MetaTOC stay on top of your field, easily

Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions

Impact factor: 2.051 5-Year impact factor: 2.591 Print ISSN: 1098-3007 Publisher: Sage Publications

Subjects: Clinical Psychology, Special Education

Most recent papers:

  • Evaluating the Impact of Increasing General Education Teachers Ratio of Positive-to-Negative Interactions on Students Classroom Behavior.
    Cook, C. R., Grady, E. A., Long, A. C., Renshaw, T., Codding, R. S., Fiat, A., Larson, M.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. December 06, 2016

    The aim of this study was to isolate and evaluate the impact of increasing teachers’ ratios of positive-to-negative interactions with their students. Training teachers on the 5:1 ratio was evaluated using a randomized-block pre–post control design with general education classroom teachers (N = 6) that were characterized by a higher ratio of negative-to-positive interactions between students, as well as low academic engagement and high disruptive behaviors. Teachers in the intervention group were trained on the 5:1 ratio, instructed to wear a device that prompted them on a VI 5-min schedule to deliver specific praise, approval statements, and positive non-verbal gestures to specific students exhibiting expected behaviors or the entire class as a whole, and completing a self-monitoring chart to increase their awareness of their ratios. Results revealed that students in the intervention group displayed significantly fewer disruptive behavior problems and higher academic engaged time when compared with students in control classrooms. Social validity results also revealed that teachers found the strategy feasible, acceptable, and effective. Limitations of this research, including the small-scale nature of this study, and future directions for teacher training, retention, and schoolwide universal prevention are discussed.

    December 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716679137   open full text
  • Effects of Coaching on Teachers Implementation of Tier 1 School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support Strategies.
    Bethune, K. S.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. December 06, 2016

    Fidelity of implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) procedures within schools is critical to the success of the program. Coaching has been suggested as one approach to helping ensure accuracy of implementation of SWPBIS plans. This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of coaching on elementary schools teachers’ implementation of Tier 1 SWPBIS with their general education students. After providing the coach with an initial training on the SWPBIS and coaching procedures, four elementary schoolteachers were provided with side-by-side coaching during whole-class group instruction. Results indicated that there was a functional relationship between coaching and improved SWPBIS fidelity scores. Implications for practice included the need to consider selecting an appropriate person to act as the coach, scheduling difficulties, and the inability to standardize the number of opportunities for teachers to demonstrate some of the skills based on variability in student performance. However, utilizing school personnel to act as SWPBIS coaches may be a viable option to build sustainability and integrity of SWPBIS procedures within schools.

    December 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716680095   open full text
  • Including Students With Disabilities in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Experiences and Perspectives of Special Educators.
    Shuster, B. C., Gustafson, J. R., Jenkins, A. B., Lloyd, B. P., Carter, E. W., Bernstein, C. F.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. October 28, 2016

    As interest in proactive and systematic approaches to supporting positive student behavior grows, important questions remain about the ways in which special education staff and their students participate in school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS). We report findings from a statewide study of 849 special educators addressing (a) their involvement in their school’s PBIS framework, (b) the ways their students with disabilities participate, (c) potential barriers to such participation, and (d) the topics and avenues through which they desire professional development. Special educators rarely participated in school-wide PBIS teams, reported variability in the extent to which their students with disabilities participated in aspects of the school’s framework, indicated that they implemented some features of the framework in their classroom more than others, and highlighted salient barriers to student involvement. The views and actions of special educators working primarily with students with low-incidence disabilities differed from those of teachers working with students with high-incidence disabilities. We discuss implications for research and practice aimed at enhancing the implementation and impact of school-wide PBIS on students with disabilities.

    October 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716675734   open full text
  • Addressing Problem Behavior at Recess Using Peer Praise Notes.
    Teerlink, E., Caldarella, P., Anderson, D. H., Richardson, M. J., Guzman, E. G.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. October 28, 2016

    School recess, though beneficial to students in many ways, can be a problematic setting due to inadequate supervision, structure, and safety. A peer praise note (PPN) intervention was implemented on the recess playground to address these concerns at a Title I elementary school. Researchers used a single-subject reversal design across all students to evaluate intervention effectiveness. Results included overall improvements in the level, trend, and variability of office discipline referrals (ODRs), especially from reversal to reinstatement of the intervention, and an effect size (percentage of data points exceeding the median; PEM) suggesting that PPNs effectively decreased ODRs. Results from social validity surveys completed by recess aides and students indicated participants’ perceptions that PPNs helped improve student behavior and peer relations, communicate playground rules, extend supervision responsibilities, and offer structured activity to peer praisers. Limitations, future research, and implications are addressed.

    October 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716675733   open full text
  • Training Paraprofessionals to Target Socialization in Students With ASD: Fidelity of Implementation and Social Validity.
    Kim, S., Koegel, R. L., Koegel, L. K.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. September 19, 2016

    Although the literature suggests that it is feasible to train paraprofessionals to effectively implement social interventions for students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), there is a paucity of research that addresses the social validity of these programs. The present study replicated and extended previous research on paraprofessional training, as well as assessed social validity. Our results suggest that (a) paraprofessionals can be trained to fidelity using a package consisting of lecture and performance feedback, (b) there are collateral gains for paraprofessionals following the training, (c) the social interactions between students with ASD and typically developing peers improve following paraprofessional training, and (d) there is strong social validity in regard to acceptability of the training program. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

    September 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716669813   open full text
  • Investigation of School Professionals Self-Efficacy for Working With Students With ASD: Impact of Prior Experience, Knowledge, and Training.
    Corona, L. L., Christodulu, K. V., Rinaldi, M. L.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. September 14, 2016

    School professionals who work with students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) play a significant role in the academic experiences of these students, but some evidence suggests that teachers of students with ASD experience a high risk of burnout. Research has begun to examine factors that ameliorate or prevent teacher burnout, including teacher training and teacher self-efficacy, or teachers’ beliefs regarding their abilities to bring about positive outcomes for their students. The present study examined variables associated with the self-efficacy of school professionals for working with students with ASD, including knowledge about ASD, prior experience working with students with ASD, and prior training in ASD and evidence-based practices. A second goal of the present study was to investigate the impact of training on ASD and evidence-based practices on school professionals’ knowledge and self-efficacy related to working with students with ASD. In particular, the participants received training on the Prevent–Teach–Reinforce model. Results of the present study suggested the importance of training to school professionals’ self-efficacy, highlighting the need for continued efforts to provide quality training to individuals who work with students with ASD.

    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716667604   open full text
  • Monitoring Academic and Social Skills in Elementary School: A Psychometric Evaluation of the Classroom Performance Survey.
    Caldarella, P., Larsen, R. A. A., Williams, L., Wehby, J. H., Wills, H., Kamps, D.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. August 19, 2016

    Numerous well-validated academic progress monitoring tools are used in schools, but there are fewer behavioral progress monitoring measures available. Some brief behavior rating scales have been shown to be effective in monitoring students’ progress, but most focus only on students’ social skills and do not address critical academic-related behaviors. We conducted a quasi-replication of a study by Brady, Evans, Berlin, Bunford, and Kern examining the Classroom Performance Survey (CPS) by using a multi-step analytic strategy, including confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis. Over a period of 3 years, 160 elementary schoolteachers in 19 schools across three states completed a modified CPS on 356 elementary students identified as at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. The modified CPS was found to be comprised of two factors (Academic Competence and Interpersonal Competence) and showed evidence of reliability and validity. These results suggest that the CPS shows promise as a brief behavior rating scale for progress monitoring in elementary schools.

