, attractiveness Qj and the spatial interaction effect Fij to the overall modelling errors of migration flows, this paper reveals which factors of the migration process can be modelled more or less accurately using the case of regional migration in China for the period 2005–2010. According to the Poisson migration model for China, the modelling errors of the constant K, the relative attractiveness and emissiveness caused mean relative errors of 4.92%, 11.80% and 10.61% in migration flows, respectively. The spatial interaction caused a mean relative error of 17.74% in migration flows, which was much greater than the errors caused by the constant K, the relative attractiveness and emissiveness. Thus, the spatial interaction is the most important factor, which cannot be modelled very well in migration modelling. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2014   open full text
  • Love in the Time of Nokia: Cultural Change as Compromise in a Cambodian Migrant Enclave.
    Laurie Parsons, Sabina Lawreniuk.
    Population Space and Place. February 12, 2016
    By investigating the social development of a migrant enclave in the context of rapid economic development and circular migration, this paper builds upon recent work emphasising the co‐production of place by migrants and their hosts. In doing so, it introduces a longitudinal element to the analysis, highlighting that place in migrant enclaves is shaped by the interaction of not two forces – home and the host environment – but three: home, the non‐migrant environment, and the cultural and economic practices developed by existing migrants. This triangular lens also helps to shed light on the linkages between economic and social change in migrant enclaves, demonstrating that migrants' experience of economic development is not direct, but (re)negotiated between these competing influences over time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2015   open full text
  • Transnational Mobilities as a Way of Life Among Older Migrants from Southern Europe.
    Claudio Bolzman, Laure Kaeser, Etienne Christe.
    Population Space and Place. February 08, 2016
    This paper focuses on older Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese migrants who spent their working lives in Switzerland and explores their different forms of geographical mobility between Switzerland and their home countries. Although drawing inspiration from the transnationalism literature and the new mobilities paradigm, we do not neglect a more structural perspective that stresses the constraints endured by older migrants when they try to build mobile lives. We approach the issue of transnational mobility using mainly quantitative data from the survey Vivre–Leben–Vivere, which focuses on the living conditions and health of individuals aged 65 years and above currently living in Switzerland. Within this survey, an oversample of approximately 300 older immigrants of Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese origin aged between 65 and 79 years was conducted in Geneva and Basel. The quantitative data are complemented by material from interviews with three Spanish families living in Geneva. Our data show that to ‘settle in Switzerland’ or to return home does not imply that older immigrants' transnational mobility ceases. To some extent, it could be argued that they never really ‘settled’ and transnational mobility is a way of life that is more adapted to the duality of resources and references that they have built up during their adult life. Their geographical mobility can take different forms and is adapted to legal constraints, to family configurations, and to individual situations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2016   open full text
  • Remaking Urban Segregation: Processes of Income Sorting and Neighbourhood Change.
    Nick Bailey, Wouter P. C. Gent, Sako Musterd.
    Population Space and Place. January 24, 2016
    Segregation studies have mainly focused on urban structures as a whole or have discussed specific (gentrifying or renewing) neighbourhoods. The literature suggests that changes in segregation occur primarily through selective migration. In this paper, we follow up on recent work that has questioned these orthodoxies, suggesting that in situ social mobility, and entries to and exits from the city population should be taken into account as well, and that dynamics in all neighbourhoods should be considered. The paper traces the processes by which segregation changes for the cities of Amsterdam and The Hague for 1999–2006, using a longitudinal individual‐level database covering the entire population. It extends previous work by looking at income rather than socio‐economic status and by drilling down to the neighbourhood level. Applying an existing measure of segregation (Delta) in a novel way, the analysis focuses on changes in the spatial distribution of household income, measuring the relative contribution of a range of processes to changes in segregation. Results show that segregation rises in both cities but that different processes drive changes in each case. Furthermore, the aggregate change in segregation for each city masks a diversity of changes at the neighbourhood level, some of which tend to increase segregation while others tend to reduce it. Mapping these changes and the individual processes contributing to them shows that they have a distinct geography, which seems to be structured by historically specific trends in state and housing market context. © 2016 The Authors. Population, Space and Place. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 24, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2013   open full text
  • Discordant Lifestyle Mobilities in East Asia: Privilege and Precarity of British Retirement in Thailand.
    Kate Botterill.
    Population Space and Place. January 19, 2016
    This paper explores the lifestyle mobilities of British retirees in Thailand, drawing on empirical research conducted in 2012. Thailand is a host to a significant number of British retirees motivated by a search for a better lifestyle in Asia. This pursuit of mobility for lifestyle reasons, rather than economic gain or work, implies a relative privilege involving a range of choices and opportunities. For many, the lifestyle achieved in Thailand is perceived as mediating negative effects of ageing and enhancing well‐being. However, the material challenges of lifestyle mobility in Thailand, such as frozen pensions, healthcare costs and property insecurity, destabilise an initial optimism and lead to feelings of entrapment and immobility in relation to state policy and practice. The paper argues for a relational framing of lifestyle mobility as a means of understanding and analysing the differential experience of privilege and precarity in semi‐colonial or post‐colonial locations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2011   open full text
  • Mothers' Mobility after Separation: Do Grandmothers Matter?
    Marjolijn Das, Helga Valk, Eva‐Maria Merz.
    Population Space and Place. January 19, 2016
    Starting from a life course perspective, this study aims to gain more insight into mobility patterns of recently separated mothers, focusing especially on moves to the location of their own mother: the maternal grandmother. Separated mothers, having linked lives with their own mothers, may benefit from their practical and emotional support. Additionally, the grandparents' home can be a (temporary) place to stay shortly after divorce. Data come from the System of social statistical datasets (Statistics Netherlands). This unique dataset combines longitudinal data from a vast number of administrative registers. It covers the complete Dutch population, making it exceptionally well suited for life course and mobility research. We studied mothers with minor children between 1/1/2008 and 31/12/2010. Our study included 579,500 mothers, of whom about 8,800 (1.5%) experienced a separation in 2008. Separated mothers moved to the grandmother's municipality more often than non‐separated mothers, which might be partially motivated by the need for childcare. They also coresided with the grandmother more than non‐separated movers, mostly because of a vulnerable socio‐economic position. Although often temporary, coresidence appears to have a prolonged impact on the mothers' location choice; mothers frequently stayed in the grandmother's municipality after moving out. Finally, our results indicated that some mothers seemed to use the parental home as a stepping stone to cohabit with a new partner. © 2016 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    January 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2010   open full text
  • Psychological Well‐being of Ghanaian Children in Transnational Families.
    Valentina Mazzucato, Victor Cebotari.
    Population Space and Place. January 04, 2016
    This study is one of the first large‐scale analyses on child psychological well‐being in the context of parental migration when children remain in an African country. As such, it contributes to the literature by investigating some of the insights gained from in‐depth transnational family studies, and it also provides evidence from Africa where normative contexts around family life differ from Latin America, Southeast Asia, and East Asia where most studies have been conducted to date. A survey was conducted in 2010/2011 with 2,760 secondary school children and youths in high out‐migration areas of Ghana. Using multiple regression analysis, we find that being in a transnational family is associated with lower levels of psychological well‐being, yet only in families where parents are divorced or separated. Furthermore, when parents are in a relationship, specific characteristics of transnational family arrangements are associated with lower levels of child psychological well‐being, while others are not. In particular, whether a parent migrates internally or internationally, who the caregiver is, and having a good relationship with the migrant parent are not associated with poorer well‐being outcomes. Instead, if a father migrates, if the child changes caregivers more than once, and if the child has a bad relationship with his or her migrant father are associated with lower levels of well‐being. This study adds nuance to a field of research that has emphasised negative outcomes and helps identify policy areas to improve the well‐being of children in transnational families. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 04, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2004   open full text
  • Fertility and Child Mortality in Urban West Africa: Leveraging Geo‐Referenced Data to Move Beyond the Urban/Rural Dichotomy.
    Jamaica Corker.
    Population Space and Place. January 04, 2016
    Demographic research in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA) has long relied on a blunt urban/rural dichotomy that may obscure important inter‐urban fertility and mortality differentials. This paper uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) geo‐referenced data to look beyond the simple urban/rural division by spatially locating survey clusters along an urban continuum and producing estimates of fertility and child mortality by four city size categories in West Africa. Results show a gradient in urban characteristics and demographic outcomes: the largest cities are the most advantaged and smaller cities least advantaged with respect to access to urban amenities, lower fertility and under‐5 survival rates. There is a difference in the patterns of fertility and under‐5 survival across urban categories, with fertility more linearly associated with city size while the only significant distinction for under‐5 survival in urban areas is broadly between the larger and smaller cities. Notably, the small urban ‘satellite cities’ that are adjacent to the largest cities have the most favourable outcomes of all categories. Although smaller urban areas have significantly lower fertility and child mortality than rural areas, in some cases this difference is nearly as large between the smallest and largest urban areas. These results are used to argue for the need to give greater consideration to employing an urban continuum in demographic research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 04, 2016   doi: 10.1002/psp.2009   open full text
  • The Role of Institutions in the Student Migrant Experience: Norway's Quota Scheme.
    Scott Basford, Micheline Riemsdijk.
    Population Space and Place. December 11, 2015
    This paper responds to calls for studies of student migrant experiences and the institutional actors that are involved in international student migration. In particular, we examine the ways in which institutional actors can influence student motivations and experiences through a case study of the Norwegian Quota Scheme. We discuss three main findings. First, institutions play a significant role in determining who migrates and the reasons for migration while shaping the academic experience and future migration plans of international students. Second, state‐funded international student migration programmes constrain the future plans of recipients, reflecting potential differences in decision‐making among state‐funded and self‐financed students. Third, international students – as both students and migrants – undergo significant personal growth during the course of their studies. This complicates state goals to return or retain student migrants, as the ambitions of students are likely to change concomitant with their personal development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 11, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.2005   open full text
  • Pensioners on the Move: a ‘Legal Gate’ Perspective on Retirement Migration to Spain.
    Anoeshka Gehring.
    Population Space and Place. December 11, 2015
    This paper analyses how retirement migrants' mobility is enabled, impeded, and sometimes enforced by national and European Union migration and welfare rules and the ways in which retirement migrants deal with these ‘legal gates’ in practice. Legal gates are conceptualised as the rules operating at different local, national, and supranational levels, which regulate human mobility between one jurisdiction and another. Drawing on the new mobilities paradigm, the paper shows how retirement migrants construct and negotiate their mobility and residence arrangements within the confines of the different welfare systems. Focusing on Dutch and Spanish retirement migrants who spent their working life in the Netherlands and move or return (permanently or temporarily) to Spain after retirement, this paper shows on the one hand the power of the state to influence retirement migrants' mobility and on the other hand it shows how inequalities between retirement migrants' socio‐economic status influences their capacity to be mobile. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 11, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.2007   open full text
  • Social Trust Between Rural Migrants and Urban Locals in China – Exploring the Effects of Residential Diversity and Neighbourhood Deprivation.
    Zheng Wang, Fangzhu Zhang, Fulong Wu.
    Population Space and Place. December 11, 2015
    The social integration of migrants has become a major challenge for Chinese cities as many rural migrants still face discrimination from urban natives. Research suggests that intergroup social trust can improve cohesion and reduce stigmatisation. However, little is known about the trust level between migrants and locals and its underlying dynamics in urban China. Our study explores the trust between native Shanghai residents and rural migrants and how neighbourhood factors including residential diversity and neighbourhood poverty may play a role. We adopt a multilevel model to analyse the 1,420 questionnaire samples collected in 2013 from local and migrant residents in Shanghai. Our results show that people living in areas with more migrant residents also have higher intergroup social trust, which may indicate that exposure to more out‐group neighbours can remove preconceived stigmas and foster tolerance. In contrast, there is less intergroup trust in poor neighbourhoods although migrant residents are exceptions. We speculate that migrants are less affected by local poverty because they are less spatially bound to the locality and are thus less likely to compete with native residents over local resources. Our results differ from findings in multi‐ethnic societies where residential diversity causes distrust, but we believe this is a reasonable outcome considering that locals and migrants in urban China share more in common such as ethnicity, language, and national identity. © 2015 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    December 11, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.2008   open full text
  • Accounting for Skill Shortages? Migration and the Australian Labour Market.
    Sally A. Weller.
    Population Space and Place. December 08, 2015
    Although recent circumstances have rekindled interest in matching skilled migrant intakes to domestic labour needs, the factors contributing to migrant employment outcomes remain poorly understood. Contemporary research tends to focus on the best and worst of skilled migrant outcomes – either integration into elite transnational labour markets or relegation to relatively menial work. By approaching the issue from a perspective attuned to differentiated labour markets and their multiple segmentations, this paper argues that skilled migrant outcomes are best examined at the scale of occupations, with analysis oriented to understanding mobility across groups of related occupations. Using the example of the ‘in demand’ occupation of accountants migrating to Australia in the years 2005 to 2010, the paper's analysis of data from the Continuous Survey of Australia's Migrants reveals that migrant accountants trickled across and trickled down to a wide range of accounting‐related occupations. Individual migrant's positions were conditioned by the intertwined effects of region of origin, gender, and migration pathway. The paper concludes with a discussion of policy implications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 08, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1997   open full text
  • Narratives of Mobility and Modernity: Representations of Places and People Among Young Adults in Sweden.
    Madeleine Eriksson.
    Population Space and Place. December 03, 2015
    The aim of this paper is to analyse young adults' experiences of moving and the role of identity narratives; how intersecting and multiple identities are constructed through their mobility; and the significance of space and representations of space and place in the processes of subject formation. The focus of this paper is on stories of mobility and the representations of one of many European rural peripheries: the Swedish North. The narratives offer alternative ways of thinking of the urban and the rural; people desire and belong across the places of migration. Even so, the hegemonic neoliberal understanding of the city as progress is reproduced by the informants, while at the same time some of them describe the rural as progressive for valuing the immaterial things people today have forgotten. These narratives can be viewed as ways of both reproducing and resisting the neoliberal understanding of the ‘need to be mobile’. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 03, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.2002   open full text
  • Place Attachment and the Decision to Stay in the Neighbourhood.
    William A. V. Clark, Ricardo Duque‐Calvache, Isabel Palomares‐Linares.
    Population Space and Place. November 25, 2015
    Research on residential mobility has focused on moving rather than staying, and as a consequence, we have a much poorer understanding of why people stay in contrast to why people move. But in fact staying is the usual practice and moving is a relatively rare event. We draw on previous work on staying and the notions of place attachment, that is being invested in a place, owning a house and having connections in the neighbourhood, to investigate the underlying dimensions of the decision to stay. We utilise a retrospective survey data set from Granada (Spain) to model, first, the decision to stay in the house versus moving and, second, the decision to move but stay in the neighbourhood versus moving outside the neighbourhood. The logit models show that family in the neighbourhood, interaction with the neighbours – local connection (using the facilities of the neighbourhood) and a measure of satisfaction with the neighbourhood provide a contextual understanding of why people stay, and who is likely to stay. The models provide data on the different meanings and ways of staying. Neighbourhood variables are crucial to explain the moves inside the same area, well beyond the personal and household characteristics included in most residential mobility models. As we would expect in the Spanish context, family plays an important role in attachment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 25, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.2001   open full text
  • Regional Differences in the Intergenerational Transmission of Family Size in Europe.
    Bastian Mönkediek, Paul Rotering, Hilde Bras.
    Population Space and Place. November 25, 2015
    Many studies report positive correlations between family sizes of successive generations, but the degree of correlation varies between countries. However, the majority of these studies are limited in geographical scope and do not consider the role of regional family organisation principles, that is, family systems. In this paper, we investigate to what extent regional family systems explain geographical differences in intergenerational transmission of family size among European regions. Using the large‐scale European Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, we derive indicators of regional family systems based on average frequency of contact and geographical distance between kin. We use a multilevel random coefficients model to test for differences in the transmission between European regions, as well as between sons and daughters. We find a complex regional pattern of family influences on childbearing continuities, with considerable within‐country variation. We observe a direct effect of parental fertility on offspring fertility, although sons show more variance than daughters. This transmission of fertility can be attributed to regional family systems for sons, but not for daughters. Our results demonstrate the importance of using a regional approach –rather than the country‐level approach –to study intergenerational continuities in childbearing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 25, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.2003   open full text
  • Neighbours Helping Neighbours in Multi‐ethnic Context.
    Eric Fong, Feng Hou.
    Population Space and Place. November 12, 2015
    A key topic in population and urban studies is neighbourhood social relations. The topic has significant implications for the larger debate about friendship patterns in contemporary North American society. Ties among neighbours provide social support, foster social relations, and facilitate social capital. Our study explores how the exchange of favours among neighbours, a key component in developing and maintaining social relations among neighbours, is related to co‐ethnic proportion, length of time in the neighbourhood, and family life cycle. Our discussion differentiates between relations within groups and overall relations in the neighbourhood. We merged the 2008 Canadian General Social Survey with 2006 Canadian census tract data to explore these issues. The findings present an optimistic view of a diversified society. Most members of the groups included in the analysis experience favour exchange with neighbours. Although co‐ethnic proportion and duration in the neighbourhood do not relate to favour exchange in neighbourhoods for minorities and immigrants, these factors are significant for local‐born population. In addition, as minorities and immigrants marry, their family needs may encourage them to develop social relations with neighbours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 12, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1991   open full text
  • Changing Determinants of Low Fertility and Diffusion: a Spatial Analysis for Italy.
    Agnese Vitali, Francesco C. Billari.
    Population Space and Place. November 12, 2015
    Italy is a case study in lowest‐low fertility. Its internal heterogeneity is substantial and changing over time. The paper has two main aims. First, it aims at investigating whether the theoretical framework offered by the diffusionist perspective to fertility transition could still be relevant in explaining fertility changes in contemporary advanced societies. Second, the paper aims at investigating if and how the associations between fertility and a series of indicators of secularisation, female occupation, contribution of fertility of immigrants, and economic development change across space and over time. We make use of geographically weighted regressions and spatial panel regressions to model explicitly spatial dependence in fertility among Italian provinces over the period between 1999 and 2010. Results show that spatial dependence in provincial fertility persists even after controlling for standard correlates of fertility, consistently with a diffusionist perspective. Further, the local association between fertility and its correlates is not homogeneous across provinces. The strength and in some cases also the direction of such associations vary spatially, suggesting that the determinants of low fertility change across space. Finally, the associations between fertility and its correlates change over time. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 12, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1998   open full text
  • The Influence of Income, Lifestyle, and Green Spaces on Interregional Migration: Policy Implications for China.
    Zhenshan Yang, Jianming Cai, Wei Qi, Shenghe Liu, Yu. Deng.
    Population Space and Place. November 10, 2015
    Interregional migration has become an important driver shaping the economic landscape in China. By using 2010 Chinese census data, this study investigates the determinants of interregional migration and their implications for regional growth, estimated using principal component analysis, and a negative binomial regression model. In particular, it measures the roles of region size, income and lifestyle, green spaces, and employment opportunities in the origin and destination regions, and distance between the two regions. In addition to confirming the continuing influence of economic indicators as well as distance (owing to high moving costs), the findings presented herein add to the policy debate by encouraging regional policymakers to consider the effects of income, lifestyle, and green spaces. A strategy based on cheap labour is no longer encouraging growth in China, while many regions are suffering from environmental degradation. To address these shortcomings, an amenities‐based growth strategy concerning income, lifestyle, and green spaces for regional development is discussed, and policy implications are suggested. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 10, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1996   open full text
  • Ageing Migrants and the Creation of Home: Mobility and the Maintenance of Transnational Ties.
    Tine Buffel.
    Population Space and Place. October 27, 2015
    This paper combines two strands of literature that hitherto have often been kept separate in studies of ageing migrants: research in environmental gerontology on the one hand and work dealing with transnational migration on the other. In doing so, it aims to contribute to the understanding of the ways in which ageing migrants experience the notion of ‘home’, both as a location and a set of relationships that contribute to feelings of belonging and identity. The paper is based on 34 interviews with first‐generation Turkish migrants living in inner‐city districts of Brussels. The paper reviews the variety of ways in which ‘home’ is experienced and created, the constraints and environmental pressures which may prevent people from developing a sense of home, and the meaning of transnational ties and mobility for the experience of home. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1994   open full text
  • Theorising Chance: Capturing the Role of Ad Hoc Social Interactions in Migrants' Trajectories.
    Nataliia Gladkova, Valentina Mazzucato.
