MetaTOC stay on top of your field, easily

Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies

Impact factor: 0.978 5-Year impact factor: 1.639 Print ISSN: 0197-6664 Online ISSN: 1741-3729 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subjects: Family Studies, Social Work

Most recent papers:

  • Benefits of and Barriers to Romantic Relationships Among Mothers in Ireland.
    Kristin Hadfield, Elizabeth Nixon.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. October 20, 2017
    Objective To examine what mothers expect of their romantic relationships and what prevents them from forming and maintaining relationships. Background Although there has been research on mothers' attitudes toward and expectations of marriage, there has been limited examination of their dating. It is critical to understand why parents form romantic relationships and what might cause them to cycle in and out of relationships to understand stepfamily formation. Method On the basis of semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of 33 single or repartnered Irish mothers, we conducted a thematic analysis guided by a social exchange framework. Results Mothers believed that being in a relationship would enable them to enact their preferred relationship roles, give them extra support, and provide a different gender role model for their child(ren). They found forming long‐term relationships difficult because of a lack of suitable partners, limited time and support, stepparents' possible negative influences on their child(ren), and their own personal characteristics. Unlike previous studies conducted in the United States, Irish mothers were not focused on the economic viability of partners or on economic benefits associated with repartnering. Conclusions Mothers believe that there are several rewards to forming and being in a relationship, but they face many impediments that may prevent them from forming long‐term relationships. Implications Practitioners may find it useful to focus on tempering mothers' expectations of relationship benefits and on reducing mothers' personal costs when forming and maintaining relationships.
    October 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12261   open full text
  • Prospective Parents' Knowledge About Parenting and Their Anticipated Child‐Rearing Decisions.
    Darcey N. Powell, Katherine Karraker.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. October 17, 2017
    Objective To examine whether the theory of planned behavior can be used to understand intentions for child‐rearing practices. Background Parenting intentions are formed before becoming a parent, but it is less clear what nonparents' intentions are and how subjective norms, attitudes, and perceived control predict their intentions. Method Nonparent emerging adults (N = 353, Mage = 19.6 years, 72% female) were asked about their intentions to (a) breast‐feed or support a partner in breastfeeding, (b) circumcise a male infant, (c) co‐sleep, and (4) put their infant in nonparental daytime care. They were also asked what proportion of American parents they thought engaged in each and why they would or would not engage in each practice. Results Most intended to breast‐feed and to circumcise their male infants, but not to co‐sleep or to put their infant in nonparental daytime care. Participants' inaccurate knowledge about actual parents' behavior (i.e., subjective norms) and the factors that they thought might affect their own future behavior (i.e., attitudes toward and perceived control) were associated with their intentions for the child‐rearing practices. Conclusion This study replicated prior research on breast‐feeding intentions and extended the viability of the theory of planned behavior to understand prospective parents' intentions for other child‐rearing practices. Implications Practitioners should consider discussing the norms surrounding child‐rearing behaviors during health‐ and development‐focused courses in secondary or postsecondary school and with expecting couples.
    October 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12259   open full text
  • Moods, Stressors, and Severity of Marital Conflict: A Daily Diary Study of Low‐Income Families.
    Meghan P. McCormick, JoAnn Hsueh, Christine Merrilees, Patricia Chou, E. Mark Cummings.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. October 13, 2017
    Objective To examine links between negative moods, stressors, and daily marital conflict, and to test whether participation in a family‐strengthening program moderates those associations. Background Some family‐strengthening interventions have shown positive effects on low‐income married couples' relationships. Yet little is known about how these programs influence low‐income families' daily functioning. Method Families randomly assigned to the program participated in 10 weeks of relationship education. Control group families received no services. Thirty months later, participants reported on the severity of marital conflicts over a 15‐day period, as well as their moods and stressors. Results Dyadic models demonstrated that although moods like anger, anxiety, stress, and sadness were associated with more severe marital disagreements, associations were less strong for wives assigned to the program than to the control group. Although stress related to money was associated with more severe disagreements for husbands, associations were weaker for husbands assigned to the program than for those to the control group. Conclusion Family‐strengthening interventions may be able to reduce the tendency for negative moods and stressors to manifest in more severe marital conflict. Implications Programs may benefit from explicitly addressing the moods and stressors that individual husbands and wives report experiencing in their daily lives.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12258   open full text
  • Parental Pre‐ and Postpartum Mental Health Predicts Child Mental Health and Development.
    Mervi Vänskä, Raija‐Leena Punamäki, Jallu Lindblom, Marjo Flykt, Asko Tolvanen, Leila Unkila‐Kallio, Maija Tulppala, Aila Tiitinen.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. October 13, 2017
    Objective To identify interplay of early maternal and paternal mental health symptoms for predicting child mental health and development. Background Research on family mental health has largely excluded fathers, although the well‐being of both parents is likely to be important for child development. In this study, we analyzed (a) intrafamilial dynamics between mothers' and fathers' early mental health symptoms and (b) the importance of separate (mother and father) and joint (additive, hierarchical, and buffering) theoretical models of parental mental health for predicting child mental health and development. Method Finnish mothers and fathers (N = 763), half of whom conceived through assisted reproductive treatments (ART), reported their symptoms of psychological distress and depression from the pregnancy to 2 months and 12 months postpartum. Later, when the child was 7–8 years of age, parents (N = 485) reported the child's internalizing and externalizing symptoms and social and cognitive developmental problems. Results We identified both co‐occurrence and compensation in intrafamilial early parental mental health. Further, mothers' symptoms alone (separate mother model) predicted child internalizing symptoms, whereas joint parental symptoms (additive model) predicted problems in executive function. Conclusion The pre‐ and postnatal mental health of mothers and fathers is important for later child development. Implications To support healthy child development, both parents need to be screened for early mental health problems, and psychological help should be offered to families across the pre‐ and postpartum period.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12260   open full text
  • Family Stressors and Resources: Relationships with Depressive Symptoms in Military Couples During Pre‐Deployment.
    Christina L. Collins, Kyung‐Hee Lee, Shelley M. MacDermid Wadsworth.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. October 06, 2017
    Objective To evaluate family‐related stressors and resources associated with the depressive symptoms of military members and their spouses. Background Most deployment‐related research has focused on deployment and reintegration, but there is a dearth of information about military families during the pre‐deployment phase. Family stress theory provided a valuable lens from which to view family‐related risk and protective factors associated with adaptation during times of stressful transition. Method Data were gathered using an online survey from 151 U.S. Army National Guard members and their spouses preparing for a scheduled deployment. Hierarchical regression was utilized to examine associations between the independent variables (e.g., stress pileup, informal and formal resources, deployment preparation) and participants' depressive symptoms. Results Results revealed that aspects of stress pileup were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Informal resources and deployment preparation, but not formal resources, had statistically significant negative associations with individuals' depressive symptoms. Findings were similar for military members and spouses. Conclusion Results indicated that logistical and instrumental preparation, in addition to informal resources such as effective family functioning and social support, are important for positive adaptation in times of stressful transition. Implications Family service professionals may want to assist families with identifying and strengthening their family support and improving family functioning, as well as guide families in a process of identifying the instrumental and logistical tasks that are necessary or helpful for an impending transition.
    October 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12251   open full text
  • Financial Issues in Strong African American Marriages: A Strengths‐Based Qualitative Approach.
    Jeffrey P. Dew, Bonnie L. Anderson, Linda Skogrand, Cassandra Chaney.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. October 06, 2017
    Objective We examined the role financial issues played in African Americans' marriages using a strengths‐based perspective. Background Few studies have examined the importance of finances in African Americans' marriages. Those that have done so have mostly focused on money as a stressful contextual problem. Allowing African American couples to describe their own marital experiences expands our understanding regarding the interface of finances and relationships. Method Using qualitative data from 37 African American couples (N = 74 individuals) who felt they had strong marriages, we took a phenomenological approach to identify themes in the data. Results Many participants portrayed money as a stressor. Furthermore, participants discussed financial behaviors and attitudes that helped their marriages be strong. Finally, participants described transcending, or rising above, financial issues. Conclusion The participants in this study, African Americans who felt they were in strong marriages, talked about the marital role of finances in multiple ways. It was clear that they actively strived to shape the way that financial issues influenced their marriages, whether through making decisions that would help them financially and relationally or by shifting their focus to more important matters like the well‐being of family members. Implications These findings offer researchers new ideas about the intersection of money, family, and race, and show diversity among African American couples. The findings may also help practitioners recognize both the circumstances by which finances are stressors in some African American marriages, and how some African American couples navigate financial challenges while maintaining strong relationships.
    October 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12248   open full text
  • Intentions to Have a Child: A Couple‐Based Process.
    Marisa Matias, Anne Marie Fontaine.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. October 06, 2017
    Objective To analyze how the endorsement of motives for and against having children act at a dyadic level to predict childbearing intentions. Background Understanding what leads individuals to have children is a topic of interest among family researchers and policy makers given that fertility rates have been decreasing in many countries. Most studies on this topic have not examined intentions about children as a dyadic process, yet most childbearing decisions occur within couple relationships. Method Using a convenience sample of heterosexual dual‐earner couples with (n = 100 couples) and without children (n = 60 couples), Actor‐Partner‐Interdependence‐Models were fitted to assess the linkages between motives and childbearing intentions. Results Different processes occur for parents and nonparents when formulating intentions to have a(nother) child. Compared to nonparents, parents are less concerned about potential changes in lifestyle or to their marital relationship, and worries about child development are subdued; rather, they are more focused on the potential emotional benefits of an additional child. In addition, partner effects were found solely in the parents' group: The more the partner perceived an additional child as enriching, the more the individual intended to have another child. Childless women were also particularly concerned about the costs of parenthood, and childless men were primarily driven by emotional enrichment motives. Conclusion Individual attitudes and behaviors with regard to intentions for having a child tend to be affected by their partner's attitudes and behaviors toward the same. Thus, the family systems approach take here provides a more holistic understanding of couple and family decision‐making processes on this issue than is possible when only collecting data from individuals. Implications For parents, interventions aimed at enhancing communication and negotiation skills between couple members could foster a more shared and informed decision‐making process. Improving women's sense of control and mastery over the juggling of multiple roles may help reduce childless women's concerns about the costs of having children.