    August 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716665081   open full text
  • Implementing Positive Behavior Support in Preschools: An Exploratory Study of CW-FIT Tier 1.
    Jolstead, K. A., Caldarella, P., Hansen, B., Korth, B. B., Williams, L., Kamps, D.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. June 08, 2016

    Challenging behavior in preschool is a serious concern for teachers. Positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) have been shown to be effective in reducing such behaviors. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a specific multi-tiered intervention for implementing effective classroom management strategies using PBIS practices. CW-FIT has been shown to be effective in elementary classrooms but has not yet been evaluated with younger age groups. CW-FIT Tier 1 is a group contingency utilizing social skills training, teacher praise, and positive reinforcement to improve student behavior. The present study examined the effects of CW-FIT Tier 1 implementation on student group on-task behavior and on teacher praise and reprimand rates in four preschool classrooms. A single-subject delayed multiple baseline design with embedded reversals was used to evaluate impact. Results indicated the intervention increased student group on-task behavior and teacher praise to reprimand ratios. Both teachers and children found CW-FIT Tier 1 to be socially valid. Limitations and implications of this study for researchers and practitioners are discussed.

    June 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716653226   open full text
  • Feasibility and Acceptability of Classroom-Based Interventions for Students With Emotional/Behavioral Challenges at the High School Level.
    State, T. M., Harrison, J. R., Kern, L., Lewis, T. J.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. May 19, 2016

    Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of interventions designed to address the needs of high school students with emotional and behavioral challenges and adopted by their teachers. In this study, 336 general and special education teachers rated classwide interventions (e.g., expectations, routines, positive student–teacher interactions [PSTI]) and individual student interventions (e.g., study skills, organizational skills) in terms of priority, feasibility, and acceptability before implementation. Teachers who implemented the interventions rated their acceptability post-implementation. Results indicated that acceptability ratings varied across interventions, and it appeared that teachers rated interventions that required the least amount of time to implement (e.g., PSTI) most acceptable and those that required the most time for implementation (e.g., study skills) least acceptable. Lack of time, perceived lack of effectiveness, and poor environmental fit were often cited as reasons for lack of feasibility. Regression analyses revealed that teacher characteristics (e.g., years of experience) and type of intervention (e.g., classwide vs. individualized) contributed to teacher ratings of intervention acceptability. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

    May 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716648459   open full text
  • Technical Adequacy of the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory.
    McIntosh, K., Massar, M. M., Algozzine, R. F., George, H. P., Horner, R. H., Lewis, T. J., Swain-Bradway, J.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 17, 2016

    Full and durable implementation of school-based interventions is supported by regular evaluation of fidelity of implementation. Multiple assessments have been developed to evaluate the extent to which schools are applying the core features of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS). The SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) was developed to be used as an initial assessment to determine the extent to which a school is using (or needs) SWPBIS, a measure of SWPBIS fidelity of implementation at all three tiers of support, and a tool to guide action planning for further implementation efforts. In this research, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the TFI in three studies: a content validity study, a usability and reliability study, and a large-scale validation study. Results showed strong construct validity for assessing fidelity at all three tiers, strong interrater and 2-week test–retest reliability, high usability for action planning, and strong relations with existing SWPBIS fidelity measures. Implications for accurate evaluation planning are discussed.

    March 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716637193   open full text
  • Effects of Targeted Professional Development on Teachers Specific Praise Rates.
    Simonsen, B., Freeman, J., Dooley, K., Maddock, E., Kern, L., Myers, D.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 14, 2016

    Classroom management continues to be a concern for educators, administrators, and policymakers. Although evidence-based classroom management practices exist, teachers often receive insufficient training and support to implement these practices successfully. Schools need reliable and efficient ways to support teachers’ classroom management. This study employed a multiple baseline design across elementary teachers to investigate the effect of targeted professional development (TPD), an efficient approach that incorporated self-management and email prompts, on teachers’ rates of specific praise. We replicated this study at a second elementary school to provide additional evidence of the efficacy of TPD. Across teachers in both schools, data support a functional relation between TPD and an increase in teachers’ use of specific praise.

    March 14, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716637192   open full text
  • A Qualitative Analysis of Middle and High School Teacher Perceptions of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports.
    Feuerborn, L. L., Wallace, C., Tyre, A. D.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 07, 2016

    Full stakeholder support for any innovation can be difficult to achieve, particularly in complex systems such as middle and high schools. Increasingly, obtaining middle and high school teacher support for Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS) is identified as a challenging yet crucial element of implementation. The reasons behind these challenges are not well understood; thus, the purpose of this study was to attain a better understanding of the SWPBS-related needs and concerns of middle and high school teachers. Thematic analysis was used to analyze open-ended concerns statements and statements of need from teachers working in 19 middle and high schools. Regardless of SWPBS implementation level, the most prevalent concerns pertained to staff support and consensus, and the most prevalent needs were related to collaboration. There were high levels of consistency in concerns and needs, with a few differences found in the concerns and needs statements of teachers in implementing and low-implementing schools. Full results, limitations, and implications for future research and practice are discussed.

    March 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716632591   open full text
  • Teaching Stimulus Control via Class-Wide Multiple Schedules of Reinforcement in Public Elementary School Classrooms.
    Torelli, J. N., Lloyd, B. P., Diekman, C. A., Wehby, J. H.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 07, 2016

    In elementary school classrooms, students commonly recruit teacher attention at inappropriately high rates or at inappropriate times. Multiple schedule interventions have been used to teach stimulus control by signaling to students when reinforcement is and is not available contingent on an appropriate response. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of a class-wide multiple schedule on differentiated rates of student recruitment of teacher attention in two public elementary classrooms. General education teachers implemented the multiple schedule intervention in the context of a common instructional routine (i.e., small group rotations among reading centers). Results indicated that the multiple schedule intervention was effective at decreasing disruptive bids for attention when teacher attention was not available. Additional research on teacher implementation of class-wide multiple schedules is needed to evaluate whether this intervention may be identified as an effective supplement to Tier 1 classroom management strategies within multi-tiered systems of support.

    March 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716632878   open full text
  • School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: A Snapshot of Implementation in Schools Serving Students With Significant Disabilities.
    Schelling, A. L., Harris, M. L.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 04, 2016

    Implementation of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) in K–12 schools is well documented in the literature. However, far less documentation can be found in the literature related to its implementation with students with significant intellectual and other developmental disabilities being served in either typical or alternate school settings. The purpose of this study was to highlight features of implementation of SWPBIS in alternate educational settings serving students with significant disabilities. Special education administrators situated in alternate educational settings across one Midwestern state completed a questionnaire indicating level of implementation of various SWPBIS components. Results indicated that although most respondents were engaged in implementation of SWPBIS, overall implementation was fairly low. Limitations and implications of the study for implementing the components of SWPBIS with students with significant disabilities are discussed.

    March 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716632360   open full text
  • Proactive Parent Engagement in Public Schools: Using a Brief Strengths and Needs Assessment in a Multiple-Gating Risk Management Strategy.
    Moore, K. J., Garbacz, S. A., Gau, J. M., Dishion, T. J., Brown, K. L., Stormshak, E. A., Seeley, J. R.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 04, 2016

    This study examined the viability of a brief, parent-reported strengths and needs assessment as the first step in a multiple-gating approach to proactive positive behavior support for families. The Positive Family Support–Strengths and Needs Assessment (PFS-SaNA) was designed to collaboratively engage parents early in the school year in a home–school coordinated Positive Family Support (PFS) system. In this study, we evaluated the reliability and validity of the PFS-SaNA in the context of public middle schools. Findings suggest that the 14-item, unidimensional PFS-SaNA shows convergent validity with teacher ratings of risk. It can be easily and cost-effectively used by school personnel when parents register their children for school at the beginning of each school year.