    Population Space and Place. October 20, 2015
    When collecting migrants' life stories, researchers often report on the role of chance encounters in influencing the way migration trajectories have taken shape or how migrants have managed their lives in a new country. Aside from reporting on such encounters, however, there have been no explicit efforts to theorise chance or to make it central to in‐depth analysis in migration studies. This paper aims to theorise the role of chance encounters in migrants' trajectories by drawing on insights from the psychology literature of chance encounters and life paths. Our analysis of the role of chance encounters, structured by the interplay between environmental and personal factors, suggests that how people deal with chance is an influential factor in the ways people migrate from the Global South to the Global North and manage their lives in transit. The paper makes use of evidence collected among 46 African migrants in Ukraine during 7 months of field research in 2011–2012 and reflects on the methodological implications in studying chance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1988   open full text
  • Is It Who You Are or Where You Live? Community Effects on Net Fertility at the Onset of Fertility Decline: A Multilevel Analysis Using Swedish Micro‐Census Data.
    Martin Dribe, Sol Pía Juárez, Francesco Scalone.
    Population Space and Place. October 15, 2015
    This paper studies contextual effects on fertility at the onset of fertility decline in Sweden. We argue that the community exerts an influence on fertility when individuals belonging to a certain community are more similar to one another (within‐area) in their reproductive behaviour than individuals living in another community (between‐area). Our hypotheses are that community had a strong influence in the past but that it decreased over time as more individualistic values grew in importance. We expect that the community exerted a greater impact in the low socioeconomic groups as the elite were less constrained by proximity and, therefore, more exposed to new ideas crossing community borders. Using micro‐census data from 1880, 1890, and 1900, we use multilevel analysis to estimate measures of intra‐class correlation within areas. We measure net fertility by the number of own children under five living in the household to currently married women with their spouses present. Parish is used as proxy for community. Our results indicate that despite average differences in fertility across parishes, the correlation between individuals belonging to the same community is less than 2.5%, that is, only a negligible share of the number of children observed is attributable to true community effects. Contrary to our expectation, we do not find any substantial change over time. However, as expected, community has a greater impact in the low socioeconomic groups. Our findings suggest that it is who you are rather than where you live which explains fertility behaviour during the initial stages of the transition. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 15, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1987   open full text
  • ‘I Would Really Like to Go Where You Go’: Rethinking Migration Decision‐Making Among Educated Tied Movers.
    Orly Clerge, Gabriela Sanchez‐Soto, Jing Song, Nancy Luke.
    Population Space and Place. October 06, 2015
    This paper studies ‘tied mover’ men and women who are the partners of graduate students. We use qualitative data to explore the relocation decision‐making process of married and unmarried partners. We find that, while many partners have educational and career aspirations of their own, the maintenance of the relationship is a strong priority that dictates how and when a tied move occurs. Furthermore, the decision‐making process is varied and depends on the stage of the relationship. Tied movers at earlier points in their relationships often make independent decisions to join their graduate student partners after the student has already initiated the move. Some of those in more mature relationships follow a traditional mover–follower model, while others participate in joint decision‐making about their destination. Finally, we find that over one‐third of the tied movers are male, reflecting both increases in women's migration for graduate school and men's openness to ‘following’ career‐oriented partners. This paper contributes to the study of family migration by developing a model focusing on individual and collective non‐economic determinants of couples' decisions to migrate for skill development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 06, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1990   open full text
  • Unravelling the Dynamics of Border Crossing and Rural‐to‐Rural‐to‐Urban Mobility in the Northeastern Thai–Lao Borderlands.
    Soimart Rungmanee.
    Population Space and Place. October 02, 2015
    A considerable number of migration studies to date have focused on either internal or international migration. Such studies tend to highlight the economic inequality that underlies human mobility, and hold that migration proceeds according to the rural‐to‐urban divide, as well as between nation‐states. However, these approaches fail to describe how labour moves internally, internationally, and within and across sectors. This paper addresses this complexity by examining cross‐border migration that takes Lao migrants from agricultural to service sectors, from the hinterland of Laos to the borderlands of northeast Thailand, and from Laos to Bangkok and other urban centres in Thailand. By drawing upon case studies in a border village in northeast Thailand and in two villages in Lao People's Democratic Republic, this study shows that Lao migrants engage in rural‐to‐rural migration at different stages of their lives and reveals how internal migration in Thailand leads to emigration from Laos. Although a relatively high wage rate in Thailand plays a critical role in human mobility across the border, there are other determining factors that need to be considered, including the historical context of the movement between the sending and receiving areas, geographical proximity, and a shared linguistic and cultural background that supports cross‐border migration and which complicates migration patterns. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 02, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1989   open full text
  • Childhood Mortality Differentials by Ecological Region in Nepal.
    Srinivas Goli, Prem Bhandari, Uma Maheswara Rao Atla, Aparajita Chattopadhayay.
    Population Space and Place. September 25, 2015
    Despite the rapid decline of childhood mortality in Nepal, there is considerable variation in the rate of progress by ecological region. Using the Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011 data, we investigate two critical questions: first, whether the ecological differences in childhood mortality still remain independent of the factors known to influence mortality and second, what socio‐economic and demographic factors shape these differences in childhood mortality across the ecological regions? The results from the Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, which controls for established socio‐economic and demographic factors known to influence childhood mortality, suggest that children who live in the hill and the Terai regions have a lower probability of death than those from the mountainous areas. The results of the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition model further reveal that father's education, household economic status, place of residence, higher‐order births with lower birth interval, and mother's employment status significantly contribute to differences in childhood mortality across the ecological regions. Our findings provide important insights on the issue of (ecological) regional disparities in childhood mortality and draw attention to critical challenges for socio‐economic, population, and health policy in Nepal. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 25, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1977   open full text
  • The Socio‐Economic Sustainability of Refugee Return: Insights from Burundi.
    Sonja Fransen.
    Population Space and Place. September 22, 2015
    This paper studies the socio‐economic sustainability of refugee return in Burundi using household and community data collected from 1,500 households. Socio‐economic sustainability is studied using a wider view that not only compares return households with non‐return households but also focuses on the effects of return on entire communities. Sustainability is operationalised as a multidimensional concept that includes both objective and subjective indicators. The results reveal that from a household perspective and from a community perspective, the sustainability of return in Burundi can be questioned. Return households are less likely to own agricultural land, which is one of the most important assets in Burundi. Households with second‐generation returnees – the children of former refugees who were born abroad – also report worse living conditions. Community analyses show that food insecurity is higher in communities with more first‐generation returnees, and in communities with more second‐generation returnees, all households (return and non‐return) have lower living conditions, lower subjective wealth, and experienced more negative changes in wealth in recent years. These findings provide support for studying sustainability from a wider view that incorporates both household and community perspectives, together with a multidimensional approach that includes multiple indicators. The results also show that returnees are not a uniform group by highlighting the additional challenges confronted by second‐generation returnees in Burundi. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 22, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1976   open full text
  • Educational Expansion and Intergenerational Proximity in Sweden.
    Margarita Chudnovskaya, Martin Kolk.
    Population Space and Place. August 26, 2015
    Education is one of the most important drivers of regional migration in European countries, and educational expansion has been a major social phenomenon in the last decades. We use decomposition analysis to examine how the expansion of tertiary education has affected intergenerational distance between adult children and their parents in Sweden. We use administrative register data for the complete population of Sweden and examine changes in intergenerational proximity between 1980 and 2010, using couples at the birth of their first child as the study population. An explicit policy goal of tertiary expansion was to widen the geographical access to tertiary education and the enrolment grew at newer regional institutions during this period. We additionally explore if this policy of regional expansion influenced average distance to parents. We find that intergenerational distances increased over the study period and that this was mainly attributed to the increased enrolment at traditional, older, universities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 26, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1973   open full text
  • Experimental Research Methods in Migration: From Natural to True Experiments.
    Vladimír Baláž, Allan M Williams.
    Population Space and Place. August 26, 2015
    Migration researchers have demonstrated relatively limited engagement with experimental research. The strongest engagement has been with natural experiments, which observe actual migrant behaviour, typically analysing migration behaviour before and after particular events, but have limitations in terms of control over the ‘experiment’. In contrast, researchers have relatively neglected the contribution of true experiments involving the manipulation or simulation of changes in the environment or institutions that shape migration. The paper compares the relative strengths of two types of true experiments – field and laboratory – in terms of their validity and reliability, reviews their current application in migration studies, and sets out opportunities to develop future research around these methodologies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 26, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1974   open full text
  • Have Destination Choices of Foreign Residents Contributed to Reducing Regional Population Disparity in Japan? Analysis Based on the 2010 Population Census Microdata.
    Kazumasa Hanaoka, Yoshitaka Ishikawa, Shuko Takeshita.
    Population Space and Place. August 26, 2015
    In relation to the beginning of Japan's total population decline, the problem of regional disparity has been attracting a great deal of attention in the country. Have the destination choices of foreign residents in recent years contributed to reducing such disparity? The purpose of this study is to analyse the destination choices of new immigrants and foreign residents moving within Japan in the period 2005–2010, using microdata from the 2010 Population Census. The results are compared with those obtained from the period 1995–2000. Three major findings are obtained: First, the empirical validities of three theoretical perspectives (effect of labour market conditions, attraction to co‐ethnic communities, and spatial distribution of marital opportunities) are confirmed to a similar extent in this study as in the previous period. Second, the pull effect of the service industry is much larger than that of the manufacturing industry, for both new immigration and internal migration. Finally, although there is an obvious distance–decay tendency in internal migration, foreign residents (particularly Chinese residents) have shown the tendency of dispersal, including suburbanization. However, if the destination choices of foreign residents observed in 2005–2010 as a whole continue into the future, they would eventually worsen rather than alleviate the disparity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 26, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1975   open full text
  • The Role of Digital Trace Data in Supporting the Collection of Population Statistics – the Case for Smart Metered Electricity Consumption Data.
    Andy Newing, Ben Anderson, AbuBakr Bahaj, Patrick James.
    Population Space and Place. July 20, 2015
    Debates over the future of the UK's traditional decadal census have led to the exploration of supplementary data sources, which could support the provision of timely and enhanced statistics on population and housing in small areas. This paper reviews the potential value of a number of commercial datasets before focusing on high temporal resolution household electricity load data collected via smart metering. We suggest that such data could provide indicators of household characteristics that could then be aggregated at the census output area level to generate more frequent official small area statistics. These could directly supplement existing census indicators or even enable development of novel small area indicators. The paper explores this potential through preliminary analysis of a ‘smart meter‐like’ dataset, and when set alongside the limited literature to date, the results suggest that aggregated household load profiles may reveal key household and householder characteristics of interest to census users and national statistical organisations. The paper concludes that complete coverage, quasi‐real time reporting, and household level detail of electricity consumption data in particular could support the delivery of population statistics and area‐based social indicators, and we outline a research programme to address these opportunities. © 2015 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    July 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1972   open full text
  • Place Attachment and Belonging among Educated Young Migrants and Returnees: the Case of Chaohu, China.
    Huimin Du.
    Population Space and Place. July 20, 2015
    This article explores how geographic mobility is implicated in the process of bonding with place. By using data collected from a survey of a group of college graduates who grew up in Chaohu and left their hometown in their young adulthood, four types of migrants (Translocals, Departers, Aliens, and Settlers) and three types of returnees (the Trapped, the Bonded, and the Rooted) are classified. This research acknowledges the significance of traditional influences in people's bonds with places; meanwhile, it challenges the conservative view of seeing attachment/belonging to the homeland as universal and unconditioned. The findings also show that educated young migrants tend to have a greater desire to be integrated into the host city, and they are more prone to be accepted by the new socio‐spatial environment. Taken together, this study corroborates the idea that geographic mobility does not undermine place‐based attachment/belonging but tends to attenuate its intensity. Attachment/belonging is not necessarily limited to one single place; yet, attachment/belonging ascribed by birth still has an advantage over the attachment/belonging acquired by residence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 20, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1967   open full text
  • Does Urbanisation Matter? A Temporal Analysis of the Socio‐demographic Gradient in the Rising Adulthood Overweight Epidemic in China, 1989–2009.
    Qiang Fu, Kenneth C. Land.
    Population Space and Place. July 16, 2015
    Using eight successive waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, this study applies hierarchical age–period–cohort models to investigate the rising prevalence rates of adulthood overweight in China. We find that overweight prevalence rates increase throughout adulthood until the early 50s. Period effects are very strong with a virtually monotonic increase from 1989 to 2009. Yet, as posited by the reversal hypothesis (a diminishing positive association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status alongside development), this increase is levelling off or absent in most recent survey waves for women, urban residents, and individuals with higher educational attainment. Most importantly, substantial period variations are explained by rapid urbanisation, and the period increases in overweight prevalence closely track the pace of urbanisation in China. Cohorts born in the beginning years of the Great Chinese Famine (1958–1961) have the highest overweight prevalence rates, whereas cohorts experiencing the Famine during the childhood ages of adiposity rebound (the next rise in body mass index after infancy, typically from age 5 to 7 years) are significantly less likely to be overweight. These cohort patterns lend support to the critical‐period hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 16, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1970   open full text
  • The Accuracy of Migration Distance Measures.
    Thomas Niedomysl, Ulf Ernstson, Urban Fransson.
    Population Space and Place. July 16, 2015
    The spatial dimension in the definition of internal migration usually refers to the distance someone has to move to be regarded as a migrant. Lack of precise data on migration distances, however, has obliged migration researchers to use aggregate distance measures whose accuracy is largely unknown, raising potentially serious validity concerns for research. The aim of this paper is to examine the accuracy of standard aggregate measures of migration distance and to seek practical means for improving their validity. Employing uniquely detailed data where individual migration distances for an entire country's population have been measured with considerable accuracy, the paper compares variants of aggregate distance measures with the actual distance travelled by individual migrants. For the first time, the results shed empirical light on some of the weaknesses of aggregate migration distance measures and, more importantly, also point to their usefulness. The findings show that there is a significant potential to improve the accuracy of migration distance measures; practical suggestions for overcoming the difficulties of using aggregate distance measures are provided. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 16, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1971   open full text
  • What Drives Human Migration in Sahelian Countries? A Meta‐analysis.
    Kathleen Neumann, Frans Hermans.
    Population Space and Place. July 14, 2015
    The Sahel region has one of the most mobile populations in the world, with migration serving as a common household strategy to increase livelihood and social resilience. However, the Sahel region's population is extremely heterogeneous, and the processes and factors that contribute to migration are complex. Consequently, recent empirical studies yielded conflicting conclusions regarding the processes that drive migration. This study was designed to increase our understanding of the factors that drive migration in the Sahel region. We performed a systematic meta‐analysis of English‐language literature to synthesise the empirical evidence collected from 53 case studies covering eight Sahelian countries. We analysed the frequencies of a broad range of drivers that affected migration processes during the past three decades. Our results show that the primary impetus for driving migration is a combination of economic and social motivations, which together account for 80% of all drivers that were identified in the case studies. In contrast, only 11% of the identified drivers are related directly to demographic and/or environmental conditions. Moreover, we conclude that the majority of case studies do not explore causation among migration drivers, which clearly hampers our understanding of migration mechanisms taking place in the Sahel region. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 14, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1962   open full text
  • Destination Choices of Permanent and Temporary Migrants in China, 1985–2005.
    Ye Liu, Wei Xu.
    Population Space and Place. July 14, 2015
    Previous studies on internal migration in China have failed to capture both the heterogeneity of migratory behaviours and migration processes and the rapidly changing migration circumstances. Using microdata from China's 1990 population census and the 1% population sample survey of 2005, this paper examines whether and how destination choices differ between permanent migrants (with hukou at the destination) and temporary migrants (without hukou at the destination) and how such differentials change between 1985 and 2005. We use the conditional logit model to gauge the effect of the economic transition and hukou reforms and employ the mixed model to study how hukou restrictions are intertwined with migrants' socio‐economic status to influence the destination choices. Temporary migrants are found to be increasingly concentrated in southeast coastal provinces with better employment opportunities, whereas permanent migrants tend to move in the opposite direction, to south‐central and southwestern provinces with a low entry barrier and numerous return migrants. Modelling results reveal that over time, both types of migrants are increasingly responsive to interregional wage differentials, and that the hukou system continues to matter in shaping destination choices. Moreover, the localisation of the hukou regulation and the commodification of hukou in recent years have resulted in an increased concentration of highly skilled migrants relative to low‐skilled migrants in the most prosperous regions. Our findings suggest that state intervention is still intertwined with market mechanism to influence migration in reform‐era China, and that the state should not be seen as a unitary entity when understanding recent hukou reforms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 14, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1963   open full text
  • Modelling Mover/Stayer Characteristics across the Life Course Using a Large Commercial Sample.
    Michael Thomas, John Stillwell, Myles Gould.
    Population Space and Place. June 30, 2015
    This paper reports the results of logistic regression models for four consecutive age groups in order to capture variations in the characteristics of movers and non‐movers across the life course. The increasing availability of new/alternative sources of microdata, such as Acxiom Ltd's Research Opinion Poll, provides an opportunity to uncover a series of directional associations for covariates that have been largely untested in existing empirical literature. Analysis shows how certain key associational patterns of demographic, socio‐economic, housing, and neighbourhood characteristics vary across life‐course stages. Whilst the empirical results confirm findings from the literature, they also provide new insights into the relevance of subjective neighbourhood satisfaction, suggesting that across the life course, satisfaction is particularly marked for those who have recently moved, a pattern that happens to be further amplified if the mover is a homeowner. © 2015 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1943   open full text
  • Strategic Lifestyle Management in Later Life: Swedish Lifestyle Movers in Malta Seeking the ‘Best of Both Worlds’.
    Ulrika Åkerlund.
    Population Space and Place. June 26, 2015
    In affluent societies, an active choice of lifestyle is increasingly becoming an option. With increased possibilities for mobility, opportunities to lead a good life can be accessed across global space. However, lifestyle management is largely directed and constrained by structural frameworks, and movers have to allocate resources and experience in order to manoeuvre structures and make optimal lifestyle choices. This paper explores how residential mobility may be used as a resource to gain access to opportunities. Based on thematic analysis of in‐depth interviews, this is performed by exploring the experiences of Swedish lifestyle movers in Malta, in their tailoring of mobility practices that allow them to enjoy opportunities for the good life in both countries. The research questions that have guided this study are as follows: (a) What does the good life comprise? (b) How are structural frameworks surrounding opportunities for lifestyle management perceived by movers? and (c) In what ways do movers actively tailor their mobility practices to achieve the good life? The results show that movers are highly engaged in tailoring their access to opportunities through place fixity, such as permanent residency and social integration, and through routinised and timed mobility practices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 26, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1964   open full text
  • Spatial Variation in the Hispanic Paradox: Mortality Rates in New and Established Hispanic US Destinations.
    Noli Brazil.
    Population Space and Place. June 26, 2015
    A long line of research has shown that despite their lower socioeconomic standing, Hispanics have lower mortality rates relative to Whites. In a separate literature, scholars have shown that Hispanics are increasingly relocating and shifting their destination choices within the US. Using 1999–2010 county‐level national vital statistics data, this paper combines these two research domains by comparing Hispanic and White all‐cause mortality rates and their differentials in new and established Hispanic destinations. The results reveal that the Hispanic mortality advantage in established destinations is much smaller relative to the rest of the nation owing to significantly higher Hispanic mortality rates. Utilising spatial regression techniques, the study also compares the ecological correlates of White and Hispanic mortality rates and their gaps across Hispanic destinations. The results show that the structural factors associated with mortality gaps vary by destination type except for the percent of Hispanics that are recent immigrants, which is associated with a greater Hispanic mortality advantage in all areas. In addition to providing support for a healthy migrant effect, the results also reveal the importance of internal Hispanic migration, which is associated with larger gaps in established areas. Lastly, factors associated with White mortality, particularly local socioeconomic conditions, are associated with larger mortality gaps, specifically in new destinations. The study highlights the increasing need to consider geographic heterogeneity in White and Hispanic health and mortality outcomes given the expanding dispersion of Hispanics into areas that until recently attracted few Latinos. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 26, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1968   open full text
  • Going Back to Pakistan for Education? The Interplay of Return Mobilities, Education, and Transnational Living.
    Marta Bivand Erdal, Anum Amjad, Qamar Zaman Bodla, Asma Rubab.
    Population Space and Place. June 23, 2015
    This paper explores the ways in which experiences with return migration are intertwined with considerations about education. How is education a part of returnees' stories about return to Pakistan, and what are the implications that can be drawn to better understand return mobilities and transnational living? While the academic discussion of education in relation to migration has been pre‐occupied with integration concerns, bringing together literatures on transnational parenting, return migration, and integration, with the intersecting theme of education, provides valuable synergies. The paper draws on 21 semi‐structured interviews with returnees from Norway in Pakistani Punjab and focus groups with returnees from Europe and with non‐migrants in returnee‐areas in Pakistan. We argue that education is one of a few reoccurring issues that return migrants mention as a motivation for returning, alongside various family considerations. For many returnees, education is as much about the cultural Pakistani, or religious Islamic dimensions, as it is about purely academic objectives. Seven different ways in which education and return migration are intertwined are identified and discussed. The paper shows the ways in which education and mobility choices are closely connected, for a particular sub‐group of Pakistani migrants' who over their lifespan lead transnational lives. © 2015 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    June 23, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1966   open full text
  • The Changing Geographies of Ethnic Diversity in England and Wales, 1991–2011.
