MetaTOC stay on top of your field, easily

British Journal of Criminology

Impact factor: 1.556 5-Year impact factor: 1.851 Print ISSN: 0007-0955

Subject: Criminology & Penology

Most recent papers:

  • Perpetration of violence by female sex workers in Papua New Guinea: ‘We will crush their bones’.

    British Journal of Criminology. September 10, 2020
    There is a small but important body of literature on female sex workers’ (FSWs) violence towards others, but little of that focused on low- and middle-income countries. Drawn from a larger biobehavioural study of FSWs in three cities in Papua New Guinea, we analyse the interviews from 19 FSWs who reported having perpetrated physical violence towards four major groups: (1) ex-husbands; (2) clients; (3) other sex workers and (4) other people (mainly women). Our study demonstrates that FSWs’ use of violence arises from a complex set of social, material and gendered circumstances and cannot be addressed in isolation from other aspects of their lives.
    September 10, 2020   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azaa058   open full text
  • ERRATUM to: ‘ISIS is not Islam’: Epistemic Injustice, Everyday Religion, and Young Muslims’ Narrative Resistance.

    British Journal of Criminology. September 09, 2020
    September 09, 2020   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azaa061   open full text
  • Drug Control Policy, Normalization, and Symbolic Boundaries in Amsterdam’s Coffee Shops.

    British Journal of Criminology. August 29, 2020
    This study examines the relationship between drug control policy, normalization and symbolic boundary work among drug traders. Taking from interviews with 50 personnel in Amsterdam’s coffee shops, we find that Dutch drug policy shapes their understanding of what comprises morally acceptable drug use and sales. Conversely, the rules set by the state also guide personnel’s definitions of what is morally unacceptable: using hard drugs or committing predatory crimes. To normalize their own involvement with cannabis, personnel must identify potential rule breakers and criminals. To do so, they construct symbolic boundaries differentiating themselves from these persons. We conclude by discussing the theoretical implications of our findings for normalization and symbolic boundaries and by suggesting a potential negative secondary impact of cannabis decriminalization or legalization: the further marginalization of hard drug users.
    August 29, 2020   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azaa059   open full text
  • Politics and Indigenous Victimization: The Case of Brazil.

    British Journal of Criminology. August 24, 2020
    There is a dearth of criminological scholarship on how the political persuasions of governments affect Indigenous people as it relates to human rights and environmental consequences, whether positive or negative, for Indigenous peoples. To address this gap, we develop a comparative instrumental case study of the policies concerning Indigenous peoples implemented during two political periods in Brazil: the administrations of presidents Silva (2003–2010) and Rousseff (2011–2016) and the administrations of Temer (2016–2018) and Bolsonaro (2019–). We explore the consequences for Indigenous peoples of these leftist and the right-wing governments. We argue that governments of both political leanings victimize Indigenous populations, with leftist governments using structural violence and right-wing governments engaging additionally in symbolic and direct violence.
    August 24, 2020   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azaa060   open full text
  • Corrigendum to: The Dynamics of Domestic Abuse and Drug and Alcohol Dependency.

    British Journal of Criminology. October 16, 2019
    This manuscript has been amended to correct errors in Table 1 and several minor grammatical mistakes. The author apologies for any confusion caused.
    October 16, 2019   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azz063   open full text
  • Where’s The Crime? Exploring Divergences Between Call Data and Perceptions of Local Crime.

    British Journal of Criminology. October 11, 2019
    Scholars typically use calls to the police to study crime patterning; however, crime reporting may be systematic across space. Using spatial video and geonarrative methodology, we investigate the overlap between perceived crime hot spots among 35 neighbourhood insiders (police officers, ex-offenders and residents) and hot spots gleaned from call data. In general, perceptual hot spots diverge from call data, but in particular, a corner store emerges as a perceptual hot spot across all groups, but not in call data. We use our data to explore the microgeographic dynamics of this ‘hidden hot spot’. We find that the corner store is relatively isolated, with few occupied residences around it and participants avoiding it. In addition, our geonarratives suggest that the store lacks adequate guardianship. We argue that mixed methodological approaches such as these are useful for understanding discrepancies between measures as well as the situational and environmental dynamics of problem places.
    October 11, 2019   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azz059   open full text
  • Punitiveness Beyond Criminal Justice: Punishable and Punitive Subjects in an Era of Prevention, Anti-Migration and Austerity.

    British Journal of Criminology. October 06, 2019
    This article advances a holistic conceptualization of punitiveness that acknowledges its complexity and contemporary social and political pervasiveness. We argue that punitiveness is best understood as a phenomenological complex operating at a personal, symbolic, political and structural level, which borrows from, but extrapolates the confines of criminal justice institutions. The article examines limitations in articulations of punitiveness in criminological scholarship, and then draws on three contemporary case studies to investigate how the political deployment of anxieties and hostilities around the ‘crises’ of prevention, anti-migration and austerity reveal and reproduce punitive logics. It then outlines an original conceptual framework to argue that punitiveness ultimately revolves around the construction of, and dynamics between, punitive and punishable subjects.
    October 06, 2019   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azz061   open full text
  • Response to Dooley and Goodison: Falsification By Atrophy: The Kuhnian Process of Rejecting Theory in American Criminology.

    British Journal of Criminology. October 06, 2019
    We would like to start our response by thanking Brendan Dooley and Sean Goodison for producing such a thought-provoking article. We were the (originally anonymous, now self-outed) peer reviewers for this journal. The stimulus and, we should admit, provocation that we received from Dooley and Goodison’s article encouraged us both into producing two of the longest peer reviews either of us can recall writing. So when Sandra Walklate offered us the opportunity to make those reviews the basis for a response to the article in the British Journal of Criminology we gladly took up the challenge.
    October 06, 2019   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azz060   open full text
  • Greed, Corruption, and the Modern State. Edited by Susan Rose-Ackerman and Paul Lagunes (Edward Elgar, 2015, 370 pp.).

    British Journal of Criminology. October 19, 2017
    Greed, Corruption, and the Modern State. Edited by Rose-AckermanSUSANLagunesPaul (Edward Elgar, 2015, 370 pp.)
    October 19, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx065   open full text
  • Speaking Truths to Power: Policy Ethnography and Police Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina. By J. Blaustein (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015, 247pp. £70 (hardcover), ISBN 978-0-19-872329-5).

    British Journal of Criminology. October 19, 2017
    Speaking Truths to Power: Policy Ethnography and Police Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina. By BlausteinJ. (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2015, 247pp. £70 (hardcover), ISBN 978-0-19-872329-5)
    October 19, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx064   open full text
  • Neighbourhood Watch: Mechanisms and Moral Implications.

    British Journal of Criminology. October 16, 2017
    Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork in the Netherlands, this article illustrates how neighbourhood watch schemes contribute to lower crime levels, advancing criminological theory on community crime prevention. The plausibility of assumed neighbourhoods watch mechanisms varies according to the social status of the area in which a scheme operates. The article further shows how this form of community crime prevention is not without moral implications. Exacerbated by the increasing popularity of digital surveillance techniques and securitization sentiments among active residents, stigmatization, ethnic profiling and excessive social control are real issues, particularly in relatively safe suburban areas. Some principles are proposed to limit excessive responses of watch groups.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx058   open full text
  • Sequencing Justice: A Longitudinal Study of Justice Goals of Domestic Violence Victims.

    British Journal of Criminology. September 28, 2017
    What women as victims of domestic violence want from criminal justice has long interested researchers and advocates. This article foregrounds the ways in which ‘justice’ matters to victims and how a desire for justice may change over time. We find that victims have multiple justice goals, which are ordered and unfold through the criminal justice process. The goals are directed towards three domains of victim, offender and community; and are influenced by both personal and public interests. Accountability is a threshold goal from which others—punishment, deterrence, rehabilitation or another—may be contemplated. From the perspective of victims, achieving justice is sequencing these goals through hybrid processes with differing degrees of victim participation.
    September 28, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx046   open full text
  • Expanding Moral Panic Theory to Include the Agency of Charismatic Entrepreneurs.

    British Journal of Criminology. September 23, 2017
    Working beyond latently Durkheimian figurations of moral panic which depict a dialectic between ‘right-thinkers’ and folk devils, this article integrates charismatic entrepreneurs into a tripartite model that sheds light on two new pathways of interaction that are relevant for the sociology of morality. First, charismatic leaders can outflank traditional leaders’ aspersions of folk devils, taking the principle of ‘one-upmanship’ to an extraordinary (and therewith charismatic) extreme. Second, charismatic leaders cancreatively subvert traditional mores, overturning value tables to ‘bedevil’ traditional leaders. Because moral panic and charismatic enthusiasm implicate distinct, complementary, and unitary social processes, I argue that, taken together, the work of Max Weber and Stanley Cohen offer a more theoretically profitable vision of moral denaturation and reformulation than either would alone. Donald Trump’s charismatic ascension during his 2015–16 US Presidential campaign is used to illustrate the theoretical contribution.
    September 23, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx047   open full text
  • Criminology and the UN Sustainable Development Goals: The Need for Support and Critique.

    British Journal of Criminology. September 23, 2017
    The UN Sustainable Development Goals address a number of criminological issues. This article accounts for why criminologists should contribute to this agenda in a way that might benefit the international development community. We acknowledge a heightened risk of crime in parts of the Global South but argue criminologists should cautiously embrace this agenda as a platform for achieving human and sustainable development outcomes. Supporting this agenda means assisting with the design, implementation and evaluation of projects that contribute to safe, just and sustainable societies. From a critical standpoint, it also means challenging harmful or inappropriate initiatives and resisting attempts to capitalize on this agenda for political gain. Both modes of engagement are informed by the values of ‘caution’, ‘scepticism’ and southern epistemologies. The article then proceeds to examine three areas where criminological research can make important contributions: building safe and just societies, eliminating gender-based violence and promoting environmental justice.
    September 23, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx061   open full text
  • The Police Foundation’s Rise: Implications of Public Policing’s Dark Money.

    British Journal of Criminology. September 15, 2017
    A new kind of organization has emerged in public policing across the United States and Canada: the ‘police foundation’. The foundation’s private, nonprofit legal status allows it to engage in private fundraising activities that police, as public bodies, cannot. In many municipalities, police foundations raise funds directed toward police procurement practices and operations. We discuss reasons for and detail the rise and growth of these foundations as they have modeled the New York Police Department’s Foundation and changes in that foundations’ expenditures over time, and examine the key claim that police foundations reduce corruption by maximizing transparency. We draw from literature on financial obfuscation and explore controversies centered on police foundation solicitation and use of private funds in North America. Conceptualizing these private entities as shell corporations that permit transactions in dark money, we raise questions about police foundation transparency. We conclude by discussing the implications for public policy as well as police transparency across North America.
    September 15, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx055   open full text
  • A Qualitative Study of the Crime-Control Potency of Traditional Justice System in Oshogbo.

    British Journal of Criminology. September 15, 2017
    This article examines the implications of the traditional justice system for crime control in Oshogbo. It used qualitative methods and a purposive sampling method to select 35 in-depth, 5 key informant interview participants and 3 major streets in Oshogbo, respectively. Data were content analyzed. The study found that the traditional and formal justices reduce customary and complex offenses with norms and laws, respectively. It concludes that a formal–traditional partnership will reduce criminality. It suggests the reorganization and co-optation of state and non-state systems under an institutional umbrella to reduce crime and improve public safety in Oshogbo.
    September 15, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx060   open full text
  • Child Arrest, Settler Colonialism, and the Israeli Juvenile System: A Case Study of Occupied East Jerusalem.

    British Journal of Criminology. September 15, 2017
    Based on three interrelated theoretical frameworks—institutional racism, settler colonialism and security reasoning—the study examines child arrests in Occupied East Jerusalem (OEJ), addressing how the Israeli justice and law enforcement systems treat Palestinian children. Through analyses of Knesset protocols, court watch participatory observations, review of court proceedings and verdicts, interviews with children, families and professionals in juvenile justice, and a round table discussion, we found that criminalization and punishment are embedded in a systematic, racialized violence that characterizes the Israeli criminal justice system when dealing with Palestinian children in OEJ. The Israeli justice and law enforcement systems categorize Palestinian children as security threats, born terrorists and ideological criminals, lacking all rights.
    September 15, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx059   open full text
  • In Search of Safety: Confronting Inequality in Women’s Imprisonment.

    British Journal of Criminology. August 29, 2017
    In Search of Safety: Confronting Inequality in Women’s Imprisonment. By OwenB., WellsJ. and PollockJ. (University of California Press, 2017, 260pp. £24.95)
    August 29, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx053   open full text
  • Border policing, procedural justice and belonging: the legitimacy of (cr)immigration controls in border areas.

    British Journal of Criminology. August 24, 2017
    Research suggests that social identity plays an important role in citizens’ views of legal authorities. This article draws on fieldwork observations and semi-structured interviews or surveys to examine both officers’ perceptions and the experiences of people that are stopped in the context of border policing in the border areas of the Netherlands. Our results indicate that non-Dutch citizens and Dutch majority group members generally find these stops acceptable, while Dutch ethnic minority group members perceive them as more problematic. This was mostly related to the feeling of being profiled and a lack of clarity about the reason for the stop. While officers were committed to fair treatment, they also believed that the impact of a stop is very limited. The article finishes by discussing the implications of these findings for issues of belonging and legitimacy. The article finishes by discussing the implications of these findings for issues of belonging and legitimacy.
    August 24, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx050   open full text
  • Providing a Check on Prosecutorial Decision-Making An Analysis of the Victims’ Right to Review Reform.

    British Journal of Criminology. June 23, 2017
    The Victims’ Right to Review (VRR) enables victims to request a review of a prosecutor’s previously finite decision not to proceed with charges; the outcome of which can include a reversal of that decision. Informed by the voices of those involved in the VRR’s development and operation, and a quantitative dataset unique to our study, this article analyses the VRR process and outcomes two years post its implementation. Ultimately, we argue that despite being a primary aim of the reform, transparency, accessibility and accountability concerns may hinder the VRR’s capacity to address victims’ procedural justice needs (information, voice, control, validation), thereby reducing its effectiveness.
    June 23, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx036   open full text
  • The Modern Making of Stop and Search The Rise of Preventative Sensibilities in Post-War Britain.

    British Journal of Criminology. June 23, 2017
    This article investigates the development of modern stop and search powers in post-war Britain—namely, the legal rules that allow police officers to stop and search a person based on reasonable suspicion, and as an adjunct to a specific offence. The article traces the rise of a preventative outlook premised on police power, rather than police presence, and demonstrates how, against a backdrop of political consensus and stability, the preventative principle gradually acquired the status of taken-for-granted knowledge, albeit uneasily at first. The analysis shows how the balance between crime control and individual freedom quietly shifted in favour of the state, in a move that would carry significant implications for policing in the decades ahead. The article concludes that whilst noisy politics and policies rightly attract academic attention, it is arguably in the quieter periods that more deep-seated and enduring transformations are likely to take place.
    June 23, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx030   open full text
  • Corruption within the Illegal Wildlife Trade: A Symbiotic and Antithetical Enterprise.

    British Journal of Criminology. June 13, 2017
    This study focuses on the role of corruption in facilitating the illegal wildlife trade. This research attempts to contribute to the literature by disentangling the existence, influence and nested nature of corruption within the illegal wildlife trade based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in China, Morocco, Russia and Uganda. By utilizing Passas’ concepts of symbiotic and antithetical relationships as theoretical framework, we examine the presence of corruption within illegal wildlife trafficking. Our findings lend support for, and extend the framework with the concept of legal exploitation, while highlighting the unique nature of corrupt practices influenced by different socio-political and cultural settings. Symbiotic and antithetical relationships were revealed through qualitative fieldwork and provided in-depth knowledge behind the social world of wildlife trafficking.
    June 13, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx032   open full text
  • Finding Freedom and Rethinking Power: Islamic Piety in English High Security Prisons.

    British Journal of Criminology. June 08, 2017
    Prison ethnographers are often confronted with everyday examples of people trying to achieve some conception of the human good. Yet, descriptions of how people achieve this good in a prison environment—the techniques and aspirations of the ethical subject—are rare. With the help of recent developments in the anthropology of ethics and Foucault’s later work on freedom, this article examines the formation of ethical subjectivity practiced by some Muslim prisoners in two English high security prisons. The case of Muslim piety serves to deepen ethnographic research through recognizing the place of freedom and ethics in everyday life, and challenges criminological accounts of power and agency in view of how people accomplish virtue.
    June 08, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx034   open full text
  • Location and Sentencing: To What Extent Do Contextual Factors Explain between Court Disparities?

    British Journal of Criminology. June 08, 2017
    This article investigates the presence of unwarranted between court disparities in England and Wales, examining whether they can be explained by non-legal contextual factors such as the organisation of the court and socio-economic composition of the area. In contrast with previous literature, we emphasise the importance of controlling for a wide range of legally relevant case characteristics. The findings reveal that some preliminary startling trends, such as more severe sentencing in courts located in neighbourhoods with high proportions of Muslim residents, are in fact accounted for by differences in the cases reviewed across courts. These findings call into question the validity of previous studies exploring the influence of the context on sentencing that did not adequately control for legal factors.
    June 08, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx033   open full text
  • We Know Where You Are, What You Are Doing and We Will Catch You Testing Deterrence Theory in Digital Drug Markets.

    British Journal of Criminology. May 30, 2017
    The author of article (DOI:, published on 26 April 2017, regrets to inform that the current figure in Table 2, third row and last column is incorrect. It should be 1852.50 instead of −57234.73.
    May 30, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx035   open full text
  • Leaving no stone unturned: The borders and orders of transnational prostitution.

    British Journal of Criminology. May 10, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Criminologists are increasingly turning their attention to the intersections between immigration and crime control. In this article, we describe and discuss four regulatory practices whereby Norwegian police combine criminal law and immigration law in different ways vis-à-vis migrant women involved in prostitution. These practices target sex workers with exclusionary measures, even though the sale of sex is legal. These regulatory practices illustrate how Norwegian anti-prostitution policies are combined with an anti-trafficking agenda, something which creates a policing regime dependent on extensive forms of surveillance and control over sex workers’ lives and mobility, and on partnerships and networks of governance.</span>
    May 10, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx028   open full text
  • Wrongful Allegations of Sexual and Child Abuse. By Ros Burnett (Oxford University Press, 2016, 304pp. £75.00).

    British Journal of Criminology. May 04, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">W<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rongful</span> A<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">llegations of</span> S<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">exual and</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">hild</span> A<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">buse</span>. B<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">y</span>BurnettRos (Oxford University Press, 2016, 304pp. £75.00)</span>
    May 04, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx029   open full text
  • The Radzinowicz Memorial Prize.

    British Journal of Criminology. May 03, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">The Radzinowicz Memorial Prize is awarded by <span style="font-style:italic;">The British Journal of Criminology</span> for the article published each year which, in the opinion of the editors, most contributes to the knowledge of criminal justice and criminal justice issues.</span>
    May 03, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx031   open full text
  • We Know Where You Are, What You Are Doing and We Will Catch You Testing Deterrence Theory in Digital Drug Markets.

    British Journal of Criminology. April 26, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Is crime reduced by highly publicized punishment events? Is crime reduced by law enforcement’s public relations work? These longstanding questions are addressed in a novel context—digital drug markets. An analysis of trade data from two large and illegal e-commerce websites, collected on a daily basis for ten months, examined how market revenue was affected by (1) media coverage of police work on such markets and (2) the highly publicized conviction and life-sentencing of a market founder. Trade increased after periods with elevated media coverage, and also after the two court events. Possible explanations for the increase in trade after the trial outcomes are discussed in an analysis of textual conversations in three online forums associated with illegal e-commerce.</span>
    April 26, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx021   open full text
  • The Assassination Complex: Inside The US Government’s Secret Drone Warfare Programme. By Jeremy Scahill and the Staff of the Intercept (Serpent’s Tail, 2016, 234 pp. £8.99).

    British Journal of Criminology. April 22, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">The Assassination Complex: Inside the US Government’s Secret Drone Warfare Programme. By ScahillJeremy and the Staff of the Intercept (Serpent’s Tail, 2016, 234 pp. £8.99)</span>
    April 22, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx025   open full text
  • Breaking Down Barriers: Recommendations for Improving Sexual Abuse Reporting Rates in British South Asian Communities.

    British Journal of Criminology. April 22, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Sexual abuse reporting rates, which are low in general, are thought to be even worse for those living within British South Asian communities. After brief consideration of why British South Asian women and children do not report sexual abuse, this article focuses on the working practices of the non-governmental agencies that support such women. It reflects on existing legislation and policy and makes several key recommendations with reference to how this, along with practice, should change. The findings indicate an urgent need for a national training programme, the implementation of mandatory healthy relationship programmes, enhanced community involvement, outreach work and the creation of victim groups and mentor schemes.</span>
    April 22, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx027   open full text
  • The Private Policing of Insurance Claims: Power, Profit and Private Justice.

    British Journal of Criminology. April 12, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>The article examines the ways private policing is organized with regard to profitability. While the literature on private policing has enhanced our understanding of its growth, scope and normative implications, less is known about how ‘hybrid’ policing is conducted to make profit. Informed by 38 qualitative interviews with the seven largest insurance companies in Sweden, the article details how power relations are organized to ensure that the private policing of insurance claims supports and does not pose a threat to profit. Drawing on evidence from the empirical research, a range of issues are discussed, including the relationship between private policing and state power, and the intertwined governance of both claimants and policing actors.</span>
    April 12, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx026   open full text
  • Neighbourhood Disorder, Collective Sentiments and Personal Strain: Bringing Neighbourhood Context into General Strain Theory.

    British Journal of Criminology. April 12, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Using a random sample of 1,435 Ukrainian and Russian respondents, this study integrates the predictions of Agnew’s macro-level strain theory (MST) and general strain theory (GST). Specifically, it seeks to identify possible interactive effects of context—community-level strain, negative affect and religiosity—and individual strain-related variables on personal criminal involvement and depressive symptoms. Findings provide evidence of individual-level processes described by GST, revealing a relationship between personal strain and both criminal involvement and depression. However, community-level strains, anger and religiosity appear unrelated to individual behaviour, whether as direct predictors of crime or as moderators of the strain–crime relationship. The only statistically significant contextual effect uncovered by the study is the association between community disorder and depression. These findings highlight areas in need for further refinement in GST and MST, and they offer several insights into the cultural limitations of a different theoretical framework, the concentrated disadvantage paradigm.</span>
    April 12, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx023   open full text
  • After Woolwich: Analyzing Open Source Communications to Understand the Interactive and Multi-Polar Dynamics of The Arc of Conflict.

    British Journal of Criminology. April 07, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><span style="font-style:italic;">This article is based upon a case study of the 2013 murder of Fusilier Lee Rigby in Woolwich, London. It shows how analysis of open source communications data collected via social media platforms can illuminate the inter- and intra-community conflict dynamics arising in the aftermath of such events. Framed by Collins’ recent theoretical work on the escalatory and de-escalatory forces in conflict situations, the empirical analysis brings to the fore some new insights about the ‘arc of conflict’. These frame a conceptual accent upon the interactive sequences of mobilization and counter-mobilization occurring in the moves towards group-based conflicts, and the importance of understanding the multi-polar nature of these involvements.</span></span>
    April 07, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx024   open full text
  • Local variance in the crime drop: A longitudinal study of neighbourhoods in greater Glasgow, Scotland.

    British Journal of Criminology. April 05, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>This paper reports on a novel longitudinal study of local variation in the decline of recorded crime in Greater Glasgow, United Kingdom. We deploy group trajectory analysis (exploring spatial autocorrelation with Local Moran’s I) and comparison of means to explore the underlying characteristics and trajectories of neighbourhoods over time. The research finds marked distinction in the level of crime and trajectories of different neighbourhood crime groups. Neighbourhood crime trajectories with high or low levels of crime exhibit spatial clustering and significant distinction in their characteristics. There is more limited spatial patterning, though still clear distinction between the characteristics of neighbourhood crime groups that exhibit different crime trajectories. We consider the research and policy implications of these findings.</span>
    April 05, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx022   open full text
  • Illegal harvest of marine resources on Andros Island and the legacy of colonial governance.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 29, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div><span style="font-style:italic;">We used a qualitative case study on Andros Island, The Bahamas, to explore illegal harvest of marine resources as it relates to colonialism. Data collection included interviews with local informants who participated in harvest of marine resources (</span>n = <span style="font-style:italic;">62), observations and field notes. Residents considered illegal harvest of marine resources ubiquitous, and viewed using marine resources when and where they choose as an appropriate continuation of traditional livelihoods. Residents also perceived both overharvest and regulations constraining harvest as issues pertaining to outside colonial influences. These findings suggest an increased focus on colonial governance may provide insight and more sustainable solutions for marine resource management where traditional harvesting activities are designated as illegal by outside regulators</span>.</span>
    March 29, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx020   open full text
  • Doctoring with conviction: criminal records and the medical profession.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 23, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>The General Medical Council decides if, when they are convicted of a crime, a doctor in the United Kingdom should be allowed to continue in their employment. This article is the first to detail these decisions for the period 2005–15. No doctor was barred from practising medicine for serious violent and sex offences, including rape, possession of images of child sexual abuse, manslaughter and domestic violence. These findings are placed in the context of contemporary developments in criminal record reform and criminological analysis of the relationship between employment and desistance. It is concluded that the high degree of devolved discretion allowed to elite professional occupations must be subjected to further critical scrutiny and policy reform.</span>
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx016   open full text
  • Emotions, Future Selves and the Process of Desistance.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 21, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Desistance research emphasizes that offenders identify a future self that aids desistance efforts. However, it is unclear how future selves operate when offending opportunities arise. To explore this, we employ qualitative accounts of instances when offenders and ex-offenders abstained from offending, and the emotions this evoked. Offending was avoided to preserve aspects of offenders’ lives or avoid negative consequences but, for some, avoiding offending brought frustration. Finally, those who had made the most progress towards desistance were less likely to identify opportunities for offending. These findings suggest future selves inform the desistance process, highlighting particular ways to be. However, time is needed to build up valued aspects of the life that may be feared lost if engaging in crime. Before the benefits of abstaining are recognized, there may be a tension between the future and current self.</span>
    March 21, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx017   open full text
  • Weak Intervention Backfire and Criminal Hormesis: Why Some Otherwise Effective Crime Prevention Interventions Can Fail at Low Doses.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 21, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Although crime prevention tactics are designed to reduce offending, some studies have revealed instances where reported crime actually increases after introducing lower intensity interventions. An analogous trend—characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition—called hormesis has already been observed in the natural sciences. We argue that this phenomenon is theoretically applicable to crime prevention. Findings suggest that researchers should test varying intensities of interventions to avoid rejecting ones that would be otherwise effective at higher levels. Research using dose–response techniques and simulation models should be explored to determine whether a weak intervention backfire effect occurred or is possible. Knowledge of such information could lead to more effective crime prevention strategies and better specified analytic models for evaluation.</span>
    March 21, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx019   open full text
  • The Three Graces of Raymond Street: Murder, Madness, Sex and Politics in 1870s Brooklyn. By Robert E. Murphy (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2015, ix + 243 pp. $24.95 paper) Fatal Love: Spousal Killers, Law, and Punishment in the Late Colonial Spanish Atlantic. By Victor M. Uribe-Uran (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2016, xxv + 429 pp. $70.00 cloth).

    British Journal of Criminology. March 15, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">T<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">he</span> T<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">hree</span> G<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">races of</span> R<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">aymond</span> S<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">treet</span>: M<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">urder</span>, M<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">adness</span>, S<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ex and</span> P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">olitics in</span> 1870<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">s</span> B<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rooklyn</span>. By MurphyRobert E. (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2015, ix + 243 pp. $24.95 paper)</span>
    March 15, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx010   open full text
  • Narrative Criminology: Understanding Stories of Crime. Edited by L. Presser and S. Sandberg (New York: New York University Press, 2015, 318 pp. £29.99 UK).

    British Journal of Criminology. March 11, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">N<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">arrative</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">riminology</span>: U<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">nderstanding</span> S<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">tories of</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rime</span>. Edited by PresserL. and SandbergS. (New York: New York University Press, 2015, 318 pp. £29.99 UK)</span>
    March 11, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx011   open full text
  • In Praise of Forgetting: Historical Memory and Its Ironies. By David Rieff (Yale University Press, 2016, $25.00/Yale University Press, £14.99, 160pp.).

    British Journal of Criminology. March 09, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">I<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">n</span> P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">raise of</span> F<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">orgetting</span>: H<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">istorical</span> M<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">emory and</span> I<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ts</span> I<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ronies</span>. By RieffDavid (Yale University Press, 2016, $25.00/Yale University Press, £14.99, 160pp.)</span>
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx018   open full text
  • Pre-crime: Pre-emption, Precaution and the Future. By Jude McCulloch and Dean Wilson (London and New York: Routledge, 2016, 154pp. £34.99).

    British Journal of Criminology. March 09, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">re-crime</span>: P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">re-emption</span>, P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">recaution and the</span> F<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">uture</span>. By McCullochJude and WilsonDean (London and New York: Routledge, 2016, 154pp. £34.99)</span>
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx015   open full text
  • The falling carbon footprint of acquisitive and violent offences.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 09, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Cutting carbon emissions, wherever they occur, is a global priority and those associated with crime are no exception. We show that between 1995 and 2015, the carbon footprint of acquisitive and violent crime has dropped by 62 per cent, a total reduction of 54 million tonnes CO<sub>2</sub>e throughout this period. Although the environmental harm associated with crime is likely to be considered lower in importance than social or economic impacts, a focus on reducing high carbon crimes (burglary and vehicle offences) and high carbon aspects of the footprint (the need to replace stolen/damaged property) could be encouraged. Failure to acknowledge these potential environmental benefits may result in crime prevention strategies being unsustainable and carbon reduction targets being missed.</span>
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx009   open full text
  • Conservatives Value Public Safety, Order and Victims, Liberals Have Undying Solicitude for Criminal Offenders: A Response to Our Critics.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 09, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">onservatives</span> V<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">alue</span> P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ublic</span> S<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">afety</span>, O<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rder and</span> V<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ictims</span>, L<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">iberals</span> H<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ave</span> U<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ndying</span> S<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">olicitude for</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">riminal</span> O<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ffenders</span>: A R<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">esponse to</span> O<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ur</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ritics</span></span>
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw085   open full text
  • Neo-Liberal Criminologists Demand Freedom From Oppression.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 09, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">N<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">eo</span>-L<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">iberal</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">riminologists</span> D<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">emand</span> F<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">reedom</span> F<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rom</span> O<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ppression</span></span>
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw084   open full text
  • Chasing Windmills.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 09, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">hasing</span> W<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">indmills</span></span>
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw083   open full text
  • Days of Whine and Poses.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 09, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">D<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ays of</span> W<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">hine and</span> P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">oses</span></span>
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw082   open full text
  • Conservative Criminology: A Call to Restore Balance in the Social Sciences. By john paul wright and matt delisi (London: Routledge, 2016, 138pp. $50.96).

    British Journal of Criminology. March 09, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">onservative</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">riminology</span>: A C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">all to</span> R<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">estore</span> B<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">alance in the</span> S<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ocial</span> S<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ciences</span>. By WrightJohn Paul and DelisiMatt (London: Routledge, 2016, 138pp. $50.96)</span>
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw081   open full text
  • Where Poverty Matters: Examining the Cross-National Relationship between Economic Deprivation and Homicide.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 03, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Recent research on the role of economic deprivation in explaining cross-national homicide rates is inconsistent. These inconsistencies may be attributed to the use of samples composed primarily of developed countries, and the implicit assumption that the impact of deprivation is constant throughout the homicide distribution. The current study challenges this assumption and suggests a dynamic relationship between deprivation and homicide. Using a broad sample of 148 countries this work applies quantile regression to examine whether inequality and poverty have consistent impacts across the entire homicide distribution. Results indicate that inequality and homicide have a universal positive relationship. In contrast, poverty is only related to homicide in countries with lower homicide rates. Findings are discussed within the context of strain theory.</span>
    March 03, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx013   open full text
  • Compromised Power and Negotiated Order in a Ukrainian Prison.

