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Psychology in the Schools

Impact factor: 0.922 5-Year impact factor: 1.159 Print ISSN: 0033-3085 Online ISSN: 1520-6807 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)

Subject: Educational Psychology

Most recent papers:

  • High school bystanders motivation and response during bias‐based bullying.
    Amanda J. Williams, Courtney S. Banks, Jamilia J. Blake.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 26, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Bias‐based bullying focused on sexual orientation or gender identity in schools has significant negative implications for the academic, social, and emotional well‐being of students who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, or who are perceived to behave in gender nonconforming ways. Despite empirical support for the influence of bystander behavior can have on school bullying, information about bystander behavior during bias‐based bullying remains limited. Using a thematic narrative analysis, this study analyzed high school students’ perceptions of bystander behavior in their school. Results suggest bystanders are observed to enact a range of responses that fall into three categories: (a) passive avoidance, (b) victim support, or (c) joining the bullying situation. Furthermore, the motivation of bystanders was described within the themes of (a) fear, (b) individual characteristics, (c) relationships, and (d) personal experience. By drawing from the daily lived experiences of adolescents, the current study offers greater insight into youth perspective on how future strategies could address bias‐based bullying in schools. This study is foundational to increase the ecological validity of efforts to quantify bias‐based bullying. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22186   open full text
  • Attachment and pedagogical relevant practices as elements of a successful alternative school through the narratives of its students.
    Gila Amitay, Giora Rahav.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 26, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Affective engagement to school is a precondition for success among at‐risk students who are learning in successful alternative high schools, which provide a second chance for schooling. Attachment is a well‐known main characteristic of successful alternative schools. Yet while research indicated overwhelmingly positive psychosocial outcomes, academic outcomes of alternative schools yield mixed results.The current study investigated the narratives of the students who attend a successful alternative second‐chance arts school. Our main purpose was to refine the main best practices for success as they reflect from students' narratives and to refine a theoretical model to illustrate these practices. The research consisted of 49 semistructured interviews with 36 students from all grade levels and internships of school.The results portray profound accounts of practices that enhance attachment to school and holistic pedagogical practices as two main essential practices, conceived by the interviewees that construct a genuine second chance when the two are intertwined. Enhancing attachment in a variety of methods and applying holistic pedagogical practices reduce school alienation and enhance success as they interact with one another. A theoretical model is presented to display the findings. Theoretical and practical implementations are discussed as essential for future policies regarding at risk youth for dropout. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22200   open full text
  • The relationship between vicarious experience, social persuasion, physiological state, and chemistry self‐efficacy: The role of mastery experience as a mediator.
    Yesim Capa‐Aydin, Esen Uzuntiryaki‐Kondakci, Rana Ceylandag.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 26, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Using social cognitive theory as a theoretical framework, the current study examined the mediating role of mastery experience between other sources (vicarious experience, social persuasion, and physiological state) and chemistry self‐efficacy for cognitive skills, which can be defined as students’ beliefs in their capabilities to successfully perform intellectual operations in chemistry. Data were collected from 397 high school students through the High School Chemistry Self‐Efficacy Scale and Sources of Self‐Efficacy Scale. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that mastery experience and vicarious experience directly influenced chemistry self‐efficacy. In addition, a mediation effect of mastery experience was found for social persuasion and physiological state, while no mediation was found for vicarious experience. Overall, 50% of variance in chemistry self‐efficacy for cognitive skills is explained by, or predicted from, the direct and indirect influences of mastery experience. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22201   open full text
  • An analysis of general education teachers’ use of diverse praise.
    Margaret T. Floress, Shelby L. Beschta.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 26, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The current study examined teachers’ use of diverse praise or the extent to which teachers used a variety of praise as opposed to using the same praise repeatedly. Verbatim general and behavior‐specific praise data were analyzed from a larger study where 5,721 min of direct observation were collected across 28 kindergarten through fifth‐grade classrooms. On average, teachers used 3.7 total diverse praise categories per observation. Teachers also used more general, diverse praise categories per observation per hour compared with behavior‐specific, diverse praise categories. Although results did not indicate statistically significant differences in the amount of diverse praise between early elementary school teachers and later elementary teachers, a clear pattern of diminishing diverse praise was observed such that later elementary teachers provided less diverse praise per observation per hour. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22187   open full text
  • Early elementary teacher ratings of behavior as predictors of grade retention: Race, gender, and socioeconomic status as potential moderators.
    Amira Mattison, Linda M. Raffaele Mendez, Robert Dedrick, Sarah Dickinson, Emily Wingate, Camille Hanks.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 26, 2018
    --- - "\nAbstract\nOur goals in this study were to examine (a) the degree to which teacher perceptions of children’s behavior in kindergarten (averaged across fall and spring for each child) predict retention by Grade 5 and (b) whether these relationships are moderated by student race, gender, or socioeconomic status (SES). Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998‐99 (ECLS‐K) were used to examine how Externalizing Problem Behavior (EPB; e.g., aggression, defiance) and Weak Approaches To Learning (WATL; low enthusiasm for/engagement in learning) were related to retention among children identified as Black or White (\nN = 6,750). Results showed that both types of behavior ratings were significant predictors of retention. There was a 46% increase in the odds of retention for every one‐unit increase in EPB (OR = 1.46, \np < 0.001) and a 261% increase in the odds of retention for every one‐unit increase in WATL (OR = 3.61, \np < 0.001). Gender moderated the relationship between EPB and retention and WATL and retention. Students who were female with EPB or WATL were at higher risk for being retained than their male peers. Implications for educators, researchers, and policymakers are discussed.\n" - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22192   open full text
  • Ethnic identity affirmation as a strength for Mexican descent academic outcomes: Psychological functioning and academic attitudes as mediators.
    Brandy Piña‐Watson, Ashley J. Martinez, Lauren N. Cruz, Jasmín D. Llamas, Belem G. López.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 26, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Ethnic identity (EI) affirmation has been related to positive academic outcomes for Latina/o youth. However, there is a dearth of research examining mediating mechanisms to this relationship. To address this gap, we examine psychological functioning (depressive symptoms and life satisfaction) as a mediator in the relationship between EI affirmation and academic outcomes (i.e., academic motivation, academic skepticism, and ambition). Participants were 524 Mexican descent adolescents in South Texas. Participants completed a number of self‐report questionnaires to measure each of the variables in the hypothesized model. Results demonstrate that feeling good about one’s ethnic group membership (or having higher EI affirmation) is a strength that not only is related to positive psychological functioning but also promotes positive academic outcomes. Educators and mental health practitioners may benefit from engaging in a curriculum that aims to improve EI affirmation to promote positive psychological functioning, and thus better academic outcomes for Mexican descent youth. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 26, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22188   open full text
  • Transition services for students with intellectual disabilities: School psychologists’ perceptions.
    Devadrita Talapatra, Andrew T. Roach, Kris Varjas, David E. Houchins, Daniel B. Crimmins.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract For individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), transition services increase access to postschool opportunities. School psychologists should contribute to transition services but have reportedly limited involvement in this area. This study distributed a national survey (N = 176) assessing school psychologists’ current knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding transition services for students with ID. Results indicated that attitudes toward and knowledge of the ID population were significant predictors of transition task performance, and knowledge was a significant predictor of transition‐related attitudes and behaviors. The results provided preliminary evidence that increasing school psychologists’ specific knowledge of transition services and encouraging positive attitudes toward the transition needs of students with ID may increase school psychologists’ performance in transition practice. Specific recommendations are provided. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22189   open full text
  • Identifying dyslexia with confirmatory latent profile analysis.
    Christopher R. Niileksela, Jonathan Templin.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2- Abstract Confirmatory latent profile analysis (CLPA) was used with the normative sample from the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, 3rd ed. (KTEA‐3) to determine whether it was possible to identify a latent class of individuals whose scores were consistent with the academic strengths and weaknesses related to dyslexia. The CLPA identified a class of individuals consistent with dyslexia across four‐grade level groups (first–second, third–fifth, sixth–eighth, and ninth–twelfth). The results of the CLPA were applied to the KTEA‐3 clinical samples of those with known clinical diagnoses. Individuals with Specific Learning Disorder in Reading and/or Written Expression had a higher probability of being in the dyslexia latent class. The use of CLPA as a tool for learning disability diagnosis appears plausible, though much more research is needed. The strengths, limitations, and future directions for the use of CLPA in diagnosis are discussed. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22183   open full text
  • Type D personality as a predictor of smoking cessation failure in smoking high school adolescents.
    Sung Reul Kim, Hye Young Kim, Ji Young Kim, Hyun Kyung Kim.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The aim of this study was to identify the association between type D personality and smoking cessation among high school students who had participated in a stop smoking program. From 27 high schools, we recruited 279 smoking students who had participated in a stop smoking program between May 29, 2015, and January 25, 2016. About 26.5% of participants had a type D personality. A logistic regression analysis revealed that initiating smoking before or during 5th grade, smoking 21 or more cigarettes daily, and having a type D personality were significantly related to smoking cessation failure. Type D personality was significantly associated with social nicotine dependency and was a predictor of smoking cessation failure after a stop smoking program. Accordingly, type D personality should be considered along with other smoking‐related factors when attempting to promote smoking cessation among high school adolescents. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22190   open full text
  • What we know and do not know about supervision in school psychology: A systematic mapping and review of the literature between 2000 and 2017.
    Daniel S. Newman, Dennis J. Simon, Mark E. Swerdlik.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Supervision is a distinct competency area in professional psychology with a burgeoning research base. Yet it remains unclear to what extent the broad supervision research base generalizes specifically to supervision of psychological services in schools for both preservice trainees and credentialed school psychologists. The purposes of this study were to map and review current evidence regarding supervision in school psychology; consider the evidence in the context of the broader psychology supervision literature; and reflect on next steps for training, practice, and research of supervision in school psychology. A systematic review across school psychology journals and psychological supervision journals found only 37 peer refereed articles (21 empirical and 16 conceptual) published on the topic of supervision in school psychology since the year 2000. The topical coverage of these articles is summarized, including its contributions and limitations. Implications are drawn for future research of supervision in school psychology. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22182   open full text
  • Improving oral reading fluency in middle‐school students: A comparison of repeated reading and listening passage preview.
    Margaret B. Powell, Daniel L. Gadke.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Oral reading fluency has been established in previous literature as a key component in becoming an effective reader. Repeated reading (RR) and listening passage preview (LPP) are both oral reading fluency interventions well‐supported in the research literature, however, most of this study explores their use with elementary‐aged children, with only a handful of studies over the last 20 years evaluating their use in middle‐school children. The overall goal of the current study was to explore the effectiveness of both of these interventions independent and relative to one another. An alternating treatment design (A/ABC), including the use of baseline, was implemented to compare RR, LPP, and a control. Three middle school‐aged struggling readers were randomly exposed to the conditions over time, with oral reading fluency acting as the primary dependent variable. Data were analyzed using visual analysis and effect size calculated using nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP). The results indicated primarily large effects for RR, with LPP effects ranging from small to large across participants. Limitations, implications, and future directions are also discussed. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22184   open full text
  • Verifying the ecological model of peer aggression on Croatian students.
    Tena Velki.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Using the ecological approach, the goal of this study was to determine the predictors of physical and verbal peer aggressive behavior. The participants were 880 school students from the fifth to eighth grade (48% boys and 52% girls) and the same number of parents (19% fathers and 61% mothers) as well as 107 teachers. The main analysis was performed using multivariate–multilevel modeling. The following significant predictors of physical peer aggression were obtained: Boys, a greater degree of impulsivity, more parental punishment, poorer school success, more time spent with the media, and the perception of great neighborhood dangerousness. For verbal peer aggression, the significant predictors were: A greater degree of impulsivity, lower level of affective empathy, more parental punishment, lack of parental supervision, lesser peer acceptance, large differences in family income, more time spent with the media, and the perception of great neighborhood dangerousness. A moderating effect of neighborhood dangerousness and parental supervision was found. The results were interpreted within Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22178   open full text
  • A study of an adapted social–emotional learning: Small group curriculum in a school setting.
    Jennifer H. Green, Rebecca E. Passarelli, Mills K. Smith‐Millman, Keshia Wagers, Anne E. Kalomiris, Madeline N. Scott.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Clinicians and training programs strive to implement evidence‐based practices and manualized treatments with fidelity. However, the constraints of a local setting may limit the extent to which this is possible. In the current study, an adapted model of an evidence‐based social–emotional learning small group curriculum, the Incredible Years Children’s Small Group Training Series (Webster‐Stratton, 2004), was implemented and evaluated in an elementary school setting. Results of the study demonstrated statistically significant decreases in problem behaviors and intensity of problem behaviors, as rated by teachers. Teachers also reported improvement in classroom behavior, emotion regulation, problem‐solving, and friendship skills, as well as a high overall level of satisfaction with the intervention itself. Discussion of the results includes a review of the strengths and limitations associated with outcome research in a naturalistic setting, suggestions to consider when adapting evidence‐based programs, and recommendations for future research. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22180   open full text
  • Comparing the effects of ClassDojo with and without Tootling intervention in a postsecondary special education classroom setting.
    Anne H. Lipscomb, Megan Anderson, Daniel L. Gadke.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract ClassDojo and Tootling are two intervention techniques rooted in behavioral theory used in classwide behavior management purposes. ClassDojo is a technology‐based behavior tracking system, allowing users to provide or remove points to students based on their classroom behaviors. Tootling provides students with the opportunity to deliver positive feedback to their peers in the form of tootles. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of ClassDojo alone and Tootling plus ClassDojo for decreasing the problem behavior in a postsecondary classroom. Participants included seven emerging adult students (19–24 years old) with intellectual disabilities in a Comprehensive Transitional Program at a major university. A single subject A/A + B + C alternating treatment design was implemented to compare the intervention conditions in both baseline and ongoing control conditions. Visual analysis suggested that the ClassDojo‐alone condition produced the greatest reduction in problem behavior for the classroom as a whole and across most individual students. Further, there were strong effects using nonoverlap of all pairs of both ClassDojo and Tootling plus ClassDojo relative to baseline conditions. Limitations of the study, implication for practice, and future research are discussed. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22185   open full text
  • Bender‐Gestalt II differential item functioning across Caucasian and African American examinees.
    Julia E. Strait, Emma Kate C. Wright, Scott L. Decker.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Performance on figure copying tasks is empirically linked to the school readiness, learning, cognition, and neuropsychological functioning. These nonverbal tasks are frequently used to evaluate children from diverse backgrounds to minimize bias due to factors such as language, ethnicity, culture, or socioeconomic status on test performance. The current study examined the possible Differential Item Functioning across African American and Caucasian groups, ages 4 to 7 years, in Bender Motor Gestalt Test, Second Edition (BG‐II) visual‐motor scores. Results indicated that in general the BG‐II can be considered invariant across these ethnic groups in this age range. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22181   open full text
  • What are urban teachers thinking and feeling?
    Daniel A. Camacho, Elizabeth Vera, Kristin Scardamalia, Peter Lee Phalen.
    Psychology in the Schools. August 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Teachers in urban schools experience significant stressors that can impact their effectiveness, well‐being, retention, and ability to meet the needs of their students. The current mixed methods study explored 160 urban teachers’ thoughts and feelings in response to challenging classroom situations, factors that predicted the prevalence of these reactions, and teachers’ help‐seeking attitudes. Results revealed the most prevalent thoughts that emerged were inability to resolve the situation, problem‐solving, factors beyond the classroom, wanting a break, and personal locus of control. The most prevalent feelings that emerged were anger, anxiety, sadness, emotional exhaustion, incompetence, positivity, and confusion. The amount of professional and social–emotional support teachers received predicted a greater prevalence of productive thoughts and fewer negative emotions. Additionally, teachers related a relative openness to pursuing professional psychological services. Taken altogether, the findings suggest that urban teachers can be supported via forms of professional and social–emotional support in managing stressors in their workplace. Implications for professional development and teacher education programs are discussed. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    August 13, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22176   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Psychology in the Schools. August 02, 2018
    --- - - Psychology in the Schools, Volume 55, Issue 8, Page 893-896, September 2018.
    August 02, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22064   open full text
  • The impact of personal characteristics on scores on the Self‐Determination Inventory: Student report in adolescents with and without disabilities.
    Karrie A. Shogren, Leslie A. Shaw, Sheida K. Raley, Michael L. Wehmeyer.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The Self‐Determination Inventory: Student Report (SDI:SR) is a newly developed measure of self‐determination. The purpose of this study was to explore of personal factors, namely age and gender on scores on the SDI:SR. Separate multigroup confirmatory analyses were conducted for age cohorts (13‐ to 15‐, 16‐ to 18‐, and 19‐ to 22‐year‐olds) and for females and males to establish measurement invariance and explore latent differences. Findings suggest the same set of items can be used in all groups. No latent differences were found for females and males, but expected age‐related differences (e.g., younger participants showed lower levels of self‐determination) were established. Finally, the degree to which age and gender influenced scores for 12 groups created by crossing disability status and race/ethnicity was examined. Findings suggest that females with no disability or learning disabilities generally score lower in overall self‐determination than males and general positive impact of age on scores across disability by race/ethnicity groups. Implications for research and practice are discussed. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    July 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22174   open full text
  • Using project‐based learning with Venezuelan teachers to enhance teacher attitudes about school‐based drug abuse prevention: A control‐group comparison study.
    Elvia Amesty, Doris Páez.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Because teachers have regular access to youth, they have the potential of playing a significant role in health promotion and drug abuse prevention strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of training and encouraging project‐based learning methods on Venezuelan teachers’ attitudes toward school‐based drug abuse prevention programs. Specifically, an experimental group of grades 4–9 teachers received direct training in project‐based learning strategies and drug prevention content. Their attitudes were compared to those of a wait‐list control group. A key finding showed that the experimental group reported a more favorable attitude toward the effectiveness of school‐community drug prevention strategies. Additionally, teachers in the experimental group reported that the program increased (1) the school's relationship with the community, (2) parental involvement, and (3) their own awareness of the significant role teachers can play in students’ drug abuse prevention. As a very preliminary exploration of this topic, the paper also discusses study limitations, future research directions, and how this work relates to the broader concept of internationalization. - Psychology in the Schools, Volume 55, Issue 8, Page 969-981, September 2018.
    July 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22159   open full text
  • External locus‐of‐hope, well‐being, and coping of students: A cross‐cultural examination within Asia.
    Allan B. I. Bernardo, Susanna S. Yeung, Katrina Fernando Resurreccion, Ron R. Resurreccion, Aqeel Khan.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 24, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Intervention programs to strengthen hope in students have been developed and implemented in schools. The programs are based on Snyder's theory that defines hope as thoughts regarding personal capacities and pathways for goal attainment. Hope theory was recently extended to include external loci‐of‐hope, which derive from conjoint models of agency emphasized in collectivist societies. But evidence on external loci‐of‐hope's positive influence on students’ well‐being is limited. Two studies (involving student samples from four universities in Asian cities) explored how external loci‐of‐hope relate to students’ life satisfaction, personal well‐being (self‐esteem, self‐mastery), relational well‐being (relational self‐esteem, communal mastery), and coping styles for school‐related stress. Results show that external loci‐of‐hope dimensions predict students’ life satisfaction and relational aspects of well‐being, but also predict maladaptive coping. The results are discussed in relation to how the work of psychologists in schools benefit from approaches that contextualize theoretical precepts in cultural meanings and experiences in different parts of the world. - Psychology in the Schools, Volume 55, Issue 8, Page 908-923, September 2018.
    July 24, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22155   open full text
  • A working definition and conceptual model of internationalization for school and educational psychology.
    John C. Begeny.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Internationalization has been described as a moral, intellectual, and professional imperative for psychology and its subdisciplines. Numerous scholars within and outside of psychology have been discussing the meaning and importance of internationalization, but the descriptions, definitions, and goals described within the existing literature vary. Furthermore, many authors have used the term “internationalization” without providing any description or definition at all, as is likewise the case with the school and educational psychology scholarship. The central purpose of this paper is to propose a working definition, set of potential goals, and conceptual model of internationalization that has relevance for school and educational psychology. As discussed in the paper, the ideas presented are meant to stimulate opportunities for dialogue, reflection, and critique among a global community of scholars and practitioners—they are not presented with the viewpoint that they ought to be adopted. Within the conceptual model, it is argued, for example, that intentionality, inclusivity, reciprocity, and consideration of goals will help to support internationalization efforts. Proposed goals include relatively more immediate objectives (e.g., enhancing internationally representative scholarship, improving discipline‐relevant advocacy and support efforts) that should help to enable broader internationalization goals (e.g., offering the most effective services to those supported by the international community of school and educational psychologists). The conceptual model is also discussed in the context of existing discipline‐specific research and areas of scholarship that are relatively scarce. The paper concludes by describing limitations, considerations, and potential future efforts relevant to definitions and conceptualizations of internationalization. - Psychology in the Schools, Volume 55, Issue 8, Page 924-940, September 2018.
    July 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22157   open full text
  • Examining correlates of teacher receptivity to social influence strategies within a school consultation relationship.
    Julie Sarno Owens, Darcey M. Allan, Chelsea Hustus, William P. Erchul.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Successful school consultation depends largely on the consultant's ability to influence teacher behavior and the teacher's receptivity to that influence. The goal of this study was to examine correlates of teacher receptivity to social influence strategies within school consultation. Participants were 365 general education teachers (K‐5) recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Teachers completed questionnaires that included (1) three subscales of the modified Consultee/Teacher Version of the Interpersonal Power Inventory assessing soft social influence strategies; and measures assessing (2) personality constructs; (3) knowledge of behavior modification and mental health literacy; (4) need for cognition and beliefs about student behavior and interventions; and (5) work‐related stress. As expected, the subscales of the modified Interpersonal Power Inventory had acceptable internal consistency (alphas > .70). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that teacher beliefs, need for cognition, and the interaction between need for cognition and stress, were significantly positively associated with receptivity to positive expert and direct information influences, after accounting for personality characteristics. These relationships were not found for receptivity to positive referent influences. Instead, knowledge of behavioral principles was negatively associated with this social influence. Results are discussed in relation to consultation research and practice. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    July 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22163   open full text
  • The student–teacher relationship quality in children with selective mutism.
