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Applied Cognitive Psychology

Impact factor: 1.469 5-Year impact factor: 1.856 Print ISSN: 0888-4080 Online ISSN: 1099-0720 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)

Subject: Experimental Psychology

Most recent papers:

  • Differential Effects of Alcohol on Associative Versus Item Memory.
    Elizabeth A. Maylor, Hannah R. Long, Rhianne A. Newstead.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. 11 days ago
    --- - |2 Summary Alcohol has detrimental effects on a range of cognitive processes, the most prominent being episodic memory. These deficits appear functionally similar to those observed within the normal aging population. We investigated whether an associative memory deficit, as found in older adults, would also be evident in young adults moderately intoxicated by alcohol. Participants were shown unrelated word pairs and then tested on both their item recognition (old/new item?) and associative recognition (intact/recombined pair?). Half the participants were under the influence of alcohol whereas the other half were sober. Alcohol impaired memory performance but significantly more so for associative than for item memory. Moreover, within the alcohol group, the associative memory deficit was significantly related to the amount of alcohol consumed. The findings suggest that not all aspects of episodic memory are equally impaired by alcohol, which may have practical implications for criminal investigations involving eye witnesses who have consumed alcohol. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3476   open full text
  • Links between achievement, executive functions, and self‐regulated learning.
    Teomara Rutherford, Martin Buschkuehl, Susanne M. Jaeggi, George Farkas.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. 11 days ago
    --- - |2 Summary Student self‐regulated learning (SRL) is theorized to draw upon cognitive resources such as executive functions (EF) in support of planning, monitoring, and control processes in the service of academic goals. Prior work has demonstrated connections between direct measures of EF and reports of regulation behaviors, but this has not been frequently extended using an SRL framework to classroom behaviors and resulting school achievement. We find relations between inhibition and shifting elements of EF and teacher reports of SRL and links between both and student achievement on standardized tests and classroom grades in mathematics and language arts. We also find that links between EF and math achievement are partially mediated through SRL. Our results suggest that aspects of EF can support or may be a bottleneck for SRL and thus academic achievement, and as such, they have implications for cognitive and educational interventions. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3462   open full text
  • Is visual–perceptual or motor expertise critical for expert anticipation in sport?
    John Brenton, Sean Müller.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. 11 days ago
    --- - |2 Summary A prominent topic is whether visual or motor expertise makes greater contribution to expert visual anticipation in sport. This stems from psychological theories, such as common coding theory, which predicts perception and action can inform each other in a bidirectional manner. This paper reviews the literature that has investigated visual and motor expertise contributions to expert visual anticipation in sport. First, psychological theories are discussed that predict visual and motor contributions to perceptual–motor behaviour. Second, classifications of motor skills and studies are presented to evaluate the literature reviewed. Third, literature is reviewed with reference to performance, learning, and transfer of visual anticipation, which are all vital for successful sports performance. The review aims to stimulate thought about mechanisms underpinning visual and motor expertise relative to performance, learning, and transfer of anticipation skill, which can better guide the practitioner to improve skill. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 10, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3453   open full text
  • Previous mindfulness experience interacts with brief mindfulness induction when reducing stimulus over‐selectivity.
    Phil Reed.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. 12 days ago
    --- - |2 Summary The current study examined the effects of a brief mindfulness induction on over‐selectivity. Participants were randomly assigned to a mindfulness, unfocused attention (relaxation), or no‐intervention group. Participants experienced their designated intervention for 10min, and they underwent simultaneous discrimination training (AB+ CD‐) followed by an extinction test (AvC, AvD, BvC, BvD). Levels of mindfulness were measured by the Toronto Mindfulness Scale, and participants were asked about their previous experience with mediation and mindfulness practice. Mindfulness reduced over‐selectivity, and previous levels of mindfulness‐experience identified by a single question moderated this effect, with mindful‐experienced participants showing less over‐selectivity. Both findings have some practical utility in the ongoing investigation of the possible use of mindfulness in medical settings. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 09, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3474   open full text
  • The moderating role of arousal on the seductive detail effect in a multimedia learning setting.