    October 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12250   open full text
  • Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised Scores in Adolescents: A Psychometric and Person‐Oriented Study.
    James R. Andretta, Michael T. McKay, Séamus A. Harvey, John L. Perry.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. October 04, 2017
    Objective Identify perceived parental security profiles and examine differences across profiles with regard to self‐esteem and three domains of self‐efficacy (i.e., social, emotional, and academic). Background The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised (IPPA‐R) is an index of the quality of communication, feelings of trust, and degree of alienation that adolescents and young adults perceive in their parental and peer relationships. However, the factor structure of IPPA‐R scores has yet to be examined in adolescents, and no study to date has included a person‐oriented analysis using the assessment tool. Method Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) were planned to examine the structural validity of IPPA‐R scores in a large sample of adolescents (N = 1,126; 61% male, 12–16 years of age). Model‐based clustering was employed to enumerate perceived parental security profiles, and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to interpret profile differences in outcomes. Results CFA (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA = .06, comparative fit index, CFI = .90) and ESEM (RMSEA = .04, CFI = .95) substantiated the proposed three‐factor structure for IPPA‐R parent (but not peer) scores. Model‐based clustering led to the identification of five perceived parental security profiles: (a) high security, (b) moderately high security, (c) average security, (d) moderately low security, and (e) low security. Adolescents with high security and low security profiles, respectively, reported the highest and lowest levels of self‐esteem and self‐efficacy (0.48 ≤ Cohen's d ≤ 1.67). Conclusion IPPA‐R parent, but not peer, scores appear to be a valid index of perceived parental security in adolescents. Perceived parental security profiles are strongly associated with self‐concept. Implications A student's self‐confidence in his or her ability to manage emotions and cope with the academic demands of school is explained, in part, by perceived parental security. Therefore, interventions designed to develop feelings of trust and closeness with parents, as well as lines of communication, might result in improvements in how adolescents perceive their emotional and academic aptitude.
    October 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12252   open full text
  • Parent–Child Relationships and Adolescents' Life Satisfaction Across the First Decade of the New Millennium.
    Antonia Jiménez‐Iglesias, Irene García‐Moya, Carmen Moreno.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. October 04, 2017
    Objective To examine whether changes occurred in parent–child relationships (maternal and paternal affection, ease of communication with the mother and father, maternal and paternal knowledge, and family activities) between 2002 and 2010 in boys and girls and to examine the contributions of these family dimensions to life satisfaction. Background Although parent–child relationships may be affected by social change, there are few investigations of change in parent–child relationships over time. Method The sample consisted of 46,593 adolescents between 11 to 18 years of age who participated in the 2002, 2006, or 2010 editions of the Health Behaviour in School‐aged Children (HBSC) study in Spain. Trend analysis including univariate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and factorial ANOVAs were conducted separately for boys and girls, and effect size tests were calculated. Results Communication with fathers and family activities statistically increased across HBSC editions and parent–child relationships were positively associated with life satisfaction across the examined period. Conclusion There were small positive changes in some family dimensions, and some of them were increasingly important for adolescent life satisfaction over time. Implications Interventions for strengthening parent–child relationships and promoting adolescent well‐being should include mothers and fathers and emphasize affection, communication, and family activities.
    October 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12249   open full text
  • In the Event of Death: Lesbian Families' Plans to Preserve Stepparent–Child Relationships.
    Katie L. Acosta.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. July 21, 2017
    Objective This study explores the plans women in same‐sex stepfamilies make to preserve stepparent–child relationships in the event of an origin parent's death. Background The incomplete institutionalization of stepparent–child relationships leaves them legally vulnerable, and this vulnerability may be compounded for lesbian stepparent families given that existing policies (such as second‐parent or joint adoption) are not accessible to them. Method This study is based on in‐depth phone interviews with 39 birth, adoptive, and stepparents residing in 17 states. All were raising children from previous relationships and did so for at least one year before study participation. Some grounded theory strategies were adopted to code the transcribed data. Results Findings indicate that three approaches were used: (a) relying solely and informally on family members, (b) outlining in‐the‐event‐of‐death wishes in wills for extended family to follow, and (c) assuming that the children were old enough to choose for themselves. Conclusion Findings suggest that existing family policies leave stepparent–child relationships legally vulnerable in the event of the origin parent's death. Implications The three plans participants articulated may promote division rather than unify a support network for children at a time when they are most needing stability. Family life educators can play a key role in mitigating these divisions by teaching families tools to foster harmonious coparenting relationships among multiple parents.
    July 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12243   open full text
  • Parental Participation in the Process of Youth Joining a Program: Perspectives from Adolescents and Parents.
    Hyeyoung Kang, Marcela Raffaelli, Jill Bowers, Lorraine Munoz, Sandra Simpkins.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. July 21, 2017
    Objective This study examined the nature and extent of parental participation in the process of adolescents joining an organized program and identify factors underlying variations in overarching patterns of participation. Background Adolescents become increasingly interested in making their own choices and decisions. Thus, families must balance parental goals and adolescents' desire for autonomy in their social activities. Method Interviews were conducted with 62 adolescent program participants and 52 parents. Data analyses followed an inductive approach to identify emergent patterns in the data. Results We identified four roles parents played at the time their adolescent joined a program: emotional supporter, manager, informant, and instrumental supporter. Further, analyses revealed variations in roles and level of involvement related to adolescent age and ethnicity, as well as gaps between adolescent and parent perspectives. Overarching variations in parental engagement (the extent to which parents exerted influence during the joining process) were linked to parent, adolescent, and program factors. Conclusion Findings indicate that a multitude of factors intersect and shape whether and how parents attempt to influence the joining process and manage adolescents' social activities. Implications Our findings can be used by program administrators and youth leaders to strengthen outreach and recruitment efforts with adolescents from ethnically and socioeconomically diverse family backgrounds.
    July 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12247   open full text
  • Role of Marital Adjustment in Associations Between Romantic Attachment and Coparenting.
    Michelle Young, Shelley Riggs, Patricia Kaminski.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. July 21, 2017
    Objective A family systems framework was used to examine the reciprocal influences of parents' romantic attachment security, marital adjustment, and the coparenting alliance. Background Research indicates that adult attachment strategies are predictive of adult romantic relationships, but there is less evidence linking adult romantic attachment to the ability to effectively coparent. Furthermore, much of the prior coparenting literature has focused on direct paths and has not accounted for mutual influence within parental dyads, despite an increased awareness of the interdependence among familial roles and a push to understand familywide dynamics. Method A community sample of 86 heterosexual couples with a residential child between 8 and 11 years of age completed the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Coparenting Scale as part of a larger study on family processes in middle childhood. Multilevel models were conducted utilizing the actor‐partner interdependence model. Results Compared to their low attachment anxiety counterparts, spouses with higher attachment anxiety and avoidance reported lower levels of marital adjustment, less coparenting cooperation, and more coparenting conflict. Findings indicated that marital adjustment mediates the relationship between romantic attachment style and perceptions of coparenting. Conclusion Results highlight the benefit of conceptualizing parental attachment, marital, and coparental subsystems within a systemic framework and suggest that a healthy marital relationship is an important intervening factor that helps explain links between attachment security and the coparenting alliance. Implications Findings underscore the importance of evaluating and treating multiple levels of the family system and suggest that therapeutic treatment of the marital relationship may be associated with a healthier coparenting dynamic.
    July 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12245   open full text
  • Associations Between Economic Pressure and Diabetes Efficacy in Couples with Type 2 Diabetes.
    Joshua R. Novak, Jared R. Anderson, Matthew D. Johnson, Ann Walker, Allison Wilcox, Virginia L. Lewis, David C. Robbins.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. July 19, 2017
    Objective The purpose of this study was to explore dyadic associations between economic pressure and diabetes self‐efficacy via emotional distress in patients with type 2 diabetes and their partners. Background Understanding how economic pressure is associated with successful diabetes management is an important area for research, as couples with type 2 diabetes can incur heavy economic pressures that could likely influence diabetes outcomes. Method Data from 117 married couples were used to test actor–partner associations using moderated mediation analyses in a structural equation modeling framework. Problem‐solving communication was tested as a possible moderator of the economic pressure–emotional distress pathway. Results Results revealed that greater patient economic pressure was associated with lower patient and spouse confidence in the patient's diabetes management ability through higher levels of patient emotional distress. The deleterious association between economic pressure and emotional distress was less pronounced when spouses reported more effective problem‐solving communication. Conclusion These results provide evidence that the economic pressure couples with type 2 diabetes face may reduce the patient and spouse's confidence in the patient's diabetes management ability. Implications This study demonstrates the importance of couple's relationship processes in buffering the impact of economic pressure on diabetes management, providing a clear target for intervention and education efforts.
    July 19, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12246   open full text
  • The Spillover of Child‐Related Stress into Parents' Relationship Mediated by Couple Communication.
    Martina Zemp, Fridtjof W. Nussbeck, E. Mark Cummings, Guy Bodenmann.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. July 11, 2017
    Objective The present study examines the impact of parents' perceptions of child‐related stress on observed couple communication and their self‐reported relationship satisfaction. Background A considerable body of evidence indicates that challenges related to raising children can negatively affect parents' interactions and relationship satisfaction. Although some potentially underlying mechanisms have been explored in previous research, questions about the potential effect of child‐related stress on the interparental relationship remain open. Method Parents' perceptions of child‐related stress and relationship satisfaction were assessed in a convenience sample of 118 parental couples living in Switzerland. Additionally, the couples participated in a conflict conversation task to obtain an observational measure of couples' communication quality. Data were analyzed with an actor–partner interdependence mediation model. Results Child‐related stress among parents was directly linked to lower relationship satisfaction in both partners and one partner's child‐related stress was associated with the other partner's communication quality. The mediation analysis revealed that high levels of child‐related stress were linked with relationship satisfaction by impairing the other partner's communication quality. Conclusion The study suggests that child‐related stress is among the challenges that may impair parents' relationship quality, partially mediated through worsened couple communication. Implications The findings support the potential benefits of prevention programs aimed at reducing child‐related stress and enhancing couple coping skills for maintaining parents' relationship satisfaction over time.
    July 11, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12244   open full text
  • Feminist Research with Student Activists: Enhancing Campus Sexual Assault Research.