    Claudio Longobardi, Laura Badenes‐Ribera, Francesca Giovanna Maria Gastaldi, Laura Elvira Prino.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Selective mutism (SM) is a rare anxiety disorder that compromises children's daily life during critical periods of early development. Because school is a prime context for the manifestation of the disorder, the aim of this study was to investigate the quality of the student–teacher relationship and its effects on behavior and work, and on social and relational skills. The sample consisted of 75 children—15 were affected by SM, with 60 in the control group—and 15 teachers. The results showed greater difficulty on the teacher's part to establish a relationship based on affective closeness with a child affected by SM, compared to that with unaffected children. Nevertheless, an encouraging picture emerges of the inclusion and integration of the child with SM among peers and therefore in the class group. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    July 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22175   open full text
  • Mental health literacy and intervention program adaptation in the internationalization of school psychology for Vietnam.
    Hoang‐Minh Dang, Bahr Weiss, Trung Lam, Ha Ho.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This paper discusses how school psychology technology developed in Western countries can be adapted for global contexts and “internationalized.” The article reports results of two studies, providing examples of (1) our school psychology internationalization experiences in Vietnam, as lessons hopefully useful for other professionals interested in international development, and (2) how Western researchers can learn through internalization experiences. Because mental health literacy is foundational for mental health development, Study 1 focused on assessment of mental health literacy among 353 Vietnamese teachers, with findings suggesting overall low mental health literacy among these participants. Study 2 focused on our Vietnam ACES ProS high‐school problem‐solving therapy program. We discuss the Mental Health Capacity Development Model guiding development of ACES ProS and report positive results of an evaluation of ACES ProS involving 100 Vietnamese high‐school students. Program cultural adaptation (e.g., deciding whether teacher classroom praise should be excluded from classroom behavior management because of Vietnamese students’ tendency to react to praise with increased competitive behavior) is reviewed as an example of challenges faced in school psychology internationalization. This program of research shows that school psychology internationalization can be successful but requires careful attention and close collaboration. - Psychology in the Schools, Volume 55, Issue 8, Page 941-954, September 2018.
    July 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22156   open full text
  • Psychological assessment with Chinese Americans: Concerns and recommendations.
    Zhiqing Zhou, Melina Cavazos, Anita Sohn‐McCormick.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Asian Americans are the fastest growing population in the United States, with Chinese Americans accounting for the largest percentage. In response to this growth, mental health examiners should be culturally competent of the Asian culture, including Chinese culture, as to ensure ethically appropriate and accurate assessment of these individuals. In the current paper, we discussed several critical components of Chinese American clients' social experience, including their language and education attainment, and their stress related to discrimination, racism, and acculturation. We also provided descriptions of specific cultural concerns that should be taken into consideration when assessing Chinese American clients, such as the stigma associated with seeking mental health services, parenting styles and parental involvement in education. In addition, we attempted to bring several practical issues to practitioners' attention; for example, the importance of assessing language proficiency and level of acculturation, the limited availability to appropriately normed psychoeducational assessments, and the different communication style of Chinese American clients. To address these issues, various recommendations were provided, though additional research is needed to create better opportunities and ethical practice for the assessment of Chinese American clients. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    July 13, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22162   open full text
  • A multilevel analysis of home and classroom literacy environments in relation to preschoolers’ early literacy development.
    Dilek Altun, Feyza Tantekin Erden, Catherine E. Snow.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of preschoolers’ home and classroom literacy environments and the relationships between receptive and expressive vocabulary, phonological awareness, and concepts about print (CAP) development. The participants were 168 parents and their children from five private preschools in a large suburban area. Two waves of data were collected. Multilevel linear modeling was used to analyze the two‐level data set. The findings of the study revealed that children have more oral language related home experiences than print‐related experiences. Similarly, the scores of the children's classroom environment that were related to oral language sources had the highest average of all rated dimensions. Print‐related resources and experiences and provisions for book corners in the classrooms were limited. The results revealed that children's spring semester early literacy scores were significantly associated with their initial early literacy scores, mother's education level, and the classroom literacy environment. However, the home literacy environment was not significantly related to spring semester CAP scores. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    July 13, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22153   open full text
  • The accuracy of teachers' judgments for assessing young children's emerging literacy and math skills.
    Kurt Kowalski, Rhonda Douglas Brown, Kristie Pretti‐Frontczak, Chiharu Uchida, David F. Sacks.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Because of developmental constraints on the types of assessment that can be used with young children, teachers’ judgments of students’ skills and abilities are a particularly important source of information in early education. The present study investigates the accuracy of these judgments by examining agreement between Prekindergarten teachers’ (n = 66) judgments of children's (n = 122) emerging math and literacy skills made with teacher rating scales and children's performance on a researcher‐administered demand performance assessment. Average agreement between measures was 71% for language and literacy items and 66% for math items. When disagreements occurred for language and literacy skills, they were more likely a result of teachers reporting that children had fewer skills than indicated by the demand performance assessment, rather than more. For math, teachers were equally likely to report either fewer or more math skills than indicated by the performance measure. Teachers’ over‐ and underestimations of children's skills were related to their ratings of the children's social‐emotional functioning and the type of skills being assessed. Children's gender and race were not related to teacher accuracy; neither were teacher education or years of experience. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    July 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22152   open full text
  • An overview of internationalization and its relevance for school and educational psychology.
    John C. Begeny.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This paper serves as the introductory article for the special issue titled, Internationalization in School and Educational Psychology. The paper begins with a summary of the existing literature about internationalization and describes how there are both similarities and differences in the many proposed descriptions and definitions of internationalization. Possible reasons for advancing internationalization within psychology are described next, including those that are applicable for the subdiscipline of school and educational psychology. The paper also describes the scope of this special issue, why it may be timely for the subdiscipline, and its overall goals (i.e., to promote increased understanding and discussion about internationalization, particularly in the context of school and educational psychology). - Psychology in the Schools, Volume 55, Issue 8, Page 897-907, September 2018.
    July 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22161   open full text
  • Internationalization within school and educational psychology: Perspectives about positive indicators, critical considerations, and needs.
    Allan B. I. Bernardo, John C. Begeny, Orlean Brown Earle, Diana S. Ginns, Maria Pilar Grazioso, Manuel Soriano‐Ferrer, Haruna Suzuki, Roxana Zapata.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 12, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract As the final paper within this special issue on Internationalization in School and Educational Psychology, this paper documents broad perspectives about internationalization from multiple school and educational psychologists who have worked in various contexts (e.g., in different professional roles and geographic locations). Based upon three core questions that contributors responded to, the paper systematically integrates all perspectives according to two primary categories: Strengths or Positive Indicators and Considerations, Concerns, and Needs. The former category is discussed with respect to three themes that emerged from contributors’ responses: (1) internationally focused scholarship, (2) presence and work of international organizations, and (3) study abroad, exchange, and international collaboration. The category pertaining to concerns and needs was also thematically summarized according to three topics: (1) power, paternalism, and neoliberalism, (2) paucity of critical dialogue and research, and (3) linguistic and financial barriers to internationalization. From the shared perspectives, concluding remarks are presented in the context of how the discipline can continue discourse and activities that, through internationalization, help to offer more equitable opportunities for professionals in the field and the communities they work to support. - Psychology in the Schools, Volume 55, Issue 8, Page 982-992, September 2018.
    July 12, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22160   open full text
  • School reentry services for students with chronic health conditions: An examination of regional practices.
    Ethan J. Schilling, Yvette Q. Getch.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 04, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Students experiencing chronic health difficulties represent a growing population in public schools. Given the unique challenges faced by these students including increased absences, resulting academic, and social/emotional/behavioral deficits, it is vital that schools are prepared to adequately meet their needs. One of the sometimes daunting tasks faced by these students and their families is the school reentry process, which occurs when the child returns to school following an extended period of time away. The purpose of the current study was to identify and evaluate the extent to which these services are currently being provided within school districts across a large Southeastern state. Results demonstrated that, although schools reported proficiency in the provision of formal school services, adherence to other best practices in school reentry, namely establishing multidisciplinary school reentry teams led by an appointed liaison, developing school reentry protocols and subsequent individualized reentry plans, sharing information with the student's peers, and formally assessing the student prior to or upon reentry, was lacking. Implications for schools and areas for future research are also discussed. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    July 04, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22154   open full text
  • Publication characteristics and outlets of school and educational psychology scholars around the globe.
    Eui Kyung Kim, John C. Begeny, Rahma Hida, Jiayi Wang, Renee Jones, Helen Oluokun.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Although a few prior studies have explored the publication outlets of school and educational psychology scholars employed within the United States, past research has not yet examined the publication outlets of such scholars working outside of the United States. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature and increasing empirical data related to internationalization in school and educational psychology, the present study gathered data about the publication outlets among international scholars in the field since 2000. Several findings are reported, such as the number of books, chapters, and journal articles published by participants, as well as the names of the journals that participants most frequently published in—within and across global regions. One key finding from the study was that school and educational psychology scholars around the globe frequently publish in discipline‐specific journals, but generally publish in a wide range of journals that focus on specific topics (e.g., behavior, child development). Additionally, it was found that the large majority of authors from our study published their studies in English. - Psychology in the Schools, Volume 55, Issue 8, Page 955-968, September 2018.
    July 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22158   open full text
  • How individual and environmental factors influence teachers’ bullying intervention.
    Keng‐Hie Song, Seung‐Yeon Lee, Shinwon Park.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 28, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Although most teachers realize the seriousness of bullying and try to intervene, some take a passive stance, while others take active action. The present study examined individual and environmental factors that make teachers either passive or active interveners. Self‐reported questionnaires were collected from 200 middle school teachers in South Korea. Teachers were classified into either active (54.5%) or passive action clusters according to differences in individual (learned helplessness, attributional style, preparedness) and environmental (social support) factors. In each cluster, the moderation effects of social support between teacher preparedness and bullying intervention were analyzed. Results indicate that adequate social support from school administrators is critical for passive teachers. However, in the case of active teachers, social support from colleagues was the most important moderator. For both groups of teachers, preparedness in bullying is necessary to increase their bullying intervention. The results indicate that the implementation of differential strategies for each teacher cluster is key to promoting bullying intervention. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    June 28, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22151   open full text
  • Initial assessment versus gradual change in early childhood behavior problems―Which better foretells the future?
    Paul A. McDermott, Michael J. Rovine, Katharine W. Buek, Roland S. Reyes, Jessica L. Chao, Marley W. Watkins.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 25, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Leading research argues the distinct importance of earliest detection of childhood behavior problems and the value of discovering subsequent change patterns as children transition through the early education years. This study examined the relative contributions of earliest assessments of children's problem behaviors as compared to the changes in those behaviors over time for the prediction of important later outcomes. Focusing on the representative national sample from the Head Start Impact Study (n = 3,827), classroom behavior problems were assessed across 4 years spanning prekindergarten through first grade. Individual child indices were derived in multilevel growth modeling to reflect initial assessments and subsequent change patterns. These indices were thereafter applied in multilevel logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to predict later academic and social difficulties. Both children's initial assessments and their transitional changes proved to be good predictors of most outcomes, where the accuracy for initial assessments and transitional changes was effectively equivocal. The evidence clarifies that initial assessment of behavior problems is sufficient to predict later outcomes; additional assessments did not augment forecasting accuracy nor did the combination of both initial assessment and information about subsequent change improve accuracy. Implications are discussed for assessment theory and practice. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    June 25, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22150   open full text
  • Teachers as obligated bystanders: Grading and relating administrator support and peer response to teacher direct intervention in school bullying.
    Jennifer Farley.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study applied a theory of bystander intervention to teachers and has proven to have much utility in understanding how other bystanders may influence a teacher's direct intervention in instances of school bullying. Middle‐school teachers (n = 63) completed an online survey, which utilized video scenarios, and quantitative methods were utilized in analysis. Factors analyzed in relation to direct intervention included teacher accuracy in identifying bullying behavior, intended teacher response, perception of administrator support and peer response, and self‐efficacy. Results indicate that peer response (F(8, 58) = 6.067, p = .014) and administrator support (F(14, 58) = 6.515, p = .009) have significant impact on a teacher's direct intervention in incidents of school bullying. Results also suggest that all teachers do not perceive administrator support or effective peer response in incidents of school bullying. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    June 15, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22149   open full text
  • Trajectories of early education learning behaviors among children at risk: A growth mixture modeling approach.
    Paul A. McDermott, Michael J. Rovine, Roland S. Reyes, Jessica L. Chao, Richard Scruggs, Katharine Buek, John W. Fantuzzo.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study examined the latent developmental patterns for classroom learning behaviors among children from underresourced families. Based on standardized teacher observations, a large sample (N = 2,152) of children was assessed for manifestations of Competence Motivation and Attentional Persistence twice annually through Head Start, kindergarten, and 1st grade. For each form of learning behavior, latent growth mixture modeling revealed dominant subpopulations of change that feature quite good learning behaviors during Head Start but marked deterioration in performance upon kindergarten entry. Other change subpopulations showed children arriving in Head Start with noticeably poor learning behaviors and, while experiencing some early improvement, continued to function with relatively limited learning behaviors throughout the transition years, whereas other children entered prekindergarten with somewhat average performance levels and evinced modest losses when exiting Head Start. Membership in less desirable growth subpopulations is linked to preexisting explanatory factors and to subsequent negative outcomes. The general deterioration in learning behaviors that accompanies formal school entry is examined in the context of Head Start performance fade‐out and teachers’ shifting reference standards. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    May 29, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22145   open full text
  • Barriers to implementing classroom management and behavior support plans: An exploratory investigation.
    Melissa A. Collier‐Meek, Lisa M. H. Sanetti, Ashley M. Boyle.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Teachers are responsible for delivering classroom‐management plans and behavior support plans; however, many struggle to implement them consistently. Low levels of treatment integrity may be the result of various implementation barriers. No study has been conducted to examine teachers’ experience of these barriers within the context of specific interventions. This exploratory study involves the analysis of barriers reported during implementation planning by 33 teachers responsible for delivering classroom‐management plans or behavior support plans. Teachers most frequently indicate struggling to respond to problem behaviors and manage competing responsibilities. Strategies suggested to ameliorate barriers most frequently include re‐teaching the intervention and scheduling implementation. - Psychology in the Schools, EarlyView.
    May 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/pits.22127   open full text
  • Racial equity and school social work.
    Susan Stone.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 17, 2017
    This manuscript outlines the beginning contours of a racial justice and equity framework for school social work. It briefly summarizes prior social work scholarship related to social and racial justice and race, outline forces related to school social work professional practice that likely shape limited explicit attention to conceptions of racial equity and justice in schools. Specifically it suggests attention to (a) school institutional and organizational structure and (b) school social work practice routines to center issues of racial justice and equity in relation to the school social work profession.
    October 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22071   open full text
  • The exchangeability of brief intelligence tests for children with intellectual giftedness: Illuminating error variance components’ influence on IQs.
    Sarah M. Irby, Randy G. Floyd.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 26, 2017
    This study examined the exchangeability of total scores (i.e., intelligent quotients [IQs]) from three brief intelligence tests. Tests were administered to 36 children with intellectual giftedness, scored live by one set of primary examiners and later scored by a secondary examiner. For each student, six IQs were calculated, and all 216 values were submitted to a generalizability theory analysis. Despite strong convergent validity and reliability evidence supporting brief IQs, the resulting dependability coefficient was only .80, which indicates relatively low exchangeability across tests and examiners. Although error variance components representing the effects of the examiner, examiner‐by‐examinee interaction, the examiner‐by‐test interaction, and the test contributed little to IQ variability, the component representing the test‐by‐examinee interaction contributed about one‐third of the variance in IQs. These findings hold implications for selecting and interpreting brief intelligence tests and general testing for intellectual giftedness.
    September 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22068   open full text
  • School and community factors involved in Chilean students’ perception of school safety.
    Verónica López, Javier Torres‐Vallejos, Boris Villalobos‐Parada, Tamika D. Gilreath, Paula Ascorra, Marian Bilbao, Macarena Morales, Claudia Carrasco.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 20, 2017
    Identifying and understanding predictors of school safety perceptions is important due to its consequences for students. However, it is not clear what school‐related factors most contribute to explaining students’ perception of school safety, and how they relate to community‐related factors such as neighborhood safety. The purpose of this study was to understand the factors associated with Chilean elementary and middle school students’ perceptions of school safety. We used a sample of 5,455 students from low socioeconomic status public schools, and analyzed the predictive value of peer physical and verbal victimization; teacher and school staff victimization; teacher's social support; and perception of safety in the students’ neighborhoods on perceptions of school safety. Findings showed that although different forms of school violence, particularly peer physical victimization and physical and sexual victimization from teachers and school staff, contribute to students’ perception of school safety, the highest contribution came from students perceiving their neighborhoods as unsafe. In contrast, teacher social support contributed to increased levels of perceived school safety. We discuss the need for school‐based interventions that address physical victimization and engage teachers in prosocial and less punitive approaches to foster a positive and safe school climate, and in fostering school–community partnerships.
    September 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22069   open full text
  • Using 21st century video prompting technology to facilitate the independence of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.
    Jennifer M. Cullen, Evette A. Simmons‐Reed, Lindy Weaver.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 20, 2017
    Barriers in acquiring, maintaining, and generalizing daily living skills are factors that contribute to discrepancies in independent living outcomes among transition age youth and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Acquisition and generalization of daily living skills empowers transition age youth and young adults with disabilities to meet their own needs with minimal reliance on others. Infusing the use of technology as a self‐prompting device facilitates the acquisition of tasks that may not be otherwise attainable. In this study, self‐directed video prompting on an iPad with the My Pictures Talk application was used to help young adults with IDD in a postsecondary program acquire daily living skills in a single subject, multiple probe across subjects design. The effects of the intervention on generalization to tasks that were one, two, and three components different were also assessed. Results demonstrated a functional relationship between the introduction of the intervention and improvement in skill performance.
    September 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22056   open full text
  • Latino immigrant parents’ financial stress, depression, and academic involvement predicting child academic success.
    Lauren R. Gilbert, Christia Spears Brown, Rashmita S. Mistry.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 19, 2017
    The current study examines Mexican‐heritage immigrant parents’ financial stress, English language fluency, and depressive symptoms as risk factors for parental academic involvement and child academic outcomes. Participants were 68 Latino immigrant (from Mexico) third and fourth graders and their parents. Results from a structural equation model analysis indicated that Latino parents who reported greater financial stress also reported higher levels of depressive symptoms; this, in turn, was related to lower parent‐reported levels of engagement in the monitoring and transmission of implicit and explicit valuing of academics. Parental monitoring of academics was positively associated with children's success in mathematics and transmission of implicit and explicit valuing of academics was positively associated with children's success in language arts. The current study extends support for the Family Economic Stress Model by demonstrating connections between parental stress, emotional well‐being, and child academic outcomes, through parental involvement in children's academics in a Latino‐heritage sample.
    September 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22067   open full text
  • Validity evidence for the Chinese version Classroom Appraisal of Resources and Demands (CARD).
    Juan Zhang, Chuang Wang, Richard Lambert, Chenggang Wu, Hongbo Wen.
    Psychology in the Schools. August 24, 2017
    The Classroom Appraisal of Resources and Demands (CARD) was designed to evaluate teacher stress based on subjective evaluations of classroom demands and resources. However, the CARD has been mostly utilized in western countries. The aim of the current study was to provide aspects of the validity of responses to a Chinese version of the CARD that considers Chinese teachers’ unique vocational conditions in the classroom. A sample of 580 Chinese elementary school teachers (510 female teachers and 70 male teachers) were asked to respond to the Chinese version of the CARD. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the data fit the theoretical model very well (e.g., CFI: .982; NFI: .977; GFI: .968; SRMR: .028; RMSEA: .075; where CFI is comparative fit index, NFI is normed fit index, GFI is goodness of fit, SRMR is standardized root mean square residual, RMSEA is root mean square error of approximation), thus providing evidence of construct validity. Latent constructs of the Chinese version of the CARD were also found to be significantly associated with other measures that are related to teacher stress such as self‐efficacy, job satisfaction, personal habits to deal with stress, and intention to leave their current job.
    August 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22053   open full text
  • Internalizing and externalizing in adolescence: the roles of academic self‐efficacy and gender.
    Gabrielle H. Rocchino, Bridget V. Dever, Alana Telesford, Kristen Fletcher.
    Psychology in the Schools. August 06, 2017
    This study examines academic self‐efficacy and gender as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors in adolescence. In addition, the role of gender was considered as a moderator in the relationship between academic self‐efficacy and internalizing/externalizing difficulties. Participants were 4,318 predominantly African American, low‐income high school students who completed self‐report measures on the constructs of interest. Academic self‐efficacy and gender were both significant predictors of risk for internalizing problems, whereas only academic self‐efficacy predicted risk for externalizing (hyperactivity/distractibility) problems. Gender did not predict externalizing difficulties, nor did gender serve as a moderator in any analysis. Implications include focusing on academic self‐efficacy in the development of strategies for prevention and intervention of internalizing and externalizing problems.
    August 06, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22045   open full text
  • Bullying and repeated conventional transgressions in Swedish schools: How do gender and bullying roles affect students’ conceptions?
    Robert Thornberg, Tiziana Pozzoli, Gianluca Gini, Jun Sung Hong.
    Psychology in the Schools. August 02, 2017
    Bullying is a moral transgression. Recognizing the importance of approaching bullying from a moral perspective, the present study examines whether children's judgments and reasoning to justify their judgments differ between bullying and repeated conventional transgressions. Our study also explores differences by gender and differences among bullies, victims, and uninvolved students. Participants included 381 students from 13 elementary schools in Sweden. Findings indicate that children judge bullying as more wrong than repeated conventional transgressions; use moral reasons more frequently in their justifications about bullying than about repeated conventional transgressions; and use conventional reasons more frequently to justify their judgments on repeated conventional transgressions as compared with bullying. Female students and nonbullies judged bullying and repeated conventional transgressions as more wrong and used moral reasons more frequently in their justifications of judgments of bullying than did male students and bullies. Male students reported bullying more than did female students. Implications for practice are also discussed.
    August 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22054   open full text
  • Relationship of teachers’ ratings of kindergarteners’ 21st century skills and student performance.
    Suzanne Woods‐Groves, Taehoon Choi.
