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International Journal of Selection and Assessment

Impact factor: 1.318 5-Year impact factor: 1.544 Print ISSN: 0965-075X Online ISSN: 1468-2389 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subjects: Applied Psychology, Management

Most recent papers:

  • Issue Information.

    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 22, 2018
    --- - - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, March 2018.
    February 22, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12183   open full text
  • Counterproductive work behaviors 2.0: Assessment or consequences.
    Deniz S. Ones.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 22, 2018
    --- - - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 1-4, March 2018.
    February 22, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12205   open full text
  • Counterproductive sustainability behaviors and their relationship to personality traits.
    Stephan Dilchert.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 22, 2018
    --- - |2 This article introduces the concept of ‘counterproductive sustainability behaviors’ (CSB) as a novel expression of counterproductive work behaviors (CWB). It presents a short measure of CSB that applies the construct of counterproductivity to employee behaviors in the environmental sustainability domain. Personality assessments were administered to three independent samples—employed students, experienced employees, and job applicants—to investigate the relationship between personality and CSB (self‐reports and other‐rated), and to compare results to those obtained in the prediction of traditional CWB. - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 49-56, March 2018.
    February 22, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12204   open full text
  • Affective responses to abuse in the workplace: The role of hope and affective commitment.
    C. Justice Tillman, Katerina Gonzalez, Wayne S. Crawford, Ericka R. Lawrence.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 22, 2018
    --- - |2 Affective responses constitute the mechanism by which abusive supervision received is associated with subordinates’ turnover intentions. Using affective events theory (AET) as a theoretical framework, we suggest that abusive supervision is a contextual event that is associated with subordinates’ affective reactions and corresponding evaluative judgment of their workplace, which ultimately leads to increased turnover intentions, a prominent withdrawal outcome. We examine two affective responses as mediators, hope (a goal‐related affective state based on the expectation of positive outcomes) and affective commitment (affect‐based evaluation of the organization). Two samples from a field study (n = 209) and an experiment (n = 427) were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results supported our proposed chain of relationships, suggesting that subordinates are likely to experience decreased hope and affective commitment after having experienced abuse from a supervisor, which subsequently impact their withdrawal intention to leave the organization. - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 57-65, March 2018.
    February 22, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12203   open full text
  • Personnel risk management assessment for newly emerging forms of employee crimes.
    Michael R. Cunningham, John W. Jones, Brian W. Dreschler.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 22, 2018
    --- - |2 Advances in digital technology have led to new forms of employee crime and organizational risk. Employee collusion with external criminals engaged in theft is increasing in the digital age. Digital storage of company and customer information puts both at risk of hacking, which may be aided, or accidentally facilitated, by insiders. Both negligent and risk‐taking employees may cause cyber‐safety violations, leading to accidents whose scope is multiplied by digital interconnectivity. Prospective employees can use digital software and social media sites to misrepresent their identities while creating bogus credentials and the misleading appearance of a work history. Disgruntled employees can engage in cyber‐sabotage of the organization, and cyber‐harassment of co‐workers. To address these emergent threats, new forms of personnel risk assessment can be developed and deployed. One such measure is the Reid Background Check Plus (RBCP). A meta‐analysis of 39 studies supporting the five dimensions of the new RBCP produced encouraging construct and criterion‐related validity evidence. - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 5-16, March 2018.
    February 22, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12202   open full text
  • Ethical employee behaviors in the consensus taxonomy of counterproductive work behaviors.
    Brenton M. Wiernik, Deniz S. Ones.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Employee ethical behaviors are a frequent topic of business research and a critical criterion for organizations seeking to implement socially responsible, ethical business practices. They, alongside organizational citizenship behaviors and employee green behaviors, reflect one of the three major domains of employee responsible behaviors through which organizations realize corporate social responsibility goals. In this article, we present a critical review of theoretical conceptualizations, taxonomies, and assessment of employee ethical and unethical behaviors. We consider definitional issues and situate the construct of (un)ethical employee behaviors within the current Consensus Taxonomy of Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CT‐CWB). We describe the structure and major dimensions of employee ethical behaviors and evaluate the construct coverage, psychometric properties, and shortcomings of major available ethical behavior measures. We provide a brief summary of individual differences determinants of ethical behaviors. We identify important directions for future research and the critical need for more adequate measurement of (un)ethical behaviors. - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 36-48, March 2018.
    February 12, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12199   open full text
  • Not all forms of misbehavior are created equal: Differential personality facet–counterproductive work behavior relations.
    Caleb B. Bragg, Nathan A. Bowling.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2018
    --- - |2 We examined whether four personality traits—trait aggression, trait industriousness, trait deceptiveness, and trait self‐control—were differentially related to 11 narrow‐bandwidth CWB facets: (a) property destruction, (b) inappropriate verbal actions, (c) inappropriate physical actions, (d) poor attendance, (e) poor quality work, (f) unsafe behavior, (g) theft and related behavior, (h) misuse of information, (i) misuse of time and resources, (j) alcohol use, and (k) drug use. Based on responses from 404 employed participants recruited using Mechanical Turk, we found that each narrow‐bandwidth personality trait often yielded stronger relationships with overall CWB than with narrow‐bandwidth CWB facets. - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 27-35, March 2018.
    February 07, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12200   open full text
  • Construct‐based approach to developing a short, personality‐based measure of integrity.
    Victor M. Catano, Damian F. O'Keefe, Robbie E. Francis, Soo M. Owens.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Covert integrity measures are thought to draw from the Big Five dimensions of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability. Using a construct‐based approach, we had subject matter experts identify items from a Big Five personality measure, the Trait Self‐Descriptive Personality Inventory that reflected an operational definition of integrity. The resulting 10 items exhibited a three‐factor structure that corresponded to the three Big five dimensions associated with integrity. Study 1 used primary (N = 388) and archival (N = 429) data sets collected from Canadian Armed Forces recruits to establish the construct validity of the new test. With respect to convergent and discriminant validity, the Integrity scale was related to the Honesty–Humility scale of the HEXACO‐PI and was unrelated to organizational commitment. Hierarchical regression analyses provided evidence that the integrity scale predicted counterproductive work behavior and job performance over and above the Big Five. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1 using a civilian sample (N = 200). The Integrity scale was related to the Hogan Reliability Index but not to the General Health Questionnaire. It predicted work engagement over and above the Big Five. We also tested the proposition that integrity is a second‐order factor based on conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability. Structural equation models in both studies confirmed that proposition. We discuss the implications of our results for both theory and practice. - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 75-92, March 2018.
    February 06, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12197   open full text
  • Cross‐cultural validity of integrity assessments for lower‐level and higher‐level jobs.
    Steven W. Billings, Kelly D. Dages.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 05, 2018
    --- - |2 This research brief examines the cross‐cultural validity of two multi‐dimensional integrity assessments, one for lower‐level jobs and one for higher‐level jobs. Job applicants for a global company completed the assessments as a part of the hiring process in three countries: the United States, South Africa, and Mexico. U.S. applicants tended to score higher (i.e., higher integrity) on these assessments and make fewer admissions of counterproductive work behaviors than applicants from South Africa and Mexico. The overall scores for these assessments (and most of the individual scales) were correlated significantly with, for each country separately and globally, three composites of self‐reported counterproductive work behavior criterion measures (Theft, Counterproductivity, and Overall Risky Behavior). Construct validity evidence was examined with a measure of Collusion Avoidance (tolerance for colluding with external organized criminals). Overall, the results of this research highlight the importance of including an integrity assessment in the hiring processes for lower‐level and higher‐level (i.e., professional and managerial) jobs globally. Integrity assessments appear to have practical value in countries with higher prevalence of crime and corruption. The results also bolster previous research indicating that integrity assessments are valid outside of the U.S. context in which they were initially developed over 60 years ago. - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 66-74, March 2018.
    February 05, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12198   open full text
  • Rule breakers and attention seekers: Personality predictors of integrity and accountability in leaders.
    Kimberly S. Nei, Jeff L. Foster, Alisha M. Ness, Darin S. Nei.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 05, 2018
    --- - |2 Unethical leadership behavior can encourage follower CWBs and have costly organizational impacts. In this meta‐analysis, we use data from 3,000 managers and executives to identify antecedents of ethical behaviors: integrity and accountability. Results suggest that many five factor model (Big Five) personality scales, personality derailers (dark side attributes), and values predict integrity and accountability. Leaders who are more conscientious, professional, and rule following and less attention seeking receive higher ratings of integrity and accountability. The strongest relationships were often for personality derailers (Excitable, Leisurely, Mischievous, Imaginative). Values and preferences (Aesthetics, Hedonism, Recognition) also had notable relationships. We discuss our results and their implications for organizations seeking to reduce CWBs, promote OCBs, or establish a climate of ethical behavior. - International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 17-26, March 2018.
    February 05, 2018   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12201   open full text
  • Comparing applicants and incumbents: Effects of response distortion on mean scores and validity of personality measures.
    Ye Ra Jeong, Neil D. Christiansen, Chet Robie, Mei‐Chuan Kung, Ted B. Kinney.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 04, 2017
    This study examined the negative effect of likely applicant distortion on mean scores and validity of personality measures. The personality test scores and performance ratings of applicants were directly compared to those of incumbents with the same occupation in four different samples. The results showed that applicant mean scores were higher and validity coefficients were lower than for incumbents.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12182   open full text
  • Fearless dominance and performance in field sales: A predictive study.
    Julia Titze, Gerhard Blickle, Andreas Wihler.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 04, 2017
    In a prospective study of 150 junior salespeople in the same company, we examined the relation between fearless dominance, which is a dimension of trait psychopathy, and objective performance in field sales. After controlling for demographic variables, length of job tenure, initial sales training quality, and disciplined achievement motivation, the results supported an inverted U‐shaped relation, which showed that, after a certain turning point, increases in fearless dominance resulted in decreases in performance. Thus, the most successful salespeople in our sample possessed moderate levels of fearless dominance. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are provided in light of a number of notable strengths and limitations.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12181   open full text
  • Faking under a nonlinear relationship between personality assessment scores and job performance.
    HyeSun Lee, Weldon Z. Smith, Kurt F. Geisinger.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 04, 2017
    This study investigated whether faking in personality assessments affects the prediction of job performance and consequences of selection decisions when a nonlinear relationship was assumed between personality scores and job performance. It was also examined whether a selection strategy suggested for nonlinear relationships reduces the adverse impact of faking on consequences of selection decisions. The findings from the item response theory‐based simulations indicated that the prediction of job performance was affected by faking, whereas selection accuracy was not substantially affected by faking. The improvement in selection accuracy due to the strategy suggested for a nonlinear relationship was not noticeable. However, the suggested strategy reduced adverse impacts of faking on the estimation of selected applicants' performance scores.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12180   open full text
  • “Without the spelling errors I would have shortlisted her…”: The impact of spelling errors on recruiters’ choice during the personnel selection process.
    Christelle Martin‐Lacroux.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 04, 2017
    Despite the time spent on writing at work and employers’ dissatisfaction with their employees’ spelling skills, little is known about recruiters’ attribution, and decision making when they read application forms with spelling errors. This study examines the impact of spelling and typographic errors on recruiters’ attributions about applicants, and on their shortlisting decision. Based on a sample of 20 French recruiters, we conducted an experiment to collect both qualitative data through the verbal protocol method and quantitative data. Specific verbal reports are associated with different types of errors. Recruiters also form attributions about candidates. We demonstrate that spelling errors affect recruiters’ behavior more negatively than typographic ones. We discuss the implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12179   open full text
  • Predicting expatriate effectiveness: The role of personality, cross‐cultural adjustment, and organizational support.