    Kathleen H. Krause, Stephanie S. Miedema, Rebecca Woofter, Kathryn M. Yount.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 16, 2017
    Addressing sexual assault on university and college campuses in the United States is a national priority. To date, research on campus sexual assault overwhelmingly focuses on students as objects of study: as survivors, perpetrators, and bystanders of sexual assault. This focus has largely overlooked students who act as agents of change, mobilizing to alter campus norms around consent, prevention, survivor support, and institutional response. In this article, we encourage feminist scholars to incorporate students as advocates against sexual assault and to invite students to be collaborators in research. We discuss a student‐led organization and our ongoing collaborative study with the organization to illustrate how feminist researchers can feature student engagement with campus sexual assault at the grass roots. We conclude with recommendations to expand the national research agenda on campus sexual assault.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12239   open full text
  • Intersectionality and Perceptions About Sexual Assault Education and Reporting on College Campuses.
    Meredith G. F. Worthen, Samantha A. Wallace.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 16, 2017
    A mixed‐methods design with an intersectional feminist framework was used with 1,899 students at a large Southern university to critically examine (a) how students view the issue of sexual assault on their own campus, (b) how they perceive the status of reporting sexual assault to campus officials, and (c) how they are responding overall to a campus‐wide sexual assault education program. Some privileged groups, especially heterosexual men, were less informed than others about sexual assault and less supportive of campus sexual assault education. In contrast, some marginalized groups, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual students, perceived campus sexual assault to be a more serious issue than did other groups, but they were also most critical of heteronormative biases in most campus programing. Non‐White students were most supportive of sexual assault education. Empirically driven implications for campus sexual assault programs are provided.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12240   open full text
  • Why Sexual Assault Survivors Do Not Report to Universities: A Feminist Analysis.
    Chelsea Spencer, Allen Mallory, Michelle Toews, Sandra Stith, Leila Wood.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 16, 2017
    The present study analyzed responses from 220 female survivors of sexual assault at a U.S. college campus. Guided by feminist thought, we used thematic analysis to analyze survivors' reasons for not reporting their sexual assault to university officials. Drawing on participants' own words, the most common reasons for not reporting included “It was not a big enough deal,” “I didn't know who to report to or that I could report,” “It wasn't related to the university,” “I was afraid,” “Because I was drunk,” “Too ashamed to report,” “I didn't want to get him in trouble,” and “Felt as if I would be blamed for putting myself in the situation.” We conducted a series of binary logistic regressions to determine which demographic and experiential variables were associated with the thematic reason(s) for not reporting. In the spirit of feminist praxis, we offer implications for universities to remove barriers for reporting sexual violence.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12241   open full text
  • The Abuse Litmus Test: A Classroom Tool to Assess Power and Control in On‐Screen Relationships.
    Amy E. Bonomi, Asia A. Eaton, Julianna M. Nemeth, Tameka L. Gillum.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 16, 2017
    Despite university efforts and recent evidence‐based interventions to reduce campus sexual assault, few systematic approaches have addressed how media depictions of sex and romance that inundate young adults via popular culture help to develop and sustain attitudes and behaviors that tolerate sexual abuse and intimate partner violence as normative. We introduce a feminist‐informed pedagogical tool—drawing from the Duluth Power and Control Wheel and the Women's Experience with Battering Framework—to facilitate college students' decoding of relationship power, control, and harm in popular film, including dynamics relevant to sexual assault. We include step‐by‐step instructions for implementing the tool in classroom settings, including estimated duration, script, sample films, discussion questions, and debriefing procedures (including linking to campus assault dynamics).
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12237   open full text
  • Sisterhood and Sexual Assault: Engaging Sorority Members in Dialogue, Critical Analysis, and Feminist Praxis.
    M. Elise Radina.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 16, 2017
    Taking a feminist pedagogy and praxis approach, I present a course model for engaging sorority members in critical analysis and feminist praxis around the issue of campus rape culture. This course model responds to two problems: (a) the prevailing disconnect between the efforts of departments of student affairs and academic affairs and (b) the untapped potential that faculty members with sorority or fraternity affiliations have as change agents by identifying themselves publically on campus. The resulting course provides a women‐only space where issues such as sexual assault can be analyzed, critiqued, and challenged in ways that incorporate the nuances within Greek subcultures on university campuses. Such courses may provide students with the intellectual space to challenge campus issues such as campus rape culture as well as empower them to engage in feminist praxis as change agents.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12234   open full text
  • A Feminist Analysis of Campus Sexual Assault Policies: Results from a National Sample.
    Tara N. Richards, Kathryn A. Branch, Ruth E. Fleury‐Steiner, Katherine Kafonek.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 16, 2017
    Institutions of higher education (IHEs) in the United States are obligated to address sexual assault on campus under the Clery Act and Title IX, and a recent surge in societal interest in sexual assault among college students has prompted many IHEs to bolster their response. Little systematic information exists about IHEs' sexual assault policies and services and whether they align with feminist‐based models of advocacy. This study examined annual security reports and student handbooks and codes of conduct for a nationally representative sample of 4‐year IHEs (N = 387) and assessed IHEs' responses to sexual assault on college campuses through the lens of a feminist‐based organizational model. Findings indicate that policies for the sampled IHEs include a mean of 12 of 17 policy components' aligned with feminist models, and 4% of sampled IHEs include all 17 components. Implications for improving IHEs' responses to sexual assault in ways consistent with feminist models are discussed.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12236   open full text
  • From Furious to Fearless: Faculty Action and Feminist Praxis in Response to Rape Culture on College Campuses.
    Elizabeth A. Sharp, Dana A. Weiser, Don E. Lavigne, R. Corby Kelly.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 16, 2017
    In this article, we (four faculty members) draw on a specific rape‐promoting incident on our campus as a case study for feminist faculty responses to civil rights issues on college campuses. We critically examine the incident and share our multipronged response as faculty members. In so doing, we highlight interdisciplinary activism, the importance of strong visual presence of feminist faculty activism on campus, as well as our challenges and dilemmas. As a call to arms, we hope this article inspires other faculty to recognize their power and to take incisive action on their respective campuses.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12238   open full text
  • Confronting Myths About Sexual Assault: A Feminist Analysis of the False Report Literature.
    Dana A. Weiser.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 16, 2017
    Inaccurate beliefs that women commonly lie about sexual assault and target innocent men are pervasive in the United States, particularly on college and university campuses. Research consistently demonstrates that false reports of sexual assault account for less than 10% of reported cases and that individuals are unlikely to be wrongly accused of sexual assault. Thus, to pursue justice on campuses and beyond, family scholars must challenge misinformation about false reports in their teaching and scholarship to shift the narrative away from these prevalent and harmful rape myths. Doing so will allow for a more comprehensive and informed dialogue about how to address sexual assault on university campuses. This article offers a feminist analysis of the issue, clearly delineates the definition of a false report, critically reviews the false report literature, and presents suggestions for educational efforts by family professionals.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12235   open full text
  • Feminist Agency, Sexual Scripts, and Sexual Violence: Developing a Model for Postgendered Family Communication.
    Kelly R. Rossetto, Andrew C. Tollison.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. April 21, 2017
    We explore the interrelated research on intersectionality, feminist agency, script theory, and gender socialization to uncover the ways in which college students may experience institutionalized sexual scripts and perceptions of agency in sexual encounters. We theorize that changes at the family level could ultimately help create a shift in a campus culture that has become entrenched, with biased sexual scripts that lead to power imbalances and sexual violence. With underpinnings of social role theory and modeling, this article develops a model of postgendered family communication. Practical family communication suggestions based on the model are provided for parents and family educators that could help shift sexual scripts, enable feminist agency, and improve rates of sexual assault incidence and reporting at the institutional level.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12232   open full text
  • From Infantilizing to World Making: Safe Spaces and Trigger Warnings on Campus.
    Katie Byron.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. April 21, 2017
    Student requests for trigger warnings and safe spaces have emerged following widespread concern over the mishandling of cases of sexual violence on college campuses. Recent media attention to such interventions has been critical, framing them as coddling students and failing to prepare them for the real world. These criticisms conflate the desire for safety with the feeling of comfort or freedom from offense or challenge. Student requests for trigger warnings and safe spaces bring trauma into the public sphere and create spaces in academic settings for students to exist without expectations that they are fully healed. This article examines student requests for safe spaces or trigger warnings in the United States in discussions about trauma and healing in academia and shifts the dialogue to provide a queer feminist theoretical framework for understanding these requests as world‐making projects that provide an account of public trauma and a sense of collective vulnerability.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12233   open full text
  • Disenfranchisement and Ambiguity in the Face of Loss: The Suffocated Grief of Sexual Assault Survivors.
    Tashel Bordere.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. April 21, 2017
    Grief, loss, and social injustice are vital elements in the distinct yet intersecting stories of sexual assault and post‐assault survivorship. Yet survivors must frequently cope in isolation or in programs and therapeutic settings informed by literature that does not consistently account for grief and loss as central to their experiences. Utilizing a feminist framework, I review and critique literature on sexual assault survivorship and loss with focus on factors related to disenfranchisement and suffocated grief among young adult females. I also explore how these factors further complicate grief and mourning processes. Implications for socially just and culturally appropriate research and practice with bereaved sexual assault survivors are provided.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12231   open full text
  • Lights, Camera, Activism: Using a Film Series to Generate Feminist Dialogue About Campus Sexual Violence.
    John B. K. Purcell, C. Rebecca Oldham, Dana A. Weiser, Elizabeth A. Sharp.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. April 21, 2017
    We examine the use of an interdisciplinary film series, “2015 Sexism | Cinema: 50 Years on the Silver Screen,” as a space for discussion where attendees can discover allies, express critical thought, and advance their thinking. A film series is a useful response to the widespread problem of campus sexual assault in three critical ways: (a) a theater provides an informal, recreational space for discussion of feminist thought; (b) the content of the films highlights the insidious nature of sexual violence and gender inequality in our culture; and (c) there exists a degree of separation that subverts defensiveness while inspiring a critical dialogue. We discuss the utility of a film series as an accessible approach to the cultural antecedents of sexual violence on college campuses. We offer our own experiences of the film series and recommend film as a feminist pedagogical tool to address sexual violence.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12228   open full text
  • Scripting Sexual Consent: Internalized Traditional Sexual Scripts and Sexual Consent Expectancies Among College Students.