    Psychology in the Schools. August 02, 2017
    This study investigated the relationship of kindergarten teachers’ ratings of their students’ 21st century skills (college readiness skills) with students’ behavioral and academic performance. Teachers rated the frequency that their students (n = 579) demonstrated persistence, curiosity, affective, and cognitive (e.g., critical thinking) behaviors within their classrooms via the Human Behavior Rating Scale: Brief (HBRS: Brief, a teacher rating scale. The relationship of the HBRS: Brief teachers’ ratings was compared with data the school annually collected (behavioral ratings, academic performance, student office discipline referrals [ODRs], and absences). Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that teachers’ ratings of students’ persistence and cognition behaviors were significantly associated with students’ academic performance. Teachers’ persistence, curiosity, and externalizing affect ratings were predictive of behavioral ratings and teachers’ externalizing affect ratings were significantly associated with ODRs. The results support the efficacy of investigating teacher perceptions of students’ 21st century skills with kindergarteners.
    August 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22052   open full text
  • Teachers’ recognition of anxiety and somatic symptoms in their pupils.
    Louise Neil, Marjorie Smith.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 30, 2017
    Anxiety and somatic symptoms in children are common and debilitating, yet frequently go unidentified and untreated. This study investigated whether teachers can recognize children's anxiety and somatic symptoms, and how they identify children they perceive to be anxious or somatizing. A sample of 1,346 7‐ to 11‐year‐old children, their 51 class teachers, and 144 parents took part in the study. Data on children's anxiety and somatic symptoms were collected using standardized scales and simple 1–5 teacher rating scales. Teachers were also asked to identify children they perceived to have “debilitating” levels of anxiety and (separately) somatic symptoms and to provide brief qualitative descriptions to explain their choices. Small but significant positive associations were found between teachers’ and children's reports of anxiety and somatic symptoms. Identified children reported similar levels of anxiety than children not identified, but significantly greater levels of somatic symptoms, although the size of this difference was modest. Teachers commonly described crying and avoidance as signs of anxiety. Findings suggest that teachers show limited sensitivity to the variation in pupils’ levels of anxiety and somatic symptoms, and may struggle to identify children who may benefit from interventions or extra support in these domains.
    July 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22055   open full text
  • Criterion‐related validity of two curriculum‐based measures of mathematical skill in relation to reading comprehension in secondary students.
    Giancarlo A. Anselmo, Jamie L. Yarbrough, Joseph F. Kovaleski, Vi N. Tran.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 30, 2017
    This study analyzed the relationship between benchmark scores from two curriculum‐based measurement probes in mathematics (M‐CBM) and student performance on a state‐mandated high‐stakes test. Participants were 298 students enrolled in grades 7 and 8 in a rural southeastern school. Specifically, we calculated the criterion‐related and predictive validity of benchmark scores from CBM probes measuring math computation and math reasoning skills. Results of this study suggest that math reasoning probes have strong concurrent and predictive validity. The study also provides evidence that calculation skills, while important, do not have strong predictive strength at the secondary level when a state math assessment is the criterion. When reading comprehension skill is taken into account, math reasoning scores explained the greatest amount of variance in the criterion measure. Computation scores explained less than 5% of the variance in the high‐stakes test, suggesting that it may have limitations as a universal screening measure for secondary students.
    July 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22050   open full text
  • Student and school SES, gender, strategy use, and achievement.
    Gregory L. Callan, Gregory J. Marchant, W. Holmes Finch, Lindsay Flegge.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 30, 2017
    A multilevel mediated regression model was fit to Programme for International Student Assessment achievement, strategy use, gender, and family‐ and school‐level socioeconomic status (SES). Two metacognitive strategies (i.e., understanding and summarizing) and one learning strategy (i.e., control strategies) were found to relate significantly and positively to achievement. These strategies were used more by females and students attending higher SES schools. In contrast, males and students attending lower SES schools tended to use a greater number of learning strategies that did not relate to achievement, including memorization and elaboration. In addition, the strategies that did not relate to achievement were used more frequently by students from higher SES families. The findings suggest that schools, as opposed to families, may be the primary vehicle for developing effective strategy use practices for students and thus, targeted interventions may be particularly useful for male students attending low SES schools.
    July 30, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22049   open full text
  • A cross‐national review of evidence‐based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and United States.
    Lee Robinson, Caroline Bond.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 25, 2017
    The most thoroughly researched topic in relation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) is the evaluation of interventions. Educational psychology in the United Kingdom and Ireland is the most closely allied profession to school psychology in the United States. In considering what is published by and for the profession, it is important to include all of those journals that are directly relevant to the profession including educational psychology journals. This review reports on the type, focus, and quality of school‐based ASD intervention research reported in school and educational psychology journals between 2005 and 2015. Twelve evaluation studies are reported, which evaluated 10 discrete interventions and two commercial packages. These interventions targeted academic, social, communication, and behavioral outcomes. Implications for the practice of school psychologists are discussed including the application of research to the idiographic nature of the work of school psychologists.
    July 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22051   open full text
  • Ethical and legal landmines: Causal inference in special education decisions.
    Shanna Sadeh, Amanda L. Sullivan.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 17, 2017
    In this article, we discuss conflict between law and science relative to the presumption in special education law that multidisciplinary teams and others identify the causes of problems giving rise to special education needs. First, we explain eligibility criteria, highlighting ambiguities therein and why criteria constitute a mandate for causal inference, and present illustrative examples of how judges have interpreted this mandate. Second, we discuss as a counterpoint school psychologists’ ethical duties to conduct evaluations based on the best available science, and highlight the clear conflicts between the law, ethics, and research. We present the biopsychosocial model of development as a potential framework for reconciling one's legal duty to infer causation with the current evidence base. We conclude with implications for policy and practice and suggestions for future research.
    July 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22046   open full text
  • Intervention research productivity from 2005 to 2014: Faculty and university representation in school psychology journals.
    Victor Villarreal, Ileana Umaña.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 17, 2017
    The purpose of this study was to identify authors and training programs making the most frequent contributions to intervention research published in six school psychology journals (School Psychology Review, School Psychology Quarterly, Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology International, and Journal of Applied School Psychology) over the 10‐year period from 2005 to 2014. A total of 310 articles were identified as intervention articles; 919 unique authors, representing 289 universities or organizations, contributed to these publications. Top‐ranked authors and universities were identified based on authorship rating and total publications, respectively. This evaluation highlights key contributors to the primary intervention research in school psychology, as well as themes of the publications of top‐ranked individuals and programs.
    July 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22048   open full text
  • Accuracy in direct behavior rating is minimally impacted by completion latency.
    Evan H. Dart, Keith C. Radley, Aaron J. Fischer, Tai A. Collins, Mark D. Terjesen, Sarah J. Wright, Morgan McCargo, Ashley J. Hicks.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 13, 2017
    Direct behavior ratings (DBRs) have been proposed as an efficient method to assess student behavior in the classroom due to their relative ease of administration compared to alternative methods like systematic direct observation. DBRs are considered low‐inference assessments of behavior because they are designed to be completed immediately following a specified observation period of student behavior; however, in practice it is common for teachers and other respondents to delay completion of a DBR until they are reminded to do so. It is unclear what effect, if any, this latency between observation and DBR completion has on rater accuracy. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of completion latency on accuracy in an analogue setting. Two‐hundred forty‐one undergraduate students (83.8% female) with a mean age of 21 participated across eight groups and were asked to complete an electronic DBR immediately after watching a video of student behavior or after a predetermined delay of 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 4 hours, or 6 hours. A one‐way analysis of variance revealed that there was no statistically significant relationship between completion latency and DBR accuracy, F(7, 233) = .959, p = .46, η2 = .028.
    July 13, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22047   open full text
  • Explaining student and home variance of Chinese reading achievement of the PIRLS 2011 Hong Kong.
    Wai Ming Cheung, Joseph W. I. Lam, Doreen W. H. Au, Wendy W. Y. So, Yanli Huang, Hector W. H. Tsang.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 13, 2017
    Hong Kong attained the top place in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2011, an international study of reading achievement, which arouses keen interest in understanding the reasons behind this remarkable achievement. Although factors associated with reading achievement in English have been widely studied, similar studies using Chinese as a different language system are limited. The present study proposes and tests a hypothetical model that attempts to explain the variance of reading achievement of Hong Kong pupils in the PIRLS 2011 study, focusing on parental and student factors. Data of 3,875 fourth graders from 132 primary schools and their parents or caregivers (n = 3,682) are involved in the analysis. Structural equation modeling supports the hypothesized model as tenable explaining 34% of the variance of reading achievement. Parental background acts as the fundamental factor that exerts an indirect effect on reading motivation, reading self‐efficacy, and reading achievement of students via books at home and early reading abilities. Reading motivation and reading self‐efficacy are found to be significant in influencing reading achievement. Implications for educational practices and future research are discussed.
    July 13, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22041   open full text
  • Factors related to resilience of academically gifted students in the chinese cultural and educational environment.
    Xinjie Chen, Hoi Yan Cheung, Xitao Fan, Joseph Wu.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 10, 2017
    This study examined variables in three domains (personal, parent support, and peer support) for their relationships with the resilience of academically gifted students in the Chinese cultural and educational environment. The participants were 484 academically gifted students in two highly competitive secondary schools (so‐called “key” schools) in a metropolitan city in southern China. The constructs measured in the personal domain were resilience, hope, creativity, and curiosity. The constructs measured in the domain of parent support were parent trust, parent communication, and parent alienation. The constructs measured in the peer support domain were peer trust, peer communication, and peer alienation. Three nested regression models showed that the personal constructs (hope, creativity, and curiosity) were all related to the resilience of the academically gifted students. Parent support variables did not exhibit predictive effects over and above that of the personal constructs, but peer support variables did show additional predictive effects over and beyond personal variables and parent support variables. Explanations and implications were discussed for the findings, and some limitations of the study were also discussed.
    July 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22044   open full text
  • Academic growth expectations for students with emotional and behavior disorders.
    Jim Ysseldyke, Carmine Scerra, Eric Stickney, Amanda Beckler, Joan Dituri, Karen Ellis.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 03, 2017
    Computer adaptive assessments were used to monitor the academic status and growth of students with emotional behavior disorders (EBD) in reading (N = 321) and math (N = 322) in a regional service center serving 56 school districts. A cohort sequential model was used to compare that performance to the status and growth of a national user base of more than 7,500,000 students without disabilities. Consistent with numerous previous findings, status or level of performance of students with EBD was consistently low relative to their nondisabled peers. However, for the most part the students with significant EBD demonstrated rates of growth similar to the nationwide sample of nondisabled peers. There was considerable variability in the academic growth of students across grades and between treatment programs, and this variability is described and discussed. Implications for policy and practice in student progress monitoring and teacher evaluation systems are discussed.
    July 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22030   open full text
  • Use of a technology‐enhanced version of the good behavior game in an elementary school setting.
    Shauna Lynne, Keith C. Radley, Evan H. Dart, Daniel H. Tingstrom, Christopher T. Barry, John D. K. Lum.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 03, 2017
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a variation of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in which teachers used ClassDojo to manage each team's progress. ClassDojo is a computer‐based program that enables teachers to award students with points for demonstrating target behaviors. Dependent variables included class‐wide disruptive and academically engaged behavior, teachers’ ratings on the Behavior Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS), and the rate of teacher praise statements delivered in each phase. Overall, results indicated that the GBG with ClassDojo was effective at reducing disruptive behavior, increasing academically engaged behavior, and was rated as socially valid. Additionally, when the intervention was in place, increases in the amount of behavior‐specific praise statements delivered were observed across all three classrooms.
    July 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22043   open full text
  • Confirmatory factor analyses comparing parental involvement frameworks with secondary students.
    Kristin Duppong Hurley, Matthew C. Lambert, Stacy‐Ann A. January, Jacqueline Huscroft D'Angelo.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 28, 2017
    Given the lack of research on measurement models used to operationalize parental involvement with secondary students, the goal of this research is to examine the measurement properties of the three‐domain conceptualization of parental involvement including school‐based involvement, home‐based involvement, and academic socialization, compared to a more nuanced six domain conceptualization school‐based (1) school/parent communication, (2) attending school activities, home‐based (3) home activities, (4) homework help, academic socialization, (5) parent–child communication about education, and (6) parental aspirations for child's education. When comparing the fit among the models, the six‐factor model had best fit indices and indicated varied correlations among the subdomains. The six‐factor model allowed for more nuanced variations among the subdomains that may be helpful when assessing parental involvement with high school students.
    June 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22039   open full text
  • Exploring the latent structure of the Luria model for the KABC‐II at school age: Further insights from confirmatory factor analysis.
    Ryan J. McGill.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 23, 2017
    The present study examined the factor structure of the Luria interpretive model for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children‐Second Edition (KABC‐II) with normative sample participants aged 7–18 (N = 2,025) using confirmatory factor analysis with maximum‐likelihood estimation. For the eight subtest Luria configuration, an alternative higher‐order model with Pattern Reasoning being permitted to cross‐load on the Planning and Simultaneous Processing factors provided the best fit to the normative sample data. Variance apportionment suggests that additional consideration, beyond the omnibus Mental Processing Index, of the contribution of the first‐order factor‐based scores (i.e., SQ, SM, P, and L), and in some cases the individual subtests themselves, may be warranted. Implications for clinical interpretation and the anticipated normative update of the measurement instrument are discussed.
    June 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22037   open full text
  • Using children's literature to decrease moral disengagement and victimization among elementary school students.
    Cixin Wang, Taryn S. Goldberg.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 23, 2017
    Previous research has suggested that moral disengagement is strongly associated with bullying and bystander behavior. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a 5‐week classroom‐wide bullying intervention, The Bullying Literature Project‐Moral Disengagement Version (BLP‐MD), on moral disengagement and bullying among elementary school students. A quasiexperimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the BLP‐MD. A sample of 84 third grade students (Mage = 7.93 years, 53.6% female) from four classrooms and their teachers participated in this study. The results revealed significant time by treatment interactions for decreasing both victimization and moral disengagement in treatment classrooms compared to waitlist control classrooms. The program also resulted in improved perception of peer friendships and was rated as having high social validity for both students and their teachers. How to incorporate the BLP‐MD into the general language arts curriculum to decrease moral disengagement and bullying, and promote positive bystanding is discussed.
    June 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22042   open full text
  • The relationship among achievement goals, standardized test scores, and elementary students’ focus in school.
    Martin H. Jones, Christian E. Mueller.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 23, 2017
    The study examined whether an academic, social, or both an academic and social focus might relate with achievement goals and academic achievement. Participants were 412 urban elementary school students. Results suggest that students with an academic focus toward school have more mastery‐approach and less mastery‐avoid achievement goals. Academic achievement (standardized test scores) did not relate with boys’ or girls’ focus toward school. These findings suggest that academic motivation, but not achievement, correspond with self‐perceptions of school as being a place to learn or school as a place for social interactions.
    June 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22040   open full text
  • Evaluation of a school‐based transition program designed to facilitate school reentry following a mental health crisis or psychiatric hospitalization.
    Henry White, Jennifer LaFleur, Katherine Houle, Paul Hyry‐Dermith, Susan M. Blake.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 23, 2017
    In recent decades, increasing attention has been paid to the number of adolescents experiencing extended absences from school due to mental health crises. Upon returning to school, these students often face difficulties in functioning, risk of relapse, and vulnerability to academic failure and social isolation. This paper presents results of a study examining a school‐based support program model designed to provide short‐term academic, social, and emotional support to help students successfully reacclimatize to school after an extended absence. The paper describes demographic, academic, and clinical characteristics of 189 program participants across eight high schools. Improvements were observed in participants’ day‐to‐day functioning based on the results of pre/postassessments completed by program clinicians. Preliminary data showed positive trends in participants’ school attendance and high school graduation rates. Finally, the paper considers implications for school‐based mental health practice and next steps in related research.
    June 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22036   open full text
  • Using iPad tablets for self‐modeling with preschoolers: Videos versus photos.
    Dacia M. McCoy, Julie Q. Morrison, Dave W. Barnett, Hilary D. Kalra, Lauren K. Donovan.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 23, 2017
    As technology becomes more accessible and acceptable in the preschool setting, teachers need effective strategies of incorporating it to address challenging behaviors. A nonconcurrent delayed multiple baseline design in combination with an alternating treatment design was utilized to investigate the effects of using iPad tablets to display video self‐modeling and activity photos for three preschoolers during circle time. During baseline, all three children demonstrated low levels of engagement and high levels of off‐task behavior compared to peers. The intervention phase consisted of alternating between showing the child the self‐video and photos prior to circle time. A child preference phase was conducted whereby each child self‐selected the video or photo prior to circle time. For all three children both videos and photos led to increased engagement and decreased off‐task behaviors. During the child preference phase, all three children selected the video most frequently. Social validity data demonstrated teacher and child preference for the video self‐modeling condition.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22031   open full text
  • Implementing self‐management within a group counseling context: Effects on academic enabling behaviors.
    Jacquelyn M. Briesch DuBois, Amy M. Briesch, Jessica A. Hoffman, Joan Struzziero, Robin Toback.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 23, 2017
    Self‐management interventions have been adapted to serve as targeted interventions to increase academic enabling behaviors in groups of students. However, a trade‐off exists between adapting these interventions to feasibly fit group contexts and maintaining theoretical intervention components. This study examines the use of self‐management within fourteen 40‐minute group counseling sessions delivered by school psychology personnel to increase the academic enabling behaviors of three middle school students as rated by their teachers. Results of a multiple baseline design across students revealed slight to moderate improvements in academic enabling behaviors for two of the three students. Furthermore, usability results suggested that students found the intervention to be generally acceptable, understandable, and feasible. Implications for both future research and applied practice are discussed.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22029   open full text
  • The effect of instructional quality on low‐ and high‐performing students.
    Deborah Stipek, Tara Chiatovich.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 23, 2017
    The study assessed the effects of the quality of reading and math instruction and classroom climate on the academic skills and engagement of 314 children in 245 classrooms at the end of third grade. All of the children in the study were from families with low incomes. On a classroom observation measure developed for the study, regression analyses revealed that relatively high ratings on the reading and math instruction subscales, which were scored after a half‐day observation, predicted better reading and math achievement test scores, respectively, for third graders who had previously had poor academic performance, but did not have a significant effect for relatively high‐performing students. High teacher ratings on the reading instruction and classroom climate observation scales predicted high levels of student engagement. The findings suggest the importance of high‐quality teaching for economically disadvantaged children who have poor academic skills.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22034   open full text
  • Protective factors for depressive symptoms in adolescents: Interpersonal relationships and perceived social support.
    Yun Luo, Zhoulei Xiang, Hui Zhang, Zhenhong Wang.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 23, 2017
    The association between interpersonal relationships, perceived social support, and depressive symptoms in adolescents was investigated in the present study. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Symptoms Scale (CES‐D‐SF), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and Interpersonal Relationship Scale (IRS) were administered to 1,573 high school students. There were four main findings: all three types of interpersonal relationships (same‐sex peer, opposite‐sex peer, and teacher–student relationship) and perceived social support had direct effects on depressive symptoms; perceived social support was a mediator in the relationship between interpersonal relationships and depressive symptoms; gender differences were present in the relationship between interpersonal relationships and depressive symptoms; and the three types of interpersonal relationships exerted different effects on depressive symptoms between adolescent boys and girls. Same‐sex relationships exerted the strongest effect on depressive symptoms among girls, whereas teacher–student relationships exerted the strongest effect among boys.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22033   open full text
  • Empirical Synthesis Of The Effect Of Standard Error Of Measurement On Decisions Made Within Brief Experimental Analyses Of Reading Fluency.
    Matthew K. Burns, Crystal N. Taylor, Kristy L. Warmbold‐Brann, June L. Preast, John L. Hosp, Jeremy W. Ford.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 08, 2017
    Intervention researchers often use curriculum‐based measurement of reading fluency (CBM‐R) with a brief experimental analysis (BEA) to identify an effective intervention for individual students. The current study synthesized data from 22 studies that used CBM‐R data within a BEA by computing the standard error of measure (SEM) for the median data point from the baseline and intervention data. The median CBM‐R score from the intervention that the authors of each study identified as most effective fell within the SEM (68% confidence interval) of the baseline data approximately 30% of the time, but the ranges for the two author‐identified most effective interventions overlapped over 75% of the time. Extended analyses were consistent with the BEA results for approximately three‐fourths of the instances after considering the SEM of the baseline and intervention phases. Using matched passages did not improve the overlap of the ranges, but there was less overlap when the study used three data points per condition. Results emphasize the importance of considering SEM of CBM‐R data when comparing interventions within a BEA. Further implications for practice and future research are included.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22022   open full text
  • Dynamic testing of gifted and average‐ability children's analogy problem solving: Does executive functioning play a role?
    Bart Vogelaar, Merel Bakker, Lianne Hoogeveen, Wilma C. M. Resing.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 08, 2017
    In this study, dynamic testing principles were applied to examine progression of analogy problem solving, the roles that cognitive flexibility and metacognition play in children's progression as well as training benefits, and instructional needs of 7‐ to 8‐year‐old gifted and average‐ability children. Utilizing a pretest training posttest control group design, participants were split in four subgroups: gifted dynamic testing (n = 22), gifted unguided practice (n = 23), average‐ability dynamic testing (n = 31), and average‐ability unguided practice (n = 37). Results revealed that dynamic testing led to more advanced progression than unguided practice, and that gifted and average‐ability children showed equivalent progression lines and instructional needs. For children in both ability categories, cognitive flexibility was not found to be related to progression in analogy problem solving or training benefits. In addition, metacognition was revealed to be associated with training benefits. Implications for educational practice were provided in the discussion.
    May 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22032   open full text
  • Resilience, Bullying, And Mental Health: Factors Associated With Improved Outcomes.
    Brian Moore, Stuart Woodcock.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 02, 2017
    Resilience is associated with bouncing back from adversity, and the term currently enjoys significant popular appeal. However, understanding of resilience is often superficial. The current paper examined 105 primary and high school students’ experiences of resilience and bullying, and considered resilience as a hierarchical factorial model. The study found that higher levels of resilience subfactors were a protective factor regarding depression and anxiety; that individuals with poorer resilience were more likely to engage in bullying behaviors; that individuals with poorer levels of resilience were more likely to be victims of bullying; and, that gender did not appear to be a major variable regarding resilience and bullying. These findings suggest that resilience interventions that focus on improving specific resilience elements including optimism, trust, tolerance, sensitivity, and impairment may be more efficacious than interventions focused on other resilience elements.
    May 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22028   open full text
  • Dynamics Of Engagement And Disaffection In A Social Studies Classroom Context.