    March 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/1098300716632590   open full text
  • Predictors of Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
    McIntosh, K., Mercer, S. H., Nese, R. N. T., Strickland-Cohen, M. K., Hoselton, R.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. September 18, 2015

    In this analysis of extant data from 3,011 schools implementing school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) across multiple years, we assessed the predictive power of various school characteristics and speed of initial implementation on sustained fidelity of implementation of SWPBIS at 1, 3, and 5 years. In addition, we partitioned variance in whether schools sustained SWPBIS at the school, district, and state levels. Results showed that the largest differences in fidelity were at the state level. In addition, school characteristics (particularly grade levels served) and speed of initial implementation were significant but small predictors of sustained implementation. Results are discussed in terms of effective supports at the state and district levels, as well as addressing types of schools at greater risk of abandonment, such as high schools.

    September 18, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715599737   open full text
  • Positive Behavior Support: A Proposal for Updating and Refining the Definition.
    Kincaid, D., Dunlap, G., Kern, L., Lane, K. L., Bambara, L. M., Brown, F., Fox, L., Knoster, T. P.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. September 04, 2015

    Positive behavior support (PBS) has been a dynamic and growing enterprise for more than 25 years. During this period, PBS has expanded applications across a wide range of populations and multiple levels of implementation. As a result, there have been understandable inconsistencies and confusion regarding the definition of PBS. In this essay, we offer an updated and unified definition. We provide a brief historical perspective and describe a process for developing a proposed definition. We also discuss the rationale for key elements of the definition.

    September 04, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715604826   open full text
  • In Search of How Principals Change: A Qualitative Study of Events That Help and Hinder Administrator Support for School-Wide PBIS.
    McIntosh, K., Kelm, J. L., Canizal Delabra, A.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. August 06, 2015

    Research has shown principal support to be a critical variable for implementing and sustaining evidence-based practices. However, there remains little understanding of the factors that may influence a principal’s personal decision to support a practice. The purpose of the current study was to examine events that influenced principals’ support for a widely used approach to behavior in schools, school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 school administrators who self-reported that they were initially opposed to or not supportive of PBIS but became stronger supporters over time. Qualitative analysis using the Enhanced Critical Incident Technique revealed eight helping and three hindering categories of experiences in change in support, as well as two categories of early experiences that they reported might have built their support from the beginning. Implications for enhancing administrator support are provided.

    August 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715599960   open full text
  • A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-In Check-Out.
    Wolfe, K., Pyle, D., Charlton, C. T., Sabey, C. V., Lund, E. M., Ross, S. W.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. July 31, 2015

    Tier 2 interventions play an important role within the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports framework, bridging the gap between schoolwide Tier 1 interventions and individualized Tier 3 supports. Check-in check-out (CICO) is a promising Tier 2 intervention for addressing mild problem behavior and potentially preventing the need for more intensive supports. In this systematic review, we synthesize the characteristics, methodological quality, and outcomes of 15 single-subject studies and one group design study examining CICO. The results suggest that CICO can be considered an evidence-based practice for students with problem behavior maintained by adult attention. Versions of CICO that were modified to address other functions (e.g., obtain peer attention, escape from tasks) demonstrated strong effects, but there were not a sufficient number of studies for modified CICO to qualify as an evidence-based practice. We discuss the implications of this review for practitioners as well as future research on CICO.

    July 31, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715595957   open full text
  • Construct and Predictive Validity of Social Acceptability: Scores From High School Teacher Ratings on the School Intervention Rating Form.
    Harrison, J. R., State, T. M., Evans, S. W., Schamberg, T.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. July 16, 2015

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and predictive validity of scores on a measure of social acceptability of class-wide and individual student intervention, the School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF), with high school teachers. Utilizing scores from 158 teachers, exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor (i.e., Suitability, Perceived Benefit, Convenience) structure. Findings revealed that teachers who implemented class-wide and individual student interventions with perfect integrity or less than acceptable integrity rated the interventions as less suitable than those who implemented with acceptable integrity. Similarly, the same groups rated the interventions as less convenient than those who implemented with acceptable integrity. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

    July 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715596135   open full text
  • Self-Monitoring for High School Students With Disabilities: A Cross-Categorical Investigation of I-Connect.
    Clemons, L. L., Mason, B. A., Garrison-Kane, L., Wills, H. P.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. July 14, 2015

    Self-monitoring interventions are well supported within the empirical literature as improving classroom engagement for students with disabilities. However, studies implementing self-monitoring interventions in high school settings are rarely conducted despite their potential to improve student academic and behavioral outcomes. In an investigation of an unobtrusive, self-monitoring application loaded on a handheld device, classroom engagement and perceived academic benefits were assessed in a withdrawal design for three high school students with different disabilities (specific learning disability, autism, and intellectual disability) in varied instructional arrangements. Direct observation data supported the intervention as effective in improving classroom engagement for all three students during intervention and maintenance phases.

    July 14, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715596134   open full text
  • Using Reframing to Reduce Negative Statements in Social Conversation for Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
    Koegel, L. K., Navab, A., Ashbaugh, K., Koegel, R. L.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. July 10, 2015

    This study examined the effects of teaching the reframing of negative statements through self-management and video-feedback on social conversation in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline design across five participants showed that, following intervention, all were able to increase their positive and neutral statements while decreasing negative statements, with generalization to peers in new settings. In addition, four of the five participants’ affect and interest improved following the intervention, and three were rated as more socially desirable. Furthermore, post-treatment improvements were noted on standardized measures of depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Results are discussed in terms of improving general social communicative interactions and quality of life in adults with ASD.

    July 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715596136   open full text
  • Promoting Positive Behavior Using the Good Behavior Game: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Case Research.
    Bowman-Perrott, L., Burke, M. D., Zaini, S., Zhang, N., Vannest, K.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. June 30, 2015

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom management strategy that uses an interdependent group-oriented contingency to promote prosocial behavior and decrease problem behavior. This meta-analysis synthesized single-case research (SCR) on the GBG across 21 studies, representing 1,580 students in pre-kindergarten through Grade 12. The TauU effect size across 137 phase contrasts was .82 with a confidence interval 95% CI = [0.78, 0.87], indicating a substantial reduction in problem behavior and an increase in prosocial behavior for participating students. Five potential moderators were examined: emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD) risk status, reinforcement frequency, target behaviors, GBG format, and grade level. Findings suggest that the GBG is most effective in reducing disruptive and off-task behaviors, and that students with or at risk for EBD benefit most from the intervention. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715592355   open full text
  • Effects of the Good Behavior Game on the Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Problems of Children With Psychiatric Disorders in Special Education Settings.
    Breeman, L. D., van Lier, P. A. C., Wubbels, T., Verhulst, F. C., van der Ende, J., Maras, A., Struiksma, A. J. C., Hopman, J. A. B., Tick, N. T.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. June 25, 2015

    Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to implement positive behavior support strategies to elicit desired behavior in students. A total of 389 children and their 58 teachers at 11 schools for special primary education were included in the study. Using a cluster randomized controlled design, special education schools were assigned to an intervention condition or an education as usual condition. An increase in emotional and behavioral problems was found in the control group, whereas no change was seen in the intervention group, indicating a modest intervention effect. No effects were found on children’s relationships with teachers or peers. The GBG affected teachers’ sense of self-efficacy in engaging students in schoolwork, but no effects were found on teachers’ self-efficacy in classroom management or on teachers’ burnout symptoms. Thus, although children with psychiatric disorders and their teachers in special education can benefit from the GBG, given the partial effects and modest effect sizes, a longer duration program complemented with additional elements is recommended.