    Stacey J. T. Hust, Kathleen Boyce Rodgers, Benjamin Bayly.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. April 11, 2017
    College students are at a relatively high risk for both sexual assault victimization and perpetration, and understanding sexual consent is imperative to reduce the incidence of sexual assault. Informed by the interactionist perspective of feminist theory, we surveyed 447 undergraduate students to identify factors associated with heterosexual college students' expectancies related to sexual consent. Women who believed in sexual stereotypes and endorsed music that degrades women were less likely than other women to expect to engage in healthy negotiation of sexual consent. Men who were confident that they could avoid perpetrating nonsexual, physical interpersonal violence were statistically more likely to report practicing healthy negotiation of sexual consent. These results indicate that it is important for practitioners to consider individuals' sexual stereotypes in the prevention of interpersonal sexual violence.
    April 11, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12230   open full text
  • Teaching Undergraduates About LGBTQ Identities, Families, and Intersectionality.
    Abbie E. Goldberg, Katherine R. Allen.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 10, 2017
    Teaching undergraduate students about LGBTQ identities and family issues presents several challenges, or “opportunities,” which we address within personal, ecological, and historical contexts. We begin by articulating our positionality as scholars and instructors, and the feminist intersectional and queer lens that guides our research and pedagogy. We organize our presentation of contemporary teaching opportunities around three primary and interrelated topics: (a) teaching about LGBTQ issues with attention to intersectionality as a conceptual framework, (b) teaching about sexual orientation diversity and fluidity, and (c) teaching about gender diversity and transgender identities. We incorporate suggestions for educational practice throughout and recommend that instructors continually revise their teaching practices to reflect the changing technological and social landscape, thus maximizing opportunities for student engagement and learning.
    March 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12224   open full text
  • Many Mornings After: Campus Sexual Assault and Feminist Politics.
    Janice Haaken.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 10, 2017
    In 1994, the feminist journalist Katie Roiphe published a book titled The Morning After in which she argues that the women's movement had become obsessed with victimization. With many of her case examples centered on campus sexual politics, Roiphe laments college women's demands for the very forms of patriarchal protections that second‐wave feminists fought to overturn. In the two decades since the publication of this book, campus activists have gained considerable ground in bringing sexual assault into public awareness, insisting (contra Roiphe) that victims have been all too silent. This article presents an appraisal of this historical legacy and draws out key lessons to be learned from the history of feminist organizing around sexual assault on campuses. The author explains how radical, liberal, and socialist feminist politics offer different lenses for framing sexual assault and discusses the value of a psychoanalytic feminist optics for thinking through dilemmas at the level of political practice.
    March 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12227   open full text
  • The Experiences of Sexual Minority Mothers with Trans* Children.
    Katherine A. Kuvalanka, Samuel H. Allen, Cat Munroe, Abbie E. Goldberg, Judith L. Weiner.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 10, 2017
    Eight nonheterosexual (i.e., bisexual, lesbian, bi/pansexual) mothers with trans* children between 6 and 11 years of age participated in semistructured interviews in which they discussed the intersections of their own sexual minority identities with their children's gender identities or expressions. Transfamily theory was utilized to understand how heteronormativity and cisnormativity operated in these families' lives. Initial lack of awareness among most of the mothers regarding trans* identities, as well as efforts by some to curb their children's gender expressions, paralleled previous reports on primarily heterosexual parents with trans* children. Having sexual minority identities and experience with LGBTQ communities was beneficial for some mothers but seemingly disadvantageous for others, in that some experienced blame for their children's trans* statuses, often due to the fact that these mothers identified as queer themselves. Findings reveal complexities in how participants were influenced by heteronormativity and cisnormativity and have implications for those looking to learn more about queer parents' experiences raising their trans* children.
    March 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12226   open full text
  • Dyadic and Triadic Family Interactions as Simultaneous Predictors of Children's Externalizing Behaviors.
    Sarah E. Murphy, Erin Boyd‐Soisson, Deborah B. Jacobvitz, Nancy L. Hazen.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 10, 2017
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dyadic and triadic family interactions and their association with the development of children's externalizing behaviors. Data were obtained from a longitudinal study of family interactions (N = 125), followed from before parents had their first child until children were 7 years old. Family interactions (marital, father–child, mother–child, and triadic mother–father–child) were observed in separate interaction tasks when children were 24 months old as predictors of children's externalizing behaviors at age 7 (n = 71 children). Results demonstrated that the triadic measure of competitive coparenting and the dyadic mother–child interaction characterized by negative emotional socialization related to children's later externalizing behavior, even after controlling for covariates and effects of all other family interaction variables. Results emphasize the importance of examining the family holistically and provided new information for designing more effective whole‐family interventions to reduce the development of children's externalizing behaviors.
    March 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12225   open full text
  • African American Extended Family and Church‐Based Social Network Typologies.
    Ann W. Nguyen, Linda M. Chatters, Robert Joseph Taylor.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. January 17, 2017
    We examined social network typologies among African American adults and their sociodemographic correlates. Network types were derived from indicators of the family and church networks. Latent class analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life. Results indicated four distinct network types: ambivalent, optimal, family centered, and strained. These four types were distinguished by (a) degree of social integration, (b) network composition, and (c) level of negative interactions. In a departure from previous work, a network type composed solely of nonkin was not identified, which may reflect racial differences in social network typologies. Further, the analysis indicated that network types varied by sociodemographic characteristics. Social network typologies have several promising practice implications, as they can inform the development of prevention and intervention programs.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12218   open full text
  • Parent–Child Estrangement: Conditions for Disclosure and Perceived Social Network Member Reactions.
    Kristina M. Scharp.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. January 17, 2017
    Disclosing a family disruption like estrangement might be an important first step in garnering supportive communication, yet disclosure also might come with costs. Grounded in the disclosure literatures, this study illuminates the conditions under which adult children disclose estrangement from parents to their social networks and the perceived reactions of social network members to such disclosures. Findings from a thematic analysis of 52 narrative interviews reveal that adult children go to great lengths to keep their estrangement private, but disclose (a) when others witnessed conflict, (b) when asked, (c) when disclosure was indirect, and (d) when (they perceived) it would benefit others. Reactions to disclosure were rarely ambivalent, and adult children primarily felt unsupported by their network. Practical applications are discussed.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12219   open full text
  • Renegotiating Nonresidential Father–Child Relationships During Emerging Adulthood.
    Richard Feistman, Tyler Jamison, Marilyn Coleman, Lawrence Ganong.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. January 17, 2017
    Father–child relationships tend to decrease in quality and closeness following parental divorce, yet little is known about how these relationships evolve in response to normative developmental changes in children. We conducted a grounded theory study of how 33 emerging adults maintained or changed their relationships with their nonresidential fathers during the transition to adulthood. In‐depth interviews revealed that some father–child relationships were unchanged by divorce, but most became more distant immediately following parental separation. During emerging adulthood these relationships did not necessarily become closer, but communication often increased and stressful interactions decreased for some, especially when compared to childhood. The findings suggest that normative changes that accompany emerging adulthood (e.g., leaving home, gaining new insight about themselves and their families) may facilitate renewed connections between previously distant nonresidential fathers and children.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12223   open full text
  • Parent–Adolescent Relationship Factors and Adolescent Outcomes Among High‐Risk Families.
    Mathew C. Withers, Lenore M. McWey, Mallory Lucier‐Greer.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. January 17, 2017
    Using a stress‐process and attachment theory framework, we identified salient aspects of the parent–adolescent relationship and tested the extent to which those aspects were longitudinally associated with depression, withdrawal, delinquency, and aggressive behavior outcomes among a sample of high‐risk adolescents (N = 498). First, four dimensions of the parent–adolescent relationship were identified: emotional closeness, communication, autonomy, and conflict. Next, latent profile analyses were conducted, and four distinct parent–adolescent relationship profiles emerged: secure, avoidant, anxious, and detached. Adolescent outcomes were assessed 2 years later. Results indicated that (a) adolescents in the avoidant and anxious profiles demonstrated higher depression symptoms than did those in the secure profile, (b) higher levels of aggression were demonstrated in the avoidant profile, and (c) higher levels of delinquency were demonstrated in the detached profile. Implications for parent–adolescent relationships and family therapy interventions are provided.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12220   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Gatekeeping, and Child Conduct Problems.
    Bharathi J. Zvara, W. Roger Mills‐Koonce, Martha Cox,.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. January 17, 2017
    We examined the mediating role of parenting behavior on the relationship between intimate partner violence and child conduct problems, as well as the moderating role of maternal gatekeeping to these associations. The sample (N = 395) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty in the eastern United States exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape child development over time. Study findings indicate that a father's harsh–intrusive parenting behavior may be a key mediating pathway linking intimate partner violence and child conduct problems. Study findings further provide evidence for problematic outcomes for children when mothers encourage fathers with high levels of harsh–intrusive parenting to interact with their children.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12221   open full text
  • A Person‐Oriented Analysis of Couple and Relationship Education.
    Devin G. DuPree, Jason B. Whiting, Steven M. Harris.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. January 17, 2017
    Couple and relationship education (CRE) has effectively improved communication and relationship satisfaction, but some question its effectiveness for couples who are at risk. Mixed findings may derive from focusing on aggregated sample results. This study explored the benefit of using a person‐oriented analysis for evaluating CRE program effectiveness with low‐income couples and individuals. Couple participants reported moderate improvement in communication and relationship satisfaction, but the magnitude of reported improvement varied for male participants from different ethnic groups. An outcomes‐focused cluster analysis showed that variance in reported improvement can be explained by pre‐workshop outcome measures, with couples starting in the middle range of scores reporting the most improvement. Similar patterns were found for individual participants. Researchers and practitioners should further investigate the use of person‐oriented methods in CRE program evaluation and the use of pre‐workshop assessments to adjust CRE interventions on the basis of the state of participants' relationships at intake.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/fare.12222   open full text
  • Communication Structures of Supplemental Voluntary Kin Relationships.