    Ana M. Taboada Barber, Michelle M. Buehl, Jori S. Beck.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 02, 2017
    In this investigation, we replicated Skinner et al.’s study of the dynamics of engagement with a more diverse sample of Grades 6 and 7 students from a middle school with a large English learner (primarily Spanish‐speaking) student population. We tested dimensions of the self‐system model of motivational development in a specific academic domain (i.e., social studies). Some relationships found by Skinner and colleagues were supported, whereas others were not. Emotional engagement predicted changes in behavioral engagement and disaffection. The classroom context and students’ self‐perceptions predicted changes in engagement and disaffection. Students’ self‐perceptions also mediated the relation between teacher support and engagement and disaffection. None of these relations were moderated by language status.
    May 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22027   open full text
  • A mixed‐method efficacy and fidelity study of Check and Connect.
    Kristin Powers, Kristi Hagans, Megan Linn.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 02, 2017
    The effectiveness of the Check and Connect dropout prevention program was examined, over the course of 2 ½ years, with 54 middle school students from diverse backgrounds experiencing one or more conditions of risk for dropout. Participants were randomly assigned to receive the Check and Connect intervention or business as usual (i.e., control) in sixth grade. Students in the treatment group had significantly better eighth grade attendance than the control. There were no significant differences between the two groups in eighth grade cumulative grade point average or office disciplinary referrals. An in‐depth analysis of the quality and quantity of the intervention delivered to the students in the treatment group identified conditions that were associated with higher treatment integrity and better student outcomes.
    May 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22038   open full text
  • Developing local oral reading fluency cut scores for predicting high‐stakes test performance.
    Sally L. Grapin, John H. Kranzler, Nancy Waldron, Diana Joyce‐Beaulieu, James Algina.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 02, 2017
    This study evaluated the classification accuracy of a second grade oral reading fluency curriculum‐based measure (R‐CBM) in predicting third grade state test performance. It also compared the long‐term classification accuracy of local and publisher‐recommended R‐CBM cut scores. Participants were 266 students who were divided into a calibration sample (n = 170) and two cross‐validation samples (n = 46; n = 50), respectively. Using calibration sample data, local fall, winter, and spring R‐CBM cut scores for predicting students’ state test performance were developed using three methods: discriminant analysis (DA), logistic regression (LR), and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC). The classification accuracy of local and publisher‐recommended cut scores was evaluated across subsamples. Only DA and ROC produced cut scores that maintained adequate sensitivity (≥.70) across cohorts; however, LR and publisher‐recommended scores had higher levels of specificity and overall correct classification. Implications for developing local cut scores are discussed.
    May 02, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22035   open full text
  • School Racial Climate And The Academic Achievement Of African American High School Students: The Mediating Role Of School Engagement.
    Charity Brown Griffin, Shauna M. Cooper, Isha W. Metzger, Alexandrea R. Golden, C. Nicole White.
    Psychology in the Schools. April 26, 2017
    This investigation utilized an integrative model of development for ethnic minority children and a process model of engagement to explore whether three dimensions of school engagement (behavioral, emotional, and cognitive) mediated relationships between school racial climate, academic performance, and educational aspirations. A total of 139 African American students were recruited from a high school in the southeastern United States. Findings revealed an indirect association between perceptions of racial fairness and academic achievement indicators through behavioral and cognitive engagement. Behavioral and cognitive engagement also mediated relationships between youths’ perceived peer discrimination and academic achievement indicators. No significant indirect associations between teacher discrimination and academic achievement through school engagement dimensions were found. Study limitations, future directions, and implications are discussed.
    April 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22026   open full text
  • Evidence For The Expanding Role Of Consultation In The Practice Of School Psychologists.
    Michael W. Bahr, James D. Leduc, Melissa A. Hild, Shannon E. Davis, Jenna K. Summers, Brittany Mcneal.
    Psychology in the Schools. April 24, 2017
    In 2010, the National Association of School Psychologists approved the Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (or the NASP Practice Model), codifying what an expanded role encompasses in the delivery of school‐based psychological services. This study examined the role and function of school psychology practitioners from three Midwestern states with different legal statues and policy initiatives related to the practice of school psychology. A total of 175 practicing school psychologists from Missouri, Illinois, and Iowa reported their actual and preferred practices and completed a self‐assessment on their knowledge of the NASP Practice Model. Results showed participants not only identified problem‐solving consultation as their most knowledgeable domain of practice but also the activity on which they spent the greatest amount of their time. Analysis by state revealed differential levels of practice devoted to consultation and intervention. Study findings are discussed relative to the potential impact and importance of state law and policy initiatives.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22020   open full text
  • Relationships Between Psychological Wellbeing Of Thai College Students, Goal Orientations, And Gender.
    John J. Sosik, Jae Uk Chun, Ravinder Koul.
    Psychology in the Schools. April 24, 2017
    This paper examined the direct and interaction effects of students’ learning and performance‐avoidance goal orientations on their psychological wellbeing and a moderating role of students’ gender in these relationships. Using 564 self‐reports of freshman college students in a Thai university, we found students’ psychological wellbeing to be positively related to their learning goal orientation and negatively related to their performance‐avoidance goal orientation. Additionally, the negative relationship between students’ performance‐avoidance goal orientation and psychological wellbeing was stronger for men than women. Lastly, differences in students’ psychological wellbeing between men and women became more pronounced with increases in learning goal orientation for students with low levels of performance‐avoidance goal orientation, but not for students with high levels of performance‐avoidance goal orientation. These findings were obtained after controlling for students’ grade point average and academic program.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22024   open full text
  • Measuring Efficacy Sources: Development And Validation Of The Sources Of Teacher Efficacy Questionnaire (Steq) For Chinese Teachers.
    Cathy Ka Weng Hoi, Mingming Zhou, Timothy Teo, Youyan Nie.
    Psychology in the Schools. April 24, 2017
    The aim of the current study is to develop and validate an instrument to measure the four sources of teacher efficacy among Chinese primary school teachers. A 26‐item Sources of Teacher Efficacy Questionnaire (STEQ) was proposed with four subscales: mastery experience, vicarious experience, social persuasion, and physiological arousal. The results supported the hypothesized four‐factor structure of the STEQ. Scores from all the four factors of the STEQ had strong significant correlations with the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), which showed the criterion‐related validity of the STEQ. Further, scores of all four sources significantly predicted teacher efficacy scores, among which social persuasion was the strongest predictor. This study contributes to the self‐efficacy literature by providing researchers with an instrument for examining the various facets of teacher efficacy. The findings can inform school principals and teacher educators, enabling them to facilitate a school culture and teaching environment that cultivates a greater sense of teacher efficacy and, in turn, better teaching performance.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22025   open full text
  • Occupational/Career Indecision For Economically Disadvantaged High School Students Of High Intellectual Ability: A Mixed‐Methods Cognitive Process Model.
    Jae Yup Jung, Marie Young.
    Psychology in the Schools. April 24, 2017
    A mixed‐methods design was employed to identify the cognitive processes that lead to occupational/career indecision for economically disadvantaged adolescents of high intellectual ability. In the first phase, interview data collected from 26 economically disadvantaged intellectually gifted Australian adolescents were analyzed using grounded theory to develop two alternative models of cognitive processes that lead to occupational/career indecision. In the second phase, these models were quantitatively tested and refined using structural equation modeling of survey data collected from 917 economically disadvantaged intellectually gifted Australian adolescents. The finally accepted model, identified using a competing models strategy, suggested that valuing the thoughts of family on general matters is positively predictive of a desire to live up to one's potential and the experience of amotivation about the occupational decision. In turn, occupational amotivation appears to be positively associated with occupational indecision, but negatively associated with multipotentiality and a desire to fulfill one's potential.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22023   open full text
  • Crisis Preparedness In Schools: Evaluating Staff Perspectives And Providing Recommendations For Best Practice.
    Rachel M. Olinger Steeves, Sarah A. Metallo, Shelby M. Byrd, Megan R. Erickson, Frank M. Gresham.
    Psychology in the Schools. April 19, 2017
    The current study investigated the content of school crisis plans and perceptions of crisis preparedness among school staff in six public elementary schools. Surveys were administered to 72 teachers, administrators, and other school staff members measuring their perceptions of crisis preparedness and performance of activities related to crisis response (i.e., trainings, familiarity with crisis plans, etc.). Respondents indicated positive perceptions of preparedness for the occurrence of a crisis at each of their schools; however, they reported lower participation in preparedness activities and provided inconsistent answers on response procedures. Regression analyses found that reading the crisis plan was a significant predictor of feelings of preparedness for fire, death, suicide, and extreme weather events. Researchers additionally found that school crisis plans lacked many of the components recommended by best practice. These findings and implications for educators are discussed.
    April 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22017   open full text
  • Measuring School Psychology Trainee Self‐Efficacy.
    Adam B. Lockwood, John Mcclure, Karen Sealander, Courtney N. Baker.
    Psychology in the Schools. April 19, 2017
    There is an ever‐increasing need for school psychology training programs to demonstrate their ability to produce competent practitioners. One method of addressing this need is through the assessment of self‐efficacy. However, little research on self‐efficacy in school psychology exists likely due to the lack of a psychometrically sound measure of this construct. To address this gap, we examined the construct validity of the Huber Inventory of Self‐Efficacy for School Psychologists Research Version (HIS‐SP‐RV), a preexisting measure of self‐efficacy, with a sample of 520 school psychology graduate students. Results suggest that the HIS‐SP‐RV is not a valid measure of trainee self‐efficacy. We then created and conducted a psychometric evaluation of a shortened measure, the Huber Inventory of Trainee Self‐Efficacy (HITS). Results supported the validity of a five‐factor model. Implications for the use of the HITS for program evaluation, to improve trainee competence, and for future research are discussed.
    April 19, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22016   open full text
  • Language In Consultation: The Effect Of Affect And Verb Tense.
    Daniel S. Newman, Meaghan C. Guiney, Courtenay A. Barrett.
    Psychology in the Schools. April 12, 2017
    This study was an exploration of school consultation interactions between instructional consultants and consultees. Of specific interest was how consultants (n = 18) and consultees (n = 18) used verb tense and emotion words during the problem identification and analysis instructional consultation stage, similarities and differences in communication patterns, and whether verb tense and emotion words were related to perceptions of collaboration, consultee outcomes, or client outcomes. Data provided mixed support for study hypotheses. Among the findings, consultants’ past tense verb use negatively correlated with the consultation relationship (r = −.62, p = .01), consultees’ present tense use correlated with better consultee outcomes (r = .49, p = .05), and positive emotion word use by consultees was correlated with better consultee outcomes (r = .54, p = .05). Implications of these and other findings are explored in the context of interpersonal communication during school consultation.
    April 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22019   open full text
  • Academic Leaderships Views Of School Psychology And Black Students: The Case Of Historically Black Colleges And Universities.
    Amirah Beeks, Scott L. Graves,.
    Psychology in the Schools. April 12, 2017
    The purpose of this study was to understand academic leadership's views of the field of school psychology. This is the first study that has attempted to incorporate the views of historically Black college and university (HBCU) Psychology Department Chairs' regarding the field of school psychology and the potential development of school psychology programs at HBCUs. The results indicated that Department Chairs at HBCUs are not recommending the field of school psychology to their students based on a variety of reasons related to their views of the field (e.g., lack of focus on Black research issues). Despite the shortage of school psychologists and ample career opportunities, Department chairs in our sample do not recommend the field of school psychology as a first option graduate school choice. Implications are discussed in terms of increasing the number of African Americans in the field of school psychology.
    April 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22018   open full text
  • Gender Moderates Association Between Emotional‐Behavioral Problems And Text Comprehension In Children With Both Reading Difficulties And Adhd.
    Quintino R. Mano, Kristen E. Jastrowski Mano, Carolyn A. Denton, Jeffery N. Epstein, Leanne Tamm.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 26, 2017
    Evidence suggests that higher order linguistic functioning such as text comprehension is particularly vulnerable to emotional modulation. Gender has been identified as an important moderating variable in emotional expression such that girls tend toward internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety) whereas boys tend toward externalizing emotions (e.g., anger, combativeness), which may influence the relationship between emotion and text comprehension. The present study examined whether gender moderates the relationship between emotional‐behavioral problems and text comprehension among children (n = 187; boys = 115, girls = 72) with both word reading difficulties (RD) and attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a sample widely acknowledged to be at increased risk for developing emotional‐behavioral problems such as anxiety, poor academic self‐concept, and delinquency. A moderated regression analysis tested for the significance of two separate interaction terms (i.e., gender × externalizing problems, gender × internalizing problems) after controlling for gender, IQ, basic reading skills, cognitive‐linguistic processes closely related to reading, attentional problems, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Results indicated that gender significantly and uniquely moderates the relationship between emotional‐behavioral problems and text comprehension. Specifically, text comprehension was relatively lower among girls with relatively higher externalizing problems, whereas no such association was observed among boys. These results contribute to our understanding of cognition–emotion interactions within reading development and raise important implications.
    March 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22011   open full text
  • Notetaking Skills Instruction For Development Of Middle School Students’ Notetaking Performance.
    Ilhan Ilter.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 20, 2017
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of explicit instruction in notetaking skills on the notetaking performance of seventh‐grade students at different reading ability levels. The students in the notetaking instruction condition (NTI) received classroom‐based notetaking skills instruction (approximately 40 minutes) every week for 10 weeks. The comparison condition students (CNT) were asked to use conventional notetaking (CNT) that was embedded within the daily social studies lessons. The participants’ reading comprehension abilities were identified through the Sentence Verification Technique, which consisted of a 16‐item expository text. A notetaking performance test (NTPT) was used to assess the effect of notetaking skills instruction on two dimensions of the participants’ notes (verbatim copying and terse value). The results demonstrated that the terse value of students’ notes in the NTI condition was significantly better than that of the students in the CNT condition. The students in the NTI condition reduced their percentage of verbatim copying and used fewer words to cover more main concepts in the NTPT that followed the instructional intervention. Surprisingly, the students at low reading ability showed the greatest gains in notetaking performance from verbatim copying to terse notetaking.
    March 20, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22021   open full text
  • Preschool Teachers’ Use Of Praise In General, At‐Risk, And Special Education Classrooms.
    Margaret T. Floress, Jessica R. Berlinghof, Rebecca A. Rader, Emma K. Riedesel.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 16, 2017
    Teacher praise is an effective strategy that decreases preschool students’ disruptive behavior. It is well established that school‐aged students with behavior problems receive fewer teacher praises than their peers; however, it is unclear whether these findings are consistent among preschool students. The purpose of this study was to collect praise frequency data in general, at‐risk, and special education classrooms. Over 10 hours of direct observation data were used to examine six preschool teachers’ natural use of praise. Teachers’ use of praise was not statistically different based on classroom type; however, special education teachers used twice as many praises compared to general education and at‐risk teachers. Teachers used more general praise compared to behavior‐specific praise, which was statistically significant. Finally, teachers delivered more praise to individual and large groups of students compared to small groups of students, which was also statistically significant. Future directions and implications for using praise to prevent behavior problems among preschool students are offered.
    March 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22014   open full text
  • Progress Monitoring With Computer Adaptive Assessments: The Impact Of Data Collection Schedule On Growth Estimates.
    Peter M. Nelson, Ethan R. Van Norman, Dave A. Klingbeil, David C. Parker.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 16, 2017
    Although extensive research exists on the use of curriculum‐based measures for progress monitoring, little is known about using computer adaptive tests (CATs) for progress‐monitoring purposes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the frequency of data collection on individual and group growth estimates using a CAT. Data were available for 278 fourth‐ and fifth‐grade students. Growth estimates were obtained when five, three, and two data collections were available across 18 weeks. Data were analyzed by grade to evaluate any observed differences in growth. Further, root mean square error values were obtained to evaluate differences in individual student growth estimates across data collection schedules. Group‐level estimates of growth did not differ across data collection schedules; however, growth estimates for individual students varied across the different schedules of data collection. Implications for using CATs to monitor student progress at the individual or group level are discussed.
    March 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22015   open full text
  • Characteristics Of Intervention Research In School Psychology Journals: 2010–2014.
    Victor Villarreal, Maria J. Castro, Ileana Umaña, Jeremy R. Sullivan.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 16, 2017
    The purpose of this study was to provide an updated content analysis of articles published in major journals of school psychology spanning the years 2010–2014, with an emphasis on intervention research (including intervention and participant characteristics). Six journals—School Psychology Review, School Psychology Quarterly, Journal of School Psychology, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology International, and Journal of Applied School Psychology—were selected for the analysis. Over the 5‐year period, 1,196 articles were published in the selected journals. A total of 65.8% of the articles were empirical articles; intervention studies with school‐age samples comprised 11.1% of all articles. Within the intervention studies, single subject represented the most frequently used research design (40.6%). Further, 58.6% of the intervention studies did not provide sufficient information to discern participants’ disability status. Although the proportion of empirically based articles has increased in recent years, that of intervention articles has remained low.
    March 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22012   open full text
  • Burnout In Special Needs Teachers At Kindergarten And Primary School: Investigating The Role Of Personal Resources And Work Wellbeing.
    Simona Stasio, Caterina Fiorilli, Paula Benevene, Lotta Uusitalo‐Malmivaara, Carlo Di Chiacchio.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 09, 2017
    The purpose of the current study was to examine, within an integrative predictive model, the relative contributions of sociodemographic variables, personal resources, and work wellbeing to teacher burnout. The research was conducted with special education teachers at Italian preschools—a context in which few previous studies have been carried out—and primary schools. A cross‐sectional survey‐based study with a sample of 194 kindergarten and primary school teachers was conducted. The results indicated that teachers’ happiness at school and job satisfaction incrementally predicted variance in personal, work‐related, and student‐related burnout, even after controlling for the effects of sociodemographic factors and personal resources. Furthermore, the final integrative predictive model was similar for both kindergarten and primary teachers.
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22013   open full text
  • Social Persuasions By Teachers As A Source Of Student Self‐Efficacy: The Moderating Role Of Perceived Teacher Credibility.
    Sungjun Won, Sun‐Young Lee, Mimi Bong.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 09, 2017
    The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the degree to which Korean middle school students perceived their teachers to be credible made a difference in the effectiveness of teachers’ persuasion as a source of students’ academic self‐efficacy. In the contexts of both general school learning and a specific subject of Korean language and literature, social persuasions by teachers were a significant predictor of student self‐efficacy. Students’ academic self‐efficacy, in turn, was a significant predictor of students’ expected final examination scores. Although perceived teacher credibility did not predict student self‐efficacy directly, it interacted significantly with teacher persuasion in the prediction of student self‐efficacy, as determined by the latent interaction analysis. Consistent with Bandura's assertion and our hypothesis, students reported stronger academic self‐efficacy as they perceived the teachers who delivered the social persuasion to be more credible.
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22009   open full text
  • School Mobility Among Middle School Students: When And For Whom Does It Matter?
    Sara Anderson.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 09, 2017
    This study sought to understand the extent to which elementary or middle school mobility was associated with adverse middle school academic achievement and mental health and whether youth or contextual characteristics moderated associations. I contrasted elementary and middle school mobility to consider whether a recent school move or elementary school move mattered for current adjustment and achievement. Using a diverse sample of youth from a mid‐sized urban school district (N = 1,651), results from propensity score weighted regression models indicated that middle school but not elementary school mobility was associated with deficits in achievement and mental health. Results differed notably for girls and boys. Girls who changed schools demonstrated more depressive symptoms and had lower achievement than similar girls who did not. Moderated effects were also evident by receipt of free or reduced price lunch. Results are discussed in terms of future research and school policies to support mobile youth.
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22010   open full text
  • Reducing Transition Latency And Transition‐Related Problem Behavior In Children By Altering The Motivating Operations For Task Disengagement.
    William E. Sullivan, Brian K. Martens, Allison J. Morley, Stephanie J. Long.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 23, 2017
    Activity schedules, guided compliance, and differential reinforcement are often used to reduce transition‐related problem behavior in children with autism. One potential way to increase the effectiveness of these procedures when transitioning children from preferred to nonpreferred activities is to alter the motivating operations for noncompliance. In Experiment 1, we used an alternating treatments design to compare the effects of activity schedules plus guided compliance alone and when combined with four brief interruptions, each followed by attention and immediate resumption in the preferred activity. Two preschool‐aged children with autism participated. Although the combined procedure was more effective, the extent to which it temporarily reduced the reinforcing value of the pretransition activity was unclear. Experiment 2 addressed this limitation by directly examining the value‐altering effect of brief interruptions. Two different preschool‐aged children participated. Using a reversal design, response‐restriction preference assessments were conducted with and without brief interruptions. Results indicated that both children's preferred activity was engaged in less when interrupted, but engagement levels immediately resumed when interruptions were withdrawn. Possible functions of brief interruptions followed by attention and resumption in a preferred activity are discussed.
    February 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22008   open full text
  • Web‐Based Teacher Training And Coaching/Feedback: A Case Study.
    Susan M. Wilczynski, Allison Labrie, Ann Baloski, Amanda Kaake, Nick Marchi, Kimberly Zoder‐Martell.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 23, 2017
    The present case study evaluated web‐based training with coaching and feedback delivered through videoconferencing software to increase teacher use of behavioral methods associated with increased compliance. The participant, a preschool special education teacher, increased both her knowledge of efficacious interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and her treatment fidelity during the course of the case study. The student with ASD demonstrated extremely high levels of compliance at the onset of the case study and so, although improvements were noted, this gain should not be assumed to generalize to the ASD population. A wide range of considerations for future research has been offered.
    February 23, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22005   open full text
  • The Current Status Of Indirect Functional Assessment Instruments.
    Brad A. Dufrene, Jennifer S. Kazmerski, Zachary Labrot.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 17, 2017
    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act requires that functional behavior assessments be conducted under certain circumstances for students with disabilities. Functional assessments may include indirect assessments (e.g., rating scales, interviews), direct‐descriptive assessments (e.g., direct observations with conditional probabilities), and/or experimental functional analyses. Despite being legally required in schools, and consequently commonly conducted, there is limited research establishing the technical adequacy of indirect functional assessment instruments. This review provides an update on the availability and status of indirect functional assessment instruments available for school‐based use. Results of the review are consistent with previous reviews identifying deficiencies in existing instruments. In particular, indirect functional assessment instruments for school‐based use lack sufficient evidence for temporal stability, internal consistency, inter‐rater reliability, treatment utility, and social validity. Results of this review are discussed in terms of directions for future research and implications for applied practice as they relate to school‐based functional assessments.