    Gemma Catney.
    Population Space and Place. June 16, 2015
    While ethnic diversity is traditionally an urban characteristic, new spaces of diversity are emerging. This challenges our current understandings of the geographies of ethnic diversity and forces us to consider the more intricate spatial patterns and processes of ethnic group population change. Ethnic diversity, now a key feature of contemporary society in Britain, is an issue of public, policy, political, and academic interest; the 2011 Census provided an opportunity to update our knowledge of how diversity has grown, and in what ways. This paper explores the new geographies of ethnic diversity in England and Wales, mapping the evolving landscape of diversity over two decades. The paper makes use of measures of diversity and clustering for small areas (wards) for consistent geographies for 1991–2011, and for the most recent decade using a district level urban–rural area classification. There is evidence of a spreading out of ethnic diversity from urban centres towards areas traditionally less diverse. Spatial mixing has increased – the period also saw a growth of minority ethnic groups in areas outside own‐group clusters. The increased share of all ethnic groups (White British and minority) in less urban areas challenges claims of ‘White flight’ from diversity. Increased ethnic diversity is clearly an important feature of contemporary population change, and the coming years are likely to see continued mixing between people and within places – and in new locales. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1954   open full text
  • Chronicling Kenyan Asian Diasporic Histories: ‘Newcomers’, ‘Established’ Migrants, and the Post‐Colonial Practices of Time‐Work.
    Jen Dickinson.
    Population Space and Place. June 16, 2015
    Recent studies of international migration have observed its increasing complexity. Circular, return, and temporary migration between India and Kenya, arising from the economic and political multipolarities of increasing South‐South partnerships, is one example of such complexity. These flows are distinct from the migration patterns of the longer‐established Kenyan Asian diaspora, who settled under the auspices of the British Empire from the 1890s until the beginning of the 1960s. This paper explores how these transformations are negotiated through the dynamics of Kenyan Asians' ongoing post‐colonial liminalities and ambiguities of citizenship, focusing in particular on the temporal production of distinctions between ‘newcomers’ and ‘established’ migrants, even when in practice these distinctions are much more fluid. This paper highlights the regulatory practices of ‘time‐work’ that enfold the migratory chronologies of ‘established’ migrants into the time of the nation, whilst excluding those of ‘newcomers’. It explores the selective remembering, forgetting, and reworking of the colonial past, a process informed by the dynamics of modernity, diaspora, nation, and postcoloniality in contemporary Kenya. It argues that whilst distinctions between ‘established’ and ‘newcomer’ migrants might reflect different positionings in transnational social fields, differences are also negotiated in contradictions between the experiences, meanings, and understandings of time. This demonstrates how space on its own is itself a inadequate conceptual lens with which to examine relationships between ‘newcomers’ and ‘established’ migrants, and that further research is needed that attends to the temporal dynamics mediating the temporal dissonances of contemporary transnational social fields. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1951   open full text
  • Parents' Migration and Children's Subjective Well‐being and Health: Evidence from Rural China.
    Rachel Murphy, Minhui Zhou, Ran Tao.
    Population Space and Place. June 16, 2015
    This study examines differences in children's subjective well‐being and health across the full range of family structures that have emerged in China's rural areas because of parental labour migration. It uses original cross‐sectional survey data collected in 2010 in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces from children aged 8–17 years, as well as from their teachers and guardians (n = 992). The results indicate no significant difference between ‘left‐behind’ children and other children for satisfaction with life events. However, the results do demonstrate that left‐behind children fare worse than children who live with both parents for behaviour at school, confidence in the realisation of future goals, loneliness, and health. The results further reveal that who migrates matters for children's well‐being. Specifically, children with two migrant parents fare worse than children with only one migrant parent for several dimensions of well‐being including behaviour and loneliness. Meanwhile, the children of lone migrant mothers fare worse than all other children for selected measures, most notably health. Following other scholars, our analyses underscore the sensitivity of the results to the dimension of child well‐being measured and to who provides the evaluation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1955   open full text
  • Is Social Mobility Spatial? Characteristics of Immigrant Metros and Second Generation Outcomes: 1940–1970 and 1970–2000.
    Jamie Goodwin‐White.
    Population Space and Place. June 16, 2015
    Research on immigrant and second generation outcomes has often examined their locations, following ideas that geographic dispersion facilitates social mobility, and that characteristics of the ethnic environment enable or constrain progress. I contend that second generation socioeconomic outcomes depend in part on the location choices and characteristics of a previous immigrant generation. Further, I suggest that this relationship reflects the changing geography of immigrants and labour markets, rather than geographically unfolding assimilation. Using the 1940, 1970, and 2000 Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files from the US Census, I regress second and 1.5 generation wage and educational outcomes in 1970 and 2000 on metro‐area characteristics of a previous generation (1940 and 1970, respectively). Current labour market and second generation characteristics are included as controls and to facilitate interpretation. Characteristics of a previous immigrant generation's location were more important for second generation outcomes in the 1940–1970 period, while current place characteristics become more significant by 2000. There is evidence of selection operating through the positive intergenerational effects of places where immigrants' educational levels were high a generation ago. Metro‐level immigrant concentration and manufacturing employment also have generally positive effects, although variations across generations and by nationality suggest their significance for social mobility is inadequately understood. The historical immigrant geographies of the US, and the ways in which metro labour market conditions intersect with immigrants' locational choices, both within and between generations, are thus a critical piece of the economic and spatial assimilation puzzle. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1960   open full text
  • Younger Adults and Homeownership in Europe Through the Global Financial Crisis.
    Christian Lennartz, Rowan Arundel, Richard Ronald.
    Population Space and Place. June 16, 2015
    In the context of poorly performing national economies and sustained employment insecurity since the Global Financial Crisis of 2007–2008, various UK and US studies have suggested that the transitions of younger people into independent living and into homeownership, in particular, have been in decline. Testing the wider validity of these findings for western European countries, this paper uses cross‐sectional European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data to deconstruct to what extent and on which basis pre‐crisis to post‐crisis changes in the living arrangements of 18–34‐year olds have varied across 15 European Union countries. Our results confirm a common trend towards diminishing access to homeownership, bringing about larger rental sectors in many countries. Yet, we are far from observing the rise of a ‘Generation Rent’, because the stronger transformation process is one towards a higher share of younger adults living in co‐residence with their parents. Our empirical study further demonstrates that the directions of these shifts may vary strongly across countries, where the crisis has in some cases undermined existing residential patterns and forced realignment in the living arrangements among younger generations. Moreover, the study suggests that, although higher post‐crisis declines in young‐age homeownership is also associated with adverse labour market conditions, it seems to be primarily the volatility of more financialised housing markets that lead to increasing difficulties for younger people to realise housing property ownership. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1961   open full text
  • ‘Falling Leaves Return To Their Roots’: Taiwanese‐Americans Consider Return Migration.
    Suzanne Model.
    Population Space and Place. June 11, 2015
    Because technical innovation is the engine of growth, nations are eager to attract and retain skilled migrants. This paper uses survey data to explore the intention to return among a highly skilled migrant population: Taiwan‐born household heads in the US. The inquiry is guided by expectations drawn from neo‐classical economics (NE) and the New Economics of Labour Migration (NELM). Multivariate analysis firsts predicts the intention to return, then distinguishes among motives. The results of the first analysis yield some findings consonant with NE and others consonant with NELM, but the results of the second indicate that only respondents motivated by a desire to invest fit the pattern articulated by NELM. Most of the remainder fit the pattern described by NE. Because potential investors comprise just 8.6% of the sample, the paper concludes that NE does a better job predicting the expectations of Taiwanese household heads than does NELM. Yet, most return migration occurs within 5 years of arrival, while the present sample represents all Taiwanese households, regardless of time in the US. Thus, the sample underrepresents migrants with the greatest propensity to return. Consequently, the findings of this research generalise only to relatively settled Taiwanese‐Americans. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 11, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1959   open full text
  • Uneven Hedging of Economic Risks for a Skilled Workforce: Are Immigrants Disadvantaged?
    Lingxin Hao, Siri Warkentien.
    Population Space and Place. June 11, 2015
    Skilled immigration to the US has been multi‐channelled via legislation on permanent and temporary visa programmes. This paper argues that skilled immigrants were not disadvantaged during the Great Recession because of a new hedging mechanism, which starts with the federal legislation that admits skilled non‐immigrants, proceeds to vest authority in employers who perform rigorous screening and selection of temporary workers for future permanency, and ends with greater protection of those selected. To test this mechanism, this paper examines skilled immigrants' spatial mobility out of the country and their domestic labour market outcomes. The paper presents evidence from analysing repeated, nationally representative survey data of college graduates in the US using demographic techniques of intra‐cohort and inter‐cohort analyses. The major findings about the substantial cross‐border mobility and high levels of labour force participation among at‐entry temporary visa holders who later gained permanent residency provide strong evidence to support our proposed new hedging mechanism. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 11, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1913   open full text
  • Space and a Damaged Place: Philippine Migrant Transnational Engagement Following the Guinsaugon Landslide Disaster.
    Peter Loebach.
    Population Space and Place. June 05, 2015
    This study utilises a range of qualitative data sources to investigate migrant transnational activity occurring in response to a landslide disaster event that affected the Philippine village of Guinsaugon in February 2006. The disaster provoked multiple responses from village emigrants. A first wave of migrants returned to assist kin members directly affected by the disaster. A second wave of migrants arrived between 1 week and 3 months following the disaster to assist the community as a whole. One aiding organisation was formed by returned migrants who organised in their home community following the disaster. The ATHena Project: Advocacy for Transparency and Honesty was a civil society organisation that promoted accountability in the donation distribution process and also initiated political change. These activities were made possible by recent advances in information and` communication technologies and by the specific form of the weak Philippine state that enables the Philippine diaspora to emerge as a powerful social group. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 05, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1937   open full text
  • Contemporary and ‘Messy’ Rural In‐migration Processes: Comparing Counterurban and Lateral Rural Migration.
    Aileen Stockdale.
    Population Space and Place. June 01, 2015
    This paper questions the ongoing dominant coverage given to counterurbanisation in the rural population literature. It is argued that this provides only a partial account of the true diversity of contemporary migration processes operating in rural areas and has the potential to fuse together different in‐migration processes. Specifically, lateral rural migration has been under‐researched to date. Using empirical data from a survey of 260 migrant households to 3 UK case study areas (in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland), the significance of lateral rural migration is revealed and compared with counterurban migration and migrants. The last change of address shows that 59% relocated from an urban area (participating in a counterurban flow) whilst 41% moved from another rural location (lateral rural flow). The boundary between migration processes can, however, be blurred: Some moves are an example of both counterurbanisation and lateral rural flows. Incorporating lifetime migration histories data demonstrates the contemporary complexity and messiness of rural in‐migration processes. For example, 26% of these migrant households only ever undertook a lateral rural move during their lifetime. For others, the direction of migration has changed numerous times and intertwined with each move are aspects of life course, return, and inter‐regional migration. Comparing the survey characteristics and motivations of counterurban and lateral rural migrants, alongside interview material, highlights important similarities and differences. The paper concludes by calling on rural population geographers to more fully engage with the complexity, totality, and indeed messiness of contemporary rural in‐migration processes. © 2015 The Authors. Population, Space and Place. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1947   open full text
  • Constraint Choice for Spatial Microsimulation.
    Sandy Burden, David Steel.
    Population Space and Place. June 01, 2015
    Spatial microsimulation models are increasingly being used to create realistic microdata for geographical areas to enable statistical modelling of health, social, and economic variables in a wide variety of application areas. The models combine sample records with benchmark data for pre‐defined geographic areas typically by sampling or re‐weighting sample records to fit a set of constraints for each area. The choice of constraints is a key factor in producing microdata that reflect the population structure. This paper introduces the use of within‐area homogeneity for selecting categorical constraint variables for spatial microsimulation. The d‐statistic is a measure of within‐area homogeneity, that is equivalent to intra‐area correlation for areas with equal population. It can be used to identify the spatial autocorrelation exhibited by the categories of constraint variables, or combinations of categories, an important feature to reproduce when modelling local variation in a variable. It may be used to assess the statistical significance of the within‐area homogeneity for a given set of categories and can assist in validating spatial microsimulation models. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1942   open full text
  • Fertility Patterns of Native and Migrant Muslims in Europe.
    Marcin Stonawski, Michaela Potančoková, Vegard Skirbekk.
    Population Space and Place. June 01, 2015
    This study focuses on Muslim fertility in Europe. Evidence from 25 countries suggests that the Muslim total fertility rate is on average 47% higher than the national level. However, we find a significant difference in the level of fertility of native‐born Muslims and immigrant Muslims. The native‐born have a 19% higher total fertility rate, while immigrants have 62% higher fertility. Our main research question is whether religion is an important determinant of fertility outcome, or whether the other characteristics that are specific for Muslims in Europe (e.g. socio‐economics, migrant status, and religiosity) determine the observed difference in fertility. To answer this question, we focus on three case studies: Spain, where most Muslims are immigrants; Bulgaria, where most Muslims are native; and Greece, which has significant shares of both recent migrants and native Muslims. Our findings suggest that the immigrant status of Muslims and their socio‐economic status are more important than religion in terms of explaining their high fertility. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1941   open full text
  • Geo‐cultural Origin and Economic Incorporation of High‐skilled Immigrants in Israel.
    Moran Bodankin, Moshe Semyonov.
    Population Space and Place. June 01, 2015
    The present study focuses on differential modes of economic incorporation and economic success of highly skilled immigrants in Israel. Data were obtained from the 2009–2011 Labor Force and Income Surveys. The analysis pertains to recent immigrants aged 25–64 years who attained academic education prior to migration. Three major geo‐cultural groups of immigrants are compared with Israeli‐born. The groups are as follows: Europe and the Americas, the Former Soviet Union, and Asia and Africa. The multivariate analysis (conducted separately for men and women) reveals significant differences across geo‐cultural groups in labour‐market performance (i.e. economic participation) and in economic outcomes (i.e. attainment of professional occupation, occupational status, and earnings). An ethnic hierarch is observed with Israeli‐born at the top, followed by immigrants from Europe and the Americas; the groups of immigrants from the Former Soviet Union and from Asia or Africa are placed at the bottom of the hierarchy. Although all high‐skilled immigrants are disadvantaged when compared with Israeli‐born, all tend to improve their labour‐market status with the passage of time in the country. However, only immigrants from Europe and the Americas are able to reach economic assimilation with high‐skilled Israeli‐born. Asian–African immigrants and immigrants from the Former Soviet Union are less successful in converting skills into economic success; they remain economically disadvantaged even after 20 years of residence. The impact of geo‐cultural origin on differential ability of immigrants to transmit credentials from one country to another is discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1934   open full text
  • Migration and the Local Transformation of Overseas Development Aid: an Analysis of Migrants' Access to ODA Funds in Catalonia.
    Eva Østergaard‐Nielsen, Míriam Acebillo‐Baqué.
    Population Space and Place. June 01, 2015
    This paper explores the linkages between migrant transnationality, locality, and the transformation of local government practices within the field of overseas development assistance (ODA). A growing literature critically analyses how migrants as development agents are embedded in, as well as challenge, local and transnational power hierarchies. This research field is not only centred on the dynamics in the countries of migrant origin but also includes the interaction between the social and institutional contexts in the receiving country and the transnational development practices of migrants. We explore these wider issues through an analysis of the overall trends in migrant access to ODA among Catalan local governments, which have dedicated a (small) part of their annual budget to ODA activities since the 1980s. We set up an original database with information from four consecutive comprehensive surveys of ODA practices of Catalan local governments between 1999 and 2008, each cohort representing more than 90% of the total Catalan population. Subsequently, we show that variation in migrant access to ODA funds across different local governments and migrant nationalities is related to both the size and diversity of municipalities and a range of institutional/political variables. These include the overall ODA spending of the local government, which party is in power, and the extent to which local governments pool their ODA resources within a regional development association for municipalities. In this way, the analysis contributes to our understanding of the potential of migration and migrant transnational practices to transform local institutional practices. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1940   open full text
  • Collective Remittances and Development in Rural Mexico: a View from Chicago's Mexican Hometown Associations.
    Xóchitl Bada.
    Population Space and Place. June 01, 2015
    This paper addresses the changing agendas of US‐based hometown associations (HTAs) in rural Mexico and the impact that these changes have on local government decisions to finance community development. The evidence that is offered in this paper confirms that local governments at the subnational state, municipal, and village levels are interested in maintaining the economic attachments of emigrant populations. These governments have created innovative state–society partnerships to reduce conflict with HTAs, maintain loyalties, and preserve the flow of remittances. Thus, one of the objectives of local governments is to sustain migrant collective remittance efforts in those sending regions that already have a critical mass of US‐based HTAs that demand government funds for development. The inclusion of organised migrant voices in community development debates has the potential to increase transnational democratic participation. However, when the allocation of public funds is based on an approach that privileges diaspora‐driven demands, this generates inequalities between international migrants and stay‐at‐home communities because it forces local sending communities to find HTAs across borders to solve infrastructure needs. As new hierarchies of place‐based citizen participation become more prevalent, the voices of stay‐at‐home communities risk being ignored by local government officials. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1958   open full text
  • Modernisation, Migration, and Mobilisation: Relinking Internal and International Migrations in the ‘Migration and Development Nexus’.
    Maureen Hickey.
    Population Space and Place. June 01, 2015
    There is growing enthusiasm in academic and policy circles for the positive role that international migrants can play in the development of their home countries and communities. Supranational development organisations, national governments, and other institutions have scrambled to assess the linkages between ‘migration and development’ and to implement new policies and programs to more effectively ‘capture’ transnational remittances in order promote greater development outcomes. This international ‘migration and development’ (MAD) paradigm nevertheless draws heavily on older development models, grounded in modernisation theory, which promoted rapid internal rural‐to‐urban migration. Yet, these connections are rarely acknowledged or analysed within official policy discourses; rather, this MAD nexus is regularly depicted as a new paradigm, one that exists without historical or ideological context. This paper traces out the conceptual connections between past and contemporary linkages of MAD theory. I argue that relinking internal and international migrations literature in development reveals the ways in which modernisation theories that rest on problematic contrasts between modernity/tradition and development/backwardness are unconsciously replicated within current policy discourses. I argue that a return to a close interrogation of the concept of development – as defined by migrant actors themselves – has the potential to both bridge the divide within migration studies and to productively critique migration and development policy discourses in ways that do not elide their historical emergence and political effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1952   open full text
  • Internal and International Migration in East and Southeast Asia: Exploring the Linkages.
    Graeme John Hugo.
    Population Space and Place. May 22, 2015
    Internal and international migration have increased exponentially in scale, complexity and significance in the last two decades. There are often strong relationships between internal and international migration, but they remain little understood because the two types of movement are conceptualised, measured and studied separately. This paper is divided into two parts. The first summarises the areas of both convergence and divergence in the types, patterns, causes and consequences of internal and international migration in the Asian region. These are considered partially in the context of the complex relationship between migration and development. It is shown that there is more convergence than divergence conceptually and theoretically. The second part of the paper addresses the issue of linkages between internal and international migration. This model argues that on the one hand international migrants usually engage in a different pattern of internal migration than the established population at the destination. It also suggests that in some cases international migration itself may influence the internal migration patterns of the resident population. On the other hand there are also linkages in ‘origin’ countries where particular patterns of internal migration precede international migration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 22, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1930   open full text
  • Place Attachment and Mobility in City Regions.
    Kerstin Westin.
    Population Space and Place. May 21, 2015
    The development of city regions can be regarded as both a driving force behind and a consequence of increased interaction between firms and people in a region. This paper focuses on people's place attachment to different geographic levels – neighbourhood, residential municipality, and city region – and the relationship between place attachment and mobility. In the present paper, the issues of whether attachment differs between residents in small versus large regions, between the centre and hinterlands, and of whether there is a relationship between attachment and mobility (commuting and migrating) are in focus. The analyses are based on a questionnaire distributed in 2009 to 6000 citizens in the city regions Göteborg and Umeå in Sweden. The study shows a relationship between mobility and attachment to the neighbourhood and residential municipality but not with the city region. Satisfaction with the social life in the neighbourhood and public services in the residential municipality were shown to be important for the respondents, place attachment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1949   open full text
  • Age, Period, and Cohort Effects on Migration of the Baby Boomers in Australia.
    Nikola Sander, Martin Bell.