    British Journal of Criminology. March 03, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Analyzing data from a semi-ethnographic study in a Ukrainian medium-security prison for men, I discuss how officers and prisoners negotiate order to produce a manageable, stable, predictable, peaceful and relatively habitable prison environment. Broadening the debate about power and order by introducing a case study from a non-‘Western’ context, I argue that prisoners and officers, apart from utilitarian compromises, also employ moral reasoning in their power negotiations. I demonstrate that in the context of prison’s radical deficit in legitimacy, exacerbated by a corrupt, under-reformed, post-totalitarian state, non-conformity with legal norms might be more legitimate than legal conformity.</span>
    March 03, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx012   open full text
  • Under the Radar: The Widespread use of ‘Out of Court Resolutions’ in Policing Domestic Violence and Abuse in the United Kingdom.

    British Journal of Criminology. February 28, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>The suitability of ‘out of court resolutions’ (restorative justice and community resolutions) in cases of domestic abuse is theoretically contentious and empirically under-researched. This study investigated the nature and extent of out of court resolutions for domestic abuse using the Freedom of Information Act. Out of court resolutions were used by every UK police force except Scotland to respond to over 5,000 domestic abuse incidents (including intimate partner abuse) in 2014. Some of these incidents related to offences with sentencing tariffs up to life imprisonment. Such widespread use has been taking place ‘under the radar’ in stark contrast to police guidance, has immediate implications for policy and practice, and fundamentally shifts the research terrain in this field.</span>
    February 28, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx004   open full text
  • 23/7: Pelican Bay Prison and the Rise of Long-term Solitary Confinement. By K. Reiter (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016, 302pp. $32.50).

    British Journal of Criminology. February 28, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">23/7: P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">elican</span> B<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ay</span> P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rison and the</span> R<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ise of</span> L<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ong</span>-t<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">erm</span> S<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">olitary</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">onfinement</span>. By ReiterK. (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016, 302pp. $32.50)</span>
    February 28, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx014   open full text
  • Intoxication and assault: an analysis of Crown Court sentencing practices in England and Wales.

    British Journal of Criminology. February 27, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Little is known about how the Sentencing Council’s guidance to treat intoxication as aggravation is applied in practice. With reference to assault offences, this study examines: whether intoxication has an aggravating effect; whether this is moderated through other characteristics of the case; and whether any effect is consistent across Crown Court locations. The probability of custody and sentence severity are modelled using (ordered) logit multilevel models and data from the Crown Court Sentencing Survey. The probability of receiving a custodial or severe sentence when intoxication features is increased, however, is moderated if the offence is deemed an isolated incident. Effects are relatively consistent across Crown Court locations, however ongoing monitoring of how intoxication shapes sentencing practice it is encouraged.</span>
    February 27, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx008   open full text
  • Progressive Punishment: Job Loss, Jail Growth, and the Neoliberal Logic of Carceral Expansion. By J. Schept (New York, NY: New York University Press, 2015, 320pp. $27 pb).

    British Journal of Criminology. February 18, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rogressive</span> P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">unishment:</span> J<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ob</span> L<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">oss</span>, J<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ail</span> G<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rowth, and the</span> N<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">eoliberal</span> L<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ogic of</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">arceral</span> E<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">xpansion</span>. By ScheptJ.(New York, NY: New York University Press, 2015, 320pp. $27 pb)</span>
    February 18, 2017   doi: doi:10.1093/bjc/azx001   open full text
  • The Tellability of Police Use-Of-Force: How Police Tell Stories of Critical Incidents in Different Contexts.

    British Journal of Criminology. February 14, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Critical incidents involving police use-of-force brings forth external critique to the police institution and to police officers. Building on previous research on ideas of emotions and tellability, the present paper examines the role of police storytelling of critical incidents in different spaces. Stories of critical incidents told by police focus on reinforcing the police’s singular right to use force and to interpret use-of-force events. However, stories in the canteen do not question police action and seek to separate out officers who fail to support the in-group, while stories in the squad car provide space for confidants to privately critique these events and provide a more nuanced view of use-of-force. The study concludes by discussing the implications of the findings.</span>
    February 14, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx006   open full text
  • The Challenges of Doing Criminology in the Big Data Era: Towards a Digital and Data-driven Approach.

    British Journal of Criminology. February 14, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>This paper considers emerging challenges and opportunities confronting criminology in the age of Big Data. The mass proliferation of digital media/recording devices into social life is transforming in profound ways how crime is organized, perpetrated, experienced, represented, detected and controlled. Moreover, the extensive daily use of these technologies by institutions and individuals alike produces immense quantities of data that mediate social events, actions and experiences in significant, if subtle, ways. Such data are means of communication, knowledge and entertainment, as well as resources for analytic and criminal manipulation and community mobilization. We suggest that criminology must develop a digital specialism which investigates the multifaceted role performed by digital technologies as intersectional and transformative mediums in the crime and justice field.</span>
    February 14, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw096   open full text
  • Did Nonviolent Resistance Fail in Kosovo?

    British Journal of Criminology. February 12, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>A standard narrative is that nonviolence failed in Kosovo: the Milosevic regime was ended by a NATO bombing campaign. This essay exposes errors in this narrative. Kosovo’s nonviolent resistance successfully unified the masses against the regime with a distinctive innovation of building solidarity by reducing violence. In particular, it reduced murders in blood feuds. Kosovo emerged from war with comparatively low violence for a post-conflict society burdened with organized crime. We contrast Kosovo with societies where more people were killed by criminal violence after peace agreements than in wartime. Reconciling blood feuds as part of Kosovo’s nonviolent campaign for freedom contributed to this accomplishment. Nonviolent resistance campaigns can be evaluated through a criminological lens whereby averting war is just one means to reducing death rates from intentional violence.</span>
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx002   open full text
  • Legitimization Imperative: The Production of Crime Statistics in Guangzhou, China.

    British Journal of Criminology. February 12, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Although an authoritarian regime is often assumed to manipulate its various statistics for political needs and to maintain its legitimacy, we know little about how such manipulation is accomplished and under what circumstances. Using data collected from yearly published official crime reports, a unique source for crime victim surveys, interviews with the police and detailed ethnographic work in Guangzhou city, this paper demonstrates how the manufacturing of official crime statics serves to legitimize the authoritarian regime in China. In particular, I examine the myth of the ‘great crime decline’ in the first decade of 21st century when official crime statistics declined by more than two-thirds in the city and argue that the decrease is a result of statistical manipulation instead of a reflection of the actual crime situation. I argue that, compared with Western democracies, crime statistics should be more fully understood as part of a legitimization apparatus in China.</span>
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx007   open full text
  • Constructing and Maintaining Family in The Context of Imprisonment.

    British Journal of Criminology. February 10, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>For many families affected by imprisonment, the prison can become a central and damaging force in their lives. Yet, to fully understand the impact of imprisonment upon families, there is a need for greater critical engagement with the concept of the family, and how this is defined and operationalized. Utilizing Finch’s theory of family practices, this article will argue that the family relationships affected by imprisonment are not only highly individual, but also actively constructed through embodied displays of care and commitment. However, we must guard against privileging family displays that fit most comfortably within a white, middle-class framework, and ensure that the voices of all families affected by imprisonment are heard in the growing conversations about their needs.</span>
    February 10, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx005   open full text
  • Corrigendum.

    British Journal of Criminology. January 28, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><strong><a href="article.aspx?volume=&page=">Br J Criminol 2016 56: 1272–1290 doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv114<span></span></a></strong></span>
    January 28, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw087   open full text
  • Crime, Punishment and Migration. By D. Melossi (London: Sage, 2015, 128 pp. $33.00/£27.00).

    British Journal of Criminology. January 21, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rime</span>, P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">unishment and</span> M<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">igration</span>. By MelossiD. (London: Sage, 2015, 128 pp. $33.00/£27.00)</span>
    January 21, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azx003   open full text
  • Child Victims as Adult Offenders: Foregrounding the Criminogenic Effects of (Unresolved) Trauma and Loss.

    British Journal of Criminology. January 21, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>This article examines the link between unresolved childhood trauma and loss issues and the impact on serious offending into and beyond early adulthood. Drawing on in-depth interview data with second- and third-generation prisoners, I revisit the work of Fairbairn and position criminal conduct as the material manifestation of the persistent and treacherous ‘return of bad objects’ in adult offenders’ lives. Close attention is given to how custodial environments address prisoners’ trauma and loss issues, and, more pointedly, to how the failure to bring such issues safely to the fore has real implications for prisoner reintegration and public safety. In concluding, I argue that even the best therapeutic work in custodial environments is liable to falter if not matched with concerted efforts to transform the social, economic and cultural milieus to which people return on release.</span>
    January 21, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw097   open full text
  • Paper Cadavers: The Archives of Dictatorship in Guatemala. By Kirsten Weld (Duke University Press, 2014, 352pp. $26.95 pbk).

    British Journal of Criminology. January 21, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection">P<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">aper</span> C<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">adavers</span>: T<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">he</span> A<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">rchives of</span> D<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">ictatorship in</span> G<span style="text-transform:lowercase;font-variant:small-caps;">uatemala</span>. By WeldKirsten (Duke University Press, 2014, 352pp. $26.95 pbk)</span>
    January 21, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw095   open full text
  • The Gendered Pains of Life Imprisonment.

    British Journal of Criminology. January 09, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>As many scholars have noted, women remain peripheral in most analyses of the practices and effects of imprisonment. This article aims to redress this pattern by comparing the problems of long-term confinement as experienced by male and female prisoners, and then detailing the most significant and distinctive problems reported by the latter. It begins by reporting data that illustrate that the women report an acutely more painful experience than their male counterparts. It then focuses on the issues that were of particular salience to the women: loss of contact with family members; power, autonomy and control; psychological well-being and mental health; and matters of trust, privacy and intimacy. The article concludes that understanding how women experience long sentences is not possible without grasping the multiplicity of abuse that the great majority have experienced in the community, or without recognizing their emotional commitments and biographies.</span>
    January 09, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw088   open full text
  • Sexual Activity in British Men’s Prisons: A Culture of Denial.

    British Journal of Criminology. January 06, 2017
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Theorized through Stanley Cohen’s sociology of denial and informed by testimonies from formerly imprisoned men, this article argues that a culture of denial limits the ability and willingness of prison authorities and prison staff to recognize, acknowledge and respond appropriately to the realities of sexual activity in British prisons. It has three objectives: to detail experiences of consensual and coercive sex; to elucidate the collective and collaborative cultural habit of ‘don’t ask, don’t tell’ by which what is known becomes not known and what is concealed remains hidden; and to show how this strategy leaves unprotected those who choose to engage in, or are coerced into, sexual activity.</span>
    January 06, 2017   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw094   open full text
  • Women’s Experience of Motherhood, Violations of Supervision Requirements and Arrests.

    British Journal of Criminology. December 26, 2016
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Though parenting is commonly viewed as an important factor influencing women’s desistance from offending, little is known about how specific aspects of parenting relate to recidivism. The present study investigated the connections of parenting stress, parenting involvement, routine parenting activities and maternal motivations to violations of supervision conditions, including arrests, for a sample of 190 women. The findings support desistance theories that identify involvement in routine prosocial activities, in this case caring for children, as an important explanation for complying with requirements of supervision and avoiding arrest. In contrast, motivations regarding motherhood alone do not appear to provide a strong enough catalyst to shift women away from patterns of lawbreaking.</span>
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw092   open full text
  • Race and the Police use of Force Encounter in the United States.