    Jesús F. Salgado, María Bastida.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 04, 2017
    The interest in expatriate effectiveness has grown remarkably as a consequence of globalization and the possibility of failure in international assignments. This study has tested a comprehensive model of expatriate effectiveness in a sample of 108 Spanish expatriate managers. They responded to a survey which included a set of variables, including personality, adjustment, language skill, cultural distance, organizational support, and expatriate effectiveness (i.e., job performance, intentions of early return, and manager efficacy perceived by others). The results showed that cultural distance and cross‐cultural adjustment were the immediate predictors of expatriate effectiveness and that achievement, sociability, organizational support, and language skills predicted cross‐cultural adjustment and cultural distance. The results showed a good fit to the hypothesized model (GFI = .973; CFI =.975; RMSEA = .056; SRMR = .053). Finally, we comment on the implications of the findings for the research and practice of selection in international assignments.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12178   open full text
  • Rater training: Understanding effects of training content, practice ratings, and feedback.
    Neil M. A. Hauenstein, Maureen E. McCusker.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 04, 2017
    Despite the popularity of frame‐of‐reference training (FORT), it is not clear how different structural elements of FORT work in concert to improve rating accuracy. Furthermore, past rater training studies have lacked rigorous control groups leading to low thresholds for showing improvements in rating accuracy due to FORT. The current study allowed for the isolation of components of rater training that increase rating accuracy when compared to a rigorously designed control group. Results indicated that repeated rendering of practice ratings improve rating accuracy and this practice effect was amplified by practice rating feedback. Although accuracy‐based training content improved interrater agreement, it did not contribute to improvements rating accuracy over and above the control group. We discuss the implications of the findings in relation to best practices for designing rater training programs.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12177   open full text
  • A closer look at the measurement of dispositional reasoning: Dimensionality and invariance across assessor groups.
    François S. De Kock, Filip Lievens, Marise Ph. Born.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 04, 2017
    Despite the growing interest in dispositional reasoning as a construct and determinant of good raters (‘good judges’), its measurement still requires attention. We address two measurement issues in the present study. First, this study tests a hierarchical model as a more parsimonious account for dispositional reasoning than component‐ or general‐factor models that were examined in earlier studies. So, this provides a more comprehensive test of the different measurement models underlying dispositional reasoning data. Second, we assess the measurement invariance of dispositional reasoning measure scores across two different populations of assessors that are often trained and used in workplace assessments, namely psychology students (N = 161) and managers (N = 160). Results showed that dispositional reasoning is well represented as componential in nature, with a higher‐order construct underlying three lower‐order components. A comparison of managers and psychology students through measurement invariance analysis showed relatively similar factor structures underlying dispositional reasoning scores across these groups, but metric invariance could be only partially established.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12176   open full text
  • The validity of the Big Five personality traits for job performance: Meta‐analyses of South African studies.
    Ninette van Aarde, Deon Meiring, Brenton M. Wiernik.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 04, 2017
    Previous meta‐analyses have established the Big Five personality traits as important predictors of job performance around the globe. This study extends the international generalizability of Big Five criterion‐related validity through systematic review and meta‐analyses of personality–performance research conducted in South Africa. We meta‐analyzed data from 33 studies and 6,782 individuals to estimate validities of Big Five traits for various job performance criteria. Results showed that the Big Five traits have similar validity for job performance criteria as found in other cultural contexts. Conscientiousness was the strongest predictor across performance criteria, while other traits showed validity for specific criteria or subsamples. Results demonstrate the importance of psychometric meta‐analysis for building cumulative knowledge and support applied use of personality assessments in South Africa. Consistency of the results of this study with those of previous meta‐analyses in other national contexts supports the argument that personality–performance relations are a cultural universal.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12175   open full text
  • Criterion‐related validity of a Big Five general factor of personality from the TIPI to the IPIP.
    Gary N. Burns, Megan B. Morris, David A. Periard, David LaHuis, Nicholas M. Flannery, Thomas R. Carretta, Mark Roebke.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 04, 2017
    The criterion validity of a general factor of personality (GFP) extracted from personality scales of various lengths was explored in relation to organizational behavior and subjective well‐being with 288 employed students. Results indicated that GFPs extracted from as few as 10 items were significantly related to organizational outcomes. The relationship between GFP scores and outcomes generally increased with the length of the underlying scales, but these differences were reduced when correcting for reliability. Additionally, in over 60% of the analyses the GFPs exhibited higher correlations with specific outcomes compared to specific Big Five scores; this was true of 100% of the analyses using a broad, composite criterion. These results highlight the potential utility of the GFP as a screening tool when extracted from Big Five inventories from 10 to 100 items.
    August 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12174   open full text
  • Self‐efficacy and justice perceptions in personnel selection: A moderated mediation model.
    Marco Giovanni Mariani, Rita Chiesa, Harjinder Gill.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    The study investigated the role of self‐efficacy (general and task‐specific) and justice perceptions in determining the expectations of success in personnel selection procedures. We hypothesized that personnel selection self‐efficacy mediated the relationship between general self‐efficacy and outcome expectations, and that justice perceptions moderated these relationships. Our sample consisted of 206 respondents who had just graduated or were about to graduate and had previous experience in selection procedures. The moderated mediation model indicated that personnel selection self‐efficacy mediated the relationship between general self‐efficacy and outcome expectations, but only in the case of high justice perceptions, whereas general self‐efficacy had a direct effect on outcome expectations only in the case of low justice perceptions. The findings encourage more research on applicants’ expectations.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12173   open full text
  • An exploratory study of current performance management practices: Human resource executives’ perspectives.
    C. Allen Gorman, John P. Meriac, Sylvia G. Roch, Joshua L. Ray, Jason S. Gamble.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    A survey of performance management (PM) practices in 101 U.S. organizations explored whether their PM systems, as perceived by human resources (HR) executives, reflect the best practices advocated by researchers to provide a benchmark of current PM practices. Results suggest that many of the PM practices recommended in the research literature are employed across the organizations surveyed, but several gaps between research and practice remain. Results also indicated that the majority of PM systems are viewed by HR executives as effective and fair. Implications for the science and practice of PM are discussed.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12172   open full text
  • Are observer ratings of applicants’ personality also faked? Yes, but less than self‐reports.
    Cornelius J. König, Larissa A. Steiner Thommen, Anne‐Marie Wittwer, Martin Kleinmann.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    Although self‐report personality tests are a comparatively cheap and easy‐to‐administer personnel selection tool, researchers have criticized them for not predicting enough criterion‐related variance. Researchers have suggested using observer‐ratings of personality (e.g., as part of a reference check from a supervisor) because observer‐ratings have been reported to be more predictive. However, it is theoretically and empirically unclear whether supervisors also engage in faking (the intentional distortion of responses). Study 1 explored faking among managers who were first asked to imagine that a subordinate had to leave his/her job for private reasons and then to rate the personality of the subordinate. A week later, managers rated their subordinates honestly. A repeated‐measures MANOVA indicated that managers did fake. Study 2 (among supervisors of working students) replicated the above findings but also showed that there is less faking in supervisor‐ratings than in self‐ratings. Furthermore, we found no evidence that the validity of personality scales for predicting academic performance depends on self‐ versus observer‐ratings or on an applicant versus an honest condition. These two studies thus show that practitioners should not equate personality ratings obtained from observers in a selection context with honest personality ratings.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12171   open full text
  • Relationships of analytical, practical, and emotional intelligence with behavioral dimensions of performance of top managers.
    Anna Baczyńska, George C. Thornton.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    This study examined the relationships among analytical, practical, and emotional intelligence (EI) and five dimensions of managerial behavior. Two sets of hypotheses were tested: one set examined the relationship of each of the three types of intelligence with each of the behavioral dimensions; the second set examined the unique contribution of each type of intelligence to the prediction of each dimension. Twenty‐three one‐day assessment center sessions, including tests and simulation exercises, were administered to 163 top managers in Poland. The behavioral dimensions of leadership, initiative, goal orientation, change orientation, and employee development were related to analytical intelligence and practical intelligence, but not to EI. These findings make unique contributions to understanding the relationships of types of intelligence and managerial behavioral dimensions.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12170   open full text
  • Engagement, procedural fairness, and perceived fit as predictors of applicant withdrawal intentions: A longitudinal field study.
    Gary W. Giumetti, Patrick H. Raymark.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    The current study draws upon image theory to identify predictors of applicant withdrawal intentions and behavior. Applicants from a U.S. manufacturing organization completed measures of engagement, procedural justice, perceived fit, offer expectancy, perceived alternatives, and withdrawal intentions. Results indicate that withdrawal intentions were lower when candidates were more engaged in the selection process, perceived a higher level of procedural justice in the application process, perceived a greater degree of fit, and had higher offer expectancies. Additionally, the person–job fit–withdrawal intentions relationship was moderated by perceived alternatives such that this relationship was strongest when candidates reported having more alternatives. Withdrawal behavior was significantly predicted by person–organization fit, engagement, and withdrawal intentions. These results suggest that withdrawal intentions may be reduced via the development of engaging and procedurally fair selection procedures that help candidates determine their fit with the job and the organization.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12169   open full text
  • Equivalence of unproctored internet testing and proctored paper‐and‐pencil testing of the Big Five.
    Yann Le Corff, Véronique Gingras, Mathieu Busque‐Carrier.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    The use of unproctored Internet‐based testing (IBT) for personality assessment is increasingly popular, especially in personnel selection. Previous studies on its equivalence to traditional proctored paper‐and‐pencil testing (PPT) have used between‐subjects designs, which makes it difficult to separate intergroup effects from format effects, and have shown mixed results. The aim of the present study was to assess the quantitative, qualitative, and auxiliary equivalence of unproctored IBT and proctored PPT of personality, using a within‐sample design. Undergraduate students (n = 407) completed both an Internet and a paper‐and‐pencil version of a measure of the Big Five, with a 1 to 3 week interval. The proctored paper‐and‐pencil assessment was completed in class and the unproctored Internet assessment was completed at the time and place chosen by the participants. Results showed effect sizes for mean differences to vary from null to small. Skewness and kurtosis indices, reliability coefficients, intercorrelations magnitudes, as well as factor solutions, were highly similar across formats. Respondents did not prefer IBT over PPT on a series of statement about their perceptions and reactions to IBT. In conclusion, results suggest that IBT and PPT of the Big Five personality traits are equivalent, and that the data obtained are comparable across formats.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12168   open full text
  • An applied examination of the computerized adaptive rating scale for assessing performance.
    Wendy Darr, Walter C. Borman, Line St‐Pierre, Christean Kubisiak, Matthew Grossman.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    In the present research, we developed and conducted a field test of the computerized adaptive rating scale (CARS) for assessing military officer performance. Participants completed the CARS and a behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) which were both designed to assess five leadership competencies (action orientation/initiative, communication, developing self and others, behavioral flexibility, and teamwork). We obtained data from 116 supervisors and 207 peers who provided ratings on 126 officer ratees. Although interrater reliability estimates were lower for CARS ratings on some competencies, there was a 20–25% improvement in standard error of measurement, the measurement precision in CARS ratings compared to the BARS. Results support findings from a previous lab study.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12167   open full text
  • Big Five traits: Predictors of retesting propensity and score improvement.
    Laura G. Barron, Jason G. Randall, John D. Trent, James F. Johnson, Anton J. Villado.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    Although most high‐stakes admissions, credentialing, and pre‐employment tests allow candidates to retest, relatively little is known about the personal traits of candidates who persist in retesting upon initial failure. In this study we investigated whether Big Five traits may predispose initially unsuccessful applicants to retest and subsequently improve on high‐stakes cognitive ability and knowledge tests required for personnel selection. In this study personality measures (unlike the cognitive tests) did not affect selection outcomes and hence did not provide applicants incentive to distort their personality responses to gain entry into the organization. Applicants higher in conscientiousness were more likely to retest, and emotional stability positively predicted cognitive test score improvement. We discuss implications of these results for organizations considering retesting policies.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12166   open full text
  • Web‐based corporate, social and video recruitment media: Effects of media richness and source credibility on organizational attraction.