    Population Space and Place. May 21, 2015
    The distinctive migration behaviour of the baby boom generation is commonly attributed to cohort size effects, but evidence to date has been drawn primarily from the US context. This paper focuses on inter‐cohort differences in the intensity and pattern of internal migration in Australia with particular attention to the Australian baby boomer generation as it has moved through the life course. A series of generalised linear models are fitted to migration flows to disentangle the effects of age, period, and birth cohort. The results demonstrate that age exerts the largest effect on migration intensity, with cohort effects playing a secondary role, while the effects of period are more subtle. In contrast of the US, cohort effects are not restricted to the baby boom but show a continuous upwards trend that plateaued briefly as the later baby boomers, born in the early 1960s, entered the labour force during rising unemployment in the 1980s. This divergence is traced to a much smaller demographic bulge created by the baby boom in Australia that was substantially enlarged by overseas migration in the 1960s. The findings underline the context‐specific nature of mobility behaviour. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1948   open full text
  • The Use of Online Media in Migration Networks.
    Rianne Dekker, Godfried Engbersen, Marije Faber.
    Population Space and Place. May 21, 2015
    The use of online media for transnational communication in migration networks may serve as a new source of social ties and information for prospective migrants. There is scholarly debate about the role of online media communication in supporting migration aspirations and decision‐making. This paper aims to offer some context to this debate by studying to what extent online media are used for transnational communication in migrant networks and how personal characteristics, availability of social network ties, and migration propensity are influencing the likelihood of non‐migrants' use of online media. We draw on data of migrants in four Western European destination countries (the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the UK) and non‐migrants in three origin countries (Brazil, Morocco, and Ukraine). Our results show that online media have indeed become fairly important channels of communication in migration networks. Online media use by non‐migrants is explained by age, level of education, and country of origin. Furthermore, the availability of migration network ties is relevant: Having more social ties leads to a higher likelihood of online media use. Online communication mostly takes place between existing social ties but may also concern establishing new ‘latent’ ties. Finally, we found that the use of online media to communicate with migrants in Western Europe is explained by the non‐migrants' migration propensity, indicating that online communication in migration networks is supporting migration aspirations and decision‐making. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1938   open full text
  • Outworking of the Second Demographic Transition: National Trends and Regional Patterns of Fertility Change in Poland, and England and Wales, 2002–2012.
    Nigel Walford, Slawomir Kurek.
    Population Space and Place. May 21, 2015
    One of the main indicators of the second demographic transition (SDT) is the decline of fertility to below the replacement level (2.1 births per woman). The onset of the SDT in Europe spread across Western Europe in the 1960s and subsequently diffused to other parts of the continent. In Eastern Europe, a fall in total fertility rates below the replacement level was recorded at the beginning of the 1990s and was associated by some researchers with the collapse of the communist system and the introduction of a market economy. At present, countries of Eastern Europe record the lowest total fertility rate values (at 1.3–1.4), whereas a fertility recovery has been observed in Northern and Western Europe. Regional, subnational differences in fertility within particular countries associated with uneven dispersal of changes linked with the SDT, especially between urban, suburban, and rural areas, are known to exist but are less well articulated. This paper offers a comparative study of changes in spatial patterns of selected fertility indicators between Poland, and England and Wales, part of the UK, at the beginning of the 21st century. Despite apparent differences at the national level, the paper identifies similarities in the spread of SDT from core to peripheral areas and presents a reduction in the demographic divide between Western and Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1936   open full text
  • Migrants' Transnationality, Societal Transformation, and Locality: an Introduction.
    Margit Fauser, Gery Nijenhuis.
    Population Space and Place. May 21, 2015
    The implications of migrants' transnational engagements for processes of change and development in the regions of origin are attracting increased attention from both policymakers and academics. Rather than addressing the positive effects of migration and transnationality on local development, this special issue suggests a focus on the relationship between this phenomenon and broader societal transformation, thereby acknowledging the renewed importance of place and locality. To this end, this introduction provides an overview of the current debate on transnational dynamics in relation to societal transformation, local development, and inequality. Central to our analysis is the way in which migrants' transnationality engages with the hierarchies that exist between and within localities, and how this reproduces social inequalities. This introduction thus also reflects the key themes that are addressed in the five papers that make up this special issue on transnational dynamics, transformation, and locality. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1944   open full text
  • Can Travelling Mothers Ever Arrive? Articulating Internal and International Migration within a Transnational Perspective of Care.
    Shu‐Mei Huang.
    Population Space and Place. May 21, 2015
    Tracing the continuously changing dynamics between China and its quasi‐independent capitalist ‘special territory’, Hong Kong, this paper brings together the under‐recognised cross‐border caregivers and over‐recognised care consumers in the wake of multiple care crises, articulating how internal and international migration clashes in the borderlands crossed by various kinds of travelling mothers from the Mainland. With a focus on care as social practices and relations, it observes how the boundary between internal and international migrations shifts and multiplies as care is alienated, displaced, and commodified. To understand the mobility and multiplicity of borders, it adopts an integrated framework that links internal and international migration studies, and more importantly, attends to care. A transnational perspective on the dynamics of mobile, unpaid care labour, as they play out within the boundaries of the same, recently ‘re‐integrated’ country, further suggests that attention must be paid to the conceptual terrains and lived experiences of those who live and move in‐between internal and international migration regimes, especially the invisible caregivers who frequently travel across borders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1953   open full text
  • Beyond Methodological Nationalism and Epistemological Behaviouralism: Drawing Illustrations from Migrations within and from China.
    Biao Xiang.
    Population Space and Place. April 21, 2015
    Methodological nationalism takes the nation‐state as a pre‐given container of social life, and thereby treats internal and international migrations as separate matters. Epistemological behaviouralism redresses this by removing the conceptual divide between internal and international but is problematic in regarding migration as a human behaviour distinct in itself. In explaining why and how these two pitfalls need to be addressed in tandem, I first trace how these contrasting viewpoints are historically deeply intertwined. I then draw on examples from China to demonstrate that migrations should be understood as composites of actions carried out by multiple actors and institutions, which in their turn lead to and become part of other social processes. Internal and international migrations are interlinked as constituted and constitutive assemblages. In the case of China, the nation‐state is a central link between the two, and is at the same time itself reconfigured by mobilities. Instead of promoting migration as a subject matter in its own right and migration studies as a distinct field, this article seeks to turn migration into an analytical perspective to examine broad social changes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 21, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1929   open full text
  • Migration in Differentiated Localities: Changing Statuses and Ethnic Relations in a Multi‐Ethnic Locality in Transylvania, Romania.
    Remus Gabriel Anghel.
    Population Space and Place. April 09, 2015
    In recent years, an increasing number of scholars have started to analyse the effects of migration in societies of emigration. This scholarship often depicts migration as a powerful process generating ‘levelled’ processes of diffusion of money, goods, ideas, and values, ultimately changing entire communities and regions of origin. The paper diverges from this view and argues for a differentialist approach in researching processes of migration and social change. I substantiate this claim by analysing patterns of migration and social change in a multi‐ethnic community in Romania that consists of Hungarians, Romanians, and Roma. The research fieldwork consisted of qualitative interviews and participant observation. By using a perspective inspired by the literature on critical social capital and mechanisms of migration, I show that local social differentiation profoundly affects not only the development of migration but also the relationship between migration and social change. As I unfold in the paper, social closure based on ethnic and class/group membership had a strong effect on the ways in which Hungarians, Roma, and Romanians migrated towards Hungary, Italy, and Germany, as well as on the economic niches they occupied in countries of destination. The enrichment of some Roma and the new social position they gained reveals that migrant localities are contested social spaces where migrants' new social statuses and the ideas and values they bring back with them are weighted and negotiated against local values and systems of classification. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 09, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1925   open full text
  • Social Mechanisms in Local Transformations: Towards a Conclusion.
    Thomas Faist.
    Population Space and Place. March 30, 2015
    The contributions assembled here can be grouped under three main issues and the respective questions associated with them. They offer, first, answers to questions concerning the context, the dynamics, and the consequences of transnational linkages on the local level respectively. First, what is the context created by the large‐scale transformations for local‐level development and inequalities? Here, trends captured by terms such as neo‐liberalism come to mind. Second, how do transnational practices work with respect to the local level? This question implies an inquiry into the roles played by migrants and other agents for creating, sustaining, and changing ties across national states' borders. Third, what are the consequences of transformation for the transnational maze of ties across localities for actors' identities and for social inequalities between groups? This question is of particular interest because the diversification of social life mentioned in the preceding texts becomes so visible at the local level. The following conclusions address each of these three questions and identify the main social mechanisms underlying the concomitant social processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 30, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1927   open full text
  • Attracting and Retaining Foreign Highly Skilled Staff in Times of Global Crisis: a Case Study of Vancouver, British Columbia's Biotechnology Sector.
    Kathrine Richardson.
    Population Space and Place. March 18, 2015
    How cities attract and retain hard‐won foreign talent in times of economic crisis is an under‐researched theme. This paper draws on surveys of firms and allied professionals in the Vancouver biotechnology sector to examine the strategies used to attract and retain highly skilled staff over a 10‐year period up to 2012. It argues that the foreign highly skilled within Vancouver's biotechnology sector were more prone to crisis at the level of the firm than they were directly vulnerable to the global financial recession of the early 2000s and 2008. In fact, these crises required firms interviewed to become highly dependent on local and regional auxiliary professionals such as human resource managers and professional immigration attorneys, in addition to spouses, in order to retain these highly skilled foreign professionals within the host city of Vancouver. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 18, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1912   open full text
  • The Effects of the Crisis on Occupational Segregation of Skilled Migrants from Latin America and the Caribbean in the United States, 2006–2012.
    Luciana Gandini, Fernando Lozano‐Ascencio.
    Population Space and Place. March 03, 2015
    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of the 2007–2008 economic and financial crisis on the levels of employment and unemployment of skilled migrants from Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), as well as their conditions of labour insertion and levels of income, in order to identify patterns of occupational segregation and wage inequality according to their participation in the US labour market. This analysis was developed using a comparative perspective in two ways: on the one hand, comparing skilled migrants from LAC to the skilled migrant population from other regions of the world and to the native skilled population and, on the other hand, by analysing these indicators pre‐crisis and post‐crisis. The information source employed in this study was the March supplements of the Current Population Survey 2006–2012. Our findings indicate that the crisis affected the entire skilled population in the USA and particularly the migrant population. This impact is stronger among LAC women because they are the ones at greatest disadvantage, a situation that worsened following the crisis. Skilled migrants from LAC are substantially more segregated on the occupational structure than other migrants, and they increased its concentration in medium‐skilled occupations. The study also found that skilled migrants from LAC are underrepresented in professional occupations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 03, 2015   doi: 10.1002/psp.1909   open full text
  • Engaging Migrants in Translocal Partnerships: the Case of Dutch–Moroccan and Dutch–Turkish Municipal Partnerships.
    Edith Ewijk.
    Population Space and Place. August 22, 2014
    From 2000 onwards, Dutch local governments have established transnational partnerships with local governments in Morocco and Turkey, two main migrant source countries to the Netherlands. These municipal partnerships aim at strengthening and transforming local governance on both sides of the partnerships. This is particularly relevant as roles of local governments in Morocco and Turkey are changing because of decentralisation and democratisation processes, whereas Dutch municipalities face challenges related to ethnic and cultural diversity. This paper seeks to answer two questions: first, what roles migrants play within these partnerships, and second, how the involvement of migrants influences the process of knowledge exchange and mutual learning leading to changes in local governance. The paper is based on a case study approach including five municipal partnerships and contributes both to the scarce body of knowledge about the roles of migrants in transnational cooperation at the local level and to the limited research on mutual learning in municipal partnerships. The research shows migrants fulfil several roles; they act as initiators, key actors, facilitators, and contributors of specialised and cultural knowledge. Their role as facilitators in the exchanges focusing at the interfaces between local governments and citizens is particularly relevant as introducing youth participation is new in the involved municipalities in Morocco and dealing with cultural diversity is a continuing challenge in the Dutch municipalities. There still is a large untapped potential as limited use is made of involving larger groups of migrants and on drawing on their networks. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 22, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1872   open full text
  • Return Migration and the Profiling of Non‐Citizens: Highly Skilled BRIC Migrants in the Mexico–US Borderlands and Arizona's SB 1070.
    Claudia Sadowski‐Smith, Wei Li.
    Population Space and Place. July 08, 2014
    Based on interviews conducted between 2011 and 2012, this paper examines how highly skilled migrants from Brazil, Russia, India, and China in Arizona have experienced acculturation to US racial norms and heightened anti‐immigration sentiment since 9/11, which in this state culminated in the passage of Senate Bill 1070. We found that negative experiences with incorporation into US racial hierarchies, immigration enforcement at the Mexico–US border, and profiling as ‘foreigners’ had little impact on their deliberations to return to countries that have become new engines for global growth at a time of US economic decline. Interviewees tended to interpret their experiences as having been mistaken for members of other targeted groups, expected exemption from SB 1070 because of their highly skilled and/or documented status, and lacked knowledge of a now defunct provision in the bill that would have affected immigrants by criminalising failure to carry proper documentation. Instead of immigration experiences or the economic downturn in the US, participants were deterred from return because of perceived deficiencies in their countries of origin, which mitigated the attractiveness of the new economic opportunities there. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1868   open full text
  • Highly Skilled Migrant Workers and the UK Business Cycle.
    Carlos Vargas‐Silva.
    Population Space and Place. June 26, 2014
    This article explores the labour market dynamics of three groups of highly skilled foreign nationals in the UK: non‐European Union (EU), Old EU (i.e. nationals of the other 14 countries that were members of the EU before 2004), and A8 (i.e. countries that joined the EU in 2004 with the exception of Malta and Cyprus). In particular, the article explores the impact of the UK business cycle on the labour market outcomes of these three groups and compares that impact with the one for highly skilled British nationals. Key findings include the following: (1) there is more evidence about the business cycle having an impact on employment and unemployment outcomes for those highly skilled workers who have greater access to the UK labour market and welfare system (i.e. British, Old EU, and A8 nationals); and (2) better economic conditions relate to a higher probability of self‐employment for British nationals and to a lower probability of self‐employment for A8 nationals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 26, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1867   open full text
  • Short‐Term Labour Migration: Brazilian Migrants in Ireland.
    Garret Maher, Mary Cawley.
    Population Space and Place. May 26, 2014
    Short‐term low‐skilled labour migration has increased internationally during the past two decades of rapid economic growth, in response to deficiencies in local labour supply in developed countries. Ireland was one of the newer states to recruit labour internationally on a large scale from the late 1990s until the global economic downturn in 2008. Various forms of short‐term migration, as well as both documented and undocumented employment, followed. This paper discusses the experience of Brazilian migrants in Ireland who assume particular interest because of being a new migration stream over a great distance, which involved relatively short sojourns in Ireland for many before returning to Brazil. Changing government work permit policies for non‐European Economic Area citizens, European Union enlargement, and economic recession all contributed to reduce the opportunities for legal employment in Ireland. This paper is based on research with workers who were initially recruited for the agricultural processing sector in two small towns in western Ireland through an existing link with the province of Goiás in Brazil. The evidence differs from some other studies of international labour migration in that data collection took place in both Ireland and Brazil. It highlights in particular the vulnerability of short‐term migrants to labour policies and the economy in host countries. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 26, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1859   open full text
  • What if Networks Move? Dynamic Social Networking in the Context of African Migration to Europe.
    Joris Schapendonk.
    Population Space and Place. May 19, 2014
    As a welcome alternative to economic explanations of migration, the social network has become a key concept in migration studies. However, by maintaining a static conceptualisation of networks (as grid‐like structures) and by suggesting that social capital automatically derives from networks, we tend to fall into a form of network determinism. As an alternative, this paper makes the case for a practice approach to social networks that recognise the changeable nature of networks and the social endeavours that are needed to accumulate social capital. In so doing, I first revisit the work of Granovetter and Bourdieu in order to explore existing practice elements in their network approaches. I subsequently combine these insights with practice‐oriented migration studies. This analysis results in four hitherto undertheorised elements that provide a foundation for the advocated networking approach. Finally, I illustrate the analytical value of this approach by discussing the networking practices of sub‐Saharan African migrants en route for the European Union. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 19, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1860   open full text
  • A ‘Recipe for Depopulation’? School Closures and Local Population Decline in Saxony.
    Bilal Barakat.
    Population Space and Place. May 06, 2014
    A popular notion asserts that closing the last primary school marks a community's demographic death. No young parents will remain, much less new ones move in. This notion is frequently voiced but rarely verified. Are school closures a cause or consequence of local decline? This study reviews existing research on school locations and peripheral population decline to show that expectations of a dramatic impact of school closures on out‐migration are theoretically ill‐founded. I proceed to discuss specific methodological challenges in the empirical analysis of this relationship, and conduct a statistical analysis for the province of Saxony in East Germany for the period 1994–2007. In contrast to the prevailing discourse, there is little evidence of an appreciable effect of primary school closures on local population decline. This negative finding is discussed in light of local contextual factors and general insights from population geography. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1853   open full text
  • Emigration of Scottish Steelworkers to Canada: Impacts on Social Networks.
    K. Bruce Newbold, Susannah Watson, Anne Ellaway.
    Population Space and Place. April 27, 2014
    Throughout the 1960s–1980s, many steelworkers emigrated from the regions in and around Glasgow, Scotland, seeking better economic opportunities in other industrial cities, including Hamilton in Ontario, Canada. However, little is known about how this move affected the social networks of the steelworkers and their families at the time of immigration and how their social networks had evolved over time. Fifteen former Scottish steelworkers living in the Hamilton area and the daughter of one deceased steelworker were interviewed for this study. Immigration to Canada had clearly disrupted their social networks, as many experienced the loss of valued relationships with parents, neighbours, and co‐workers left behind in Scotland. These losses led to homesickness for many steelworkers and their wives and had driven some families back to their home country. Despite cultural similarities to the broader population, the steelworkers still experienced social isolation at times that limited their ability to form supportive networks (particularly with co‐workers and neighbours). Over time, a change in lifestyle as a result of immigration increased social advantages in Canada, and involvement in recreational sports contributed to the strengthening of relationships (particularly with their immediate family members and fellow Scottish immigrants) and the formation of new social networks, albeit ones that differed from those they had left behind in Scotland. This study helped to identify circumstances that both challenge and ease the formation of social networks for immigrants and contribute to our understanding of how context influences the evolution of social networks for new arrivals. © 2014 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    April 27, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1852   open full text
  • Internal Migration and Early Life Mortality in Kenya and Nigeria.
    Blessing Uchenna Mberu, Michael Mutua.
    Population Space and Place. April 27, 2014
    Building on evidence of the vulnerability of migrants to disadvantages in morbidity and mortality, we examine the relationships between internal migration and early life mortality. We apply the Cox‐proportional hazards model on the nationally representative data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Kenya and Nigeria to predict the hazard of dying between birth and age 14. We find more deaths in Nigeria than Kenya, with the highest mortality burdens among rural and urban non‐migrants in both countries. We also find urban–rural and rural–urban migrants in Kenya and rural–urban migrants in Nigeria showing elevated mortality burdens than other migrant categories. Consistent with evidence that social and biological disadvantages trail individuals through the life course, we find that distinct mortality patterns displayed after 2 years of life gradually enlarge till age 14 in both countries. Beyond migration, we find commonalities in more deaths among children with shorter birth intervals, multiple than singleton births, children whose mothers have no/preschool education, with shortest duration of stay in current place of residence, divorced/separated, and from the poorest households. On differentials, we find in Kenya higher mortality burdens among ethnic Somali children, in Northeastern and Western regions. In Nigeria, we find more deaths among boys, children of mothers under 20 years old, unemployed, Muslim, and from North‐west and North‐east regions. Our study is a critical step in providing credible evidence that can guide discourse and actions in addressing the health challenges of migrants and non‐migrants in two major African countries. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 27, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1857   open full text
  • Gentrification in Amsterdam: Assessing the Importance of Context.
    Cody Hochstenbach, Sako Musterd, Annalies Teernstra.
    Population Space and Place. April 24, 2014
    This paper investigates the income levels and income developments of in‐migrating, out‐migrating, and sitting households in gentrifying neighbourhoods in Amsterdam over a 10‐year period (1999–2008). First, to analyse these data, this paper discusses the impact of institutional and housing market contexts on the residential‐mobility patterns of households and subsequently discusses the outcomes of gentrification processes. The general Continental‐European context and the specific context of Amsterdam are highlighted in particular. We argue that in highly regulated markets, marginal gentrification can form an important process of neighbourhood upgrading. This contrasts the gentrification stage model. Second, using a unique, individual‐level longitudinal dataset, we show that gentrifying neighbourhoods in Amsterdam arguably form cases of marginal gentrification. Recent in‐migrants possess incomes that are structurally lower than the incomes of sitting residents. However, in‐migrants experience significant incumbent upgrading after moving in, more so than the sitting population. The Amsterdam housing market, dominated by social‐rental housing, is key to explaining these mobility patterns. Yet, a gradual liberalisation of the social‐rental stock could arguably contribute to more mature forms of gentrification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1854   open full text
  • Migration Decision Making as Complex Choice: Eliciting Decision Weights Under Conditions of Imperfect and Complex Information Through Experimental Methods.