    June 25, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715593466   open full text
  • The Relationship Between School-Wide Implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports and Student Discipline Outcomes.
    Childs, K. E., Kincaid, D., George, H. P., Gage, N. A.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. June 17, 2015

    School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a systems approach to supporting the social and emotional needs of all children utilized by more than 21,000 schools across the nation. Data from numerous studies and state projects’ evaluation reports point to the impact of SWPBIS on student outcomes (office discipline referrals [ODRs], in-school suspensions [ISSs], out-of-school suspensions [OSSs]) and the possible relationship between implementation fidelity and those student outcomes. With data from 1,122 Florida schools, this study used a longitudinal design to examine the associations between the total score and 10 subscale scores on the Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ), a validated SWPBIS implementation fidelity measure, and school-level behavioral outcomes: ODRs, ISSs, and OSSs. Results of these analyses found a decreasing trend across all three behavioral outcomes, and schools having higher BoQ total scores realized lower ODRs and had corresponding fewer ISSs and OSSs. Of the 10 subscales, the Classroom was negatively and significantly associated with ODRs and OSSs, whereas the BoQ Data Entry Plan was positively and significantly associated with ODRs at initial status and across time after controlling for school-level characteristics (e.g., size, number of years of implementation). The implications of the findings for SWPBIS assessment and intervention in the classroom are discussed.

    June 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715590398   open full text
  • Using a Changing-Criterion Design to Evaluate the Effects of Check-In/Check-Out With Goal Modification.
    McDaniel, S. C., Bruhn, A. L.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. May 19, 2015

    Check-in/check-out (CICO) is a Tier 2 behavioral intervention that has demonstrated effectiveness for students with challenging behavior in a variety of educational settings. Existing research has focused primarily on testing the intervention’s effectiveness and the role of behavioral function in moderating response to intervention. Only a handful of studies have included examinations of different procedures for fading CICO to promote maintained behavioral change. These have included decreasing the frequency of teacher feedback, using a mystery motivator to thin the schedule of reinforcement, and increasing goal contingencies over time. In this study, two middle school females with conduct problems were identified for participation in CICO with goal modification. During intervention, the first modification entailed setting the CICO card goal for each participant based on averages obtained on the CICO card during baseline rather than the commonly used 80% goal. Then, predetermined decision rules about how to modify subsequent goals were executed according to student progress. Effects on student behavior were evaluated using a changing-criterion with withdrawal design, and scores on the CICO card improved and classroom problem behavior decreased for both participants. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

    May 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715588263   open full text
  • An Evaluation of a Self-Management Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior With Individuals Diagnosed With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
    Slattery, L., Crosland, K., Iovannone, R.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. May 19, 2015

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in school-age children. Children with ADHD often have difficulty at school and at home. Medication is a common treatment for children with ADHD; however, it has been shown to be more effective when combined with behavioral interventions. Self-management has extensive research support showing its effectiveness for children with ADHD primarily in academic settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact a self-management intervention would have on the on-task behavior of children during various routines, both academic and nonacademic, in the home setting. Participants were trained to use a self-management intervention. In addition, parents were trained to conduct accuracy checks on their child’s performance as well as deliver feedback and rewards. All three participants showed an increase in on-task behavior following the implementation of the self-management intervention; two of the three participants’ on-task behavior maintained high, stable levels as the self-management schedule was faded. One participant’s on-task behavior did not maintain high levels and therefore required implementation of a self-management plus reinforcement for on-task behavior condition to reestablish high, stable levels of on-task behavior. For one participant, the duration of the targeted routine increased. Current limitations are discussed, and recommendations for future research in this area are provided.

    May 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715588282   open full text
  • Relationship Between School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and Academic, Attendance, and Behavior Outcomes in High Schools.
    Freeman, J., Simonsen, B., McCoach, D. B., Sugai, G., Lombardi, A., Horner, R.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 13, 2015

    Attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes are important indicators of school effectiveness and long-term student outcomes. Multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS), such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS), have emerged as potentially effective frameworks for addressing student needs and improving student outcomes. Much of the research on SWPBIS outcomes has taken place at the elementary and middle school levels, leaving a need for a more thorough examination of outcomes at the high school level. The purpose of this study was to explore the links between implementation of SWPBIS and academic, attendance, and behavior outcome measures across a large sample of high schools from 37 states. Despite some of the difficulties of SWPBIS implementation at the high school level, evidence suggests positive relationships between SWPBIS implementation and outcomes in behavior and attendance for high schools that implement with fidelity.

    April 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715580992   open full text
  • Integrating Universal Behavioral Screening Within Program-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
    Burke, M. D., Rispoli, M., Clemens, N. H., Lee, Y.-H., Sanchez, L., Hatton, H.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 13, 2015

    Universal behavioral screening is a major part of positive behavioral support and response to intervention systems. Program-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) focuses on establishing social, emotional, and behavioral competence through promotion of a small set of behavioral expectations that are agreed upon, taught, and reinforced by all teachers across all settings. This study explored the validity of a novel approach to universal screening in program-wide PBIS whereby a "brief" screening tool for determining behavioral risk was developed using child adherence to program-wide behavioral expectations. Sixty-five children in a Head Start center were screened using an expectation-based screening procedure developed from the program-wide expectations. Two standardized emotional and behavioral rating scales were then administered as criterions. Results revealed convergent associations between the extent of children’s adherence to program-wide expectations and the standardized criterion instruments in risk areas associated with hyperactivity, conduct, and externalizing problems. Classification accuracy analyses provided preliminary support for predicting several domains of behavioral risk.

    April 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715580993   open full text
  • An Evaluation of Group Contingency Interventions: The Role of Teacher Preference.
    Ennis, C. R., Cho Blair, K.-S., George, H. P.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 25, 2015

    Group contingencies (GCs) vary in a variety of dimensions that may influence their efficacy and acceptability. This study evaluated the relative impact of four different GC types (independent, interdependent, dependent, and randomized) on classwide appropriate and disruptive student behaviors as well as how implementation of a teacher’s preferred contingency may enhance student behavioral outcomes. Three general education teachers and their students participated in the study. All four GCs resulted in reduced disruption and increased appropriate behavior across all three classrooms with no patterns of differentiation between contingency types. Teachers selected independent or dependent contingencies as their preferred reward system. Implementation of the preferred contingency resulted in further improvements in both classwide behaviors for all classes. Some evidence of generalization and maintenance was noted in all three classrooms.

    March 25, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715577663   open full text
  • Effects of a Staff Training Program on Community Instructors' Ability to Teach Swimming Skills to Children With Autism.
    Jull, S., Mirenda, P.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 16, 2015

    Several recent studies have shown that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less physically active than their typically developing peers and are thus at risk of health problems associated with inactivity (e.g., obesity or diabetes). There is a need to examine the effectiveness of interventions such as swimming that are aimed at increasing physical activity, using approaches that are ecologically valid—that is, that are designed to address real-world problems in natural settings with typical intervention agents. This community-based study used a modified non-concurrent multiple baseline design to assess the impact of behavioral skills training to train recreation center staff in the use of discrete trials and visual activity schedules to teach swimming skills to children with ASD in public pools. Following completion of the training, five of six instructors showed evidence of instructional skill acquisition; the sixth instructor showed improvement during baseline, so the effect of the intervention could not be assessed. In addition, an experimental effect for increased compliance was evident for seven of the eight children, and all eight acquired new swimming skills. Social/ecological validity ratings by instructors and parents were uniformly high. The results and limitations are discussed, along with suggestions for future research.