    Keely J. Frasca, Martin R. Edwards.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    Despite the high use of social media in graduate recruitment campaigns, research has yet to examine how it compares with websites and videos in influencing job seekers’ reactions. Drawing from recruitment, media richness, and source credibility theories, we proposed that the media used to present recruitment material would influence organizational attraction via perceptions of media richness and source credibility. Results of a between‐subjects study, with 342 participants holding or working toward a degree, show that when a standardized recruitment message is delivered via Facebook, video, or text‐based webpage media, there are significant between‐media richness and source credibility differences. Furthermore, particular media richness features were positively related to perceptions of source credibility, and source credibility perceptions were positively related to organizational attraction. Implications for organizations’ online recruitment campaigns are discussed.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12165   open full text
  • Counterproductive behaviors: Relations across life domains, etiology, and implications for applied practice.
    Kevin C. Stanek, Deniz S. Ones, Matt McGue.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 08, 2017
    Previous research on counterproductive work behavior (CWB) has shown that workplace deviance can be predicted from individual differences and environmental variables, but relatively little is known about CWBs’ relations with counterproductive behaviors in other domains of an individual's life. Data from 500 male twins were used to examine relations among counterproductive behaviors from several life domains, including school, non‐work, substance use, and work. The results supported the hypotheses that counterproductivity in work and a variety of personal life domains, previous and contemporaneous, are strongly and positively related. A general counterproductivity factor, giving rise to rule‐ and norm‐breaking behavioral repertoire of individuals, accounted for approximately half the variance across measures of counterproductivity in specific life domains. To inform theory and research, the etiology of inter‐individual differences in counterproductivity was examined. Biometric analyses revealed that most of the variance in the counterproductivity domains examined, including CWB, is attributable to genetic and unique (nonshared) environmental factors. The general counterproductivity factor spanning different counterproductivity domains was most influenced by genetic factors (75.4%), but was also influenced by unique environmental factors (24.6%). Biometric analyses indicated that 27% of the variance in CWB is attributable to genetic influences arising from the general factor of counterproductivity and 20% from genetic factors specific to CWB. Unique environmental influences associated with the work domain explained 12% of the variance in CWB. For the CWB criterion, regression analyses explored the usefulness of information from other counterproductivity domains for prediction and employee selection. Counterproductivity from academic and non‐work domains are potent predictors of counterproductivity at work (multiple Rs ranging between .50 and .54).
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12164   open full text
  • Development and psychometric examination of a German video‐based situational judgment test for social competencies in medical school applicants.
    Melanie Fröhlich, Janine Kahmann, Martina Kadmon.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2017
    The present study describes the development and validation of a video‐based situational judgment test (SJT) assessing social competencies in applicants to medical school. Study 1 explored the psychometric properties of the SJT based on two applicant cohorts (N1 = 769, N2 = 787). Study 2 compared SJT data from applicants and 90 medical students. Tests for mean differences, correlation and factor analyses were used. In Study 1, the supposed two‐factor model for the SJT must be rejected. According to the minimum average partial test a single factor solution explaining 19–21% of the variance was suggested. The SJT showed satisfactory psychometric properties and stronger correlations to personality than to cognition as well as high acceptance. In study 2, applicants reached higher SJT scores than students.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12163   open full text
  • To translate or to develop a measure? The case of a new Arabic measure of organizational justice.
    Hesham F. Gadelrab, Othman Alkhadher.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2017
    One of the most prominent and widely used self‐reporting scales for assessing organizational justice perceptions was developed by Colquitt (2001). This scale has been used internationally and has therefore been translated into several languages including Arabic. In a recent study, after conducting a careful review of organizational justice literature to ensure its relevance to Arabic culture, Alkhadher and Gadalreb () developed a new Arabic measure of organizational justice (AMOJ) perceptions and found evidence of a four‐factor scale structure. The purpose of this study is to compare the Arabic version of Colquitt's measure of organizational justice (AVCMOJ) with the AMOJ in terms of predictive power using various outcome measures used by Colquitt (2001). The two scales were administered to 781 Kuwaiti employees (47.6% males) from the public sector. A multiple‐sample confirmatory factor analysis supports the four‐dimensional structure for both AVCMOJ and AMOJ measures. Cronbach's alpha obtained for subscales was found to range between 0.72 and 0.85. The predictive power of the three AMOJ dimensions (distributional, procedural, and informational) was found to be higher than that of the AVCMOJ. The results of the present study raise issues of scale development against the translation of well‐developed scales. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12162   open full text
  • Applying organizational justice theory to admission into higher education: Admission from a student perspective.
    A. Susan M. Niessen, Rob R. Meijer, Jorge N. Tendeiro.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2017
    Applicant perceptions of methods used in admission procedures to higher education were investigated using organizational justice theory. Applicants to a psychology study program completed a questionnaire about several admission methods. General favorability, ratings on justice dimensions, relationships between general favorability and these dimensions, and differences in perceptions based on gender and on the aim of the admission procedure (selection or matching) were studied. In addition, the relationship between favorability and test performance, and the relationship between favorability and behavioral outcomes were investigated. Applicants rated interviews and trial‐studying tests most favorably. Contrary to expectations based on the existing literature, high school grades were perceived least favorably and there was no relationship between applicant perceptions and enrollment decisions. In line with previous research in the employment literature, general favorability was most strongly related to face validity, study‐relatedness, applicant differentiation, the chance to show skills, perceived scientific evidence, and perceived wide‐spread use. We found no differences in applicant perceptions based on gender and small differences based on the aim of admission procedures. These results extend the applicant perceptions literature to educational admission and the results are useful for administrators when choosing methods to admit students.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12161   open full text
  • Can you test me now? Equivalence of GMA tests on mobile and non‐mobile devices.
    Matt I. Brown, Michael A. Grossenbacher.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2017
    As technology continues to evolve, organizations seek to use personal electronics like smartphones for selection and assessment. While this promises to increase access to a more diverse applicant pool, research is needed to examine whether commonly used assessments function similarly on these devices as on a conventional computer. Contrary to past research, we did not find meaningful differences in general mental ability (GMA) test scores between device groups. We also observed few differences in item functioning between devices. Screen size had a positive, but marginal effect on test scores. These results are optimistic for the use of mobile devices in GMA testing, but additional research is needed to examine the functioning of alternative GMA tests administered on mobile devices.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12160   open full text
  • The assessment of organizational culture in cross‐cultural settings: Investigating the psychometric quality and cultural equivalence of three quantitative instruments.
    Martin Puppatz, Anne Burmeister, Juergen Deller.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2017
    This study tested the psychometric quality and cultural equivalence of the German versions of three instruments for measuring organizational culture: the Denison Organizational Culture Survey (DOCS), the Organizational Culture Profile (OCP), and the Global leadership & organizational behavior effectiveness survey (GLOBE). Using an organizational sample from the banking industry, we analyzed the metric equivalence (by means of assessing the psychometric quality), the conceptual equivalence (by means of assessing the construct validity) as well as the linguistic and functional equivalence of the three instruments. The results indicate that the psychometric properties and the equivalence of the DOCS and the OCP can be summarized as satisfactory. In contrast, reliability indices of the GLOBE scales were far below recommended thresholds and results regarding its construct validity were unsatisfying. Conceptual equivalence could therefore not be assumed. Avenues for future research and implications for practitioners are discussed. In addition, the authors created and tested a German translation of the OCP scales and an adapted version of the German DOCS scales.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12159   open full text
  • Trait correlates of success at work.
    Alexandra Teodorescu, Adrian Furnham, Ian MacRae.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2017
    Identifying and developing high potential individuals is fundamental to successful companies and organizations. The present study focuses on the personality traits of high potential individuals. The High Potential Traits Inventory (HPTI) was used to investigate associations between personality traits and measures of career success, in a sample of 383 employed individuals. Results indicate HPTI personality traits relate to subjective and objective measures of success with Conscientiousness being the strongest predictor. The findings of the current study are consistent with previous research on High Flyers. Implications of the current study are discussed, suggesting a clearer operationalization of success is crucial for understanding the underlying mechanisms which lead from personality to potential.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12158   open full text
  • Contextualized personality measures in employee selection: Extending frame‐of‐reference research with job applicant samples.
    David M. Fisher, Sydnie Cunningham, Alison J. Kerr, Steven P. Allscheid.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2017
    This study compared contextualized and non‐contextualized personality measures in operational hiring situations, unlike previous research which has largely relied on student or job incumbent samples. Comparisons were made with regard to (A) the frames‐of‐reference adopted by applicants when responding to the measures, (B) relations with subsequent employment interview scores, (C) applicant reactions, and (D) mean scores for the personality scales. The findings highlight potential concerns with using non‐contextualized personality measures for employee selection, as job applicants will likely adopt various frames‐of‐reference unrelated to the intended focus of measurement (i.e., work). Results also indicated that it may be premature to assume contextualized measures elicit improved applicant reactions despite their apparent job‐relatedness. The discussion concludes with suggested directions for future research.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12156   open full text
  • The predictive validity of individual psychological assessments in selecting UK public sector senior managers.
    Paul T. Weldon, Clive Fletcher, Rab MacIver.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2017
    Individual Psychological Assessment (IPA) is a very widely offered service in Organizational Psychology. It generally consists of a psychologist or HR practitioner using a combination of interview and psychometrics to arrive at a detailed assessment of an individual's capabilities in relation to a job they are being considered for. Although much used, this practice has limited supporting evidence of its validity—not least because of the methodological difficulties in conducting research on this subject—and has been criticized accordingly. The current study examines the use of IPAs with 115 middle and senior management level candidates in a civil service context. All candidates completed a set of psychometric measures and had an in‐depth interview with a psychologist as part of a standardized process. The ratings made by the assessors were correlated with a criterion measure of potential for promotion derived from multisource feedback ratings obtained on these candidates some months later. Analysis of the results indicated that three of the four attributes rated by assessors correlated significantly with the criterion measure. Further, assessors’ ratings were found to show incremental validity over that provided by psychometric test scores alone. These findings are discussed in terms of the use of IPAs in senior level assessment.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12157   open full text
  • Cultural influences in acquiescent response: A study of trainer evaluation biases.
    Hsien‐Chun Chen, I‐Heng Chen, Szu‐Yin Lin, Yichieh Chen.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 07, 2017
    The current study is developed to identify factors that affect trainees’ acquiescent tendency in organizational trainer evaluations. We posit that conflict‐handling style affects ones tendency to acquiesce in trainer evaluations, and this relationship is regulated by cultural influence. Surveys were sent to employees with training experience in Taiwan and North America, 395 valid responses were collected. Results showed that the two individual conflict‐handling styles: non‐confrontation style and dominating style, are positively related to acquiescent tendency; and their relationship is found moderated by the influence of Confucian work dynamism, thus confirming the influence of cultural norms. Our findings contribute to HRD practitioners by highlighting the different conflict‐handling style and culture influence will result in different level of acquiescent propensity, trainer evaluations results should be interpreted more carefully and cautiously.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12155   open full text
  • Development and Validation of Research Scales for the Leadership Multi‐rater Assessment of Personality (LMAP).