    Vladimir Baláž, Allan M. Williams, Elena Fifeková.
    Population Space and Place. April 24, 2014
    Migration decisions are complex, involving both economic and non‐economic considerations, and are often made in conditions that depart significantly from the idealised information assumptions of many models. This paper uses a three‐stage experimental research design to analyse migrant decision making in the face of complexity and varying information conditions (complete, imperfect, and overloading). It pays particular attention to differences based on previous migration experiences. It focuses on four main issues: (a) the balance between monetary and non‐monetary factors; (b) the computation, via a range of methods, of relative decision weights attached to different factors; (c) the impact of country image in relation to information; and (d) the role of preferences in dealing with missing information. The research examines the decision weights for eight attributes of potential destination countries for a sample of 157 young, educated individuals in Slovakia. The relative advantages and challenges of utilising experimental methods in migration research are illustrated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1858   open full text
  • Return Migration of the Highly Skilled in Higher Education Institutions: a Chinese University Case.
    Qingfang Wang, Li Tang, Huiping Li.
    Population Space and Place. April 24, 2014
    The war for ‘global talents’ becomes increasingly fierce worldwide with the thriving of knowledge‐based new economy. Many countries are implementing new initiatives to encourage their citizens trained overseas to return with their globalised work competencies. Although previous studies have identified various factors related to return migration, very few studies have focused on the return migration of academics, and more specifically, the role of the higher education institution (HEI) in the return migration process. Using both statistical analyses of micro‐data and in‐depth interviews, this study examines the HEI recruitment process through an extensive case study in a research university in China. We find that, for successful recruitment of overseas top talents, it is extremely important as to how university presents itself in the international stage of the global higher education markets. Meanwhile, we cannot underestimate the role of economic incentives. We also find that the role of networking is more subtle than what traditional migration theories would have predicted. Our findings provide important policy implications for practices regarding talent recruitment at the institutional level, particularly for those universities at the lower end of the global higher education hierarchy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1855   open full text
  • Forecasting Scottish Migration in the Context of the 2014 Constitutional Change Debate.
    Arkadiusz Wiśniowski, Jakub Bijak, Han Lin Shang.
    Population Space and Place. April 23, 2014
    Migration to and from Scotland might be affected by the outcome of the 2014 Scottish referendum on the constitutional future of the United Kingdom. This potential change in migration has not been thoroughly analysed to date. The aim of this paper is thus to present a set of predictions of the possible effects of Scottish independence on internal and international migration. In particular, different sources of uncertainty of future migration flows are examined. The presented forecasts are based on the available historical data on migration flows, as well as on the opinions of a panel of experts on future migration trends. Bayesian statistical inference is used to combine different sources of uncertainty in a coherent manner. The results indicate that there is substantial uncertainty about future migration to and from Scotland, which increases with the forecast horizon. The most uncertain flow is international immigration to Scotland. Emigration from Scotland is more likely than not to increase in the near future, whereas migration between Scotland and the rest of the UK is expected to remain at similar levels to the present, irrespective of the outcome of the 2014 independence referendum. © 2014 The Authors. Population, Space and Place Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1856   open full text
  • Anthropometric Geography Applied to the Analysis of Socio‐economic Disparities: Cohort Trends and Spatial Patterns of Height and Robustness in 20th‐Century Spain.
    Antonio D. Camara, Joan Garcia‐Roman.
    Population Space and Place. April 07, 2014
    Anthropometrics have been widely used to study the influence of environmental factors on health and nutritional status. In contrast, anthropometric geography has not often been employed to approximate the dynamics of spatial disparities associated with socio‐economic and demographic changes. Spain exhibited intense disparity and change during the middle decades of the 20th century, with the result that the life courses of the corresponding cohorts were associated with diverse environmental conditions. This was also true of the Spanish territories. This paper presents insights concerning the relationship between socio‐economic changes and living conditions by combining the analysis of cohort trends and the anthropometric cartography of height and physical build. This analysis is conducted for Spanish male cohorts born in 1934–1973 who were recorded in the Spanish military statistics. This information is interpreted in light of region‐level data on gross domestic product and infant mortality. Our results show an anthropometric convergence across regions that, nevertheless, did not substantially modify the spatial patterns of robustness, featuring primarily robust north‐eastern regions and weak central‐southern regions. These patterns persisted until the 1990s (cohorts born during the 1970s). For the most part, anthropometric disparities were associated with socio‐economic disparities, although the former lessened over time to a greater extent than the latter. Interestingly, the various anthropometric indicators utilised here do not point to the same conclusions. There have been some discrepancies found between height and robustness patterns that moderate the statements from the analysis of cohort height alone regarding the level and evolution of living conditions across Spanish regions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 07, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1850   open full text
  • The Role of International Migration Experience for Investment at Home: Direct, Indirect, and Equalising Effects in Senegal.
    Cora Mezger Kveder, Cris Beauchemin.
    Population Space and Place. April 03, 2014
    This paper investigates the impact of international migration on investments of Senegalese in real estate and business assets in their home country, using longitudinal data from the ‘Migration between Africa and Europe’ survey. The objective is to examine the role of personal migration experience (direct role), access to migrant networks (indirect role), and migration as a compensation mechanism for disadvantaged groups (equalising role). The results suggest that personal migration experience stimulates investment in assets but that its role varies by the type of migration experience. Business owners are predominantly returnees who had migrated within Africa, while living or having lived in Europe increases the likelihood of investment in real estate. Moreover, migration helps overcome social disadvantages in access to asset ownership, at least for women and less educated individuals. In contrast, the investment behaviour of nonmigrants is not influenced by migration of family members or friends. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 03, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1849   open full text
  • Acceleration or Avoidance? The Role of Temporary Moves Abroad in the Transition to Adulthood.
    Lotta Frändberg.
    Population Space and Place. March 27, 2014
    This paper examines the meaning attributed to the practice of ‘going abroad’ from the perspective of youth transitions. It assumes that the growing prevalence of temporary moves abroad among middle‐class youth can be understood as spatial manifestations of, and responses to, both expanded opportunities for individual choice and increased demands for flexibility in the face of uncertainty. The paper is based on an analysis of in‐depth retrospective interviews with 14 thirty‐year‐old Swedes who had spent at least 1 year studying or working abroad in their early to mid twenties. The questions addressed concern the meanings attributed to temporary moves abroad in relation to (a) personal history and personal choice and (b) the management of opportunity and uncertainty. Although going abroad is fairly common among middle‐class Swedish youth, the results indicate that the decision to do so is typically described as highly personal, with reference to one's family history, childhood environment, personality, or desire to become someone different. The act of physical displacement is conceptualised as a way to accelerate progress towards independence and autonomy and to incorporate evidence of courage, flexibility, and ability to act into one's biography. However, mobility is also used to create ‘fail‐safe’ situations – to postpone and avoid the demands for long‐term planning and progress integral to the transition to adulthood. Whereas the pressure for success seems to be considerably relaxed in many temporary communities of mobile youth, it is clearly part of the social context at home. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 27, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1851   open full text
  • New Evaluations of Simple Models for Small Area Population Forecasts.
    Tom Wilson.
    Population Space and Place. March 24, 2014
    At the small area scale simple methods for forecasting total populations are often employed because of a lack of data for cohort‐component models, concerns about the reliability of these models for forecasting small population totals, and resource constraints. To date, a select number of authors have assessed the forecast accuracy of several individual, averaged, and composite models. This paper extends this stream of work by evaluating a large number of models on new datasets. The aims of the paper are to examine the performance of (a) 10 individual forecasting models (some of which are well known; others less so); (b) averages of every combination of 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the individual models (627 in total); and (c) composite models based on population size and growth rates (200,000 in total). Do averaged and composite models outperform individual models? Using new small area population datasets, forecasts from 2001 to 2031 were produced for three case study countries, Australia, New Zealand, and England & Wales. Both forecast accuracy and credibility (avoidance of negatives; degree of constraining to state populations) were assessed in 2011; for 2031, just credibility was evaluated. Of the individual models, constant share of growth (positive shares only) and constant share of population performed the best. A small proportion of averaged and composite models outperformed the best individual models in forecast accuracy. Several recommendations for the practice of small area population forecasting are made. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1847   open full text
  • Internal Migration Data Around the World: Assessing Contemporary Practice.
    Martin Bell, Elin Charles‐Edwards, Dorota Kupiszewska, Marek Kupiszewski, John Stillwell, Yu Zhu.
    Population Space and Place. March 12, 2014
    Compared with other demographic processes, little attention has been given to the way levels and patterns of internal migration vary around the world. This can be traced in part to the absence of any central repository of internal migration data, but it also reflects widespread variation in the ways migration is measured. If robust, reliable comparisons between countries are to be made, a clear understanding of the available data is an essential pre‐requisite. This paper reports results from the Internal Migration Around the GlobE project, which established an inventory of internal migration data collections for the 193 UN member States, identifying, inter alia, the types of data collected, the intervals over which it is measured and the spatial frameworks employed. Results reveal substantial diversity in data collection practice. We assess the strengths, limitations, and utility of the six principle ways migration is measured and examine their capacity to address key questions and issues in the field. We also identify avenues for harmonisation and conclude with recommendations which aim to facilitate cross‐national comparisons. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1848   open full text
  • Civic Stratification and Social Positioning: CEE Labour Migrants without a Work Permit.
    Erik Snel, Marije Faber, Godfried Engbersen.
    Population Space and Place. February 11, 2014
    Civic stratification is a relatively new dimension of social inequality in contemporary Western societies. States grant, or deny, different legal statuses and related social and economic rights. European Union (EU) nationals, for instance, have full rights to settle and work in other EU countries. Most EU countries have made an exception for nationals of new member states such as Romania and Bulgaria, who joined the EU in 2007. As in the past, Romanian and Bulgarian nationals need a work permit to work in other EU countries. However, many Romanians and Bulgarians came to countries such as the Netherlands without a work permit. This study examines what this ambivalent legal position of many Romanian and Bulgarian nationals means for their social position. Using data from a survey among 654 Central and Eastern European labour migrants, we distinguish four migrant categories: (1) Romanians and Bulgarians with a work permit; (2) Romanians and Bulgarians without a work permit; (3) Romanians and Bulgarians who do not need a work permit; and (4) Polish labour migrants who hold a different legal position. We use three measures of the social position of migrants: occupational status, earned monthly incomes, and housing conditions. We find that Romanians and Bulgarians with a work permit (‘compliant migrants’) score better on all three indicators than Romanians and Bulgarians without a work permit (‘semi‐compliant migrants’). Polish labour migrants have a comparable marginal position in the Netherlands with that of many Romanians and Bulgarians without a work permit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 11, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1846   open full text
  • Assessing Immigrant Niches Across Large American Metropolitan Areas.
    S. Carter Christopher, Timothy F. Leslie.
    Population Space and Place. January 13, 2014
    Previous research into immigrant niche formation has largely focused on immigrant niches in individual urban areas, whereas little attention has been paid to the variation in immigrant group niche formation across urban areas. We investigate niche formation across 26 US metropolitan areas. We introduce the Niche Index as a measure of the propensity of an immigrant group to niche, test whether this is consistent across metro areas, and statistically identify the drivers of niching propensity. We find immigrant niches to be largely located in a limited number of industries and that these niche industries are very consistent within‐group across space. Immigrant groups have significantly higher propensity to niche than New York and Los Angeles in 10 of our 26 cities. We also find that both metropolitan population and immigrant group populations have a significant influence on propensity to niche, as well as a metropolitan area's change in unemployment and the English proficiency of the immigrant group. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 13, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1841   open full text
  • An Approach to Measuring Dispersed Families with a Particular Focus on Children ‘Left Behind’ by Migrant Parents: Findings from Rural South Africa.
    Rachel Bennett, Victoria Hosegood, Marie‐Louise Newell, Nuala McGrath.
    Population Space and Place. January 08, 2014
    There is growing policy and academic interest in the conditions, experiences, and well‐being of migrant families stretched across origin and destination households. In South Africa, the dispersal of children and migrant parents across multiple households is a commonplace childhood experience. However, in common with the broader international context, quantitative analyses of the social and residential connections between children and migrant parents in South Africa have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper describes a new data collection effort in the origin and destination households of migrants from rural KwaZulu‐Natal and explains the methodology for using this data to examine multiple household contexts for children and parents. In order to illustrate the contribution that this form of data collection effort could make to family migration studies, the paper also presents results on the living arrangements of children ‘left behind’ by migrant parents; a potentially vulnerable group whose arrangements are challenging to examine with existing data sources. The empirical results show the majority (75%) of left behind children have previously migrated and a significant proportion of migrants' children (25%) were not living in their parent's origin or destination household. The findings highlight the need for careful measurement of the circumstances of left behind children and demonstrate the contribution of linked data for providing insights into the residential arrangements of migrants' children. © 2014 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
    January 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1843   open full text
  • Understanding Family Migration in Rural South Africa: Exploring Children's Inclusion in the Destination Households of Migrant Parents.
    Rachel Bennett, Victoria Hosegood, Marie‐Louise Newell, Nuala McGrath.
    Population Space and Place. January 08, 2014
    Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu‐Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio‐economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households. © 2014 The Authors. Population, Space and Place published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
    January 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1842   open full text
  • From the Marginal Immigrant to the Mobile Citizen: Reconstruction of Identity of Romanian Migrants in Spain.
    Silvia Marcu.
    Population Space and Place. January 06, 2014
    This paper looks into the complex interplay of identity (re)construction as conducted by Romanian immigrants to Spain within the context of the enlargement of the European Union towards Eastern Europe. By using qualitative research techniques, the paper attempts to highlight how the migration process, which is closely tied to border dynamics and European expansion occurring in stages from 1990 to the present, has influenced the (re)construction of identity and the change of discourse among immigrants. As part of the analysis, the study looks into the factors that contribute to the initial loss of the components of identity, identity reconstruction, and the types of identity emerging from the process of mobility. Finally, the paper examines to what extent immigrants' temporary work movements influence the nature of identity construction. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/psp.1845   open full text
  • Increasing Diversity Within Increasing Diversity: the Changing Ethnic Composition of London's Neighbourhoods, 2001–2011.
    Ron Johnston, Michael Poulsen, James Forrest.
    Population Space and Place. December 23, 2013
    London has become an ethnically much more diverse city over recent decades but has that growing macro‐scale diversity been replicated in its myriad neighbourhoods? Using recently released 2011 census data and an established methodology for classifying small areas according to the ethnic composition of their populations, this paper explores the extent and nature of change in those areas over the decade 2001–2011. It identifies two main patterns: firstly, in many parts of London where Whites previously predominated neighbourhoods are more mixed ethnically; secondly, in those areas where Whites were in a minority by 2011 there were even fewer Whites but without the development of separate enclaves where one Non‐White group predominates. The result is an ethnic landscape characterised by two types of changing diversity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1838   open full text
  • Interpreting Migration Through the Prism of Reasons for Moves.
    William A. V. Clark, Regan Maas.
    Population Space and Place. December 23, 2013
    Some interpretations of migration juxtapose jobs and amenities as alternative explanations for migration and regional growth but there is substantial evidence that migrants juggle a more complex set of motivations for migration than simply the attraction of a new job or a nice place to live. Occupational opportunities, family needs, communities, and lifestyles all play competing roles when households decide to move. This has always been true for local moves but appears to be relevant in longer distance moves also. We use data from the Housing, Income, and Labour Dynamics Survey in Australia to unpack the relative role of a wide variety of responses to the question – why did you move. The paper provides evidence that while migration is clearly related to labour market opportunities, non‐economic motivations including family change, lifestyle choices, and housing needs also play powerful roles in long‐distance migration decisions and often come with significant economic benefits. Clearly, jobs matter but it may be that they are the context within which migration occurs rather than simply an adjustment mechanism in the labour market. Survey data confirm that most moves are not generated by jobs per se, and the distribution of gains varies considerably by gender and reason for moves. Overall, this research emphasises the complexity of modern migration decisions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1844   open full text
  • Migration as Movement and Multiplace Life: Some Recent Developments in Rural Living Structures in Turkey.
    Murat Öztürk, Andy Hilton, Joost Jongerden.
    Population Space and Place. November 14, 2013
    Discussing recent trends and developments in migration and mobility affecting what may be referred to as a ‘reconstitution’ of villages, this paper discusses the changing character of rural settlement and settlement patterns in Turkey today. The binary division of rural and urban is questioned through a dialectical/relational approach to settlement formation, while settlement is defined by relation to (human) movement, itself understood as incorporating the modalities of migration and mobility. By focusing on the socio‐economics of increasing affluence, the advance of capital generally, and the introduction of neoliberalism into agriculture in particular, a number of contemporary rural‐oriented (migratory/mobility) movements and ‘living structures’ are investigated, which, taken together, suggest a growing development of ‘dual settlement’ and ‘multiplace hybrid’ life. The paper concludes with a typology of villages and some thoughts on the theoretical implications of this study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 14, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1828   open full text
  • Farm Size, Land Reallocation, and Labour Migration in Rural China.
    Xiaohuan Yan, Siegfried Bauer, Xuexi Huo.
    Population Space and Place. November 07, 2013
    This paper explores the factors that determine a farm household migration decision, particularly the influence of the current land tenure system in China. Land endowment per labour is used to measure farm size. Reallocation times and expectation of future land reallocation are used to measure the land reallocation situation. Data used in this study are from a farm household survey conducted in 2009 in 17 villages in Northeast Henan province. By using a Heckman two‐stage model, the empirical findings show that there are some differences in terms of the magnitude and direction of determinants significantly affecting the decision to migrate and its duration. China's land tenure arrangements are based on egalitarian land distribution and frequent reallocation stimulates rather than deters migration in the case of land rental market imperfections. However, it is the main reason for the unique temporary and individual migration patterns. With the development of land rental markets, the importance of land transferability becomes prominent. Policies aimed at improving land security and promoting land transfer will also benefit rural labour emigration. Other factors that also have significant influence on labour migration are household size, number of household dependents, household assets and whether a household has a land‐use contract. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 07, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1831   open full text
  • Rural‐Urban Migration and Domestic Land Grabbing in China.
    Giuseppina Siciliano.
    Population Space and Place. November 06, 2013
    Domestic land grabbing is defined as the process of land expropriation and displacement put in place by governments within their country borders to supposedly enhance development. Although development‐induced displacement occurs all over the world, China is responsible for a large fraction of such type of displacement and resettlement projects. Urban sprawl and land commodification for food security and agricultural modernization are the main consequences of domestic land grabbing in the country. Albeit the attention towards the implications of urbanization and resettlement projects on social stability of China has recently increased, studies which try to identify their main drivers, as well as to look at the impacts, trade‐offs and migrant views, are still rare. Drawing on a case study from a rural island in east China, this paper analyses resettlement projects in relation to (i) land tenure rights and compensation measures, (ii) rural workers livelihood and the hukou registration system, and (iii) environmental degradation. Results reveal that landless people are facing the risk of unemployment, food self‐sufficiency problems and the mismanagement of resettlements. Additionally, such projects bring about a higher risk of environmental degradation in rural areas. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1830   open full text
  • The Impacts of Temporary Labour Migration on Farming Systems of the Loess Plateau, Gansu Province, China.
    Lihua Li, Matthew Tonts.
    Population Space and Place. October 28, 2013
    Across much of rural China, members of farm households spend parts of the year working in cities to generate additional income. This process of temporary labour migration has gathered pace in recent years as rural households capitalise on China's economic expansion and look to improve their own levels of well‐being. Yet, to date, relatively little research has examined the impacts of temporary migration on the structure and performance of farming systems. Accordingly, this paper examines the ways in which temporary migration has resulted in significant changes to the nature of farming on the Loess Plateau in Gansu Province. It draws primarily on a survey of 175 households in three different agroclimatic zones. The analysis indicates that temporary migration is associated with quite complex changes in land use, agricultural production and farm enterprise productivity. Although households involved in temporary migration tend to have higher incomes than non‐migration households, this appears to be at the expense of farm productivity. Indeed, higher levels of migration are closely associated with more extensive, low labour farming practices, suggesting a tendency towards disinvestment in agricultural enterprise. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 28, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1832   open full text
  • Lonely Sunsets: Impacts of Rural–urban Migration on the Left‐behind Elderly in Rural China.
    Congzhi He, Jingzhong Ye.