    March 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/1098300715576797   open full text
  • A Comparison of Vocal Mand Training Strategies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.
    Plavnick, J. B., Vitale, F. A.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. September 10, 2014

    Based on Skinner’s classification of verbal behavior, the mand is the first and most advantageous verbal operant to develop. Deficits in vocal mand repertoires are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and can lead to decreased social interaction and increased problem behavior. The present investigation compared the effects of two mand training procedures on the acquisition and mastery of vocal mands by four young children with ASD using an adapted alternating treatment design. An in vivo mand training procedure, which involved the therapist contriving an establishing operation and delivering a vocal model, was compared with a video modeling procedure wherein the therapist presented a video model prior to contriving an establishing operation. Overall, participants acquired and mastered mands assigned to the video modeling condition faster than mands assigned to the in vivo mand training condition. The results demonstrate the potential efficacy of video modeling for teaching verbal operants to children with ASD.

    September 10, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1098300714548800   open full text
  • Culturally Responsive Social Skill Instruction for Latino Male Students.
    Lo, Y.-y., Correa, V. I., Anderson, A. L.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 28, 2014

    Cross-cultural friendships and peer interactions are important skills for Latino students to become socially adjusted in U.S. schools. Culturally responsive social skill instruction allows educators to teach essential social skills while attending to the native culture and personal experiences of the students. The present study examined the effects of culturally responsive social skill instruction through a peer-mediated format on the social interactions of eight Mexican-heritage elementary Latino male participants with non-Latino students during recess. Four participants were trained to serve as tutors to deliver 12 computer-assisted social skill lessons with embedded video models on friendship building to their peers. Using a single case, multiple probe across student dyads design, the results of this study indicated that all participants increased the number of appropriate verbal social interactions with non-Latino peers. Implications for practice and future research are discussed in relation to culturally responsive social skill instruction for Latino students.

    April 28, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1098300714532133   open full text
  • Expanding Supports to Improve the Lives of Families of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.
    Russa, M. B., Matthews, A. L., Owen-DeSchryver, J. S.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 28, 2014

    Research suggests that families with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience increased stress and challenges compared with families of typically developing children. We highlight the need for family-centered approaches to reduce family stress, and we elaborate on some of the most central universal needs for families with a child with ASD, such as access to quality information and services, parent skills training, coordinated services, and transitional supports. We then present promising models and strategies from the best practice literature to better address family needs, such as Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, parent–educator partnership models, Parent to Parent (PTP), the Medical Home model, and the Family Navigator model. We conclude by providing practice recommendations and highlighting the critical need for further research.

    April 28, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1098300714532134   open full text
  • Investigating the Usability of Classroom Management Strategies Among Elementary Schoolteachers.
    Briesch, A. M., Briesch, J. M., Chafouleas, S. M.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 18, 2014

    Although teachers are often asked to implement classroom interventions to address student behavior, little is known about their perceived usability of many evidence-based strategies. One thousand five elementary schoolteachers completed the Usage Rating Profile–Intervention–Revised (URP-IR) with regard to the use of one of five evidence-based classroom management strategies described in a hypothetical vignette. Results suggested that participants understood implementation procedures and did not feel that they would require external support to carry out the procedures with integrity. However, group contingencies were rated as less acceptable and less compatible with school climate than other strategies, and acceptability ratings were found to be the lowest for dependent group contingencies. Implications of the role of teachers’ perceived usability in the adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions in schools are discussed.

    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1098300714531827   open full text
  • Examining Behavioral Risk and Academic Performance for Students Transitioning From Elementary to Middle School.
    Lane, K. L., Oakes, W. P., Carter, E. W., Messenger, M.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 24, 2014

    We studied the transition from elementary to middle school for 74 fifth-grade students. Specifically, we examined how behavioral risk evident in the elementary years, as measured by the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS), impacts students transitioning from elementary to middle school. First, we examined how student risk status shifts as students transitioned from elementary to middle school, also exploring whether these shifts in risk were comparable with the shifts in risk occurring within the fifth-grade year. Second, we explored the degree to which these shifts in risk varied as a function of student gender, special education status, and initial behavioral performance. Although gender was not predictive of performance, there was a positive relation between special education status and initial behavioral risk when compared with risk evident during the sixth-grade year. Finally, we determined the extent to which risk at the end of elementary school was associated with academic and behavioral performance during the first year of middle school. Findings suggest a strong relation between grade point average (GPA) and course failures (CFs) with behavioral risk in sixth grade. As expected, there was a statistically significant, positive relation between CFs and sixth-grade SRSS scores and an inverse relation with GPA.

    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1098300714524825   open full text
  • The Effects of Check-In/Check-Out on Problem Behavior and Academic Engagement in Elementary School Students.
    Miller, L. M., Dufrene, B. A., Sterling, H. E., Joe Olmi, D., Bachmayer, E.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. January 08, 2014

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of Check-in/Check-out (CICO) for improving behavioral performance for three students referred for Tier 2 behavioral supports. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to evaluate CICO and results indicate that intervention was effective for reducing problem behavior as well as increasing academic engagement for all students as evidenced by direct observation of students’ behavior. Following effective implementation of CICO, a fading process was introduced that included use of Mystery Motivator (MM). Results indicate that MM successfully maintained behavioral performance for two of the three students. In addition, for one student, intervention was further faded such that self-monitoring replaced teacher ratings and feedback for behavior. Results are discussed in terms of CICO research and practice.

    January 08, 2014   doi: 10.1177/1098300713517141   open full text
  • Scaling Up School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Experiences of Seven States With Documented Success.
    Horner, R. H., Kincaid, D., Sugai, G., Lewis, T., Eber, L., Barrett, S., Dickey, C. R., Richter, M., Sullivan, E., Boezio, C., Algozzine, B., Reynolds, H., Johnson, N.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. October 03, 2013

    Scaling of evidence-based practices in education has received extensive discussion but little empirical evaluation. We present here a descriptive summary of the experience from seven states with a history of implementing and scaling School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) over the past decade. Each state has been successful in establishing at least 500 schools using SWPBIS across approximately a third or more of the schools in their state. The implementation elements proposed by Sugai, Horner, and Lewis (2009) and the stages of implementation described by Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, and Wallace (2005) were used within a survey with each element assessed at each stage by the SWPBIS coordinators and policy makers in the seven states. Consistent themes from analysis of the responses were defined and confirmed with the surveyed participants. Results point to four central areas of state "capacity" as being perceived as critical for a state to move SWPBIS to scale (administrative leadership and funding, local training and coaching capacity, behavioral expertise, and local evaluation capacity), and an iterative process in which initial implementation success (100–200 demonstrations) is needed to recruit the political and fiscal support required for larger scaling efforts.

    October 03, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713503685   open full text
  • Increasing New Teachers' Specific Praise Using a Within-School Consultation Intervention.
    Briere, D. E., Simonsen, B., Sugai, G., Myers, D.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. August 16, 2013

    Specific praise is an empirically supported classroom management strategy associated with desired academic and behavioral student outcomes when implemented appropriately in classrooms. Unfortunately, new teachers often begin their careers without the background knowledge or support to implement this strategy effectively and consistently. We investigated the effects of a within-school consultation intervention provided by mentors (i.e., veteran teachers), which involved self-management, regular structured meetings, and focused performance feedback, on new teachers’ specific praise rates across three new teachers using a concurrent multiple-baseline across participants design. Specific praise rates increased for each new teacher when within-school consultation was implemented, indicating a functional relation. Study limitations and implications for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

    August 16, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713497098   open full text
  • A Comment on the Term "Positive Behavior Support".
    Dunlap, G., Kincaid, D., Horner, R. H., Knoster, T., Bradshaw, C. P.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. August 07, 2013

    The use of the term "positive behavior support" has been associated with some confusion, and a number of alternative terms have been adopted over the past few decades. In this article, we discuss some of the historical context associated with different terms, and explain reasons for preferring "positive behavior support (PBS)" as the term for referring to the PBS approach.