    Sascha Schneider, Maria Wirzberger, Günter Daniel Rey.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Arousal has been found to increase learners' attentional resources. In contrast, seductive details (interesting but learning‐irrelevant information) are considered to distract attention away from relevant information and thus, hinder learning. However, a possibly moderating role of arousal on the seductive detail effect has not been examined yet. In this study, arousal variations were induced via audio files of false heartbeats. In consequence, 100 participants were randomly assigned to a 2 (with or without seductive details) x 2 (lower vs. higher false heart rates) between‐subjects design. Data on learning performance, cognitive load, motivation, heartbeat frequency and electro‐dermal activity (EDA) were collected. Results show learning‐inhibiting effects for seductive details and learning‐enhancing effects for higher false heart rates. Cognitive processes mediate both effects. However, the detrimental effect of seductive details was not present when heart rate was higher. Results indicate that the seductive detail effect is moderated by a learner's state of arousal. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3473   open full text
  • Examining children in English High Courts with and without implementation of reforms authorized in Section 28 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act.
    Hayden M. Henderson, Samantha J. Andrews, Michael E. Lamb.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 06, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary This study examined whether the implementation of Section 28 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (1999) improved lawyers' questioning strategies when examining child witnesses in England. The government's Section 28 pilot study involved judges holding Ground Rules Hearings, during which restrictions and limitations were placed on the duration, content, and manner of questions to be asked. Afterwards, children's cross‐examinations were pre‐recorded and later played as part of their evidence at trial. The current study compared cases involving 6‐ to 15‐year‐old alleged victims of sexual abuse in which Section 28 was (n = 43) and was not (n = 44) implemented. Defence lawyers in Section 28 cases asked significantly fewer suggestive questions and more option‐posing questions than defence lawyers in Non‐Section 28 cases. Younger children complied more with defence lawyers' suggestive questions. Ground Rules Hearings improved lawyers' questioning strategies, regardless of the case's involvement in the Section 28 pilot study. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 06, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3472   open full text
  • Inconsistent Operations: A Weapon of Math Disruption.
    Andrew F. Jarosz, Allison J. Jaeger.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Word problems embed a math equation within a short narrative. Due to their structure, both numerical and linguistic factors can contribute to problem difficulty. The present studies explored the role of irrelevant information in word problems, to determine whether its negative impact is due to numerical (foregrounding hypothesis) or linguistic (inconsistent‐operations hypothesis) interference. Across three experiments, participants solved multiplication and division word problems containing irrelevant numerical information, which was either associated or disassociated with the protagonist. Results demonstrated increased solution errors on division problems when irrelevant numbers were disassociated with the protagonist. When memory for numerical information was emphasized, disassociation was specifically impacted low‐working memory individuals. The effect of disassociation on division performance persisted even when irrelevant numbers, but not words, were removed from problems. These results suggest that, even in the presence of numerically interfering information, it is the language of word problems that often drive their difficulty. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3471   open full text
  • Chewing gum while studying: Effects on alertness and test performance.
    Paul Ginns, Theresa Kim, Eleni Zervos.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Recent research has demonstrated chewing gum can enhance various cognitive processes associated with learning, but most studies have used cognitive functioning tasks (e.g., selective attention, working memory) as outcomes. Across two experiments, we investigated effects of chewing gum on self‐reports of alertness and test performance following study of realistic educational materials. In Experiment 1 (n = 40), adult participants who chewed gum while studying a 20‐minute physiology lesson outperformed a non‐chewing condition on subsequent terminology and comprehension tests, but did not report higher levels of post‐lesson alertness as hypothesised. In Experiment 2 (n = 39), adult participants who chewed gum while studying a 9‐minute lesson on a mental mathematics strategy outperformed a non‐chewing condition on a subsequent problem‐solving test, while also reporting higher levels of post‐lesson alertness. The results provide initial support for chewing gum while studying realistic educational materials across a range of topics and study durations. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3467   open full text
  • Does Implementation of Reforms Authorised in Section 28 of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act Affect the Complexity of the Questions Asked of Young Alleged Victims in Court?