    British Journal of Criminology. December 26, 2016
    <span class="paragraphSection"><div class="boxTitle">Abstract</div>Perennial conflict between police and black citizens has led to calls for greater representation of black officers, yet the presumption that black officers deliver better treatment to—and garner positive reactions from—black citizens has not received sufficient empirical testing. The present examination focusses on the use of force incident, given the symbolism inherent in this encounter. Drawing from prior research and deference exchange theory, this study examines the effects of officer and suspect race in predicting police use of force and suspect resistance. Our findings reveal that white officers are more coercive toward black suspects, but black officers’ force usage is unaffected by suspect race. Conversely, officer race does not predict resistance among white or black suspects. Results are discussed in light of implications for theory, police–black relations and police practices.</span>
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw089   open full text
  • Justice 2.0: Street harassment victims’ use of social media and online activism as sites of informal justice.
    Bianca Fileborn.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 16, 2016
    Emerging scholarship has considered the potential for online spaces to function as sites of informal justice. To date, there has been little consideration of the experiences of individuals who seek justice online, and the extent to which victims’ justice needs can be met online. Drawing on the findings of a mixed-methods research project with street harassment victims in Melbourne, Australia, I consider participants’ reasons for, and experiences of, disclosing their encounters of street harassment online. I examine the extent to which these ‘map on to’ a selection of victim’s justice needs. While it is evident that online spaces can function as sites of justice, it is vital to ask for whom and in which contexts justice can be achieved online.
    December 16, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw093   open full text
  • Faith in Policing: The Co-production of Crime Control in Britain.
    Karen Bullock, Paul Johnson.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 21, 2016
    Involving faith-based organizations (FBOs) in the production of crime control has been seen as a way of increasing efficiency, promoting accountability and improving trust and confidence in policing. In this article, which draws on qualitative research, we consider how police officers understand the role of faith in policing, engage with faith communities and work with FBOs to mobilize crime prevention activities. We demonstrate that any effective co-production of crime control that involves faith communities and FBOs requires police officers to negotiate a number of complex and multifaceted issues. We argue that the co-production of crime control has symbolic, moral and technical qualities which all need to be successfully negotiated to achieve its aims.
    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw080   open full text
  • ‘A Community Gets the Delinquents It Deserves’: Crime Mapping, Race and the Juvenile Court.
    Elizabeth Brown.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 19, 2016
    Prolific use of crime mapping has led to critical inquiry as to the power and impact of mapping on criminology, public policy, and understandings of crime and violence more generally. Despite the proliferation of maps, few critical inquiries into the power of crime maps exist. Drawing on the historical emergence of crime mapping in one urban juvenile court, this article shows how maps hid and obscured existing power relations based on race and class. Instead of undoing the power of scientific racism in the juvenile court, the emergence of mapping rationalized and normalized the imagined geography of delinquency contained within eugenic philosophies of delinquency. These two eras are joined by a single epistemological cartography of delinquency that continues to pervade the court.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw076   open full text
  • The angered versus the endangered: PCCs, roads policing and the challenges of assessing and representing ‘public opinion’.
    Helen Wells.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 17, 2016
    Part of the rationale for introducing elected Police and Crime Commissioners (PCCs) was a suggestion that the police and public needed to be ‘reconnected’, with the public more readily able to shape the type of policing they wished to receive. Apparently underpinning this intention was a perception that a single public view about policing priorities could, and would, make itself apparent to PCCs. This paper considers how PCCs assess their public mandate by focusing on an often contested policing activity—roads policing. It considers why this particular issue is particularly likely to be understood by PCCs as a contested topic and, furthermore, how PCCs go about accessing and representing diverse views within this ‘consumer-led’ approach to the provision of policing.
    October 17, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw079   open full text
  • Leveson five years on: the effect of the Leveson and Filkin Reports on relations between the Metropolitan Police and the national news media.
    Marianne P. Colbran.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 14, 2016
    This paper re-examines certain previous conclusions from the classic literature on police/media relations in the United Kingdom in the wake of the Filkin and Leveson Reports. The paper draws on interviews with senior Metropolitan Police officers, press officers and national crime journalists and argues that previous conclusions about asymmetrical relations favouring the police are partially problematic, with the media being in possession of key resources that often give them the upper hand. The paper also explores the role of new media in crime reporting and exposing police misconduct and suggests a new transfiguration may be emerging in police/media relations, allowing the media partially to bypass police sources.
    October 14, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw077   open full text
  • Driving Politics: Data-Driven Governance and Resistance.
    Gavin J. D. Smith, Pat O&#x2019;Malley.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 12, 2016
    The experience of driving is mediated by a politics of data-driven governance and resistance. These politics hinge on the extensive use of networked digital devices/data by road authorities and users. The former operate such technologies to manipulate the behaviour of drivers, while the latter deploy them to subvert the depersonalizing systems of control to which they are subjected. Using evidence derived from two online forums, we explore both the meanings that certain road users ascribe to the simulated justice they experience, but also the mediated practices of resistance they perform. We suggest that this example of ‘technoscientific citizenship’, where in response to unpalatable crime control measures discrete drivers coalesce on virtual forums and share/crowdsource digital data, poses some interesting new epistemic questions as regards emerging forms of public criminology.
    October 12, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw075   open full text
  • Violent Crime, Collective Efficacy and City-Centre Effects in Malmö.
    Manne Gerell, Karl Kronkvist.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 03, 2016
    Collective efficacy, the combination of mutual trust and shared expectations for action, has been linked to crime in several studies worldwide. In the present study, it is argued that collective efficacy should be particularly relevant in relation to public environment crimes. Using data from a community survey (N = 4,051) conducted in 2012, the association between collective efficacy and police recorded public environment violent crime is studied across 96 neighbourhoods in the city of Malmö, Sweden. Besides including controls for concentrated disadvantage, ethnic heterogeneity and residential stability, the present study adds additional controls for city-centre effects in the form of alcohol outlet permits and nodes of public transportation. Results show that collective efficacy is strongly associated with violent crime in public environments.
    October 03, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw074   open full text
  • Online Abuse of Feminists as An Emerging form of Violence Against Women and Girls.
    Ruth Lewis, Michael Rowe, Clare Wiper.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 30, 2016
    Abuse directed at visible and audible women demonstrates that cyberspace, once heralded as a new, democratic, public sphere, suffers similar gender inequalities as the offline world. This paper reports findings from a national UK study about experiences of online abuse among women who debate feminist politics. It argues that online abuse is most usefully conceived as a form of abuse or violence against women and girls, rather than as a form of communication. It examines the experiences of those receiving online abuse, thereby making a valuable contribution to existing research which tends to focus on analysis of the communications themselves.
    September 30, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw073   open full text
  • Nipping Crime in the Bud? The Use of Antisocial Behaviour Interventions with Young People in England and Wales.
    Sam Lewis, Adam Crawford, Peter Traynor.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 19, 2016
    This article presents findings from a study of the use of antisocial behaviour (ASB) warning letters, Acceptable Behaviour Contracts (ABCs) and Anti-Social Behaviour Orders (ASBOs) with 3,481 young people from four large metropolitan areas in England, which challenge dominant narratives about their use and impact. The findings unsettle prevailing beliefs concerning the targeted use of ASB interventions to tackle low-level incivilities and the timing of their use within a young person’s deviant trajectory. They also contest the logical sequencing of behaviour regulation strategies by demonstrating the haphazard deployment of ASB sanctions within complex webs of prevention, ASB and youth justice interventions. The article concludes by considering the findings alongside recent youth justice trends in England and Wales.
    September 19, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw072   open full text
  • Understanding the Criminal: Record-Keeping, Statistics and the Early History of Criminology in England.
    Robert Shoemaker, Richard Ward.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 19, 2016
    This article seeks to understand why detailed personal information about accused criminals and convicts was recorded from the late 18th century in England, and why some of this information was converted into statistics from the 1820s, such that by 1860, extensive information about criminals’ physical characteristics and backgrounds was regularly collected and tabulated. These developments in record-keeping and statistics were mostly the result of local initiatives and imperatives, revealing a grass-roots information-gathering culture, with limited central government direction. Rather than primarily driven by efforts at control or the practical demands of judicial administration, the substantial amount of information recorded reveals a strong and widely held desire to understand the criminal, long before the self-conscious enterprise of ‘criminology’ was invented.
    September 19, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw071   open full text
  • The Occupation of the Senses: The Prosthetic and Aesthetic of State Terror.
    Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 10, 2016
    Colonial and settler colonial dispossession is performed through various forms of violence, justified by cultural, historical, religious and national imperatives. In this paper, I define one of these forms of violence as the occupation of the senses, referring to the sensory technologies that manage bodies, language, sight, time and space in the colony. This paper analyses the parades, marches and festivals performed in the Palestinian city space of occupied East Jerusalem; shares the slogans, chants and graffiti used by Israeli civil, religious and nationalist entities; and explores what is lived, seen, heard, felt and smelled by the colonized to uncover the political violence implicated in the occupation of the senses.
    September 10, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw066   open full text
  • Comparing Employment Trajectories before and after First Imprisonment in Four Nordic Countries.
    Mikko Aaltonen, Torb&#x0237;orn Skardhamar, Anders Nilsson, Lars Ho&#x0237;sgaard Andersen, Olof Backman, Felipe Estrada, Petri Danielsson.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 02, 2016
    Employment plays a crucial role in the re-entry process and in reducing recidivism among offenders released from prison. But at the same time, imprisonment is generally regarded as harmful to post-release employment prospects. Little is known, however, about whether or not offenders’ employment trajectories before and after imprisonment are similar across countries. As a first step towards filling this gap in research, this paper provides evidence on employment trajectories before and after imprisonment in four Nordic welfare states: Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Using data gathered from administrative records on incarcerated offenders, the analysis focuses on individuals imprisoned for the first time and who served a prison sentence less than one year in length. Results show that although employment trajectories develop in mostly similar ways before and after imprisonment across these countries, important differences exist.
    September 02, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw026   open full text
  • Legitimating Practices: Revisiting the Predicates of Police Legitimacy.
    Aziz Z. Huq, Jonathan Jackson, Rick Trinkner.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 31, 2016
    Procedural justice theory predicts a relationship between police behaviour, individuals’ normative evaluation of police and decisions to comply with laws. Yet, prior studies of procedural justice have rather narrowly defined the potentially relevant predicates of police behaviour. This study expands the scope of procedural justice theory by considering a broad array of policing components, including unobserved actions such as electronic surveillance, respecting the limits of one’s legal authority, and the unequal or equal distribution of policing resources between different groups. Analysing data from a national probability sample of adults in England and Wales, we (1) present a comprehensive investigation of the heterogeneous elements of policing related to legitimacy judgments and (2) contribute to debate about the nature of legitimacy.
    August 31, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw037   open full text
  • Unequal Treatment in Pretrial Detention in China.
    Moulin Xiong, Shuai Wei.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 27, 2016
    Drawing on 4,098 documents concerning adjudication decisions from three district courts in China, this study reveals that white-collar offenders enjoy favourable treatment in pretrial detention. Using statistical analysis, the article reveals that suspects without resources and social status are significantly more likely to be detained before trial; the higher rates of self-surrender and good behaviour among white-collar offenders play a vital role in considerably lowering the possibility of detention; bailed white-collar offenders also have advantages over detained suspects in probation and sentencing outcomes. Unlike previous studies on the extralegal reasons as explanations for these findings, we expand our perspectives to include the law, shuanggui, flaws in evidence, resources, crime-control orientation policy and punitive culture in order to explain the disparities.
    August 27, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw060   open full text
  • Excavating the Organ Trade: An Empirical Study of Organ Trading Networks in Cairo, Egypt.
    Sean Columb.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 27, 2016
    Legislative action in response to the organ trade has centred on the prohibition of organ sales and the enforcement of criminal sanctions targeting ‘trafficking’ offences. This paper argues that the existing law enforcement response is not only inadequate but harmful. The analysis is based on empirical data gathered in Cairo, Egypt, among members of the Sudanese population who have either sold or arranged for the sale of kidneys. The data suggest that prohibition has pushed the organ trade further underground increasing the role of organ brokers and reducing the bargaining position of organ sellers, leaving them exposed to greater levels of exploitation.
    August 27, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw068   open full text
  • Do Birds of a Feather Really Flock Together? Friendships, Self-Control Similarity and Deviant Behaviour.
    John H. Boman IV.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 26, 2016
    In addition to research consistently linking self-control to crime, a person’s level of self-control is hypothesized to be the root cause of why friendships form. Namely, people with low self-control should ‘flock together’ in highly deviant friendships, and, inversely, persons with high self-control should ‘flock together’ in non-deviant friendships. Using dyadic friendship data, this study examines the extent to which self-control similarity, termed self-control ‘homophily’, exists and what implications it carries for deviance. Using hierarchical linear modelling, results demonstrate that friends’ levels of self-control are dissimilar and fail to interact in relation to crime. Instead, differences in friends’ levels of self-control may be more strongly related to crime, failing to support Gottfredson and Hirschi’s hypothesis.
    August 26, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw067   open full text
  • Risk Control, Rights and Legitimacy in the Limited Liability State.
    John Pratt.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 22, 2016
    Although controlling risk has become a prevalent theme in contemporary penal development in the main English-speaking societies, the range and extent of these measures is limited and specific, indicative of new obligations and reciprocities between state and citizen following post-1980s restructuring. Individuals are exhorted to take care of themselves, but the state remains committed to managing risks thought beyond their control and likely to cause irreparable harm through innovative penal measures. The paper explains how these have coalesced around risks to community cohesion and sexual attacks on women and children; and how these measures have then been legitimated, given that they contravene previous long-standing rules, principles and conventions intended to prohibit or restrict their use.
    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw065   open full text
  • Rethinking Security at the crossroad of International Relations and Criminology.
    Bigo, D.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 17, 2016
    This article aims to introduce an in-depth conversation between International Relations (IR) and criminology about security practices and security studies. Too often each discipline has ignored the possibility of a dialogue, or has just borrowed ideas from the other discipline, unreflexively. This has created even more difficulties. But, it is possible to decolonize the topic of security from these traditional approaches, by connecting critical approaches on both side as they share an episteme based on an understanding of the practices of (in)security and the experiences lived by human beings. This is particularly the case of the convergence between the PARIS school of liberty and security analysing (in)security practices and critical criminologists interested in ‘everyday practices of security’, once they realize on both side that the internal and external security dimensions they study, are neither two different phenomena, nor the very same one, fusional and globalized at the same moment, but a set of differentiated practices that are nevertheless connected along a Mobius strip.
    August 17, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw062   open full text
  • (No) Laughing Allowed—Humour and the Limits of Soft Power in Prison.
    Julie Laursen.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 12, 2016
    Although humour in prison is a widespread phenomenon, its meaning and function has not been examined in any detail. This article seeks to address this gap by analysing humour in prison-based cognitive behavioural programmes. The empirical data from fieldwork in three different programme settings illuminate how the participants actively disrupt and twist the power hierarchies by providing a kind of humorous meta-commentary on the simplicity and class bias of the course content. This article suggests that humour could be seen as a tool that enables prisoners to fend off the psychological and rhetorical power of the cognitive behavioural programmes, even if only briefly. By developing the concept of ‘soft resistance’ and analysing humour as friction and code-switching, this article aims to illustrate and discuss the limits of soft power in prison-based therapeutic settings.
    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw064   open full text
  • Making Sense of Big Data for Security.
    Janet Chan, Lyria Bennett Moses.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 09, 2016
    Big Data technologies hold great promise for improved efficiency and effectiveness for law enforcement and national security. This article explores the potential impact of Big Data on the production of security in society. Building on a Bourdesian framework for analysing police and new technologies, the article draws on empirical data from an Australian study to examine how security agents made sense of the capability and value of Big Data and developed technological frames that envisaged how this new technology could enhance or change their practices. The analysis reveals the expectations and anxieties regarding Big Data among stakeholders and concludes that the community should take a more active role in understanding Big Data and influencing the governance of its usage.
    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw059   open full text
  • Why do offenders tape their crimes? Crime and punishment in the age of the selfie.
    Sveinung Sandberg, Thomas Ugelvik.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 04, 2016
    New technologies have changed the way we produce and relate to images. Three socio-cultural trends and associated offender motivations stand out when understanding why offenders record their crimes. First, some pictures and films are inspired by the rise of amateur and rape pornography and recorded to produce and enjoy such images. Second, recordings are done to further humiliate the victim in a new online culture of humiliation. Third, as part of a new snapshot culture, pictures and films are recorded on impulse when something extraordinary is happening. Visual criminology has focused on analysis of pictures and films as an end product. We take visual criminology beyond images and explore how these are produced as an integral part of criminal activities.
    August 04, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw056   open full text
  • Security from terrorism financing: Models of delivery applied to Informal Value Transfer Systems.
    Cooper, K., Walker, C.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 02, 2016
    After 9/11, international counter terrorism financing efforts have delivered measures under both a criminal justice model and a regulatory risks model. Questions therefore arise about the delivery of justice within these respective models, alongside doubts about their capacity to yield meaningful impacts from an ‘all risks’ platform rather than a targeted criminal suspect approach. Particular reference is made to informal value transfer systems, such as hawala, which have come under sustained suspicion. This article presents original insights from a fieldwork survey of UK counter terrorism legislation and practices in order to assess their intended and, to some extent, unintended consequences.
    August 02, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw057   open full text
  • Internationalizing the Study of Gang Membership: Validation Issues from Latin America.
    Juan Antonio Rodriguez, Neelie Perez Santiago, Christopher H. Birkbeck, Freddy Crespo, Solbey Morillo.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 21, 2016
    Developing valid measures of gang membership for self-report surveys is a challenging task in comparative cross-national research. In this article, we use the Venezuelan case to assess the validity of the Eurogang indicators of gang membership. Based on focus groups with adolescents and the results from two sweeps of the International Self-Report Survey of Juvenile Delinquency, we identify problems in the content and construct validities of the Eurogang items. We propose an alternative set of measures for cross-national studies of gang membership, focusing on a group’s reputation for violence (or broader criminal behaviour).
    July 21, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw058   open full text
  • Promoting Community Collaboration in Counterterrorism: Do Social Identities and Perceptions of Legitimacy Mediate Reactions to Procedural Justice Policing?
    Natasha S. Madon, Kristina Murphy, Adrian Cherney.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 05, 2016
    The present study examines whether procedural justice policing can promote Muslims’ willingness to cooperate with police in terrorism prevention. Using survey data from 800 Australian Muslims, we show that Muslims value procedural justice when it comes to working with police to prevent terrorism. We also examine whether social identification processes or perceptions of police legitimacy explain why procedural justice promotes Muslims’ willingness to work with police. The findings suggest that despite the salience of identity within the current political discourse about terrorism and Islam, perceptions of police legitimacy appear to have a stronger bearing on Muslims’ predicted behaviour. We consider the implications of our findings for theories in the procedural justice field and for counterterrorism policy and practice.
    July 05, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw053   open full text
  • We Are Going To Prove We Are A Civil and Developed Country: The Cultural Performance of Police Legitimacy and Empire in the Iraqi State.
    Jesse S.G. Wozniak.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 23, 2016
    Possessing a monopoly on the legitimate use of force, police are central to the establishment of state legitimacy, especially in a nation experiencing a radical reconstruction. Employing a multi-method examination of a police training academy in Iraqi Kurdistan, this study investigates how a nascent state attempts to secure hegemony in a post-conflict environment. Drawing upon literature of state legitimacy and empire, findings suggest the reconstruction is better understood as a cultural performance designed to project legitimacy for an imperial client state, helping explain the continued instability of the state and rise of dangerous non-state actors.
    May 23, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw046   open full text
  • The Naming of Child Homicide Offenders in England and Wales: The need for a Change in Law and Practice.
    Kate Fitz&ndash;Gibbon, Wendy O&#x2019;Brien.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 19, 2016
    Judicial decisions about whether or not to publicly name child homicide offenders have long animated debate in the United Kingdom and internationally. This article draws on case law and in-depth interviews conducted with members of the English criminal justice system to critically analyse the viability of current domestic legislation in the context of the UK’s international human rights obligations. The article identifies ambiguities surrounding the definition of ‘public interest’ in law; the merits of equating the naming of child offenders with open justice, accountability and transparency; and the increasing sabotage of the principle of rehabilitation. By identifying the complexities of this contentious area of judicial discretion, this article highlights the need for a rights-based approach to decisions about publicly naming children in conflict with the law.
    May 19, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw042   open full text
  • Urban Exploration: From Subterranea to Spectacle.
    Theo Kindynis.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 06, 2016
    Recreational trespass or ‘urban exploration’ (UE) is the practice of researching, gaining access to and documenting forbidden, forgotten or otherwise off-limits places, including abandoned buildings, construction sites and infrastructure systems. Over the past two decades, a global subculture has coalesced around this activity. More recently, however, the practice has begun to transform along divergent lines. The aims of the present article are three-fold: first, to bring UE and its emergent variants to the attention of a criminological audience; second, to interrogate increasingly spectacular visual representations of UE and attendant processes of commodification; and third, to introduce the rhizome as a way of thinking about urban social formations, their development and appropriation.
    May 06, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw045   open full text
  • Rape of Older People in the United Kingdom: Challenging the ‘Real-Rape’ Stereotype.
    Bows, H., Westmarland, N.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 03, 2016
    Despite extensive research on rape and sexual violence, there exists an important gap in knowledge around older victims. This gap exists in relation to national statistics (the Crime Survey for England and Wales has an upper age limit of 59 for intimate violence), and by both criminologists and gerontologists. This research used an under-utilized method by criminologists—freedom of information requests to police forces. Data were obtained from 45 forces relating to 655 cases of rape and sexual assault by penetration over a five-year period and were analysed in relation to victim and perpetrator age, relationship, location of crime and type of offence. The findings challenge the dominant real-rape stereotypes and have implications for future research, policy and practice.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv116   open full text
  • ‘F*ck It!’: Matza and the Mood of Fatalism in the Desistance Process.
    Mark Halsey, Ruth Armstrong, Serena Wright.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 29, 2016
    Drawing on interview data from three countries (Australia, United States and England), this article examines setbacks and recovery in desistance from crime. We show that giving up crime is a fragile project and that the implications of fragility in desistance are rarely integrated into pre- and post-release support options. To shine a light on the ‘phenomenological foreground’ of this fragility, we use Matza’s concepts of desperation and infraction and analyse how and why would-be desisters come unstuck. We find that derailment in the desistance process (frequently articulated by interviewees as ‘fuck it’ moments) rarely signifies the desire to reoffend and more often equates to the loss of the practical and emotional capacity to desist from crime.
    April 29, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw041   open full text
  • Policing in Cool and Hot Climates: Legitimacy, Power and the Rise and Fall of Mass Stop and Search in Scotland.
    Kath Murray, Diarmaid Harkin.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 15, 2016
    Prior to the amalgamation of Scotland’s eight police forces into Police Scotland in 2013 by the Scottish National Party government, Scottish policing generally enjoyed a ‘cool’ political climate, with low scrutiny and minimal political engagement. This paper argues these conditions hindered the critical interrogation of Scottish policing, allowing a policy of unregulated and unfettered stop and search to flourish unchallenged for two decades. We then show how this policy was swiftly dismantled in the ‘heated’ environment that followed centralization, a move that gave rise to the unprecedented scrutiny of Scottish policing by media and political commentators. The analysis suggests that the legitimacy and reputation of the police may owe a debt to political environments that encourage either ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ analysis. Also, that more heated political environments, often disparaged by academics and criminal justice practitioners, can drive accountability and contribute to more progressive outcomes.
    April 15, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw007   open full text
  • A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Association between Percent Young and Cross-National Homicide Rates.
    Meghan L. Rogers, William Alex Pridemore.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 11, 2016
    Is there an association between the proportion of the population that is young and national homicide rates, and when testing other theories cross-nationally is it necessary to control for this concept? To answer these questions, we carried out an extensive review of the empirical literature and then used data for the years 1999–2004 from a sample of 55 nations to test two predominant hypotheses: Percent young is significantly associated with homicide victimization rates across nations, and percent young accounts for a significant proportion of the overall variance in homicide victimization rates across nations. The results consistently indicated no significant association between percent young and homicide victimization rates across nations. Moreover, including percent young in models of cross-national homicide rates likely has negative ramifications for model fit. We situate these findings within the larger literature and provide a discussion of the implications for future cross-national homicide research.
    April 11, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw039   open full text
  • On the Role of a Social Identity Analysis in Articulating Structure and Collective Action: The 2011 Riots in Tottenham and Hackney.
    Clifford Stott, John Drury, Steve Reicher.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 08, 2016
    Theoretical perspectives that give primacy to ideological or structural determinism have dominated criminological analysis of the 2011 English ‘riots’. This paper provides an alternative social psychological perspective through detailed empirical analysis of two of these riots. We utilize novel forms of data to build triangulated accounts of the nature of the events and explore the perspectives of participants. We assert these riots cannot be adequately understood merely in terms pre-existing social understandings and political realities and that identity-based interactional crowd dynamics were critically important. The paper demonstrates the value of the social identity approach in providing criminological theory with a richer and deeper perspective on these complex social phenomena.
    April 08, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw036   open full text
  • I Learned It By Watching You: Legal Socialization and the Intergenerational Transmission of Legitimacy Attitudes.
    Scott E. Wolfe, Kyle McLean, Travis C. Pratt.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 07, 2016
    Perceptions of legal actor legitimacy have important implications for criminal behaviour. While the link between perceptions of legitimacy and legal compliance has been well established, the sources of legitimacy evaluations are less clear. Drawing from the literature on legal socialization, we examined whether parents’ perceptions of the legitimacy of criminal justice authority figures influenced those same attitudes in their children. Using three waves of data from the Pathways to Desistance study, we showed that parents’ perceptions of legitimacy significantly predicted perceptions of legitimacy in their children. These effects remained robust across different model and sample specifications. Our findings have important implications for how we think about legal socialization—namely, the importance of fair and respectful legal actor behaviour across generations.
    April 07, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw038   open full text
  • Crime Sensing with Big Data: The Affordances and Limitations of using Open Source Communications to Estimate Crime Patterns.
    Matthew L. Williams, Pete Burnap, Luke Sloan.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 31, 2016
    This paper critically examines the affordances and limitations of big data for the study of crime and disorder. We hypothesize that disorder-related posts on Twitter are associated with actual police crime rates. Our results provide evidence that naturally occurring social media data may provide an alternative information source on the crime problem. This paper adds to the emerging field of computational criminology and big data in four ways: (1) it estimates the utility of social media data to explain variance in offline crime patterns; (2) it provides the first evidence of the estimation offline crime patterns using a measure of broken windows found in the textual content of social media communications; (3) it tests if the bias present in offline perceptions of disorder is present in online communications; and (4) it takes the results of experiments to critically engage with debates on big data and crime prediction.
    March 31, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw031   open full text
  • From Law Enforcement to Protection? Interactions between Sex Workers and Police in a Decriminalized Street-Based Sex Industry.
    Lynzi Armstrong.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 16, 2016
    Legislative approaches to the sex industry are hotly debated internationally and in recent years interest in decriminalization of sex work has been growing. However, activities relating to commercial sex remain criminalized in many parts of the world. Street-based sex work is most often criminalized and is often more aggressively policed than indoor work. This paper explores changes in the relationship between police and street sex workers in New Zealand since the decriminalization of sex work in 2003, from the perspective of sex workers, police and support agencies. This paper concludes that decriminalization enabled a dramatic shift in the approach to policing sex work and emphasizes the importance of these findings in the context of global debates on prostitution law reform.
    March 16, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw019   open full text
  • Rethinking the Place of Crime in Police Patrol: A Re-Reading of Classic Police Ethnographies.
    Prashan Ranasinghe.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 14, 2016
    Both in the policing literature and criminology more broadly, it is a taken-for-granted fact—an entrenched ‘truism’—that patrol policing has little to do with crime. This ‘truth’ is a product of fieldwork on the public police begun in the early-1950s. These works, thus, are of immense importance to criminology. In this paper, I undertake a re-reading of several classic police ethnographies and argue that there is a disjuncture between what is claimed and revealed. These texts show that the patrol police appear to deal with a significant amount of what I call crime work, the minimization and marginalization of which I seek to make sense of.
    March 14, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw028   open full text
  • The Rise of Partisan Pedagogy: How Stakeholders Outside of the Academy are answering the Call to Public Criminology.
    Daniel Crepault.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 12, 2016
    A growing number of criminologists are urging their peers to engage the general public concerning criminal justice issues in order to reverse the discipline’s marginalization and curb the recent intensification of punitive policies. This study examines the practical implementation of public criminology’s pedagogical practices in a sample of Canadian news media on a recent ‘tough-on-crime’ legislation. Overall, this study found that the ‘void’ of criminological evidence in mass media, which is so often lamented in the calls to public scholarship, was entirely absent. The author argues that the call to public criminology is already being answered by stakeholders outside of the academy, whose mass-mediated pedagogical practices are directed towards the furtherance of partisan agendas.
    March 12, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw034   open full text
  • ‘Anything We Do, We Have to Include the Communities’: Law Enforcement Rangers’ Attitudes Towards and Experiences of Community–Ranger Relations in Wildlife Protected Areas in Uganda.
    William D. Moreto, Rod K. Brunson, Anthony A. Braga.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 12, 2016
    Wildlife crime and wildlife law enforcement have become important areas of study for criminologists. Little is known, however, of the experiences of law enforcement personnel, including their attitudes towards local villagers. Similar to previous policing research underscoring the value of understanding the perspectives of front-line law enforcement, this qualitative study examines the attitudes and experiences of law enforcement rangers towards residents living near a protected area (PA) in Uganda. Drawn from semi-structured interviews and participant observation, our findings reveal a multifaceted relationship between rangers and villagers. Despite offering mixed reactions about local residents, respondents recognized the importance of strengthening community–ranger relations. Implications for the development of co-production between rangers and villagers in the management and monitoring of PAs are discussed.
    March 12, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw032   open full text
  • Counterterrorism and the Reconstruction of (in)Security: Divisions, Dualisms, Duplicities.
    Mythen, G., Walklate, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 11, 2016
    In order to critically reflect on transformations in security practices, in this paper, we draw on our research exploring the effects of counterterrorism regulation on suspect populations over the last decade. Focusing primarily on the impacts of pre-emptive policies, we highlight the shift from universal towards partial pledges of security by the State and examine the ramifications of this shift for those who fall outside the boundaries of deserving safety. Framing our discussion in relation to the recursive reproduction of divisions, dualisms and duplicities, we suggest a palette of conceptual devices that enable criminological critique. In articulating the limits to State counterterrorism strategies, the contemporary capacity of criminology to engage with issues of security in the round is thrown into question.
    March 11, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw030   open full text
  • Can Criminologists Change the World? Critical Reflections on the Politics, Performance and Effects of Criminal Justice.
    Lesley McAra.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 11, 2016
    Based on a Scottish case study, this article offers a critical reflection on criminal justice and the impact agenda. It will argue that the pathway to impact requires criminologists to interrogate more fully the inter-relationships between criminal justice as (1) political strategy; (2) institutional performance; and (3) embodied practice. Only by acknowledging the potential for dissonance between these dimensions, it is possible for the discipline to evolve a praxis that is theoretically informed, sensitive to political, spatial and temporal context as well having the highest potential for real-world transformation.
    March 11, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw015   open full text
  • ‘Once they pass you, They may be gone forever’: Humanitarian Duties and Professional Tensions in Safeguarding and Anti-Trafficking at the Border.
    Katerina Hadjimatheou, Jennifer K. Lynch.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 07, 2016
    Border crossings are considered sites of unique opportunity to identify and protect victims of trafficking. UK government reforms have given Border Officers new roles and responsibilities as humanitarian first responders. This paper explores how Border Officers reconcile this aspect of their work with their role as enforcers of immigration law and their increasingly militarized status as protectors of national sovereignty and security. Drawing on in-depth interviews with a specialized team of Safeguarding and Anti-trafficking (SAT) Officers at a UK airport, we identify the emergence of a distinct SAT subculture, characterized by a sense of moral purpose and moral community, and of doing difficult but meaningful and highly skilled work that others are too indifferent, feckless or intimidated by to take on.
    March 07, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw027   open full text
  • Mediated Conviviality and the Urban Social Order: Reframing the Regulation of Public Space.
    Anna Barker.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 02, 2016
    The regulation of public space is influenced greatly by debates about crime, disorder and (in)security. This paper challenges certain assumptions that inform a number of competing mentalities regarding the regulation of public spaces drawn from within the fields of criminology and urban studies, notably ‘preventive exclusion’, ‘reassurance policing’ and the ‘right to the city’. It harnesses interdisciplinary insights from real-world examples to reframe and advance debates about the future regulation of public space, conceptualized in this paper as ‘mediated conviviality’. It argues that social order is not spontaneous but needs to be facilitated. This perspective simultaneously decentres crime and (in)security as central organizing concepts and recognizes the importance of safety to the development of a convivial public realm, with implications for practical strategies of urban governance.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw029   open full text
  • Individualizing Risk: Moral Judgement, Professional Knowledge and Affect in Parole Evaluations.
    Robert Werth.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 28, 2016
    Drawing from an ethnographic project within the California (USA) parole system, this article traces how field personnel evaluate individuals and attempt to anticipate future conduct. It troubles claims that risk has replaced dangerousness and deindividualized penal subjects. In this setting, rather than displaying a technocratic character, the evaluation of risk is highly individualizing and impressionistic. Individuals contingently assemble knowledges, devalue actuarial tools and privilege their experiential expertise, affect and the moral judgement of personhood. Even among those classified as ‘serious’ offenders, evaluation operates as a space for judging the potential danger of specific individuals. This is reflective, in part, of field personnel’s efforts to protect their professional standing in the face of the parole agency’s promotion of risk technologies.
    February 28, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw025   open full text
  • Miscarriages of Justice in the Age of Social Media: The Amanda Knox and Raffaele Sollecito Innocence Campaign.
    Lieve Gies.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 28, 2016
    The role of the media in exposing miscarriages of justice has not been extensively researched and even less is known about the contribution of the Internet and social media. Drawing on in-depth interviews with innocence campaigners, this article examines the social media campaign to overturn the conviction of Amanda Knox and her co-accused Raffaele Sollecito for the murder of Meredith Kercher in Perugia in 2007. It explores the campaigners’ use of different media platforms. It also examines their motivations in joining and supporting the campaign and discusses the campaign’s contributions and social dynamics. Finally, it elucidates the factors that shaped supporters’ belief in the innocence of Knox and Sollecito.
    February 28, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw017   open full text
  • Neo-Democracy: ‘Useful Idiot’ of Neo-Liberalism?
    Gearty, C.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 19, 2016
    This article explores a possible link between ‘neo-democratic’ states (the subject of a recent book by the author) and the underlying politico-economic ideology of our post-1989 world, neo-liberalism. Taking the United Kingdom and the United States as examples, it argues that the shift in our way of looking at the world that neo-liberalism represents involves a forsaking of many of the assumptions of the social democratic polity of the 20th century. However, this is not a leap into an unknown future so much as it is a return to a particular past. In the threatened transition to fully fledged neo-liberalism, ‘neo-democracy’ fulfils a useful role as mask that hides from us the great political, ethical and legal changes entailed in such a move.
    February 19, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw010   open full text
  • Lawyers’ Strategies for Cross-Examining Rape Complainants: Have we Moved Beyond the 1950s?
    Sarah Zydervelt, Rachel Zajac, Andy Kaladelfos, Nina Westera.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 18, 2016
    Despite widespread reforms to legislation and policy, rape complainants still find cross-examination distressing, demeaning and humiliating. We conducted a systematic and holistic examination of cross-examination strategies to discern: (1) the range of tactics that defence lawyers use to challenge rape complainants’ accounts; and (2) whether—and if so, how—the approaches used currently differ from those used prior to the reforms. We compared the strategies and tactics used in cases that were prosecuted in the 1950s to those used in cases from the turn of the twenty-first century. Although contemporary complainants were subjected to lengthier cross-examinations involving a broader range of tactics than their historical counterparts, there was little difference in the breakdown of strategies and tactics across time periods.