    Dawn O. Braithwaite, Jenna Stephenson Abetz, Julia Moore, Katie Brockhage.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. November 16, 2016
    Although scholars have constructed typologies of voluntary (fictive) kin, few have considered challenges and opportunities of interaction and relationships between biolegal and voluntary kin. This study focused on one type of voluntary kin, supplemental voluntary kin, relationships that often arise because of differing values, underperformed roles, or physical distance from the biolegal family, and wherein relationships are maintained with biolegal and voluntary kin. We examined how these family systems are constructed via interactions in relational triads of “linchpin” persons between biolegal family and voluntary kin. From in‐depth interviews with 36 supplemental voluntary kin, we examined themes in the linchpins' discourse surrounding the interaction, rituals, and ideal relationship between biolegal family and voluntary kin. We constructed a typology of four relational triads representing these relationships: intertwined, limited, separate, and hostile. We describe the structure and communication within each type, and implications for helping families with these triangulated voluntary kin relationships.
    November 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12215   open full text
  • Daily Poverty‐Related Stress and Coping: Associations with Child Learned Helplessness.
    Eleanor D. Brown, Mariam D. Seyler, Andrea M. Knorr, Mallory L. Garnett, Jean‐Philippe Laurenceau.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. November 16, 2016
    This study examined daily poverty‐related stress and parents' efforts to help children cope with stress in relation to learned helplessness for young children attending a Head Start preschool. A total of 750 telephone interviews were conducted with 75 parents concerning their daily stressors and strategies they used to help children cope. A behavioral protocol measured child learned helplessness. Multilevel modeling showed a positive within‐persons relationship between daily stress and coping, and a positive between‐persons relationship between daily stress and child learned helplessness. Implications include understanding the daily processes through which the poverty ecology transmits risk for negative child developmental outcomes and through which parents might offer protection. Specifically, the results suggest that daily poverty‐related stressors may undermine young children's developing sense of control and suggest the importance of further research on how parent coping might promote positive outcomes.
    November 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12217   open full text
  • Dads Tuning In to Kids: Preliminary Evaluation of a Fathers' Parenting Program.
    Katherine R. Wilson, Sophie S. Havighurst, Christiane Kehoe, Ann E. Harley.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. November 16, 2016
    We investigated outcomes of Dads Tuning In to Kids, a new seven‐session group program targeting paternal emotion‐socialization practices, which are related to children's social and emotional functioning. In a randomized control trial with 162 fathers of children between 3 and 6 years of age, intervention fathers (n = 87) and waitlist control fathers (n = 75) completed questionnaires at baseline (pre‐program) and 10 weeks later (post‐program). Compared to control fathers, intervention fathers statistically increased in empathy, encouragement of emotion expression, and parenting efficacy, and decreased in emotion‐dismissing beliefs, dismissive reactions to children's negative emotions, and hostile parenting responses. They also reported improved child behavior. These findings offer preliminary support for this program for fathers.
    November 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12216   open full text
  • Does Paid Maternity Leave Affect Infant Development and Second‐Birth Intentions?
    Woosang Hwang, Eunjoo Jung.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. September 16, 2016
    Given the economic implications of a low‐fertility rate, many countries have implemented paid maternity leave to promote births. However, the efficacy of this policy is mostly unknown. We examined whether paid maternity leave in South Korea, which has a fertility rate among the lowest in the world, is directly related to infant development and employed mothers' second‐birth intentions, and indirectly associated with these outcomes via parenting stress. Participants included 315 married and employed Korean mothers in the months after giving birth to their first child. Paid maternity leave was beneficial for infant development but was not a solution for promoting second‐birth intentions among employed mothers in Korea. Parenting stress adversely affected both infant development and employed mothers' second‐birth intentions, and it may therefore need to be considered as work–family policies, fertility issues, and infant development in families are addressed. Implications considering cultural and familial contexts are discussed.
    September 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12214   open full text
  • Can We Fix This? Parent–Child Repair Processes and Preschoolers' Regulatory Skills.
    Christine J. Kemp, Erika Lunkenheimer, Erin C. Albrecht, Deborah Chen.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. September 16, 2016
    The repair of difficult parent–child interactions is a marker of healthy functioning in infancy, but less is known about repair processes during early childhood. We used dynamic systems methods to investigate dyadic repair in mothers and their 3‐year‐old children (N = 96) and its prediction of children's emotion regulation and behavior problems at a 4‐month follow‐up. Mothers and children completed free play and challenging puzzle tasks. Repair was operationalized as the conditional probability of moving into a dyadic adaptive behavior region after individual or dyadic maladaptive behavior (e.g., child noncompliance, parental criticism). Overall, dyads repaired approximately half their maladaptive behaviors. A greater likelihood of repair during the puzzle task predicted better child emotion regulation and fewer behavior problems in preschool. Results suggest dyadic repair is an important process in early childhood and provide further evidence for the connection between parent–child coregulation and children's developing regulatory capacities. Implications for family‐based interventions are discussed.
    September 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12213   open full text
  • Boundary Ambiguity and Ambivalence in Military Family Reintegration.
    William‐Glenn L. Hollingsworth, Megan L. Dolbin‐MacNab, Lydia I. Marek.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. August 30, 2016
    Although more than 2 million service members have experienced deployment since 2001, predictors of postdeployment family functioning remain unclear. Utilizing the Contextual Model of Family Stress (Boss, 2002), this study examined military‐related factors (e.g., rank, component, combat exposure, postdeployment time at home, cumulative length of deployments), boundary ambiguity, and family‐ and deployment‐related ambivalence as predictors of family functioning during reintegration. Service members (N = 228) from multiple branches of the U.S. military participated in a national survey related to family relationships and support programming. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that service members from lower ranks, who were home for longer periods of time, and who endorsed higher degrees of boundary ambiguity and family‐related ambivalence reported poorer family functioning. Results emphasize the relevance of boundary ambiguity and family‐related ambivalence to the reintegration process and can inform prevention and intervention efforts that promote family well‐being in the military population during the critical postdeployment period.
    August 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12207   open full text
  • A Comparison of Three Online Recruitment Strategies for Engaging Parents.
    Jodi Dworkin, Heather Hessel, Kate Gliske, Jessie H. Rudi.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. August 26, 2016
    Family scientists can face the challenge of effectively and efficiently recruiting normative samples of parents and families. Utilizing the Internet to recruit parents is a strategic way to find participants where they already are, enabling researchers to overcome many of the barriers to in‐person recruitment. The present study was designed to compare three online recruitment strategies for recruiting parents: e‐mail Listservs, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Analyses revealed differences in the effectiveness and efficiency of data collection. In particular, MTurk resulted in the most demographically diverse sample, in a short period of time, with little cost. Listservs reached a large number of participants and resulted in a comparatively homogeneous sample. Facebook was not successful in recruiting a general sample of parents. Findings provide information that can help family researchers and practitioners be intentional about recruitment strategies and study design.
    August 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12206   open full text
  • Race as a Moderator of Associations Between Spanking and Child Outcomes.
    Elizabeth T. Gershoff, Andrew Grogan‐Kaylor.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. August 24, 2016
    The cultural normativeness perspective argues that parenting practices such as spanking are more beneficial for children when they occur in cultural groups within which they are normative. Research on this issue in the United States has focused on race as a marker of culture, and findings have been mixed. The present study presents meta‐analyses of five studies that reported effect sizes separately for White (n = 11,814) and Black (n = 3,065) American children (5 to 14 years of age). Mean weighted effect sizes for both groups indicated statistically significant associations with detrimental outcomes; they were not statistically significantly different from one another. Contrary to the cultural normativeness perspective, these results demonstrate that spanking is similarly associated with detrimental outcomes for White and Black children in the United States.
    August 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12205   open full text
  • Framework for Best Practices in Family Life Education: A Case Example.
    Sharon M. Ballard, Lisa E. Tyndall, Eboni J. Baugh, Carrie Bumgarner Bergeson, Kerry Littlewood.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. August 19, 2016
    Evidence‐based programming (EBP) in family life education is in high demand because it has a higher likelihood of achieving desired outcomes than non‐evidence‐based programming. Although EBP can promote program sustainability and fidelity, the implementation of EBP in real‐world settings can be challenging. Practitioners sometimes struggle with identifying the best way to adapt EBP to fit their needs. In this article, the Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) is used to provide an in‐depth case example of adapting and implementing EBP through the lens of Ballard and Taylor's (2012) Framework for Best Practices in Family Life Education. The authors outline framework elements that guided this adaptation, such as consideration of context and culture, program content and format, program design, and the role of the family life educator. Suggestions are provided for employing this framework to overcome barriers to implementation and ultimately increase program sustainability to improve the lives of families.
    August 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12200   open full text
  • Older Adult Descriptions of Living Apart Together.
    Jacquelyn J. Benson, Marilyn Coleman.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. August 12, 2016
    Much can be learned about the nature and meaning of close relationships by studying language use. This qualitative study explores the process of defining relationships and choosing partner reference terms among an understudied population—living apart together (LAT) couples in older adulthood. Twenty‐five men and women aged 60 years and older were interviewed about their LAT relationships. Grounded theory analyses demonstrated that participants chose terms by trial and error through a process of meaning making. Terms associated with youth culture (e.g., girlfriend, boyfriend) were spurned, although they were commonly used for lack of age‐appropriate alternatives. Participants defined LAT by drawing contrasts to dating and marital relationships. Practical implications and future directions for research are discussed.
    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12203   open full text
  • Pathways to Adaptive Emotion Regulation Among Adolescents from Low‐Income Families.
    Michael M. Criss, Amanda Sheffield Morris, Elisabeth Ponce‐Garcia, Lixian Cui, Jennifer S. Silk.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. August 12, 2016
    The current study examined pathways to adolescent anger and sadness regulation in low‐income families. The sample included 206 families with adolescents age 10–18 years. Using a multimethod, multi‐informant approach, we assessed neighborhood violence, mutual emotional support, parental emotion coaching, and anger and sadness regulation. The findings indicated that high levels of mutual emotional support and emotion coaching and low levels of neighborhood violence were correlated with adolescent emotion regulation. In addition, the analyses demonstrated multiple pathways to emotion regulation. Specifically, neighborhood violence was directly and indirectly related to anger and sadness regulation. Moreover, mutual emotional support was indirectly related to emotion regulation via emotion coaching. Overall, there was little evidence of adolescent sex and age differences in the model. Implications regarding the socialization of adolescent emotion regulation are discussed.
    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12202   open full text
  • The Role of Relational Instability on Individual and Partner Outcomes Following Couple Relationship Education Participation.