    Population Space and Place. October 15, 2013
    Drawing on the data from the research that samples 400 elderly who lived separately from their migrant children in 10 rural communities in China, this paper examines how the outmigration of rural youth shapes the situation of their older kin and analyses the consequences of the rural–urban migration for the old‐age support system. The research finds that a large scale of rural labour force has been drained off from rural societies and placed in a ‘semi‐proletarianized’ situation during the recent three decades of rapid social transformations. The rules and resources of traditional care system have been changed and family is no longer a ‘network of safety’ or reliable source of obtaining support for the elderly. Although some elastics and adaptabilities can be found in rural families, the family cannot soften and deal with all the risks popped up in the transformation independently. It can be said that the migration of the rural workforce to urban centres has degraded the welfare of the left‐behind elderly. Institutional interventions should no longer mystify and romanticise the role of the family, rather, it should look beyond the family level, caring more about ‘human beings’ instead of economy and efficiency. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 15, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1829   open full text
  • Rural Migration, Agrarian Change, and Institutional Dynamics: Perspectives from the Majority World.
    Neil Argent, Matthew Tonts, Aileen Stockdale.
    Population Space and Place. October 07, 2013
    Overall, this special issue provides insights into the mutually constitutive ways in which rapid economic development associated with industrialisation drives institutional change, migration and mobility, and, finally, altered relationships between – and conceptions of – rural and urban. The following papers pose important conceptual, normative as well as practical, policy‐relevant questions relating to the human consequences of these processes and point to the applications of population research – a central objective of this journal. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 07, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1827   open full text
  • Exploring Geographic Variation in US Mortality Rates Using a Spatial Durbin Approach.
    Tse‐Chuan Yang, Aggie J. Noah, Carla Shoff.
    Population Space and Place. August 07, 2013
    Previous studies focused on identifying the determinants of mortality in US counties have examined the relationships between mortality and explanatory covariates within a county only and have ignored the well‐documented spatial dependence of mortality. We challenge earlier literature by arguing that the mortality rate of a certain county may also be associated with the features of its neighbouring counties beyond its own features. Drawing from both the spillover (i.e. same‐direction effect) and social relativity (i.e. opposite‐direction effect) perspectives, our spatial Durbin modelling results indicate that both theoretical perspectives provide valuable frameworks to guide the modelling of mortality variation in US counties. Our empirical findings support that the mortality rate of a certain county is associated with the features of its neighbours. Specifically, we found support for the spillover perspective in which the percentage of the Hispanic population, concentrated disadvantage, and the social capital of a specific county are negatively associated with the mortality rate in the specific county and also in neighbouring counties. On the other hand, the following covariates fit the social relativity process: health insurance coverage, percentage of non‐Hispanic other races, and income inequality. Their direction of the associations with mortality in the specific county is opposite to that of the relationships with mortality in neighbouring counties. Methodologically, spatial Durbin modelling addresses the shortcomings of traditional analytic approaches used in ecological mortality research such as ordinary least squares, spatial error, and spatial lag regression. Our results produce new insights drawn from unbiased estimates. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 07, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1809   open full text
  • Lifestyle Migration to the North: Dutch Families and the Decision to Move to Rural Sweden.
    Marco Eimermann.
    Population Space and Place. July 16, 2013
    Lifestyle migration is part of an ongoing quest for a better way of life. More or less affluent migrants moving to a destination with a perceived better climate are studied in the context of social rather than economic motivations. This paper focuses on Dutch families and their decision to move to the rural municipality of Hällefors in the Bergslagen area, Sweden. Such a Nordic destination, actively attracting migrants, has not previously been investigated in the context of lifestyle migration. The purpose of the paper is to examine what factors contribute to the decision to move. The research questions are the following: what are the socio‐demographic characteristics of the migrating families? What meanings do the migrants attach to their work environments and places of residence prior to moving? What motivations and expectations have shaped the decision to move? These questions are addressed through an interview study. Results show that the adult family members were mainly born in the late 1950s or in the 1960s. The children were born in the 1990s and early 21st century. According to most respondents, effects of overpopulation and rapid urbanisation, both felt on the work floor and in the living environment, became a serious trigger to leave the Netherlands. Differences between the families consider the character of occupations (within or outside the creative industries) and the length of the decision process. In contrast to some other lifestyle migrant populations, families in this study considered returning as part of their ongoing quest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 16, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1807   open full text
  • Migration and Health in England and Scotland: a Study of Migrant Selectivity and Salmon Bias.
    Matthew Wallace, Hill Kulu.
    Population Space and Place. July 15, 2013
    This study examines the health of migrants between England and Scotland comparing their health patterns with those of origin and host populations. While there is a growing literature on the health and mortality of international migrants, few studies have investigated the health of people moving within a country. We use individual‐level data from the UK 1991 population census and apply the technique of logistic regression to analyse health differences between migrants and non‐migrants. The analysis of the prevalence of a limiting long‐term illness shows that on average migrants have better health than non‐migrants. Scottish migrants are origin country selective by health, whereas English migrants are host country selective by health. English men in older working ages show significant health advantages over both origin and host populations. No evidence was found to support a Salmon Bias. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 15, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1804   open full text
  • How Far do England's Second‐Order Cities Emulate London as Human‐Capital ‘Escalators’?
    Tony Champion, Mike Coombes, Ian Gordon.
    Population Space and Place. July 09, 2013
    In the urban resurgence accompanying the growth of the knowledge economy, second‐order cities appear to be losing out to the principal city, especially where the latter is much larger and benefits from substantially greater agglomeration economies. The view that any city can make itself attractive to creative talent seems at odds with the idea of a country having just one ‘escalator region’ where the rate of career progression is much faster, especially for in‐migrants. This paper takes the case of England, with its highly primate city‐size distribution, and tests how its second‐order cities (in size order, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Newcastle, Bristol, Sheffield, Liverpool, Nottingham, and Leicester) compare with London as human‐capital escalators. The analysis is based on the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Survey of linked census records for 1991–2001 and uses one key indicator of upward social mobility – the transition from White Collar Non‐core to White Collar Core. For non‐migrants, the transition rate for the second‐order cities combined is found to fall well short of London's, but in one case – Manchester – the rate is significantly higher than the rest of the country outside the Greater South East. Those moving to the second‐order cities during the decade experienced much stronger upward social mobility than their non‐migrants, but this ‘migrant premium’ was generally similar to that for London, suggesting that it results from people moving only after they have secured a better job. Second‐order cities, therefore, cannot rely on the speculative migration of talented people but need suitable jobs ready for them to access. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 09, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1806   open full text
  • Measuring Differential Maternal Mortality Using Census Data in Developing Countries.
    Tiziana Leone.
    Population Space and Place. July 08, 2013
    The 2010 census round has highlighted an increasing number of countries that have included maternal mortality in their questionnaires. Censuses have been hailed as a key source of data for maternal mortality in the absence of complete vital registration information. In particular, given the small numbers, they might be the only source of information to estimate differential mortality. This paper explores the feasibility of using census data to analyse differentials (e.g. by education and age) of maternal mortality in low‐resource countries. By using data from Lesotho and Nicaragua, this study investigates the use of censuses to calculate differential maternal mortality. Methods used include indirect demographic techniques, smoothing functions, and sensitivity analysis to analyse maternal mortality by age, residence, and education. Results show that levels of adjustments vary greatly and that smoothing functions, although very useful for differential analysis, might not be powerful enough to avoid fluctuations because of small numbers. Despite the considerable investment over the last decade, results show that the census might not be a feasible tool to analyse differentials as the results suffer greatly from mortality coverage assumptions. Notwithstanding, censuses should still be considered as a key source of information and should be analysed in conjunction with other sources. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 08, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1802   open full text
  • Jobs or Amenities? Location Choices of Interprovincial Skilled Migrants in China, 2000–2005.
    Ye Liu, Jianfa Shen.
    Population Space and Place. July 01, 2013
    On the basis of the data derived from China's 2005 1% population sample survey, this paper examines regional and personal factors that shape locations chosen by China's interprovincial skilled migrants. It aims to evaluate the relative weight of employment opportunities, and amenities, and the ownership structure of economy in determining skilled migrants' destination choices, and the extent to which such place‐based factors work differently among different types of skilled individuals. The results indicate that China's skilled migration is driven mainly by interregional income differentials and that regional variations in amenities and ownership structure play a less important role in this regard. Furthermore, compared with college diploma holders, bachelor's degree holders are more responsive to wage levels and are less sensitive to the risk of unemployment, whereas those with managerial and professional occupations and those without hukou at the destinations are more sensitive to wages and employment possibilities. In addition, there is little evidence that the effects of amenities differ greatly across life‐course groups, but those holding hukou at the destinations are more attracted to places with ample government‐provided amenities. The findings suggest that at least in the first half of 2000s, China's skilled people prioritise career prospects over amenity‐related issues in their migration decisions and that institutional arrangements continue to affect interregional movements of skilled labour in China. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 01, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1803   open full text
  • Placing Transnational Migrants through Comparative Research: British Migrant Belonging in Five GCC Cities.
    Katie Walsh.
    Population Space and Place. June 18, 2013
    There is an emerging body of work analysing the significance of contemporary British migration flows and practices, much of which has consisted of single‐site, in‐depth ethnographies in particular (global) cities. As a result, attention has been directed towards the diversity evident within British migrant ‘communities’, and these studies have tended to emphasise similarities across space and continuities over time in the reproduction of British migrant belonging. In this paper, I assert the importance of comparative analysis of transnational migration in multiple sites to examine the significance of context in the making of migrant belonging. Drawing on preliminary fieldwork from five cities in the Gulf Cooperation Council states of the Persian Gulf, I provide evidence of the place‐specific heterogeneity that has arisen in the discourses of migrant belonging among British transnational migrants. The analysis focuses on three contextual factors that matter most among these particular migrants in these specific cities: firstly, the ratio of migrants to nationals; secondly, the migration history; and, thirdly, the speed and extent of urban transformation. The findings suggest that comparative research is vital in our efforts to understand transnational migrant belonging and that it can be a particularly useful methodological tool in elucidating the emplacement of transnational migrants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 18, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1798   open full text
  • New Measures of Population Reproduction for an Era of High Migration.
    Dalkhat Ediev, David Coleman, Sergei Scherbov.
    Population Space and Place. June 18, 2013
    Migration has become a key factor in the growth and replacement of populations. But demographic tools for its analysis remain simple. This paper is our response to those problems. We propose a set of simple, single‐number indicators, which summarise the aggregate effect of the major contributing factors to the reproduction of populations. Our estimates imply that the persistence of rates observed since 2004 would lead to robust population growth in the North‐Western and Northern economically developed European countries. On the other hand, countries in the East of the EU and Central European countries would face substantial population decline due both to their low fertility and to low or negative net migration. If current inflows and fertility levels persist, then within 50 years, people who migrated after 2004 and their descendants will comprise more than half of the population at childbearing and younger ages in some European countries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 18, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1799   open full text
  • Estimating Spatial Differentials in Life Expectancy in Greece at Local Authority Level.
    Cleon Tsimbos, Stamatis Kalogirou, Georgia Verropoulou.
    Population Space and Place. June 12, 2013
    The aims of this paper are to estimate, for the first time for Greece, life expectancy at birth by gender at local authority level and to explore spatial patterns. The data used in the analysis come from the vital registration system of Greece and the 2001 population census. For areas with male/female population 5,000 or more, representing 97% of the total, abridged life tables are constructed by employing the Chiang methodology. For local areas of less than 5,000, estimates of expectation of life at birth are obtained by employing regression models. Standard errors of life expectancy are estimated using the Chiang approximation as well as the Scherbov–Ediev reference tables. The results are presented in thematic as well as cluster maps; the latter are based on local Moran's I spatial autocorrelation statistics. Local populations are ranked by level of deprivation in three groups, low, medium, and high, and differences in mean life expectancies are assessed. The findings indicate that across localities, life expectancy ranges from 70.7 to 79.6 for men (8.9‐year difference) and from 76.1 to 82.5 for women (6.4‐year difference). More deprived areas exhibit lower life expectancy but greater sex difference. Comparatively high life expectancy is found in Crete, the Aegean and Ionian Islands, the Peloponnese, Central‐Western Greece and in Athens and Thessaloniki metropolitan areas; conditions are unfavourable in North‐Eastern Greece (particularly Thrace). Life expectancy standard errors, based on the two aforementioned procedures, are close, but Chiang approximation tends to underestimate to some extend standard errors particularly for populations 5,000–10,000. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 12, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1800   open full text
  • Reducing Depopulation in Rural Spain: The Impact of Immigration.
    Fernando Collantes, Vicente Pinilla, Luis Antonio Sáez, Javier Silvestre.
    Population Space and Place. June 03, 2013
    The attraction of foreign‐born immigrants to rural areas in developed countries has aroused growing interest in recent years. The central issue in this study is the demographic impact of immigration in rural Spain, focusing on depopulated areas. The economic and demographic consequences of depopulation have become major concerns, and the arrival of international migrants has come to be seen as a possible solution. The aim of this study is to add to a literature in which qualitative research and local or regional perspectives predominate. The present research draws on quantitative findings for a significant part of Spain. The evidence in this study is principally based on population figures for the last years of the 20th century, a period of low immigration to Spain, and the early years of the 21st century, when the inflow of foreign migrants gathered intensity. We also explore the early consequences of the present economic crisis, which began in 2008. The analysis is based on estimates of native and foreign‐born population growth for a range of territorial aggregations. Counterfactual techniques are also used. The results show that the arrival of immigrants has so far contributed substantially to reducing and even halting or reversing depopulation. A further series of analyses concentrates on the potential of rural areas to retain immigrants in the long run. The study also recommends a comprehensive policy approach in this regard. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1797   open full text
  • Gendered Patterns of Migration in Rural South Africa.
    Carol S. Camlin, Rachel C. Snow, Victoria Hosegood.
    Population Space and Place. May 30, 2013
    Gender is increasingly recognised as fundamental to understanding migration processes, causes, and consequences. In South Africa, it is intrinsic to the social transformations fueling high levels of internal migration and complex forms of mobility. Although female migration in Africa has often been characterised as less prevalent than male migration and primarily related to marriage, in South Africa, a feminisation of internal migration is underway, fueled by women's increasing labour market participation. In this paper, we report sex differences in patterns, trends, and determinants of internal migration based on data collected in a demographic surveillance system between 2001 and 2006 in rural KwaZulu‐Natal. We show that women were somewhat more likely than men to undertake any migration, but sex differences in migration trends differed by migration flow, with women more likely to migrate into the area than men and men more likely to out‐migrate. Out‐migration was suppressed by marriage, particularly for women, but most women were not married; both men's and women's out‐migrations were undertaken mainly for purposes of employment. Over half of female out‐migrations (vs 35% of male out‐migrations) were to nearby rural areas. The findings highlight the high mobility of this population and the extent to which gender is intimately related to the processes determining migration. We consider the implications of these findings for the measurement of migration and mobility, in particular for health and social policy and research among highly mobile populations in southern Africa. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 30, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1794   open full text
  • Onwards or Homewards? Complex Graduate Migration Pathways, Well‐being, and the ‘Parental Safety Net’.
    Joanna Sage, Maria Evandrou, Jane Falkingham.
    Population Space and Place. May 27, 2013
    Pre‐existing literatures on post‐student migration have mainly focused on inter‐regional flows of young educated migrants, the attendant redistribution of human capital around the UK, and the impact on local and regional economies. This paper argues that the parochial focus on labour‐motivated graduate migration (usually to first employment), and the absence of data enabling individual migration histories to be traced longitudinally across the post‐student phase of the lifecourse, has masked the complexity of the patterns and processes of migration in this social group. Drawing upon recently collected primary data from a retrospective survey of the migration histories of a cohort of students who left the University of Southampton (UK) between 2001 and 2007, this paper reveals that post‐student migration trajectories are complex and precarious across the 5‐year period after leaving university. During this prolonged period of instability, the parental home (and parental support more generally) provides a crucial safety net. This begs questions about the impacts of post‐student transitions to financial and residential independence on the resources and intergenerational care exchange frameworks of contemporary mid‐life parents (terms such as ‘sandwich generation’ and ‘pivot generation’ refer to the multiple family roles and responsibilities of mid‐life parents who are caught between meeting the needs of their adult children and their ageing parents). It is suggested that the well‐being agenda in migration studies is helpful for refocusing the lens of enquiry on the impacts of return migration to the parental home on graduate migrants, their families, and the potential trade‐offs that might occur between generations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 27, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1793   open full text
  • Counting Nomads: British Census Attempts and Tent Counts of the Negev Bedouin 1917 to 1948.
    Seth J. Frantzman, Noam Levin, Ruth Kark.
    Population Space and Place. May 27, 2013
    The census of nomadic populations poses a challenge for governing authorities. In 1945, the British Mandatory government of Palestine developed a novel method to enumerate the nomadic Bedouin population of the Negev. By using aerial reconnaissance photography to augment conventional methods, they counted the tents of the tribesmen and marked them on a small scale map. This represented the culmination of years of British efforts to estimate the nomadic population of Palestine's largest administrative area, the Beersheba subdistrict of the Negev Desert, between 1917 and 1948. The aims of this paper were to chronicle, examine, and evaluate the British Mandatory estimates and censuses of the Bedouin population of the Negev undertaken in 1922, 1931, and 1946, and to compare them with their aerial survey of Bedouin tents in 1945. This study brings together a body of primary source material to examine a topic that has not been adequately addressed by researchers, and briefly touches on British strategic interests to invest in this activity. We assess the importance and accuracy of this mapping as well as its implications for the study of the Bedouin population of the Negev. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 27, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1795   open full text
  • The ‘Stayers’: Dynamics of Lifelong Sedentary Behaviour in an Urban Context.
    Anna Hjälm.
    Population Space and Place. May 21, 2013
    Migration has, over the years, attracted infinitely more attention than non‐migration or staying. In this paper, the focus is set on those individuals who have demonstrated lifelong sedentary behaviour. The aim of the study is to scrutinise the ways in which people who have lived their entire life in the same place make sense of their sedentary, or immobile, lifestyle. The study builds upon semi‐structured interviews, conducted in 2011–2012, with persons aged 60 years and older who were living in an urban area in northern Sweden. Initially, the different definitions of staying are highlighted by the informants, and the flexibility of the concept is addressed. The findings indicate that even though reasons for staying might be harder to articulate than reasons for migration, the explanations given are still complex and multi‐layered. The findings also suggest that the decision to stay is not a choice made once and then never renegotiated but rather a decision made over and over again. Furthermore, the significance of intertwined lives, both with living relatives and with preceding and following generations, is analysed. Finally, the results from the study challenge earlier pictures of stayers – where they were portrayed as stigmatised – and highlight the need to consider staying, as well as moving, as a conscious choice in order that we may gain a better understanding of the dynamics of staying. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 21, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1796   open full text
  • Migration and the Employer Perspective: Pitfalls and Potentials for a Future Research Agenda.
    Sam Scott.
    Population Space and Place. May 14, 2013
    There is a pervasive economic rationale behind all forms of labour migration. The paper identifies an emergent but still quite limited body of research that engages with and explores this rationale. More specifically, it is interested in research looking at contemporary patterns and processes of migration from the perspective of employers and employment agencies. There has to date been no attempt to review employer‐based research on migration or to identify emergent narratives that could help to guide future academic enquiry. The paper addresses this omission by highlighting five embryonic employer‐orientated migration research themes. It begins, however, by noting some of the limitations of employer‐based empirical research. These limitations, it is argued, are significant but not insurmountable and should not be used as an excuse to overlook employers' role in shaping, and often fundamentally underpinning, the demand for immigration. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 14, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1790   open full text
  • Location, Location? A Critical Examination of Patterns and Determinants of Internal Mobility Among Post‐accession Polish Migrants in the UK.
    Paulina Trevena, Derek McGhee, Sue Heath.
    Population Space and Place. May 08, 2013
    This article adds to literatures bridging the divide between internal and international migrations by investigating patterns of internal mobility following the international move of post‐accession Polish migrants to the UK. Our analysis is based on a large‐scale qualitative study carried out among 83 Polish migrants living in urban and rural locations in England and Scotland. We analyse the reasons behind their initial choice of location in the destination country and the propensity for subsequent internal mobility after arriving in the UK. We consider the role of family characteristics, migration channels, and time in the spatial moves the migrants undertake. In our analysis, we differentiate between residential mobility (which was generally very high among our study participants) and internal mobility (undertaken by one‐third of our sample). Our research findings indicate that migrants who arrive through recruitment agencies and do not have children (with them in Britain) are the most internally mobile, whereas those who arrive through personal networks (of family, friends, or acquaintances) and with (especially school‐age) children are the least likely to relocate after arriving in the UK. Moreover, it appears that migrants with families are more willing to make urban to rural moves, whereas young and childless migrants favour rural to urban relocations. Notably, the internal migration of some of our (childless) study participants was sometimes interspersed with short‐term return migration. Finally, the general propensity to move internally seems to decrease with time: once the migrants secure permanent employment and stable accommodation, they are less willing to uproot again. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 08, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1788   open full text
  • Free Movement? The Impact of Legislation, Benefit Generosity and Wages on the Pensions of European Migrants.
    Traute Meyer, Paul Bridgen, Caroline Andow.