    Brian S. Connelly, Ronald A. Warren, Hyunji Kim, Stefano I. Di Domenico.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 14, 2016
    This article presents large‐sample developmental and validation research for a set of research scales of an existing 360‐degree personality measure, the LMAP 360 (Leadership Multi‐rater Assessment of Personality). In Study 1 (N = 1,771), we identified 6 broad domains underlying LMAP item clusters: Neuroticism, Dominance, Enthusiasm, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Scales measuring these broad domains and their constituent facets showed strong internal consistency, inter‐rater reliability, and self‐informant correlations. In Study 2 (N = 729 and N = 694), we examined LMAP research scales’ convergent and discriminant validity against three well‐validated personality inventories (Goldberg's adjectives, the Big Five Inventory, and the Big Five Aspects Scales) and one measure of cognitive ability (the International Cognitive Ability Resource). LMAP research scales correlated strongly with corresponding scales from other inventories and were distinct from cognitive ability.
    November 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12154   open full text
  • Status Seeking and Manipulative Self‐presentation.
    Scott Highhouse, Margaret E. Brooks, Yi Wang.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 14, 2016
    Three studies examine the relation of dispositional status‐seeking with workplace self‐presentation behaviors. The first study showed that the status‐seeking motive provided incremental prediction, over and above narcissism and self‐monitoring, in self‐reported exaggerating, faking, and fabricating in job search. The second study showed that, after controlling for the traits from the five factor model of personality, status‐seeking predicted the undesirable job‐search behaviors, as well as use of impression‐management tactics at work. A field study showed that employee status seeking explained supervisor impressions of employee supplication and ingratiation, even after controlling for task and contextual performance. Male status‐seekers were also more likely to engage in intimidation. Status‐seeking appears to be an important motive for understanding manipulative self‐presentation at work.
    November 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12153   open full text
  • Organizational Justice Dimensions: Validation of an Arabic Measure.
    Othman Alkhadher, Hesham F. Gadelrab.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 14, 2016
    There is a continued debate regarding the dimensions of organizational justice. The present project investigated the dimensionality of organizational justice and the validity of an Arabic measure of organizational justice for a Kuwaiti samples. The first study sample consisted of 1,184 Kuwaitis (619 males and 565 females) from two groups: 728 employees and 456 teachers working in the public sector. The second study sample consisted of 373 participants (190 employees and 183 teachers). The instrument items were based on a careful review of the organizational justice literature to ensure relevance to the sample culture. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) using WLSMV estimator is used. WLSMV method is more appropriate for our data because variables are measured on an ordinal scale. WLSMV is considered a less bias estimator compared with the standard maximum likelihood in case of ordinal data. CFA analyses identified the four distinctive factors of distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational organizational justice. The four‐factor model fit the data significantly better than one‐, two‐ or three‐factor models. Moreover, the study revealed that these four dimensions of organizational justice were significantly correlated with the four relevant outcomes of instrumentality, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and collective esteem. Using the Arabic version of Colquitt's () instrument (Fischer et al., ), the second study presented an evidence of concurrent validity of the new Arabic scale. The present study confirmed the four‐factor dimensionality of organizational justice. Results of the current study may raise the issue of development of scales versus translation of well‐ developed ones. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
    November 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12152   open full text
  • Effects of g‐Loading and Time Lag on Retesting in Job Selection.
    Jeffrey Olenick, Sarena Bhatia, Ann Marie Ryan.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 14, 2016
    Understanding influence on and effects of retesting is important to the selection practitioner. This article examines retesting effects on a series of selection measures for mechanically related positions to extend research that has been conducted in more controlled environments. While validity was not significantly different on retesting, time between test attempts and score increase on Spatial Reasoning were positively related, indicating the possibility of learning effects. Lower score increases were found for highly g‐loaded measures, and individuals who showed an increase scored more highly on average on their first attempt. Men tended to increase their scores more than women. We close with a discussion of the practical implications of our findings and how to build on them with future research.
    November 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12151   open full text
  • Dear Computer, Teach Me Manners: Testing Virtual Employment Interview Training.
    Markus Langer, Cornelius J. König, Patrick Gebhard, Elisabeth André.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 14, 2016
    Expanding research on employment interview training, this study introduces virtual employment interview (VI) training with focus on nonverbal behavior. In VI training, participants took part in a simulated interview with a virtual character. Simultaneously, the computer analyzed participants’ nonverbal behavior and provided real‐time feedback for it. The control group received parallel interview training. Following training, participants took part in mock interviews, where interviewers rated participants’ nonverbal behavior, and interview performance. Analyses revealed (a) that participants of VI training showed better interview performance, (b) that this effect was mediated by nonverbal behavior, and (c) that VI training has a positive influence on interview anxiety. These results have important practical implications for applicants, career counseling centers, and organizations.
    November 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12150   open full text
  • Psychometric Properties of the Cultural Intelligence Scale in a Saudi Arabian Context.
    Saeed A. AL‐Dossary.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 14, 2016
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the cultural intelligence scale (CQS) in a Saudi Arabian context. The CQS was administered to a random sample of 553 undergraduate students at Hail University. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the four‐factor structure of the CQS: cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and behavioral. In addition, the results of a second‐order CFA indicated that these four factors can be further collapsed into one general factor. The CQS showed adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity. The results further revealed no significant differences between males and females. In sum, results suggest that the Arabic version of the CQS is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring an individual's intercultural intelligence.
    November 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12149   open full text
  • Applicant Reactions to Selection Methods in China.
    Xuewei Liu, Kristina Potočnik, Neil Anderson.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 16, 2016
    This study examines applicant reactions to ten popular selection methods in China. Using a sample of 294 graduates we found that Chinese applicants’ reactions were highly favorable for work sample tests, interviews, and written ability tests, whereas Guanxi (i.e., relying on personal contacts when applying for a job) and graphology were perceived as the least favorable selection methods. Guanxi was also perceived as significantly less fair method compared with all others on all seven procedural dimensions studied. These findings suggest that Guanxi as an informal selection channel might threaten the fairness of personnel selection in China. Implications for the design of selection systems in Chinese companies are discussed, and ramifications for future research into applicant reactions are considered.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12148   open full text
  • Context Matters, but How Much? Latent state–trait analysis of cognitive ability assessments.
    Michael Hermes, Dirk Stelling.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 16, 2016
    Cognitive abilities are thought to represent temporally stable constructs, however, accumulating evidence suggests that effects of the measurement situation could affect its measurement (e.g., effects of test motivation, stress level). The present study modeled these effects explicitly in a latent variables approach. In contrast to previous studies, we investigated participants (job candidates) in repeated high‐stakes settings (N = 188). We found that cognitive ability measurements in high‐stakes settings not only reflect a stable latent trait and random measurement error, but also systematic effects of the test setting. Our results support the application of cognitive ability tests in organizational contexts but have implications for its use in applied settings such as personnel selection.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12147   open full text
  • Validating the B‐Scan Self: A self‐report measure of psychopathy in the workplace.
    Cynthia Mathieu, Paul Babiak.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 16, 2016
    The surging interest in corporate psychopathy has underscored the need for a reliable and valid measure of psychopathic features that is suitable for research in organizational settings. The B‐Scan Self is a new self‐report measure of corporate psychopathy that was developed with Hare's Psychopathy Checklist‐Revised (PCL‐R) as a framework. Validity studies, using two independent Mechanical Turk samples, were designed to examine its factor structure and validity. Results indicated that B‐Scan Self facets were internally consistent and unidimentional and strongly related to another self‐report measure of psychopathy (SRP‐III). Confirmatory factor analyses supported a reliable fifteen facets and four‐factor model consistent with the PCL‐R four‐factor model of psychopathy. Furthermore, B‐Scan Self facets were positively correlated with the Dark Triad of personality traits and negatively correlated with FFM traits of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. More importantly, B‐Scan Self facets presented the same pattern of correlations with FFM traits as the SRP‐III and different patterns than the two other Dark Triad measures. Although this constitutes the first validation study of the B‐Scan Self and more research is needed, we believe that these results are encouraging and that the B‐Scan Self provides an opportunity to study psychopathic features through the measure of work‐related behavior.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12146   open full text
  • If You Are Emotionally Intelligent: The effects of customer‐related social stressors on counterproductive work behavior for front‐line service employees.
    Ran Zhang, Kylie Redfern, Meredith A. Newman, Karen Ferreira‐Meyers.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 16, 2016
    Recent literature in the area of employee–customer interactions suggests that stressful encounters contribute to negative outcomes for service employees. Few studies, however, have focused on the effects of customer‐related social stressors (CSS) on counterproductive work behavior (CWB) among front‐line service employees. The researchers tested a moderated mediation model of the effects of CSS on CWB with the key objective of exploring the mediation effects of emotional exhaustion and the moderating effects of emotional intelligence on this relationship. Based on a sample of 244 call center representatives in China, the research revealed that CSS led to emotional exhaustion, which, in turn, related to CWB for service employees. Furthermore, emotional intelligence acted as a buffer on the effects of CSS on CWB via emotional exhaustion.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12145   open full text
  • Patterns of Change in Fairness Perceptions During the Hiring Process.
    Udo Konradt, Yvonne Garbers, Berrin Erdogan, Talya Bauer.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 16, 2016
    The justice literature, to date, shows that changes in fairness perceptions over time are consequential for job attitudes. However, few studies have been directed at explicating how fairness perceptions change over time or individual differences in patterns of change. The present research attempts to fill this gap by exploring patterns of temporal changes in fairness perceptions toward the selection process during a hiring process and potential determinants for such change. In a 3‐wave longitudinal study of the entire hiring process (pre‐, in‐, and post‐process) using a latent growth mixture modeling approach, different patterns of change in perceived fairness were modeled. In addition, the role of Big Five personality factors to predict classes of temporal patterns was examined. Results suggest that, on average, fairness perceptions declined in a non‐linear way over time, with high initial levels of fairness perception corresponding to a lower rate of decline, and vice versa. Four unique classes of applicants exhibiting different initial scores and growth of fairness perceptions were identified, which were predicted by the personality factors of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for fairness theory and future research.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12144   open full text
  • Knowing What NOT To Do Is a Critical Job Skill: Evidence from 10 different scoring methods.
    Steven E. Stemler, Varun Aggarwal, Siddharth Nithyanand.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 16, 2016
    Situational judgment tests (SJTs) have become an increasingly important tool for predicting employee performance; however, at least two key areas warrant further investigation. First, prior studies of SJTs have generally relied on samples from the western world, leaving open the question of the validity of using SJTs in the developing world where the majority of the world's workforce resides. Second, there is currently no standardized, theoretically‐based method for the development and scoring of SJTs. Therefore, SJTs are highly domain‐specific and must be developed anew for each new context. We report the results of three studies, conducted in India, that aim to: (1) test the cross‐cultural validity of SJTs in a non‐western context, and (2) examine the differential validity of 10 different approaches to scoring SJTs, some of which have the potential to resolve the problem of developing a theoretically‐infused, standardized approach to scoring and future development.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12143   open full text
  • A Theoretical Model of Psychometric Effects of Faking on Assessment Procedures: Empirical findings and implications for personality at work.
    Jesús F. Salgado.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 16, 2016
    This article proposes a theoretical model for explaining the psychometric effects of faking on assessment procedures (e.g., biodata, interviews, assessment center, personality inventories, and self‐reported measures). The model hypothesizes that faking is a phenomenon of homogenization of scores, consisting of a double mechanism that increases the mean, on one hand, and decreases the standard deviation of distributions of scores, on the other. Subsequently, this affects the covariance, reliability, and validity of assessment procedures negatively. The model predicts that a mean ratio (faking ratio) greater than 1 and a coefficient of homogeneity u smaller than 1 characterizes faking. Meta‐analysis was used to test several predictions of the theoretical model in the case of the personality measures. A database of 46 independent studies was created. All the studies used the NEO‐PI‐R for assessing the Big Five and their facets. The general pattern of data fully supported the model predictions. Implications for personnel assessment and, particularly, for personality assessment are discussed.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12142   open full text
  • Discrimination due to Ethnicity and Gender: How susceptible are video‐based job interviews?