    February 18, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw023   open full text
  • Legitimate Security? Understanding the Contingencies of Security and Deliberation.
    Virta, S., Branders, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 18, 2016
    Comprehensive security politics and policy build on the development of the societal security field in Europe and especially in the Nordic countries. Societal security has clear consequences for society and its functioning, social institutions, civil society and democracy. The purpose of the article is to critically analyse the consequences of security policy, societal security processes and governing practices, in order to understand the limitations of democratic security policymaking, citizen participation and deliberation. By legitimate security, we mean societal security that is based on principles of deliberative democracy and citizen participation. The point of departure in this analysis of the limitations of democratic security policymaking and deliberation is the contingent nature of both security and deliberation. Contingency refers to possibility, unexpectability, unpredictability and risk. This article argues that the objective of contemporary policy of comprehensive security and its implementation is to tame contingencies rather that to support genuine political deliberation. We argue that the source of legitimacy is not the government-driven democratization of community safety and resilience, and predetermined will of citizens, but rather the process of its formation—that is, genuine political deliberation itself. 1
    February 18, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw024   open full text
  • Human Security: Reconciling Critical Aspirations with Political ‘Realities’.
    Newman, E.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 17, 2016
    This article explores the concept of ‘human security’: the idea that the referent object and beneficiary of security should be individuals. It demonstrates that the concept has had some success as a normative reference point for human-centred policy movements internationally, and it reflects a broader shift towards human agency and human-centred conceptions of security. As a theoretical concept, therefore, the idea contributes to a multi-disciplinary reconceptualization of security that draws upon theoretical debates in political science and criminology. However, attempts to operationalize it have exposed fundamental problems in the new security discourse more broadly, generating critiques in political science and criminology which share common foundations but which are rarely engaged in an integrated manner. This article explores whether critical or radical security ideas like human security can be reconciled with political ‘realities’ or whether this undermines their intellectual integrity. In addressing this debate from an international relations perspective, the article also engages with criminological scholarship on security in order to identify and strengthen links across the disciplines.
    February 17, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw016   open full text
  • Schools and Delinquency in the Early 20th Century: Rethinking the Origins of School Policing.
    Chase S. Burton.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 11, 2016
    Schools in the United States are well understood as sites of social control, but the prevailing view is that schools have only become directly and closely linked with justice systems in recent decades. This article argues that much of the recent literature on school policing, the school-to-prison pipeline and related phenomena have overlooked the deeper history of mass education as a fertile grounds for law enforcement activities. The article shows how early on in the life of American mass education, a group of organizations called Coordinating Councils brought schools and law enforcement together to detect, prevent and control delinquency. I conclude that this history troubles dominant explanations of the causes of the close relationship between schools and police.
    February 11, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw013   open full text
  • Triad Organized Crime in Macau Casinos: Extra-Legal Governance and Entrepreneurship.
    T. Wing Lo, Sharon Ingrid Kwok.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 08, 2016
    The Chinese criminal underworld is evolving along two paths: structural and territorial-based triads and criminal groups formed by entrepreneurs. The present study used triad involvement in casino VIP rooms to examine how these two paths cross after China resumed sovereignty of Macau in 1999. It was found that although the current operations of the junket business is determined by the external business environment in mainland China, triads continue to treat the VIP rooms as economic territories. New forms of betting and crime have emerged to meet the needs of high-end gamblers, thus resulting in the formation of a triad-enterprise hybrid that comprises territoriality and reputation of violence commonly found in extra-legal governance and the dynamic entrepreneurship of small firms.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw014   open full text
  • From ‘Rogue Traders’ To Organized Crime Groups: Doorstep Fraud of Older Adults.
    Coretta Phillips.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 08, 2016
    This paper explores fraudulent acts by offenders who target and pressurize older adults ‘on the doorstep’ to have property repairs, often misrepresenting themselves as skilled tradesmen, and overcharging for such work. It uses extensive documentary materials from 11 enforcement operations in England together with interviews with trading standards officers and financial investigators. Using Reiner’s Necessary Conditions of Crime framework illustrates the dynamics of doorstep fraud—from ‘low-value’ crimes to incidents of grooming and repeated victimization to the actions of organized crime groups often involving money laundering. The paper’s contribution is a focus on a relatively understudied but vulnerable demographic group in criminology, and in highlighting the investigative practices of non-constabulary law enforcement officers who have not been the subject of empirical study in criminology.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw011   open full text
  • Is Violent Crime Increasing or Decreasing? A New Methodology to Measure Repeat Attacks Making Visible the Significance of Gender and Domestic Relations.
    Walby, S., Towers, J., Francis, B.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 03, 2016
    The fall in the rate of violent crime has stopped. This is a finding of an investigation using the Crime Survey for England and Wales, 1994–2014, and an improved methodology to include the experiences of high-frequency victims. The cap on the number of crimes included has been removed. We prevent overall volatility from rising by using three-year moving averages and regression techniques that take account of all the data points rather than point to point analysis. The difference between our findings and official statistics is driven by violent crime committed against women and by domestic perpetrators. The timing of the turning point in the trajectory of violent crime corresponds with the economic crisis in 2008/09.
    February 03, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv131   open full text
  • Cybercriminal Networks, Social Ties and Online Forums: Social Ties Versus Digital Ties within Phishing and Malware Networks.
    E. Rutger Leukfeldt, Edward R. Kleemans, Wouter P. Stol.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 03, 2016
    Online forums serve as offender convergence settings for cybercriminals, but it is unknown whether all cybercriminal networks use forums. Important questions are how cybercriminals meet, how cybercriminal networks develop and what this means for the criminal capabilities of these networks. To gain insight into these questions, we analysed 18 criminal investigations into phishing and malware networks and developed four models of growth. Social ties still play an important role in the origin and growth of the majority of networks. Forums, however, also play a significant role in a number of networks, for example, to find suitable co-offenders or to get into contact with enablers. Criminals with access to forums are able to increase criminal capabilities of their network relatively quickly.
    February 03, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw009   open full text
  • How Young People Peacefully Challenge Community Norms Embedded With Violence in a Brazilian Favela.
    Alice Sampson, Maria Rita Villela.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 03, 2016
    Drawing on social disorganization theories this paper considers what type of voluntary organization might mediate community social norms in localities with low income where violence is embedded in social institutions and residents appear unable to informally regulate violent crimes. This study describes how the situated logic of one organization, located in a favela in Brazil, transcends personal ties to the organization and illustrates how community-based organizations have potential to influence community norms with the expectation that rates of violence will decline. This organization has made it possible for young people to publically disrupt the symbolic order that maintains divisive social rules and has started to alter gendered norms that contribute to high levels of neighbourhood violence.
    February 03, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv132   open full text
  • The Vagrancy Act (1824) and the Persistence of Pre-emptive Policing in England since 1750.
    Paul Lawrence.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 01, 2016
    This article argues that research into preventive and pre-emptive crime control in the United Kingdom has marginalized the historical persistence of the power to arrest and convict on justified suspicion of intent. It traces the genesis of this power in statute law (particularly the Vagrancy Act of 1824) and demonstrates its consistent use in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It shows how this pre-emptive power was fiercely defended by police authorities, particularly during the rise of the ‘civil liberties’ agenda during the 1930s, only losing ground when use of these powers became entangled with debates about race relations in the 1970s. Overall, the article argues that ‘pre-emptive’ arrest and conviction on suspicion of intent have been a significant component of UK police powers since the later eighteenth century, and seeks to demonstrate the value of historical criminology in problematizing contemporary debates.
    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw008   open full text
  • Eroding the Presumption of Innocence: Pre-Trial Detention and the Use of Conditional Release on Bail.
    Nicole Marie Myers.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 29, 2016
    The rate with which pre-trial detention is used across most common law jurisdictions has been increasing. In Canada, the rate has tripled over the past 30 years and the proportion of prisoners in pre-trial detention is higher than in other jurisdictions. Contrary to the presumption of innocence, many accused will spend time in pre-trial detention and if released on bail will have a number of restrictive conditions routinely imposed. It is a criminal offence to fail to comply with any of these conditions. Using data collected from observations of 152 days of bail hearings in 11 courts in Ontario, Canada, this paper argues significant efforts to control and monitor behaviour are being used outside of a finding of guilt.
    January 29, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw002   open full text
  • Resistance as Agency? Incorporating the Structural Determinants of Prisoner Behaviour.
    Ashley T. Rubin.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 29, 2016
    Recent research in prison sociology has described prisoners’ resistance as an exercise of agency within restrictive settings. This study argues that the emphasis on agency has obscured the role of other factors that contribute to prisoner behaviour, including structure. Using an historical case study, I illustrate several ways in which prisoners’ friction and resistance are not only reactions against the prison regime, but are also enabled, constructed, and shaped by it. This study produces a two-dimensional framework that locates friction and resistance within a nexus of agency and structure. Incorporating structural determinants of prisoner behaviour, while recognizing the role of agency, allows a fuller, more accurate understanding of prisoner behaviour.
    January 29, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azw003   open full text
  • Slaves and Statues: Torture Prevention in Contemporary Europe.
    Tom Daems.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 14, 2016
    International monitoring bodies such as the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) function on the basis of the assumption that member States support their activities and share the same objective, that is, to eradicate all forms of torture and ill-treatment in closed institutions that are under state control. In practice, the CPT submits reports to the member States it has visited and initiates a dialogue with States on how to improve the situation in light of its findings and recommendations. But why, then, are findings sometimes contested and recommendations neglected? Why is there not more compliance? In this article, we will explore a number of strategies that state authorities deploy when they deal with information that is felt to be annoying, troubling or threatening. The article draws on a study of the published interactions between the CPT and Belgium covering a period of almost two decades (1993–2012).
    January 14, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv133   open full text
  • The Effects of Prisoner Attachment to Family on Re-entry Outcomes: A Longitudinal Assessment.
    Ian Brunton-Smith, Daniel J. McCarthy.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 14, 2016
    Strong family support networks are regularly identified in the search for effective inhibitors of criminal behaviour but have rarely been empirically examined in the context of the prison population. Furthermore, we know little about the factors that may weaken or indeed enhance these bonds during a prison sentence. Using data from a longitudinal survey of male prisoners in England and Wales, we address this deficit. We show that visits from parents are influential in improving prisoners’ relations with their family. Furthermore, those prisoners that experience improved family relations are significantly less likely to reoffend whilst also being more likely to find work and desist from class A drug use.
    January 14, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv129   open full text
  • Informal Housing, Gender, Crime and Violence: The Role of Design in Urban South Africa.
    Paula Meth.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 11, 2016
    Violence and crime in countries such as South Africa are shaped by deep socio-economic inequalities; however, the spatial designs of urban areas and housing also play a role, but often in differing ways. There is little qualitatively derived research published on the design realities of poor informal housing where the hyper-permeability of housing structures directly shapes residents’ experiences of crime, often in gendered ways. This paper speaks to the wider literature on Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) and applauds its recognition of the role of wider social factors in shaping crime and prevention, arguing that socio-political factors are critical too in the South African case. However, this paper calls for a fuller analysis of the particular material and design realities of informal housing, realities that are ever-present across the global South, which in practice can undermine efforts towards target hardening.
    January 11, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv125   open full text
  • Neoliberal Governance and the Homogenization of Substance Use and Risk in Night-time Leisure Scenes.
    Philip R. Kavanaugh, Tammy L. Anderson.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 11, 2016
    Trends in substance use and risks of harm are partially contingent on the twin regulatory apparatuses of government and economy. In this paper, we integrate prior research on the restructuring of the night-time cultural economy, the state’s War on Drugs and the macro-level production of risk using Philadelphia’s night-time leisure scene as a case example. In doing so, we consider how the reorganization of night-time leisure has affected substance use among young adults such that use patterns and risks of harm are homogenized across nightlife attendees, independent of their genre-scene affiliations. Theoretically, we aim to advance the risk environment paradigm of drug-related harm by considering direct-contact, predatory forms of victimization that result from macro-level shifts reflecting the contradictions of neoliberal governance.
    January 11, 2016   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv123   open full text
  • A Leap of Faith? Trust in the Police Among Immigrants in England and Wales.
    Ben Bradford, Elise Sargeant, Kristina Murphy, Jonathan Jackson.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 31, 2015
    It is often assumed that immigrants in countries such as the United Kingdom will report lower levels of trust in the police. Immigrant communities are thought ‘difficult to police’, and minority groups frequently experience problematic relationships with police. Yet, there has been little empirical investigation of this issue in the United Kingdom. In this paper, data from the Crime Survey of England and Wales are used to explore the relationship between immigration and trust in the police. Results suggest that trust is higher among immigrants than among the UK-born population, although there is important variation by time since arrival and experience of policing. Trust in the police is also higher in neighbourhoods that have more immigrants. The paper concludes with some reflection on the nature of trust in the police.
    December 31, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv126   open full text
  • ‘Before there was danger but there was rules. And safety in those rules’: Effects of Neighbourhood Redevelopment On Criminal Structures.
    Marta-Marika Urbanik, Sara K. Thompson, Sandra M. Bucerius.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 28, 2015
    Research has shown that ‘street codes’ often govern behaviour and violence in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. However, little is known about what happens to established street codes in a context of massive neighbourhood change. Our research in Regent Park, Canada’s oldest and largest public housing neighbourhood currently undergoing neighbourhood restructuring, we suggest that the displacement of ‘major criminal players’ from the neighbourhood has eroded the long-established codes of conduct they enforced and has undermined informal systems of criminal governance in the neighbourhood. As a consequence, young people express concern over what they perceive to be a growing preponderance of violence in the context of a competitive rush to fill a power vacuum created by the displacement of neighbourhood ‘old heads’.
    December 28, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv128   open full text
  • Women at the Nexus of Correctional and Social Policies: Implications for Recidivism Risk.
    Merry Morash, Deborah A. Kashy, Miriam Northcutt Bohmert, Jennifer E. Cobbina, Sandi W. Smith.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 28, 2015
    This article addresses criticism by critical and feminist criminologists who fault the Risk/Needs/Responsivity corrections model for ignoring state-created recidivism risks. It examines the connection between women offenders’ changes in access to economic safety net benefits and changes in individual recidivism risk. Longitudinal quantitative data were from 345 women interviewed six months apart in a state with extreme benefits cuts. Loss of monetary assistance and new unmet need for housing aid were significantly related to increased economic-related recidivism risk. Women with consistent unmet needs and those who received benefits had high levels of risk over time. Women with persistent unmet economic need had high levels of other risk that included mental illness and substance abuse. Findings reveal inconsistencies between polices that reduce availability of economic benefits to the poor and the correctional goals of reducing recidivism risk.
    December 28, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv124   open full text
  • ‘I will Blow your face off’—Virtual and Physical World Anti-Muslim Hate Crime.
    Imran Awan, Irene Zempi.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 18, 2015
    Anti-Muslim hate crime is usually viewed in the prism of physical attacks; however, it also occurs in a cyber context, and this reality has considerable consequences for victims. In seeking to help improve our understanding of anti-Muslim hate crime, this article draws on the findings from a project that involved qualitative interviews with Muslim men and women who experienced both virtual and physical world anti-Muslim hate, and reported their experiences to the British government-funded service Tell Measuring Anti-Muslim Attacks. In doing so, this article sets out the first ever study to examine the nature, determinants and impacts of both virtual and physical world anti-Muslim hate crime upon Muslim men and women in the United Kingdom. Correspondingly, we found that victims of both virtual and physical world anti-Muslim hate crime are likely to suffer from emotional stress, anxiety and fear of cyber threats materializing in the ‘real world’.
    December 18, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv122   open full text
  • Mapping the Contours of ‘Everyday Security’: Time, Space and Emotion.
    Crawford, A., Hutchinson, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 17, 2015
    This article develops a conceptual framework that prompts new lines of enquiry and questions for security researchers. We advance the notion of ‘everyday security’, which encompasses both the lived experiences of security processes and the related practices that people engage in to govern their own safety. Our analysis proceeds from a critical appraisal of several dominant themes within current security research, and how ‘everyday security’ addresses key limitations therein. Everyday experiences and quotidian practices of security are then explored along three key dimensions: temporality, spatial scale and affect/emotion. We conclude by arguing that the study of everyday security provides an invaluable critical vantage point from which to reinvigorate security studies and expose the differential impacts of both insecurity and securitization.
    December 17, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv121   open full text
  • The Intergenerational Transmission of Criminal Offending: Exploring Gender-Specific Mechanisms.
    Auty, K. M., Farrington, D. P., Coid, J. W.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 09, 2015
    The intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour is well-recognized, but less is known about the mechanisms that may explain it. This study presents new analyses from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, which examine the intergenerational transmission of criminal convictions. It then investigates mediation via psychosocial risk factors. The convictions of fathers and mothers were significantly related to the convictions of their male offspring, and this was mediated via the fathers’ drug use. However, the convictions of fathers were only indirectly related to the convictions of female offspring via the father’s cohabitation problems. The convictions of mothers were also indirectly related to those of the female offspring through harsh parental discipline. Accurate identification of the role that psychosocial risk factors play in intergenerational pathways for males and females can inform much more effective gender-specific prevention.
    December 09, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv115   open full text
  • Digilantism: An Analysis of Crowdsourcing and the Boston Marathon Bombings.
    Johnny Nhan, Laura Huey, Ryan Broll.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 06, 2015
    This paper explores the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombing incident and how members of the general public, through the online community Reddit, attempted to provide assistance to law enforcement through conducting their own parallel investigations. As we document through an analysis of user posts, Reddit members shared information about the investigation, searched for information that would identify the perpetrators and, in some cases, drew on their own expert knowledge to uncover clues concerning key aspects of the attack. Although it is the case that the Reddit cyber-sleuths’ did not ultimately solve this case, or provide significant assistance to the police investigation, their actions suggest the potential role the public could play within security networks.
    December 06, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv118   open full text
  • ‘You thought you were superman’: Violence, victimization and masculinities.
    Heber, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 17, 2015
    In order to develop an improved understanding of the central criminological relationship between men and violence, this article focuses on men’s gender performances in relation to both violent victimization and offending. By means of discourse analysis based on interviews with male probationers about their own experiences of the victim–offender overlap, this research shows how men relate to a gangster discourse, a developmental discourse, a discourse of vulnerability and a fatherhood discourse. These discourses are characterized by complexity, interdiscursivity and ambivalence, and they rely to a varying extent on bodily performance and on several intersections. The study deepens our understanding of men’s relationship with violence and shows how men perform, renegotiate and even undo gender, within and beyond street cultures.
    November 17, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv117   open full text
  • The Darker Side of Equality? The Declining Gender Gap in Crime: Historical Trends and an Enhanced Analysis of Staggered Birth Cohorts.
    Estrada, F., Backman, O., Nilsson, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 30, 2015
    In this article, we elucidate the way the gender gap in crime has changed in Sweden since the mid-19th century. The analysis is directed at theft offences and violent crime. The long historical perspective provides a background to our analysis that focuses on the period since the 1980s. Our principal data are comprised of the registered offending of different birth cohorts. Most of the findings from our study refute the hypothesis that the declining gender gap in crime is due to an increasing number of women committing offences. Instead, the most important driving forces in recent times have been a powerful decline in the number of men convicted of theft crime and a net-widening effect causing a rise in womens’ convictions for violence.
    October 30, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv114   open full text
  • Is the Violence of Tag Mehir a State Crime?
    Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N., David, Y.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 27, 2015
    This article focuses on the violent acts of Tag-Mehir (Price Tag), a group of Israeli citizens that injure, attack, vandalize and violate Palestinian individuals, communities and property. The paper discusses the criminalities of Tag-Mehir by reporting statistics on their crimes and juxtaposing statistical data with voices and analyses of Israeli officials and media coverage. By looking at the interlocking effects of religious, hate and state crime in the context of Israel’s settler colonialism, we argue that the acts of Tag-Mehir constitute aggressive violence aimed at concealing the state’s criminalities against the colonized Palestinian body and space. The state’s failure to effectively prosecute the perpetrators of these crimes demonstrates a tacit approval for the religiously and nationally motivated violence. Tag-Mehir’s state crimes hide within the resulting violent shuttling between nationalistic hate, violence and religious crimes.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv101   open full text
  • Pleasure Zones and Murder Boxes: Online Pornography and Violent Video Games as Cultural Zones of Exception.
    Atkinson, R., Rodgers, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 27, 2015
    New media formats and technologies raise questions about new-found abilities to indulge apparently limitless violent and sadistic curiosity within our culture. In this context, the mainstreaming of sex and violence via mobile and screen media systems opens important questions about the degree to which these influences are harmful or indicative of deeper social problems. In this article, we offer a preliminary analysis of the consequences of these new media zones, acknowledging their allure, excitement and everyday cultural position. In particular, we focus on a distinctive hallmark of much online pornography and massively popular violent video games—the offer of unchecked encounters with others who can be subordinated to violent and sexual desire. We suggest that a key implication of these zones of cultural exception, in which social rules can be more or less abandoned, is their role in further assisting denials of harm from the perspective of hyper-masculinist and militaristic social value systems.
    October 27, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv113   open full text
  • Teen Involvement in Sports and Risky Behaviour: A Cross-national and Gendered Analysis.
    Stansfield, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 21, 2015
    A growing body of evidence suggests a link between youth participation in sport and delinquency including violence and problematic alcohol use. No studies have yet conducted a large-scale cross-national study of this relationship. Furthermore, few studies have probed whether there are threshold effects or turning points in the level of sports participation for delinquency. Specifically, by considering differences by gender, type of delinquency and international context, our study reveals that the relationship between involvement in sport and delinquency is even more nuanced than previously thought. We confirm that higher levels of sports involvement do increase involvement in violence. But while moderate participation in sport does initially increase the risk of alcohol and drug use behaviour, these risks diminish as sport becomes an even more central part of a student’s time. Important differences emerge, however, by gender and country context.
    October 21, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv108   open full text
  • Decoupling Policy and Practice in the Fight against Wildlife Smuggling.
    Han, C.-R., Nelen, H.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 10, 2015
    Biodiversity is under threat from wildlife crime. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is one of the most well-known instruments among the plethora that exists to protect endangered wildlife species. Trade ban and control are vital components of its wildlife protection mechanism. Customs play a crucial role in CITES enforcement. The World Customs Organization’s recent survey on customs’ approach to wildlife smuggling revealed that half of the administrations surveyed do not monitor their anti-wildlife smuggling activities. This study has examined why some customs tackle wildlife smuggling symbolically, whereas others have adopted an instrumental approach, drawing on institutional theory. The primary discovery has been that customs’ symbolic approach is related to the extent of the modernization of a customs administration rather than the demand for legitimacy and support from external stakeholders.
    October 10, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv109   open full text
  • The Transnational Prisoner: Exploring Themes and Trends Involving a Prison Deal with the Netherlands and Norway.
    Pakes, F., Holt, K.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 08, 2015
    We are currently witnessing the potential emergence of a new type of transnational prisoner. This involves deals signed between national governments that allow those convicted in one country to serve their sentence in another. Such a deal already exists between the Netherlands and Belgium. At present, finishing touches are applied to a similar agreement between the Netherlands and Norway. This article examines recent penal policy in Norway and the Netherlands to consider the circumstances that led to this deal. Finally, it will consider some of the deeper implications of this possibly nascent process of transnationalization of prisoner populations.
    October 08, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv104   open full text
  • Perceptions of Procedural Justice Among Young People: Narratives of Fair Treatment in Young People’s Stories of Police and Security Guard Interventions.
    Saarikkomaki, E.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 30, 2015
    This article examines how young people conceptualize typical narratives of fair and unfair treatment by police and security guards. It offers new insights for procedural justice research of how to constitute trust between citizens and authorities by including private security and by using qualitative methods. 31 youths in 9 focus groups continued stories towards (1) fair and (2) unfair encounters. The key difference in these stories was related to how authorities treat people. Fair narratives consisted of peaceful and predictable interactions and mutual respect. Intervening did not challenge trust when young people perceived that the control agents’ work task legitimated the intervention. Unfair narratives consisted of impolite and aggressive treatment. Narratives about the police were closer to fair treatment than narratives about security guards. The article also suggests that prior procedural justice research has neglected the importance of the emotional state of the control agent: ideal control agents had an ability to be empathetic and to control their negative emotions. The findings support the procedural justice in highlighting the importance of fair treatment.
    September 30, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv102   open full text
  • Criminalizing the Payment for Sex in Northern Ireland: Sketching the Contours of a Moral Panic.
    Ellison, G.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 28, 2015
    This paper examines recent legislative developments in Northern Ireland around Lord Morrow’s Human Trafficking & Exploitation (Further Provisions and Support for Victims) Bill that was passed unanimously in the Northern Ireland Assembly and which uniquely in the United Kingdom now makes it a criminal offence to pay for sexual services. I suggest that issues around sex trafficking, sexual slavery and prostitution in Northern Ireland bear all the hallmarks of Stan Cohen’s famous articulation of a moral panic (Cohen 1972) but also argue that his original formulation needs to be recast slightly to take account of the horizontal structuring of moral panics in contemporary society.
    September 28, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv107   open full text
  • Backpacking the Border: The Intersection of Drug and Immigration Prosecutions in a High Volume US Court.
    Lynch, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 28, 2015
    Drawing from data obtained in a comparative study of US district courts’ criminal justice practices, this paper examines adjudication processing responses at the intersection of immigration and drug offences in a Southwestern federal district court, where the logic of immigration enforcement subsumes more traditional federal drug law enforcement. I demonstrate how characteristics of ‘drug cases’ are constructed at this intersection in such a manner that they stand apart from the prototypical federal drug case, and more closely resemble criminal immigration cases. I argue that in this border jurisdiction, the prevailing adjudicatory logic is concerned with defendants’ status as unauthorized outsiders such that these defendants are barely distinguishable from immigration defendants in how their sentences are calculated and rhetorically justified.
    September 28, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv105   open full text
  • Prosecutorial Procedural Justice and Public Legitimacy in Hong Kong.
    Cheng, K. K.-y.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 26, 2015
    Prosecutors are said to be ministers of justice and protectors of the public interest. Drawing on procedural justice and the re-conceptualization of legitimacy, this study argues that for prosecutors to be seen to act in the public interest, they should be perceived to exercise their powers legitimately, and, more specifically, for the public to feel that prosecutors make decisions that are morally aligned with their own. Using a random survey of the Hong Kong general population, it is found that when prosecutors are perceived to act in procedurally just ways, the legitimacy of the justice system, as well as the moral alignment with prosecutors and the courts, are enhanced in the minds of the public. Legitimacy and moral alignment are also associated with cooperation with the legal authorities and compliance with the law.
    September 26, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv106   open full text
  • Policing the Diaspora: Kurdish Londoners, MI5 and the proscription of Terrorist Organizations in the United Kingdom.
    Sentas, V.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 22, 2015
    The 30-year armed conflict between Turkey and the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) for Kurdish self-determination has had specific effects for the Kurds, including dispossession and forced migration. The Kurdish diaspora across Europe has been subject to sustained security operations in relation to the listing of the PKK as a ‘terrorist organization’. This article draws on qualitative research about the experiences of Kurdish Londoners visited by MI5 in 2010–2011. It identifies the processes and practices that criminalize Kurds as the collective subjects of security policing, or ‘suspect community’. I argue that ‘disruption’ is the key mode of power in UK proscription policy animating processes of criminalization and provides insights for criminological understanding of pre-emptive counter-terrorism. The disruption strategies I evidence in this case study de-stabilize Kurdish ethno-political identifications and political claims. I argue that attention to the disruption of self-determination and diaspora—as both concepts and social practices—elaborates the criminalizing effects of the listing of the PKK.
    September 22, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv094   open full text
  • What Social Networks do in the Aftermath of Domestic Violence.
    Hyden, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 18, 2015
    Claims that domestic violence is best deemed a ‘hidden crime’ tend to equate being hidden with non-disclosure to social services, the police or other criminal justice professionals. However, the social worlds of domestic violence victims are much more intricate than this. Family, relatives, friends and neighbours usually form the immediate social world of domestic violence. They can be regarded as a ‘response network’ that may be mobilized in the aftermath of domestic violence. This article focuses on the analysis of three women’s narratives about what happened in their social networks in the aftermath of violence. In all three cases, the culturally based understanding of how to deal with unacceptable behaviour in the social network constituted a framework for the response action. The analysis shows how social networks can be both responsible enough to intervene in the violence and responsive enough to recognize how the violence affects women and their children.
    September 18, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv099   open full text
  • Police and Community in Twentieth-Century Scotland: the Uses of Social History.
    Davidson, N., Fleming, L., Jackson, L., Smale, D., Sparks, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 16, 2015
    Drawing on archival research and oral history interviews, this article compares the characteristics of the relationships between police officers and communities in the Glasgow conurbation with those in the highlands and islands of Scotland in the period c. 1900–70. Rejecting the uniform or linear narrative suggested by existing historiography, it argues that these relationships were diverse, complex and shaped by local cultural, social and economic factors. By analysing the grassroots or everyday policing delivered by the urban beat officer and village constable, it reconstructs a social history of policing in twentieth-century Scotland. Moreover, the article identifies key constitutive elements that enabled or disrupted the forging of trust and legitimacy in Glasgow and the highlands in an era still associated by some with a ‘golden age of policing’. The article focuses in particular on the capacity of discretion, ‘insider’ status and embeddedness within local settlements to deliver effective policing, enhancing conclusions about best practice that have been drawn from studies of more recently formalized ‘community policing’ initiatives.
    September 16, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv097   open full text
  • Status Hierarchies and Hegemonic Masculinity: A General Theory of Prison Violence.
    Michalski, J. H.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 14, 2015
    The current paper examines the extent to which the pursuit of status, the social construction of masculinity and violence are linked. The main argument suggests that in a world where inmates have only the most limited forms of economic and political power, social status as a resource assumes far greater significance. The acquisition of status, though, depends upon the ability to navigate successfully the competition linked to securing one’s reputation as a ‘real man’. Milner’s (1994; 2004) theory of status relations within a resource structuralism framework offers an innovative explanatory strategy for understanding prison violence in the context of hegemonic masculinity. The paper offers exemplars from the comparative literature on prison violence to help illustrate the logic of the approach. The final section identifies a series of theoretical propositions derived from the general theory that purport to explain prison violence cross-culturally.
    September 14, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv098   open full text
  • Responding to Adolescent to Parent Violence: Challenges for Policy and Practice.
    Miles, C., Condry, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 14, 2015
    Adolescent to parent violence has historically been a silent problem, absent from official discourse surrounding domestic violence, parenting or youth justice. In recent policy and legislation, adolescent to parent violence is increasingly being recognized as a form of domestic violence; however, this conceptualization bears significant response implications. In this paper, the challenges of responding to adolescent to parent violence within a domestic violence framework are considered, including the characteristics of the parent–child relationship, parental responsibility in criminal justice, blurred victim/perpetrator boundaries and the potential criminalization of children. Whilst recognizing the need for a criminal justice response, the paper argues for a more nuanced, holistic and family focused approach, which avoids the responsibilization of parents or young people.
    September 14, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv095   open full text
  • Thatcherite Ideology, Housing Tenure, and Crime: The Socio-Spatial Consequences of the Right to Buy for Domestic Property Crime.
    Farrall, S., Hay, C., Jennings, W., Gray, E.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 14, 2015
    However one views it, the changes to housing tenure in the 1980s were pronounced and have had enduring effects in terms of the housing market. In this paper, we throw light on the relationship between housing tenure and the experience of property crime in and around what might be referred to as domestic environments (i.e. people’s homes). In so doing, we explore the ideological positions which both of the (then) main political parties had adopted towards housing during the 1970s (during the build up to the sale of council housing) and the ways in which the legal framework surrounding housing was modified in order to effect these ideas at, quite literally, ‘street level’. Using the General Household Survey, the British Crime Survey and the British Social Attitudes Survey, we examine the general relationship between housing tenure and crime and explore how these unfolded both in terms of time (i.e. an historical analysis) and social space (i.e. in terms of the socio-spatial location of these crimes).
    September 14, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv088   open full text
  • ‘A Vile and Violent Thing’: Female Traffickers and the Criminal Justice Response.
    Broad, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 09, 2015
    This paper presents research that analysed data regarding offenders convicted for trafficking offences in the United Kingdom. The paper identifies three themes relating to women’s involvement in trafficking activity. First, women perform lower level roles in trafficking that render them more susceptible to detection. Second, previous experiences of victimization have often provided pathways into offending for these women. Third, convicted female traffickers are frequently involved in intimate relationships with male traffickers. A more responsive approach to female traffickers, it is argued, would acknowledge the role of previous victimization, show greater understanding of the power dynamics between co-defendants and would need to be supported by policy conversant of the intersections between economic and sexual exploitation, gender inequality and global inequalities.
    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv072   open full text
  • The Voluntary Sector and the Mandatory Statutory Supervision Requirement: Expanding the Carceral Net.
    Tomczak, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 03, 2015
    Recent penal policy developments in England and Wales emphasize the role for voluntary organizations. Voluntary organizations play an important and increasing role in punishment, including imprisonment and supervision, but the effects of their work are ill understood. Existing literature is ambivalent: some argue such work empowers and builds social capital; for others, it extends control. This tension is addressed by analysing two payment-by-results pilot schemes. This analysis adds to the limited empirical knowledge about voluntary organizations. It demonstrates how their involvement in these pilots enabled and justified the new 12-month mandatory statutory supervision requirement, significantly extending the spatial and temporal reach of carceral power. The conclusion considers the theoretical implications of this analysis.
    September 03, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv091   open full text
  • ‘It was a safe place for me to be’: Accounts of attending Women’s Community Services and moving beyond the offender identity.
    Radcliffe, P., Hunter, G.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 03, 2015
    Based on qualitative analysis of interviews with women attending Women’s Community Services (WCSs) in England and Wales, the paper highlights narrative strategies through which women refute the offender identity. Accounts suggest that relationships with key workers and peers and the education and employment opportunities available at the WCSs are crucial in supporting desistance from offending. In addition, the accounts demonstrate an awareness of the social structural disadvantage in which offending is embedded on the part of staff and women attending the services. The implication of the critique of Gender Responsive Programming for our findings is discussed. In the face of a renewed emphasis by the Ministry of Justice on the robustness of community sentences and uncertainty of funding for WCSs in the newly marketized probation provision, the paper argues that WCSs have provided decriminalizing and desistance opportunities for women.
    September 03, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv093   open full text
  • Surveillance without Protection: Policing Undocumented Migrant Workers in an American Suburb.
    Sung, H., Delgado, S., Pena, D., Paladino, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 02, 2015
    Policing anonymous and fearful undocumented migrant workers (UMWs) with equity, integrity and accountability is one of the toughest law enforcement challenges in the United States. The importance of the issue notwithstanding, police–UMW interactions remain a ‘black box’ in police research. We examined the political economy of Palisades Park, New Jersey, and interviewed 160 UMWs from the same town. Findings indicate that UMWs suffered from a high level of crime victimization but were extremely unlikely to report their victimizations. Yet they were eager to contact the police to seek information and assistance in non-legal contexts. Police closely monitored UMWs through frequent encounters without provoking widespread resentment. Contradictions in both national immigration control and local politics are offered to interpret police–migrant relations.
    September 02, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv086   open full text
  • Prisoners, Cows, and Abattoirs: The Closing of Canada’s Prison Farms as a Political Penal Drama.
    Goodman, P., Dawe, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 28, 2015
