The Junior Metacognitive Awareness Inventory is a student self-report scale developed to correspond to a two-factor model of metacognition. Exploratory (N = 1,783) and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 942) were conducted using data from students in Grades 6 through 12 with results supporting two underlying factors corresponding to Knowledge and Regulation of Cognition.
Nonnormality of data presents unique challenges for researchers who wish to carry out structural equation modeling. The subsequent SPSS syntax program computes bootstrap-adjusted fit indices (comparative fit index, Tucker–Lewis index, incremental fit index, and root mean square error of approximation) that adjust for nonnormality, along with the Bollen–Stine bootstrap-adjusted 2 equivalent statistic and associated scaling factor.
Proactive preliminary minimum sample size determination can be useful for the early planning stages of a latent variable modeling study to set a realistic scope, long before the model and population are finalized. This study examined existing methods and proposed a new method for proactive preliminary minimum sample size determination.
The Self-Evaluation Scale–Self-Report version was designed to assess self-concept in students aged 10 to 17 years. Coefficient α was .94, and test–retest was .87. A unidimensional construct emerged with strong convergent validity with scores on the Piers–Harris 2 (r = .77) and Self-Efficacy Self-Report Scale (r = .70).
Nonlinear effects are both underreported and underrepresented in counseling research. We provide a rationale for evaluating nonlinear effects and steps to evaluate nonlinear relationships in counseling research. Two heuristic examples are provided along with discussion of the results and advantages to evaluating nonlinear effects.
We tested the psychometric properties of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale. Findings included (1) a three-factor structure (i.e., Negative Identity, Identity Uncertainty, Identity Superiority); (2) less positive identities among HIV-positive persons, African Americans, males, and bisexuals; and (3) convergent patterns with subjective well-being and coping. Implications are discussed.
The first aim of this study was to explore the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale–Revised, and the second aim was to understand the relative influence of personal and professional variables on the choice of a guiding theoretical orientation among Turkish counselor trainees. Results showed that in Turkey the preference for a particular theoretical orientation is associated strongly with professional variables, rather than personality.
A common concern about the Beck Depression Inventory, Second edition (BDI-II) among researchers in the area of depression has long been the single-factor scoring scheme. Methods exist for making cross-sample comparisons of latent structure but tend to rely on estimation methods that can be imprecise and unnecessarily complex. This study presents a computationally more efficient method for reproducing a population matrix and uses this method to evaluate competing factor solutions of the BDI-II published in the literature. The results of this study suggest our alternative method can reproduce a population matrix and when used to test various factor solutions of the BDI-II, there is a lack of evidence to suggest any one superior structure. However, the source of measurement error within some models may help inform the diagnostic utility of the BDI-II.
Researchers performed an exploratory factor analysis on the Attitudes Toward Erotica Questionnaire (ATEQ) and examined the construct and concurrent validity of the ATEQ data with a sample of practicing counselors and marriage and family therapists in the state of Florida (N = 373). The data analyses resulted in a two-factor, 10-item assessment (72.93% of the variance explained). The two factors of the ATEQ measured attitudes supporting the restriction of pornography and beliefs that pornography is exploitive.
Researchers analyzed data from elementary teachers (N = 233) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the Teacher My Class Inventory–Short Form. Supporting previous psychometric research, confirmatory factor analyses findings supported the factorial validity of the hypothesized five-factor solution. Internal reliability estimates were satisfactory for an attitudinal measure. Implications for practice are briefly discussed.
We examined the psychometric properties of the School Attitude Assessment Survey–Revised in a Spanish population (n = 1,398). Confirmatory factor analysis procedures supported the instrument’s five-factor structure. The results of discriminant analysis demonstrated the predictive power of the School Attitude Assessment Survey–Revised scales as regards academic performance. Implications for education and assessment are discussed.
The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas dampening did not. Limitations and implications are discussed.
This study validated a Whole Person Development Inventory with 1,443 undergraduates. Factor analysis yielded 15 factors, namely, Intellectual-Capacity, Physical-Fitness, Health-Maintenance, Career-Preparation, Leadership, Emotional-Health, Self-Appreciation, Civic-Responsibility, Cultural-Engagement, Family-Relationship, Peer-Relationship, Community-Care, Art-Appreciation, Moral-Commitment, and Spiritual-Quest. The Inventory has demonstrated satisfactory model fit with high internal reliability (α = .97).
This study validated a parent-report measure of the Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales in a Chinese cultural context through investigating 650 Chinese parents. The results provided evidence for satisfactory reliability and validity of Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales in a Chinese context, which is thus promising to be used for Chinese parents.
The Mathematical Resilience Scale measures students’ attitudes toward studying mathematics, using three correlated factors: Value, Struggle, and Growth. The Mathematical Resilience Scale was developed and validated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across three samples. Results provide a new approach to gauge the likelihood of student participation and persistence in mathematics.
The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children’s social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of children’s social support.
This study aims to investigate the structure of self-serving cognitive distortions (CD), evaluating the psychometric properties of the How I Think Questionnaire in a sample of Italian adolescents. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the distinction between four categories of CD and the use of a single second-order dimension of CD. Reliability and validity were satisfactory.
The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals’ preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.