    August 07, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713497099   open full text
  • Integrating a Social Behavior Intervention During Small Group Academic Instruction Using a Total Group Criterion Intervention.
    Rodriguez, B. J., Anderson, C. M.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. July 12, 2013

    Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group settings, and problem behavior may have a deleterious effect on learning. This study evaluated effects of a positive reinforcement total group contingency implemented by instructional assistants across five small groups of kindergarten students receiving supplemental literacy instruction. Results indicated reductions in student problem behavior, increases in adult provision of specific praise statements, and increases in opportunities to respond to academic instruction. Although the intervention focused on student social behavior, we also documented improved fidelity of implementation of the literacy instruction following training and implementation of the total group criterion intervention. The implications for implementing total group contingencies during small group instruction are discussed.

    July 12, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713492858   open full text
  • Increasing Induction-Level Teachers' Positive-to-Negative Communication Ratio and Use of Behavior-Specific Praise Through E-Mailed Performance Feedback and Its Effect on Students' Task Engagement.
    Rathel, J. M., Drasgow, E., Brown, W. H., Marshall, K. J.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. July 12, 2013

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of e-mailed specific performance feedback that included progress monitoring graphs on induction-level teachers’ ratios of positive-to-negative communication behaviors and their use of behavior-specific praise in classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, mild intellectual disabilities, and learning disabilities. We also examined the effects of teachers’ communication behavior on students’ academic task engagement. Results indicate that the e-mailed performance-feedback intervention increased teachers’ use of positive communication behaviors and decreased their use of negative communication behaviors. These effects resulted in higher positive-to-negative ratios. Furthermore, the teacher praise became more behavior-specific for academic and social behaviors, and students’ level of task engagement improved and became more stable.

    July 12, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713492856   open full text
  • Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Internalizing Problems: Current Evidence and Future Directions.
    McIntosh, K., Ty, S. V., Miller, L. D.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. July 01, 2013

    School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) has a large evidence base for preventing and addressing externalizing problem behavior, but there is little research examining its effects on internalizing problems, such as anxiety and depression. Given the prevalence of internalizing problems in today’s children and youth, it is worthwhile to examine the SWPBIS research base for evidence of effectiveness in preventing and treating internalizing problems. Hypothesized mechanisms by which the SWPBIS approach may support students with or at risk of internalizing problems include improving the clarity and predictability of the social environment, discouraging problem behavior that can threaten student safety, allowing instruction to take place, teaching effective responses to perceived environmental threats, and indirectly reducing internalizing problems by addressing externalizing problems. Support for internalizing challenges within a SWPBIS framework can be enhanced by adding evidence-based interventions for supporting internalizing needs within SWPBIS systems, providing professional development in identifying internalizing problems, and incorporating screening for internalizing problems into existing screening systems.

    July 01, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713491980   open full text
  • Self-Monitoring With a Twist: Using Cell Phones to CellF-Monitor On-Task Behavior.
    Bedesem, P. L., Dieker, L. A.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. June 25, 2013

    Self-monitoring is regarded throughout the literature as an effective classroom intervention. Researchers have used self-monitoring interventions to improve school-related behavior of students with varying disabilities across a variety of settings. Although research supports the use of self-monitoring, traditional self-monitoring techniques may be unappealing to students and inefficient for use in the classroom. Cell phones hold great promise for increasing the acceptability and efficiency of self-monitoring interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe a self-monitoring technique that incorporates cell phones and text messages. We provide step-by-step instructions for setting up and implementing CellF-Monitoring in a classroom.

    June 25, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713492857   open full text
  • Addressing Disproportionate Discipline Practices Within a School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Framework: A Practical Guide for Calculating and Using Disproportionality Rates.
    Boneshefski, M. J., Runge, T. J.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 11, 2013

    Culturally responsible implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) requires that schools monitor indices of disciplinary practices among minority groups. School teams are encouraged to calculate risk indices and risk ratios to evaluate the extent to which students of all groups are removed from classrooms for behavioral infractions. Additional data sources are offered to understand the nature of disproportionate practices. These data are then used to develop more culturally responsive disciplinary practices in schools. An illustration is then provided using data from an ethnically diverse elementary school.

    April 11, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713484064   open full text
  • Self-Management of Social Initiations by Kindergarten Students With Disabilities in the General Education Classroom.
    Reynolds, B. M., Gast, D. L., Luscre, D.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 09, 2013

    The effectiveness of a self-management intervention on social interaction behaviors was evaluated for students with disabilities and social deficits. Four students enrolled in a general education kindergarten classroom were taught to self-monitor social initiations during nonstructured social time via a digital wrist counter. The number of social initiations and concurrent engagement in social interactions were recorded in 10-min observation sessions, within the context of a multiple baseline design across participants. Generalization was assessed in novel social situations through pre- and postintervention sessions. The number of social initiations and mean percentage of intervals participants were interacting increased for all participants. Topics for future research and implications for special education professionals are discussed.

    April 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713483176   open full text
  • Improving A Family's Overall Quality of Life Through Parent Training in Pivotal Response Treatment.
    Buckley, T. W., Ente, A. P., Ruef, M. B.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 09, 2013

    As the diagnoses of autism in young children continually increase, the need for families to have access to research-based treatment models that are effective and efficient has become clear. Current research demonstrates the demand for parent-delivered behavioral interventions. The aim of this single-case study, conducted as part of an integrated Masters in Education/Special Education Credential Program, was to examine the relationship between one parent trained in pivotal response treatment (PRT), her implementation of PRT techniques, and the correlated gains of behavioral compliance in her 6-year-old boy with high-functioning autism (HFA). Visual analysis of collected data as well as calculation of nonoverlapping data points suggest that a parent, when effectively trained, can utilize PRT to increase the rate of behavioral compliance of his or her own children.

    April 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713483177   open full text
  • Multitiered Support Framework for Teachers' Classroom-Management Practices: Overview and Case Study of Building the Triangle for Teachers.
    Simonsen, B., MacSuga-Gage, A. S., Briere, D. E., Freeman, J., Myers, D., Scott, T. M., Sugai, G.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 09, 2013

    Many teachers enter the field without sufficient training in classroom management and continue to experience challenges throughout their careers. Therefore, school-based leaders need a multi-tiered support (MTS) framework to (a) provide training to all teachers in classroom management (Tier 1), (b) identify teachers who require additional assistance (universal screening), (c) support the identified teachers (Tiers 2 and 3), and (d) continue to monitor teachers’ classroom management to adjust (i.e., intensify or fade) supports. In this article, we describe key features of the MTS continuum of intervention and assessment and present a case study to illustrate implementation of some components of the framework with four middle school teachers.