    In 2009, the Canadian government announced its decision to close six federal prison farms. Although the programme only impacted about 300 prisoners, the decision sparked the creation of a social movement dedicated to fighting to keep the farms operational, and the closures became a sizeable news story in Canada. We argue that actors on both sides of the farm closure issue used it as fuel for staging and capitalizing on a political penal drama. Our findings suggest conservatives do not have a monopoly over using penal dramas to achieve political and social aims and that penal dramas can be extremely productive—well beyond debates over prisoners and prisons. Thus, penal dramas help us capture the nuanced orientation of a particular penal field, which cannot be understood apart from its cast of interested actors or the national, state/provincial or local contexts in which it is embedded.
    August 28, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv078   open full text
  • Security and Visions of the Criminal: Technology, Professional Criminality and Social Change in Victorian and Edwardian Britain.
    Churchill, D.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 28, 2015
    The later 19th century saw the formation of two distinct visions of serious criminality. Previous studies of the weak-willed, ‘degenerate’ offender, have neglected the simultaneous appearance of the modern professional criminal. This essay reveals that the rise of the security industry in the Victorian era served to reshape notions of criminal professionalism, imbuing them with a new emphasis on the technical proficiency of thieves. This image of the criminal provided an outlet for ambivalent reflections on social and technological change, much as similar, high-security visions of the criminal have ever since. Hence, this essay both traces the origins of a neglected aspect of modern criminological thought and reconstructs the historical role of security provision in shaping visions of the criminal.
    August 28, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv092   open full text
  • Violence as Information During Prison Reform: Evidence from the Post-Soviet Region.
    Slade, G.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 28, 2015
    When reform occurs in prison systems, prisoner insecurity increases. One reason for this is disorganization. The disruption to informal governance structures, distributions of power and mechanisms for establishing trust causes conflicts. This paper argues that a key mechanism linking disorganization to conflict and violence is information flow. Incomplete information in interpersonal interaction marks prison settings. Informal institutions for producing certainty for both staff and prisoners emerge to overcome this. Such institutions are handicapped by reform directed at reducing informal prisoner controls. In such cases, violence becomes an information-generating activity and can substitute for reputation. The paper examines this proposition as it applies to prisoners and staff through a critical case study of radical prison reform in the South Caucasus country of post-Soviet Georgia.
    August 28, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv085   open full text
  • Responding to Men’s Violence against Women Partners in Post-Apartheid South Africa: On the Necessity of Identification Across Identity’s Intersections.
    Boonzaier, F. A., Gordon, S. F.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 26, 2015
    Despite a body of work on male perpetrators experiences of intervention programmes, little is known about the intersubjective aspects of the relationships between counsellors and perpetrators. This article explores the intervention context as a social encounter, in which the identities of both parties are implicated, drawing on qualitative interviews with counsellors. We show how social identifications such as age, gender, race and class intersect to produce different possibilities for counsellors and clients, but also how identification involves more than just social similarity. We suggest that a responsive response to counselling male abusers may mean the recognition of the importance of identification across and through social similarity but it may also mean working through psychic identification to overcome difference in the counselling encounter.
    August 26, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv090   open full text
  • The Experiences of People with Mental Health Problems Who are Victims of Crime with the Police in England: A Qualitative Study.
    Koskela, S. A., Pettitt, B., Drennan, V. M.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 22, 2015
    Despite public beliefs to the contrary, people with mental health problems are more likely to be victims of crime than perpetrators. Dominant media representations of the mentally ill person who murders have deflected attention from the victim with mental health problems including their experiences of accessing the criminal justice system. The qualitative study explored the experiences of 81 people with mental health problems in their decision making and experiences of reporting the crime to the police. Many of their experiences were the same as other victims. However, their mental health problems were often seen as a label that stigmatized them, and their reports were discredited and disbelieved. This study offers insights relevant to policy and professional practice and education.
    August 22, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv087   open full text
  • Southern Criminology.
    Carrington, K., Hogg, R., Sozzo, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 20, 2015
    Issues of vital criminological research and policy significance abound in the global South, with important implications for South/North relations and for global security and justice. Having a theoretical framework capable of appreciating the significance of this global dynamic will contribute to criminology being able to better understand the challenges of the present and the future. We employ southern theory in a reflexive (and not a reductive) way to elucidate the power relations embedded in the hierarchal production of criminological knowledge that privileges theories, assumptions and methods based largely on empirical specificities of the global North. Our purpose is not to dismiss the conceptual and empirical advances in criminology, but to more usefully de-colonize and democratize the toolbox of available criminological concepts, theories and methods. As a way of illustrating how southern criminology might usefully contribute to better informed responses to global justice and security, this article examines three distinct projects that could be developed under such a rubric. These include, firstly, certain forms and patterns of crime specific to the global periphery; secondly, the distinctive patterns of gender and crime in the global south shaped by diverse cultural, social, religious and political factors and lastly the distinctive historical and contemporary penalities of the global south and their historical links with colonialism and empire building.
    August 20, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv083   open full text
  • Land-Grabs, Biopiracy and the Inversion of Justice in Colombia.
    Goyes, D. R., South, N.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 19, 2015
    The possibility of commercially exploiting plant, animal and human genetic resources unlocked by biotechnology has given rise to a wide range of cultural, environmental, ethical and economic conflicts. While supporters describe this activity as bioprospecting, critics refer to it as biopiracy. According to this latter view, international legal agreements and treaties have disregarded opposition and legalized the possibility of appropriating genetic resources and their derivative products through the use of patents. The legal framework that permits the appropriation of natural genetic products in Colombia also criminalizes aspects of traditional ways of life and enables a legally approved but socially harmful land-grabbing process. The article describes these processes and impact in terms of the inversion of justice and the erosion of environmental sustainability.
    August 19, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv082   open full text
  • The Organization of the Illegal Tiger Parts Trade in China.
    Wong, R. W. Y.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 18, 2015
    This paper examines the illegal networks in tiger parts trading from the demand (client’s) and the supply (criminal’s) perspective by drawing on fieldwork interview data collected from seven tiger parts trading network across three Chinese cities—Lhasa, Xining and Kunming, in 2011. The networks in the three cities were all centralized and independent of each other. Such structure derives from the low risk of arrest and is best suited to deal with the limited number of tiger part products. None of the traders involved were full time, professional tiger parts products traders and should be classified as opportunistic criminals. This article contributes to a broader understanding of criminal networks and to the development of green criminology.
    August 18, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv080   open full text
  • Unsilencing Sexual Torture: Responses to Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Denmark.
    Canning, V.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 14, 2015
    Debates around torture have proliferated in the past decade, placing the topic more centrally in criminological studies and research. However, the ways in which torture is recognized or responded to often pivot on narrow legalistic definitions which do not necessarily incorporate the gendered nature of torturous violence, and in particular sexual torture. In developing a regional case study focussed on Denmark, this article critically addresses the ways in which sexual torture is silenced in terms of state and organizational responses to survivors. Additionally, the increasingly punitive ways in which states respond to asylum seekers more generally means that impacts of torture, sexual torture and persecution can be compounded by structural conditions which ultimately exacerbate social, emotional, physical and psychological effects of violence.
    August 14, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv079   open full text
  • Desistance and Identity Repair: Redemption Narratives as Resistance to Stigma.
    Stone, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 12, 2015
    Recent research has examined the role of the narrative construction of identity in desistance from criminal offending and substance use. The narrative identity theory of desistance was developed with a population of male offenders. The present analysis explores the applicability of the theory to a sample of substance-using pregnant women and mothers, a highly stigmatized and increasingly criminalized group. The analysis of in-depth interview data reveals that desisting women constructed narrative identities that emphasized their moral agency and resisted the stigmatizing discourse surrounding substance-using mothers. The results support the narrative identity theory of desistance by demonstrating its applicability to a population for which the theory was not specifically designed and have implications for future research on identity theories of desistance as well as offender supervision practices.
    August 12, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv081   open full text
  • Re-Examining the Problems of Long-Term Imprisonment.
    Hulley, S., Crewe, B., Wright, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 05, 2015
    Drawing on an amended version of a survey employed in three previous studies, this article reports the problems experienced by 294 male prisoners serving very long life sentences received when aged 25 or under. The broad findings are consistent with previous work, including few differences being found between the problems experienced as most and least severe by prisoners at different sentence stages. By grouping the problems into conceptual dimensions, and by drawing on interviews conducted with 126 male prisoners, we seek to provide a more nuanced analysis of this pattern. We argue that, while earlier scholars concluded that the effects of long-term confinement were not ‘cumulative’ and ‘deleterious’, adaptation to long-term imprisonment has a deep and profound impact on the prisoner, so that the process of coping leads to fundamental changes in the self, which go far beyond the attitudinal.
    August 05, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv077   open full text
  • From a Visible Spectacle to an Invisible Presence: The Working Culture of Covert Policing.
    Loftus, B., Goold, B., Mac Giollabhui, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 05, 2015
    In this article, we draw upon data derived from an ethnographic field study of covert policing to shed light on the occupational culture of those officers engaged in the targeted surveillance of the public. Although many of the attitudes and working practices of covert officers mirror those offices found in more ‘traditional’ areas of policing, they also differ from them in a number of important ways. In particular, aspects of the occupational commonsense inherent to covert surveillance work reveals a distinct working culture, which operates in isolation from the clichéd cultural expressions of uniformed police that have been the focus of much scholarship. These alternative expressions of police culture, we suggest, arise from crucial differences in police logics and method.
    August 05, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv076   open full text
  • Indirect Effects of Police Searches on Community Attitudes to the Police: Resentment or Reassurance?
    Miller, J., D&#x2019;Souza, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 05, 2015
    We examine the effects of borough-level search rates on borough-wide attitudes to the police, within London. Analysing year-on-year variations across seven years in 32 boroughs, the study identifies very small but significant positive statistical effects of Section 60 searches (not requiring reasonable suspicion) in the prior year on perceptions of police effectiveness for the general adult population, and very small but significant negative statistical effects of Section 60 searches on perceptions of police respectfulness and responsiveness for black people and people in low socio-economic classes. However, significant findings are substantially driven by one ‘outlier’ borough with a very wide variation in Section 60 searches. Grounds-based searches (requiring reasonable suspicion) show no effects on attitudes.
    August 05, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv068   open full text
  • Political Culture, Neighbourhood Structure and Homicide in Urban Jamaica.
    Morris, P. K., Maguire, E. R.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 29, 2015
    This study examines the structural correlates of homicide in Jamaica, a developing nation with one of the world’s highest homicide rates. We extend existing theories on the ecology of lethal violence to account for the influence of electoral politics on homicide. Controlling for structural factors thought to be associated with violence, we examine the effect of voter turnout on homicides in urban communities located in the Kingston Metropolitan Area. We test the model using negative binomial regression. The findings help clarify the factors that explain variations in homicide across communities in urban Jamaica. The study also reveals how theories, concepts and measures used regularly in research in developed nations may require adaptation for use in developing nations.
    July 29, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv073   open full text
  • Constructing the Durable Penal Agent: Tracing the Development of Habitus Within English Probation Officers and Scottish Criminal Justice Social Workers.
    Grant, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 27, 2015
    In contrast to prison personnel, practice cultures of penal agents charged with delivering ‘community punishment’ are surprisingly under-researched. Recent evidence from Scotland and England suggests that community-based penal agents demonstrate strong capacities for resistance against state-level punitive discourse. This indicates that despite several turns in penal policy, successive UK Governments have failed to produce tougher systems of community punishment as intended. By deploying Bourdieu’s conceptual tools of habitus and field, and referring to evidence from empirical studies, this article will attempt to show that penal agents possess durable and deeply embedded dispositions that not only protect them from punitive field conditions, but also guide and underpin their everyday practice with offenders. By doing so, this article offers a conceptual starting point for an emerging sociology of community punishment.
    July 27, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv075   open full text
  • ‘Tactics’, Agency and Power in Women’s Prisons.
    Rowe, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 23, 2015
    Throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, sociological research into women’s experiences of imprisonment has remained relatively sparse and under-developed, focusing primarily on women prisoners’ peer relationships, with relatively little attention given to their interaction with penal regimes. This paper draws on ethnographic data from two women’s prisons in England to explore the agency and creativity represented by the ‘tactics’ brought to bear by prisoners—and sometimes staff—on the everyday challenges of managing prison life. It is suggested that exploring how individuals sought to ‘achieve outcomes’ in their face-to-face encounters and personal relationships offers a way of mapping the feel and flow of power in prisons at the level of lived experience.
    July 23, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv058   open full text
  • Returning to a Former Employer: A Potentially Successful Pathway to Ex-Prisoner Re-Employment.
    Ramakers, A. A. T., Van Wilsem, J. A., Nieuwbeerta, P., Dirkzwager, A. J. E.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 20, 2015
    This study examines to what extent ex-prisoners return to their pre-prison job and identifies factors that facilitate or hinder this outcome. Data from a longitudinal study of Dutch pretrial detainees were analyzed to examine whether those who were employed at the time of arrest returned to their pre-prison employer, found new employment, or remained jobless in the first half year following prison. Results show that one in three employed ex-prisoners found employment through their previous employer. The findings emphasize the relevance of recent employment ties for successful reintegration and add nuance to the assumption that employers are reluctant to hire this group of workers.
    July 20, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv063   open full text
  • Designing-In Crime by Designing-Out the Social? Situational Crime Prevention and the Intensification of Harmful Subjectivities.
    Raymen, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 20, 2015
    Situational crime prevention and CPtED (Crime Prevention through Environmental Design) strategies have been broadly criticized within much of theoretical criminology. Most of these criticisms dismantle the notion of the fully rational criminal actor, questioning the shaky ground of classical criminology on which its claims are made. Through positioning hyper-regulated city centres as post-social, post-political ‘non-places’ of consumption, this article builds upon these critiques arguing that attempts to ‘design out crime’ create environments which are not only doomed to fail in their primary objective, but actively create environments which perpetuate and exacerbate the decline in symbolic efficiency and the narcissistic, competitive-individualist and asocial subjectivities which, as recent work from left-wing criminology consistently reveals, have the capacity to significantly contribute to forms of harm, crime and deviance.
    July 20, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv069   open full text
  • Effects of Unemployment, Conviction and Incarceration on Employment: A Longitudinal Study on the Employment Prospects of Disadvantaged Youths.
    Verbruggen, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 20, 2015
    This study aims to investigate the effects of a history of unemployment, conviction and incarceration on the likelihood of being employed in a sample of disadvantaged youths. All youths (N = 540) were institutionalized in adolescence. From age 18 to 32 official data were available on employment, convictions and incarceration. To control for unobserved heterogeneity, fixed effects models are used to estimate effects of unemployment, conviction and incarceration on the likelihood of employment. Results show that for men, a criminal background does not damage employment prospects when a history of unemployment is taken into account. However, for women, a criminal record does lower employment chances in addition to the detrimental effects of unemployment.
    July 20, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv074   open full text
  • How Super Controllers Prevent Crimes: Learning from Modern Maritime Piracy.
    Townsley, M., Leclerc, B., Tatham, P. H.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 15, 2015
    This study examines how super controllers, actors responsible for creating incentives for controllers (handlers, place managers and guardians), prevent maritime piracy. Using a segmented regression model, we estimate the impact of three major anti-pirate initiatives (increased place management, increased handling and increased guardianship) using nine years of pirate activity data. Increased place management at sea reduced piracy but created tactical displacement, spreading piracy across the Indian Ocean. Establishing and constructing pirate courts and prisons, a form of offender handling, had no ostensible impact on pirate activity. Increased guardianship, in the form of detailed situational crime prevention guidance, triggered a swift and widespread reduction in pirate attacks. The introduction of super controllers and the actions they instigated dramatically altered the context of maritime piracy, making it easier to prevent pirate attacks.
    July 15, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv071   open full text
  • Duties to Distrust: The Decentring of Economic and White-Collar Crime Policing in Sweden.
    Engdahl, O., Larsson, B.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 15, 2015
    This article examines a general trend towards the ‘decentring’ of the policing of economic and white-collar crime in Sweden in recent decades. As a theoretical point of departure, we discuss how the ‘decentred policing’ concept can link the theoretical approaches of regulation and policing studies. We then analyse five empirical cases in which private actors have been given duties and incentives to report others’ crimes, in order to give a detailed account of the expansion and effects of the decentring of business and finance policing. The five cases concern the policing of bankruptcy crimes, money laundering, company management crimes, market abuse and insider dealings, and illegal cartels. The article ends by discussing some possible causes and consequences of this tendency.
    July 15, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv070   open full text
  • From Hate to Prejudice: Does the New Terminology of Prejudice Motivated Crime Change Perceptions and Reporting Actions?
    Wickes, R. L., Pickering, S., Mason, G., Maher, J. M., McCulloch, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 03, 2015
    Official definitions of hate crime are viewed as overly narrow and unnecessarily exclusive. To enable more inclusive practices, many jurisdictions have embraced alternative terminologies such as bias crime, targeted crime and prejudice motivated crime. In this article, we examine how police agencies in Victoria, Australia, are grappling with incidents and responses to hate crime. Drawing on the accounts of high priority victim groups, we illustrate how victims and victim advocates make sense of new hate crime terminologies and whether these terminologies facilitate hate crime incident reporting. Our findings speak to the importance of shared understanding and vocabularies; however, police responses to prejudice motivated crime incidents and police interactions with victims remain a significant barrier to reporting behaviour.
    July 03, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv041   open full text
  • The Structure of Human Trafficking: Lifting the Bonnet on a Nigerian Transnational Network.
    Campana, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 01, 2015
    Contrary to widespread belief, human trafficking operations are characterized by significant costs, particularly monitoring costs, and diseconomies of scale. How do traffickers achieve high capacity in their operations? This paper is an empirical in-depth study of the structure and activities of a large-scale human trafficking ring operating between Nigeria and Europe. It is based on a set of novel data sets that was manually coded and analyzed using network analysis techniques, and it shows that high trafficking capacity is associated with a high level of externalization of activities. Offenders mostly act as independent agents, in a similar way to contractors. The trafficking ring does not appear to be run along ethnic or family lines, but what does emerge is a rather clear division of labour and role specialization. Finally, this paper contributes to the broader debate on coordination in illegal settings and puts into question the idea that transnational crime is invariably best fought transnationally.
    July 01, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv027   open full text
  • Ethnic Hate Crime in Australia: Diversity and Change in the Neighbourhood Context.
    Benier, K., Wickes, R., Higginson, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 01, 2015
    Ecological theories of racially or ethnically motivated hate crime are largely derived from the United States, where racial segregation is highly pronounced. The extent to which these theories explain hate crime in more ethnically integrated countries is presently unclear. We focus on the neighbourhood characteristics influencing self-reported hate crime for 4,396 residents in a city experiencing growing ethnic diversity. We find that the neighbourhood antecedents of hate crime in the Australian context differ from those seen in the United States. While residents speaking a language other than English is a powerful predictor of incidents, neither residential mobility nor increases in in-migration are associated with hate victimization, and neighbourhood place attachment decreases the likelihood of victimization. Our findings suggest that ecological theories of hate crime derived from the United States may be limited in their applicability in multi-ethnic settings.
    July 01, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv067   open full text
  • Over-Reporting Intimate Partner Violence in Australian Survey Research.
    Ackerman, J. M.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 26, 2015
    This research, inspired by the cognitive interviewing literature, investigates misreporting of intimate partner violence when survey participants interpret items in unintended ways. In over 23 per cent of victimizations reported by university-aged males and in over 12 per cent of victimizations reported by females, follow-up questions revealed that purported violence was either accidental or done in a manner where neither partner took the event seriously. The problem was worse for perpetration reports where over 47 per cent of male reports and over 17 per cent of female reports were endorsed in a manner unintended by instrument design. The magnitude of the problem, together with its gendered nature, suggests that misreporting of this type is a substantial problem having the potential to negatively affect the testing of partner-violence theories.
    June 26, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv066   open full text
  • Does the Front Line Reflect the Party Line? The Politicization of Punishment and Prison Officers’ Perspectives Toward Incarceration.
    Lerman, A. E., Page, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 25, 2015
    Imprisonment policy has become increasingly politicized since the mid-1960s, but we do not yet know the consequence of this shift for the professional orientations of prison workers. In this article, we use original surveys of prison officers in California and Minnesota to assess whether and how partisan identification and the politicization of crime policy predict officers’ conceptualizations of the purpose and function of prisons. Results show that individual partisanship is associated with officers’ attitudes, but this is conditional on state context. Along with deepening understandings about the determinants of street-level bureaucrats’ perspectives, this article advances knowledge about how the broader political environment might shape the attitudes of front-line workers. This is important because prison officers’ perspectives affect their workplace behaviour with consequences for staff–prisoner relationships, policy implementation and the routine operations of penal facilities.
    June 25, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv061   open full text
  • Cyberhate on Social Media in the aftermath of Woolwich: A Case Study in Computational Criminology and Big Data.
    Williams, M. L., Burnap, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 25, 2015
    This paper presents the first criminological analysis of an online social reaction to a crime event of national significance, in particular the detection and propagation of cyberhate on social media following a terrorist attack. We take the Woolwich, London terrorist attack in 2013 as our event of interest and draw on Cohen’s process of warning, impact, inventory and reaction to delineate a sequence of incidents that come to constitute a series of deviant responses following the attack. This paper adds to contemporary debates in criminology and the study of hate crime in three ways: (1) it provides the first analysis of the escalation, duration, diffusion and de-escalation of cyberhate in social media following a terrorist event; (2) it applies Cohen’s work on action, reaction and amplification and the role of the traditional media to the online context and (3) it introduces and provides a case study in ‘computational criminology’.
    June 25, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv059   open full text
  • Differential Punishment of Similar Behaviour: Sentencing Assault Cases in a Specialized Family Violence Court and ‘Regular Sentencing’ Courts.
    Kramer, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 23, 2015
    Based on fieldwork conducted in a large, urban district court, this article explores legal responses to domestic and non-domestic assaults. It finds that men who assault intimate partners receive sentences that emphasize their rehabilitative needs and often result in discharges without conviction. Conversely, non-domestic assaults are met with relative severity. These findings are not necessarily inconsistent with a ‘focal concerns’ framework, which suggests that judges rely on racial stereotypes and focus on ‘family costs’ when sentencing violent male partners. They do, however, add nuance to this theoretical frame by suggesting that sentencing processes are likely to be informed by cultural logics that are consistent with a wider array of social power asymmetries, such as those based on gender. A comparison of the narratives that accompany assault cases suggests that men, regardless of racial status, are likely to receive a ‘punishment benefit’ for assaulting an intimate partner.
    June 23, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv064   open full text
  • Re-Presentations of Defendant Perpetrators in Sexual War Violence Cases Before International and Military Criminal Courts.
    Houge, A. B.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 23, 2015
    The empirical material produced by proceedings at International Criminal Tribunals and selected US courts-martial comprise one of few available sources on the lives and experiences of individual perpetrators of sexual war violence. In this article I explore primary court actors’ narratives about defendant perpetrators and identify and discuss how aetiology is understood, re-presented and constructed from the individual actor perspective that criminal court proceedings necessitate. These re-presentations add nuances to, and sometimes challenge, the overriding narratives about the causes of sexual war violence and the individual actors involved.
    June 23, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv065   open full text
  • The Financial Management of the Illicit Tobacco Trade in the United Kingdom.
    Antonopoulos, G. A., Hall, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 23, 2015
    Over the last two decades official and media discourses have paid increasing attention to the proceeds of ‘organized crime’. However, although there is a relatively sound understanding of finance-related issues in the drug markets, not much is known about other illegal markets. Drawing on a diverse set of original empirical data, including interviews with active criminal entrepreneurs involved in the trade, this article provides an account of the financial management of the illicit tobacco business in the United Kingdom. The study has two main objectives. First, to increase knowledge on the financial management of ‘organized crime’ by using the illegal tobacco trade in the United Kingdom as a case study and second, to further knowledge of the trade’s social organization. The findings suggest a critical departure from the discourses on ‘organized crime’ and crime money.
    June 23, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv062   open full text
  • Examining the Iatrogenic Effects of the Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study: Existing Explanations and New Appraisals.
    Zane, S. N., Welsh, B. C., Zimmerman, G. M.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 14, 2015
    Criminology has paid increasing attention to the prospect that prevention programmes can cause harm. The Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study, a delinquency prevention experiment of 506 boys that began in 1939, provides some of the earliest evidence of programmatic iatrogenic effects. A series of hypotheses were advanced by Joan McCord and other scholars to explain these unintended effects. Drawing upon this scholarship, related research and developmental theory, this article examines the leading explanations and offers new appraisals of iatrogenic effects of crime prevention programmes. The research suggests that there is not a grand explanation, and we encourage a more nuanced perspective for understanding iatrogenic effects of crime prevention programmes. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
    June 14, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv033   open full text
  • A Violent Legacy: Policing Insurrection in South Africa from Sharpeville to Marikana.
    Dixon, B.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 12, 2015
    Fifty-two years separate the fatal shootings by police of 69 anti-apartheid protestors at Sharpeville on 21 March 1960 and of 34 striking miners at Marikana on 16 August 2012. The parallels between the two ‘massacres’ are easy to overstate; but both involved the use of lethal violence by the police against people taking part in insurrectionary action. Drawing on Marenin’s (1982) work on the relative autonomy of the police, this paper argues that events at Marikana have to be seen in the context of South Africa’s failure to tackle the structural violence of apartheid and the use of direct, personal violence by the police before and since the country became a constitutional democracy in 1994.
    June 12, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv056   open full text
  • Stalking Victims, Victims of Sexual Violence and Criminal Justice System Responses: Is there a Difference or just ‘Business as Usual’?
    Korkodeilou, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 12, 2015
    Based on the qualitative accounts of 26 self-defined stalking victims, this article examines the experiences of stalking victims with regard to the responses they received from criminal justice system practitioners. These experiences are compared and discussed in relation to the responses victims of domestic violence and rape commonly receive by criminal justice system officials. The discussion reveals the way the experiences of stalking victims with criminal justice system officials parallel the experiences of victims of other forms of sexual violence and points out the meaning of these commonalities. The article concludes by assessing the role of the law in improving the treatment of victims by the criminal justice system and problematizing its potential in bringing about social change.
    June 12, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv054   open full text
  • Twilight Policing: Private Security Practices in South Africa.
    Diphoorn, T. G.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 10, 2015
    Many studies have emphasized the pluralization of policing and the interactions between security providers. However, such studies generally employ a top–down and structural approach, emphasizing the organizational ties between policing bodies. This article employs an ethnographic approach to security and focuses on localized policing performances that materialize from the interactions between security providers. Based on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Durban, South Africa, this article introduces the concept of twilight policing, which refers to punitive, disciplinary and exclusionary policing practices that simultaneously undermine and support the state, resulting in actions that are neither public nor private, but ‘twilight’. This article calls for a shift from a plural and organizational approach to policing towards a ‘twilight’ and performative one.
    June 10, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv057   open full text
  • The Aftermath of Newtown: More of the Same.
    Kupchik, A., Brent, J. J., Mowen, T. J.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 09, 2015
    In the aftermath of the shocking school shooting that occurred at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Connecticut, United States, politicians and lobbyists seemed to engage in a lively debate about school security. The most visible policy suggestion was the National Rifle Association’s proposal to place armed guards in every school, which was largely derided. Yet the more progressive politicians who ridiculed the N.R.A. offered proposals that likewise sought to increase the presence of armed security in schools. Public responses to the violence from across the political spectrum sought to continue the securitization of American public schools witnessed over the past two decades, rather than advocating for a responsive response in which students’ needs would be addressed and evidence-based violence prevention programs would be put in place.
    June 09, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv049   open full text
  • What’s Deviance Got to Do with it? Black Friday Sales, Violence and Hyper-Conformity.
    Raymen, T., Smith, O.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 03, 2015
    Based upon original ethnographic and interview data, this article presents an initial theorization and analysis of the violence and disorder witnessed throughout UK high streets and superstores during the 2014 Black Friday sales. While the conduct of these ‘extreme shoppers’ appeared deviant, this article positions such behaviour as hyper-conformity to the cultural values of neoliberalism, embodying the competitive individualism, cultivation of envy and aggressive display of consumer items which characterizes Western society in late modernity. In doing so, the authors explore the concept of ‘deviant leisure’, using the disorder of Black Friday to pose important questions about how the underpinning social and cultural values of neoliberal consumer capitalism pervades relatively mundane leisure activities, cultivating harmful subjectivities.
    June 03, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv051   open full text
  • The Blue Line on Thin Ice: Police Use of Force Modifications in the Era of Cameraphones and YouTube.
    Brown, G. R.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 03, 2015
    Today, the ubiquity of cameraphones and online social media’s contributions to sociopolitical discourses on policing have exponentially increased the public’s exposure to police mis/conduct. This article reports on research that inquired into the influence of ‘policing’s new visibility’ on front-line officers. Participants in the project included 231 operational police officers and institutional policing officials in Toronto and Ottawa (Canada). The study found that videorecording capabilities across the citizenry and concurrent opportunities for the public to disseminate footage of police occurrences (and conduct) through online file-sharing are profoundly integrated into the consciousness of most rank-and-file officers and have influenced significant behavioural changes through the deterrence of certain practices, including moderations in police violence across a majority of study participants.
    June 03, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv052   open full text
  • ‘A Precarious Place’: Housing and Clients of Specialized Courts.
    Quirouette, M., Hannah-Moffat, K., Maurutto, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 03, 2015
    Specialized courts rely on partnerships with community agencies to address multiple issues related to offending. Despite their popularity, little is known about the implications of such partnerships or about how stakeholders negotiate client support, therapeutic interventions and correctional practices. We analysed six Canadian sites (four drug treatment courts and two community/wellness courts), specifically focusing on how they conceptualize and respond to housing issues. We found that practices are pushing the boundaries of punishment and producing unintended consequences related to (1) positioning homelessness as criminogenic, (2) emphasizing short-term stability to the detriment of longer-term solutions and (3) facilitating enhanced supervision/knowledge exchange. When legal concerns dominate, therapeutic potential is compromised, along with efforts to restructure supports needed by marginalized offenders in the community.
    June 03, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv050   open full text
  • The Most Cited Scholars in Five International Criminology Journals, 2006–10.
    Cohn, E. G., Iratzoqui, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 01, 2015
    The current article examines three elements of scholarly influence comparing five major international criminology journals (BJC – British Journal of Criminology, CRIM – Criminology, ANZ – Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, CJC – Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, EJC – European Journal of Criminology) from 2006 to 2010. David Garland (BJC), Robert J. Sampson (CRIM and ANZ), Julian V. Roberts (CJC) and David P. Farrington (EJC) had the most overall influence, with Sampson the most cited over the five journals. Influence was both specialized, with some scholars having one or two highly cited seminal works, and versatile, with others having many different works cited several times each. The most cited works of the most cited authors were on developmental and life-course criminology and criminal careers.
    June 01, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv048   open full text
  • Responding to State Institutional Violence.
    Stanley, E.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 30, 2015
    Based on in-depth interviews with 45 victims, together with extensive documentary analysis of 105 cases, this article outlines the nature and extent of state violence inflicted against children in New Zealand’s social welfare institutions. Drawing upon experiential accounts, the article provides a discussion of the short- and long-term impacts of this violence on victims and it shows the continuing injustices of official responses towards them. The article explores how state agencies might provide a more responsive response. In particular, it proposes the provision of (1) the recognition of victimization in state care; (2) the reparation of harms and (3) the prevention of future victimization.
    May 30, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv034   open full text
  • Against Youth Justice and Youth Governance, for Youth Penality.
    Phoenix, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 25, 2015
    The main aim of this article is to provoke a debate about the ways in which state responses to youth crime are constituted as objects of knowledge in youth criminology. The article critiques two dominant approaches in youth criminology (youth crime governance and youth justice studies) in relation to the extent by which they are able to open the theoretical space to distinguish the conditions of possibility and analyse change. The main contention of the article is that in order to address these issues, the concept of ‘youth justice’ needs to be abandoned in favour of the development of a critical youth penality.
    May 25, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv031   open full text
  • Buying Sex as Edgework: Hong Kong Male Clients in Commercial Sex.
    Kong, T. S. K.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 25, 2015
    Commercial sex is a risky business and men who buy sex engage in a form of voluntary risky behaviour. Using Stephen Lyng’s notion of edgework, this qualitative study examines Hong Kong men who buy sex in Hong Kong/China and argues that these men’s engagement can be understood as a form of leisure edgework which balances risk and pleasure by negotiating the boundary between order and chaos. This article concludes that men buying sex can be seen as a form of resistance to normative companionate sexuality and the skills they exercise are key cultural principles needed in late-modern society. Edgework therefore plays an important role in modern intimacy, especially in shaping masculinity and men’s sexual scripts.
    May 25, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv040   open full text
  • Post-Release Employment of Desisting Inmates.
    Aaltonen, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 22, 2015
    Recent research has questioned the causal effect of employment on desistance from crime. The aim of the current study was to examine the post-release employment trajectories of Finnish inmates convicted to prison in 2004–05 (n = 1,998) who are desisting from crime, using varying criteria. While a majority of the inmates received some salary from work during the four-year follow-up, the results show that only one tenth of them were able to sustain a continued streak of employment. Instead, the proportion outside of the labour force grew with time from release. The results suggest that employment plays a limited role in the desistance processes in the current Finnish context. The potential causes for this finding are discussed, and avenues for future research are proposed.
    May 22, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv047   open full text
  • Emblematic Violence and Aetiological Cul-De-Sacs: On the Discourse of ‘One Punch’ (Non) Fatalities.
    Flynn, A., Halsey, M., Lee, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 21, 2015
    With well over 90 ‘one-punch’ fatalities in the past decade, Australia likely holds the dubious honour of being at the epicentre of such incidents. In this article, we argue that political and legal responses to one-punch violence have been based on fairly cursory understandings of why these events occur. By way of contrast, we suggest that one-punch fatalities (and non-fatalities) are emblematic of deeper undercurrents of antisocial conduct and dispositions in late modern Australian life. In an effort to ‘break open’ the discursive limits of one-punch violence, we briefly engage with perpetrator narratives—the missing voice in these debates. Such engagement, we argue, is key to developing a more nuanced understanding of why male on male violence continues to be a major issue of sociocultural concern.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv039   open full text
  • The Politics of Birth and the Intimacies of Violence Against Palestinian Women in Occupied East Jerusalem.
    Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 20, 2015
    Focusing on the embodiment of violence against pregnant women, this paper borrows from Palestinian women’s own words and descriptions to reveal intimate aspects of aggression against and surveillance over their bodies and lives. The paper examines both the effects of violence on young mothers and their community and the denial of violence by the settler colonial state. I emphasize the structural regime that exacerbates such aggression, as well as women’s agency in subverting the system of oppression. The paper concludes by stressing that surveillance embedded in Israeli biopolitical measures and geopolitical constraints inscribe severe violence over birthing Palestinian women. Such violence invades the public and intimate spaces of women’s homes, bodies and minds, leaving them trapped in a vicious maze.
    May 20, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv035   open full text
  • PCCs, Roads Policing and the Dilemmas of Increased Democratic Accountability.
    Wells, H.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 20, 2015
    In the era of the Police and Crime Commissioner, when the benefits of democratic accountability are placed centre stage, and the public are encouraged to believe that they should dictate the type of policing they receive, this article considers the prospects for one particular policing task that has, historically, enjoyed mixed levels of public support. Roads policing casts the (potential) voter in the position of (potential) offender, but also as (potential) victim. As such, it may be perceived as awkward territory for individuals seeking (re)election, who may be uncertain as to their electorate’s preferences. This article considers three examples of occasions where PCCs have had to confront the issue of roads policing, demonstrating the difficulties it poses for those mindful of their elected status.
    May 20, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv037   open full text
  • To Prevent the Existence of People Dedicated to ‘Causing Trouble’: Dirty Work, Social Control and Paramilitaries in Colombia.