    Population Space and Place. May 03, 2013
    European (EU) economic integration has always involved a commitment to the free movement of labour, services and capital. However, the development by EU institutions of specific rights with respect to labour mobility has been slow. This paper explores this issue from the perspective of pension rights, among the most long‐lasting for citizens. It shows that the literature on this topic has focussed mainly on EU regulations, their scope and limitations. The paper argues that, although important, this work has led to the neglect of a more fundamental issue: the potential impact on mobility of the relative generosity of pension schemes and large national wealth variations, an increasingly salient issue since the expansion of the EU into Eastern and Central Europe. Thus, on the basis of a detailed review of dominant intra‐EU migratory patterns, the paper investigates the impact on pension rights of movement between Beveridgean and Bismarckian pension systems and between countries of substantially different wealth. It shows that lower income workers who move from Beveridgean to Bismarckian countries would be most at risk of pension losses. However, such movement is unusual; instead, the majority of intra‐EU migrants move from Bismarckian systems of low generosity in the poorer east to Beveridgean and more generous Bismarckian in the richer west. Workers who make this move are more likely to experience pension gains than losses. For them, free movement is achieved. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 03, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1791   open full text
  • Individual and Geographic Factors in the Formation of Care Networks in the UK.
    David Bell, Alasdair Rutherford.
    Population Space and Place. April 29, 2013
    This paper argues that geography plays a crucial role in the formation of care networks. The role of informal carers will become increasingly important as the population ages and a better understanding of the drivers and outcome of these locational decisions is important. We use data from the British Household Panel Survey to explore the characteristics of common forms of care network; to investigate the factors that may influence the type of care network formed when a need for care is identified and to examine the role of space in the formation of care networks. Our results show the importance of both individual and geographic factors in network formation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 29, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1792   open full text
  • With a Lot of Help from my Friends: Social Networks and Immigrants in the UK.
    Corrado Giulietti, Christian Schluter, Jackline Wahba.
    Population Space and Place. April 29, 2013
    This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the role of social networks in the labour market, comparing immigrant and native men in the UK. We first explore the determinants of using social networks as a channel for looking for jobs. Our focus does not only lie on the main search method of job search, rather we also use information on whether social networks are used as a method of search among many alternative ones. We subsequently investigate the social network effects on labour market outcomes in terms of job‐finding rates. On the basis of the UK Quarterly Labour Force Survey for the period 1992 to 2010, the analysis explores the role of two key aspects of immigrants′ human capital: the education level and years since immigration. We show that immigrants are more likely than White British‐born to rely on using social networks as a main search method, although no crucial difference is found when using personal contacts as a method of job search. However, immigrants are as likely as natives to find employment through their social network, yet among both groups, the less educated are more likely to succeed in obtaining jobs through contacts. Finally, the findings reveal no systematic pattern in the effect of years in the UK on job search success among immigrant groups. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 29, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1787   open full text
  • Rethinking Labour Migration Channels: the Experience of Latvia from EU Accession to Economic Recession.
    David McCollum, Sergei Shubin, Elina Apsite, Zaiga Krisjane.
    Population Space and Place. April 26, 2013
    With the onset of recession in the UK in 2008, it was assumed that immigration from other European Union countries would decline. However, this has been shown to not be the case, with the volume of new arrivals from most of the East‐Central European ‘Accession 8’ countries actually increasing. The focus of this paper is Latvia, a country that had a relatively buoyant economy following its accession to the European Union in 2004 but that now has one of the highest unemployment and emigration rates in Europe. Interviews carried out with labour providers, policymakers, and employers are used to examine the labour migration channels that reflect and structure labour migration flows from Latvia and how these have evolved in the period between accession and recession. The findings indicate that intermediaries such as labour providers, the state, and informal social networks exert considerable influence on the nature of labour migration flows and that the relative importance of these channels displays significant temporal and spatial variations. This research represents an original contribution to the literature on labour migration channels by focusing on movements from a low‐wage to higher‐wage economy in the context of the introduction of free movement of labour between Eastern and Western Europe and the later onset of severe global recession. These findings are of relevance to how labour market channels are theorised and suggest that analysts need to be sensitive to how the function served by intermediaries, and their influence on migration systems, evolves over time and across space. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 26, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1789   open full text
  • Individual and US County Determinants of Repeat Migration: a Comparison of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics.
    Jeremy Pais.
    Population Space and Place. April 16, 2013
    Contemporary internal migration trends in the US raise questions about the role of community characteristics in shaping individual‐level migration propensities among different racial and ethnic groups. To examine this issue more closely, this research incorporates key county‐level characteristics into a study of repeat migration. With data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged with US census data, this study found that heavily populated counties and counties with large concentrations of employment in manufacturing industries reduce the odds of primary outmigration, onward migration to other locations, and return migration to a previous county of residence. Counties with a high degree of natural amenity retain longstanding white residents. Net of individual unemployment, the county‐level unemployment rate hinders primary and onward migration among whites. In support of the cultural constraints hypothesis – a hypothesis that anticipates divergent community‐level effects for minority and majority group members – whites are more likely to engage in repeat migration from counties with smaller shares of non‐Hispanic white population whereas blacks are more likely to engage in repeat migration from areas with larger shares of non‐Hispanic white population. Whites and blacks are more likely to move out of counties with larger shares of foreign‐born population. The share of neither non‐Hispanic white population nor foreign‐born population affects Hispanic repeat migration propensities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 16, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1784   open full text
  • A Poisson Regression Model to Examine Spatial Patterns in Antenatal Care Utilisation in Nigeria.
    Ezra Gayawan.
    Population Space and Place. April 02, 2013
    Despite the benefits of antenat]al care to the mother and the child, it is available less often in sub‐Saharan Africa than in other regions. Coverage of at least four visits is lower, with a slower rate of increase, than in other regions of the world. Using data from 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, we applied a Poisson regression model with geo‐additive predictors to analyse individual‐level and community‐level determinants of antenatal care utilisation and quantify district specific spatial effect. The spatial structure was modelled using conditional autoregressive prior, whereas the metrical covariates were assumed to be non‐linear. Findings reveal substantial spatial variation with a distinct north–south divide in antenatal care utilisation in Nigeria. The effects of mother's age at birth, partner's age, and marital duration were non‐linear, and utilisation was found to differ significantly between never‐married and ever‐married women respondents. Results further show that older women, particularly those above 35 years old, utilise antenatal care services during pregnancy more than the younger ones. Policymakers and public health providers need to put in more efforts to address these differentials as a minimum of four visits for antenatal care during pregnancy is required by all women in all parts of the country. Allocations for antenatal care services should also take into account the differentials so that those states lagging behind can be brought up, at least to scale with others. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 02, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1775   open full text
  • Determinants of Diarrhoea in ‘Urban’ Slums of Dhaka and Adjacent Rural Areas: a Household‐level Analysis.
    MMH Khan, Arina Zanuzdana, Katrin Burkart, Alexander Krämer.
    Population Space and Place. April 01, 2013
    Diarrhoeal diseases constitute an important public health problem in many developing countries including Bangladesh. This study aimed to report the household‐level determinants of diarrhoea using the baseline information of cohort studies conducted in 2008 and 2009. The variation of diarrhoea by 3‐month period was also reported. A total of 3,207 households were systematically selected from 12 slums in Dhaka and three rural villages located nearby. The highest prevalence of diarrhoea was found during the period of September to November (22.7%) and the lowest during December to February (9.2%). Slum households were more affected by diarrhoea as compared with the rural households (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.06–2.08; p = 0.020). Other determinants namely provisional house, sharing water source, and sanitary, and use of surface water were also associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. In conclusion, slum households suffered more from diarrhoea than rural populations. Moreover, the higher burden of diarrhoea were found to be strongly and persistently associated with adverse housing and environmental conditions. Public health strategies based on our findings are required to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in the study population. Particularly multilevel interdisciplinary actions are needed to improving the quality of housing, water, and sanitation facilities in urban slums of Dhaka, and similar settings elsewhere. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 01, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1777   open full text
  • Rural Outmigration, Natural Capital, and Livelihoods in South Africa.
    Lori M. Hunter, Raphael Nawrotzki, Stefan Leyk, Galen J. Maclaurin, Wayne Twine, Mark Collinson, Barend Erasmus.
    Population Space and Place. March 26, 2013
    Rural households across the globe engage in both migration and natural resource use as components of livelihood strategies designed to meet household needs. Yet, migration scholars have only recently begun to regularly integrate environmental factors into empirical modelling efforts. To examine the migration‐environment association in rural South Africa, we use vegetation measures derived from satellite imagery combined with detailed demographic data from over 9000 households at the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Results reveal that household‐level temporary migration is associated with higher levels of local natural capital, although no such association exists for permanent migration. Further, more advantaged households exhibit a stronger association between migration‐environment, in‐line with the ‘environmental capital’ hypothesis, suggesting that natural resource availability can facilitate household income diversification. We argue that a focus on migration's environmental aspects is especially timely in the contemporary era of climate change and that natural capital availability and variability represent critical pieces of the empirical migration puzzle, especially regarding cyclical livelihood migration. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 26, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1776   open full text
  • Europeanisation without the European Union? The Case of Bi‐National Marriages in Switzerland.
    Julia H. Schroedter, Jörg Rössel.
    Population Space and Place. March 21, 2013
    We study the formation of bi‐national marital unions among partners from Switzerland and the European Union (EU) 15 countries as one indicator of the Europeanisation of Swiss Society. The result of our empirical analysis shows that there is in fact no clear increase of such bi‐national marriages over time. However, there are two structural conditions fostering EU15 marriages. One is that Swiss living close to the country's border have a higher propensity to marry a person from across that border compared with other Swiss. The other is that the greater the size of the foreign population in a Swiss canton, including a larger number of EU15 nationals, the more likely is a Swiss to have a spouse from an EU15 country. These results suggest the conclusion that a rise in EU15 marriages is still to come as the number of foreigners from these countries is increasing and also border regions become more important because of a continuing rise of commuters from neighbouring countries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 21, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1771   open full text
  • Houston's Emerging Exposure between African Americans and Whites: Evidence of Spatial Assimilation or Place Stratification?
    Warren Waren.
    Population Space and Place. March 03, 2013
    The persistent finding of a racial gap in residential attainment between African Americans and whites has led to a critique, which argues that spatial assimilation theory does not explain the residential segregation of African Americans, even though it explains segregation for other groups. That critique is typically based on analyses of cross‐sectional data, which do not take into account demographic context. In this paper, I examine demographically adjusted exposure scores for educational categories of race and ethnic groups in Houston, Texas, between 1970 and 2000. I find that starting in 1980 higher status African Americans achieved greater spatial assimilation. My findings suggest that analyses that rely on demographically appropriate measures and trend data indicate that spatial assimilation theory is relevant to changes in the residential mobility of African Americans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 03, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1753   open full text
  • Euromarriages in Spain: Recent Trends and Patterns in the Context of European Integration.
    Juan Díez Medrano, Clara Cortina, Ana Safranoff, Teresa Castro‐Martín.
    Population Space and Place. February 21, 2013
    This article examines recent trends and patterns in binational marriages between European citizens in Spain over a 20‐year period and the sociodemographic profile and nationality composition of these binational marriages. The analysis relies on aggregate marriage statistics and on marriage register microdata for 2008–2009. We use odds ratios to monitor trends and characteristics of binational marriages and multinomial regression to further examine the sociodemographic profile of these couples. The analysis of marriage records reveals only a modest rise in Euromarriages over the 1990–2009 period. This moderate increase in Euromarriages points towards a weak social impact of the European single market. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that binational marriages more often involve lesser‐educated than more‐educated individuals. Finally, findings on the social and nationality compositions of binational marriages conform to theoretical predictions drawn from the literatures of marriage markets, endogamy, and social hypergamy. They show that the affinity between Spaniards and European Union (EU‐15) citizens is lesser than that between Spaniards and non‐Europeans (i.e. Latin Americans). They also show that patterns of binational marriages are highly gender specific. Whereas the affinity between Spanish women and EU‐15 men is higher than the affinity between Spanish women and ‘new’ European men, the affinity between Spanish men and ‘new’ European women is higher than the affinity between Spanish men and EU‐15 women. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1774   open full text
  • How Persistent is Demographic Variation between Ethnic Groups? The Case of Household Size in England and Wales.
    Gemma Catney, Ludi Simpson.
    Population Space and Place. February 19, 2013
    Demographic characteristics vary between ethnic groups, as a function of cultural preferences and norms, consequences of immigration, compositional differences in age structure, and discriminatory practices. The differences are of policy relevance, but one should not expect a single pattern of convergence, persistence, or divergence. This paper's key distinction between child and adult contributions to household size allows an explanatory account that recognises both fertility and traditional preferences for extended family households. Aggregating small area populations allows the statistical analysis of a demographic indicator across ethnic groups in relation to both area composition and time. Convergence over time of the number of children per household is interpreted as a fall from high fertility immediately after immigration. Stable high numbers of adults per household among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups suggest continued demand for larger houses. These two patterns for England and Wales from 1991 to 2001 are confirmed with survey data for 2010. There is relatively little relationship between household size and local co‐ethnic concentrations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 19, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1762   open full text
  • Binational Marriages in Sweden: Is There an EU Effect?
    Karen Haandrikman.
    Population Space and Place. February 19, 2013
    This paper explores and explains the partner choice of Swedes in the period 1991–2008. The partner market for Swedes has expanded considerably in the last few decades, because of EU expansion, globalisation processes, and an increased diversity of the migrant population. Besides increased opportunities, citizens who are better educated, younger, and more mobile might prefer foreign partners of their own kind. The paper focuses on marriages between Swedish‐born and foreign‐born partners and distinguishes people with Swedish‐born parents from those with foreign‐born parents. Using full‐population register data, I conducted a systematic comparison between Swedes marrying EU partners and those marrying non‐EU partners. I find that the binational marriage rate has increased over time, especially for native Swedish men and men who are second‐generation Swedes. The increase is for the greater part attributable to an increase in the number of marriages to partners from outside the EU, whereas binational EU marriages have remained stable with no effects from EU accession. Patterns of binational marriages are highly gender specific: Finland being the most important supplier for foreign husbands, whereas Thai women are most popular amongst men. Against expectation, native Swedes in binational marriages are, by and large, older and less well educated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 19, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1770   open full text
  • European Liaisons? A Study on European bi‐national Marriages in Belgium.
    Suzana Koelet, Helga A.G. Valk.
    Population Space and Place. February 18, 2013
    European bi‐national marriages as a special case of interethnic unions have received relatively little attention in research. Existing studies on interethnic marriage mainly orient on union formation among non‐western migrants and in particular intermarriages between the majority group and non‐western migrants, which are often perceived as indicators for integration. European intermarriages can nonetheless be of similar interest from the perspective of European integration and identity formation. In this article, we first study the patterns and trends in bi‐national European marriages in Belgium. Second, we analyse the diversity in bi‐nationally married couples, and third, we pinpoint the characteristics of these European couples. We use the Belgian marriage register data from 1989 to 2010 as well as the census data from 2001. Our findings show that European bi‐national marriages are still relatively limited in Belgium and that their numbers (and proportion) have remained constant over time over the past decade. There is nevertheless variety in the level of intermarriage among different nationality groups. Our analyses point to six different types of European bi‐national marriages with different characteristics of the partners and their place of residence. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 18, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1773   open full text
  • Exploring Links between Internal and International Migration in Albania: a View from Internal Migrants.
    Erka Çaro, Ajay Bailey, Leo J. G. Van Wissen.
    Population Space and Place. February 18, 2013
    Over the last 20 years, Albania has experienced sweeping economic and social changes, caused in part by increasing internal and international migration flows. Migration trajectories of Albanians represent a combination of internal, international, and return migration. Whereas scholars have previously focused mainly on international migration, the current research explores the dynamics between internal and international migration. Typically, the internal migration of a family is supported, psychologically and financially, by the international migration of other household members. This paper reports on the influence that social and economic remittances have on the livelihoods of internal migrants. Using an ethnographic approach, financial and social remittances were shown to improve internal migrants' quality of life, assisting their adjustment process. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 18, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1763   open full text
  • Guest Editorial Meeting and Mating Across Borders: Union Formation in the European Union Single Market.
    Helga A. G. Valk, Juan Díez Medrano.
    Population Space and Place. February 14, 2013
    This editorial introduces a special issue and its different contributions. We provide an overarching background for the special issue by situating it in the context of the European Union integration process and through a general discussion of the role of intermarriage in establishing links across borders. The importance of studying union formation, that is, marriages between Europeans in the context of the European Single Market is discussed. We argue that marriages between Europeans can promote the development of trans‐European solidarity ties and may in this regard contribute to European identity formation. This article introduces the goals of the different research pieces in the special issue and outlines the overarching issues that are demonstrated by the papers collectively. We conclude that European binational marriages are still rather rare and that binational European couples are not a homogenous group. Our findings point towards the continued relevance of local geography, migrant history and patterns, as well as cultural and linguistic similarities for partner choice in a unified Europe. We call for a more integrated approach and a clear research agenda setting for the further study of union formation and dissolution in the European single market. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 14, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1768   open full text
  • Trends and Patterns in Euro‐Marriages in the Netherlands.
    Leo J. G. Wissen, Liesbeth Heering.
    Population Space and Place. January 29, 2013
    Although the European Union is usually viewed as a project aimed at creating a single commodity market, one of its primary purposes was more generally to remove social and cultural boundaries between the European nation‐states. Intermarriage is a classical indicator of the formation of social ties and communities. One could claim that the creation of a real social, political, cultural, and supranational European space is only complete if people are also willing to accept each other as their spouses. As part of Europe's social integration, Euro‐marriage can be regarded as the litmus test of European integration, and the Netherlands with his status as a founding member should have enjoyed the benefits of one single European marriage market longer than more recent members. Despite this obvious role of intermarriage as a key indicator of European integration, little is known about marriages between Europeans (‘Euro‐marriages’) in the Netherlands. This paper tries to fill this gap by describing the patterns of Euro‐marriages in the Netherlands, on the basis of register data on bi‐national newlyweds and household structure in the Netherlands since 1995. One of the key findings is that Euro‐marriages have not become more popular since 1995 and that this is only to some extent compensated by increased cohabitation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 29, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1769   open full text
  • Virtual Practices and Migration Plans: a Qualitative Study of Urban Young Adults.
    Eva Thulin, Bertil Vilhelmson.
    Population Space and Place. January 28, 2013
    The paper develops our understanding of how the Internet is integrated into migration processes and influences plans and decisions to move, drawing on in‐depth interviews with urban young adults planning to move. Our analysis is based on people's own experiences and perceptions, focusing on the pre‐migrant phase of interregional migration. Theoretically, the decision to move is an ongoing process and practice in which Internet use is increasingly prominent. Internet‐based information is assumed to increasingly be supporting and transforming individual migration plans. Results indicate that Internet use is integrated into most respondents' migration practices and is perceived as a necessity when accessing information about jobs, education, housing, and destinations. Its role varies between migration process phases, that is inspiration, screening and sorting, practical and emotional preparation, and post‐processing after settlement. In the inspiration phase, Internet‐based information builds migrant awareness of new opportunities in unfamiliar places, permitting larger and more distant geographical areas to be considered. The Internet is not perceived as a driving force per se, but instead a supportive agent. Internet use is believed to encourage individual interest in migration, transforming the overall meaning of migration and reducing the perceived friction of distance. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1766   open full text
  • Migrants' Remittances, Poverty and Social Protection in the South Pacific: Fiji and Tonga.
    Richard P. C. Brown, John Connell, Eliana V. Jimenez‐Soto.
    Population Space and Place. January 21, 2013
    Small island states are increasingly characterised by the growing role of international migration and remittances as components of national and household incomes. Recent household‐level survey data on migration and remittances in two Pacific island states, Fiji and Tonga, demonstrate that where formal social protection systems are largely absent, migration and remittances can perform a similar function informally, contributing significantly to development objectives. Remittances also have a positive effect on poverty alleviation and wealth creation, although the impacts on income distribution are mixed. From a policy perspective, these informal social protection and poverty alleviation mechanisms may be more effective in promoting development than policies designed to incorporate remittances into the formal financial systems. Migration and remittances play an increasingly valuable role in small states where domestic development opportunities are limited. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 21, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1765   open full text
  • Ethno‐Economic Satellite: the Case of Korean Residential Clusters in Auckland.
    Seong‐Yun Hong, Hong‐key Yoon.