    Julianne McGill, Francesca Adler‐Baeder, Angela B. Bradford, Jennifer Kerpelman, Scott A. Ketring, Donna Sollie.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. August 12, 2016
    Some scholars have suggested that distressed populations may benefit more from couple and relationship education (CRE) than do their nondistressed counterparts. We examined this hypothesis using actor–partner interdependence models to explore the relationship between baseline relational instability and change for individuals and their partners (379 couples; 758 individuals) who participated in a CRE program for 6 to 8 weeks. Findings indicated that a higher level of relational instability on the part of women was associated with greater positive change in depressive symptoms. Furthermore, respondents' and partners' baseline relational instability moderated the change in women's couple quality, such that women reported greater positive change in relationship quality when reporting higher instability and higher relationship quality before CRE participation, and when their partners reported higher instability and lower quality before CRE participation. Men appear to benefit from CRE participation regardless of baseline relational instability. Suggestions for researchers and facilitators are discussed.
    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12201   open full text
  • Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile.
    Julie Ma, Andrew Grogan‐Kaylor, Jorge Delva.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. August 11, 2016
    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with adolescent outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examines the relationship of adolescent exposure to family and community violence—parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression—with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 adolescent–mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between adolescent exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on adolescent well‐being, these findings emphasize the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence adolescents are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence.
    August 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12199   open full text
  • Measuring Cultural Socialization Attitudes and Behaviors of Mexican‐Origin Mothers with Young Children: A Longitudinal Investigation.
    Chelsea L. Derlan, Adriana J. Umaña‐Taylor, Russell B. Toomey, Laudan B. Jahromi, Kimberly A. Updegraff.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. August 04, 2016
    We describe the development and psychometric testing of the Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure (CSBM) and the Cultural Socialization Attitudes Measure (CSAM). The CSBM assesses cultural socialization behaviors that parents use with young children, and the CSAM assesses the attitudes that parents have regarding the importance of socializing their young children about their culture. Both measures demonstrated strong reliability, validity, and cross‐language equivalence (i.e., Spanish and English) among a sample of 204 Mexican‐origin young mothers (Mage = 20.94 years, SD = 1.01) with 4‐year‐old children. In addition, the measures demonstrated longitudinal equivalence when children were 4 and 5 years of age.
    August 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12196   open full text
  • Moving Beyond Fatherhood Involvement: The Association Between Father–Child Relationship Quality and Youth Delinquency Trajectories.
    Jamie R. Yoder, Daniel Brisson, Amy Lopez.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. July 29, 2016
    The effect of nonresidential father relationship characteristics on delinquency trajectories among low‐income youth (N = 799) was examined using data from the Three Cities Study, a longitudinal study of mothers and their children eligible for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio. Growth curve models were employed to track delinquency trajectories and their rate of growth. Characteristics of father–child relationships (anger–alienation, trust–communication) were specified as predictors of delinquency while controlling for father involvement and family structure. Trust–communication influenced delinquency growth, but the rate of growth slowed as youth aged. Implications for programs, interventions, and policy are explored.
    July 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12197   open full text
  • Qualities of Character That Predict Marital Well‐Being.
    H. Wallace Goddard, Jonathan R. Olson, Adam M. Galovan, David G. Schramm, James P. Marshall.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. July 28, 2016
    A growing body of literature has examined relations among qualities of character—or marital virtues—and marital outcomes. Results of past research have suggested positive relations between qualities such as generosity, kindness, and forgiveness, and marital well‐being. We expand on previous research by examining relations between three qualities of character and marital satisfaction with 1,513 respondents randomly selected from three states. Specifically, we examined the effects of participants' perceptions of their partners' humility, compassion, and positivity on their own marital satisfaction. Results indicated statistically significant, positive associations between each of these qualities and marital satisfaction, although results vary by gender. Furthermore, a statistically significant interaction effect suggested that spousal humility may be a protective factor against marital stress among women. Implications for practice and program development are discussed.
    July 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12195   open full text
  • Perceived Barriers to Postdivorce Coparenting: Differences Between Men and Women and Associations with Coparenting Behaviors.
    Luke T. Russell, Jonathon J. Beckmeyer, Marilyn Coleman, Lawrence Ganong.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. July 28, 2016
    Using data from 291 divorced mothers and fathers, we compared their perceptions of how much legal‐financial, time‐logistics, and parental fitness barriers influenced their postdivorce coparenting, and we tested the associations between these barriers to postdivorce coparenting and self‐reported coparenting behaviors. Men perceived greater legal‐financial and time‐logistics barriers to postdivorce coparenting than did women, but no gender differences were found for perceived parental fitness barriers. In hierarchical regression analyses, perceived legal‐financial and parental fitness barriers were associated with mothers' coparenting behaviors; fathers' postdivorce coparenting behaviors were associated only with perceived legal‐financial barriers. Neither men's nor women's postdivorce coparenting behaviors were associated with time‐logistics barriers to postdivorce coparenting. Family professionals could support postdivorce coparents by reframing detrimental perceptions, helping parents navigate economic challenges, and providing resources or counseling for couples experiencing mental health challenges or abuse.
    July 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12198   open full text
  • Patterns of Enrollment and Engagement of Custodial Grandmothers in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Psychoeducational Interventions.
    Gregory C. Smith, Frederick Strieder, Patty Greenberg, Bert Hayslip, Julian Montoro‐Rodriguez.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 24, 2016
    Andersen's (2008) behavior model was used to investigate patterns of enrollment and treatment engagement among 343 custodial grandmothers who participated in a randomized clinical trial of three psychosocial interventions:(a) a behavioral parenting program, (b) a cognitive behavioral coping program, or (c) an information‐only condition. Treatment completion was superior to that typically found with birth parents, even though the grandmothers and their target grandchildren both had high levels of mental and physical health challenges. Compliance did not differ significantly by condition but was higher among grandmothers who self‐reported less positive affect, were older, and were using mental health professionals. Treatment satisfaction was highest in grandmothers who attended more treatment sessions, reported lower annual family income, had a health problem, and were using mental health professionals. The practice and policy implications of these findings are discussed, especially in terms of strategies for enhancing the engagement of custodial grandfamilies in future psychoeducational interventions.
    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12194   open full text
  • Historical Oppression and Indigenous Families: Uncovering Potential Risk Factors for Indigenous Families Touched by Violence.
    Catherine E. Burnette.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 24, 2016
    Violence against Indigenous women in the United States is higher than for any other racial group. Indigenous women tend to rely on families for support and recovery, yet the risk factors related to Indigenous families affected by violence are unknown. Therefore, interviews from a critical ethnography were used to uncover the perspectives of Indigenous women who have experienced intimate partner violence, along with the professionals who serve them, to understand potential risk factors that create vulnerability to and impair recovery from violence. Several themes emerged from pragmatic horizon analysis of interviews with 49 Indigenous women and professionals who work with tribal members affected by violence, including family divisions and parental impairments (i.e., intergenerational patterns of absent parental figures, parental alcohol abuse, and impaired bonding). Future research should examine these potential risk factors related to families affected by violence and their connections with historical oppression.
    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12191   open full text
  • Perceived Spousal Religiosity and Marital Quality Across Racial and Ethnic Groups.
    Samuel L. Perry.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 24, 2016
    The relationship between the perceived religiosity of one's spouse and marital quality varies across racial and ethnic groups (i.e., Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and non‐Hispanic Whites) in the United States. In this study, data were drawn from a nationally representative sample of married Americans (N = 1,162). Although perceived spousal religiosity predicted higher marital quality across all racial and ethnic groups, this effect was stronger for Asians, Blacks, and Hispanics than for Whites. Compared to Whites, the 3 racial and ethnic minority groups experienced a larger boost in frequency of expressive forms of love as perceived spousal religiosity increased. This effect was also found regarding marital satisfaction for Asians and Blacks relative to Whites, but not for Hispanics. Moreover, although racial and ethnic minorities tended to report lower marital quality than Whites at low levels of perceived spousal religiosity, their marital quality tended to be higher than Whites at high levels of perceived spousal religiosity. Three‐way interactions indicated that these trends hold regardless of gender.
    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12192   open full text
  • The Role of Parents in Defining Collective Identity of Arab Adolescents in Israel.
    Yasmin Aboud‐Halabi, Michal Shamai.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 24, 2016
    Arab adolescents in Israel must form a collective identity while living in both a social context that tends to vilify their existence and in a traditional family context that generally shuns modern Israeli society. The authors examined the relationship between perceptions of parental political socialization and the formation of collective identity among 1,241 Arab adolescents living in Israel. The findings suggest that Israeli Arab adolescents' perception of parental political (religious, national Arab–Palestinian, and Israel civic) socialization is statistically associated with the collective identity of adolescents. As hypothesized, parental political socialization mediated the relationship between parent–adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' collective identity. The results indicate a correlation between parental political socialization and collective identity of adolescents. The discussion focuses on the special place of family in the social context of ethno‐religious minorities in a country where the majority perceives the minority as an enemy that endangers the existence of the state.
    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12190   open full text
  • The Impact of Family Financial Investment on Perceived Parent Pressure and Child Enjoyment and Commitment in Organized Youth Sport.
    C. Ryan Dunn, Travis E. Dorsch, Michael Q. King, Kevin J. Rothlisberger.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 24, 2016
    Ninety percent of American youth participate in some form of organized youth sport between the ages of 5 and 18. Parent involvement in this context has recently been characterized as a potentially harmful force in parent–child relations, leading to debate regarding the appropriateness and level of parent involvement in organized youth sport. Despite the rising costs associated with youth sport participation, little empirical effort has been made to examine the potential impact of family financial investment on parent involvement and children's subsequent sport outcomes. The purpose of this study was to address how family financial investment in youth sport influences children's perceptions of parent pressure, sport enjoyment, and commitment to continued participation. Data from a national sample of 163 parent–child dyads illuminated an inverse association between family financial investment and child sport commitment, mediated by children's perceptions of parent pressure and sport enjoyment. The results indicated that family financial investment predicts child commitment through the sequential mediators of perceived parent pressure and child enjoyment. These findings draw attention to many avenues for future research on the potential link among family investment decisions, parent involvement behaviors, and child outcomes in organized youth sport, which may collectively inform the development of parent interventions for youth sport leagues, administrators, and parents.