    Manrique Rueda, G., Tanner, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 19, 2015
    The activities of combatants in paramilitary groups in Colombia can be seen as ‘dirty work’ that acts as a form of social control. We study the experiences and representations of former combatants concerning violence perpetrated by their groups against ‘outsiders’, arguing that the rhetoric of paramilitary groups not only plays a role in denying crimes. It makes possible for combatants to dignify the dirty work of paramilitary activities, but also offers an opportunity to study social control in Colombia in times of economic transnationalization and neo-conservatism.
    May 19, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv038   open full text
  • Criminal Justice Identities in Transition: The Case of Devolved Probation Services in England and Wales.
    Robinson, G., Burke, L., Millings, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 19, 2015
    In 2014, the coalition government’s Transforming Rehabilitation reforms led to the wholesale restructuring of probation services in England and Wales. As part of this reconfiguration of probation services, more than half of the employees of public sector Probation Trusts were transferred to 21 new Community Rehabilitation Companies (CRCs) set up to manage medium- and low-risk offenders and destined for sale in the criminal justice marketplace. This article presents the findings of an ethnographic study of the formation of one CRC, with a specific focus on the construction and negotiation of identities. We identify a number of key themes, prominent among which is ‘liminality’: i.e. the experience of being betwixt and between the old and the new, the public and the outsourced. Other themes discussed in the article include separation and loss, status anxiety, loyalty and trust, liberation and innovation.
    May 19, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv036   open full text
  • Guardians Upon High: An Application of Routine Activities Theory to Online Identity Theft in Europe at the Country and Individual Level.
    Williams, M. L.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 05, 2015
    Online fraud is the most prevalent acquisitive crime in Europe. This study applies routine activities theory to a subset of online fraud, online identity theft, by exploring country-level mechanisms, in addition to individual determinants via a multi-level analysis of Eurobarometer survey data. This paper adds to the theory of cybercrime and policy debates by: (1) showing that country physical guardianship (e.g. cyber security strategy) moderates the effects of individual physical guardianship; (2) introducing a typology of online capable guardianship: passive physical, active personal and avoidance personal guardianship; (3) showing that online identity theft is associated with personal and physical guardianship; and (4) identifying public Internet access and online auction selling as highly risky routine activities. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of studying country-level effects on online identity theft victimization.
    May 05, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv011   open full text
  • Stories of Violence: A Narrative Criminological Study of Ambiguity.
    Sandberg, S., Tutenges, S., Copes, H.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 04, 2015
    Violence features in human life, not only as actual physical confrontation but also as stories. Stories of violence are particularly important in violence-prone subcultures and among those partaking in the illegal drug economy. Drawing on narrative analysis, this study examines stories of violence among a population of incarcerated Norwegian drug dealers. Four widespread story types are identified: business narratives, intimidation narratives, moral narratives and survivor narratives. We explore the content of these stories and the work they do for tellers while keeping a keen eye on their ambiguous nature. We argue that stories and storytellers plurivocality is often missed when stories of violence are described within established criminological traditions.
    May 04, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv032   open full text
  • ‘I Thought “He’s A Monster”… [But] He Was Just… Normal’.
    Walters, M. A.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 23, 2015
    This article examines the therapeutic benefits that restorative justice can engender for stakeholders of homicide. Qualitative interviews with participants from a single case study are used to reveal the various long-term emotional traumas caused by such crimes, as well as the many unanswered questions that remain post-conviction. In exploring one family’s journey of restorative justice, this article highlights the various aspects of restorative dialogue that can gave rise to positive emotional connections and, in turn, relational transformations between participants. Though such transformations are potentially life altering, this article also recommends caution, based on findings that certain adverse emotional reactions can be generated via the personal connections that emerge during dialogue. The article concludes that in order to properly address the wider harms caused by homicide, justice agencies should seek to utilize trauma-informed restorative practices via a parallel system of justice.
    April 23, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv026   open full text
  • Simmel, the Police Form and the limits of Democratic Policing.
    Harkin, D.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 13, 2015
    I argue that the social theory of Georg Simmel can be used to illustrate certain limitations to the potential of democratic policing. Simmel makes a number of claims about trust, secrecy and accountability that are shown to have immediate relevance to my empirical case study of police–public consultation forums in Edinburgh, Scotland. Two particular aspects of the ‘form’ of the police–public relationship—the police’s command of non-negotiable force and inequality in the reciprocity of information—play a key role in limiting some of the principal aspirations of democratic policing theory. There are permanent barriers to improving the democratic credentials of the police I argue, yet positive and progressive change is still achievable.
    April 13, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv018   open full text
  • Moral Panics as Enacted Melodramas.
    Wright, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 10, 2015
    This paper argues that a narrative lens is conducive toward a renewed understanding of moral panic. It is proposed that a melodramatic narrative frame that is central to the construction of news stories about crime is significant for conceptualizing what moral panics are and how they work. The paper will propose that moral panics can be seen as enacted melodramas, where the traditional boundaries between newsmakers, interest groups and ‘the public’ are temporarily dismantled and where everyday citizens experience the role of the suffering victim. This understanding provides insight toward appreciating why only some issues develop into moral panic in particular spaces and times and offers a new framework with which to approach the study of panic.
    April 10, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv025   open full text
  • Contextual and Individual Factors Determining Escalation of Collective Violence: Case Study of the Project X Riot in Haren, the Netherlands.
    Adang, O. M. J., van Ham, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 05, 2015
    Two dominant perspectives explaining collective violence differ in the extent to which they ascribe influence to individual and contextual factors. Our analysis of a project X disorder in the Netherlands shows organized groups were not involved. Instead spontaneous group formation and identification were observed, confirming socio-contextual theory. Arrested suspects, however, were no cross section of youths, with a minority mirroring the personality profile of individuals disproportionally involved in collective violence. This suggests predispositions are of relevance as well in explaining public disorder. This case study shows the recently developed initiation/escalation model provides a useful framework that incorporates both perspectives, i.e. both theoretical perspectives are not mutually exclusive. Research suggestions are discussed.
    April 05, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv024   open full text
  • The Paradox of Discretion: Customs and the Changing Occupational Identity of Canadian Border Officers.
    Cote&ndash;Boucher, K.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 02, 2015
    This article challenges the assumption that border officers enjoy a high level of discretion. By studying customs, it provides insight into how the policing of goods and transport workers is less concerned with ‘risky’ individuals than it is with promoting international trade flows. In this context, border officer discretion may be seen as a hindrance that must be channeled or curtailed. Interviews with Canadian customs officers demonstrate that technologies facilitate the redistribution of compliance and risk management responsibilities among border policing actors. Such alterations in customs operations have reconfigured discretion in paradoxical ways, both extending and reducing officers’ hold on decision-making. This article considers the effects of these changes on officers’ use, experience and perception of discretion as well as on their occupational identity.
    April 02, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv023   open full text
  • Police Innovations, ‘Secret Squirrels’ and Accountability: Empirically Studying Intelligence-Led Policing in Canada.
    Sanders, C. B., Weston, C., Schott, N.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 28, 2015
    In an environment of fiscal constraint and growing fear of catastrophic events, police services are turning to intelligence and analytic technologies to conduct aggressive information gathering and risk analysis. The present study uses 86 in-depth interviews and participant observation to explore the integration and utilization of intelligence-led policing (ILP) in a Canadian context. From this analysis, we identify how police cultures, organizational context and situational pace of policing constrain an intelligence-led framework. Further, we illustrate how police services have rhetorically adopted ILP and translated it to mean accountability in a time of austerity. By translating ILP, Canadian police services have been able to redefine success within their services without necessarily attending to the outcomes of their practices.
    March 28, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv008   open full text
  • Gossip, Decision-Making and Deterrence in Drug Markets.
    Dickinson, T., Wright, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 13, 2015
    This study explores the relationship between gossip, decision-making and deterrence among active drug dealers. Drawing from interviews with, and observations of, 33 active drug dealers, we find that gossip shapes the ways in which these offenders respond to threatened sanctions. Gossip about others getting busted, acting sketchy and avoiding detection serves as vicarious experience with punishment and punishment avoidance and influences the behaviour of dealers accordingly. Dealers’ reactions, however, are contingent on their relationship with the subjects and sources of gossip. This study demonstrates that, at least for drug dealers, the deterrence calculus involves more than an internal weighing of costs and benefits; it is an interactional social process that is responsive to the informal communication permeating their day-to-day lives.
    March 13, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv010   open full text
  • Let Sleeping Lawyers Lie: Organized Crime, Lawyers and the Regulation of Legal Services.
    Middleton, D., Levi, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 10, 2015
    The study examines the range of crimes in which solicitors become involved as primary offenders (mainly fraud) or on behalf of others (criminal planning and money laundering) and critically reviews the factors in their personal and working environment that may promote or inhibit such crimes and the ways that criminologists and socio-legal scholars have accounted for deviance and the regulation of the profession. It ends by discussing trends in contemporary lawyering and its regulation—ethics, discipline, ownership and surveillance—that could plausibly affect rates of crime by solicitors, focusing on England and Wales but also giving some comparative context with the United States.
    March 10, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv001   open full text
  • Shopping for Free? Looting, consumerism and the 2011 riots.
    Newburn, T., Cooper, K., Deacon, R., Diski, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 08, 2015
    A number of commentators have suggested that the riots in England in August 2011 were distinctive because of the character and extent of the looting that took place. In doing so, they have argued that the nature of modern consumer capitalism should be placed front and centre of any explanation of the disorder. While concurring with elements of such arguments, we depart from such analyses in three ways. First, we argue that it is important not to overstate the extent to which the 2011 riots were a departure from previous outbreaks of civil disorder—violent consumerism having a quite lengthy history. Second, using testimony from those involved, we argue that a focus on looting risks ignoring both the political character and the violence involved in the riots. Finally, and relatedly, we suggest that the focus on consumption potentially simplifies the nature of the looting itself by underestimating its political and expressive characteristics.
    March 08, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv007   open full text
  • From Cybercrime to Cyborg Crime: Botnets as Hybrid Criminal Actor-Networks.
    van der Wagen, W., Pieters, W.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 06, 2015
    Botnets, networks of infected computers controlled by a commander, increasingly play a role in a broad range of cybercrimes. Although often studied from technological perspectives, a criminological perspective could elucidate the organizational structure of botnets and how to counteract them. Botnets, however, pose new challenges for the rather anthropocentric theoretical repertoire of criminology, as they are neither fully human nor completely machine driven. We use Actor-Network Theory (ANT) to provide a symmetrical perspective on human and non-human agency in hybrid cybercriminal networks and analyze a botnet case from this perspective. We conclude that an ANT lens is particularly suitable for shedding light on the hybrid and intertwined offending, victimization and defending processes, leading to the new concept of ‘cyborg crime’.
    March 06, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv009   open full text
  • Collating Longitudinal Data on Crime, Victimization and Social Attitudes in England and Wales: A New Resource for Exploring Long-Term Trends in Crime.
    Jennings, W., Gray, E., Hay, C., Farrall, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 06, 2015
    Exploring long-term trends in crime and criminal justice is a multifaceted exercise. This article introduces the construction and methodological benefits of a series of new data sets that amalgamate approximately 30 years of public data on crime, victimization, fear of crime, social and political attitudes with national socio-economic indicators in England and Wales. The data operate at both an aggregate and individual level and will be available for public use (and modification) from autumn 2015. Here, we outline the contours and contents of the data set and highlight the importance of using longitudinal data in exploring theoretical and empirical questions about crime, victimization and social attitudes.
    March 06, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv006   open full text
  • The Risks and Rewards of Organized Crime Investments in Real Estate.
    Dugato, M., Favarin, S., Giommoni, L.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 06, 2015
    Despite growing interest in organized crime’s infiltration of the legal economy, research to date has paid little attention to the investments of criminal organizations in real estate. Using data on confiscated assets in 8,092 Italian municipalities between 2000 and 2012, this paper aims to remedy this lack of knowledge. Applying a risk–reward approach, based on the rational choice perspective, the analysis highlights what drives Italian mafia groups’ investments in the real estate sector. The results obtained support the validity of the rational choice perspective by showing how criminal organizations weigh risks and rewards in their decisions to invest in real estate.
    March 06, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv002   open full text
  • Narratives and Counternarratives: Somali-Canadians on Recruitment as Foreign Fighters to Al-Shabaab.
    Joosse, P., Bucerius, S. M., Thompson, S. K.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 06, 2015
    Recently, the Somali diaspora has found itself at the centre of heightened security concerns surrounding the proliferation of international terrorist networks and their recruitment strategies. These concerns have reached new levels since the absorption of al-Shabaab into al-Qaeda in 2012. Based on a qualitative analysis of interviews with 118 members of Canada’s largest Somali community, this article draws upon narrative criminology to reverse the ‘why they joined’ question that serves as the predicate for much recent radicalization scholarship, and instead explores, ‘why they would never join’. We encounter Somali-Canadians equipping themselves with sophisticated counternarratives that vitiate the enticements of al-Shabaab. Particularly, notions of ‘coolness’, ‘trickery’ and ‘religious perversion’ mediate participants’ perceptions of al-Shabaab and enable a self-empowering rejection of its recruitment narratives. In particular, we find resonances between the narratives of non-recruits and ‘bogeyman’ narratives that exist commonly in many cultures. The efficacy of these narratives for resilience is three-fold, positioning the recruiters as odious agents, recruits as weak-minded dupes and our participants as knowledgeable storytellers who can forewarn others against recruitment to al-Shabaab.
    March 06, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu103   open full text
  • First Nations Peoples and Judicial Sentencing: Main Effects and the Impact of Contextual Variability.
    Lockwood, K., Hart, T. C., Stewart, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 05, 2015
    Over-representation of First Nations peoples throughout criminal justice systems is an ongoing critical public policy issue. Judicial sentencing is a pivotal process, which has complex relationships with legal and extra-legal factors. In this study, we use data of serious offences from Queensland’s lower and higher courts from 2009 to 2010. First, logistic regression is used to consider the main effect of Indigenous status on the decision to imprison. Second, conjunctive analyses are used to determine whether contextual variability can illustrate when sentencing disparities occur. Results show the main effect of Indigenous status remained statistically significant in both court levels after controlling for variables. However, contextual variability influenced both the magnitude and direction of the effect of Indigenous status on sentencing.
    March 05, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv005   open full text
  • Gender, Pressure, Coercion and Pleasure: Untangling Motivations for Sexting Between Young People.
    Lee, M., Crofts, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 03, 2015
    What has been problematically termed ‘sexting’ has attracted considerable legal, political, public, media and academic attention. Concern has focused on sexting between young people who may experience emotional and reputational damage and are at risk of being charged with child abuse or pornography offences in many jurisdictions. Recent research has rightly highlighted sexting’s gendered dynamics. Accordingly, a discourse has developed that imagines the common sexting scenario involves girls feeling pressured into sending boys sexual images. This article develops an analytic framework of pressure and critically reviews research into sexting. It suggests that while such scenarios occur, they do not reflect the experiences expressed by the majority of girls who actually engage in sexting, who are more likely to express motivations associated with pleasure or desire. Keywords: sexting, criminalization, coercion, gender and power, juvenile justice
    March 03, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu075   open full text
  • Taking the Conservative Protestant Thesis across the Atlantic. A comparative analysis of the relationships between violence, religion and stimulants use in rural Netherlands.
    Weenink, D.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 27, 2015
    Building upon the Southern culture of violence research tradition, this article inquires the association between rural violence and Conservative Protestantism in the Dutch context. Based on data of 8,106 individuals, it was found that young rural Conservative Protestants living in villages were more likely to report that they had committed violence, as compared to their fellow believers living in urbanized areas. Furthermore, it turned out that the association between alcohol consumption and violence is stronger among this category of religious rural youth. Finally, this study demonstrates that, contrary to the prevailing notion of the idyllic rural, the violence rates between young Dutch rural dwellers and their peers living in the rest of the country are virtually similar.
    February 27, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azv003   open full text
  • Street Codes, Routine Activities, Neighbourhood Context and Victimization.
    McNeeley, S., Wilcox, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 18, 2015
    This study seeks to address the inconsistency in the literature regarding the relationship between the code of the street and victimization by drawing upon overlooked ideas embedded in Anderson’s work that are consistent with lifestyle-routine activities theory. Using Poisson-based multilevel regression models, we found that the effect of the street code on victimization was moderated by public activities: code-related values only contributed to greater risk of victimization for those with more public lifestyles. This interaction between the street code and routine activities was more influential in culturally disorganized neighbourhoods.
    February 18, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu116   open full text
  • A Case Study Approach to Procedural Justice: Parents’ Views in two Juvenile Delinquency Courts in the United States.
    Pennington, L.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 17, 2015
    The juvenile delinquency court aims to modify children’s behaviour, but little is known about how parents’ experiences in juvenile delinquency courts may be affecting the court’s efforts. Whether parents believe the court system is fair and effective could have important implications for the juvenile justice system. This research uses two case studies of parents in two different courts in the Northeast United States to examine how parents’ views are created and reinforced through experiences in the juvenile court process. Integrating concepts from the sociolegal framework of legal consciousness, this research challenges some of the core concepts of procedural justice and brings to the surface new ideas about negative views of the law and disengagement from the justice system.
    February 17, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu109   open full text
  • Understanding Complainant Credibility in Rape Appeals: A Case Study of High Court Judgments and Judges’ Perspectives in India.
    Barn, R., Kumari, V.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 09, 2015
    Despite the growing number of reported cases of rape and sexual assault against women in India, there is an insufficient understanding of the perspectives and responses of the Indian Criminal Justice System in general and the judiciary in particular. By employing a framework of ‘complainant credibility’, this paper examines High Court judgments and judges’ perspectives in rape appeals. In placing a robust and systematic focus on one aspect of the Indian jurisdiction, this paper sheds light on how competing realities are understood by the judiciary to inform decision making about complainant credibility and suspect’s guilt in affirming or overturning trial court decisions.
    February 09, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu112   open full text
  • Greening Justice: Examining the Interfaces of Criminal, Social and Ecological Justice.
    White, R., Graham, H.
    British Journal of Criminology. February 03, 2015
    This article examines the growth of ecological awareness, alongside the emergence of environmental sustainability initiatives, within criminal justice institutions around the world. To date, such developments have received little empirical analysis from criminology scholars. Internationally, this article is among the first to critically analyse the ‘greening’ of policing, courts, prisons, offender supervision and community reintegration. Available literature and examples are reviewed, alongside original research findings. The motivations and ideologies underpinning this nascent green evolution raise deeper questions of ‘why?’ and ‘for whom?’ Innovative examples of sustainable justice architecture and catalysts for penal reform are differentiated from those which claim humanistic intentions and green credentials but, arguably, are based on instrumental fiscal motives that do little to challenge repressive carceral regimes.
    February 03, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu117   open full text
  • Disjointed Service: An English Case Study of Multi-Agency Provision in Tackling Child Trafficking.
    Harvey, J. H., Hornsby, R. A., Sattar, Z.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 28, 2015
    This article examines the issue of child trafficking in the United Kingdom and of multi-agency responses in tackling it. The United Kingdom, as a signatory to the recent trafficking protocols, is required to implement measures to identify and support potential victims of trafficking—via the National Referral Mechanism. Effective support for child victims is reliant on cooperation between agencies. Our regional case study contends that fragmented agency understandings of protocols and disjointed partnership approaches in service delivery means the trafficking of vulnerable children continues across the region. This article asserts that child trafficking in the United Kingdom, previously viewed as an isolated localized phenomenon, maybe far more widespread, revealing deficiencies in child protection services for vulnerable children.
    January 28, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu115   open full text
  • The Pluralization of High Policing: Convergence and Divergence at the Public–Private Interface.
    O'Reilly, C.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 27, 2015
    High policing has long been associated with the preservation and augmentation of state interests by the intelligence community. However, this paradigm can neither be examined, nor theorized, within an exclusively ‘public’ framework; a host of ‘private’ actors must now be acknowledged on this conceptual terrain. Moving beyond well-acknowledged patterns of outsourcing intelligence, this paper brings sharper research attention to transnational security consultancies as well as the more shadowy realms of boutique intelligence firms, private detectives and freelance covert operatives. By examining these new private categories of high policing, this paper considers the complex patterns of convergence and divergence that characterize the public–private interface. Specific attention is devoted to resources of symbolic power and how these impact the capacity for coercive action.
    January 27, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu114   open full text
  • Feeling Unsafe in a Multicultural Neighbourhood: Indigenous Inhabitants’ Perspectives.
    Muller, T., Fischer, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 23, 2015
    Feeling unsafe in a multicultural neighbourhood has been related—especially in the case of indigenous inhabitants—to the presence of groups of young immigrant men in public space. However, indigenous inhabitants differ in their response to the presence of immigrant men. Our goal is to examine (in a qualitative and quantitative way) whether interethnic social involvement has added value when it comes to explaining the experience of fear of crime, as compared to general social involvement. We conclude that our thesis regarding the relevance of interethnic social involvement for explaining the experience of safety is sustained by our material. Therefore, we advise that interethnic social involvement should be integrated in future studies on the fear of crime.
    January 23, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu113   open full text
  • ‘Police Culture’ at Work: Making Sense of Police Oversight.
    Campeau, H.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 08, 2015
    Within police studies, ‘police culture’ is often depicted according to a series of values (e.g. conservatism, solidarity, suspicion, etc.). This article argues in favour of an alternative conceptualization of police ‘culture’, which draws on concepts from the sociology of culture. Police culture is viewed as a resource, which actors deploy within particular institutional constraints. Drawing on 100 interviews and participant observation in a police department, the analysis examines how officers negotiate meaning in an unsettled occupational environment prompted by heightened levels of police oversight. Two culture indicators are examined: solidarity and mission. This article represents an explicit attempt to theorize police culture sociologically and invoke an adaptive framework for uncovering how actors use culture within a definable set of structuring conditions.
    January 08, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu093   open full text
  • Foucault’s Punitive Society: Visual Tactics of Marking as a History of the Present.
    Carney, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 07, 2015
    Applying a form of genealogical method rooted in Nietzsche’s use of history, this article seeks an understanding of ‘marking’ punishments in our own mass-mediated culture. First, Foucault’s analysis of the punitive tactic of marking in his 1973 course, The Punitive Society, will be considered. Second, his concept of ‘virtual marking’ will be extended and applied to the case of the pitture infamanti in the early renaissance. Third, I will use these insights in a genealogical spirit in order to examine the rise of virtual marking in modernity. We will discover that Foucault was mistaken to tether marking punishments so closely to sovereign power. Instead, with certain antecedents in ancient Rome, virtual marking emerged in a largely ‘bourgeois’ society during the early renaissance and re-emerges in our own society of mass, photographic spectacle.
    January 07, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu105   open full text
  • Earning A Score: An Exploration of the Nature and Roles of Heroin and Crack Cocaine ‘User-Dealers’.
    Moyle, L., Coomber, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 07, 2015
    Research consistently shows a strong correlation between heroin/crack cocaine use, acquisitive crime and income generation, through activities such as sex work and theft. Less is known however about alternative choices of income generation such as small-scale drug supply. Drawing on data from interviews with 30 heroin and crack cocaine user-dealers in a city in South West England, this article explores the motivations, practices and roles undertaken by small-scale addicted suppliers who distribute drugs to other addicted users for the purpose of reproducing their own supply. Findings suggest that addicted user-dealers’ motivations are commonly different to those of commercially motivated suppliers, while their activities are perceived as a less harmful and a more convenient way of funding their drug dependency than other acquisitive crimes.
    January 07, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu087   open full text
  • Why Restorative Justice Will Not Reduce Incarceration.
    Wood, W. R.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 05, 2015
    Restorative justice goals are frequently articulated on micro, meso and macro levels. One macro-level goal frequently made by advocates is that restorative justice may serve as a viable means of reducing incarceration. Focusing on Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, this article argues that while these countries have seen some of the largest increases in incarceration within western industrialized countries, as well as the most widespread use of restorative justice, there is little evidence that restorative justice has reduced prison populations. It also argues that as currently practiced there is little reason to assume that restorative justice will have a significant impact on incarceration in the near future. Attention is given to the problem of the ‘transformation assumption’ inherent in restorative justice that micro-level changes in offender behaviours or restorative outcomes can significantly affect the larger social structures of punishment and incarceration.
    January 05, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu108   open full text
  • On the Relevance of Spatial and Temporal Dimensions in Assessing Computer Susceptibility to System Trespassing Incidents.
    Maimon, D., Wilson, T., Ren, W., Berenblum, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 05, 2015
    We employ knowledge regarding the early phases of system trespassing events and develop a context-related, theoretically driven study that explores computer networks’ social vulnerabilities to remote system trespassing events. Drawing on the routine activities perspective, we raise hypotheses regarding the role of victim client computers in determining the geographical origins and temporal trends of (1) successful password cracking attempts and (2) system trespassing incidents. We test our hypotheses by analyzing data collected from large sets of target computers, built for the sole purpose of being attacked, that were deployed in two independent research sites (China and Israel). Our findings have significant implications for cyber-criminological theory and research.
    January 05, 2015   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu104   open full text
  • A Crime Script Analysis of the Online Stolen Data Market.
    Hutchings, A., Holt, T. J.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 29, 2014
    The purpose of this study is to better understand the online black market economy, specifically relating to stolen data, using crime script analysis. Content analysis of 13 English- and Russian-speaking stolen data forums found that the different products and services offered enabled the commodification of stolen data. The marketplace offers a range of complementary products, from the supply of hardware and software to steal data, the sale of the stolen data itself, to the provision of services to turn data into money, such as drops, cashiers and money laundering. The crime script analysis provides some insight into how the actors in these forums interact, and the actions they perform, from setting up software to finalizing transactions and exiting the marketplace.
    December 29, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu106   open full text
  • Urban Policy, City Control and Social Catharsis: The Attack on Social Frailty as Therapy.
    Atkinson, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 29, 2014
    Urban policies have increasingly been ‘criminalised’ as regeneration, public housing management and homelessness programmes have been aligned with the aims of criminal justice and anti-social behaviour measures. In this article, policies that tackle problem places, people and behaviours are interpreted as expressions of social anger and fear that are made tangible via periodic attacks on social marginality. Case examples are offered in which urban policies appear as a kind of social catharsis or exorcizing of fear/anxiety. Such urban policies appear to construct social vulnerability as a threat that thereby helps to trigger interventions that might help realize goals of urban renewal and release from worries about criminality and urban social decline. This model of control and policymaking is developed by drawing on the emotional energies at the heart of cultural criminology and critical perspectives taken from contemporary urban studies.
    December 29, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu101   open full text
  • Capote’s Ghosts: Violence, Media and the Spectre of Suspicion.
    Linnemann, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 29, 2014
    In 1959, on the Kansas high plains, two ex-convict drifters fell upon a defenseless farm family, slaying them ‘in cold blood’. As the subject of a book widely regarded as the first of the modern true crime genre—Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood— the murdered and murderers live on in the spectral, haunting the minds of the public as the horrors of random crimes and senseless violence. Paying close attention to the cultural production of both the present and absent, this paper considers how violence haunts commonplace geographies and the imaginations of everyday actors, through the lens of banal crime reporting and celebrated true crime novels. Doing so, it offers unique context and insight into the production of suspect identities and the social insecurities that underpin everyday life.
    December 29, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu098   open full text
  • Enlisting the Public in the Policing of Immigration.
    Aliverti, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 27, 2014
    As border policing is no longer circumscribed to external borders and increasingly performed inland, in Britain migration work relies on the assistance of a range of unorthodox partners, including the public. The unearthing of the ‘community’ as a crucial partner to police a myriad of public safety issues, including migration, begs the question of what are the implications of mobilizing citizenship for law enforcement? This paper argues that enlisting the public in migration law enforcement yields important civic by-products: it ‘creates’ citizens and citizenship. It imparts civic training by instilling a sense of civic responsibility in law and order maintenance, and in doing so it intends to recreate social cohesion across a deeply fragmented society.
    December 27, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu102   open full text
  • Neutralization Without Drift: Criminal Commitment Among Persistent Offenders.
    Jacobs, B. A., Copes, H.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 12, 2014
    Prior research suggests that serious predatory offenders are sufficiently committed to illicit conduct that they must neutralize good behaviour, rather than bad behaviour. Drawing from a sample of offenders who commit carjacking, we question that assumption. Specifically, our data reveal the manner in which such offenders neutralize bad conduct without meaningfully drifting. The notion of ‘neutralization without drift’ represents a theoretical refinement of neutralization theory and an extension of core conceptualization in the interpretation of criminal commitment. Through this concept, we attempt to make sense of how persistent predatory offenders who commit carjacking are able to embrace aggression, explain that it’s not ‘really them’, neutralize bad rather than good conduct, yet retain their status as committed criminals.
    December 12, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu100   open full text
  • Gender, Aging and Drug Use: A Post-Structural Approach to the Life Course.
    Lander, I.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 05, 2014
    This article focuses on the ageing process among drug-using women, proceeded on the basis of a critical post-structural approach to the life course (Holstein and Gubrium 2000; Halberstam 2005; Ahmed 2006; Mattsson 2014). The objective is to provide an alternative perspective on the life course to that which dominates current criminology. This perspective challenges prevailing norms and conceptions regarding the other, and in doing so focuses the analysis on the social mechanisms that lie behind social exclusion, crime and drug use. By means of the retrospective narratives of 4 women, who describe a rambling journey along crooked paths on the margins of the welfare state, the article reveals the nature of prevailing norms and conceptions regarding ageing, gender and drug use.
    December 05, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu099   open full text
  • Cultural and Institutional Adaptation and Change in Europe: A Test of Institutional Anomie Theory Using Time Series Modelling of Homicide Data.
    Dolliver, D. S.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 01, 2014
    This study examined whether geographic differences in intentional homicide rates in Europe were a function of societies that exhibit Anomic cultural tendencies and an institutional imbalance, as guided by Institutional Anomie Theory. This research is temporally sensitive, taking into account these differences over a 15-year time period. Additionally, separate operations of the theory within developed and transitioning countries were tested, and various cultural–institutional configurations were uncovered that led to increases or decreases in homicide rates. While still restricted by a lack of guidance from Messner and Rosenfeld and inconsistency in past research on how to operationalize key concepts of Institutional Anomie Theory, this study significantly contributes to the literature by assessing core theoretical questions of the theory while employing appropriate measurement strategies.
    December 01, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu092   open full text
  • On the Correlates of Reporting Assault to the Police in Malawi.
    Sidebottom, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 01, 2014
    It is well known that many victims of crime do not notify the police. Research suggests that factors related to the victim, crime event and wider community are all implicated in the decision to report victimization. Few studies have investigated the correlates of victim reporting in developing countries, mainly owing to a lack of relevant data. It is therefore unclear whether the determinants of victim reporting in Western industrialized countries are generalizable to low-income developing settings. This paper explores the factors associated with victims reporting assault to the police in the African context of Malawi, using data from a nationally representative household survey. Results of a multilevel logistic regression indicate some similarities with the Western criminological literature, such as age of the victim and crime seriousness positively correlating with crime reporting. Other results seem to reflect the distinctive characteristics of Malawi, with victims more likely to report being assaulted if they are male, have access to a working phone or live in urban areas. The results illustrate the importance of studying criminological phenomena across a diverse range of settings. Implications of the findings for future research and crime prevention are discussed.
    December 01, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu083   open full text
  • Half a Story? Missing Perspectives in the Criminological Accounts of British Muslim Communities, Crime and the Criminal Justice System.
    Hargreaves, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 30, 2014
    An examination of recent scholarly criminological literature concerning British Muslim reveals dominant discursive themes of victimization, discrimination and demonization and a highly politicized discourse, often rhetorical in nature and seldom supported by empirical evidence. Where such evidence is adduced, criminologists rely predominantly on limited qualitative research designs and small non-representative sample sizes. This article presents analysis of British Crime Survey/Crime Survey of England and Wales data and argues that quantitative findings highlight the need for a more nuanced criminological picture of British Muslim communities. It is argued that criminologists should place renewed focus on household crime, the effects of socio-economic factors, crimes involving non-physical forms of violence and Muslim respondents who report positive attitudes towards the police.
    November 30, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu091   open full text
  • Officers and Drug Counsellors: New Occupational Identities in Nordic Prisons.
    Kolind, T., Frank, V. A., Lindberg, O., Tourunen, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 13, 2014
    Increasingly, prison drug treatment is introduced in European prisons. This increase may begin to change the prison as officers and drug counsellors are given new occupational responsibilities. Based on six month of observational studies and qualitative interviews with 104 prison employees in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway in 12 prisons, this article investigates the practices and values of drug counsellors and officers. This shows that increasingly, counsellors integrate the control and disciplinary sanctions of the prison environment into their treatment approach. Simultaneously, officers working in drug treatment wings highlight the importance of the treatment ethos in their control work, adjusting the social representations of their professional identities accordingly. We discuss whether the concepts of treatment and control should be rethought.
    November 13, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu088   open full text
  • An Australian Indigenous-Focussed Justice Response to Intimate Partner Violence: Offenders’ Perceptions of the Sentencing Process.
    Marchetti, E.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 12, 2014
    This article draws on research conducted over the past four years on the use of Indigenous sentencing courts in Australia for sentencing Indigenous offenders of intimate partner violence (IPV). It presents interview findings of offenders’ perceptions of justice of a sentencing process that involves the participation of Elders and Community Representatives, as moral and cultural guides. This study concludes that the vast majority of interview participants found an Indigenous sentencing court process is fairer than a mainstream sentencing court process despite the fact that it is more challenging and confronting facing Elders and Community Representatives when being sentenced for an IPV offence. Their respect for Elders and Community Representatives, and the respect afforded to Elders and Community Representatives by the mainstream criminal justice system created a forum that both ‘shamed’ and supported the offenders in ways that reflected cultural values and norms.
    November 12, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu089   open full text
  • Social Structure and Bonhomie: Emotions in the Youth Street Gang.
    Moran, K.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 12, 2014
    Scholars have overlooked the significance of emotion in motivating participation in deviant subcultures. Youth subcultures, particularly those of lower or working class provenance, emerge as an ongoing attempt to manage and mitigate structurally produced feelings of shame, by converting this sense of devaluation into pride. Using the youth street gang as a case study, this article gives greater precision to this emotional conversionary process, arguing that gangs transpose ambient parent culture of solidarity into subcultural emphasis on self and group affirming loyalty. Thus, espirit de corps, a central and vivifying value within youth street gangs, is magnified and maintained via group symbolic praxis and expressive violence. Moreover, youth street gang culture protects this emotional conversionary process from iatrogenic threats, i.e. injury, prison, the death of others, by subsuming potentially negative consequences within this subcultural system.
    November 12, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu085   open full text
  • Policing Humanitarian Borderlands: Frontex, Human Rights and the Precariousness of Life.
    Aas, K. F., Gundhus, H. O. I.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 09, 2014
    The article critically examines the peculiar co-existence of the securitization of the border and the growing presence and prominence of human rights and humanitarian ideals in border policing practices. Concretely, it focuses on Frontex, the agency tasked with management of EU’s external borders. Based on interviews with Frontex officials and border guard officers, and on the analysis of relevant policy documents and official reports, the article explores what may come across as a discrepancy between the organization’s activities and its public self-presentation. The objective is to provide an insight into the complex and volatile relationship between policing and human rights, which marks contemporary migration control as well as mundane forms of professional and personal self-understanding.
    November 09, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu086   open full text
  • ‘So now I’m the man’: Intimate partner femicide and its interconnections with expressions of masculinities in South Africa.
    Mathews, S., Jewkes, R., Abrahams, N.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 30, 2014
    Intimate femicide, the killing of a woman by an intimate partner, is the leading cause of female murder in South Africa. Research on men who kill in South Africa has highlighted the psychological damage caused by exposure to severe adversity in childhood, but this alone does not explain the gendered context of these murders. This article presents analyses from in-depth interviews with 20 incarcerated men who killed their partners and explores their views on and relationships with women. We show that the men sought to perform exaggerated versions of predominant ideals of masculinity, emphasizing an extreme control of and dominance over women. We show killing as an ultimate means of taking back control in a context where gendered relationships legitimize men’s use of violence to assert power and control. Interventions to prevent intimate femicide need to be highly cognisant of the gendered context.