This study investigated the structure and validity of the Italian translation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Data were self-reported from 227 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure of the scale. Hierarchical regressions also demonstrated its incremental validity beyond demographics, the Big Five, emotion regulation strategies, and self-enhancement.
This study supports the generalizability of perfectionistic strivings and concerns across Canadian and Chinese university students (N = 1,006) and demonstrates the importance of establishing measurement invariance prior to hypothesis testing with different groups. No latent mean difference in perfectionistic concerns was observed, but Canadian individuals reported higher perfectionistic strivings.
Modified measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Fear of Positive Evaluation were examined among Portuguese adolescents. These measures demonstrated replicable factor structure, internal consistency, and positive relationships with social anxiety and avoidance. Gender differences were found. Implications for evaluation and intervention are discussed.
The study aimed at verifying if nice and nasty theory of mind behaviors, in association with teachers’ peer buddy nomination, could be used to correctly select peer models for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Mentalizing abilities and emotional and behavioral characteristics of 601 adolescents were assessed. Results suggest that teachers recognize how students socially use their mind-reading ability, and employ such knowledge to select peers as intervention agents.
The Five-Factor Wellness Inventory was adapted to study secondary school teachers’ wellness in Hong Kong. The adapted inventory has shown acceptable reliability and validity (n = 234). Profiles showed their highest score on Social Self and lowest on Physical Self. Gender, age, marriage status, and religion differences were found in overall wellness.
We propose a general cognitive diagnosis model framework to diagnose mental disorders using item scores obtained from clinical measurement instruments. This framework can be used to validate the extent to which the items measure the specific disorders. The method is illustrated using data obtained with the Dutch version of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III.
Life balance is an important construct within the counseling profession. A validation study utilizing exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression was conducted on the Juhnke–Balkin Life Balance Inventory. Results from the study serve as evidence of validity for an assessment instrument designed to measure life balance.
We describe an Indigenous Social Desirability Scale for Mexico developed using a mixed-methods approach. Scores on the scale with two dimensions show adequate reliability and validity.
The present study was the first to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2, Self-Report of Personality, College Version (K-BASC-2 SRP-COL), among a Korean national sample. Using 1,000 Korean college students, ages 18 to 25 years, we found support for the reliability (via internal consistency and test–retest correlations) of all subscale and composite scores. The Anxiety, Depression, Somatization, Alcohol Abuse, Inattention, and Hyperactivity subscales of the K-BASC-2 SRP-COL also demonstrated strong convergent validity statistics with criterion measures of related constructs. The present study was also the second study to examine the factor structure of the BASC-2 SRP-COL, and our confirmatory factor analyses revealed good model fit associated with all 16 subscales. Together, these results revealed strong psychometric properties of the K-BASC-2 SRP-COL for use among college students in Korea. We also provided normative data based on this nationally representative sample of 1,000 Korean college students collected from 30 different Korean universities to allow for t score generation to increase the clinical utility and scale score interpretations of this multidimensional measure.
The purpose of this study was to validate the English version of the original German Dyadic Coping Inventory. Results indicated that the English version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory is a valid and reliable measure of dyadic coping in a sample of 709 heterosexual university students.
Data from clinical and nonclinical samples (Ns = 2,096, 618) were used to evaluate and replicate the measurement structure of the Outcome Questionnaire–45.2. Different measurement models and invariance tests were evaluated and the best psychometric support was found for a shortened measure of two factors: overall maladjustment and substance use.
This article describes the development of the Student Engagement in School Success Skills instrument including item development and exploratory factor analysis. The instrument was developed to measure student use of the skills and strategies identified as most critical for long-term school success that are typically taught by school counselors.
The Forgiveness Reconciliation Inventory is a theoretically derived instrument. Participants included individuals from clinical and nonclinical populations. Confirmatory factor analysis along with correlational designs and between-group comparisons indicate strong psychometric properties of the Forgiveness Reconciliation Inventory. The authors address applications for use within counseling practice.
This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify acculturation profiles. A three-profile solution fit the data best, and comparisons on demographic and psychosocial outcomes as a function of profile yielded expected results. The findings support using LPA as a parsimonious way to model acculturation without anticipating profiles in advance.
Traditional methods of assessing construct stability are reviewed and longitudinal mean and covariance structures (LMACS) analysis, a modern approach, is didactically illustrated using psychological entitlement data. Measurement invariance and latent variable stability results are interpreted, emphasizing substantive implications for educators and the utility of LMACS analysis in longitudinal research.
Factor structure for the Goal Attainment Scale of Stabilization was evaluated using separate samples for exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated a 25-item two-factor solution. The Goal Attainment Scale of Stabilization may be useful in identifying the extent to which adolescents in crisis meet therapeutic goals consistent with client stabilization.
This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Attitudes Toward Anger Management Scale (ATAMS), a self-report measure of attitudes toward anger management services. Undergraduate volunteers (N = 415) completed an initial version of the instrument. Principal components analysis yielded a two-factor solution. Convergent and incremental validities were supported.
The purpose of this study was to validate the measures included in the Counselor Response Observation System. The Counselor Response Observation System consists of the Counselor Response Coding System and the Skilled Verbal Responding Scale. Detailed results of their validity and reliability are presented.