    Esther Kroll, Matthias Ziegler.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 04, 2016
    Fairness toward job applicants differing in gender and ethnicity in a video‐based assessment interview was explored. For this purpose, 103 female and 105 male participants, including 38 who declared to have a migration background of their own, rated a behavior anchored rating scale after having watched the videotaped answers of a potential applicant. The domains assessed were communication skills and the capacity to work in a team. The videos of the applicants were generated with the help of standardized scripts and semi‐professional actors. Eight videos were made operationalizing a two (Turkish migration background–native German) by two (male–female) by two (more positive applicant answers–moderately good applicant answers) experimental design. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a small to moderate main effect only for migration background of the applicants. Subsequent ANOVAs found that in three of the four dependent variables this effect reached significance of p < .05. The effects were robust against consideration of the raters’ agreeableness and the raters’ own migration background as covariates. Applicants with Turkish background scored higher in the evaluation of their videotaped answers than German native applicants did. Social Identity Theory (Taijfel & Turner, ) provides an approach to integrate these findings.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12138   open full text
  • The Influence of Candidate Social Effectiveness on Assessment Center Performance Ratings: A field study.
    Marcela Leugnerova, Martin Vaculik, Jakub Prochazka.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 04, 2016
    The present research examined the influence of constructs representing social effectiveness on assessment center (AC) ratings in two samples. We expected different effects of self‐monitoring (SM) on different dimension ratings, a positive effect of the ability to identify criteria (ATIC) on the overall AC rating and a moderating effect of the ATIC on the relationship between SM and the dimension rating. Forty‐six (Study 1) and 115 (Study 2) applicants participated in ACs in field settings. Across both studies, SM had a negative effect on the integrity rating. No relationship was identified between SM and social sensitivity or problem solving ratings. In Study 1, the ATIC had a positive effect on the overall AC rating. No support was identified for a moderating effect of the ATIC on the relationship between SM and the social sensitivity rating.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12137   open full text
  • The Role of Self‐focused Attention and Negative Self‐thought in Interview Anxiety: A test of two interventions.
    Amanda R. Feiler, Deborah M. Powell.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 04, 2016
    Job interview anxiety is an unpleasant experience for many candidates that can cause them significant distress in the days leading up to the interview. As a result, many candidates are motivated to overcome their feelings of anxiety, however, few empirical studies have examined strategies aimed at lowering nervous jitters. This study looked at the relation between interview anxiety and ‘self‐focused attention’ (the tendency to focus on oneself during the interview), and also negative self‐thoughts during the interview. We tested two training interventions that are grounded in the social anxiety literature, positive imagery (fostering positive self‐images), and field perspective taking (focusing attention externally), which were designed to reduce self‐focused attention and negative thought. Both interventions decreased interview anxiety and increased interview self‐efficacy, but did not affect interview performance scores.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12136   open full text
  • Behavioral Cues as Indicators of Deception in Structured Employment Interviews.
    Satoris S. Culbertson, William S. Weyhrauch, Christopher J. Waples.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 04, 2016
    Two studies were conducted to examine the use of behavioral cues to identify deception within structured interviews. In Study 1, participants engaged in mock interviews in which they were instructed to lie on specific questions that varied by person. Trained coders evaluated the presence and extent of deception cues in each videotaped response. Nine cues predicted responses as expected, demonstrating that, with careful scrutiny, it is possible to detect deception. In Study 2, participants, either informed or uninformed regarding deception cues, viewed five interviews and evaluated responses as being honest or deceptive. Participants also rated overall interview performance. Participants were unable to accurately distinguish lies from truths. Nevertheless, performance ratings differed on the basis of rater perceptions of truthfulness.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12135   open full text
  • Applicant Reactions to Selection Events: Four studies into the role of attributional style and fairness perceptions.
    Sonja Schinkel, Annelies E. M. van Vianen, Ann Marie Ryan.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 04, 2016
    In four studies, applicants’ (N = 478) organizational attractiveness perceptions and recommendation intentions following selection outcomes were measured. In three field studies, actual applicants’ perceptions were measured in authentic, high‐stakes application contexts, both preprocedure and postoutcome. A fourth, hypothetical, study was added to increase internal validity. Consistent positive relationships between procedural fairness and reactions were found. Further, attributional style moderated the distributive fairness–attractiveness relationship in the field studies, but not in the laboratory study. In general, optimistically attributing applicants reported higher organization attraction than less optimistic individuals when the outcome was perceived as fair, but lower attraction when the outcome was perceived as unfair. For recommendation intentions, results were less consistent. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12134   open full text
  • Who is Being Judged Promotable: Good actors, high performers, highly committed or birds of a feather?
    Sait Gurbuz, O. Serhad Habiboglu, Dursun Bingol.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 04, 2016
    The present study investigated the impact of task performance, affective commitment, impression management tactics, and similarity to supervisor on promotability judgments in a collectivist context (i.e., Turkey). Longitudinal and multisource field‐data obtained from 205 subordinates and their 35 supervisors indicated that task performance, affective commitment, and similarity to supervisor influenced supervisors’ ratings of promotability. Yet no significant relationships were found between IM tactics and the promotability judgments. Furthermore, the results revealed a stronger influence of similarity to supervisor on promotion decisions in a collectivist culture.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12141   open full text
  • The Perceived Nature and Incidence of Dysfunctional Assessment Center Features and Processes.
    Chris Dewberry, Duncan J. R. Jackson.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 04, 2016
    The aims of this research are to identify, for the first time, the dysfunctional features and processes perceived to take place in assessment centers (ACs) from multiple perspectives (assessment center designers, assessors, and candidates) and to indicate the frequency of these phenomena. Two surveys were conducted in this study. In the first, a wide variety of dysfunctional processes and events were identified, and, in the second, many of these processes are reported to occur with regularity. Based on these findings, it is proposed that ACs should be construed, researched, and managed, not only as large‐scale psychometric systems, but also as complex administrative, social, and political events susceptible to a broad range of dysfunctional phenomena.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12140   open full text
  • A Comparison of General and Work‐specific Personality Measures as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
    Qiang Wang, Nathan A. Bowling.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. May 04, 2016
    The current study compared general and work‐specific measures of personality as predictors of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Consistent with the literature on frame‐of‐reference effects in personality assessment, two of the Five Factor Model dimensions – agreeableness and conscientiousness – were significantly related to OCB. Use of a frame of reference that is conceptually relevant to the criterion led to increased validity as a result of the decrement in between‐subject variability and within‐subject inconsistency. Results indicated that work‐specific personality yielded significant incremental relationships with OCB even after general personality is controlled. Finally, regression analyses found that the incremental variance predicted by work‐specific personality decreased as the degree of between‐subject variability and within‐subject inconsistency increased. Overall, the results suggest that there are benefits to considering the work‐specific measure of personality in the prediction of OCB.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12139   open full text
  • Mobile Internet Testing: An analysis of equivalence, individual differences, and reactions.
    Danielle D. King, Ann Marie Ryan, Tracy Kantrowitz, Darrin Grelle, Amanda Dainis.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. October 27, 2015
    Mobile internet testing (MIT) is the latest cost effective technological push in employment testing. The ability to access assessments via the internet using mobile devices provides increased speed and convenience for both administrators and respondents. In this article, we examine the equivalence of MIT compared with testing on personal computers (PCs) and whether attitudes and other individual differences influence responses and reactions to MIT. Results demonstrated equivalence for a supervisory situational judgment test across testing modes, but not for a cognitive ability test. Significant relationships were found between anxiety and both performance and reactions to mobile assessment. Respondents also reported significantly more positive reactions when tested on a PC versus a mobile device. Future research and practical implications are discussed.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12122   open full text
  • Incremental Validity of Leaderless Group Discussion Ratings Over and Above General Mental Ability and Personality in Predicting Promotion.
    Xavier Borteyrou, Filip Lievens, Marilou Bruchon‐Schweitzer, Anne Congard, Nicole Rascle.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. October 27, 2015
    Leaderless group discussions (LGDs) constitute one of the oldest assessment center exercises. In recent times, their added value has sometimes been questioned in light of trends to streamline assessment centers. The purpose of the present study is to examine the incremental validity of LGD ratings over cognitive ability scores and personality ratings for the prediction of extrinsic career success (i.e., promotion speed and number of promotions). We investigated this issue in the context of the promotion of French naval officers (N = 93) in an academy for high‐level executive positions over a 10‐year period. Results indicated that LGD ratings accounted for incremental variance in the prediction of promotion criterion measures, beyond cognitive ability and personality test scores. These results confirm that LGD ratings provide a unique contribution to the prediction of extrinsic career success in high‐level executive positions.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12121   open full text
  • The Cross‐cultural Transportability of Situational Judgment Tests: How does a US‐based integrity situational judgment test fare in Spain?
    Filip Lievens, Jan Corstjens, Miguel Ángel Sorrel, Francisco José Abad, Julio Olea, Vicente Ponsoda.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. October 27, 2015
    Despite the globalization of HRM, there is a dearth of research on the potential use of contextualized selection instruments such as situational judgment tests (SJTs) in other countries than those where the selection instruments were originally developed. Therefore, two studies are conducted to examine the transportability of an integrity SJT that was originally developed in the United States to a Spanish context. Study 1 showed that most SJT scenarios (16 out of 19) that were developed in the United States were also considered realistic in a Spanish context. In Study 2, the item option endorsement patterns converged to the original scoring scheme, with the exception of two items. In addition, there were high correlations between the original US empirical scoring scheme and two empirical scoring schemes that were tailored to the Spanish context (i.e., mode consensus scoring and proportional consensus scoring). Finally, correlations between the SJT integrity scores and ratings on a self‐report integrity measure did not differ significantly from each other according to the type of scoring key (original US scoring vs. Spanish scoring keys). Overall, these results shed light on potential issues and solutions related to the cross‐cultural use of contextualized selection instruments such as SJTs.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12120   open full text
  • Self‐promotion Statements in Video Resumes: Frequency, intensity, and gender effects on job applicant evaluation.
    Marie Waung, Robert Hymes, Joy E. Beatty, Pam McAuslan.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. October 27, 2015
    Although video resumes have received a substantial amount of media attention and there seems to be a growing awareness among Human Resource professionals of video‐based job applications, little is known about the effect of video resumes on applicant evaluation. This research investigates the effectiveness of self‐promotion within the context of video resumes. Self‐promotion frequency and intensity and applicant gender were manipulated. Ratings by recruiters and college students indicate that high levels of self‐promotion in video resumes are ineffective for male applicants and potentially detrimental for female applicants. Job applicants should use caution when attempting to promote themselves using video resumes. More research is needed on impression management tactics used at the earliest stages of selection and on the mechanisms operating within video resumes that impact applicant evaluation.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12119   open full text
  • The Role of Job Relatedness and Self‐efficacy in Applicant Perceptions of Fairness in a High‐stakes Selection Setting.
    Lara D. Zibarras, Fiona Patterson.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. October 27, 2015
    This article presents results from two samples of applicants (total N = 368) for general practitioner posts in the United Kingdom. The roles of job relatedness and self‐efficacy in fairness perceptions were explored, with data gathered at two time points: immediately after testing and one month later following outcome (pass/fail) feedback. Overall, results indicated that in two samples, job relatedness perceptions measured at the time of testing predicted fairness perceptions measured following outcome feedback. In addition, the stage in the selection process (shortlisting vs. assessment center) was important in determining the extent to which job relatedness perceptions predicted fairness. Findings also suggest that self‐efficacy may be a predictor, rather than an outcome variable, in applicant fairness perceptions in this high‐stakes setting. Results are discussed in relation to their practical and theoretical implications.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12118   open full text
  • Generalization of Cognitive and Noncognitive Validities across Personality‐based Job Families.