    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12193   open full text
  • The Importance of Parents' Dyadic Coping for Children.
    Martina Zemp, Guy Bodenmann, Sabine Backes, Dorothee Sutter‐Stickel, Tracey A. Revenson.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. May 24, 2016
    Stress and coping in couples have received increased research attention during the past two decades, particularly with regard to how couples cope with stress. Dyadic coping has emerged as a strong predictor of relationship satisfaction. Less research has focused on the effects of dyadic coping on other outcomes or family members. In the present study, the authors addressed this gap by examining parents' dyadic coping as a predictor of children's internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and prosocial behavior in three independent studies. In Studies 1 and 2 self‐report data were used to assess parents' dyadic coping through the parents' and the children's perspective, and Study 3 included observational data on dyadic coping. Parental dyadic coping was related to children's externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, and prosocial behavior, although results for the latter two outcomes were not consistent across the three studies. The findings suggest that parents' dyadic coping deserves greater consideration within the context of child development.
    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12189   open full text
  • The Interdependence of Relationships with Adult Children and Spouses.
    Jeong Eun Lee, Steven H. Zarit, Michael J. Rovine, Kira Birditt, Karen L. Fingerman.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 29, 2016
    Researchers have documented the interrelatedness of parent–child and marital relationships during the early parenting years, but little is known about how these two family subsystems are associated once children reach adulthood. The authors of the current study addressed this gap by examining parents' relationships with their adult children and their marital satisfaction using an actor–partner interdependence model. Participants included 197 married other‐sex couples (N = 394 individuals; range: 40–69 years of age) who had a child over age 18 years. A spillover effect was found among fathers, indicating that parent–child relationship quality was positively associated with marital satisfaction, but the same was not found for mothers. Interestingly, a negative crossover effect was also found, meaning that more negative relationship quality between mothers and their adult children was associated with lower marital satisfaction on the part of the father. These findings suggest that the interdependence between parent–child and marital relationships persist once children reach adulthood.
    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12188   open full text
  • Temporal Ordering of Supportive Dyadic Coping, Commitment, and Willingness to Sacrifice.
    Matthew D. Johnson, Rebecca M. Horne.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 28, 2016
    Drawing from interdependence theory and focal participants (anchors) and their intimate partners who remained coupled at Waves 1, 3, and 5 of the German Family Panel (pairfam; N = 1,543), the authors examined the temporal ordering between anchor and partner supportive dyadic coping with anchor commitment and willingness to sacrifice for an intimate partner. Autoregressive cross‐lagged modeling analyses revealed that anchor and partner supportive dyadic coping predicted higher levels of commitment and willingness to sacrifice, and willingness to sacrifice predicted less supportive dyadic coping only for anchors. There were no longitudinal associations between commitment and willingness to sacrifice, and gender did not moderate associations among the variables.
    March 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/fare.12187   open full text
  • Is the Gender Gap in College Enrollment Influenced by Nonmarital Birth Rates and Father Absence?
    William J. Doherty, Brian J. Willoughby, Jason L. Wilde.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. September 24, 2015
    There is considerable academic and popular concern about the increasing gender gap in higher education enrollment in the United States. Males now constitute just 43% of the postsecondary enrollment. This research focused on nonmarital birth and father absence as predictors of lower levels of college enrollment for boys versus girls. The authors present two studies. In Study 1, using population data on college attendance and nonmarital birth rates, they found a strong positive association between nonmarital birth rates and the gender gap in college enrollment 18 years later. In Study 2, they examined individual‐level data on father absence from birth and college enrollment among young adults. The results indicated that males were at greater risk than females of not attending college if they had experienced father absence from birth. Taken together, the 2 studies suggest that changes in family structure may have contributed to the widening gender gap in higher education.
    September 24, 2015   doi: 10.1111/fare.12157   open full text
  • Government‐Supported Healthy Marriage Initiatives Are Not Associated with Changes in Family Demographics: A Comment on Hawkins, Amato, and Kinghorn (2013).
    Matthew D. Johnson.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 03, 2014
    In the July 2013 issue of Family Relations, Alan J. Hawkins, Paul R. Amato, and Andrea Kinghorn examined the associations between family demographics and per capita spending on the Healthy Marriage Initiatives, concluding that the results demonstrated the potential of these initiatives for improving the lives of children. In this critique of that article, I make the following points: (1) this article was timely and important, (2) Hawkins and colleagues' conclusions were overly generous given the data they describe, and (3) Hawkins and colleagues' review of prior outcome studies on the Healthy Marriage Initiatives emphasized positive findings, deemphasized null effects, and expunged negative effects. I conclude that future discussions of the Healthy Marriage Initiatives should include dispassionate descriptions of all available data.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/fare.12060   open full text
  • Disentangling the Associations Between Contextual Stress, Sensitive Parenting, and Children's Social Development.
    Moira R. Riley, Laura V. Scaramella, Lucy McGoron.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 03, 2014
    The impact of an accumulation of sociocontextual stress on children's social skill development was examined among 167 predominantly African American mothers and their 2‐year‐old children. Two theoretical models were considered. First, based on Rutter's (1979) cumulative risk approach, an accumulation of stress was hypothesized to moderate the impact of sensitive parenting on change in social skills such that the protective effects of sensitive parenting declined when cumulative stress reached a critical threshold. Second, based on a family stress model approach, an accumulation of stress was expected to indirectly affect social skills by way of sensitive parenting; that is, sensitive parenting was expected to explain or mediate any direct links between cumulative stress and children's social skills. Results were only consistent with the moderational hypothesis. Contrary to expectations, sensitive parenting predicted increases in social skills from age 2 to 4 only under conditions of the highest cumulative stress.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/fare.12063   open full text
  • Childhood Poverty and the Transition to Adulthood.
    Sarah M. Kendig, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 03, 2014
    The authors used the Panel Study of Income Dynamics 2007 Transition to Adulthood data in combination with the 2002 Child Development Supplement to examine social class bifurcation in young adulthood. Results indicate that poor youth possibly take on adult roles “too early” at the same time that high‐income youth may be supported for a long period past their 18th birthday. Although not all evidence is consistent with this bifurcated story, childhood poverty does play a key role. Young adults from poor families establish financial independence early (e.g., contributing to family bills during adolescence, considering themselves fully responsible for their finances as young adults), whereas young adults from more affluent homes are more likely to receive financial transfers from their parents (who often help them pay for college and other expenses). These findings highlight the ways in which socioeconomic inequality in childhood can differentiate youth's experiences of adolescence and young adulthood.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/fare.12061   open full text
  • Ethnic‐Racial Socialization and Its Correlates in Families of Black–White Biracial Children.
    Annamaria Csizmadia, Alethea Rollins, Jessica P. Kaneakua.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 03, 2014
    Child, family, and contextual correlates of ethnic‐racial socialization among U.S. families of 293 kindergarten‐age Black–White biracial children were investigated in this study. Children with one White‐identified and one Black‐identified biological parent who were enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study‐Kindergarten Cohort participated in this study. Parents' racial identification of children, parent age, family socioeconomic status, urbanicity, and region of country predicted the likelihood of frequent ethnic‐racial socialization. Relative to their biracially and Black‐identified peers, White‐identified biracial children were less likely to have frequent discussions about ethnic‐racial heritage. Findings suggest that ethnic‐racial socialization is a prevalent parenting practice in families of young biracial children and that its frequency varies depending on child, family, and situational factors. Implications for practice are discussed.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/fare.12062   open full text
  • Consistent and Inconsistent Contraception Among Young Women: Insights from Qualitative Interviews.
    Joanna Reed, Paula England, Krystale Littlejohn, Brooke Conroy Bass, Mónica L. Caudillo.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 03, 2014
    Qualitative interviews with young women attending community colleges were used to address why women who do not desire pregnancy vary in how consistently they use contraception. Based on our analysis of the women's sexual histories, we argue that five factors are key to promoting or discouraging consistent use of contraception: efficacy (women's ability to put an intention to contracept into practice), the actions and attitudes of male partners, being in a long‐term relationship, whether women experience side effects, and misinformation or erroneous reasoning about pregnancy risk. Variations in how these factors combine at different times in women's lives explain much about their patterns of contraceptive consistency.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/fare.12058   open full text
  • Sibling Conversations About Dating and Sexuality: Sisters as Confidants, Sources of Support, and Mentors.
    Sarah E. Killoren, Andrea L. Roach.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 03, 2014
    Using an observational methodology to examine sibling communication, sisters (N = 28 dyads) were videotaped discussing their ideas about dating and sexuality. Social provision theory was used as a framework for the examination of roles enacted by sisters during these conversations. Inductive thematic analytic procedures were conducted, and three roles were identified: sisters as confidants, sources of support, and mentors. Older and younger sisters served as confidants and sources of support for one another, whereas older sisters were more likely to be mentors for their younger sisters than vice versa. Findings indicate the potential importance of sisters in the formation of adolescent girls' ideas about romantic relationships and sexuality, sibling communication as a socialization mechanism of sisters' similarities in romantic experiences and sexual behaviors/attitudes, and the inclusion of older sisters in prevention intervention programs focused on reducing adolescent sexual risk behaviors and promoting healthy romantic relationships and sexuality development.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/fare.12057   open full text
  • Relationship Quality and Depressed Affect Among a Diverse Sample of Relationally Unstable Relationship Education Participants.
    Angela B. Bradford, Francesca Adler‐Baeder, Scott A. Ketring, Kristen L. Bub, Joe F. Pittman, Thomas A. Smith.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 03, 2014
    The association between depression and marital satisfaction has been clearly documented. Theoretical approaches describe the direction of effects as depression leading to marital dissatisfaction (stress generation model) and, alternately, marital dissatisfaction leading to depression (marital discord model). Clinical research indicates that treating the relationship of unstable couples can result in improvements in relationship satisfaction and depression. However, many unstable couples may not attend therapy and choose rather to attend Couple and Relationship Education (CRE). Using 250 ethnically diverse couples in community CRE classes, the authors found that relationally unstable participants of CRE report improvements in depressed affect and relationship quality after program participation. Additionally, decreased depressed affect predicted increased relationship quality, not vice versa, and there were no differences by sex. The authors note the potential value of CRE for unstable couples and recommend that interventionists utilize an inclusive approach, devoting attention to the couple relationship as well as individual distress variables.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/fare.12064   open full text
  • Close Relationships Predict Curvilinear Trajectories of Maternal Depressive Symptoms over the Transition to Parenthood.