    Population Space and Place. January 21, 2013
    Recent studies on the residential patterns of Asian immigrants in Pacific Rim countries have revealed a new form of suburban ethnic settlements – ethnoburbs. The geographic distribution of Koreans in Auckland indicates that an ethnoburb‐like concentration has been developed in this small but rapidly increasing population group: Koreans are residentially clustered but not isolated from other population groups in an absolute sense. Interestingly, however, the economic structure of this ethnic community is somewhat different from that of ethnoburbs observed in North American cities. Statistical analysis of ethnic‐specific business directories demonstrates that the economic structure within the Korean residential clusters in Auckland is dependent on the state of their home country's economy. In this regard, Korean businesses are more like economic satellites rather than independent economic entities in the transnational market, as observed in other suburban ethnic settlements. The residential clustering of Koreans in Auckland is an important example of how suburban ethnic settlements can vary in terms of their economic structures. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 21, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1764   open full text
  • Self‐employment, Internal Migration and Place Embeddedness.
    Darja Reuschke.
    Population Space and Place. January 14, 2013
    Little is known about the individual location behaviour of self‐employed entrepreneurs. Population geography has not researched this issue and entrepreneurship literature has given it little attention. This paper examines whether self‐employed entrepreneurs are ‘rooted’ in place and also whether those who are more rooted in place are more likely to enter self‐employment, thereby shedding new light onto the place embeddedness of self‐employment. Drawing on data from the German Socio‐Economic Panel Study (SOEP) 1996–2009 it shows that self‐employed entrepreneurs as compared with employees are not more rooted in place and that those who are more rooted in place are not more likely to become self‐employed. In contrast to expectations drawn from previous literature, flows into self‐employment are positively associated with inter‐regional moves. The only finding that supports the assumption of ‘place inertia’ of entrepreneurship is that starting a business is less likely to be linked with internal migration than job changes in the wage and salary sector. It concludes that mobility and immobility and individual and household constraints and preferences are important for understanding those who become self‐employed. At the same time, the people–place relations of self‐employment are important to understand migration and the functioning of labour markets. More generally, this paper underpins the importance of demographic phenomena for economic outcomes and thus the need for population geography to engage with other disciplines, in this case economic geography and entrepreneurship research. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 14, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1759   open full text
  • Who Becomes an Unwed Mother in Greece? Sociodemographic and Geographical Aspects of an Emerging Phenomenon.
    Vasilis S. Gavalas, Kostas Rontos, Luca Salvati.
    Population Space and Place. January 10, 2013
    Out of all European countries, the one with the lowest rate of childbearing outside marriage is Greece. However, it seems that the traditional attitudes towards family formation and childbearing have begun to change in Greece as well. Illegitimacy ratio has increased fourfold in less than 30 years. It is by using the vital statistics provided by the National Statistical Service of Greece that this paper answers to research questions regarding the sociodemographic profile of unwed mothers in Greece, in terms of educational level, age, and nationality. It also tries to find out what are the reasons of non‐marital childbearing in Greece and to investigate the geographical variation of this phenomenon within the country. A key finding is that the rise in the illegitimacy ratio from the 1990s onwards is largely due to the inflow of immigrants from other countries, mostly from the former Eastern Bloc. The social profile of these unwed mothers is totally different from their Greek counterparts, implying that foreign nationals who have children outside marriage do so by conviction and not because an unwanted pregnancy resulted to birth, which is mostly the case with Greek unwed mothers. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 10, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1761   open full text
  • Expectations of Being Helped in Return for Helping – Citizens, the State and the Local Area.
    Kingsley Purdam, Mark Tranmer.
    Population Space and Place. January 09, 2013
    Citizens are increasingly being encouraged to take on new voluntary roles and responsibilities, such as, for example, looking after their local area and being involved in decision making. This move towards responsible citizenship is linked to the changing role of government, and the scaling down of the public services provided by the post war welfare state in many Western democracies. In order to develop our understanding of why certain people are more likely to help than others in different circumstances, we examine people's expectations of help in return for helping at the individual, local, and national level. Our analysis suggests that across Europe younger people compared with older people are more likely to expect help in return for helping. Men are more likely than women to expect help in return for helping. In terms of helping values and behaviour, people who see helping others as important and also those who report helping other people in practice are less likely to expect help in return. There are also considerable differences between countries in reported rates of expecting help in return for helping. The perceived local context of help is important, such that people are more likely to expect help in return for helping where their perception of people helping each other in the local area is low. Policies aimed at encouraging citizens to take on new responsibilities need to take account of how citizens view their reciprocal relationships with fellow citizens as well as the local context and the state infrastructure. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 09, 2013   doi: 10.1002/psp.1756   open full text
  • A Dispossessed People: the Depopulation of the Chagos Archipelago 1965–1973.
    Richard Gifford, Richard P Dunne.
    Population Space and Place. December 20, 2012
    On 8 November 1965, the Chagos Archipelago in the central Indian Ocean was detached from the former British colony of Mauritius to create the British Indian Ocean Territory in order to make the islands available for joint UK/US defence purposes. By 1973, all the inhabitants had been removed by the British Government to make way for a US Military Base on one of the islands, Diego Garcia. Although the recorded population of the Chagos in the early 1960s before the formation of the British Indian Ocean Territory did not exceed 1,000 at any one time, the nature of the society and their links to colonial Mauritius masked the true numbers who had been born on and lived in the islands and were entitled to consider themselves native islanders or ‘Ilois’ and whose employment and lifestyle involved a freedom of movement between Mauritius and the Chagos. The size and nature of the Ilois were deliberately manipulated and concealed by British colonial officials in order to avoid scrutiny by the United Nations. By comparing the best available contemporary records and government archives, we conclusively demonstrate that the policy of the British Government drove between 1,328 and 1,522 Ilois into exile and poverty on Mauritius, and a further 232 on the Seychelles. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 20, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1754   open full text
  • A Life Course Perspective on Urban–Rural Migration: the Importance of the Local Context.
    Aileen Stockdale, Gemma Catney.
    Population Space and Place. December 18, 2012
    The relationship between migration and age has long been established, and most recently, there have been calls for the inclusion of a life course perspective to migration research. In this paper, we explore Northern Ireland's internal migration patterns, and in particular, we test for the importance of urban to rural migration at different stages of the life course. Data from the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study are used for the first time to analyse urban–rural migration patterns. The resulting modelling demonstrates unique aspects of urban to rural migration within Northern Ireland, which up until now have gone largely unreported. Results from logistic regression modelling suggest that there is an age selectivity to urban–rural mobility but not necessarily at the life course stages predicted from a review of the life course migration literature. Individuals in younger age groups (at the household and family formation stages of the life course) are most likely to make an urban to rural move in Northern Ireland, with a decline in the likelihood of this move type with age. Possible explanations are offered linked to Northern Ireland's settlement hierarchy, rural planning policy, and family farming traditions. The findings challenge researchers to pay due attention to how migration processes may play out differently in varying geographical, social, and planning contexts and emphasise the importance of structural factors to explain migration patterns. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 18, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1758   open full text
  • Regional Economic Performance and Distance Between Parents and Their Employed Children – a Multilevel Analysis.
    Thijs Broek, Pearl A. Dykstra, Niels Schenk.
    Population Space and Place. December 07, 2012
    Drawing on the work of Sassen, we assess the association between regional economic performance and the distance between parents and their employed children. Multilevel regression analyses of German Ageing Survey micro data enriched with INKAR (Indicators, Maps, and Graphics for Spatial and Urban Development) district level indicators (N = 5,577) indicate that economic performance of a parent's living district is negatively associated with parent‐employed child distance. The negative association between economic performance of a parent's living district and parent–child distance does not vary by the skill level of the child's job, contrary to expectations based on the polarisation and professionalisation theses. Possible implications of the findings for intergenerational solidarity, most notably the availability of informal care for dependent older parents, are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 07, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1757   open full text
  • The Internal Migration of Immigrants: Differences between One‐Time and Multiple Movers in Spain.
    Javier Silvestre, David S. Reher.
    Population Space and Place. December 06, 2012
    Research on the mobility and residential patterns of immigrants within receiving countries is abundant. The selective nature of movers and the location of immigrants are issues that have received special attention. Most studies are premised on the supposition that immigrants move only once. However, for a number of immigrants, internal migration is a dynamic process in which more than one movement is involved. This article extends the literature by disaggregating immigrants according to their number of internal migrations. We use data from a new and rich retrospective survey to examine the determinants of migration trajectories and the effects of the location choices of immigrants. We elaborate a set of indicators to assess the importance of the spatial assimilation theory and other main theoretical frameworks. This article concentrates on Spain, a recent main migratory destination in Europe and worldwide. Results reveal the existence of significant differences between one‐time and multiple movers. The selective nature of multiple movers is explained in part by the spatial assimilation paradigm. Further results show that both one‐time and multiple movers tend to reside outside ethnic concentrations as a result of their mobility experience within Spain. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 06, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1755   open full text
  • An Examination of the Geography of Population Composition and Change in the United States, 2000–2010: Insights from Geographical Indices and a Shift–Share Analysis.
    Rachel S. Franklin.
    Population Space and Place. November 08, 2012
    Between 2000 and 2010, almost all states in the United States experienced population growth. However, as contributions to this growth made by racial/ethnic groups and age cohorts varied from place to place, any discussion of population ‘change’ necessarily refers not only to numerical but also compositional change. This paper presents an analysis of the sources of US population change in the first decade of the new millennium, with an emphasis on changing patterns in population composition in terms of both age and race/ethnicity. Using age and race/ethnicity ‐ specific data from the 2000 and 2010 US decennial censuses ‐ the analysis applies traditional regional analysis tools to identify areas of low or high racial and ethnic concentration and diversity and areas of the country that exemplify ‘typical’ American population composition. In addition, the paper uses shift‐share analysis, a descriptive technique most often used to assess employment change across a set of economic sectors, to evaluate state‐level population change between 2000 and 2010. The following questions, among others, are answered: Have some states experienced population growth over the past 10 years mainly because the country as a whole has been growing? Or is it more the case that these places had a ‘demographic advantage’ because much of their population is in age cohorts or race/ethnic groups that are growing the fastest? Finally, where does growth appear to be due to region‐specific factors? Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 08, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1744   open full text
  • Life Course Preferences, Sibling Ties, and the Geographical Dispersion of Sibling Networks.
    Marjolein Blaauboer, Magnus Strömgren, Olof Stjernström.
    Population Space and Place. October 30, 2012
    Using Swedish register data, we analyse how life course preferences and sibling ties are related to the geographical dispersion of siblings. We argue that life course preferences and sibling ties are influenced by siblings' sociodemographic characteristics, by similarities and differences between them, and by their family background. The measurement of geographical dispersion, the nearest neighbour index, allows us to go beyond dyadic relationships and investigate entire networks. Results from the OLS regression analysis show that life course preferences are related to the dispersion of siblings and that differences between siblings are associated with a greater geographical dispersion than similarities are. Sibling ties developed during childhood also seem to be associated with the dispersion of sibling networks. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 30, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1742   open full text
  • A Systematic Review on the Impact of Internal Remittances on Poverty and Consumption in Developing Countries: Implications for Policy.
    Tambri Housen, Sandra Hopkins, Jaya Earnest.
    Population Space and Place. October 29, 2012
    This paper reviews the current literature on the usage and impact of internal remittances on recipient households in low‐income countries. A systematic review was conducted using six electronic and four informal databases. Using narrative synthesis, we reviewed 18 studies. The results of the review provide strong evidence revealing that internal migration is an important poverty reduction strategy with remittances having the greatest impact on the poorest households. Internal migrant remittances serve not only to improve livelihood by decreasing the household depth and severity of poverty but also increase household investment in education and housing. This review proposes recommendations for policy and future internal remittances research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 29, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1743   open full text
  • Different Areas, Different People? Migration to Popular and Less‐Popular Rural Areas in the Netherlands.
    Rixt Anke Bijker, Tialda Haartsen, Dirk Strijker.
    Population Space and Place. October 25, 2012
    Counterurbanisation is often conceptualised as urban, middle‐class movers attracted by an idyllic rural setting. However, knowing that rural areas differ in their popularity for living, we argue that more attention is required to the diversity of rural in‐migration within countries. We do so by comparing the characteristics, motivations, and values of movers to popular and less‐popular areas in the northern Netherlands using multivariate analysis on survey data (N = 1,717). In contrast to earlier studies, we focus on the motivations for choosing the destination area instead of mixing those with motives for leaving. We also included residential history and values in our analysis. The differences between movers to the two types of areas appear to be less distinct than indicated by previous studies. Although popular areas more often attract middle‐class movers, both areas attract urban movers. Movers to less‐popular areas are more often motivated by low house prices and moving in with a partner, but movers to popular areas also mention instrumental considerations related to work and location. While the physical aspects of the environment are important to moving to popular areas, social aspects are more important to moving to less‐popular areas. We find that values add to our understanding of counterurbanisation. It is not possible to relate two distinct groups of movers directly to different types of rural areas within countries. Future research into rural migration should be careful not to use too simplified understandings of counterurbanisation, both in general and with regard to different types of rural areas. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 25, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1741   open full text
  • Migrant–Local Hiring Queues in the UK Food Industry.
    Sam Scott.
    Population Space and Place. October 08, 2012
    The paper argues that a clear migrant–local hiring queue has emerged at the bottom of the UK labour market since EU enlargement (in 2004 and 2007). The hiring queue reflects a preference amongst low‐wage employers in the UK food industry for newly arrived A8 and A2 migrants and related prejudice towards would‐be domestic workers. Using interview and survey evidence – from 37 horticultural growers/processors and 268 farmers, respectively – we describe what these hiring queues look like. We then explain their emergence: arguing that migrant–local hiring queues are predominantly the result of the ‘added value’ that migrants from the EU periphery bring, over the short term, to the low‐wage workplace. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 08, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1734   open full text
  • ‘They Control My Life’: the Role of Local Recruitment Agencies in East European Migration to the UK.
    Deborah Sporton.
    Population Space and Place. October 08, 2012
    This paper examines the role of local recruitment agencies in facilitating post‐accession east European migration to the UK. Although it is widely acknowledged that transnational labour market intermediaries are contributing to all three stages of labour migration involving the recruitment of workers, their movement across borders and their placement in employment, less attention has focused on the role of local or national agencies that, it is argued, exert considerable leverage on migration flows. Drawing on case study research undertaken with east European migrants in a small underperforming local labour market, the paper explores the ways in which local or lone recruitment agents have become embedded as key institutional actors in transnational networks and examines their role as migration mediators. The expansion of flexible, deregulated labour markets and the coincident growth in temporary agency work have created a regulatory context whereby the ‘management’ of east European migration to the UK through the Worker Registration Scheme actually contributed to the growth in local agency employment by enabling migrants to fulfil their immigration requirements. It is argued that once embedded within migrant networks and ethically segregated labour markets, agencies have played a key role in facilitating further migration from Eastern Europe. The discursive construction of migrants as ‘temporary workers’ coupled with the association of precarious agency employment with ‘migrant work’ has further cemented this relationship. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 08, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1732   open full text
  • People, Land, and Context: Multilevel Determinants of Off‐farm Employment in the Ecuadorian Amazon.
    Alisson Flávio Barbieri, William K. Pan.
    Population Space and Place. September 23, 2012
    This paper investigates the factors that motivate decisions of settler colonists to engage in off‐farm employment (OFE) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Overall, OFE, as a type of population mobility, may increasingly become a dominant demographic factor in rural frontier regions. Although OFE decisions are primarily a matter of individual choice, factors associated with the farm household and the local community also play key roles in this decision making. This paper applies a multilevel conceptual framework and uses a multinomial, multilevel statistical model to study OFE in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon in 1999 as a result of factors at the individual, farm household, and community levels. The results show important differences between OFE participation choices in personal characteristics, human capital, farm household life cycle, land use, land management, farm environmental conditions, transportation accessibility, community size, and structure of local labour markets. The paper also identifies the effects of policy‐relevant variables on choices to engage in OFE in local community, other rural, or urban areas of destination. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 23, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1733   open full text
  • Estimation of Local Disability Schedules: an Evaluation of Relational Models.
    Alan Marshall.
    Population Space and Place. September 02, 2012
    Local information on the age‐specific prevalence of disability, distinguishing disability type, is important for planning purposes to inform the provision of specialist services appropriate to the needs of those at different ages. Projections of disability, which require estimates of age‐specific rates of disability as their base, are valuable as they enable planners to prepare for future service demands. However, in the UK, estimates that include detail of disability type, age, and sex are not reliably available for sub‐national areas. This paper evaluates relational models, a technique originally developed for the estimation of age‐specific mortality rates, as a potential solution to this information gap. Relational models are shown to be as successful in capturing sub‐national variability in levels of disability as individual‐level synthetic regression models. The relational approach has important advantages over more commonly used individual‐level synthetic regression models in terms of parsimony of parameters and assumptions. As such, relational models offer a valuable new approach for health researchers and policymakers interested in the estimation of local age‐specific rates of disability and more generally other health‐related characteristics with rates that follow mortality‐like age patterns. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 02, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1731   open full text
  • The Regional Dimension of Intergenerational Proximity in the Netherlands.
    Marieke Pers, Clara H. Mulder.
    Population Space and Place. August 30, 2012
    Previous research has shown the impact of individual characteristics on intergenerational proximity but has largely ignored the regional dimension of such proximity. In this paper, we examine the regional variation in intergenerational proximity in the Netherlands. We address this issue by incorporating indicators of urbanisation and regional culture in an analysis of the likelihood that adult children live within daily reach (within a distance of 5 or 20 km) of their older parents. We also depict the spatial variation in intergenerational proximity in maps. Employing logistic regression on nearly 5 million parent–child dyads extracted from register data, we find that the degree of urbanisation of the residential municipality of the two generations shows contrasting effects: a positive association for the degree of urbanisation of the parents' municipality, a negative association for the children's. Older parents living in areas in which more conservative and collectivist attitudes prevail are more likely to have their adult children living close to them. After accounting for the municipality dummies, the explanatory power of the model improves considerably. However, substantial spatial variation in intergenerational proximity remains largely unexplained after controlling for the regional characteristics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 30, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1729   open full text
  • Couples' Education and Regional Mobility – the Importance of Occupation, Income and Gender.
    Maria Brandén.
    Population Space and Place. August 09, 2012
    People with high education are more geographically mobile than people with lower education. Further, highly educated men are more mobile than highly educated women, and the man's education affects couples' migration propensities more than the woman's. This study examines whether the reasons for the higher migration propensities among highly educated people are the occupational characteristics and income commonly associated with high education. Further, the study examines whether the reason for the asymmetric effect of men's education relative to women's is that these occupational characteristics and income are unevenly distributed between men and women with similar educational levels. I studied dual‐earner couples, with common children, residing in Sweden in 1997–2006. Results from logistic regressions indicate that both men's and women's education are positively related to couples' migration propensities, and that men's education has a larger impact on migration than women's, before adjusting for income and occupational characteristics. A substantial portion of the increased risk of migration among highly educated people can be attributed to income and occupational characteristics. Also, to a large extent, the differential effects of men's and women's education can be explained by the different types of occupations held by men and women within the same educational level, as well as by gender differences in monetary returns from education. When adjusting for these differences, only very minor gender differences in the effect of education remain. Despite theories on gender ideology, which implies men's attributes would dominate migration decisions, occupational characteristics have similar effects for men and women. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 09, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1730   open full text
  • Occupational Characteristics, Occupational Sex Segregation, and Family Migration Decisions.
    Francisco Perales, Sergi Vidal.
    Population Space and Place. July 31, 2012
    This paper examines the effects of occupational characteristics on family migration within Britain. For the first time in the literature, we explicitly theorise and later test the impact of the sex composition of husbands' and wives' occupations on mobility decisions. The empirical analysis consists of panel regression models estimated on dyadic couple‐level information from the British Household Panel Survey combined with occupational‐level data from the UK Labour Force Survey. Results suggest that some occupational characteristics are significantly associated with family migration, whereas occupational sex segregation has limited impact. Although working in female‐dominated occupations is related to a lower propensity to become a lead mover and a higher propensity to become a tied mover, these associations are mediated by the socio‐economic and occupational characteristics of the spouses. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 31, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1727   open full text
  • Highly Skilled Migration: What Differentiates the ‘Brains’ Who Are Drained from Those Who Return in the Case of Greece?
    Lois Labrianidis, Nikos Vogiatzis.
    Population Space and Place. June 22, 2012
    The migration of highly educated population (brain drain) poses extremely significant impacts on origin countries' development, especially in cases in which, owing to their economic and social structures, these countries cannot promote the efficient allocation of their professionals. At the same time, the decision of those migrants to return home or remain abroad is affected by several factors. This paper aims to analyse this phenomenon by using primary data collected from Greece. Our findings indicate that it is not reasonable to expect that a large share of these people is likely to return, especially given the ongoing economic and social crises that further exacerbate the observed mismatch between supply and demand for a highly educated workforce in the country. These empirical results can assist the formulation of specific policy measures in order to reap the benefits of those individuals' presence abroad, which can undoubtedly enhance the developmental prospects of European countries. This study constitutes the first one on brain drain from Greece, while it is also the first study to compare highly skilled migrants who still work abroad to those who have returned. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 22, 2012   doi: 10.1002/psp.1726   open full text