    Hayden M. Henderson, Michael E. Lamb.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary This study examined whether the implementation of Section 28 (S28) of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (1999) and the introduction of mandatory Ground Rules Hearings reduced the complexity of the questions English lawyers asked when examining child witnesses. This study compared cases with (n = 43) and without (n = 43) the S28 special measures, and involved children aged 6‐15 testifying as alleged victims of sexual abuse. Defense lawyers' questions in the S28 condition comprised fewer words, clauses, false starts, multiple negatives, and temporal and numeric attributes than in the Non‐S28 condition. When questioning younger children, lawyers used fewer words, clauses, references to ‘before/after,’ and passive voice. These results demonstrated that S28 successfully reduced the complexity of the questions, and that lawyers in both conditions partially adjusted the complexity of their questions to accommodate children's developmental capabilities. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3466   open full text
  • A visualization technique for Bayesian reasoning.
    Jeffrey Starns, Andrew L. Cohen, Cara Bosco, Jennifer Hirst.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary We tested a method for solving Bayesian reasoning problems in terms of spatial relations as opposed to mathematical equations. Participants completed Bayesian problems in which they were given a prior probability and two conditional probabilities and were asked to report the posterior odds. After a pre‐training phase in which participants completed problems with no instruction or external support, participants watched a video describing a visualization technique that used the length of bars to represent the probabilities provided in the problem. Participants then completed more problems with a chance to implement the technique by clicking interactive bars on the computer screen. Performance improved dramatically from the pre‐training phase to the interactive‐bar phase. Participants maintained improved performance in transfer phases in which the interactive bars were removed and they were required to implement the visualization technique with either pencil‐and‐paper or no external medium. Accuracy levels for participants using the visualization technique were very similar to participants trained to solve the Bayes theorem equation. The results showed no evidence of learning across problems in the pre‐training phase or for control participants who did not receive training, so the improved performance of participants using the visualization method could be uniquely attributed to the method itself. A classroom sample demonstrated that these benefits extend to instructional settings. The results show that people can quickly learn to perform Bayesian reasoning without using mathematical equations. We discuss ways that a spatial solution method can enhance classroom instruction on Bayesian inference and help students apply Bayesian reasoning in everyday settings. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3470   open full text
  • Measuring Working Memory Capacity with the Letter‐Number Sequencing Task: Advantages of Visual Administration.
    Marta K. Mielicki, Rebecca H. Koppel, Gabriela Valencia, Jennifer Wiley.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Working memory capacity (WMC) plays a major role in many applied contexts, and it is important to be able to accurately measure this construct. The current studies tested whether the modality of administration of the Letter‐Number Sequencing task affects performance on the task. The Letter‐Number Sequencing task is a WMC measure included as part of the WAIS‐III and WAIS‐IV test batteries. The task involves hearing a series of letters and digits, and then reporting back the stimuli with the letters in alphabetical order, and digits in ascending numerical order. The task is traditionally administered orally, but recent studies have administered versions of the tasks visually by displaying stimuli on a computer screen. Results suggest that performance differences on the Letter‐Number Sequencing task may arise as a function of language background and task administration modality. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3468   open full text
  • Student's Metamemory Knowledge About the Impact of Stereoscopic Three‐dimensional Presentations of Science Content.
    John Dunlosky, Daniel Dudley, Mary Beth Spitznagel, Robert J. Clements.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary We investigated students' knowledge and beliefs about the impact of using three‐dimensional (3D) multimedia presentations. Students listened to a lecture about the ventricular system, which was presented alone (Experiment 1 only) or with a 3D or a 2D video illustrating the system. Afterwards, students judged how well they would perform on a criterion test. In Experiment 1, students judged that the 3D presentation would be superior to listening to the lecture alone (d = .81). Mean judgments were higher for the 3D than 2D presentation (d = .24), but this difference was not significant, so we estimated the effect size again. In Experiment 2, judgments were significantly higher after the 3D than 2D presentations (d = .40). Test performance was not significantly greater after the 3D than 2D presentations. A survey study again revealed that students believe 3D presentations are superior, and most students preferred them to 2D presentations. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 0, Issue ja, -Not available-.
    October 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3469   open full text
  • Reader, interrupted: Do disruptions during encoding influence the use of inaccurate information?