    Charles N. MacLane, Jeffrey M. Cucina.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. October 27, 2015
    The positive relationship between complexity of work and the validity of general mental ability (GMA) measures across a variety of occupations is well supported by research and provides important practical and theoretical support for cognitive ability measures. However, there is currently no research demonstrating a systematic relationship between the size of the validities of any personality measure and the personality requirements of jobs, thus leaving open to question the predictive and construct validity of personality measures for applicant selection. We compared the validities of two biodata measures – one scored to measure social competence and one to measure GMA – across six job families that varied in social requirements. The validity of the GMA measure generalized at approximately the same level across the job families while the validity of the social competence measure decreased as social requirements diminished.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12117   open full text
  • Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of the Teamwork KSA Test.
    Kimberly A. French, Janet L. Kottke, Rhiannon J. Kirchner.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. October 27, 2015
    The Teamwork KSA Test has been a welcome addition to the practitioner's selection toolkit as well as a useful measure for teamwork researchers. We analyzed the psychometric properties of the Teamwork KSA Test and recognized correlates of the construct using three samples of working individuals recruited through a university (N = 241, N = 230, N = 332) and found slim evidence for a factor structure of the underlying constructs. Furthermore, classical reliability estimates did not meet traditional psychometric standards. Total TKSA scores predicted self‐ratings and instructor ratings of teamwork in two of the samples; effect sizes were small.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12116   open full text
  • Predicting Performance with Contextualized Inventories, No Frame‐of‐reference Effect?
    Djurre Holtrop, Marise Ph. Born, Reinout E. Vries.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    A recent meta‐analysis showed that contextualized personality inventories have incremental predictive validity over generic personality inventories when predicting job performance. This study aimed to investigate the differences between two types of contextualization of items: Adding an ‘at work’ tag versus completely modifying items. One hundred thirty‐nine pharmacy assistants from 29 pharmacies filled out a generic, a tagged, and a completely modified personality inventory. The assistants also provided participant reactions for each of the personality inventories. Performance ratings were collected from the supervising pharmacists. We expected to find incremental criterion validity for both the tagged inventory and the completely modified inventory for predicting job performance. However, the results showed an unexpected decrease in predictive validity for the contextualized inventories. Contextualized inventories were liked less than the generic inventory, but were considered somewhat more face valid and predictive by the participants.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12071   open full text
  • Fakability of Implicit and Explicit Measures of the Big Five: Research findings from organizational settings.
    Michele Vecchione, Francesco Dentale, Guido Alessandri, Claudio Barbaranelli.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    This study investigates the extent to which response distortion occur when implicit measures of personality traits are used in applied settings. Two groups composed of 58 security guards and 45 semiskilled workers, respectively, completed five Implicit Association Tests (IATs) for assessing the Big Five personality traits as a part of a personnel assessment program. They additionally completed a self‐report measure of the same personality dimensions. Scores on the Big Five IATs and self‐ratings of personality were obtained also by 52 volunteers who responded anonymously for research purposes. Results showed that participants under evaluative testing conditions scored significantly higher than volunteers on explicit measures of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability. On the contrary, no significant differences were found in the Big Five IATs. Practical implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12070   open full text
  • Emotional Intelligence among Black and White Job Applicants: Examining differences in test performance and test reactions.
    Daniel S. Whitman, Eyran Kraus, David L. Van Rooy.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    The present work examines applicant reactions to a test of emotional intelligence (EI) using an organizational sample of 334 job applicants. Results indicated that Blacks had higher face validity and opportunity to perform perceptions of EI than Whites, but that Whites performed significantly better than Blacks on the EI test. Although exploratory analyses revealed that test performance was positively related to test reactions, we also found that the magnitude of this relationship differed between Blacks and Whites for opportunity to perform perceptions. We discuss our findings by offering practical advice for organizations considering or using a measure of EI for selection and assessment.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12069   open full text
  • Understanding Applicant Withdrawal: Can organizations prevent it and should they even try?
    Meagan E. Brock Baskin, Thomas A. Zeni, M. Ronald Buckley.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    The process of applicant self‐selection has received significant attention in the academic literature. However, scant attention has been devoted to parsing out controllable from uncontrollable reasons for applicant withdrawal. At a most basic level, recognition and management of the problems impeding test availability to an applicant is a starting point. This research aimed to gain a better understanding of why applicants withdraw from the selection process, after application, by investigating differential reasons for withdrawal based on minority status and test accessibility for individual applicants. This was accomplished by surveying applicants of an entry‐level position within a variety of locations. The results indicate that the reasons for withdrawal are best described as obstructions (e.g., distance to testing facility) and are based less upon differences between minority subgroup and cognitive evaluations/attributions concerning the suitability of the focal position.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12068   open full text
  • Social Networking Web Sites in Job Search and Employee Recruitment.
    Ioannis Nikolaou.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    The use of professionally and nonprofessionally oriented social networking Web sites (SNWs), such as LinkedIn and Facebook, has become widespread from both sides of the Atlantic. The current paper presents and discusses the results of two surveys conducted in Greece exploring the role of SNWs among employees–job seekers and recruiters–human resource professionals. The first study explores how SNWs are used during job search activities and the second how recruiters use them in the attraction recruitment and screening process. Special note is given in the relationship between SNWs and the more established Internet job boards. Our results showed that job seekers still seem to use job boards more extensively than SNWs. It is interesting to note that the association between LinkedIn usage and its effectiveness, on the one hand, and time spent on SNWs and LinkedIn effectiveness, on the other, is stronger for ‘passive’ candidates, demonstrating the important role of SNWs for attracting ‘passive’ candidates. HR professionals are more engaged in LinkedIn than Facebook and were considering the former as more effective than the latter in the recruitment process. The current study sheds more light in the use of SNWs, being one of the first studies conducted in a non‐English speaking country.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12067   open full text
  • Item‐level Frame‐of‐reference Effects in Personality Testing: An investigation of incremental validity in an organizational setting.
    Mark N. Bing, H. Kristl Davison, Jack Smothers.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    A recent line of research has investigated the frame‐of‐reference effect on personality scale scores, in which self‐report personality items are contextualized to the specific performance setting (e.g., work, school) within which the performance criterion is gathered. Contextualization has been shown to increase both the reliability and the criterion‐related validity of the personality scale scores by facilitating the self‐presentation of respondents, and by more closely measuring the personality construct relevant to the performance domain. The current research extends this area of personality research in two ways. First, this study tests the generalizability of the effectiveness of item‐level contextualization within an organizational setting. Second, this study also provides the necessary test of the incremental validity of this contextualized approach to personality measurement above and beyond the traditional, noncontextualized approach. The results confirm that a work‐specific personality measure, contextualized at the item level, adds to the prediction of job performance above and beyond that obtained by a noncontextual measure of the same personality traits. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12066   open full text
  • Validity of Interpretation: A user validity perspective beyond the test score.
    Rab MacIver, Neil Anderson, Ana‐Cristina Costa, Arne Evers.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    This paper introduces the concept of user validity and provides a new perspective on the validity of interpretations from tests. Test interpretation is based on outputs such as test scores, profiles, reports, spreadsheets of multiple candidates' scores, etc. The user validity perspective focuses on the interpretations a test user makes given the purpose of the test and the information provided in the test output. This innovative perspective focuses on how user validity can be extended to content, criterion, and to some extent construct‐related validity. It provides a basis for researching the validity of interpretations and an improved understanding of the appropriateness of different approaches to score interpretation, as well as how to design test outputs and assessments that are pragmatic and optimal.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12065   open full text
  • Cross‐cultural Measurement Invariance of the Employment Opportunity Index (EOI) in Mexican and Brazilian Professionals.
    Brendan J. Morse, Justin M. Weinhardt, Rodger W. Griffeth, Manoela Ziebell Oliveira.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    Perceived employment alternatives have been shown to add incremental variance in understanding voluntary turnover as well as factors related to recruiting and staffing. The Employment Opportunity Index (EOI) is a multidimensional assessment of perceived employment alternatives that has exhibited predictive validity across multiple job types and populations. This study assessed the measurement invariance of the EOI in American, Mexican, and Brazilian professionals. We found support for configural and metric invariance in all five dimensions of the EOI with these populations, and support for scalar invariance three of the five EOI dimensions. The construct validity of the EOI appears to be relatively robust in Latin American populations, although cultural and macroeconomic factors may impose some response bias in these groups.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12064   open full text
  • Establishing the Measurement Equivalence of Online Selection Assessments Delivered on Mobile versus Nonmobile Devices.
    Neil A. Morelli, Robert P. Mahan, A. James Illingworth.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    Recent usage data suggest job applicants are completing online selection assessments using mobile devices (e.g., smartphones) in greater numbers. To determine the appropriateness of this new technology, this study examined the measurement equivalence of selection assessments delivered on mobile and nonmobile devices (e.g., personal computers). Measurement invariance tests conducted with multigroup confirmatory factor analysis suggest mobile versions of a cognitive ability‐type assessment, two biodata assessments, a multimedia work simulation, and a text‐based situational judgment test appear to be equivalent to nonmobile versions. However, mobile device user latent means were half a standard deviation lower than their nonmobile counterparts for the situational judgment test. Implications for mobile device usage within selection and assessment are discussed.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12063   open full text
  • The Use of Mobile Devices in High‐stakes Remotely Delivered Assessments and Testing.
    Winfred Arthur, Dennis Doverspike, Gonzalo J. Muñoz, Jason E. Taylor, Alison E. Carr.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. April 23, 2014
    With Internet access no longer restricted to desktop and laptop computers, job applicants now have the opportunity to complete remotely delivered assessments on mobile, handheld small screen devices such as smartphones, and personal digital assistants. In this study, a large dataset is used to investigate demographic and score differences between job applicants who completed a remotely delivered high‐stakes assessment on a mobile device and those who completed it on a nonmobile device. Based on a sample of 3,575,207 job applicants who completed an unproctored Internet‐based assessment between January 2011 and April 2012, the percentage of applicants completing the assessment on a mobile device was small, 1.93%, but nevertheless represented more than 69,000 people. Overall, there were small test‐taker demographic differences in the use of mobile devices versus nonmobile devices in that mobile devices were slightly more likely to be used by women, African‐Americans and Hispanics, and younger applicants. Scores on a personality measure were similar for mobile and nonmobile devices but scores on a general mental ability test were substantially lower for mobile devices. Tests of measurement invariance also indicated equivalence across the mobile and nonmobile samples. Test taker and organizational implications for completing remotely delivered high‐stakes noncognitive and cognitive assessments on mobile versus nonmobile devices are discussed.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12062   open full text
  • Incremental Validity of Interactive Multimedia Simulations in Two Organizations.
    Chris D. Fluckinger, Nicole M. Dudley, Marisa Seeds.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    Interactive multimedia simulations are conceptually distinct from other simulations commonly used as selection tools, such as assessment centers and situational judgment tests, and represent a potentially cost‐effective and job‐related candidate assessment tool. This study investigated the predictive validity of these simulations with a combined sample of call center employees from two organizations. Results indicate that customized interactive multimedia simulations demonstrate substantial criterion‐related validity and significant incremental validity over other noncognitive measures such as biodata and personality.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12061   open full text
  • A Meta‐analysis of Letters of Recommendation in College and Graduate Admissions: Reasons for hope.