    February 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22006   open full text
  • Introduction To Special Issue: Applied Behavior Analysis In Schools For Behavioral Referral Concerns.
    Kimberly A. Zoder‐Martell, Shannon Titus Dieringer, Brad A. Dufrene.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 17, 2017
    The principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) can be used in school settings for assessment, behavioral interventions, and consultation. The purpose of this special issue is to highlight the application of ABA in schools for behavior referral concerns. This introduction provides a brief overview of the role of ABA in schools and highlights the author contributions to the special issue.
    February 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22004   open full text
  • The Effect Of Functional Behavior Assessment On School‐Based Interventions: A Meta‐Analysis Of Single‐Case Research.
    Teryn P. Bruni, Daniel Drevon, Michael Hixson, Robert Wyse, Samantha Corcoran, Sophie Fursa.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 17, 2017
    The effectiveness of behavior reduction strategies is likely affected by any number of ancillary variables. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative review of school‐based behavior reduction interventions and some ancillary variables that may modulate the effectiveness of those interventions. Tau‐U, an effect size statistic for single‐case designs that takes into account level and trend, was calculated across studies, allowing for examination of several moderator variables including type of functional behavior assessment method used. Moderate intervention effects were found across all studies with a small yet insignificant difference between function‐ and nonfunction‐based interventions. The largest difference in a moderator variable was intervention setting, with studies conducted in the natural environment producing larger effects than those in pull‐out settings. Possible explanations for these findings, limitations of the study, and areas of future research are discussed.
    February 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22007   open full text
  • Increasing Physical Activity In Children With Autism Through Music, Prompting, And Modeling.
    Shannon Titus Dieringer, Kimberly Zoder‐Martell, David L. Porretta, Angela Bricker, Jaclyn Kabazie.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 15, 2017
    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate strategies to increase gross motor task completion (GMTC) in physical activity programming for children with autism spectrum disorder in a school setting. A multiple baseline design across five participants was used compare the impact of the presentation of music with lyrical instruction alone and with a teacher modeling and providing verbal prompting for increasing GMTC. Furthermore, the extent to which the GMTC generalized to a novel song following training was also evaluated. All participants engaged in low levels of GMTC during baseline and in the music only conditions. Improvements were found when modeling and prompting were introduced; however, the change was modest. Finally, none of the participants demonstrated generalization to a novel song. In light of the findings, implications for schools to consider physical activity programming will be discussed.
    February 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22003   open full text
  • Incorporating Applied Behavior Analysis To Assess And Support Educators’ Treatment Integrity.
    Melissa A. Collier‐Meek, Lisa M. H. Sanetti, Lindsay M. Fallon.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 15, 2017
    For evidence‐based interventions to be effective for students they must be consistently implemented, however, many teachers struggle with treatment integrity and require support. Although many implementation support strategies are research based, there is little empirical guidance about the types of treatment integrity, implementers, and contexts these strategies are best suited to address. To facilitate the data‐driven identification of implementation supports, treatment integrity and the implementation context could be evaluated through an applied behavior analysis (ABA) lens. That is, teachers’ engagement in intervention implementation or competing behaviors could be considered to be occasioned by antecedents (e.g., prompts, setting) and maintained by consequences (e.g., escape intervention, access to attention). This article describes the conceptualization of treatment integrity within an antecedent‐behavior‐consequence framework. The current landscape and limitations of school‐based treatment integrity research are reviewed and the application of ABA technology to address implementer behavior is described. Further, the article provides practical strategies for how school psychologists might apply this conceptualization to support teachers. A case study is provided to illustrate associated research‐based strategies. Last, implications and limitations are described.
    February 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22001   open full text
  • Effects Of Tootling On Classwide Disruptive And Academically Engaged Behavior Of General‐Education High School Students.
    John D. K. Lum, Daniel H. Tingstrom, Brad A. Dufrene, Keith C. Radley, Shauna Lynne.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 15, 2017
    Considered the opposite of tattling, Tootling is a positive peer‐reporting procedure in which students report their classmates’ positive prosocial behavior instead of inappropriate behavior and employs other well‐established behavior analytic principles. This study examined the effects of Tootling on students’ behavior in three general‐education high school classrooms. Students wrote and then submitted tootles into a marked container. Teachers recorded the number of tootles on publicly posted progress charts, and read a sample of tootles at the end of the class period. An interdependent group contingency procedure was used along with a class goal of the number of tootles needed to earn the class a reward. An A‐B‐A‐B withdrawal design with follow‐up found decreases in classwide disruptive behavior and increases in academically engaged behavior across classrooms. Results suggest that Tootling can provide high school teachers a method for positively reinforcing students’ prosocial behavior, and function as a preventative measure against disruptive behavior. Issues related to social validity and directions for future research are discussed.
    February 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22002   open full text
  • The Caterpillar Game: A Classroom Management System.
    Margaret T. Floress, Angela L. Rock, Assegedech Hailemariam.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 15, 2017
    A single‐case experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Caterpillar Game, a classroom management system, on disruptive behavior in a general education first grade classroom. A multiple baseline design across settings was used to evaluate changes in student disruptive behavior and teacher praise. When the Caterpillar Game was introduced, increased teacher praise and reduction in student disruptive behavior were observed across all three settings and was sustained 8 weeks later. Teacher satisfaction for the Caterpillar Game was also positive. This study extends the literature on classroom management systems by providing initial support for the effectiveness of the Caterpillar Game, an easy and simple to implement classroom management tool.
    February 15, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.22000   open full text
  • Teaching Reading Comprehension To Learners With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Predictors Of Teacher Self‐Efficacy And Outcome Expectancy.
    Amy L. Accardo, Elizabeth G. Finnegan, Steven P. Gulkus, Clare K. Papay.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 12, 2017
    Learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit difficulty in the area of reading comprehension. Research connecting the learning needs of individuals with ASD, existing effective practices, teacher training, and teacher perceptions of their own ability to teach reading comprehension is scarce. Quantitative survey methodology and hierarchical regression analysis were utilized to investigate teacher preparedness to use effective practices, along with the job‐related factors of experience, administrator support, learner verbal ability, and instructional setting, as predictors of (1) teacher perceived self‐efficacy and (2) teacher perceived outcome expectancy teaching reading comprehension to learners with ASD. Study findings, based on 112 teacher participants, indicate that teachers with a higher confidence in using effective practices have both a higher perception of their own ability to teach comprehension (self‐efficacy), and a higher expectation of their own ability to increase instructional outcomes in learners with ASD (outcome expectancy). Implications for practice include professional development recommendations and provision of ongoing support from principals and administrators.
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.21994   open full text
  • Examining School Psychologists’ Perspectives About Specific Learning Disabilities: Implications For Practice.
    Joseph M. Cottrell, Courtenay A. Barrett.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 12, 2017
    Debate regarding the causes of specific learning disabilities (SLDs), precise definitions of SLDs, and the most effective identification methods has persisted for over 50 years. Two prominent schools of thought regarding SLDs exist: (1) biological perspectives and (2) environmental perspectives. Three identification methods are outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act of 2004 (IDEA, 2004) and align themselves to the different perspectives: (1) the IQ‐Achievement discrepancy method, (2) the response‐to‐intervention method, and (3) alternative research based procedures (e.g., evaluation of a student's pattern of strengths and weaknesses; PSW). This study used survey methodology (N = 471) and found that school psychologists’ perspectives about SLDs were significantly correlated with preferred identification methods. Preferred identification methods impacted practice even after controlling for individual‐ and school‐level variables. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.21997   open full text
  • School Psychologists As Mental Health Providers: The Impact Of Staffing Ratios And Medicaid On Service Provisions.
    Katie Eklund, Lauren Meyer, Samara Way, Deija Mclean.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 12, 2017
    As one out of five children in the United States demonstrate some type of mental or behavioral health concern warranting additional intervention, federal policies have emphasized the need for school‐based mental health (SBMH) services and an expansion of Medicaid reimbursement for eligible children and families. Most youth access mental health services at school; therefore, it is important to evaluate how staffing ratios, credentialing, and state Medicaid policies may influence school psychologists’ involvement in the delivery of SBMH services. A survey of 192 school psychologists found that as practitioner to student ratios increased, the availability and provision of SBMH services decreased. As state Medicaid policies have been found to influence the provision of mental health services at school, current study results demonstrate an association between state level Medicaid policies and the number of school psychologists qualified to bill for Medicaid‐reimbursable services. Implications for service delivery and policy development are discussed.
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.21996   open full text
  • A National Investigation Of School Psychology Trainers’ Attitudes And Beliefs About Evidence‐Based Practices.
    Linda A. Reddy, Susan G. Forman, Karen C. Stoiber, Jorge E. Gonzalez.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 12, 2017
    The present investigation examined 460 school psychology trainers’ attitudes and beliefs about the conditions for the education and training of evidence‐based practices (i.e., assessments and interventions) in training programs in the United States and Canada using an online survey. Trainer attitudes and beliefs about education and training in evidence‐based practices were measured using a 24‐item five‐point Likert scale. Overall, trainers had positive views of evidence‐based practices, as well as program and organizational support for such training. However, trainers rated the education and training of evidence‐based assessments more favorably than evidence‐based interventions. In general, trainer characteristics nor program accreditation status, model, or type of degree offered were found to influence trainers’ perceptions about evidence‐based practices. However, trainers with prior experience teaching evidence‐based intervention courses were found to have more supportive views of evidence‐based assessments and interventions than those without such experience. Implications for future training and school practice are discussed.
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.21999   open full text
  • Predicting Academics Via Behavior Within An Elementary Sample: An Evaluation Of The Social, Academic, And Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (Saebrs).
    Stephen P. Kilgus, Nicollette A. Bowman, Theodore J. Christ, Crystal N. Taylor.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 12, 2017
    This study examined the extent to which teacher ratings of student behavior via the Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS) predicted academic achievement in math and reading. A secondary purpose was to compare the predictive capacity of three SAEBRS subscales corresponding to social, academic, or emotional domains of behavior. Universal screening was conducted to evaluate 1,058 elementary students’ performance in both reading and math, which were then combined to form a composite estimate of overall academic performance. Results indicated that the SAEBRS composite scale and all three subscales each individually predicted academic performance. Results further indicated that the SAEBRS Academic Behavior subscale was the best predictor of academic performance. Furthermore, the SAEBRS Social Behavior scale was found to function as a net suppressor variable, enhancing the capacity of Academic Behavior to predict academic performance via the suppression of variance irrelevant relative to academic performance. Follow‐up path analyses suggested Academic Behavior also served as a mediating variable, as it partially accounted for the relationship between Social Behavior and academic performance. Implications for educators and limitations of this study are discussed.
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.21995   open full text
  • Influences On Teachers’ Judgment Accuracy Of Reading Abilities On Second And Third Grade Students: A Multilevel Analysis.
    Lisa Paleczek, Susanne Seifert, Barbara Gasteiger‐Klicpera.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 12, 2017
    The present study aims at examining variables (at individual and class level) that influence the accuracy of teacher judgments of second and third graders’ reading abilities (decoding and reading comprehension). Data of 1,468 students and 86 teachers were collected. Due to the nested structure of the data, multilevel regression analyses were applied. Results revealed about 5% of the variance in judgment accuracy at class level. Generally, teachers judged reading comprehension abilities more accurately than decoding abilities. Low‐achieving students’ abilities, though, were judged less accurately. Accuracy in judging decoding was higher in small classes and in students with special educational needs. Accuracy in judging reading comprehension grew along the years (higher in Grade 3 and at the end of the academic year). Additionally, teachers judged second language learners' reading comprehension less accurately. The results are discussed in the light of implications for teacher training.
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.21993   open full text
  • Distance Training In Function‐Based Interventions To Decrease Student Problem Behavior: Summary Of 74 Cases From A University Course.
    Anna‐Lind Pétursdóttir.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 12, 2017
    In this study, 188 master‐level students received training through a distance education course to conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior support plans with 68 boys and six girls (aged 3–20 years) displaying persistent behavior problems in inclusive preschools, elementary, and secondary schools. In the course, master‐level students’ scores on an FBA knowledge test increased from 13.2% to 68.8% correct. Changes in pupils’ target behaviors were evaluated with a total of 114 AB single‐subject designs and combined data with one‐group pretest–posttest designs. Comparing medians of means, disruptive behaviors decreased by 77.8% and aggressive behaviors by 88.7%, whereas task engagement increased by 91.5% after intervention. Nonparametric Wilcoxon signed‐ranks tests for related samples showed that changes were statistically significant for all groups with sufficient sample sizes. Adjusted effect sizes ranged from d = .5 to 1.6. Results indicate that positive changes in student behavior problems can be attained with function‐based interventions conducted by teams trained through a distance education course.
    February 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.21998   open full text
  • The Student–Teacher Relationship Quality Of Abused Children.
    Jenna Montgomery Armstrong, Mary E. Haskett, Amy L. Hawkins.
    Psychology in the Schools. January 10, 2017
    Considering the association between children's quality of relationships with teachers and their academic adjustment, information pertaining to how abused children are functioning in their relationships with teachers could be useful in promoting their academic success—yet there has been limited research in this area. The purpose of this study was to use cluster analyses to explore within‐group differences in relational schemas and quality of student–teacher relationships for 70 abused children. Two clusters of abused children emerged, and as hypothesized, there were significant differences in student–teacher relationships for the two clusters. The cluster with more positive relational schemas had less conflict and less dependency reported by their teachers compared to the cluster with negative relational schemas. However, there were no differences between the clusters in terms of closeness with teachers. Implications for practice in schools are discussed.
    January 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/pits.21989   open full text
  • School Psychologists’ Family–School Partnering Experiences With Latinos.
    Desireé Vega, Jon Lasser, Sarah E. Fernandez.
    Psychology in the Schools. December 29, 2016
    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to identify the beliefs, perceptions, and actions of school psychologists toward family–school partnering (FSP) with Latino families in the public school system. Existing research in this area is extremely limited; therefore, the present study has significant implications for pre‐ and in‐service training to achieve effective FSP with Latino families. Five school psychologists working in school districts with greater than 40% Latino student enrollment participated in this study. Five major themes emerged from data analysis: Attitudes toward FSP, Knowledge and Skills Needed, Expectations for Engagement, Perceived Barriers to FSP, and Engagement Activities. The results of this study will help researchers and educators develop an awareness of the challenges school psychologists face and the actions they take to enhance relationships with Latino families.
    December 29, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21988   open full text
  • Contextual Predictors Of Self‐Determined Actions In Students With And Without Intellectual Disability.
    Cristina Mumbardó‐Adam, Karrie A. Shogren, Joan Guàrdia‐olmos, Climent Giné.
    Psychology in the Schools. December 27, 2016
    Research in the field of intellectual disability suggests that promotion of self‐determination triggers positive transition outcomes for youth with intellectual disability. This article examines the contributions of personal and environmental variables in predicting self‐determined action in students with and without intellectual disability. The Spanish pilot versions of the Self‐Determination Inventory and the AIR Self‐Determination Scale were administered to 114 youth with and without intellectual disability. Personal and environmental variables were treated as predictor variables for analytic purposes. The results indicate the relevance of environmental variables in predicting both self‐reported capacity for self‐determination and the essential characteristics of self‐determined action. Particularly, age and opportunities at school and at home to engage in self‐determined action played a significant role. The practical implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    December 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21987   open full text
  • Supporting Students In Foster Care.
    Lauren E. Palmieri, Tamika P. La Salle.
    Psychology in the Schools. December 26, 2016
    Students living in foster care are at risk for experiencing many challenges in school, spanning domains of social–emotional, behavioral, and academic functioning. They are twice as likely to be absent from school and to have received and out‐of‐school suspension and up to three and a half times more likely to receive special education services. Therefore, it is important for schools to recognize and respond to the unique needs of students in foster care to provide the necessary resources for school success. When working with students in foster care, school psychologists should be equipped to support the success of these students by determining what the needs of students in foster care are, and how to meet identified needs. The current paper will discuss the education‐related vulnerabilities and presenting problems for children in foster care and outline social–emotional, behavioral, and academic supports that school psychologists can offer.
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21990   open full text
  • Understanding And Supporting Adolescents’ Mental Toughness In An Education Context.
    Sarah McGeown, Dave Putwain, Helen St. Clair‐Thompson, Peter Clough.
    Psychology in the Schools. December 26, 2016
    This study sought to explore the concept of mental toughness (comprising the attributes challenge, commitment, control, and confidence) from the perceptions of adolescents, to better understand their views on these attributes and the extent to which each were regarded as important within an educational setting. In total, 54 adolescents (31 female) aged 12–17 participated. Focus group interviews (n = 15, average group size 3–4) were conducted, audio‐recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using the principles of abbreviated grounded theory. The students’ views are discussed with reference to relevant psychological theory and literature and implications for teachers interested in encouraging these positive psychological attributes among adolescents are discussed.
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21986   open full text
  • Facilitators Of And Barriers To Model School Psychological Services.
    Jose M. Castillo, Javier Arroyo‐Plaza, Sim Yin Tan, Sujay Sabnis, Amira Mattison.
    Psychology in the Schools. December 26, 2016
    This study examined facilitators of and barriers to comprehensive and integrated services. A national sample of 267 full‐time practicing school psychologists who were Regular Members or Early Career Members of the National Association of School Psychologists participated. We administered a survey to participants that measured the extent to which they engaged in comprehensive and integrated services and the top facilitators of and barriers to those services using web‐based survey procedures. Results indicated that the majority of facilitators identified (Personal Attributes, Stakeholder Involvement, Resources and Support, School‐Specific Variables, Contextual Variables) predicted greater levels of comprehensive and integrated service delivery. Identified barriers—which often reflected the opposite condition of the facilitators—predicted lower levels of service delivery in some instances; however, they predicted services less often than did facilitators. Implications for research focused on better understanding factors that impact service delivery and on processes for facilitating increased comprehensive and integrated service delivery are discussed. Additionally, implications for practice include the assessment of facilitators and barriers, the use of data to plan for the delivery of comprehensive and integrated services, and advocacy for systems change.
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21991   open full text
  • School Psychologists’ Ethical Strain And Rumination: Individual Profiles And Their Associations With Weekly Well‐Being.
    Mari Huhtala, Ulla Kinnunen, Taru Feldt.
    Psychology in the Schools. December 26, 2016
    We investigated school psychologists’ experiences of ethical strain (the frequency of ethical dilemmas at work and the stress caused by these dilemmas) and dilemma‐related rumination outside working hours. Individual latent profiles were estimated at the study baseline based on these three dimensions. The psychologists’ weekly well‐being (vigor, exhaustion, and sleep quality) was compared against their profile during the following three working weeks. The sample included 133 school psychologists, among whom four groups were identified: Low ruminators (39%), an Intermediate group (39%), High ruminators (20%), and Atypical outliers (2%). High ruminators fared least well in terms of weekly well‐being. Of all the groups, they reported the lowest levels of vigor, the highest levels of exhaustion, and the lowest sleep quality. The study contributes to understanding how psychologists differ in their experiences of ethical strain, and highlights the role of ruminating: mental detachment from ethical demands is especially important for school psychologists’ well‐being.
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21992   open full text
  • Gauging Mindfulness In Children And Youth: School‐Based Applications.
    Katie Eklund, Meagan O'malley, Lauren Meyer.
    Psychology in the Schools. December 12, 2016
    Mindfulness is linked to a variety of social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral well‐being indicators in youth. Given increased interest among researchers and practitioners, high‐quality instruments are needed to effectively measure the construct in children, youth, and young adults, especially in the context of mindfulness‐based interventions conducted in school settings. Presented is a review of published and nonpublished measurement studies of mindfulness in school‐aged youth. An overview of three survey instruments is provided, along with each instrument's development procedures, associated psychometric properties, and applications. Potential theoretical and applied uses of these measures in school‐based settings are discussed.
    December 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21983   open full text
  • Treatment Of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Utilizing Parent‐Facilitated Acceptance And Commitment Therapy.
    Jennifer Y. Barney, Clint E. Field, Kate L. Morrison, Michael P. Twohig.
    Psychology in the Schools. December 12, 2016
    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern form of cognitive behavior therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness‐based procedures to address clinical issues. A brief protocol of ACT was used with 3 children ages 10 and 11 years who were diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed notable and clinically significant reductions of OCD across participants. These findings are noteworthy because the treatment was provided by a school psychologist, it is the first application of ACT for pediatric OCD, and it is one of a few studies using ACT with children. Limitations and future directions are discussed.
    December 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21984   open full text
  • Promoting Secondary Teachers’ Well‐Being And Intentions To Implement Evidence‐Based Practices: Randomized Evaluation Of The Achiever Resilience Curriculum.
    Clayton R. Cook, Faith G. Miller, Aria Fiat, Tyler Renshaw, Megan Frye, Gail Joseph, Polocarpio Decano.
    Psychology in the Schools. November 30, 2016
    Teaching is regarded as one of the most challenging yet rewarding professions. Moreover, research has shown that stress and burnout are likely to undermine teacher effectiveness and negatively impact their willingness and intentions to implement evidence‐based practices. The present study sought to contribute to a growing body of research implicating the importance of teacher well‐being by evaluating the efficacy of a theoretically based training that integrates several practices into a single program (e.g., mindfulness, values clarification, gratitude practices, sleep hygiene, etc.) that are designed to promote the well‐being of teachers—the ACHIEVER Resilience Curriculum (ARC). To evaluate the ARC, a randomized block controlled study was conducted with pre–post measurement. Results from the study indicated that, compared with an active control group, teachers who participated in the ARC experienced significantly better outcomes, characterized by medium effect sizes, including reductions in job‐related stress, improvements in teaching self‐efficacy, and stronger intentions to implement evidence‐based classroom practices. The implications of these findings for teacher preparation and professional development, along with the limitations of the study, are discussed.
    November 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21980   open full text
  • Mindfulness Goes To School: Things Learned (So Far) From Research And Real‐World Experiences.
    Randye J. Semple, Vita Droutman, Brittany Ann Reid.