    April 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713484062   open full text
  • Critical Features Predicting Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
    Mathews, S., McIntosh, K., Frank, J. L., May, S. L.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 09, 2013

    The current study explored the extent to which a common measure of perceived implementation of critical features of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) predicted fidelity of implementation 3 years later. Respondents included school personnel from 261 schools across the United States implementing PBIS. School teams completed the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Self-Assessment Survey to self-assess fidelity of implementation in different PBIS settings (school-wide, nonclassroom, classroom, individual). These scores were then analyzed to assess whether certain items predicted the fidelity of PBIS implementation, as assessed through another fidelity of implementation measure, the School-Wide Benchmarks of Quality, 3 years later. Regression analyses indicated that self-reported fidelity of implementation of Classrooms Systems significantly predicted sustained implementation and student outcomes, as assessed through levels of Office Discipline Referrals. Within Classroom Systems, regular acknowledgment of expected behaviors, matching instruction to student ability, and access to additional support were the strongest predictors of sustained implementation. Results are discussed in terms of critical areas for focusing PBIS training to increase the likelihood of sustained implementation.

    April 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713484065   open full text
  • Addressing Task Avoidance in Middle School Students: Academic Behavior Check-In/Check-Out.
    Turtura, J. E., Anderson, C. M., Boyd, R. J.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 09, 2013

    Multitier prevention systems consist of a continuum of interventions to address the needs of all students. Within such systems, Tier I supports are in place for all students and are designed to enhance prosocial (social behavior interventions) and academic (instructional interventions) skills. Tier II interventions supplement the Tier I intervention for students who have not responded to Tier I supports and are designed to prevent the development of serious behavioral challenges or academic failure. This study evaluated a Tier II intervention for students whose problem behavior was maintained by avoidance of instructional activities. We evaluated effects of academic behavior check-in/check-out (ABC) on disruptive behavior, work completion, and homework completion using an ABAB reversal design. Across three typically developing middle school students, ABC resulted in reductions in problem behavior and increases in work completion and homework accuracy.

    April 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713484063   open full text
  • Assessing and Improving Early Social Engagement in Infants.
    Koegel, L. K., Singh, A. K., Koegel, R. L., Hollingsworth, J. R., Bradshaw, J.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 08, 2013

    Empirical studies have documented a variety of social abnormalities in infancy that indicate risk for later social and behavioral difficulties. There is very little research illustrating the presence of such behavioral vulnerabilities with frequent repeated measures, and the feasibility of designing interventions for improving social engagement in infants less than 1 year of age. In the context of a multiple baseline research design, three young infants, ages 4, 7, and 9 months, referred for concerns about social engagement were assessed for affect, social interest, eye contact avoidance, and response to name. In addition, the feasibility of implementing an intervention to target social behaviors was examined. Results demonstrated that (a) consistently low or erratic levels of social behavior were evident throughout the baseline assessment period, (b) these patterns could be improved with a brief intervention (a modified Pivotal Response Treatment) showing an immediate increase and stability of social engagement, and (c) social engagement remained at a stable and high level at follow-up. The results are discussed in terms of implications of early assessment and intervention for clinical populations, including infants with autism spectrum disorder.

    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713482977   open full text
  • Decreasing Supermarket Tantrums by Increasing Shopping Tasks: Advantages of Pre-Teaching.
    Greenwald, A. E., Williams, W. L., Seniuk, H. A.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 05, 2013

    A brief training package consisting of pre-teaching of appropriate grocery item–gathering skills and reinforcement for appropriate behavior was used to teach a child diagnosed with autism to remain in a store and participate in shopping without exhibiting tantrums. The training package began with teaching the necessary component skills and expectations in the participant’s home, and these skills were then established at a local supermarket.

    April 05, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713482976   open full text
  • Teacher Reports of Student Health and Its Influence on Students' School Performance.
    Moore, T. C., Wehby, J. H., Hollo, A., Robertson, R. E., Maggin, D. M.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. April 01, 2013

    Physical health may be an important variable that influences students’ behavioral and academic performance in school settings. Poor health status is hypothesized to negatively influence student performance even in the presence of evidence-based practices. In this study, teachers reported their perceptions of students’ health status as well as their perceptions of the relation of health status to classroom performance and programming considerations for a sample (N = 217) of elementary and middle school students identified as exhibiting problem behaviors. Results indicated inconsistencies between teachers’ perceptions of student health and school programming considerations. Limitations are presented along with implications for future research and practice.

    April 01, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713482975   open full text
  • Investigating Reported Data Practices in Early Childhood: An Exploratory Study.
    Brawley, S., Stormont, M. A.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 28, 2013

    The importance of collecting and using data for educational decision making is clear. However, little information has been gathered about the systematic collection and use of data in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of data collection practices in early childhood. Participants included 137 early childhood professionals from five programs. Participants completed an online survey on current methods for data collection, analysis, and use, as well as if systems were in place, to support specific types of activities. The early childhood professionals who participated in the survey indicated that the vast majority of the items related to data collection practices were important; interestingly, overall importance ratings were higher than overall frequency items for all practices. The findings, limitations, and contributions to the literature are discussed.

    March 28, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713480838   open full text
  • Modeling Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports for Preservice Teachers.
    Hill, D. A., Flores, M. M.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 14, 2013

    The authors modeled programwide positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) principles to 26 preservice teachers during consolidated yearly extended school year (ESY) services delivered to elementary students from four school districts. While PBIS were in place for preservice teachers to implement with students, a similar system was modeled at the organizational level to enhance learning and promote collaboration between teachers and staff. Data collection included use of single-subject reversal design as well as the use of preference assessments, surveys, and frequency recording.

    March 14, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713478665   open full text
  • Early Childhood Teachers' Use of Effective Instructional Practices and the Collateral Effects on Young Children's Behavior.
    Conroy, M. A., Sutherland, K. S., Vo, A. K., Carr, S., Ogston, P. L.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. March 14, 2013

    This investigation examined the effects of a classroom-based intervention, Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Training: Competent Learners Achieving School Success (BEST in CLASS), on teacher behaviors and child outcomes in early childhood classrooms. First, we examined the effects of professional development training and practice-based coaching (including performance feedback) on teachers’ implementation and maintenance of the BEST in CLASS model practices. Next, we examined the effects of teachers’ implementation of these practices on young children’s engagement and problem behaviors. Using a descriptive nonexperimental design, 10 teachers and 19 children received the intervention. Findings indicated that teachers’ use of the BEST in CLASS practices including rules, precorrection, opportunities to respond, behavior-specific praise, and instructive and corrective feedback increased from baseline to completion of the intervention and these increases maintained. In addition, children’s engagement increased while their problem behaviors decreased. Although these results are promising, the current investigation has limitations and the results should be viewed with caution.

    March 14, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300713478666   open full text
  • Discrete-Trial Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training With Three Individuals With Autism and Severe Problem Behavior.
    Schmidt, J. D., Drasgow, E., Halle, J. W., Martin, C. A., Bliss, S. A.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. January 10, 2013

    Discrete-trial functional analysis (DTFA) is an experimental method for determining the variables maintaining problem behavior in the context of natural routines. Functional communication training (FCT) is an effective method for replacing problem behavior, once identified, with a functionally equivalent response. We implemented these procedures in the natural environment for three individuals with developmental disabilities who resided in a residential treatment facility. Study 1 results show that the DTFA procedures experimentally validated the function of each participant’s problem behavior after completing a functional assessment using informal and descriptive methods. Study 2 results reveal that FCT was successful at replacing problem behavior with an alternative communication behavior that served the same function. A unique feature of this study was the use of behavioral indication (i.e., observable behavior signaling momentary motivation) as a cue for determining when to deliver the FCT intervention.