    Nathan R. Kuncel, Rachael J. Kochevar, Deniz S. Ones.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    Letters of recommendation are used extensively in academic admissions and personnel selection. Despite their prominence, comparatively little is known about their predictive power for multiple outcomes. This meta‐analysis combine the existing literature for college grade point average (GPA), academic outcomes of GPA, performance ratings, degree attainment, and research productivity for nonmedical school graduate programs, and GPA and internship performance ratings for medical school students. Intercorrelations with other commonly used predictors are also estimated and used to estimate incremental predictive power. Overall, letters of recommendation, in their current form, are generally positively but weakly correlated with multiple aspects of performance in post‐secondary education. However, letters do appear to provide incremental information about degree attainment, a difficult and heavily motivationally determined outcome.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12060   open full text
  • Selectors' Decision Strategies when Assessing Immigrant Job Applicants.
    Jan Nijenhuis, Karen Dam, Sophie Aarts, Henk Flier.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    Immigrant job applicants are often not fluent in the majority language. This raises the question whether selectors adjust their decision strategy when selecting immigrants. In two field studies (N = 1,949 and N = 156), we examined the decision strategies of professional selectors. Selectors used differential strategies, giving less weight to the test scores and impression scores of immigrants. Dutch language proficiency served as a moderator variable; test scores were considered less important in the employment recommendation especially for immigrants with low language skills. Yet professional selectors also used similar strategies for different groups; the same test scores led to the same recommendations, regardless of ethnicity. In sum, personnel selectors adjusted their decision strategy for immigrants, but this did not lead to immigrants receiving higher recommendations than majority applicants with similar test scores.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12059   open full text
  • The Influence of Employers' Use of Social Networking Websites in Selection, Online Self‐promotion, and Personality on the Likelihood of Faux Pas Postings.
    Nicolas Roulin.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    Employers' selection practices sometimes involve reviewing applicants' profile on social networking websites (SNWs) and invading applicants' privacy (e.g., asking for their passwords). Applicants can be eliminated because of faux pas (i.e., inappropriate content) they post online. Yet, little research has examined factors related to faux pas postings. The present study examines employers' use of SNWs in selection, participants' internet and SNWs use, personality, and SNWs self‐promotion as predictors of the likelihood of faux pas postings. Results show lower likelihood of faux pas postings when participants are informed that a high proportion of employers use SNWs in selection, but mainly when it includes invasion of applicants' privacy. Moreover, participants' age, privacy settings, extraversion, and SNWs self‐promotion are related to faux pas.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12058   open full text
  • In‐basket Validity: A systematic review.
    Deborah L. Whetzel, Paul F. Rotenberry, Michael A. McDaniel.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    In‐baskets are high‐fidelity simulations often used to predict performance in a variety of jobs including law enforcement, clerical, and managerial occupations. They measure constructs not typically assessed by other simulations (e.g., administrative and managerial skills, and procedural and declarative job knowledge). We compiled the largest known database (k = 31; N = 3,958) to address the criterion‐related validity of in‐baskets and possible moderators. Moderators included features of the in‐basket: content (generic vs. job specific) and scoring approach (objective vs. subjective) and features of the validity studies: design (concurrent vs. predictive) and source (published vs. unpublished). Sensitivity analyses assessed how robust the results were to the influence of various biases. Results showed that the operational criterion‐related validity of in‐baskets was sufficiently high to justify their use in high‐stakes settings. Moderator analyses provided useful guidance for developers and users regarding content and scoring.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12057   open full text
  • ‘Good Impression’ as a Moderator in Employment‐related Assessment.
    Richard I. Lanyon, Leonard D. Goodstein, Rebecca Wershba.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    There is widespread agreement that response bias variables, such as good impression, have little relevance, either as moderators or suppressors, in efforts to improve the accuracy of employment‐related predictions based on personality test scores. However, a recent review found that there were relatively few methodologically sound real‐life studies of the moderator function. Reported here are four such studies involving the prediction of job performance. As hypothesized, a significant moderator effect was shown in the two studies that utilized ‘transparent’ job‐related predictors, with useful prediction only at the lower levels of good impression, but not in the two studies that utilized personality variables as predictors. These results confirm that validity when using transparent items to predict employment‐related success can be affected by the operation of good‐impression response bias. Further research is needed to delineate other relevant effects of good impression in such situations.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12056   open full text
  • Prior Related Work Experience and Job Performance: Role of personality.
    Nishant Uppal, Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Neharika Vohra.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    In contrast to the general notion, recent studies presented a negative or insignificant relationship between prior related work experience (PRWE) and job performance (JP) and suggestively attributed the theoretically inconsistent results to individual factors. Using a sample of 688 sales persons in the insurance industry, the present study found support for the positive relationship between PRWE and JP. Further, the study found the moderation effect of personality factors on the above relationship. Implication of the study to the practitioners and the academia is discussed.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12055   open full text
  • Does Selection Measure Scoring Influence Motivation: One size fits all?
    Sylvia G. Roch, Vipanchi Mishra, Eugene Trombini.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    Current theories of applicant motivation do not take the scoring of the selection measure into account. We propose that selection measures scored objectively versus using ratings have different motivational antecedents and consequences than selection measures scored using performance ratings. Results from two studies indicated differences between a cognitive ability test (scored objectively) and both an interview and written role‐play (scored using ratings) regarding the amount of self‐reported motivation, factors related to motivation (i.e., procedural justice, perceived performance, and perceived influence), and the relationship between motivation and performance. Both perceived performance and procedural justice were related to motivation across selection measures but only procedural justice was equally important. Perceived influence was only related to motivation regarding the interview. Motivation predicted performance only on the cognitive ability test. Thus, it appears that how a selection measure will be scored should be taken into account when investigating applicant motivation.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12054   open full text
  • Using Invariance to Examine Cheating in Unproctored Ability Tests.
    Natalie A. Wright, Adam W. Meade, Sara L. Gutierrez.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    Despite their widespread use in personnel selection, there is concern that cheating could undermine the validity of unproctored Internet‐based tests. This study examined the presence of cheating in a speeded ability test used for personnel selection. The same test was administered to applicants in either proctored or unproctored conditions. Item response theory differential functioning analyses were used to evaluate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of test items across proctored and unproctored conditions. A few items displayed different psychometric properties, and the nature of these differences was not uniform. Theta scores were not reflective of widespread cheating among unproctored examinees. Thus, results were not consistent with what would be expected if cheating on unproctored tests was pervasive.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12053   open full text
  • An Examination of Common Sensitivity Review Practices in Test Development.
    Juliya Golubovich, James A. Grand, Ann Marie Ryan, Neal Schmitt.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. February 18, 2014
    Sensitivity reviews of test content are commonly advocated techniques for reducing bias and enhancing fairness in employment and educational testing. However, few descriptions or empirical investigations of these techniques exist. The present paper presents a study documenting common sensitivity review practices and the extent to which expert reviewers agree in their judgments of item sensitivity. Results indicated that reviewers do not always receive training or adequate guidance and most frequently encounter subtle forms of insensitive item content. Further, only modest agreement in expert ratings of item sensitivity was found. Implications for improving sensitivity review practices are presented.
    February 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12052   open full text
  • Subject Matter Expert Judgments Regarding the Relative Importance of Competencies are not Useful for Choosing the Test Batteries that Best Predict Performance.
    Kevin R. Murphy, Paige J. Deckert, Theodore B. Kinney, Mei‐Chuan Kung.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 18, 2013
    Several recent articles have suggested that assessments of the relative importance of different abilities or competencies to a job have little bearing on the criterion‐related validity of these selection tests that measure those abilities. We hypothesize that selection test batteries chosen to maximize the judged importance of knowledge, skills, and abilities will not predict performance better than batteries of tests chosen at random. The results in two independent samples consistently show that the validity of test batteries chosen based on subject matter expert judgments of importance is not different from the validity of batteries of a comparable number of tests chosen at random from a set of intercorrelated tests, or even those chosen to provide the worst possible match between test content and job content.
    November 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12051   open full text
  • Personality Correlates of Assessment Center Consensus Competency Ratings: Evidence from Russia.
    Svetlana Simonenko, George C. Thornton, Alyssa M. Gibbons, Anna Kravtcova.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 18, 2013
    Controversy has revolved around whether assessment center ratings have construct validity to measure intended dimensions of managerial performance. In contrast to much recent research on the internal structure of assessment center ratings, the present studies investigated the relationship of final competency ratings derived by consensus discussion with external questionnaire measures of personality characteristics. Expanding on previous studies showing correlations of dimension scores in relation to individual trait measures, this study investigated the relationship of complex competencies with both single personality traits and with composites of personality traits. Evidence from two samples of managers in Russia shows that final competency ratings are related to predicted composites of personality factors more consistently than to single factors. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that assessment center ratings derived by consensus discussion show construct validity in relationship with predicted composites of personality characteristics.
    November 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12050   open full text
  • Relative Validity of Distinct Spatial Abilities: An example with implications for diversity.
    Laura G. Barron, Mark R. Rose.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 18, 2013
    Despite the increasingly recognized importance of spatial ability in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields, research to date has largely ignored distinctions in the criterion‐related validity and subgroup differences associated with theoretically distinct spatial abilities. This study aims to enhance practical understanding by spotlighting a prominent military context as an example wherein specific spatial abilities may be both differentially relevant and differentially apt to result in adverse impact. Analyses compared the relative importance of (i) spatial orientation, (ii) visualization, (iii) closure flexibility, and (iv) perceptual speed for predicting U.S. Air Force pilot performance (N = 1440), and compared subgroup differences in a large applicant sample (N = 10,643). Given that specific spatial abilities vary substantially in the extent to which gender differences exist, this study highlights the practical implications associated with the choice of particular spatial ability measures in personnel selection.
    November 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12049   open full text
  • Procrastination's Impact in the Workplace and the Workplace's Impact on Procrastination.
    Brenda Nguyen, Piers Steel, Joseph R. Ferrari.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 18, 2013
    Procrastination is a self‐regulatory failure, whose costs are debated. Here, we establish its impact in the workplace. Using an Internet sample, we assessed 22,053 individuals in terms of their sex, employment status, employment duration, income, occupational attainment and level of procrastination. High levels of procrastination is associated with lower salaries, shorter durations of employment, and a greater likelihood of being unemployed or under employed rather than working full‐time. Also, procrastination partially mediates sex's relationship with these work variables. Women tend to procrastinate less than men, evidently giving women an employment advantage. If women procrastinated the same as men, there should be 1.5 million fewer women in full‐time employment in the US. alone. Determining the causes of procrastination in the workplace, we also examined it at an occupational level. The results strongly support the gravitational hypothesis: jobs that require higher levels of motivational skills are less likely to retain procrastinators. However, there was some support that jobs can foster procrastination. Procrastinators tend to have jobs that are lower in intrinsically rewarding qualities.
    November 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12048   open full text
  • The Process Mechanisms Linking Recruiter Positive Moods and Organizational Attraction.
    Chien‐Cheng Chen, Chi‐Sheng Hsu, Pei‐Shan Tsai.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 18, 2013
    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanisms through which recruiters' positive moods lead to organizational attraction. Participants consisted of 161 applicant–recruiter dyads from 55 companies in Taiwan. Results show that recruiters' felt positive moods were positively related to applicant's perceptions of informativeness and competence, which, in turn, influenced organizational attraction. In addition, recruiters felt that positive moods were positively related to their display of positive moods, which were positively related to applicant's positive moods, which, in turn, affected organizational attraction.
    November 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12047   open full text
  • Psychological Hardiness Predicts Success in a Norwegian Armed Forces Border Patrol Selection Course.