    Psychology in the Schools. November 30, 2016
    Mindfulness‐based curricula are being implemented in K‐12 schools across the nation. Many of these programs, although well considered and implemented, have little or no research support for their effectiveness. Recognizing the paucity of published research in this area, a sampling of school‐based programs currently being implemented in the schools is reviewed. The programs reviewed are Inner Explorer, Master Mind and Moment Program, Mindfulness and Mind‐Body Skills for Children, Mindful Schools, Resilient Kids, Still Quiet Place, Stress Reduction and Mindfulness Curriculum and Mindful Moment, and Wellness and Resilience Program. We offer a summary of research support for each program and discussion of unpublished, mostly qualitative indicators of feasibility, acceptability, efficacy, and effectiveness. Strengths and limitations of each program are described, along with suggestions for bolstering informative and useful research. We encourage researchers, educators, and mindfulness practitioners to work collaboratively to conduct rigorous program evaluations.
    November 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21981   open full text
  • A Qualitative Exploration Of Implementation Factors In A School‐Based Mindfulness And Yoga Program: Lessons Learned From Students And Teachers.
    Jacinda K. Dariotis, Roxanne Mirabal‐Beltran, Fallon Cluxton‐Keller, Laura Feagans Gould, Mark T. Greenberg, Tamar Mendelson.
    Psychology in the Schools. November 28, 2016
    Identifying factors relevant for successful implementation of school‐based interventions is essential to ensure that programs are provided in an effective and engaging manner. The perspectives of two key stakeholders critical for identifying implementation barriers and facilitators—students and their classroom teachers—merit attention in this context and have rarely been explored using qualitative methods. This article reports the results of a study on the qualitative perspectives of fifth‐ and sixth‐grade participants and their teachers of a 16‐week school‐based mindfulness and yoga program in three public schools serving low‐income urban communities. Four themes related to program implementation barriers and facilitators emerged: program delivery factors, program buy‐in, implementer communication with teachers, and instructor qualities. Feedback from students and teachers is discussed in the context of informing implementation, adaptation, and future development of school‐based mindfulness and yoga programming in urban settings.
    November 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21979   open full text
  • Introduction To The Special Issue: Mindfulness In The Schools—Historical Roots, Current Status, And Future Directions.
    Tyler L. Renshaw, Clayton R. Cook.
    Psychology in the Schools. November 23, 2016
    This article provides an introduction to the special issue on mindfulness in the schools by discussing the historical roots, current status, and future directions of mindfulness‐based work related to youth and their caregivers. Definitions are provided to operationalize mindfulness and mindfulness‐based interventions (MBIs); key events in the movement of MBIs from clinical settings to school settings are summarized; and the upshot of current MBI‐related work in schools is provided from both popular and scientific perspectives. Finally, an agenda for future research regarding mindfulness in schools is provided, followed by introducing and briefly discussing the target articles of this special issue.
    November 23, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21978   open full text
  • Effects Of Mindfulness‐Based Interventions On Disruptive Behavior: A Meta‐Analysis Of Single‐Case Research.
    David A. Klingbeil, Aaron J. Fischer, Tyler L. Renshaw, Bradley S. Bloomfield, Ben Polakoff, Jessica B. Willenbrink, Rebecca A. Copek, Kai Tai Chan.
    Psychology in the Schools. November 23, 2016
    The popularity of mindfulness‐based interventions (MBIs) is growing rapidly in schools. Decisions regarding the use of these interventions must be based on empirical evidence. There is robust evidence for the use of MBIs with adults, but research on MBIs with youth is nascent. The purpose of this meta‐analytic review was to add to the literature by synthesizing single‐case research on MBIs with children and adolescents. Specifically, the effect of MBIs on youths’ disruptive behavior was examined in 10 studies published between 2006 and 2014. Results indicated that, on average, MBIs had a medium effect on disruptive behavior during treatment, g = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.30–1.78]; TauU = 0.59, 95% CI [0.40–0.77]. The average effect of MBIs during maintenance phases was larger, g = 1.41, 95% CI [0.55–2.28]; TauU = 0.71, 95% CI [0.59–0.83]. Potential moderators of intervention effects were also explored. Implications for future research and practice regarding MBIs with youth and in schools are discussed.
    November 23, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21982   open full text
    David Hulac, Natalie D. Johnson, Shiho C. Ushijima, Maryia M. Schneider.
    Psychology in the Schools. November 09, 2016
    Many school psychology faculty are required to publish for purposes of retention and promotion. It is useful to have an understanding of the different outlets for scholarly publications. In the present study, we investigated the peer‐reviewed journals in which school psychology faculty were published between 2010 and 2015, the number of articles in each journal, and the acceptance rates and impact estimates for each journal. We identified school psychology faculty using the National Association of School Psychologists website and conducted a search of the publications using EBSCO databases. Results indicated that there were a total of 3,675 articles and a total of 832 peer‐reviewed journals in which school psychology faculty were published during the 6‐year span. Among the peer‐reviewed journals, Psychology in the Schools, School Psychology Quarterly, School Psychology Review, and Journal of School Psychology were the journals in which school psychology faculty members most frequently published. Acceptance rates ranged from less than 5% to 98%, with an average of 29.7%. H‐indexes ranged from 1 to 890, with an average of 52. These results illustrate the variety of journals that publish works from school psychology faculty and the need for school psychology faculty and other authors to consider a variety of options when seeking publication.
    November 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21977   open full text
  • Developing Parent‐Professional Partnerships In A Postsecondary Education Program For Students With Disabilities.
    Grace L. Francis, Elizabeth Fuchs, Andrew D. Johnson, Sarah Gordon, Amber Grant.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 28, 2016
    Opportunities are increasing for students with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities to attend postsecondary education programs located at college campuses around the nation. Students who attend postsecondary education programs experience numerous positive outcomes, including independent living skills and expanded social networks. However, although parent‐professional partnerships could significantly enhance long‐term outcomes such as competitive employment and independent living, there is a paucity of information about the nature of these partnerships in postsecondary settings. The purpose of this expository article is to describe how staff from a midwestern postsecondary education program facilitate parent‐professional partnerships through parent involvement and support.
    October 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21974   open full text
  • Predictors Of Cyberbullying Intervention Among Elementary School Staff: The Moderating Effect Of Staff Status.
    Anne Williford, Kathryn J. Depaolis.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 28, 2016
    Cyberbullying behavior among youth has become a growing concern among parents, educators, and policymakers due to emerging evidence documenting its harmful consequences on youths’ development. As such, schools are increasingly required to address to this form of bullying. Thus, effective responses by school staff are needed. However, no study to date has examined the likelihood of cyberbullying intervention among certified and noncertified school personnel. To that end, the present study assessed whether perceptions, attitudes, and self‐efficacy beliefs predicted the likelihood of cyberbullying intervention and examined whether these relationships were moderated by staff status (e.g., certified and noncertified). Results revealed that attitudes toward victims and self‐efficacy beliefs to intervene were significant predictors of the likelihood of cyberbullying intervention among staff; however, the prevalence of bullying and staff attitudes toward bullies were not significant predictors of intervention likelihood. Implications for in‐service staff training efforts are discussed.
    October 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21973   open full text
  • Parent‐Teacher Communication About Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination Of Collaborative Problem‐Solving.
    Gazi F. Azad, Mina Kim, Steven C. Marcus, Susan M. Sheridan, David S. Mandell.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 28, 2016
    Effective parent‐teacher communication involves problem‐solving concerns about students. Few studies have examined problem‐solving interactions between parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a particular focus on identifying communication barriers and strategies for improving them. This study examined the problem‐solving behaviors of parents and teachers of children with ASD. Participants were 18 teachers and 39 parents of children with ASD. Parent‐teacher dyads were prompted to discuss and provide a solution for a problem that a student experienced at home and at school. Parents and teachers also reported on their problem‐solving behaviors. Results showed that parents and teachers displayed limited use of the core elements of problem‐solving. Teachers displayed more problem‐solving behaviors than parents. Both groups reported engaging in more problem‐solving behaviors than they were observed to display during their discussions. Our findings suggest that teacher and parent training programs should include collaborative approaches to problem‐solving.
    October 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21976   open full text
  • Academic Self‐Efficacy Among Junior High School Students In Ghana: Evaluating Factor Structure And Measurement Invariance Across Gender.
    David Ansong, Sarah R. Eisensmith, Rainier D. Masa, Gina A. Chowa.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 25, 2016
    Self‐efficacy is a universal construct, but few validated measures exist for researchers in developing countries to use in assessing youths’ perceptions of their ability to achieve academic success. This study examined the cross‐cultural suitability and psychometric properties of an academic self‐efficacy scale (ASES) adapted for the Ghanaian context. ASES construct validity was assessed with a sample of 4,289 Ghanaian junior high‐school students and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Invariance testing assessed the scale's measurement equivalence by gender and temporal stability of gender equivalence. The ASES is a valid, reliable one‐dimensional scale for assessing young Ghanaians’ perceptions of their academic capabilities, and it works equally well across genders. As adapted, ASES is a valid scale with utility for researchers examining predictors and effects of academic self‐efficacy. The ASES has important implications for decisions regarding investment in programs aimed at improving academic self‐efficacy of youth, both in sub‐Saharan Africa and the increasingly diverse American public schools.
    October 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21975   open full text
  • An Evidence‐Driven, Solution‐Focused Approach To Functional Behavior Assessment Report Writing.
    Ryan L. Farmer, Randy G. Floyd.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 21, 2016
    School‐based practitioners are to implement and report functional behavior assessments (FBAs) that are consistent with both the research literature and the law, both federal and state. However, the literature regarding how best to document the FBA process is underdeveloped. A review of applied behavior analytic and school psychology literature as well as legislation and case law informs FBA reporting practices regarding (a) required content, (b) graphing of data, (c) organization of reports, and (d) clarity of language. The purpose of FBA reports is discussed, and this discussion explicitly informs the use of a solution‐focused approach to improve clarity in report writing. Recommendations for best practices in FBA report writing are provided, and future research needs are highlighted.
    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21972   open full text
  • Parent‐Teacher Relationships In Elementary School: An Examination Of Parent‐Teacher Trust.
    Rachel T. Santiago, S. Andrew Garbacz, Tiffany Beattie, Christabelle L. Moore.
    Psychology in the Schools. October 21, 2016
    Trust is an important dimension of parent educational involvement and parent‐teacher relationships. Preliminary research suggests that parent trust in teachers and schools is associated with student learning and behavior. However, examinations of parent trust in children's education are limited. The present study investigated the influence of demographic variables on parent trust and relations among parent trust, student behavior, and parent involvement. Findings suggested that student eligibility for a free or reduced‐price lunch predicted parent trust of teachers and schools, parent trust was correlated with dimensions of student behavior, and parent trust of teachers predicted parent involvement. Implications for parent involvement and parent‐teacher relationships are discussed.
    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21971   open full text
  • Common Characteristics Of Writing Interventions For Students With Learning Disabilities: A Synthesis Of The Literature.
    Erica R. Kaldenberg, Paula Ganzeveld, John L. Hosp, Derek B. Rodgers.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 26, 2016
    Twenty‐three single‐subject studies aimed at improving the writing achievement of students identified as having a learning disability were analyzed meta‐analytically. The effect size phi was used to compare the writing strategies. The dependent measures used to assess the efficacy of the interventions were also coded and reviewed. Results suggest intervention studies using the self‐regulated strategy development (SRSD) or a non‐SRSD writing strategy produced high effect sizes, suggesting the overall success of the writing interventions. Findings also indicate the 23 studies used a total of 39 dependent measures, which show the way writing achievement is measured varies greatly. Furthermore, many of the dependent measures were not standardized or technically sound.
    September 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21958   open full text
  • A Systematic Framework For Addressing Treatment Integrity In School Settings.
    Sara Kupzyk, Mark D. Shriver.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 26, 2016
    School psychologists are tasked with ensuring treatment integrity because the level of intervention implementation affects decisions about student progress. Treatment integrity includes multiple dimensions that may impact the effectiveness of an intervention including adherence, dosage, quality, and engagement. Unfortunately, treatment integrity is not routinely monitored in consultation. A systematic framework is needed to better prepare practitioners to assess, analyze, and intervene when there are treatment integrity failures. A framework for monitoring and improving multiple dimensions of treatment integrity in natural settings is proposed to provide guidance to practitioners through two phases. The first phase focuses on improving initial treatment integrity and the second phase outlines a problem‐solving process for improving treatment integrity.
    September 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21955   open full text
  • Extending The Validity Of The Family Involvement Questionnaire–Short Form For Culturally And Linguistically Diverse Families From Low‐Income Backgrounds.
    Rebecca J. Bulotsky‐Shearer, Johayra Bouza, Krystal Bichay, Veronica A. Fernandez, Patricia Gaona Hernandez.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 19, 2016
    The construct validity of the Family Involvement Questionnaire–Short Form (FIQ‐SF) was examined in an independent sample of ethnically and linguistically diverse low‐income families (N = 498) enrolled in an urban Head Start program in the Southeast. A series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses replicated the three‐factor structure identified in initial validation studies with Northeast samples: home‐school conferencing, home‐based involvement, and school‐based involvement. Findings from multiple group confirmatory factor analyses provided evidence that the three‐factor structure was invariant across family ethnicity. multivariate analyses of variance also confirmed hypothesized mean differences on FIQ‐SF dimension scores across family demographic variables such as caregiver ethnicity, primary home language, caregiver education, employment, and marital status. Findings replicate and extend prior construct validity evidence to support the use of the FIQ‐SF by early childhood education programs such as Head Start serving diverse families from low‐income backgrounds. Implications for future research, practice, and policy applications in early childhood are discussed.
    September 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21953   open full text
  • Initial Development And Validation Of The Bullyharm: The Bullying, Harassment, And Aggression Receipt Measure.
    William J. Hall.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 09, 2016
    This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the BullyHARM, which consists of 22 items and six subscales: physical bullying, verbal bullying, social/relational bullying, cyber‐bullying, property bullying, and sexual bullying. First‐order and second‐order factor models were evaluated. Results demonstrate that the first‐order factor model had superior fit. Results of reliability testing indicate that the BullyHARM scale and subscales have very good internal consistency reliability. Findings indicate that the BullyHARM has good properties regarding content validation and respondent‐related validation, and is a promising instrument for measuring bullying victimization in school.
    September 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21957   open full text
  • Anchoring Adhd Symptoms To Mental Age.
    Callie Martin, Mardis Dunham, Samir H. Patel, Susana Contreras‐Bloomdahl.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 09, 2016
    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM‐5), requires that symptoms of ADHD must be developmentally inappropriate in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM‐5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors, practitioners do not have guidance for making this consideration. To explore the relationship between mental age and behavior ratings of ADHD symptoms, the cognitive and behavioral data from 50 children who were evaluated in a school or clinic were compiled for this study. Cognitive ability scores were used to calculate mental age and behavior rating scores were then recalculated using the assessed mental age. Using the recalculated behavior ratings, scores based on mental age decreased significantly on the Attention Problems, Hyperactivity, and Atypicality scales of the BASC‐2. Additionally, as the discrepancy between mental and chronological age increased, larger differences in scores were found.
    September 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21956   open full text
  • Analyzing Math‐To‐Mastery Through Brief Experimental Analysis.
    Gregory E. Everett, Honora S. Swift, Elizabeth L. W. McKenney, Jeremy D. Jewell.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 09, 2016
    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of individualized math‐to‐mastery (MTM) interventions, selected though brief experimental analysis (BEA), at increasing math fluency skills for three elementary‐aged females. As MTM has only been investigated as a multicomponent intervention, the present study utilized BEA to identify those specific components that led to math skills gains in the most efficient manner possible. BEA results indicated that for two of three participants only a partial MTM intervention was necessary to prompt fluency gains, while the entire intervention was the most effective for the third. During extended analysis all three participants displayed math skills gains above those seen during repeated baseline assessments. Results are discussed in terms of further refining MTM through BEA procedures so as to individually target math skill deficits by considering both intervention effectiveness and efficiency.
    September 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21959   open full text
    Jose M. Castillo, Amanda L. March, Sim Yin Tan, Kevin M. Stockslager, Amber Brundage, Mollie Mccullough, Sujay Sabnis.
    Psychology in the Schools. September 09, 2016
    Widespread adoption of Response to Intervention (RtI) requires large numbers of educators to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to implement the model with fidelity. This study examined relationships between large‐scale professional development on RtI and educators’ perceived skills. Elementary educators (n = 4,283) from 34 pilot and 27 comparison schools in a southeastern state participated. Leadership teams composed of subsets of educators from pilot schools who were responsible for leading RtI implementation participated in 13 days of training across a 3‐year period. Additionally, job‐embedded coaching was provided to pilot school instructional educators. Results from multilevel models indicated that leadership team membership related to increases in educators’ perceptions of RtI skills applied to academics (π = .05; SE = .02; t[6,726] = 2.60; p < .05) and of data display skills (π = .07; SE = .03; t[6,678] = 2.45, p < .05). Educator participation at pilot schools that received job‐embedded coaching related to increases in perceptions of RtI skills applied to academics (β = .07; SE = .02; t[6,726] = 2.77, p < .05). Implications for future research on RtI implementation and the practice of providing large‐scale professional development focused on RtI are discussed.
    September 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21954   open full text
  • The Role Of School Level Protective Factors In Overcoming Cumulative Risk For Behavior Difficulties In Children With Special Educational Needs And Disabilities.
    Jeremy Oldfield, Judith Hebron, Neil Humphrey.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 25, 2016
    The study investigated whether school‐level protective factors could moderate the effects cumulative risk has upon behavior difficulties in children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND). The sample comprised 4,288 children identified with SEND: 2,660 pupils within 248 primary schools, and 1,628 pupils within 57 secondary schools. Risk factors associated with increases in behavior difficulties over an 18‐month period were summed to a cumulative risk score. Various school‐level factors were added to multilevel models, with interaction terms computed between cumulative risk and these variables to assess their potential protective effects. The primary school model revealed a significant interaction between cumulative risk and school academic achievement in predicting behavior difficulties. Higher levels of achievement in primary schools help reduce behavior difficulties for children most at risk. The secondary school model evidenced a significant interaction between cumulative risk and school percentage of students eligible for free school meals (FSM). Lower proportions within a school of children eligible for FSM were associated with reductions in behavior difficulties for children at high levels of risk. Interventions aimed at improving school‐level academic achievement and targeting high‐risk students attending schools with large proportions of children eligible for FSM would be beneficial.
    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21950   open full text
  • Aggressive Attitudes And Prevalence Of Bullying Bystander Behavior In Middle School.
    Pooja Datta, Dewey Cornell, Francis Huang.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 25, 2016
    Separate lines of research find that proaggressive attitudes promote peer aggression and that bystanders play a pivotal role in deterring or facilitating bullying behavior. The current study hypothesized that proaggressive attitudes in middle school would deter students from standing up to bullying and encourage them to reinforce bullying behavior. Middle school students (n = 28,765) in 423 schools completed a statewide school climate survey that included an aggressive attitudes scale and their bystander response to a recent episode of bullying, which was categorized as upstanding, reinforcing, or passive. Multilevel logistic regressions indicated that higher aggressive attitudes were associated with less upstanding behavior at the school level and less upstanding behavior and more reinforcing behavior at the individual level, while controlling for other school and student demographic variables. These findings suggest that antibullying programs might address student attitudes toward aggression as a means of boosting positive bystander intervention.
    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21944   open full text
  • Teacher Behavioral Practices: Relations To Student Risk Behaviors, Learning Barriers, And School Climate.
    Andrew Martinez, Susan D. Mcmahon, Crystal Coker, Christopher B. Keys.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 19, 2016
    Student behavioral problems pose a myriad of challenges for schools. In this study, we examine the relations among teacher and school‐level constructs (i.e., teacher collaboration, supervision/discipline, instructional management), and student‐related outcomes (i.e., high‐risk behaviors, barriers to learning, student social–behavioral climate). Teachers across 29 high schools, in a large urban school district serving primarily low‐income students, completed self‐report surveys. Multilevel regression was used to test both individual‐ and school‐level predictors of student outcomes. Findings suggest that teacher practices at the individual and school levels are linked to student high‐risk behaviors, barriers to student learning, and school climate. More specifically, findings indicate that better supervision/discipline and instructional management are associated with fewer high‐risk behaviors and barriers to learning. More instructional management is also linked to positive social–behavioral climate. Results from this study highlight the association between teacher practices and a range of student‐related problem behaviors, and suggest that system‐level interventions in the school may have positive effects.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21946   open full text
  • The Mediating Role Of Engagement In Mentoring Relationships And Self‐Esteem Among Affluent Adolescent Girls.
    Belle Liang, Terese Jean Lund, Angela M. Desilva Mousseau, Renée Spencer.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 19, 2016
    This study examined the influence of growth‐fostering mentoring relationships on the self‐esteem of adolescent female students from affluent communities. Studies have demonstrated that this population of students is susceptible to psychological distress and self‐esteem problems, due to perfectionistic strivings and achievement pressures. Specifically, we hypothesized that growth‐fostering mentoring relationships (e.g., with teachers and school staff) would be positively associated with self‐esteem. Moreover, we expected that this association would be mediated by engagement in purposeful activities. The authors surveyed 207 girls from two independent secondary schools and found support for the mediation hypothesis. Using an ordinary least squares regression approach, the association between growth‐fostering mentoring relationships and self‐esteem was mediated by youth engagement in purposeful activities. Implications for future research and practice in schools are discussed.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21949   open full text
  • Latent Class Analysis Of Conduct Problems Of Elementary Students Receiving Special Education Services.
    Jean Toupin, Michèle Déry, Pierrette Verlaan, Jean‐Pascal Lemelin, Aurélie Lecocq, Jadwiga Jagiellowicz.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 19, 2016
    Students with conduct problems (CPs) may present heterogeneity in terms of behavioral manifestations and service needs. Previous studies using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to capture this heterogeneity have been conducted mostly with community samples and have often applied a narrow definition of CP. Considering this context, this study investigated CP subgroups among elementary students with CP receiving special education services. LCA was conducted on 10 CP indices for 297 6–9 year old children. Latent CP subgroups were compared with 201 controls without CP. LCA suggests a three‐class solution based on severity of CP and context/informant reports (home/parent, school/teacher). Multinomial logistic regressions indicated that all CP subgroups differed from the control group on social competence and surgency/extraversion temperament scale in the expected direction but varied on specific personal, family, or school correlates. Interventions aimed at reducing CP should consider differences in CP subtype and in correlated risk factors.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21948   open full text
  • Effects Of Parental Divorce Or A Father's Death On High School Completion.