    October 30, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu076   open full text
  • The 2011 English ‘Riots’: Prosecutorial Zeal and Judicial Abandon.
    Lightowlers, C., Quirk, H.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 18, 2014
    Much attention has focussed on the severity of the sentences imposed following the 2011 ‘summer rioting’ in England. The Court of Appeal confirmed that participation in a collective outbreak of disorder takes offending outside the sentencing guidelines. The position for sentencing riot-related offending in future is unclear, however, as the Court gave no indication of how to calibrate this departure, and the Sentencing Council has made offending during public disorder an aggravating factor only in its burglary guideline. This article explores new empirical evidence regarding the sentences imposed in Manchester, together with national Ministry of Justice data, to demonstrate for the first time how this ‘uplift’ effect was a feature throughout the criminal process, from arrest to sentence.
    October 18, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu081   open full text
  • The Mis-Synchronization of Juvenile Reform.
    Rajah, V., Kramer, R., Sung, H.-E.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 18, 2014
    In the United States, juvenile rehabilitation programs have moved towards ‘risk-needs’ models, which not only assess risks of recidivism, but also address young peoples’ needs. While laudable for their responsiveness, we argue ‘risk-needs’ models are based on a series of beliefs concerning time and/or temporality that are inconsistent with the social locations and life experiences of young offenders. Based on observations and interview data collected from young male prisoners participating in a cognitive-treatment program, we argue that the temporal lessons that imprisoned youth learn, which are often inapplicable to their post-release lives, may limit the effectiveness of efforts to rehabilitate juvenile offenders. Study implications are discussed.
    October 18, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu058   open full text
  • State-Directed Sterilizations in North Carolina: Victim-Centredness and Reparations.
    Brightman, S., Lenning, E., McElrath, K.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 17, 2014
    Thirty-three states in the United States implemented eugenic sterilization laws during the 20th century, and an estimated 65,000 US residents underwent coerced sterilization via state policies. In North Carolina, 7,528 individuals were targeted for state-led sterilization between 1929 and 1974. The majority of these individuals were women, impoverished and officially classified as ‘feeble-minded’. We argue that the sterilizations constituted serious violations of human rights largely due to state exploitation of already marginalized people, lack of consent and limited due process that accompanied sterilization orders. In this article, we analyze textual data from state proceedings that focused on reparations, and find considerable power differentials that placed sterilization victims at the margins rather than at the centre of the reparation process.
    October 17, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu082   open full text
  • Expanding The Community: An Exploratory Analysis of an American Parole Office’s Location and its Impact on Parolees.
    Shah, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 16, 2014
    Numerous scholars study the effect of former prisoners’ neighbourhood on reintegration; few discuss how the geographic aspects of a community can impact the relationships within that community. This lack of discussion is particularly interesting for understanding the American parole system, as there seems to be no discussion of how the neighbourhood context of a parole office’s location impacts the relationships within. In this article, I argue the look, feel and location of a parole office may affect the parolee/parole agent relationship, which may in turn affect parole’s role in the reintegration process, and that we need to continue expanding criminological understandings of community and geography beyond where one lives and of how geographic and relational communities are connected.
    October 16, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu080   open full text
  • ‘Such Misconducts Don’t Make a Good Ranger’: Examining Law Enforcement Ranger Wrongdoing in Uganda.
    Moreto, W. D., Brunson, R. K., Braga, A. A.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 16, 2014
    Wildlife crime has been recognized to be an important topic of study by criminologists in recent years. Prior research has highlighted the detrimental impact of corruption on conservation-related issues. Law enforcement rangers are often the primary protectors of protected areas and wildlife. Yet, like other law enforcement agents, they are not immune to misconduct and corruption. The present study offers an in-depth examination of rangers’ experiences with and perceptions of wrongdoing in a specific Ugandan protected area. Findings indicate that ranger wrongdoing is driven by a myriad of factors and manifests in various ways. These findings have implications for the understanding and prevention of ranger misconduct.
    October 16, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu079   open full text
  • The 2011 England Riots in Recent Historical Perspective.
    Newburn, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 16, 2014
    The riots of 2011 arguably represent the most significant civil disorder on the British mainland in at least a generation. Over four days, there were five deaths, injuries to dozens of police officers and civilians and damage to property running into the tens of millions of pounds. Commentators writing in the aftermath of the riots have pointed both to what are taken to be unusual aspects of the 2011 disorders—the role of gangs, the nature and extent of looting and use of social media among others—as well as some of the parallels with previous riots. In placing the 2011 riots in their recent historical context, this article outlines a model for structuring comparative analysis of disorder and then moves on to consider some of the similarities between 2011 and riots in the post-war period, concluding by identifying four significant points of departure.
    October 16, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu074   open full text
  • An examination of the local life circumstances of female offenders: Mothering, illegal earnings, and drug use.
    Yule, C., Pare, P.&ndash;P., Gartner, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 15, 2014
    Most women convicted of crime are mothers, yet we know little about whether the daily activity of mothering affects women’s criminal behaviour. If mothering reduces opportunities to engage in crime, strengthens informal controls and increases the costs of crime, it should discourage offending. On the other hand, if children create an imperative for resources that women cannot accommodate legally or exacerbate psychological and emotional strains, women may resort to criminal behaviour. Using data from interviews with 259 incarcerated women in Ontario, Canada, we estimate multi-level models focussing on month-to-month changes in women’s responsibilities for children and their offending. We find that mothering is an important ‘local life circumstance’ for reducing women’s involvement in criminal activities.
    October 15, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu073   open full text
  • What makes long crime trips worth undertaking? Balancing costs and benefits in burglars’ journey to crime.
    Vandeviver, C., Van Daele, S., Vander Beken, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 14, 2014
    This study taps into rational choice theory and scrutinizes the assumption that profit maximization and effort minimization govern decisions related to burglary behaviour and the journey to crime. It treats distance as one of the major costs in the burglary target selection process and uses community characteristics to gain insight into how the anticipation of particular benefits favours the incremental costs of long crime trips. Two thousand three hundred and eighty-seven burglary trips were extracted from police records and analyzed using negative binomial regression analysis. The journey-to-crime distance was found to increase when burglaries were committed in communities containing motorways, dense road networks, and being ethnically heterogeneous. The journey-to-crime distance was found to decrease when densely populated areas and communities with high clearance rates are targeted.
    October 14, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu078   open full text
  • Transforming ‘Summary Justice’ Through Police-Led Prosecution and ‘Virtual Courts’.
    Ward, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 08, 2014
    The administration of ‘summary’ justice in the lower criminal courts in England and Wales is undergoing significant transformation. Broadly, this sits within the desire to create a modernized and more streamlined system. But, criminal justice scholars state ‘swift justice’ is not necessarily fair justice, and ‘procedural due process’ might be challenged by objectives of economics and speed. This paper centres on two areas of change—the expanded role of the police in prosecutorial decision making and the introduction of ‘virtual courts’ where accused defendants appear via video link from police stations to the criminal courts. It is argued these two alterations call into question fundamental principles of procedural due process.
    October 08, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu077   open full text
  • ‘My Life is Separated’.
    Dennison, S., Smallbone, H., Stewart, A., Freiberg, K., Teague, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 22, 2014
    Paternal imprisonment creates a significant risk for the intergenerational transmission of offending. However, there is little research on the mechanisms underpinning this risk, including how paternal imprisonment interrupts parenting and father–child relationships. Culturally relevant research is also essential in the context of high imprisonment rates of Indigenous Australian men. We conducted interviews with 41 Indigenous Australian fathers from two prisons in North Queensland to examine their identities as fathers in prison and the barriers associated with maintaining relationships with their children. Findings are discussed in relation to contact and distance; intergenerational absence of fathers; paternal involvement through play, care and culture; and diminished opportunities for men’s parental and cultural generativity. We consider the implications of the findings for children’s well-being.
    September 22, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu072   open full text
  • Corruption and Police Legitimacy in Lahore, Pakistan.
    Jackson, J., Asif, M., Bradford, B., Zakria Zakar, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 16, 2014
    Police legitimacy is an important topic of criminological research, yet it has received only sporadic study in societies where there is widespread police corruption, where the position of the police is less secure, and where social order is more tenuous. Analysing data from a probability sample survey of adults in Lahore, Pakistan, we examine the empirical links between people’s experience of police corruption, their perceptions of the fairness and effectiveness of the police, and their beliefs about the legitimacy of the police. Our findings suggest that in a context in which minimal effectiveness and integrity is yet to be established, police legitimacy may rest not just on the procedural fairness of officers, but also on their demonstrated ability to control crime and avoid corruption.
    September 16, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu069   open full text
  • Post-Crisis Policing and Public–Private Partnerships.
    White, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 16, 2014
    The post-financial crisis ‘politics of austerity’ have prompted many police forces to explore a range of radical new budget-reducing policies, including outsourcing key service areas to the private sector on an unprecedented scale. This article analyses the largest outsourcing contract to date: the £229 million Lincolnshire Police–G4S strategic partnership. It addresses the question: to what extent has the outsourcing process engendered a shift from the logic of the public good to the logic of the market in the delivery of those frontline operations covered in the contract? In arguing that these operations are characterized more by a complex blurring of logics than a straightforward unidirectional shift, the article contributes towards both explanatory and normative dimensions of the ‘transformation of policing’ debate.
    September 16, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu063   open full text
  • Craft(y)ness.
    Steinmetz, K. F.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 14, 2014
    The idea of the ‘hacker’ is a contested concept both inside and outside the hacker community, including academia. Addressing such contestation the current study uses ethnographic field research and content analysis to create a grounded understanding of ‘the hacker’. In doing so, hacking is revealed to parallel features found in craftwork, often sharing (1) a particular mentality, (2) an emphasis on skill, (3) a sense of ownership over tools and objects of labour, (4) guild-like social and learning structures, (5) a deep sense of commitment, (6) an emphasis on process over result, (7) a common phenomenological experience, and (8) tendencies towards transgression. The final result is that hacking is identified as a kind of transgressive craft or craft(y).
    September 14, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu061   open full text
  • Civilised Communities.
    Griffiths, C. E.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 09, 2014
    Immigration and its effects on crime, social disorder and community tensions remains a pervasive feature of public, government and academic discourse. This discourse often considers immigration, and immigrants themselves, as a threat to the community’s existing moral and social order. This article presents the findings of a case study that used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the experiences of social order following a recent wave of Polish migration in a small working class town in the North West of England. The key findings show that the assumed association of migration with a disruption to social order receives little support. Rather, the social order in the studied locale is predominantly managed and maintained through ‘civilised relationships’ between migrants and established residents, thus failing to culminate into conflict between the two groups. This situation of ‘civility’ provides an alternative to the preponderance of previous research telling a ‘gloomy tale’ of immigration and its impact on local communities.
    September 09, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu064   open full text
  • Criminologizing Wrongful Convictions.
    Naughton, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 02, 2014
    This article considers the apparent lack of serious engagement with issues pertaining to wrongful convictions by criminology at present. It seeks to address this by criminologizing wrongful convictions in two senses: firstly, by highlighting a variety of forms of intentional law or rule breaking by police officers and prosecutors in the causation of wrongful convictions that in other circumstances would likely be treated as crime and dealt with as such; and, secondly, to reveal the extent to which such powerful criminal justice system agents can cause profound and wide-ranging forms of harm to victims of wrongful convictions, their families and society as a whole with almost total impunity. In so doing, the relevance of the study of the intentional forms of crime and deviance committed by criminal justice system agents in the manufacture of wrongful convictions to both arms of the criminological divide is emphasized: mainstream and critical criminology. The overall aim is to show that the study of wrongful convictions can further extend and enrich existing criminological epistemology in vital and important ways and can even contribute to the prevention and possible elimination of those that are caused deliberately.
    September 02, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu060   open full text
  • A Shared Narrative?
    Hearty, K.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 27, 2014
    This article critically examines the difficulty with creating a shared narrative in post-conflict Northern Ireland. Using the legacy of policing as a case study for drawing more general conclusions about creating a shared narrative, the article interrogates how disagreement over where to start and end the discussion and exclusivist approaches to victimhood are obstructing attainment of a shared narrative. The article analyses competing policing narratives as constructed from the lived reality of opposing ethno-nationalist collectives with different experiences in a heated ‘memory politics’ domain. Concluding with the argument that the prerequisite to successfully building a shared narrative is departure from competing ‘memory politics’ understandings of the past, the article suggests a new understanding of victimhood and perpetratorship in Northern Ireland.
    August 27, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu062   open full text
  • Social Mobility and Crime: Evidence from a Total Birth Cohort.
    Savolainen, J., Aaltonen, M., Merikukka, M., Paananen, R., Gissler, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 19, 2014
    This research examined intergenerational educational mobility as an antecedent of criminal offending. Anomie theory and the general theory of crime assume an inverse association between intergenerational mobility and criminal behaviour. In addition, Moffitt’s taxonomic theory and general strain theory expect intergenerational continuity in low educational attainment to be especially criminogenic. We examined the hypothesized associations with total birth cohort data from Finland. The results suggest that neither downward nor upward mobility is an important correlate of crime. For most individuals, the educational background of the family of origin was unrelated to offending net of personal attainment. As an important exception, parents’ educational attainment buffered the strong positive association between offspring educational marginalization and crime. Among those who did not pursue education beyond comprehensive school, having a parent with minimal educational credentials doubled the risk of serious offending compared with those with university-educated parents. Evidence from multivariate analysis suggests that this interaction effect is related to family adversity and psychological risk characteristics.
    August 19, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu057   open full text
  • The Dynamic Risk of Heavy Episodic Drinking on Interpersonal Assault in Young Adolescence and Early Adulthood.
    Lightowlers, C., Elliot, M., Tranmer, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 18, 2014
    This study examines the extent to which variation in violent behaviour can be explained by variation in drinking patterns in late adolescence and early adulthood using panel data of regular drinkers aged between 16 and 29 in England and Wales. Multilevel models explore individuals’ propensity to commit assault controlling for their drinking behaviour. Results suggest that males and younger people are more likely to commit assault offences and that around 60 per cent of the variation in assault is between people, the remainder being within people between occasions. Heavy episodic drinking is a significant predictor of assault in all models. Collectively, the findings point to a periodic association between drinking patterns and violent outcomes, supporting evidence of other forms of contemporaneous association.
    August 18, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu055   open full text
  • The Cultural Idiosyncrasy of Penal Populism.
    Li, E.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 18, 2014
    This article explores the socio-cultural divergences of penal populism in a Chinese context. It examines whether penal populism has become an influence on shaping China’s punishment after the Maoist era. By tracing the trends in criminal justice and penal policy over the last three decades, it argues that China has developed a relatively weak version of penal populism compared to a commonly understood form of this conception in some western democracies. Although China’s social and cultural conditions seem to be conducive to the rise of penal populism, this penal force can be easily submerged by political will and blocked by bureaucratic power. Penal populism has a limited impact on penal development in contemporary China.
    August 18, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu059   open full text
  • Are All Cases Treated Equal?: Using Goffman’s Frame Analysis to Understand How Homicide Detectives Orient to Their Work.
    Hawk, S. R., Dabney, D. A.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 11, 2014
    Drawing upon ethnographic data from one US metropolitan police department’s homicide unit, this study employs Goffman’s frame analysis to explore two questions: (1) What types of cases are prioritized in homicide investigations? and (2) How are those prioritizations operationalized and justified? Themes within the data suggest that although detectives struggle to ‘work every case the same’, their approach and effort on cases is nonetheless influenced largely by unit culture and perceptions of victim deservedness. Furthermore, we demonstrate that framing techniques enable investigators to compartmentalize and manage the emotional strain of deprioritizing some homicides while rigorously investigating other cases. These findings add to our understanding of the administration of homicide work, theorize the moral complexities of said work and point to frame analysis as a potentially useful framework for crime researchers.
    August 11, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu056   open full text
  • Internet Adoption and Online Behaviour Among American Street Gangs.
    Moule, R. K., Pyrooz, D. C., Decker, S. H.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 06, 2014
    The globalization of street gangs has drawn attention to the mechanisms associated with the diffusion of gang culture. One mechanism, the Internet, is of growing interest to gang researchers. Yet, research on the online behaviours of street gangs remains descriptive, failing to elaborate on the factors that distinguish gangs that adopt, or do not adopt, technology and engage in online behaviours. The present study integrates insights from organizational theory to examine whether and to what extent gang organization influences the online presence and behaviour of gangs. Using data collected from gang members in five US cities, the results from a series of logistic and Poisson regression models indicate that higher levels of gang organization increase the likelihood that gangs have a website, post videos and recruit members online. Results support integrating research on gang behaviour with organizational theory. Directions for future research on the relationship between gang organization and offending are discussed.
    August 06, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu050   open full text
  • Is the ‘Shadow of Sexual Assault’ Responsible for Women’s Higher Fear of Burglary?
    Hirtenlehner, H., Farrall, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 02, 2014
    This article examines the ‘shadow of sexual assault hypothesis’ which posits that women’s higher fear of crime, compared to males, can be attributed to their elevated fear of sexual victimization. We argue that the previous, overwhelmingly supportive, research on this issue is incomplete in three ways: (1) the thesis has not yet been extensively tested outside of North America, (2) competing, possibly overlaying, shadow effects of physical violence have widely been ignored and (3) perceptually contemporaneous offences have always been measured in an indirect manner. Drawing on the example of fear of burglary, this work tackles the afore-mentioned deficiencies. Results from a crime survey conducted in the United Kingdom indicate that, when relying on a rather traditional test strategy, the ‘shadow of sexual assault hypothesis’ is supported. However, the findings are highly contingent on the employed methodology. When utilizing direct measures of perceptually contemporaneous offences, only physical, not sexual, assault turns out to cast a shadow over fear of burglary. The impact of fear of rape would appear to be reduced considerably once fear of broader physical harm is taken into account. We conclude that much of the existing evidence for the shadow thesis can be challenged on the grounds of failing to control for the effects of non-sexual physical assault and drawing on an inadequate operationalization of perceptually contemporaneous offences.
    August 02, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu054   open full text
  • Self-legitimacy, Police Culture and Support for Democratic Policing in an English Constabulary.
    Bradford, B., Quinton, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 28, 2014
    When do police officers feel confident in their own authority? What factors influence their sense of their own legitimacy? What is the effect of such ‘self-legitimacy’ on the way they think about policing? This article addresses these questions using a survey of police officers working in an English Constabulary. We find that the most powerful predictor of officers’ confidence in their own authority is identification with their organization, itself something strongly associated with perceptions of the procedural justice of senior management. A greater sense of self-legitimacy is in turn linked to greater commitment to democratic modes of policing. Finally, we find that this sense of legitimacy is embedded in a matrix of identities and cultural adaptations within the police organization.
    July 28, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu053   open full text
  • Similar Punishment?
    Bond, C. E. W., Jeffries, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 14, 2014
    Despite shifts in Western liberal democracies towards stronger criminal justice responses to domestic violence, the issue of sentencing disparity between domestic and non-domestic violence offending cases remains largely neglected. Using a population of cases sentenced in the New South Wales (Australia) lower courts between January 2009 and June 2012, we report multivariate analyses of the sentencing of domestic violence and non-domestic violence offences. Results show that when sentenced under statistically similar circumstances, domestic violence offenders are less likely than those convicted of crimes outside of domestic contexts to be sentenced to prison although the substantive impact is small. Further, of those imprisoned, domestic violence offenders receive significantly shorter sentenced terms. Our findings also suggest that, for domestic violence offences, there may be a ‘punishment cost’ to being older, male and Indigenous. The role of outmoded stereotypical assumptions around domestic violence in sentencing decision making is discussed.
    July 14, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu034   open full text
  • What is Policeness? On being police in Somalia.
    Hills, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 13, 2014
    This article uses the notion of policeness to explore the essence of what police are, what makes for a police and what makes it recognized as such. Western ideas of police are based on a specific understanding of what a police organization is, but this is not necessarily the case in the global South. Based on the experience of Somalia’s police forces, it appears that while there is something universally distinctive about police organizations, police are best understood as a project reflecting political and social processes within unequal fields of power. Ultimately, policeness, which alludes to the symbolic and coercive functions associated with police, is a matter of perception.
    July 13, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu049   open full text
  • The Protector’s Choice.
    Shortland, A., Varese, F.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 09, 2014
    What explains the variation in piracy along the coasts of Somalia? We answer this question by drawing upon Protection Theory and a new data set of piracy incidents. First, we make a distinction between pirates and protectors of piracy (authorities and local clans). We show that authorities offer shelter and protection to pirates in areas remote from trade routes and when they face challenges over political control. Theoretically, the paper identifies the moment when a protector decides to switch from protecting crime to protecting legitimate trading activities; it also highlights a preserve effect of electoral democracy in unstable contexts, namely the strong incentives to rely on organized criminals to fund electoral competition and secessionist aspirations. We conclude by offering comparative remarks on the trajectory of the nation-building project in Somalia and suggest that building infrastructures, fostering regional trade and more generally providing alternative sources of income to local communities is the best way to fight piracy.
    July 09, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu046   open full text
  • Imagined Communities and the Death Penalty in Britain, 1930–65.
    Seal, L.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 05, 2014
    Based on research into qualitative responses to capital punishment in mid twentieth-century Britain, this article examines how letter writers to the Home Office constructed imagined communities in relation to capital cases. It uncovers a shift in these responses from creating respectable, local communities in the period 1930–45, when most letter writers had a personal connection to the condemned, to the creation of the imagined national community from the late 1940s onwards, when most correspondents in relation to high profile cases were not connected to the condemned. These post-war letters reveal how meanings of Britishness, particularly in relation to the important symbol of ‘British justice’, were negotiated in relation to capital punishment.
    July 05, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu045   open full text
  • Becoming a Desister.
    Healy, D.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 03, 2014
    It is thought that agency plays an important role in the transition from the identity of ‘offender’ to ‘ex-offender’. Yet, despite a growing theoretical literature, little is known about how people use agency in their interactions with the social world to achieve valued goals. This article aims to (1) establish whether agentic action is facilitated by the ability to imagine a credible new self and (2) investigate the situational coping mechanisms that desisters use to overcome barriers to change and achieve meaningful lives. It presents the results of an exploratory study which involved in-depth interviews with a sample of adult men who were in the process of desisting from crime. The results suggested that the ability to imagine a credible future self was associated with agency, coping and well-being.
    July 03, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu048   open full text
  • Hate Crime Victimization in Wales.
    Williams, M. L., Tregidga, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 01, 2014
    This paper presents findings from the All Wales Hate Crime Project. Most hate crime research has focused on discrete victim types in isolation. For the first time, internationally, this paper examines the psychological and physical impacts of hate crime across seven victim types drawing on quantitative and qualitative data. It contributes to the hate crime debate in two significant ways: (1) it provides the first look at the problem in Wales and (2) it provides the first multi-victim-type analysis of hate crime, showing that impacts are not homogenous across victim groups. The paper provides empirical credibility to the impacts felt by hate crime victims on the margins who have routinely struggled to gain support.
    July 01, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu043   open full text
  • Extra-Legal Protection in China.
    Wang, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 01, 2014
    This paper incorporates the concept of guanxi—a Chinese version of personal connections, networks or social capital—into the discussion of police corruption and the rise of extra-legal protectors. Using published materials and fieldwork data collected from two Chinese cities (Chongqing and Qufu), it demonstrates how guanxi distorts China’s legal system by facilitating the buying and selling of public offices and promoting the formation of corrupt networks between locally based criminals and government officials. China’s weak legal framework encourages individuals and entrepreneurs to employ guanxi networks to obtain private protection from alternative suppliers (e.g. corrupt government officials and street gangsters) in order to protect property rights, facilitate transactions and fend off government extortion.
    July 01, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu041   open full text
  • Brooding Over the Dark Figure of Crime.
    de Castelbajac, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 27, 2014
    There was nothing inevitable about the emergence of the British Crime Survey. This article shows how the dark-figure metaphor was popularized in England, and how some of its notable promoters used it as an argument against victim surveys. It then focuses on two strategic sites for criminological research in England during the late 1960s and 1970s, the Cambridge Institute of Criminology and the Home Office. Despite some internal division, both institutions rejected early proposals for victim surveys. The first attempt to replicate victim surveys in England was almost thwarted by censors in the Institute and the ministry. The relevance of this historical process for the present criminological scene is discussed in the final section.
    June 27, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu047   open full text
  • Social Solidarity, Penal Evolution and Probation.
    McNeill, F., Dawson, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 27, 2014
    Compared to the sociology of the prison, the sociology of probation has been much neglected. In Europe and the United States, that neglect is beginning to be addressed by a number of scholars, both empirically and conceptually. Where these scholars have looked to the founding figures in the sociology of punishment, they have tended to examine probation through a Foucauldian or Marxist lens. This paper takes a different direction, re-examining Durkheim’s ideas about social solidarity and penal evolution to try to offer some analytical resources for making sense of probation’s historical development and contemporary struggles. In so doing, we hope to illustrate both the continuing value of Durkheimian analyses of penality and the need to extend such analyses beyond the prison. More broadly, we aim to briefly illustrate and to stimulate new cultural analyses of probation’s historical emergence and contemporary adaptations.
    June 27, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu042   open full text
  • The Crime Triangle of Kidnapping for Ransom Incidents in Colombia, South America.
    Pires, S. F., Guerette, R. T., Stubbert, C. H.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 23, 2014
    Crime science research over the last few decades has shown that crime tends to concentrate, most notably spatially and temporally. These and other concentrations oriented by the crime triangle (victims, offenders and places) offer important implications for the development of effective prevention initiatives. Yet, these findings have mostly been derived from analysis of conventional domestic crimes leaving questions as to whether similar patterning occurs among less studied crime types, such as kidnappings. This study examined 9,696 kidnapping incidents (2002–2011) in Colombia, South America, to see whether kidnappings for ransom exhibit similar concentrations according to the crime triangle framework. Results suggest that kidnappings indeed have spatio-temporal and other concentrations, which could be used to guide policy makers and policing organizations in the formulation of strategic preventive action, rather than relying on reactive efforts after kidnapping incidents have already occurred.
    June 23, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu044   open full text
  • Temple Looting in Cambodia.
    Mackenzie, S., Davis, T.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 13, 2014
    Qualitative empirical studies of the illicit antiquities trade have tended to focus either on the supply end, through interviews with looters, or on the demand end, through interviews with dealers, museums and collectors. Trafficking of artefacts across borders from source to market has until now been something of an evidential black hole. Here, we present the first empirical study of a statue trafficking network, using oral history interviews conducted during ethnographic criminology fieldwork in Cambodia and Thailand. The data begin to answer many of the pressing but unresolved questions in academic studies of this particular criminal market, such as whether organized crime is involved in antiquities looting and trafficking (yes), whether the traffic in looted artefacts overlaps with the insertion of fakes into the market (yes) and how many stages there are between looting at source and the placing of objects for public sale in internationally respected venues (surprisingly few).
    June 13, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu038   open full text
  • We Need to Talk About Mohammad.
    Cottee, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 10, 2014
    On 2 November 2004, Mohammad Bouyeri murdered the Dutch film-maker Theo Van Gogh. At his trial, Bouyeri proclaimed that he acted out of a religious duty. Van Gogh’s killing provoked fierce debate in the Netherlands over its meaning and significance and once again the question of violent religious fundamentalism came to dominate public discourse across Europe and beyond, just as it had in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. Criminologists, however, have largely neglected the issue of jihadi violence and the broader question it raises of the relationship between religion and violent activism. This article critiques this neglect. It also offers an account of Van Gogh’s murder, using Jock Young’s later work as a starting point for an interdisciplinary analysis of its possible meanings and motivations.
    June 10, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu037   open full text
  • Fieldwork, Biography and Emotion.
    Wakeman, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 04, 2014
    This article presents an introductory yet critical overview of autoethnographic research in criminological contexts. Drawing on experiences of participant observation with heroin and crack cocaine users and dealers, as a former user and dealer of these drugs myself, the article demonstrates how the domains of fieldwork, biography and the emotions intersect to render clear a progressive account of heroin addiction. However, this is offset against some negative occurrences directly reducible to doing ethnography where biographical congruence exists between the researcher and the researched. Ultimately, it is argued here that an increased consideration of the self—biographically and emotionally—both permits and facilitates the presentation of analytic yet stylized data in the form of what is termed below, ‘lyrical criminology’.
    June 04, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu039   open full text
  • The Changing Nature of Contemporary Maritime Piracy.
    Twyman-Ghoshal, A. A., Pierce, G.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 23, 2014
    The accurate monitoring of piracy tactics is imperative for understanding the changing nature of piracy. Using the most comprehensive, global piracy data set available to date—the Contemporary Maritime Piracy Database (CMPD), this article documents the change in piracy, identifying that the new form of piracy that emerged in the 1990s became the dominant type of piracy in the study period. The CMPD suggests that even though the escalation of piracy in Somalia has affected the profile of piracy overall, other forms of piracy, which display a different set of characteristics, still remain.
    May 23, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu019   open full text
  • Parenting and Time Adolescents Spend in Criminogenic Settings: A Between- and Within-Person Analysis.
    Janssen, H. J., Dekovi&#x0107;, M., Bruinsma, G. J. N.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 21, 2014
    Although there has been increasing interest in explaining adolescents’ crime involvement by the time adolescents spend in criminogenic settings, little is known about its determinants. We examine the extent to which (change in) parenting is related to (change in) time spent in criminogenic settings. Time spent in criminogenic settings is measured in a comprehensive way by including social and environmental characteristics of micro settings (200 by 200 m). Longitudinal multilevel analysis on two waves of panel data on a Dutch sample of 603 adolescents (age 12–19) showed that more parental monitoring, more parental limit setting and a higher quality of the parent adolescent relationship were related to less time spent in criminogenic settings (between-person). Decreases in parental limit setting and in the quality of the parent–adolescent relationship were related to increases in the amount of time spent in criminogenic settings over time (within-person). These findings emphasize the important role parents continue to play during adolescence.
    May 21, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu032   open full text
  • Legal Cynicism and Parental Appraisals of Adolescent Violence.
    Soller, B., Jackson, A. L., Browning, C. R.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 21, 2014
    Research suggests that legal cynicism—a cultural frame in which the law is viewed as illegitimate and ineffective—encourages violence to maintain personal safety when legal recourse is unreliable. But no study has tested the impact of legal cynicism on appraisals of violence. Drawing from symbolic interaction theory and cultural sociology, we tested whether neighbourhood legal cynicism alters the extent to which parents appraise their children’s violence as indicative of aggressive or impulsive temperaments using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. We find that legal cynicism attenuates the positive association between adolescent violence and parental assessments of aggression and impulsivity. Our study advances the understanding of micro-level processes through which prevailing cultural frames in the neighbourhood shape violence appraisals.
    May 21, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu027   open full text
  • An Ethnographic Study of the Policing of Internal Borders in the Netherlands.
    Mutsaers, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 20, 2014
    Tense contact between the police and migrants in Western societies remains to be an important topic in police scholarship. In sociological studies of the police, this matter is ascribed to the discretionary authority of individual officers that is sanctioned by their departments—not to official policy or direct ethnic or racial orientations. This article (1) discusses the ‘policing of migration’ literature that claims the exact opposite; (2) applies this literature to the Dutch context in order to show that migrants are increasingly and deliberately targeted for control by numerous public, semi-public and private agencies; (3) empirically explores the ramifications of such ‘internal border control’ and (4) argues in favour of a synergy between criminological and anthropological work on this topic.
    May 20, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu033   open full text
  • Officers as Mirrors.
    Bradford, B., Murphy, K., Jackson, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 08, 2014
    Encounters with the criminal justice system shape people’s perceptions of the legitimacy of legal authorities, and the dominant explanatory framework for this relationship revolves around the idea that procedurally just practice increases people’s positive connections to justice institutions. But there have been few assessments of the idea—central to procedural justice theory—that social identity acts as an important social-psychological bridge in this process. Our contribution in this paper is to examine the empirical links between procedural justice, social identity and legitimacy in the context of policing in Australia. A representative two-wave panel survey of Australians suggests that social identity does mediate the association between procedural justice and perceptions of legitimacy. It seems that when people feel fairly treated by police, their sense of identification with the superordinate group the police represent is enhanced, strengthening police legitimacy as a result. By contrast, unfair treatment signals to people that they do not belong, undermining both identification and police legitimacy.
    May 08, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu021   open full text
  • Online Victimization of Andaman Jarawa Tribal Women: An Analysis of the ‘Human Safari’ YouTube Videos (2012) and Its Effects.
    Halder, D., Jaishankar, K.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 05, 2014
    In 2012, some tour operators in Andaman Islands used the Jarawa tribal women as private advertisements (Human Safari). The British Journalist Gethin Chamberlain brought this issue to the world’s attention (The Guardian, 7 January 2012). Later, some of the videos of this Human Safari were published in the YouTube, and these videos gave wide opportunities to objectify the Jarawa women as black female sex objects. Based on Chamberlain’s report, the Indian criminal justice agencies have taken steps to stop Human Safaris’ in Andaman. However, the online circulation of Jarawa Human Safari videos could not be stopped by anyone and this had done more harm to its victims, and this article is an attempt to analyze the effects of this victimization.
    May 05, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu026   open full text
  • ‘F**king Freak! What the hell do you think you look like?’.
    Garland, J., Hodkinson, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 26, 2014
    Greater Manchester Police’s categorization of targeted attacks on ‘alternative subculture’ members as hate crimes prompted extensive debate about whether such incidents are comparable to those of recognized hate crime groups. Hate crime experts have contributed to this debate, but there is a lack of detailed empirical research on the subject. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 21 respondents mostly affiliated to the goth scene, this article uncovers extensive experience of verbal harassment and, for some respondents, repeated incidents of targeted violence. The nature and impact of such experiences, we argue, bear comparison with key facets of hate crime. Such evidence informs and underlines the importance of conceptual arguments about whether hate crime can or should be extended beyond recognized minority groups.
    April 26, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu018   open full text
  • Deconstructing the Poaching Phenomenon.
    von Essen, E., Hansen, H. P., Nordstrom Kallstrom, H., Peterson, M. N., Peterson, T. R.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 18, 2014
    This review explores the way that the illegal hunting phenomenon has been framed by research. We demarcate three main approaches that have been used to deconstruct the crime. These include ‘drivers of the deviance’, ‘profiling perpetrators’ and ‘categorizing the crime’. Disciplinary silo thinking on the part of prominent theories, an overreliance on either a micro or a macro perspective, and adherence to either an instrumental or normative perspective are identified as weaknesses in existing approaches. Based on these limitations in addressing sociopolitical dimensions of the phenomenon, we call for a more integrative understanding that moves illegal hunting from being approached as a ‘crime’ or ‘deviance’ to being seen as a political phenomenon driven by the concepts of defiance and radicalization.
    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu022   open full text
  • Bridging Structure and Perception.
    Brunton-Smith, I., Jackson, J., Sutherland, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 18, 2014
    Applying Robert Sampson’s (2012) work on interdependent spatial patterns in a new setting, we link structural characteristics of the neighbourhood to public beliefs and worries about neighbourhood violence via two intermediate mechanisms: (1) collective efficacy and (2) neighbourhood disorder. Analysing data from face-to-face interviews of 61,436 individuals living in 4,761 London neighbourhoods, we find that the strength of informal social control mechanisms and the extent of low-level breaches of common standards of behaviour communicate information about the prevalence and threat of violent crime in one’s neighbourhood. Moreover, collective efficacy partially mediates many of the statistical effects of structural characteristics of the neighbourhood on beliefs and worries about violent crime. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu020   open full text
  • Trajectories to Mid- and Higher-Level Drug Crimes.
    Shammas, V. L., Sandberg, S., Pedersen, W.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 18, 2014