    January 10, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300712470519   open full text
  • Examining the Efficacy of a Basic Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Package for School Personnel.
    Loman, S. L., Horner, R. H.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. January 09, 2013

    This study evaluated the effects of manualized training in "Basic" functional behavioral assessment (FBA) for typical school professionals on the ability of these professionals to complete technically adequate FBAs. Twelve school professionals participated in four 1-hr training sessions using the Basic FBA training handbook. After documenting knowledge competencies, 10 of the 12 professionals each completed a formal FBA with a student from their school. The technical adequacy of these 10 FBAs was assessed with functional analyses. Results from the 10 functional analyses confirmed that all 10 school professionals accurately identified the antecedents and consequences controlling student problem behavior. The efficiency and social validity of the Basic FBA training process was also investigated. These preliminary findings suggest a role for behavior specialists to train typical school personnel in Basic FBA procedures. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are presented.

    January 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300712470724   open full text
  • Perceptions of Contextual Features Related to Implementation and Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support.
    McIntosh, K., Predy, L. K., Upreti, G., Hume, A. E., Turri, M. G., Mathews, S.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. January 09, 2013

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived importance of specific contextual variables for initial implementation and sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). A large, national sample of 257 school team members completed the School-Wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index: School Teams, a research-validated measure of variables influencing sustainability of schoolwide behavior interventions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used to assess perceptions of the most and least important variables for initial implementation and sustainability, as well as variables perceived as more important to sustainability than initial implementation. Across quantitative and qualitative analyses, results indicated that administrator support and school team functioning were rated as the most important features for both initial implementation and sustainability, whereas barriers to SWPBS were rated as relatively less important. Staff support, integration into typical practice, and parent involvement were rated as significantly more important to sustainability than initial implementation. These results were consistent across types of raters and schools. Implications for enhancing implementation and sustainability of SWPBS are discussed.

    January 09, 2013   doi: 10.1177/1098300712470723   open full text
  • Using SWPBS Expectations as a Screening Tool to Predict Behavioral Risk in Middle School.
    Burke, M. D., Davis, J. L., Hagan-Burke, S., Lee, Y.-H., Fogarty, M. S.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. October 25, 2012

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) focuses on promoting social competence through the establishment of behavior expectations that are explicitly taught and reinforced by all teachers across all settings. This study investigated the validity of using adherence to SWPBS behavior expectations as a screening tool for predicting behavior risk status. A total of 961 students at a middle school serving Grades 6 through 8 were screened using the school’s SWPBS expectations and a standardized norm-referenced emotional and behavioral screener. Results revealed strong associations between the extent of students’ adherence to SWPBS expectations and the adaptive, externalizing, and school problem constructs derived from the norm-referenced screener items; associations with the norm-referenced screener’s internalizing construct were weaker. Classification analyses yielded mixed results despite the comparability between the results of the SWPBS expectations procedure and the standardized norm-referenced screener.

    October 25, 2012   doi: 10.1177/1098300712461147   open full text
  • Implementation of a Culturally Appropriate Positive Behavior Support Plan With a Japanese Mother of a Child With Autism: An Experimental and Qualitative Analysis.
    Cheremshynski, C., Lucyshyn, J. M., Olson, D. L.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. October 09, 2012

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate a family-centered approach to positive behavior support (PBS) that was designed to be culturally responsive to families of diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A Japanese mother and a child with autism were the primary participants. Multiple research methods were used. A single-subject withdrawal design evaluated the functional relation between parent implementation of a culturally informed PBS plan and improvements in child behavior and participation in a dinner routine. Qualitative case study methods guided an understanding of the family’s culture, the mother’s perspectives on the PBS plan and outcomes, and the interventionist’s perspectives on the provision of behavior support to the family. Quantitative results documented a functional relation between implementation of the PBS plan and improvements in child behavior and participation in the dinner routine. Qualitative results provided a rich description of the parent’s and interventionist’s experience and perspective. Three themes emerged: (a) developing a rapport informed by family culture; (b) working with a cultural guide to facilitate understanding the family’s cultural values, beliefs, and parenting practices; and (c) accommodating the mother’s cross-cultural values and beliefs. Contributions to the literature and implications for behavior interventionists working with families of diverse cultural backgrounds are discussed.

    October 09, 2012   doi: 10.1177/1098300712459904   open full text
  • The Psychometric Properties of the Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET).
    Steed, E. A., Webb, M.-y. L.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. October 01, 2012

    This report documents the reliability and validity of scores on the Preschool-Wide Evaluation Tool (PreSET), an assessment used to measure program-wide implementation of the universal level of positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) in early childhood settings. Initial analyses of descriptive statistics, item, subscale, and total correlations and tests of internal consistency reveal that the PreSET meets or exceeds basic psychometric criteria for measurement tools used in research. The PreSET had strong subscale intercorrelations, high interobserver agreement, positive correlations to conceptually related subscales on the Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool, and sensitivity to implementation change. Overall, the PreSET demonstrates strong promise as a tool that generates reliable and valid scores to use in the assessment of program-wide implementation of universal PBIS in early learning environments.

    October 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/1098300712459357   open full text
  • A Decade of Evidence-Based Education: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?
    Detrich, R., Lewis, T.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. October 01, 2012

    It has been 10 years since No Child Left Behind (NCLB), with its emphasis on scientifically based instruction as a means for improving the educational outcomes of students, was signed into law. In this article, we review the basic tenets of evidence-based practice as they apply to education as well as the progress that has been made in identifying, implementing, and evaluating evidence-based interventions since NCLB. We conclude that the greatest threat to evidence-based education is poor implementation of interventions. If evidence-based interventions are not implemented well, then the expected benefits are not likely to be realized.

    October 01, 2012   doi: 10.1177/1098300712460278   open full text
  • Disseminating Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition.
    Mustian, A., Mazzotti, V. L., Test, D. W.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. September 25, 2012

    As educators move into a new era of educational reform, it becomes imperative that teachers use evidence-based instructional practices shown to be effective for students with disabilities. One area that plays a role in this process is secondary transition. The National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center has identified 63 evidence-based practices for teaching secondary students with disabilities. One critical component in this process is the dissemination and implementation of these practices with high fidelity. Methods for disseminating and implementing these practices with high fidelity are discussed.

    September 25, 2012   doi: 10.1177/1098300712459355   open full text
  • Merging Empiricism and Humanism: Role of Social Validity in the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model.
    Marchant, M., Heath, M. A., Miramontes, N. Y.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. September 25, 2012

    Criteria for evaluating behavior support programs are changing. Consumer-based educational and behavioral programs, such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), are particularly influenced by consumer opinion. Unfortunately, the need for and use of social validity measures have not received adequate attention in the empirical literature related to these increasingly utilized behavioral programs. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the importance of social validity and to present an in-depth discussion of its history, merits, and practical applications relevant to the expanded scope of Positive Behavior Intervention and Support, specifically, SWPBS. In addition, the importance of social validity in bridging the gap between research and practice is discussed; current limitations are noted; and suggestions are made for future direction regarding this critical area of assessment.

    September 25, 2012   doi: 10.1177/1098300712459356   open full text
  • Using Data to Advance Learning Outcomes in Schools.
    VanDerHeyden, A., Harvey, M.
    Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. May 18, 2012

    This article describes the emergence and influence of evidence-based practice and data-based decision making in educational systems. Increasingly, educators and consumers want to know that resources allocated to educational efforts yield strong effects for all learners. This trend is reflected by the widespread influence of evidence-based practice (EBP) in education and the demand for data-based decision-making models like response to intervention (RtI). This article describes the ways in which EBP and RtI can be used to improve efficacy, efficiency, and equity of educational services. The article concludes with concrete recommendations for implementing RtI.

    May 18, 2012   doi: 10.1177/1098300712442387   open full text