    Stephanie H. Parade, A. Nayena Blankson, Esther M. Leerkes, Susan C. Crockenberg, Richard Faldowski.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 03, 2014
    Trajectories of change in maternal depressive symptoms were examined in a sample of 98 mothers across the transition to parenthood. Latent class growth modeling revealed two unique trajectories: one characterized by consistently low depressive symptoms, the other characterized by a curvilinear pattern with initially elevated symptoms that declined around the time of childbirth then returned to elevated levels by 24 weeks postpartum. Mothers who recalled less paternal care and acceptance in childhood and who reported that they engaged in more avoidance and aggression in their own romantic relationships were more likely to experience the curvilinear trajectory. Mothers who reported that their partners engaged in more avoidance in their romantic relationships were also more likely to experience the curvilinear trajectory, but especially when mothers recalled low maternal care and acceptance. Partner's aggression did not predict the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms. Results have implications for screening for maternal postpartum depression.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/fare.12065   open full text
  • Stressful Life Events, Marital Satisfaction, and Marital Management Skills of Taiwanese Couples.
    Pei‐Fen Li, K. A. S. Wickrama.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. March 03, 2014
    The association between stressful life events and marital satisfaction for 372 Taiwanese couples was examined, as was the moderating effects of three marital management skills (e.g., tolerance/sacrifice, empathy/consideration, soothing/alleviation) on that association. Multilevel modeling analysis showed that stressful life events reduced husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction. Spouses' marital management skills were associated with an increase in their marital satisfaction (actor effects) except for husbands' soothing and alleviation skills. Husbands' tolerance and empathy were also related to an increase in the wife's marital satisfaction (partner effects) and had significant interactions with the relationship between the wife's stress and her marital satisfaction. Husbands' and wives' soothing skills also had significant interactions with the association between stressful life events and their own satisfaction. These results are discussed in relation to the life course, stress process, coping theories, and Chinese cultural values as well as their clinical implications of working with Chinese population.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/fare.12066   open full text
  • Low‐Income Mothers' Employment Experiences: Prospective Links with Young Children's Development.
    Caitlin McPherran Lombardi, Rebekah Levine Coley.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    This study assessed mothers' employment experiences and links with children's long‐term cognitive achievement and socio‐emotional adjustment using a representative sample of low‐income mothers and children (N = 538) from the Three‐City Study. Maternal employment involvement, quality, and stability were assessed over a 2‐year period when children were aged 24 to 48 months. Cluster analysis of the employment characteristics yielded 4 distinct employment patterns differing by the quality and stability of employment. OLS regression analyses linking these employment patterns with children's functioning at age 9 revealed that high‐quality stable employment was associated with enhanced cognitive skills and behavioral functioning among children. Further analysis suggested the significance of mothers' consistent insurance benefits to the long‐term well‐being of their children.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12018   open full text
  • Are Government‐Supported Healthy Marriage Initiatives Affecting Family Demographics? A State‐Level Analysis.
    Alan J. Hawkins, Paul R. Amato, Andrea Kinghorn.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    This study assesses whether government‐supported Healthy Marriage Initiatives (HMIs)—educational programs to help couples form and sustain healthy marriages and relationships—have had a measurable impact on population‐level family outcomes. We compiled data on funding for these initiatives between 2000 and 2010 and aggregated these data to the state level for each year. We employed pooled time‐series regression with fixed state and year effects to estimate the effects of funding on population‐level outcomes taken from the American Community Survey. Cumulative per capita funding for HMIs between 2005 and 2010 was positively associated with small changes in the percentage of married adults in the population and children living with two parents, and it was negatively associated with the percentage of children living with one parent, nonmarital births, and children living in poverty. These results were diminished, however, when an influential outlier—Washington, DC—was removed from the analysis. Interpretations and implications of these findings are discussed.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12009   open full text
  • Conflict in Family Business: Common Metaphors and Suggestions for Intervention.
    Torsten M. Pieper, Joseph H. Astrachan, George E. Manners.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    The interdependence between family and business systems in family business can create conflicts unknown to families without involvement in a business. Using a phenomenological approach based on extensive research and consulting experiences with families in business, we describe three of the most common conflicts that can result from the mutual impact of business and family systems. We provide ways to diagnose problem areas and offer intervention suggestions to produce change in the family business system.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12011   open full text
  • When Family Members Are Also Business Owners: Is Entrepreneurship Good for Families?
    Jennifer E. Jennings, Rhonda S. Breitkreuz, Albert E. James.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    This article represents a call to family scholars for help in examining the effects of business ownership on families. To demonstrate the importance of this call, we illustrate the extent to which new venture creation is encouraged by policymakers and estimate the number of families engaged in entrepreneurial activity around the globe. We then summarize emergent critiques questioning the glorification of entrepreneurship in general and review the limited body of scholarly work examining the effects on families in particular. We conclude by outlining potential research agendas for several domains of family scholarship, providing examples of the provocative questions that arise when business ownership is explicitly acknowledged as a factor likely to impact family dynamics and well‐being.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12013   open full text
  • Boss and Parent, Employee and Child: Work‐Family Roles and Deviant Behavior in the Family Firm.
    Joseph T. Cooper, Roland E. Kidwell, Kimberly A. Eddleston.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    The work‐family literature examines the degree to which work and family roles can be segmented or integrated by an individual. In the family firm, the requirement that work and family roles be integrated creates tension for family employees, particularly those who prefer higher degrees of segmentation between the roles. Integrating family firm with family relations research, this article explores potential difficulties experienced by family employees in making transitions from their family role to work role and the potential for family employees to engage in deviant behavior due to unresolved conflict and ambiguity from work‐family role integration. These difficulties, we argue, are in part due to problems in separating role expectations when they come from indistinct sources; that is, when the boss and father, for example, are the same person. We explain how the tensions between work and family can create a cycle of deviance in the family and family firm domains.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12012   open full text
  • The Determinants of Family Owner‐Managers' Affective Organizational Commitment.
    Esra Memili, Thomas M. Zellweger, Hanqing Chevy Fang.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    Affective organizational commitment is an important predictor of the willingness to contribute to organizational goals and is of particular relevance to family firms, as these firms often rely on long‐term involvement of family members through transgenerational succession. Drawing on organizational commitment and ownership attachment theories, we probe the influence of family firm dynamics (i.e., family harmony and relationship conflict) on work‐family conflict and family owner‐managers' ownership attachment, which in turn impact affective organizational commitment. On the basis of a study of 326 family firms, we introduce ownership attachment as an important antecedent to affective organizational commitment. We find that ownership attachment is positively affected by both family harmony and work‐family conflict, whereby work‐family conflict is influenced by relationship conflict. We also find that work‐family conflict affects ownership attachment.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12015   open full text
  • Family Communication and Innovativeness in Family Firms.
    Salvatore Sciascia, Eric Clinton, Robert S. Nason, Albert E. James, Juan O. Rivera‐Algarin.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    This conceptual article seeks to address the heterogeneity of family firms in terms of their innovativeness by investigating business family communication dynamics. We use the established family communication constructs of conversation and conformity orientations to develop a typology of family firms in terms of innovativeness. We provide empirically testable propositions and present possible operationalizations for future research. In particular, we argue that supportive business families (i.e., families characterized by high conversation orientation and moderate conformity orientation) are associated with the highest levels of innovativeness in the family‐controlled firm. Through this article we hope to deepen our understanding of the relationship between family and firm levels of analysis, to develop a stronger bond between communication and innovative behavior, and to identify family‐related antecedents of heterogeneity in family firm innovativeness.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12014   open full text
  • Passing the Torch: Factors Influencing Transgenerational Intent in Family Firms.
    David W. Williams, Michelle L. Zorn, T. Russell Crook, James G. Combs.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    Recent family business research has focused on transgenerational intent (TI)—the plan to pass management of the business to future generations—as a defining characteristic of family firms. We theorize that TI is influenced by the current leader's consideration of factors related to three subsystems (business, ownership, and family) that underlie the family business system. Specifically, we hypothesize that characteristics of the business (the age and size of the firm), the owners (gender and minority status), and the family, specifically the family's engagement in the firm (time until succession and the family's role in advising the CEO) influence the current leader's TI. Results based on a survey of over 700 family‐managed firms are largely supportive of our hypotheses. Understanding what affects TI will help advance researchers' efforts to develop a theory of the family firm.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12016   open full text
  • Family Social Capital in Family Businesses: A Stocks and Flows Investigation.
    Clinton G. Gudmunson, Sharon M. Danes.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    This study investigates family social capital “stock and flow” processes defined by social capital access and use at the family‐firm nexus over time. We examined direction of effects in associations between family functional strength and business‐related tension moderated by firm continuation status using National Family Business Panel data, grounded in the Sustainable Family Business Theory (SFBT). Families continuing ownership experienced greater family functional continuity, which was associated with less business‐related tension over time. Families discontinuing ownership exhibited less functional continuity with a family and business disengagement pattern. Regarding bridging of family capital resources, differences were found in human, social, and financial capital that were associated with family functional strength and business‐related tension for each ownership group. For both groups, however, making family a priority over firm was associated with stronger family functionality. Contributions include theoretical and methodological distinctions between family capital stocks and flows and support for SFBT theoretical propositions.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12017   open full text
  • The Theory of Social Systems as a Framework for Understanding Family Businesses.
    Arist von Schlippe, Hermann Frank.
    Family Relations / Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies. June 04, 2013
    There is a long tradition of systemic approaches in family business research, but recent developments have been widely ignored. This article gives a brief overview of these approaches and models and then introduces the modern theory of social systems. This theory no longer considers individuals as parts of the system but assumes that the basic elements of a social system are acts of communication. In each system (family, business, ownership), a specific communication pattern evolves and each system operates within a specific functional logic. Families process relationship communication, businesses process decision communication, and ownership operates on the basis of legally secured communication. Each of these three structurally coupled systems provides a specific context. The functional logics are context markers and assign meaning to the communicative acts. To understand how a family business functions, it is important to understand the concrete functional logics and the structural coupling of the three systems.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/fare.12010   open full text