    While the Nordic countries represent a zone of penal moderation, drug offences remain subject to harsh punishment. Based on 60 interviews with incarcerated drug dealers, we present four trajectories and turning points to the higher tiers of the illegal drug economy. The first trajectory is characterized by criminal entrepreneurship, but three other trajectories were equally evident: (1) Many drug dealers experienced poor parenting, parental substance abuse and early involvement with substance-using peers; (2) for others, marginalization processes started in adulthood, related to job loss and the breakdown of intimate relationships; (3) for some, drug dealing was interwoven with substance abuse. The findings suggest that drug control policies rest on misleading ideas about the trajectories of persons convicted of drug crimes.
    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu017   open full text
  • Exposing ‘Sex’ Offenders.
    Ricciardelli, R., Spencer, D.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 31, 2014
    Imprisoned sex offenders face abjection because of their criminality and are the most victimized group of adult male prisoners. Drawing on Judith Butler’s work on gender, abjection and precarity, and scholarship focused on prison masculinities, we examine the experiences of sex offenders while incarcerated and the role of various agents in exposing their convictions to other prisoners and, ultimately, to victimization. Given each prisoner’s convictions are not immediately known when they enter the penitentiary and recognizing that prison is unsafe for sex offenders, we sought to understand how sex offenders attempt to pass among the general prisoner population and the methods through which their convictions become known. Utilizing interviews with 59 formerly incarcerated men, we analyse the modalities that sex offenders employ to ‘pass’ as non-sex offenders and the anxieties associated with awaiting their inevitable exposure. Former prisoners reveal the methods used by staff and prisoners to expose those with sex-related convictions.
    March 31, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu012   open full text
  • Recognizing the 2011 United Kingdom Riots as Political protest.
    Akram, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 24, 2014
    Drawing on the 2011 United Kingdom riots, this article explores contestation over the meaning of riots. Is rioting criminality and looting, or are there political aspects to the act? For those advocating a political element, there is difficulty in reconciling how an apparently spontaneous act can have political motivations. This article argues that rioting is a distinctly political action, and in order to understand it we must theorize the characteristics of agency that underpin the act. Drawing on Bourdieu’s habitus, but developing it to include a preconscious component, the article develops a novel theoretical framework for understanding the rioter. Habitus is presented as a mechanism that can help better understand how experiences in the past affect the rioter’s present, thereby leading to a coming to the surface of underlying political grievances.
    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu013   open full text
  • Crime and the Transition to Marriage.
    Skardhamar, T., Monsbakken, C. W., Lyngstad, T. H.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 21, 2014
    Influential perspectives in life course criminology maintain that marriage leads to desistance from crime, and the mechanisms are largely related to spousal social control. Whether and to what degree marriage represents a break from a criminal past might depend on the spouse’s criminal attitude. We study how changes in offending are related to marriage, and how the patterns vary by the wife’s criminal record. We use data from Norwegian administrative registers that cover the total population of all persons who married in Norway between 1997 and 2001 (N = 80,064). We use information on these persons’ criminal records in two five-year periods before and after marriage as well as information on their wives’ criminal records in the same period, to estimate the probability of offending across an 11-year period around the time of marriage. We do so in a way that takes premarital changes in criminal behaviour into account. We find that the desistance process tend to start up to several years before marriage, and that the decline is greater for those who marry a wife with a criminal record.
    March 21, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu011   open full text
  • Self-efficacy Beliefs and Preferred Gender Role in Policing.
    Chu, D. C., Abdulla, M. M.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 14, 2014
    In Dubai, one of the fastest-growing cities in the world, women are encouraged to pursue higher education and careers in different spheres. Since the first group of 17 women joined the Dubai police force in 1977, the number of women choosing the police profession has risen. Today, more than 1,400 female officers work in Dubai. Using data from surveys conducted with 278 female police officers in Dubai, this study assesses female officers’ attitudes towards women in policing and their preferred gender role at police work. In general, female officers believed that they are effective as patrol officers on the street, and a majority of the sampled policewomen believed that women can be as good as male officers in doing police work. The findings reveal that professional role confidence is significantly associated with positive self-appraisal. In addition, policewomen who are confident about their work and those with longer tenure in the police force are more likely to favour the same assignment as policemen. Female officers with higher education attainment are less likely to endorse gender-restrictive assignments. Suggestions for future research are addressed.
    March 14, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu010   open full text
  • The Life Course of Young Male and Female Offenders.
    Backman, O., Estrada, F., Nilsson, A., Shannon, D.
    British Journal of Criminology. March 06, 2014
    Individuals’ life chances are shaped by the times and events that they experience. This emphasizes the need for studies that focus on staggered birth cohorts. The article presents a new longitudinal data set that includes three complete Swedish birth cohorts, born in 1965, 1975 and 1985. Comparisons between the different birth cohorts show how offending distributions among young offenders, as well as their socio-demographic backgrounds and life chances, have developed over time. The analyses of stability and change presented in the study may serve as a point of departure for more informed discussions of the significance of societal changes for the criminality and life chances of male and female offenders.
    March 06, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu007   open full text
  • Police Understanding of the Foundations of Their Legitimacy in the Eyes of the Public.
    Jonathan-Zamir, T., Harpaz, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 27, 2014
    The dialogic approach to legitimacy postulates that a complete picture of police legitimacy requires considering not only citizens’ views, but also police understanding of their legitimacy and the interaction between the two. This article addresses a particular aspect of police perceptions of their legitimacy in the eyes of the public: the foundations of their external legitimacy. The analysis reveals that, in contrast to the priorities of citizens as reflected in community surveys, Israeli commanding police officers associate their external legitimacy more with their accomplishments in fighting crime than with procedural justice. We consider the implications of these findings for Israeli policing, as well as in relation to the ‘legitimacy as a dialogue’ approach and legitimacy research more generally.
    January 27, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azu001   open full text
  • Deconstructing Victim and Offender Identities in Discourses on Child Sexual Abuse.
    McAlinden, A.-M.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 17, 2014
    Contemporary social and political constructions of victimhood and offending behaviour lie at the heart of regulatory policies on child sexual abuse. Legislation is named after specific child victims of high-profile cases, and a burgeoning range of pre-emptive measures are enacted to protect an amorphous class of ‘all potential victims’ from the risk sex offenders are seen as posing. Such policies are also heavily premised on the omnipresent predatory stranger. These constructed identities, however, are at odds with the actual identities of victims and offenders of such crimes. Drawing on a range of literatures, the core task of this article is to confront some of the complexities and tensions surrounding constructions of the victim/offender dyad within the specific context of sexual offending against children. In particular, the article argues that discourses on ‘blame’—and the polarized notions of ‘innocence’ and ‘guilt’—inform respective hierarchies of victimhood and offending concerning ‘legitimate’ victim and offender status. Based on these insights, the article argues for the need to move beyond such monochromatic understandings of victims and offenders of sexual crime and to reframe the politics of risk accordingly.
    January 17, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt070   open full text
  • Rolling Back Prices and Raising Crime Rates? The Walmart Effect on Crime in the United States.
    Wolfe, S. E., Pyrooz, D. C.
    British Journal of Criminology. January 09, 2014
    Wal-Mart is not an ordinary retail store—communities are impacted in significant ways by its entrance. Using various data sources and propensity-weighted multilevel modelling, this paper explores the ‘Wal-Mart effect’ on crime. Concentrating on the 1990s, results reveal that Wal-Mart is located in United States counties with higher crime rates, net of robust macro-level correlates of crime. Wal-Mart selected into counties primed for the 1990s crime decline, but, after accounting for endogeneity, growth of the company stunted crime declines when compared to matched counties. A Wal-Mart–crime relationship exists. If Wal-Mart did not build in a county, property crime rates fell by an additional 18 units per capita from the 1990s to the 2000s. A marginally statistically significant, yet stable, effect for violent crime was also observed, falling by two units per capita. These findings provide important theoretical implications regarding the influence of specific economic forces on aggregate crime trends and offer important implications for local governments faced with the prospect of Wal-Mart entering their communities.
    January 09, 2014   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt071   open full text
  • Marketization, Knowledge Work and Visibility in ‘Users Pay’ Policing in Canada.
    Lippert, R. K., Walby, K.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 23, 2013
    This article explores central themes in policing and security scholarship by examining a ‘users pay’ form of police moonlighting in Ontario called ‘pay duty’. Drawing on interviews with police personnel and service users, as well as analysis of ‘pay duty’ data and policies from four municipal police services, we raise questions about this form of policing in relation to police marketization, knowledge work and visibility. Our analysis of pay duty casts doubt on assumptions about the pervasiveness of police marketization and knowledge work. We also explore dimensions of police visibility overlooked in existing literature and make connections to issues of legitimacy. We demonstrate how police marketization, work type and visibility represent a key conceptual trifecta useful in examining this pervasive form of police moonlighting, and in policing and security studies more broadly.
    December 23, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt074   open full text
  • Victim Attributes in Hate Crime Law.
    Mason, G.
    British Journal of Criminology. December 06, 2013
    This article considers whether the targeted victimization of adults who sexually assault children should be recognized as a form of hate crime under the criminal law. Two recent Australian cases where the courts applied hate crime provisions to paedophiles raise important questions about which forms of social differentiation are protected under hate crime statutes. The article builds on recent proposals for more inclusive victim protection criteria, particularly around notions of vulnerability and difference, and argues that these characteristics must be tethered to a politics of justice that limits attributes to forms of difference that have a justifiable claim to affirmation, equality and respect for the attribute that makes them different.
    December 06, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt073   open full text
  • The Labyrinth of Jewish Security Arrangements in Johannesburg.
    Steinberg, J., Marks, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 26, 2013
    After more than a century of providing other sorts of communal services, organized Jewry in Johannesburg, South Africa began to provide security in the uncertain period after the end of apartheid. In documenting the short but eventful history of these initiatives, we stumble upon a paradox. In the very process of taking charge of its own security, and thus raising a drawbridge between itself and the society around it, organized Jewry felt the tug of a broader South African citizenship. We argue that this paradox, expressed in the simultaneous desire to protect one’s own and to reach out to others, illuminates important aspects of security itself. Security, we argue, triggers feelings of extreme discomfort when it is traded for money or when it is hoarded by an exclusive group, and is thus, ironically, a resource in the construction of feelings of patriotism and national identity.
    November 26, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt065   open full text
  • Risk, Welfare and the Treatment of Adolescent Cannabis Users in England.
    Flacks, S.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 21, 2013
    Incorporating analysis of data collected from a small sample of interviews within drug-treatment settings, the aim of this article is to critically consider the purpose and scope of adolescent drug treatment with a particular focus on the drugs–crime nexus. A central question is whether treatment can be understood according to the ‘rise of risk’ in advanced liberal democracies, and whether this corresponds to the proposed rupture with ‘welfarist’ approaches to youth justice policy. The findings suggest, in line with other research, that any such rupture may have been overstated. They also suggest that some drug-treatment research has tended towards sweeping accounts of policy changes, when the specificities of age, drug type and history demand more nuanced explanation, as some authors have already argued. Finally, the analysis suggests there should be concern about the extent of ‘net-widening’ within the youth drug-treatment system.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt066   open full text
  • Ordinary Business.
    Yu, S.-s. V., Maxfield, M. G.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 21, 2013
    Research on land use and burglary has focused on the presence of drinking places and other undesirable businesses. The current study examines how a variety of ordinary businesses are associated with commercial and residential burglary. We identify three characteristics of ordinary businesses: services locations (on-site or off-site), volume of transactions (higher to lower) and clientele (neighbourhood or beyond). Businesses providing services or products on-site, used frequently and serving neighbourhood residents displayed strong associations with increased risks of victimization. Findings demonstrate the importance of recognizing how ordinary businesses influence crime patterns.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt064   open full text
  • Media Use and the Process-Based Model for Police Cooperation.
    Dirikx, A., Van den Bulck, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 13, 2013
    Public cooperation with the police is essential for successful crime control. Police can particularly benefit strongly from adolescent cooperation, since young people have a disproportionally high chance of police contact. The current study examines how media use relates to adolescents’ willingness to assist police. Using survey data collected from a sample of 1,968 Flemish adolescents, we test an integrative model which combines Tyler’s process-based model of police cooperation with assumptions from media effects theories. We find that crime show exposure directly and indirectly predicts adolescents’ willingness to cooperate with police. Our findings highlight the importance of media use as an antecedent of police cooperation net of the influence of adolescents’ direct police contacts, age, gender, ethnicity or educational level.
    November 13, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt063   open full text
  • ‘In Exile Imprisonment’ in Russia.
    Piacentini, L., Pallot, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. November 01, 2013
    This article considers the geographical dispersal of prisoners in Russia. The concept of ‘in exile imprisonment’ is developed to delineate an exceptional penal terrain. The authors examine the historical ‘traces’ of exile in Russian penal culture and argue that the persistence of ‘in exile imprisonment’ does not fit easily into official narratives about the development of penality in that country. The culture of ‘in exile imprisonment’ continues to impose limits on prison reform in Russia.
    November 01, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt062   open full text
  • Hot Pants at the Border.
    Pickering, S., Ham, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 29, 2013
    The role of borders in managing sex work is a valuable site for analysing the relationship between criminal justice and migration administration functions. For the purposes of this article, we are concerned with how generalized concerns around trafficking manifest in specific interactions between immigration officials and women travellers. To this end, this article contributes to a greater understanding of the micro-politics of border control and the various contradictions at work in the everyday performance of the border. It uses an intersectional analysis of the decision making of immigration officers at the border to understand how social differences become conflated with risk, how different social locations amplify what is read as risky sexuality and how sexuality is constructed in migration. What the interviews in our research have demonstrated is that, while the border is a poor site for identifying cases of trafficking into the sex industry, it is a site of significant social sorting where various intersections of intelligence-led profiling and everyday stereotyping of women, sex work and vulnerability play out.
    October 29, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt060   open full text
  • Explaining and Controlling Illegal Commercial Fishing.
    Petrossian, G. A., Clarke, R. V.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 24, 2013
    The study explores why certain fish are at risk of being taken illegally by commercial fishers. Fifty-eight illegally caught species were individually matched with 58 controls using a standard classification of fish. Consistently with the CRAVED model of theft, illegally caught species were more Concealable (sold through more ports of convenience), more Removable (caught with longline vessels), more Abundant and Accessible (to known illegal fishing countries), more Valuable (larger), more Enjoyable (more often found in recipes) and more Disposable (highly commercial). Fisheries authorities should: (1) focus on ports of convenience, (2) monitor longliners, (3) exert pressure on known illegal fishing countries and (4) educate consumers about vulnerable species.
    October 24, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt061   open full text
  • The Imagination of Desistance.
    Soyer, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 24, 2013
    This essay investigates the discrepancy between the negative impact incarceration has on life outcomes and offenders’ subjective perception of incarceration as a positive turning point. Building on three years of fieldwork with 23 juvenile offenders in Boston and Chicago, this essay contends that the institutional structures of juvenile justice encourage the teenagers to frame their incarceration a positive turning point. At the same time, the punitive framework of incarceration restricts the young men’s ability to exercise creative agency in relation to their desired non-deviant identity. Consequently, they are unable to develop viable strategies of action that could sustain desistance after their release.
    October 24, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt059   open full text
  • Criminality in Spaces of Death.
    Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N.
    British Journal of Criminology. October 17, 2013
    This study examines how Palestinian dead bodies and spaces of death in occupied East Jerusalem are ‘hot spots’ of criminality. The arguments raised challenge traditional hot-spot theories of crime that build their definition of criminality around official state statistics and information and visible spaces of crime. The paper offers a bottom-up analysis of crimes against the dead and their families in East Jerusalem, examining the manner in which modes of denial, the logic of elimination and accumulation by dispossession shape experiences of death and dying in a colonial context.
    October 17, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt057   open full text
  • Agreements in Restorative Justice Conferences.
    Hayes, H., Mcgee, T. R., Punter, H., Cerruto, M. J.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 27, 2013
    Agreements are key outcomes in restorative justice conferences. However, there is debate over the effectiveness of such agreements to reduce post-conference offending. Research suggests that many young offenders are satisfied with their agreements and perceive them as fair. We know less about the linkages between young offenders’ experiences with agreements and post-conference offending. Drawing on observation and interview data from 32 young offenders who attended conferences, we found that nearly all young people felt their agreements were satisfactory and fair. However, most offenders felt that the agreement phase of the conferencing process did not have an impact on their post-conference offending behaviour. These findings further inform the debate over agreement requirements and have policy implications for conferencing programmes.
    September 27, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt056   open full text
  • Is the Effect of Perceived Deterrence on Juvenile Offending Contingent on the Level of Self-control?
    Hirtenlehner, H., J.R. Pauwels, L., Mesko, G.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 12, 2013
    The aim of this paper is to study the interplay of perceived deterrence and level of self-control in explaining individual differences in self-reported offending. Different theories of crime come to different conclusions in this regard. Some postulate independent negative effects of perceived sanction risk on offending (Deterrence Theory), while others assume that low self-control undermines the deterrent effect of legal sanctions (Self-Control Theory) or, conversely, that sanction threats are only relevant for individuals characterized by a lack of self-control (Situational Action Theory). Here, the question of the exact nature of this interplay is addressed from an empirical point of view. Based on three independent surveys of adolescents conducted in three European countries (Austria, Belgium and Slovenia), we examine whether juveniles with low self-control are more, equally or less susceptible to the deterrent effect of legal sanctioning. Our findings consistently support Situational Action Theory’s conceptualization of the linkage between self-control and deterrence. All three studies provide evidence that deterrent effects are greatest among adolescents of low self-control.
    September 12, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt053   open full text
  • Revisiting the Gun Ownership and Violence Link.
    van Kesteren, J. N.
    British Journal of Criminology. September 11, 2013
    The link between gun ownership victimization by violent crime remains one of the most contested issues in criminology. Some authors claim that high gun availability facilitates serious violence. Others claim that gun ownership prevents crime. This article revisits these issues using individual and aggregate data on gun ownership and victimization from the International Crime Victims Survey (ICVS). Analysis at country level shows that the level of handgun ownership is positively related to serious violence but not for less serious violent crimes. Multilevel analyses on the data from 26 developed countries show that owners of a handgun show increased risk for victimization by violent crime. High ownership levels, however, seem to diminish the victimization level for the less serious violent crimes for the non-owners.
    September 11, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt052   open full text
  • Is it a Crime to Produce Ecological Disorganization?
    Lynch, M. J., Long, M. A., Barrett, K. L., Stretesky, P. B.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 29, 2013
    We argue in this paper for a political economic approach to the study of global ecological crimes. Green criminological studies often employ case study approaches which help explain a particular green crime; however, these studies lack a coherent theoretical basis. Based on ecological Marxism and treadmill of production approaches, we outline a theoretical approach for green criminology that focuses on crimes of ecological disorganization—that is, green harms that are the result of organizing the productive forces of the economy in a manner that is consistent with capitalism. We conclude that, to truly understand and remedy green harms, a focus on political economy is necessary.
    August 29, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt051   open full text
  • Collective Efficacy, Deprivation and Violence in London.
    Sutherland, A., Brunton-Smith, I., Jackson, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 22, 2013
    This paper examines the importance of neighbourhood context in explaining violence in London. Exploring in a new context Sampson’s work on the relationship between interdependent spatial patterns of concentrated disadvantage and crime, we assess whether collective efficacy (i.e. shared expectations about norms, values and goals, as well as the ability of members of the community to realize these goals) mediates any potential impact on violence of neighbourhood deprivation, residential stability and population heterogeneity. Reporting findings from a data set based on face-to-face interviews of 60,000 individuals living in 4,700 London neighbourhoods, we find that collective efficacy is negatively related to police-recorded violence. But, unlike previous research, we find that collective efficacy does not mediate the statistical relationship between structural characteristics of the neighbourhood and violence. After finding that collective efficacy is unrelated to an alternative measure of neighbourhood violence, we discuss limitations and possible explanations for our results, before setting out plans for further research.
    August 22, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt050   open full text
  • In Crime’s Archive.
    Biber, K.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 13, 2013
    This article explores the cultural afterlife of criminal evidence. During the criminal trial, strict rules govern the collection, admission and interpretation of evidence at trial. However, after the conclusion of the trial, this material returns to a notional ‘archive’ and is sometimes used by artists, scholars, curators and others, but subject to no rules or standards. This article examines a range of instances in which criminal evidence has been used post-trial, and proposes a jurisprudence of sensitivity for responding to the harm that is sometimes done when criminal evidence leads a cultural afterlife.
    August 13, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt049   open full text
  • Genocide Films, Public Criminology, Collective Memory.
    Brown, M., Rafter, N.
    British Journal of Criminology. August 06, 2013
    One cannot understand or remember the genocides of the past in any direct manner. Their inaccessibility impedes us from working toward complex understandings of these events and adequate ways of responding to them. In this paper, we bring together various strands of criminological thought by examining genocide films as a form of public criminology that is engaged in the work of memory and commemoration. We identify a specific set of genocide films that, we argue, not only constitute a key (if hitherto unrecognized) branch of visual and public criminology, but also create and transmit collective memories of the ‘crime of crimes’, provoking public understandings of atrocity and meaningful social and political responses. These films direct us toward representational strategies and interdisciplinary perspectives that advance our theoretical and empirical understanding of genocide. Attention to such efforts not only underscores the work of images in shaping criminological discourse, but also makes for a better—because more deeply informed—criminology of genocide.
    August 06, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt043   open full text
  • Putting the Defendant in Their Place.
    Mulcahy, L.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 26, 2013
    This article considers the extent to which the on-going use of the dock in criminal proceedings can be justified. It is argued that the use of the dock interferes with the defendant’s ability to participate in the trial, the right to counsel and the presumption of innocence. This has been recognized in some jurisdictions and, in the United Kingdom, its use has been criticized by key stakeholders in the criminal justice system. Despite the launching of campaigns for its abolition, the English dock is becoming increasingly fortified and continues to be used to incarcerate defendants in trials involving minor charges. Drawing on previously unexplored archives and data from the United States, this article seeks to understand justifications for the retention of the dock and the reasons why campaigns for its abolition have failed.
    July 26, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt037   open full text
  • The Banality of Security.
    Goold, B., Loader, I., Thumala, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 23, 2013
    Why do certain security goods become banal (while others do not)? Under what conditions does banality occur and with what effects? In this paper, we answer these questions by examining the story of closed circuit television cameras (CCTV) in Britain. We consider the lessons to be learned from CCTV’s rapid—but puzzling—transformation from novelty to ubiquity, and what the banal properties of CCTV tell us about the social meanings of surveillance and security. We begin by revisiting and reinterpreting the historical process through which camera surveillance has diffused across the British landscape, focusing on the key developments that encoded CCTV in certain dominant meanings (around its effectiveness, for example) and pulled the cultural rug out from under alternative or oppositional discourses. Drawing upon interviews with those who produce and consume CCTV, we tease out and discuss the family of meanings that can lead one justifiably to describe CCTV as a banal good. We then examine some frontiers of this process and consider whether novel forms of camera surveillance (such as domestic CCTV systems) may press up against the limits of banality in ways that risk unsettling security practices whose social value and utility have come to be taken for granted. In conclusion, we reflect on some wider implications of banal security and its limits.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt044   open full text
  • Police Accountability and the Commodification of Policing in China.
    Xu, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 22, 2013
    Based on a study of police/business posters in Guangzhou, this paper explores commodification of policing in China. It is argued that, while the commodification of policing in Western societies has its roots in the rise of neo-liberal thinking, it is unique in China for its lack of accountability of police power. Chengguan, the urban management department, is not an effective counter-power to the police in their making of illegal police/business posters due to institutional arrangement and practical reasons. The commodification of police power is not just a local police phenomenon, but a wider police institutional phenomenon. It is also part of the symbiotic relations between state power and economic capital in a wider Chinese society. Data collection involved three years’ ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth semi-structured interviews with the police, police scholars, businessmen, urban management officers, ordinary citizens and security guards.
    July 22, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt038   open full text
  • Policing British Asian Identities.
    Millings, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 17, 2013
    Using data from ethnographic work and interviews with young British Asian men conducted in 2002 and again in 2012, this paper identifies the powerful real and imagined role the police play in these young men’s negotiation of belonging and identity. Experiences of policing are shown to meaningfully shape individual and collective claims of belonging. These negotiations are seen to contribute to, and be derived from, volatile climates of racism, fractured social relations and cultures of intolerance, rendering explicit the powerful cultural work of policing.
    July 17, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt041   open full text
  • Sentence Consistency in England and Wales: Evidence from the Crown Court Sentencing Survey.
    Pina&ndash;Sanchez, J., Linacre, R.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 02, 2013
    We assess the use of sentencing guidelines for assault issued in England and Wales, and the consistency with which they are applied by judges in the Crown Court. We use data from the Crown Court Sentencing Survey (CCSS), which records data on legal factors considered in the sentencing guidelines. This gives us access to a wide range of explanatory variables, allowing us to produce more robust findings about consistency in sentencing. We first employ a standard regression model to determine how guideline factors affect sentence outcomes empirically. Second, a random slopes multilevel model is used to analyse whether these factors have been consistently applied across different Crown Court centres. Our results point to a substantial degree of consistency in sentencing.
    July 02, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt040   open full text
  • Cousins in Crime.
    Goldsmith, A., Halsey, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 02, 2013
    This paper examines serious repeat offending among a cohort of young Indigenous Australians dubbed the ‘Gang of 49’. Drawing chiefly on interviews, we explore the importance of mobility, place, belonging and alcohol in shaping the resilience and notoriety of this group over the past decade. We consider the broader significance of ethnic and familial ties in offenders’ lives, and explicate the complex ways in which these ties contribute overwhelmingly to offender convergence for the commission of crime but only very rarely to occasions for offender divergence from crime. In concluding, we argue that the nature of co-offending among this group is rhizomatic and thereby demands a very different law enforcement (and political) response than has pertained to date.
    July 02, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt039   open full text
  • Crime and Economic Downturn.
    Xenakis, S., Cheliotis, L. K.
    British Journal of Criminology. July 02, 2013
    Description and explanation of the relationship between economic downturn and crime have to date been limited by the narrow scope of criminal activity characteristically selected as a focus by pertinent criminological scholarship. Efforts to examine the relationship have overwhelmingly approached it through the prism of common property and violent offences, or, and to a lesser degree, white-collar crime. As a consequence, appreciation has been impeded of the existence and heightened political significance of diverse and complex connections between a wider array of forms of criminality during times of economic downturn. To demonstrate the value of such connections to the study of the relationship between economic downturn and crime, we draw on the contemporary experience of crisis-hit Greece, where the political importance of associations between corruption, common property and violent offences, and illicit political violence, has made them indispensable components of any account of the linkages between economic downturn and crime in the Greek context.
    July 02, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt034   open full text
  • Opportunities for Environmental Crime.
    Huisman, W., van Erp, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 29, 2013
    Recently, Situational Crime Prevention Theory (SCPT) has been proposed as an alternative to offender-based theories of white-collar crime. This paper uses the results of a cross-case analysis of 23 criminal investigations of environmental crime in the Netherlands to explore the fruitfulness of SCPT as a method of scientific study of environmental crime and the development of prevention strategies. This analysis shows that most environmental crimes are crimes of omission, while SCPT is designed for predatory crimes of commission. In addition, while it is concluded that SCPT is helpful in analysing opportunities for environmental crime, it is difficult to draw innovative prevention strategies on the basis of SCPT, since most suggestions have already been covered in contemporary models for environmental regulation.
    June 29, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt036   open full text
  • A Social Resistance Perspective for Delinquent Bahavior among Non-Dominant Minority Groups.
    Factor, R., Mahalel, D., Rafaeli, A., Williams, D. R.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 14, 2013
    Non-dominant minorities, compared with majority groups, often have greater engagement in risky and delinquent behaviours. This study develops an innovative theoretical model for understanding risky/delinquent behaviour among non-dominant groups based on the social resistance framework, which suggests that power relations within society bring non-dominant minorities to actively engage in various forms of everyday resistance that can include delinquent behaviours. We tested this model on traffic violations, surveying 1,060 non-dominant and majority drivers in Israel. Structural equation models suggest that different mechanisms underlie delinquent behaviours in the two groups: social resistance plays a direct role in traffic violations among non-dominants, while, for the majority, procedural justice and non-commitment to the law have a stronger impact. Implications for understanding delinquent and risky behaviour and as an extension of the well-known procedural justice model are discussed.
    June 14, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt035   open full text
  • Unintended Consequences of Neighbourhood Restructuring.
    Thompson, S. K., Bucerius, S. M., Luguya, M.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 14, 2013
    Concerns about high concentrations of poverty, social isolation and neighbourhood safety have made social housing developments the target of various interventions in recent decades. A current housing policy trend in many Western nations aims to de-concentrate poverty and other forms of disadvantage by engineering more socio-economically mixed residential environments. Based on 40 in-depth interviews, this paper examines the impact of neighbourhood ‘revitalization’ on young adult residents of Regent Park, Canada’s largest and oldest social housing project. We find that the large-scale displacement that attends this process has destabilizing effects on the neighbourhood, both in terms of social networks and supports, but also with respect to young people’s perceptions of their risk of violent victimization.
    June 14, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt032   open full text
  • Seeking ‘Civilianness’.
    Savage, S. P.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 13, 2013
    The ‘civilian control’ model of police complaints systems is premised on a clear separation between ‘civilian-led’ and ‘police-led’ investigative processes. This paper examines the nature of ‘civilianness’ in civilian control-based oversight agencies by examining the cultural profiles and internal dynamics of three police oversight bodies within the British and Irish islands. Based on over 100 interviews, it presents findings relating to the motivations behind oversight work and the dynamics associated with the joint workings of investigators with both non-police and police backgrounds. It concludes that civilian control may be seen as a differentiated space with varying degrees of civilianness, including remnants from and continuities with police culture.
    June 13, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt033   open full text
  • Social Disorganization and Crime in Rural Communities.
    Kaylen, M. T., Pridemore, W. A.
    British Journal of Criminology. June 11, 2013
    While there is considerable empirical evidence that social disorganization is positively associated with crime rates in urban areas, the empirical literature on rural social disorganization and crime faces three crucial limitations: inconsistent results, reliance on official crime statistics and the failure to test the full model. We overcome the two latter limitations via the British Crime Survey. Using data from respondents living in rural areas of 318 postcode sectors, we employed weighted least squares regression to estimate the effects of (1) the exogenous sources of social disorganization on our intervening measures of community organization and (2) all variables on victimization rates. This represents the first test of the full social disorganization model in the literature on rural crime and we find very little support for it. Our results suggest a reassessment of the conclusions drawn about how social disorganization and crime are related in rural communities.
    June 11, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt031   open full text
  • Social Disorganization, Social Capital, Collective Efficacy and the Spatial Distribution of Crime and Offenders.
    Bruinsma, G. J. N., Pauwels, L. J. R., Weerman, F. M., Bernasco, W.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 20, 2013
    Six different social disorganization models of neighbourhood crime and offender rates were tested using data from multiple sources in the city of The Hague, in the Netherlands. The sources included a community survey among 3,575 residents in 86 neighbourhoods measuring the central concepts of the six models. The data were aggregated to ecologically reliable neighbourhood measures and combined with census data. Crime rates and offender rates were calculated on geo-coded police-recorded data on crimes and apprehended suspects. Spatial regression models were applied to test social disorganization theories in a Western-European city. The findings reveal that social disorganization models do not fit the data well, and indicate that crime rates and offender rates may be caused by distinct urban processes.
    May 20, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt030   open full text
  • ‘Undoing’ Gender and the Production of Insecurity and Fear.
    Ranasinghe, P.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 15, 2013
    While criminology has provided a wealth of knowledge about security and fear, it is hindered by a particular limitation, namely the failure to explore and explicate the manner in which space and place are crucial to their production and constitution. This paper seeks to highlight the importance of this line of inquiry for criminological analyses and does so by exploring and explicating the manner in which employees at an emergency shelter make sense of their (in)security and fear (or lack thereof) in their daily work lives. Attention is cast on the manner in which ‘(un)doing’ gender—biography being an important aspect in such thinking and acting—sheds light on the ways that the employees make sense of (in)security and fear and the ways that these feelings are informed by particular norms of security and fear that are inscribed into the space itself.
    May 15, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt029   open full text
  • A Macro-Micro Integrated Theoretical Model of Mass Participation in Genocide.
    Olusanya, O.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 14, 2013
    Can general criminological theories of crime explain mass participation in genocide? Can seemingly conflicting theories be reconciled? And, if so, how? Only a small number of studies have attempted to explore the application of general criminological theories to international crimes. Also, there have been few attempts to integrate micro-level theories with macro-level theories. In this paper, I propose a macro–micro integrated theoretical model of mass participation in genocide. The proposed framework combines micro (e.g. social control theories) and macrolevel theories (e.g. strain theories), thereby recognizing that no single factor can explain people’s involvement in genocidal violence perpetration. Finally, the central element of my conceptual framework is the notion of cognitive dissonance (CD). I contend that CD can act as a structuring concept which allows for the development of a comprehensive criminological explanation for mass participation in genocide.
    May 14, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt027   open full text
  • Reflections on Risk, Anti-Social Behaviour and Vulnerable/Repeat Victims.
    Donoghue, J.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 14, 2013
    This article theorizes the adoption of risk assessment practices to inform criminal justice responses to ‘vulnerable’ and repeat victims of anti-social behaviour. Evidence suggests that some police forces have become highly risk-averse which has had consequences for the way in which minor incivilities have come to be viewed as perpetually requiring a formal police response. However, the development of victim risk assessment has also been very effective in enabling agencies to determine ‘high-risk’ victims with clarity and speed. It is argued that, rather than viewing risk in hegemonic terms, more attention ought to be given to conceptualizing risk in terms of the new opportunities it presents not simply for refining and improving the delivery of services, but also for the ways in which risk enables victims to develop new parameters of victimhood, and to subvert the traditional dominance of politics/policy in acting as primary definers on understanding(s) and accepted knowledge(s) of victimization and vulnerability.
    May 14, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt023   open full text
  • A Framework to Assess the Harms of Crimes.
    Greenfield, V. A., Paoli, L.
    British Journal of Criminology. May 13, 2013
    Despite the centrality of harm to crime and criminalization and increasing interest in harm as a basis for crime-control policy, the criminological community has yet done little to systematically reflect on criminal harms or their identification, evaluation and comparison. This paper presents a newly developed framework with which to systematize the empirical assessment of such harms and address at least some of the attendant conceptual and technical challenges. It also suggests several roles for the framework in policy making. Our conclusions are twofold: it is possible to reliably evaluate the harms of criminal activities, as our examples suggest, but it is not possible—for both conceptual and technical reasons—to develop an encompassing estimate of the total harms of these activities.
    May 13, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt018   open full text
  • Combating The Kidney Commerce.
    Efrat, A.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 26, 2013
    Can civil society bring governments to curb transnational crime? The article answers this question by analysing a most-likely case for civil-society influence: organ trafficking. Physicians’ efforts to eliminate this practice are examined in Pakistan and Israel: two major participants in the global organ trade. In both countries, the physicians’ pressure resulted in the enactment of organ-trade prohibitions. These, however, were not fully enforced. The analysis suggests that, even under favourable conditions, civil society’s impact on transnational-crime policies is limited, yet not inconsequential: Pakistan’s involvement in organ trafficking, and even more so Israel’s, has declined. Beyond its contribution to understanding civil society’s role in the criminalization process, the article sheds light on the hitherto little-studied politics of the organ trade.
    April 26, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt025   open full text
  • The Myths and Realities of Deterrence in Workplace Safety Regulation.
    Tombs, S., Whyte, D.
    British Journal of Criminology. April 22, 2013
    Given the proliferation of the use of deterrence in neo-liberal crime control policies, it is remarkable that this concept remains absent from the study and practice of corporate regulation. The paper explores this absence in the regulation literature, highlighting a series of widely accepted myths about deterrence in this literature, myths that have also been reproduced in British policy debates. Having discussed the enduring, if hidden, adherence to deterrence across this literature, we then go on to discuss the significant absences of deterrence and, in doing so, we focus specifically upon the dynamics of law enforcement, as it applies in the case of UK workplace health and safety law. The paper concludes that only through a careful consideration of the politics and praxis of law enforcement can we adequately grasp the context of the regulation of workplace safety—what the proper place of deterrence is and how it might be better secured.
    April 22, 2013   doi: 10.1093/bjc/azt024   open full text