    Nicole K. Sapharas, David B. Estell, Kelly A. Doran, Mary Waldron.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 12, 2016
    Associations between parental loss and high school (HS) completion were examined in data drawn from 1,761 male and 1,689 female offspring born in wedlock to mothers participating in a nationally representative study. Multiple logistic regression models were conducted predicting HS completion by age 19 among offspring whose parents divorced or father died, compared to offspring of continuously married parents. Models were estimated without and with adjustment for correlated sociodemographic characteristics, including maternal education and age at first childbirth and offspring age at last assessment and race/ethnicity. In unadjusted models, parental divorce predicted a 41% decreased odds of HS completion for males, and paternal death predicted a 79% decreased odds of HS completion for females. In models including sociodemographic risk factors, associations between parental divorce and paternal death reduced slightly. Findings highlight the importance of examining unique risks from paternal death versus parental divorce on educational attainment in male and female offspring.
    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21947   open full text
  • The Role Of Cattell–Horn–Carroll (Chc) Cognitive Abilities In Predicting Writing Achievement During The School‐Age Years.
    Damien C. Cormier, Okan Bulut, Kevin S. McGrew, Jessica Frison.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 12, 2016
    Writing is a complex academic task—it involves numerous mental processes. Given the necessity for developing writing skills from elementary to secondary school, this study aimed to investigate the role of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence in predicting skills associated with writing achievement. The normative sample from the fourth edition of the Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities and the Woodcock–Johnson Tests Academic Achievement were used to examine the relationships between broad CHC abilities and academic achievement in writing. The findings of this study suggest that the broad CHC abilities Comprehension‐Knowledge, Processing Speed, and Fluid Reasoning are especially important predictors of basic writing skills and written expression during the school‐age years. In general, changes in the strength of the association between cognitive abilities and academic achievement in writing are observed over time, as the cognitive demands involved in the writing increase in complexity in later grades.
    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21945   open full text
  • Current And Future School Psychologists’ Preparedness To Work With Lgbt Students: Role Of Education And Gay‐Straight Alliances.
    Prerna G. Arora, Jennifer Kelly, Thalia R. Goldstein.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 28, 2016
    This study sought to assess current and future school psychologists’ attitudes toward and preparedness to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in schools. Two‐hundred seventy‐nine school psychologists (n = 162, 58%) and school psychology graduate students (n = 117, 42%) were included in the study. Participants completed measures of attitudes toward LGBT students, preparedness to address the needs of LGBT youth, and social desirability. For both school psychologists and graduate students, increased education was associated with improved attitudes and increased preparedness to treat LGBT youth. For school psychologists, presence of a gay‐straight alliance was associated with increased knowledge about LGBT youth, as well as higher ratings of preparedness to treat LGBT youth; the same associations did not hold true for the graduate students. These findings have implications for the training and practice of school psychologists in addressing the needs of LGBT youth in schools.
    June 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21942   open full text
  • Classroom Quality And Student Behavior Trajectories In Elementary School.
    Marissa Swaim Griggs, Amori Yee Mikami, Sara E. Rimm‐Kaufman.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 28, 2016
    Student behavioral concerns are a top priority for school psychologists. This project took an ecological systems perspective by examining the contribution of students’ initial externalizing and internalizing behaviors and the quality of their classroom environments to their behavioral outcomes across one school year. Participants included 322 elementary students and their 32 teachers. Results suggested that externalizing and internalizing behaviors were stable over time. However, the correlation between fall and spring internalizing behavior was accentuated if students also had high externalizing behavior in the fall. Poor spring behavioral engagement was predicted by students’ fall internalizing (but not externalizing) behavior. Importantly, classrooms high in emotional support attenuated the stability of students’ internalizing behavior. In addition, students’ fall externalizing behavior appeared to be associated with reduced spring internalizing behavior in classrooms high in emotional support or classroom organization. Findings underscore the importance of considering both student‐ and classroom‐level factors when predicting elementary students’ behavioral outcomes.
    June 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21941   open full text
  • The Student Homelessness Crisis And The Role Of School Psychology: Missed Opportunities, Room For Improvement, And Future Directions.
    Michael L. Sulkowski.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 28, 2016
    Affecting more than 1 million youth, student homelessness is growing at an unprecedented rate in the United States. This is alarming because homeless students face significant barriers to their academic success and positive life outcomes. Unfortunately, despite the significant risks and challenges they face, homeless students often are overlooked and not provided with important educational and social‐emotional supports. In addition, information on student homelessness is relatively limited in the school psychology literature and practice guidelines, which can forestall efforts to help these students. To date, only a few empirical articles have been published on student homelessness in school psychology journals and in practitioner‐related literature. To help address this paucity, this article discusses barriers to the academic success of homeless students, as well as ways to reduce these barriers. Additionally, important protective factors, resilience, and ways to overcome homelessness‐related stigma are reviewed. Lastly, ways that school psychologists can become key stakeholders in efforts to help support the academic and life success of homeless students are discussed. The overall goal for this article is to encourage school psychologists to redouble their efforts to support a highly at‐risk yet often neglected student population.
    June 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21936   open full text
  • Dimensionality And Measurement Invariance Of A School Readiness Screener By Ethnicity And Home Language.
    Matthew Quirk, Ashley Mayworm, Kelly Edyburn, Michael J. Furlong.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 28, 2016
    This study examined the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the Kindergarten Student Entrance Profile (KSEP) when used to rate the school readiness of children from different ethnic backgrounds (Latino or White, non‐Latino), as well as from households where a different language was predominant (Spanish or English). Teachers rated the readiness of 9,335 children during the first month of kindergarten in four ethnically diverse, medium‐sized school districts in central California. From the total sample, two overlapping subsamples (S1 and S2) were identified. First, a series of confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with S1 (n = 7,787) to examine the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the KSEP with children who identified as either Latino or White at the time of kindergarten enrollment. Next, the same set of analyses were replicated with S2 (n = 9, 234) to examine whether results held for students from households where the primary language spoken was Spanish or English. Results yielded evidence supporting a two‐factor structure encompassing social‐emotional and cognitive dimensions of children's readiness. In addition, results showed the KSEP exhibited measurement invariance across student ethnicities (Latino/White) and home languages (Spanish/English). The results of this study provide psychometric evidence that is particularly important for a universal school readiness screener.
    June 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21935   open full text
  • Assessing The Incremental Value Of Kabc‐Ii Luria Model Scores In Predicting Achievement: What Do They Tell Us Beyond The Mpi?
    Ryan J. McGill, Angelia R. Spurgin.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 21, 2016
    The current study examined the incremental validity of the Luria interpretive scheme for the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children‐Second Edition (KABC‐II) for predicting scores on the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement‐Second Edition (KTEA‐II). All participants were children and adolescents (N = 2,025) drawn from the nationally representative KABC‐II/KTEA‐II linked standardization sample. Consistent with previous studies, the full scale Mental Processing Index (MPI) score accounted for clinically significant portions of KTEA‐II score variance in all of the regression models that were assessed. In contrast, the Luria factor scores collectively failed to provide meaningful incremental predictive variance after controlling for the effects of the MPI. Individually, the factor scores consistently accounted for trivial portions of achievement variance. Potential implications of these results for the correct interpretation of the KABC‐II within clinical practice are discussed.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21940   open full text
  • Kindergarten Social Withdrawal And Reading Achievement: A Cross‐Lagged Path Model For At‐Risk Learners.
    Cristin M. Hall, Janet A. Welsh, Karen L. Bierman, Robert Nix.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 21, 2016
    The association between social withdrawal, school adjustment, and academic functioning in preschool and school entry is well‐established. Children who experience social withdrawal in primary grades are at risk for decreased academic performance. The bidirectional relationships among early literacy and social withdrawal in primary grades have not been examined to date. The present study used a cross‐lagged model to examine the relationship between social withdrawal and early literacy skills from kindergarten to second grade (N = 137). Results indicated that kindergarten social withdrawal predicted second grade reading achievement after controlling for prior literacy skill acquisition. Bidirectional influence hypotheses were not confirmed in the present study.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21939   open full text
  • The Interplay Between Adolescents’ Perceptions Of Teacher‐Student Relationships And Their Academic Self‐Regulation: Does Liking A Specific Teacher Matter?
    Diana Raufelder, Sandra Scherber, Megan A. Wood.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 21, 2016
    Although positive teacher‐student relationships are known to aid students’ academic self‐regulation, the emotional aspects of teacher liking are often neglected within research. The present study used a large sample of seventh‐ and eighth‐grade students (N = 1,088; MAge =  13.7) in secondary schools in Germany to investigate whether the motivation students gain from specific well‐liked teachers (i.e., that students identify) can moderate the relation between their perception of teacher‐student relationships overall and academic self‐regulation (intrinsic motivation, identified, introjected, and external regulation). By means of latent moderated structural equations, students’ motivation based on liking one specific teacher was found to moderate the association between teacher‐student relationships and intrinsic motivation. The present study makes a contribution to the existing research on teacher‐student relationships and academic self‐regulation by investigating the role of students’ motivation related to the liking of a specific teacher. Results indicate that when early adolescent students can identify a well‐liked teacher, they tend to have higher levels of academic motivation. Hence, students’ motivation based on liking a single teacher compensates for generally low‐quality teacher‐student relationships and their respective impact on students’ intrinsic motivation.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21937   open full text
  • Understanding Student Stress And Coping In Elementary School: A Mixed‐Method, Longitudinal Study.
    Valerie A. Sotardi.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 21, 2016
    This mixed‐method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between students’ exposure to daily stress at school, their stress appraisals and future expectations, and usage of coping strategies. Students reported limited preparedness in their ability to cope with daily stress in socially appropriate, effective ways; their accounts may have valuable implications for academic success and personal well‐being. Recommendations for educational practice and future research are discussed.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21938   open full text
  • Enhancing Self‐Regulatory Skills Through An Intervention Embedded In A Middle School Mathematics Curriculum.
    Gregory Digiacomo, Peggy P. Chen.
    Psychology in the Schools. June 01, 2016
    We investigated the effects of a self‐regulatory intervention strategy designed to improve middle‐school students’ calibration accuracy, self‐regulatory skills, and math achievement. Focusing on self‐monitoring and self‐reflection as the two key processes of this intervention in relation to improving students’ math achievement and overall self‐regulation, we randomly assigned 30 sixth‐and seventh‐grade students to either a treatment or a delayed‐treatment control group. At the conclusion of the intervention, we conducted interviews to unearth students’ sources of calibration judgments. Results showed that participants who received the intervention had significantly higher math performance and predictive/postdictive calibration accuracy than did the control group. We provided educational implications of our findings for psychologists and educators.
    June 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21929   open full text
  • Cognitive Components Of Developmental Writing Skill.
    Scott L. Decker, Alycia M. Roberts, Kristin L. Roberts, Allison L. Stafford, Mark A. Eckert.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 30, 2016
    A significant number of studies have examined the cognitive components of basic academic skills, which has led to major changes in both teaching and early identification assessment practices. However, the majority of previous research has focused solely on reading. This study examines the cognitive components of academic writing skills across early grade levels (1–4) while controlling for basic word identification skills. Results from this study suggest writing skill requires several cognitive skills of differing emphasis depending on the level of writing skill. Perceptual and rapid perceptual processing skills are important during the early acquisition of writing skills followed by a transition to language and language retrieval skills and later still to working memory skills. Applications for education and cognitive assessment are discussed.
    May 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21933   open full text
  • Classroom Contexts As The Framework For Assessing Social–Emotional Adjustment: A National Study In Trinidad And Tobago.
    Paul A. Mcdermott, Marley W. Watkins, Anna Rhoad Drogalis, Jessica L. Chao, Frank C. Worrell, Tracey E. Hall.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 30, 2016
    Contextually based assessments reveal the circumstances accompanying maladjustment (the when, where, and with whom) and supply clues to the motivations underpinning problem behaviors. The Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA) is a teacher rating scale composed of indicators describing behavior in 24 classroom situational contexts. This study examines the Trinidad and Tobago national normative process for the ASCA contextual dimensions with a representative sample of elementary school children (N = 900). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded the same three dimensions (peer context problems, teacher context problems, and learning context problems) observed in U.S. national samples. Dimensions were scaled using item response theory (IRT) and Bayesian scoring methods, with peer and learning context problems scores relating more strongly to clinical behavior disturbances and learning context problems showing stronger association with classroom learning styles. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
    May 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21930   open full text
  • A Qualitative Study Of Facilitators And Barriers Related To Comprehensive And Integrated School Psychological Services.
    Jose M. Castillo, Jennifer R. Wolgemuth, Chris Barclay, Amira Mattison, Sim Yin Tan, Sujay Sabnis, Amber Brundage, Leslie Marshall.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 30, 2016
    Recent studies indicate that the majority of school psychologists’ time continues to be dedicated to SPED related activities. Despite ongoing calls for school psychologists to expand their roles, why many practitioners do not deliver more comprehensive services is not well understood. This qualitative study investigated facilitators of and barriers to comprehensive and integrated services using the National Association of School Psychologists Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services as the guiding framework. Thirteen full‐time, school‐based practitioners from across the US participated in semi‐structured interviews. Constant‐comparative analysis was used to generate themes. Results indicated that practitioners experienced a number of systemic barriers to (e.g., heavy caseload; inconsistent district policies, priorities, and role definitions; lack of stakeholder involvement) and facilitators of (e.g., resources, graduate training and professional development) comprehensive and integrated service delivery. Participants’ perspectives regarding changes needed to expand their services focused on systemic issues as well. Implications for research and practitioners’ efforts to advocate for systems change are discussed.
    May 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21932   open full text
  • Administrative Pressure To Practice Unethically And Burnout Within The Profession Of School Psychology.
    Dana E. Boccio, Gaston Weisz, Rebecca Lefkowitz.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 30, 2016
    This investigation involved the surveying of school psychology practitioners (N = 291) to determine the possible existence of a relationship between administrative pressure to practice unethically and impaired occupational health, as manifested in elevated levels of burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to exit the workforce. Almost one‐third of participants claimed to have been pressured to behave unethically, with directives most commonly consisting of instructions to withhold recommendations for support services and to agree with inappropriate special education placement decisions. Practitioners who experienced administrative pressure reported higher levels of burnout, less satisfaction with their current position and the profession, and a greater desire to leave their job and the field of school psychology. The findings are presented within the context of current and projected shortages of practicing school psychologists. Implications for preventing burnout and promoting school psychologists’ occupational well‐being are discussed.
    May 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21931   open full text
  • Manualization, Feasibility, And Effectiveness Of The School‐Based Social Competence Intervention For Adolescents (Sci‐A).
    Janine P. Stichter, Melissa J. Herzog, Sarah A. Owens, Emily Malugen.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 30, 2016
    Despite the movement toward identification of evidence‐based practices (EBPs), there is a discrepancy in the availability of school‐based EBPs targeting the unique needs of students with high functioning forms of autism and related social needs. Based on calls for systematic intervention development and evaluation processes, the current study describes the manualization, feasibility, and effectiveness testing of the school‐based Social Competence Intervention for Adolescents (SCI‐A) curriculum. School personnel were trained to implement SCI‐A to a targeted student population. Fidelity and social validity data indicated curriculum feasibility and acceptability within secondary school settings. Student social functioning, executive functioning, and theory of mind demonstrated postintervention gains with moderate effect sizes. Results are promising for SCI‐A's continued positive trajectory within the phases of EBP evaluation research. Challenges for intervention effectiveness testing within schools and future considerations for evaluating EBPs are discussed.
    May 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21928   open full text
  • School‐Based Traumatic Brain Injury And Concussion Management Program.
    Susan C. Davies.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 25, 2016
    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), including concussions, can result in a constellation of physical, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that affect students’ well‐being and performance at school. Despite these effects, school personnel remain underprepared identify, educate, and assist this population of students. This article describes a model of service delivery for students with TBI in a large urban school district. The district's TBI Program and Concussion Management Team address unique issues related to assessment, intervention, and transition planning for this population of students, as well as prevention and education efforts in the district as a whole. This model involved designating a district‐level school psychologist to serve as a point person for TBI cases, which improved accurate identification of students with TBI, facilitated coordination of concussion management efforts, and provided a smooth transition for students with TBI from the hospital or clinic back to school. Suggestions for increasing school psychologists’ involvement with TBI cases are proposed, including strategies for serving as team leaders, for coordinating progress monitoring, and for training others in the school community about TBIs.
    May 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21927   open full text
  • The Use Of Evidenced‐Based Practices In The Provision Of Social Skills Training For Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder Among School Psychologists.
    Bertina H. Combes, Mei Chang, Jennifer E. Austin, Demarquis Hayes.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 27, 2016
    This study aimed to explore school psychologists’ use of evidence‐based practices (EBP), specifically in the area of social skills training, for students with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 220 school psychologists practicing in public school settings who provided social skills training to students with ASD. Participants were recruited through e‐mail solicitations and completed surveys administered on‐line. Results indicated that 47% of the participants reported that their graduate program did not provide courses including content addressing social skills training for students with ASD, and 58% did not receive training on the topic during their internship. The most and least frequently endorsed EBP reported were the provision of clear and measurable treatment objectives and regular communication with parents, respectively. Greater use of EBP was reported when school districts perceived implementing EBP as important. Implications of findings for training programs of school psychologists, school districts, and individual school psychologists are discussed, as well as implications for future research.
    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21923   open full text
  • Confronting The Ubiquity Of Electronic Communication And Social Media: Ethical And Legal Considerations For Psychoeducational Practice.
    Joseph A. Demers, Amanda L. Sullivan.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 27, 2016
    Most U.S. children and adults use computers and the Internet on a daily basis. The pervasiveness of electronic communication in a variety of contexts, including home and school, raises ethical and legal concerns for school psychologists and those in related fields of practice, because of the risks to privacy and confidentiality, boundaries, competence, and students’ well‐being. We detail the legal and ethical dilemmas school psychologists may face in electronic data storage and transmission, use of social networking, and efforts to address cyber bullying. We review relevant legal and ethical guidelines and provide recommendations for training and practice.
    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21920   open full text
  • A Typology Of Child School Behavior: Investigation Using Latent Profile Analysis And Cluster Analysis.
    Diana L. Mindrila.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 27, 2016
    To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6–11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating–Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set, whereas cluster analysis was conducted within each latent profile. The resulting classification system included three latent profiles: (a) Adequate Adjustment (AA), (b) Mild Adjustment Difficulties (MAD), and (c) Functionally Impaired Adjustment (FIA). The AA latent profile included the (a) Well‐Adapted, (b) Average, and (c) Worry clusters. The clusters identified within the MAD latent profile were (a) Academic Problems, (b) Physical Complaints, (c) Disruptive Behavior Problems, and (d) Internalizing Problems. Finally, the FIA latent profile comprised the (a) Clinical Problems–External and (b) Clinical Problems–Internal clusters.
    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21917   open full text
  • Examining Potential Bias In Screening Measures For Middle School Students By Special Education And Low Socioeconomic Status Subgroups.
    Nathan A. Stevenson, Deborah K. Reed, Elizabeth L. Tighe.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 20, 2016
    To provide timely and effective supports for students reading below grade level, schools require methods for quickly and accurately identifying those students in need. One method for identifying those students is through universal screening. Assessments such as oral reading fluency (ORF) and Maze reading comprehension are commonly used as screening assessments in middle grades. The current study examined ORF and Maze for evidence of bias across two subgroups known to be at increased risk for failure in reading: (a) students with learning disabilities and (b) students from low‐income households. Data from 4,215 students in the sixth (n = 1,126), seventh (n = 1,361), and eighth grades (n = 1,728) were analyzed. Results indicate no significant differences in predictive validity for students from low‐income households compared to students from middle and upper income households. For students with learning disabilities only 8th grade scores showed any evidence of bias compared to students without diagnosed disabilities. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
    March 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21919   open full text
  • Supervision And Mentoring For Early Career School Psychologists: Availability, Access, Structure, And Implications.
    Arlene E. Silva, Daniel S. Newman, Meaghan C. Guiney, Sarah Valley‐Gray, Courtenay A. Barrett.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 20, 2016
    This study is the first national survey of supervision and mentoring practices for early career school psychologists (ECSPs). Respondents included 700 participants, 38% of whom reported having access to professional supervision. Time, availability, and proximity to a supervisor were found to be the most common barriers to accessing supervision and mentoring; access to technology, supervisor interest, and cost were not found to be as significant. Nearly 30% of ECSPs reported feeling pressure to practice outside their boundaries of competence because they did not have access to mentoring or supervision, suggesting a potential ethical concern. Results demonstrate the need to provide more supervision and mentoring opportunities for ECSPs, particularly given the National Association of School Psychologist's requirement that first‐time Nationally Certified School Psychologist renewal applicants complete a year of mentoring or supervision. Implications of the results, strategies to support the barriers to access, and future directions for research are addressed.
    March 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21921   open full text
  • Peer And Teacher Preference, Student–Teacher Relationships, Student Ethnicity, And Peer Victimization In Elementary School.
    Feihong Wang, Kevin A. Leary, Lorraine C. Taylor, Melissa E. Derosier.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 20, 2016
    This research was supported, in part, by a grant from the National Institute for Mental Health (5R44MH07071‐03) awarded to Dr. Melissa E. DeRosier. Additional support comes from an Institute of Education Sciences post‐doctoral fellowship training award to the University of Florida (R324B1200002). The research was conducted at 3‐C Institute. The authors thank the staff and students of the Wake County Public School System in North Carolina for their cooperation and support in the implementation of this research project. In addition, the authors thank Drs. Janey McMillen, Natalie O'Brian, and Melanie Wilson for their invaluable efforts as project coordinators, as well as the many interns of the 3‐C Institute for their assistance in successfully completing this research project.
    March 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21922   open full text
  • The Effects Of Group Coaching On The Homework Problems Experienced By Secondary Students With And Without Disabilities.
    Donald Merriman, Robin S. Codding, Georgiana Shick Tryon, Takuya Minami.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 20, 2016
    Research on the effectiveness of homework provides ample evidence that homework has a positive effect on learning, particularly for secondary students. Unfortunately, the rate of consistent homework completion for students, with and without disabilities, is low. This study used a between‐groups design to examine the differential effectiveness of coaching, a self‐management intervention, compared with the local treatment‐as‐usual (homework center) on improving the homework completion of 50 middle school students (Grades 6 to 8) with and without disabilities who were having substantial difficulty with homework. Results indicated that both group coaching and homework center (treatment‐as‐usual) were effective in significantly decreasing homework problems, with no clear indication that one intervention was, overall, superior to the other. However, preliminary analyses suggest that these interventions might be differentially effective as a function of disability status.