    Bjørn Helge Johnsen, Paul Bartone, Asle M. Sandvik, Rune Gjeldnes, Arne Magnus Morken, Sigurd William Hystad, Anett V. Stornæs.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 18, 2013
    The present study investigates the effects of psychological hardiness and successful completion of a rigorous 250‐km ski march over 9 days in Arctic winter conditions. This ski march is the final portion of a selection program for border rangers in the Norwegian Armed Forces. Study participants were N = 178 soldiers with a mean age of 19.9 years (range 18–23). Hierarchical regression results showed that successful completion of the ski march was predicted by total hardiness scores, after controlling for nutrition factors, physical fitness and sensation seeking. A second hierarchical regression found that the commitment facet of hardiness was the most significant predictor of ski march success, again controlling for nutrition, physical fitness and sensation seeking. Analyses of daily participant surveys showed that the high commitment group reported the highest levels of positive daily coping, and also evaluated their performance more positively. This group also showed increasingly positive self‐evaluations as the exercise went on. Together, these results indicate that hardiness commitment is a key factor influencing performance in a rigorous and stressful endurance task requiring sustained effort, perhaps by enhancing active coping skills and self‐efficacy beliefs.
    November 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12046   open full text
  • The Effect of Non‐native Accents on the Evaluation of Applicants during an Employment Interview: The development of a path model.
    Anne‐Sophie Deprez‐Sims, Scott B. Morris.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 18, 2013
    As the workplace becomes increasingly global, organizations are more likely to employ individuals with non‐native accents. The present study looked at the influence of accents on the evaluation of job applicants during an interview. In addition, a path model was developed to understand the accent condition–hiring recommendation relationship. Participants were asked to evaluate an applicant with one of three accents (Midwestern US, French, Mexican) at two understandability levels (low and high) by listening to an audiofile. The results showed that the applicant with the Midwestern US accent was seen as more hirable than the applicant with the French low understandability accent. The path model indicated that the accent condition–hiring recommendation relationship was mediated by similarity, interpersonal attraction, and understandability.
    November 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12045   open full text
  • Are True Scores and Construct Scores the Same? A critical examination of their substitutability and the implications for research results.
    Frank L. Schmidt, Huy Le, In‐Sue Oh.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. November 18, 2013
    Relations between constructs are estimated based on correlations between measures of constructs corrected for measurement error. This process assumes that the true scores on the measure are linearly related to construct scores, an assumption that may not hold. We examined the extent to which differences in distribution shape reduce the correlation between true scores on a measure and scores on the underlying construct they are intended to measure. We found, via a series of Monte Carlo simulations, that when the actual construct distribution is normal, nonnormal distributions of true scores caused this correlation to drop by an average of only .02 across 15 conditions. When both construct and true score distributions assumed different combinations of nonnormal distributions, the average correlation was reduced by .05 across 375 conditions. We conclude that theory‐based scales intended to measure constructs usually correlate highly with the constructs they are constructed to measure. We show that, as a result, in most cases true score correlations only modestly underestimate correlations between different constructs. However, in cases in which the two constructs are redundant, this underestimation can lead to the false conclusion that the constructs are ‘correlated but distinct constructs,’ resulting in construct proliferation.
    November 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12044   open full text
  • What Do We Know About Competency Modeling?
    Thomas H. Stone, Brian D. Webster, Stephen Schoonover.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    While use of competency modeling (CM) has grown considerably, evaluation of it has been sparse. ‘Although today there is a significant amount and range of practice, there is sadly, little research or formal description of practice …' (Schippmann, J. S. (2010). In J. Scott & D. Reynolds (Eds.), Handbook of Workplace Assessment (p. 215). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley). CM literature is reviewed with the goal of shedding light on the prevalence, uses and effectiveness of CM. CM adoption, use, and effectiveness were examined via surveys and expert interviews. Results indicate extensive use of CM in corporate talent management systems. Our survey and review highlight the need for further examination of CM, its uses and implementation challenges.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12043   open full text
  • Justifying Counterproductive Work Behaviors and an Integrity‐based Conditional Reasoning Test: Back to the drawing board?
    Saul Fine, Yael Gottlieb‐Litvin.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    Conditional reasoning tests (CRT) were proposed as an innovative approach to implicitly measure the rationalizations toward counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) often associated with overt integrity tests. The authors first set out to map a typology of justification mechanisms for general CWB, and to then validate a new integrity‐based CRT in both honest and faking testing conditions. Unfortunately, while demonstrating encouraging construct and criterion validity in the honest testing condition, the test was less resistant to faking than originally anticipated, and ceased to be valid in the faking condition. Overall, the results provide theoretical insight toward understanding how employees justify CWB, but raise concerns regarding the potential operational limitations of at least some CRTs.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12042   open full text
  • Power of the Circumplex: Incremental validity of intersection traits in predicting counterproductive work behaviors.
    Erik Gonzalez‐Mulé, David DeGeest, Michael K. Mount.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    This study examines the role of the circumplex model of personality in predicting counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). Drawing on the fidelity‐bandwidth principle, we investigate the hypotheses that each of the three sets of circumplex traits representing the intersections of conscientiousness–agreeableness, conscientiousness–emotional stability, and agreeableness–emotional stability will account for significant incremental variance over five‐factor model (FFM) traits in predicting CWBs. Results indicated the circumplex traits contribute incremental variance over the FFM traits, are relatively more important than the FFM traits, and account for 1.5–2.0 times more variance in the total R2 associated with CWBs. Collectively, these findings show that circumplex traits capture unique information not explained by FFM traits, and this information leads to a better understanding of the dispositional nature of CWBs.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12041   open full text
  • Time Theft in Organizations: The development of the Time Banditry Questionnaire.
    Meagan E. Brock, Laura E. Martin, M. Ronald Buckley.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    Time banditry has recently been introduced as a conceptually distinct construct in the counterproductive work behavior literature. An employee is engaged in time banditry if s/he pursues unsanctioned and/or unethical nonwork activities during work time. An analysis of the time banditry construct would be facilitated by the rigorous development of a measure of this construct. The purpose of this research was to develop and refine a multidimensional measure of time banditry. Items were generated through an extensive literature review and numerous workplace discussions with a diverse sample of employees. Through this process, we developed a 45‐item time banditry scale (Time Banditry Questionnaire; TBQ) and utilized it with a diverse sample. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the construct of time banditry is multidimensional, exhibiting three distinct factors (classic, technology, and social). The TBQ demonstrated an internal consistency reliability of .90. Implications for the use of the TBQ in future research and application in organizations are discussed. The most salient suggestion in this study is that time banditry is more closely related to situational variables and personality variables than it is related to demographic variables.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12040   open full text
  • How Interviewees Consider Content and Context Cues to Person–Organization Fit.
    Eugene J. Kutcher, Jennifer D. Bragger, Jamie L. Masco.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    The interview is an ideal opportunity for job candidates to assess their fit with potential employers. While research shows that candidates' perceptions of person–organization (PO) fit lead to important outcomes, fewer studies explore how such perceptions are formed. A policy‐capturing study modeled how job candidates detect and interpret cues from the interview to inform their determinations of PO fit. A total of 213 participants read a series of vignettes representing interview scenarios, and rated each in terms of his/her perceived PO fit. Evidence showed that participants considered context factors (interview procedure practices and interviewer behaviors) more than the values‐relevant content of interview questions when assessing their level of PO fit.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12039   open full text
  • Impact and Causes of Rater Severity/Leniency in Appraisals without Postevaluation Communication Between Raters and Ratees.
    Chris Dewberry, Anna Davies‐Muir, Simon Newell.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    In performance appraisals, some assessors are substantially more lenient than others. Research on this effect in appraisals involving communication and interaction between raters and ratees after the performance evaluation has taken place indicates that it may be at least partly caused by individual differences in assessor personality. However, little is known about the impact or causes of rater severity versus leniency in situations in which there is little or no contact between raters and ratees after the performance evaluation. In Study 1 (N = 174) the strength of the severity–leniency effect in this ‘no‐contact’ context is estimated and found to be similar to that reported for ‘with‐contact’ appraisals. No evidence of an association between assessor personality and assessor severity (vs. leniency) is found in the ‘no‐contact’ context. In Study 2 (N = 54) there is no evidence of an association between the fluid cognitive ability of assessors and the severity of their ratings in a no‐contact context. It is concluded that the severity versus leniency effect probably has a considerable impact on performance ratings in ‘no‐contact’ appraisal settings, but that neither rater personality nor rater cognitive ability appear to play a significant role in this.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12038   open full text
  • Subdimensional Structure of the Hogan Personality Inventory.
    Jesús F. Salgado, Silvia Moscoso, Pamela Alonso.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    This study examined the subdimensional structure of the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI). A sample of 200 Spanish applicants completed the HPI as a requirement of a selection process for several jobs at a large international company. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted with the homogenous item composites (HIC) included in the HPI. Globally, the results indicated that the Big Five are divided into 13 subdimensions, which explained the variance of the HICs. Based on these results, we suggest that the HPI can be described as a personality inventory consisting of a hierarchical structure of three levels (Big Five – subdimensions – HICs).
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12037   open full text
  • Employment Interview Reliability: New meta‐analytic estimates by structure and format.
    Allen I. Huffcutt, Satoris S. Culbertson, William S. Weyhrauch.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    This study sought to provide an update on evidence regarding the interrater reliability of employment interviews. Using a final dataset of 125 coefficients with a total sample size of 32,428, our results highlight the importance of taking all three sources of measurement error (random response, transient, and conspect) into account. For instance, the mean interrater reliability was considerably higher for panel interviews than for separate interviews conducted by different interviewers (.74 vs. .44). A strong implication of our findings is that interview professionals should not base perceptions of the psychometric properties of their interview process on interrater estimates that do not include all three sources. A number of directions for future research were identified, including the influence of cues in medium structure panel interviews (e.g., changes in tone or pitch) and the lower than expected reliability for highly structured interviews conducted separately by different interviewers.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12036   open full text
  • Can the LTSI Predict Transfer Performance? Testing intent to transfer as a proximal transfer of training outcome.
    Holly M. Hutchins, Kim Nimon, Reid Bates, Ed Holton.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    Law enforcement personnel (n = 235) were administered the Learning Transfer Systems Inventory (LTSI) and a transfer measure after completing leadership development training. Although most studies using the LTSI have focused on validation efforts in different linguistic settings, this study is one of the few to examine the relationship between the LTSI factors and a proximal transfer outcome score (as measured by intent to transfer). Motivation to transfer, transfer design, and transfer performance expectations had the strongest relationship with intent to transfer, and the motivation subscales (motivation to transfer, performance expectations, and outcome expectations) accounted for the largest amount of unique variance in intent to transfer.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12035   open full text
  • Alternative Predictors for Dealing with the Diversity–Validity Dilemma in Personnel Selection: The constructed response multimedia test.
    Britt De Soete, Filip Lievens, Janneke Oostrom, Lena Westerveld.
    International Journal of Selection and Assessment. August 12, 2013
    In the context of the diversity–validity dilemma in personnel selection, the present field study compared ethnic subgroup differences on an innovative constructed response multimedia test to other commonly used selection instruments. Applicants (N = 245, 27% ethnic minorities) for entry‐level police jobs completed a constructed response multimedia test, cognitive ability test, language proficiency test, personality inventory, structured interview, and role play. Results demonstrated minor ethnic subgroup differences on constructed response multimedia test scores as compared to other instruments. Constructed response multimedia test scores were related to the selection decision, and no evidence for predictive bias was found. Subgroup differences were also examined on the dimensional level, with cognitively loaded dimension scores displaying larger differences.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12034   open full text