Identify perceived parental security profiles and examine differences across profiles with regard to self‐esteem and three domains of self‐efficacy (i.e., social, emotional, and academic).
The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised (IPPA‐R) is an index of the quality of communication, feelings of trust, and degree of alienation that adolescents and young adults perceive in their parental and peer relationships. However, the factor structure of IPPA‐R scores has yet to be examined in adolescents, and no study to date has included a person‐oriented analysis using the assessment tool.
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were planned to examine the structural validity of IPPA‐R scores in a large sample of adolescents (N = 1,126; 61% male, 12–16 years of age). Model‐based clustering was employed to enumerate perceived parental security profiles, and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to interpret profile differences in outcomes.
CFA (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA = .06, comparative fit index, CFI = .90) and ESEM (RMSEA = .04, CFI = .95) substantiated the proposed three‐factor structure for IPPA‐R parent (but not peer) scores. Model‐based clustering led to the identification of five perceived parental security profiles: (a) high security, (b) moderately high security, (c) average security, (d) moderately low security, and (e) low security. Adolescents with high security and low security profiles, respectively, reported the highest and lowest levels of self‐esteem and self‐efficacy (0.48 ≤ Cohen's d ≤ 1.67).
IPPA‐R parent, but not peer, scores appear to be a valid index of perceived parental security in adolescents. Perceived parental security profiles are strongly associated with self‐concept.
A student's self‐confidence in his or her ability to manage emotions and cope with the academic demands of school is explained, in part, by perceived parental security. Therefore, interventions designed to develop feelings of trust and closeness with parents, as well as lines of communication, might result in improvements in how adolescents perceive their emotional and academic aptitude.