    March 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/pits.21918   open full text
  • Utility Of The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, With Ethnically Diverse Preschoolers.
    Brittany A. Dale, Maria HernÁndez Finch, David E. Mcintosh, Barbara A. Rothlisberg, W. Holmes Finch.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 06, 2014
    Current research on the use of revisions of intelligence measures with ethnically diverse populations and younger children is limited. The present study investigated the utility of the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), with an ethnically diverse preschool sample. African American and Caucasian preschoolers, matched on age, gender, and parental education, were found to have similar patterns of high and low scores on both the composites and all subtests of the SB5. The present study also found that African American and Caucasian preschool children did not differ on overall cognitive ability as measured by the SB5 Full Scale IQ. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.
    May 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21766   open full text
  • Classroom Victimization: Consequences For Social And Academic Adjustment In Elementary School.
    Meg M. Reuland, Amori Yee Mikami.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 06, 2014
    Peer victimization is a well‐established risk factor for children's adjustment, but it has rarely been studied as a feature of classroom climate. This study examines the consequences of classroom victimization for children's social and academic adjustment. Classroom victimization, social functioning, and academic adjustment were assessed in two subsamples taken from a full sample of 523 children nested in 28 classrooms, followed over the course of a school year. Results from a subsample of 213 students suggested that higher classroom levels of victimization predicted attenuated growth in children's reading achievement as well as greater stability of reading achievement over the course of the year. Results from a subsample of 490 children suggested that lower levels of classroom victimization predicted reduced stability of peer social preference and mitigated the trajectory between children's externalizing behavior and poor social preference. Implications for prevention of and interventions targeting peer victimization are discussed.
    May 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21770   open full text
  • Informant Effects On Behavioral And Academic Associations: A Latent Variable Longitudinal Examination.
    Timothy R. Konold, Kathan D. Shukla.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 06, 2014
    Discrepancies among informants’ ratings of a given child's behavior complicate the study of linkages between child behavior and academic achievement. In the current study, we examined the potential moderating effect of informant type on associations between behavior and two types of achievement in a longitudinal growth model that captured children's development from 54 months of age through fifth grade. Latent internalizing and externalizing behavioral constructs, as separately measured by mothers and teachers, were modeled as time‐varying predictors of achievements to capture changes that occur as children progress through different developmental stages. Behavioral ratings obtained by both informants explained largely equivalent levels of reading achievement variance, and teachers’ ratings of child behavior explained more variance in analytic type achievements than did those of mothers.
    May 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21771   open full text
  • Classification Accuracy Of Oral Reading Fluency And Maze In Predicting Performance On Large‐Scale Reading Assessments.
    Dawn M. Decker, Michael D. Hixson, Amber Shaw, Gloria Johnson.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 06, 2014
    The purpose of this study was to examine whether using a multiple‐measure framework yielded better classification accuracy than oral reading fluency (ORF) or maze alone in predicting pass/fail rates for middle‐school students on a large‐scale reading assessment. Participants were 178 students in Grades 7 and 8 from a Midwestern school district. The multiple‐measure framework yielded classification accuracy rates that were either similar to, or better than, the individual predictors. Specificity was improved using a combined measure of ORF and maze versus individual predictors alone. Educational implications for identifying students in need of reading intervention are discussed.
    May 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21773   open full text
  • Direct Behavioral Consultation: Effects On Teachers’ Praise And Student Disruptive Behavior.
    Brad A. Dufrene, Lauren Lestremau, Kimberly Zoder‐Martell.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 06, 2014
    Direct behavioral consultation is an extension of traditional behavioral consultation and focuses on assessment and training in the classroom during ongoing classroom activities. This study evaluated direct behavioral consultation services in two elementary alternative classrooms referred following a program evaluation in which data suggested behavior‐specific praise was not being delivered at a desired level. A multiple baseline design across classrooms was used to evaluate indirect and direct training procedures for increasing teachers’ implementation of behavior‐specific praise. Results indicated that indirect training did not result in substantial improvements in teachers’ use of behavior‐specific praise. Direct training procedures resulted in immediate increases in behavior‐specific praise for both teachers, but only one teacher maintained those increases immediately following training. For the other teacher, when performance feedback was added to direct training, increases in behavior‐specific praise were maintained. Data are also presented regarding student disruptive behavior. Results are discussed in terms of direct behavioral consultation theory and practice for educational settings.
    May 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21768   open full text
  • Training, Degrees, And Credentials In The Hiring Of School Psychologists.
    Patrick S. O'donnell, Linda L. Dunlap.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 05, 2014
    A national sample of 246 Directors of Pupil Personnel Services and Directors of Special Education were surveyed to assess the importance they place on training, degrees, and credentials in the hiring of school psychologists. High, but varying, levels of importance were found for the content knowledge and skill areas in the National Association of School Psychologists Standards for Graduate Preparation of School Psychologists. Participants indicated that the specialist degree with less than 10 years of experience was the preferred qualification for school psychologist applicants. Greater importance was placed on the Nationally Certified School Psychologist credential than State Board of Examiners in Psychology (SBEP) licensure, with variations in importance for SBEP licensure between states that do versus do not allow independent practice for nondoctoral school psychologists. Implications of this research for school psychologists and training, as well as limitations of the study, are discussed.
    May 05, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21765   open full text
  • Effectiveness Of The Friends For Life Program In Portuguese Schools: Study With A Sample Of Highly Anxious Children.
    Ana Isabel Pereira, Teresa Marques, Vanessa Russo, Luísa Barros, P. Barrett.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 05, 2014
    The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive–behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a quasi‐experimental research design with two groups of children, an intervention (n = 17) and a wait‐list control group (n = 21), aged 8 to 12 years old. The impact of the program in reducing anxiety symptoms as assessed by children and mothers was analyzed through the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders‐Revised (SCARED‐R). The results show a statistically significant post intervention effect on anxiety symptoms evaluated by the child, but not by the mother. The implications of these results for the prevention of anxiety disorders in Portuguese schools are discussed.
    May 05, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21767   open full text
  • Reliability And Structural Validity Of The Teacher Rating Scales Of Early Academic Competence.
    Erin E. Reid, James C. Diperna, Kristen Missall, Robert J. Volpe.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 05, 2014
    Currently, there are few strengths‐based preschool rating scales that sample a wide array of behaviors believed to be essential for early academic success. The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure of a new measure of early academic competence for at‐risk preschool populations. The Teacher Rating Scales of Early Academic Competence (TRS‐EAC) includes two broad scales (Early Academic Skills and Early Academic Enablers) and was completed by 60 teachers for 440 children enrolled in Head Start and public preschool classrooms. Evidence from two exploratory factor analyses supported a five‐factor solution for the Early Academic Skills Scale (Creative Thinking, Critical Thinking Skills, Numeracy, Early Literacy, and Comprehension) and a five‐factor solution for the Early Academic Enablers Scale (Approaches to Learning, Social and Emotional Competence, Fine Motor Skills, Gross Motor Skills, and Communication). TRS‐EAC scores also demonstrated good to excellent reliability and were related to children's performance on direct measures of early academic skills.
    May 05, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21769   open full text
  • Supervision In School Psychology: The Developmental/Ecological/Problem‐Solving Model.
    Dennis J. Simon, Tracy K. Cruise, Brenda J. Huber, Mark E. Swerdlik, Daniel S. Newman.
    Psychology in the Schools. May 05, 2014
    Effective supervision models guide the supervisory relationship and supervisory tasks leading to reflective and purposeful practice. The Developmental/Ecological/Problem‐Solving (DEP) Model provides a contemporary framework for supervision specific to school psychology. Designed for the school psychology internship, the DEP Model is also applicable to all pre‐service and advanced field‐based training, as well as career‐long continuing professional development. The Developmental domain initiates training at the functioning skill level of the supervisee and progresses toward independent competency. The Ecological domain addresses the multiple systemic contexts that influence school psychology practice and prepares the intern to intervene within both individual and systemic contexts. The Problem‐Solving domain focuses on the application of data‐based decision making and evidence‐based interventions to the full range of school psychology activities. It provides a systematic schema to address student, family, and school needs.
    May 05, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21772   open full text
  • Understanding Disproportionate Representation In Special Education By Examining Group Differences In Behavior Ratings.
    Christina D. Peters, John H. Kranzler, James Algina, Stephen W. Smith, Ann P. Daunic.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 18, 2014
    The aim of the current study was to examine mean‐group differences on behavior rating scales and variables that may predict such differences. Sixty‐five teachers completed the Clinical Assessment of Behavior–Teacher Form (CAB‐T) for a sample of 982 students. Four outcome variables from the CAB‐T were assessed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze variance components across three levels; examine mean‐group differences across outcome variables for student gender, race/ethnicity, and free or reduced‐price lunch status; and examine whether teacher variables predicted teacher‐specific differences in ratings. Results revealed that a significant amount of variance was attributable to teacher‐ and school‐level variables. Several mean‐group differences emerged, and some teacher‐specific differences in ratings across groups were predicted by teacher self‐efficacy for behavior management and teacher age, but not for teacher race/ethnicity, gender, or years of experience.
    March 18, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21761   open full text
  • Depression And Relational Health In Asian American And European American College Women.
    Terese J. Lund, Pauline Chan, Belle Liang.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 06, 2014
    Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college‐aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression levels in a sample of Asian American (n = 117) and European American (n = 257) students from a women's liberal arts college. We also estimated associations between depression and relational health in three types of relationships (mentor, friend, and college community) using ordinary least squares regression. Relational health was examined as a buffer (i.e., moderator) against depression. Results indicated no differences in depression levels between Asian American and European American women. Relationships with the college community were associated with lower levels of depression in both groups of women. Limited evidence suggested that relational health served as a buffer. Results are discussed in light of interventions for college campuses.
    March 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21758   open full text
  • The Reliability And User‐Feasibility Of Materials And Procedures For Monitoring The Implementation Integrity Of A Reading Intervention.
    John C. Begeny, Julia E. Easton, James J. Upright, Kali R. Tunstall, Cassia A. Ehrenbock.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 04, 2014
    Within the realm of school‐based interventions, implementation integrity is important for practical, legal, and ethical purposes. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that proper monitoring of implementation integrity is often absent from both research and practice. School psychology practitioners and researchers have reported that a major barrier to monitoring integrity is a lack of procedural guidance, and currently there is little research that has examined the psychometric reliability of monitoring procedures and materials. Therefore, the purpose of this two‐part study was to examine (a) the extent to which relatively novice educators could self‐learn and successfully use an implementation integrity monitoring system designed to evaluate a structured reading intervention program, and (b) the inter‐observer reliability of two individuals using the system to evaluate the same interventionist. Overall findings suggested that it is feasible for most individuals to learn the implementation integrity monitoring system (and associated materials) and the system can be used reliably across multiple observers. Implications of these findings are discussed, including how the procedures and materials might be adapted for other intervention programs to assist researchers and practitioners with monitoring implementation integrity.
    March 04, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21763   open full text
  • Procrastination And The 2 × 2 Achievement Goal Framework In Malaysian Undergraduate Students.
    Rajalakshmi Ganesan, Norul Hidayah Bt Mamat, David Mellor, Laura Rizzuto, Christina Kolar.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 04, 2014
    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 × 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and performance goal orientations were found to be positively correlated with procrastination, but the avoidance dimensions of the mastery and performance goal orientations were not associated with procrastination. In regression analyses, mastery approach was the strongest predictor of procrastination, suppressing the effect of performance approach. The results suggest that the Western values underlying the achievement goals portrayed by the goal achievement model may not accurately reflect the motivations that are intrinsic to non‐Western individuals. Further research is required to either validate such a tool in non‐Western cultures or, alternatively, investigate alternative factors that may potentially influence procrastination within this demographic.
    March 04, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21760   open full text
    Amanda B. Nickerson, Michelle L. Serwacki, Stephen E. Brock, Todd A. Savage, Scott A. Woitaszewski, Melissa A. Louvar Reeves.
    Psychology in the Schools. March 04, 2014
    This study details a program evaluation of the PREPaRE School Crisis Prevention and Intervention Training Curriculum (PREPaRE), conducted in the United States and Canada between 2009 and 2011. Significant improvements in crisis prevention and intervention attitudes and knowledge were shown among 875 Crisis Prevention and Preparedness workshop (Workshop 1) participants and 1,422 Crisis Intervention and Recovery workshop (Workshop 2) participants on matched pre‐tests and post‐tests. Results indicated high participant satisfaction for both Workshop 1 and Workshop 2. A qualitative analysis of workshop evaluation comments indicated strengths regarding workshop aims, materials, and activities, as well as suggestions for improvement, such as utilizing more active learning components. The use of these findings in the PREPaRE curriculum revision is discussed.
    March 04, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21757   open full text
  • Predicting Educational Outcomes And Psychological Well‐Being In Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles.
    James R. Andretta, Frank C. Worrell, Zena R. Mello.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 27, 2014
    Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents (M age = 16 years; SD = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward the past, present, and future. Four of the profiles identified in the present study were conceptually similar to profiles that emerged in a study in a German sample. Adolescents with profiles characterized by higher positive attitudes than negative attitudes (i.e., Positive, Optimistic, and Balanced) reported more favorable educational and psychological outcomes than did adolescents with profiles marked by higher negative attitudes (i.e., Negative and Pessimistic). These findings provide support for the generalizability of time attitude profiles and the pattern of relationships between ATAS profiles and other constructs.
    February 27, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21762   open full text
  • Examining Diversity Research Literature In School Psychology From 2004 To 2010.
    Stephanie Grunewald, David Shriberg, Anitra S. Wheeler, Antoinette Halsell Miranda, Elisabeth C. O'bryon, Margaret R. Rogers.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 27, 2014
    One indicator of school psychology's capacity to provide culturally responsive practice is the percentage of articles in leading school psychology journals that have a “significant diversity focus.” To date, there have been three published empirical studies (Brown, Shriberg, & Wang, ; Miranda & Gutter, ; Rogers Wiese, ) that have defined and examined this construct. These three articles collectively provide empirical data on the percentage of articles appearing in leading school psychology journals that met criteria from a time period spanning 1975–2003. This manuscript provides the results of the most recent iteration of this study, covering the years 2004–2010. In this study, 15.5% of articles met criteria, up from figures found from 1975–1999, but a decline from the 2000–2003 figure of 16.9%. Several potential implications of this ongoing lack of empirical and theoretical scholarship are offered.
    February 27, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21764   open full text
  • A Prospective Study Investigating The Links Among Classroom Environment, School Connectedness, And Depressive Symptoms In Adolescents.
    Ian M. Shochet, Coral L. Smith.
    Psychology in the Schools. February 22, 2014
    School connectedness and classroom environment have both been strongly linked to depressive symptoms, but their interrelation is unclear. We tested whether school connectedness mediated the link between classroom environment and depressive symptoms. A sample of 504 Australian seventh‐ and eighth‐grade students completed the Classroom Environment Scale, Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, and Children's Depression Inventory, at three time points. Together, the classroom environment and school connectedness accounted for 41% to 45% of variance in concurrent depressive symptoms, and 14% of subsequent depressive symptoms with prior symptoms accounted for. Only a partial mediation was found, with both classroom environment and school connectedness continuing to contribute uniquely to the prediction of concurrent and subsequent depressive symptoms. These findings provide additional support for the idea that school‐based pathways to depressive symptoms are a complex interplay between environment and individual difference variables, necessitating individual and environmental school‐based interventions.
    February 22, 2014   doi: 10.1002/pits.21759   open full text
  • The Psychosocial Functioning Of High School Students In Academically Rigorous Programs.
    Shannon M. Suldo, Elizabeth Shaunessy‐Dedrick.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 19, 2013
    This cross‐sectional study determined whether students who take part in academically challenging high school curricula experience elevated levels of stress and whether this stress co‐occurs with psychological and/or academic problems. Data from self‐report questionnaires and school records were collected from 480 students from four high schools. Results of analyses of covariance suggested that stress is not always associated with deleterious outcomes, as students in academically rigorous programs (specifically, Advanced Placement [AP] classes and International Baccalaureate [IB] programs) reported more perceived stress than did students in general education, while maintaining exceptionally high academic functioning. Furthermore, despite their stress level, the psychological functioning of students in AP and IB is similar or superior to the levels of psychopathology, life satisfaction, and social functioning reported from their peers in general education.
    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1002/pits.21708   open full text
  • Neighborhood Socioeconomic Well‐Being, Home Literacy, And Early Literacy Skills Of At‐Risk Preschoolers.
    John Mark Froiland, Douglas R. Powell, Karen E. Diamond, Seung‐Hee Claire Son.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 19, 2013
    In response to growing research and policy interest in the developmental contexts of early literacy, this study examined relations between neighborhood socioeconomic well‐being, home literacy (parent–child shared reading and number of books at home), and directly assessed early literacy outcomes among 551 Head Start students in the fall of preschool. In Structural Equation Models, neighborhood socioeconomic well‐being predicted home literacy, which in turn predicted early literacy (a latent variable derived from receptive vocabulary, letter‐word identification, and concepts about print). Implications for future research concerning parent involvement at home in the context of neighborhoods and the early literacy of at‐risk preschoolers is discussed.
    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.1002/pits.21711   open full text
  • Essential Features Of Tier 2 Social–Behavioral Interventions.
    Minglee Yong, Douglas A. Cheney.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 10, 2013
    The purpose of this study is to identify the essential features of Tier 2 interventions conducted within multitier systems of behavior support in schools. A systematic literature search identified 12 empirical studies that were coded and scored according to a list of Tier 2 specific RE‐AIM criteria, related to the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance. Most studies met the following criteria: efficient identification of students, training required for staff implementation, integration with Tier 1 support, standard protocol approach, assessment of implementation fidelity, and parental involvement. However, there was less consistency in meeting the following criteria: reliable and valid methods for student identification, weekly data review to monitor progress, evaluation of behavioral and learning outcomes, program length of between 2 to 6 months, use of maintenance strategies, and teacher involvement. For the subsequent descriptive analysis, the 12 studies were categorized into 6 groups and the strategies used to address RE‐AIM criteria were compared and discussed. The essential features identified will help researchers replicate Tier 2 interventions and help schools select and adapt Tier 2 interventions that are matched to their needs and resources.
    July 10, 2013   doi: 10.1002/pits.21710   open full text
  • English Language Proficiency And Test Performance: An Evaluation Of Bilingual Students With The Woodcock‐Johnson Iii Tests Of Cognitive Abilities.
    Marlene Sotelo‐Dynega, Samuel O. Ortiz, Dawn P. Flanagan, William F. Chaplin.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 10, 2013
    In this article, we report the findings of an exploratory empirical study that investigated the relationship between English Language Proficiency (ELP) on performance on the Woodcock‐Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities‐Third Edition (WJ III) when administered in English to bilingual students of varying levels of ELP. Sixty‐one second‐grade students, identified as Limited English Proficient, were recruited from a suburban public school district and were given the WJ III in addition to their annual state standardized assessment of ELP. The findings of this study provide evidence to support a linear, inverse relationship between ELP and performance on tests that require higher levels of English language development and mainstream cultural knowledge. The implications of the findings of the present study suggest that practitioners must consider an examinee's level of developmental language proficiency and cultural knowledge acquisition as continuous variables when determining the impact of such factors on test performance and evaluation regarding whether scores obtained from tests administered in English are indeed valid for interpretation.
    July 10, 2013   doi: 10.1002/pits.21706   open full text
  • Factors That Predict Elementary Educators’ Perceptions And Practice In Teaching Self‐Determination.
    Hyun‐Jeong Cho, Michael Wehmeyer, Neal Kingston.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 10, 2013
    Promoting self‐determination has been suggested as a means for students with disabilities to access the general curriculum. We surveyed 407 elementary educators to examine a) the effects of classroom setting and teaching self‐regulation strategies on the perceived importance and frequency of teaching self‐determination; and b) the severity level of student disability, teacher primary assignment, teaching experience, and classroom and school setting on self‐regulation instruction. Teaching experience and classroom setting predicted the use of self‐regulation strategies, but primary assignment, school setting, and student disability did not. Self‐regulation instruction predicted the frequency of teaching self‐determination, but neither it nor classroom setting predicted the perceived importance of teaching self‐determination. Limitations and implications of this study are discussed, and suggestions for future research are offered.
    July 10, 2013   doi: 10.1002/pits.21707   open full text
  • An Exploratory Study Of Suicide Risk Assessment Practices In The School Setting.
    Franci Crepeau‐Hobson.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 08, 2013
    Suicidal behavior in children and youth continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. School personnel have a legal and ethical obligation to recognize and respond to the mental health needs of their students and to take steps to ensure their safety. In this exploratory study, suicide risk assessment practices of three large school districts were examined. More than 3,400 suicide risk assessments were conducted in these districts during the 3 years considered. The results indicate that all three districts have implemented suicide prevention programs that include risk‐assessment practices in an effort to reduce suicidality. Suicides risk assessments were conducted with at least one child in each grade from kindergarten through 12th in each district, occurring most frequently at the middle school level. Differences by gender were noted in terms of level of risk and hospitalizations, but no significant differences were observed based on race/ethnicity. These risk assessment efforts of these three districts appear to be promising in preventing suicides: none of the students who were assessed went on to commit suicide. Implications for school‐based practices and training are discussed.
    July 08, 2013   doi: 10.1002/pits.21705   open full text
  • Victims Of Bullying: Whom They Seek Help From And Why: An Australian Sample.
    Mitchell J. Dowling, Timothy A. Carey.
    Psychology in the Schools. July 08, 2013
    It is critically important to understand why victims of bullying decide to seek help when they do, particularly from adults, because this reduces the probability of being victimized in the future. This study sought to understand more clearly the patterns of help‐seeking by students who reported being victims of bullying. Participants were students in Years 5 and 6 from six different schools in a large Australian city (N = 259). Data were collected using a self‐report questionnaire. Several factors were explored, including victim category, source of help, and the victim's goals. The results indicated that victims of bullying perceived different sources of help to be related to achieving different goals. Furthermore, the results showed that students who self‐identified as victims of bullying perceived informal sources of help to be easier to talk to about being bullied. Victims also realized that teachers were concerned about them being bullied, but this was not related to being able to ask them for help. Help‐seeking is a complex process involving conflicting goals. The results highlighted several avenues for future research as well as some practical implications.
    July 08, 2013   doi: 10.1002/pits.21709   open full text