    Amalia M. Donovan, Elias Theodosis, David N. Rapp.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary People routinely rely on inaccuracies they have read to complete subsequent tasks, even when they should already possess accurate prior knowledge. This problematic reliance maintains even when people are warned about potential inaccuracies prior to reading. In contrast, reductions have been observed when interventions target encoding of inaccuracies during reading. We investigated whether interruptions during encoding would similarly prove beneficial for disrupting attention to and memory for inaccuracies. Participants read a story containing both accurate and inaccurate assertions. Their readings were interrupted at 300‐word intervals (Experiment 1) or immediately after each assertion (Experiments 2 and 3). After reading, participants judged the validity of statements summarizing the assertions. Interruptions were ineffective: Participants overall made more incorrect judgments after reading inaccurate than accurate assertions, at rates comparable with participants who read without interruption. These results help identify the mechanisms that underlie reliance on inaccuracies, and suggest useful targets for more effective interventions. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    October 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3464   open full text
  • When nostalgia marketing backfires: Gender differences in the impact of nostalgia on youthfulness for older consumers.
    Young Kyu Kim, Mark Yi‐Cheon Yim.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Two studies are conducted to test how consumers respond differently in feeling nostalgic depending on age and gender. Study 1 uses narrative writing tasks to empirically test the effect of nostalgic versus nonnostalgic feelings on youthfulness by age and gender. To increase the external validity of our findings in Study 1, Study 2 replicates it using print ads. The results across the two studies consistently reveal a significant effect of nostalgia on feelings of youthfulness that differs by age and gender. Specifically, older women tend to feel less youthful than older men when nostalgic feelings are induced in both studies, whereas younger adults experience no gender difference. Results also show that these differences are explained by self‐discontinuity between current and ideal body image. Furthermore, we identify that nostalgic feelings in advertising are effective because they generate positive feelings of youthfulness that in turn result in positive attitudes toward the ad. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 19, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3459   open full text
  • Both fluid intelligence and visual object recognition ability relate to nodule detection in chest radiographs.
    Mackenzie A. Sunday, Edwin Donnelly, Isabel Gauthier.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 17, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Recent work suggests that some aspects of lung nodule detection ability may relate to object recognition ability. However, this work only sampled radiological novices. Here, we further investigate whether object recognition ability predicts lung nodule detection ability (as measured by the Vanderbilt Chest Radiograph Test or VCRT), after controlling for experience and fluid intelligence, in a sample of radiologists and nonradiologists. We find that radiological experience accounts for approximately 50% of VCRT variance. After controlling for experience, fluid intelligence and object recognition ability account for an additional 15% of VCRT variance. These results suggest that while training is key in learning to detect nodules, given the same experience level, those with higher fluid intelligence and object recognition ability perform better. The recently proposed construct of visual object recognition ability may add unique information relative to general cognitive skills in assessing aptitude for a career in radiology. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 17, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3460   open full text
  • The influence of mindfulness on young adolescents' eyewitness memory and suggestibility.
    Hongyuan Qi, Huan Huan Zhang, Lerna Hanceroglu, Julia Caggianiello, Kim P. Roberts.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 14, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Recent research has linked mindfulness to adults' false memory formation. This study investigated the effects of mindfulness on adolescents' event memory and suggestibility by using an “extensive” 8‐week mindfulness program, an active control group, and a participatory to‐be‐remembered event. Students aged 13 to 14 were randomly assigned to a mindfulness or active control condition (socioemotional learning). After the seventh week, students participated in a target event and were immediately interviewed during which misleading information was presented. A week later, those in the mindfulness condition incorrectly reported more false information compared with those in the control group. Mindful practice did not affect memory encoding but had a negative effect during retention and retrieval. These findings suggest that adolescents who are exposed to mindfulness exercises may be susceptible to memory intrusions. Professionals should therefore be especially careful to avoid using suggestive and leading questions during investigative interviews with mindful adolescents. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 14, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3452   open full text
  • Advertising: The contribution of applied cognitive psychology.
    Adrian Furnham.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary This paper looks at the contribution of applied cognitive psychology primarily to the research on advertising. The first issue is to attempt to define and specify the unique contribution of applied, as opposed to “pure,” cognitive psychology to this research area. Next, the issue of the medium of message delivery is discussed. The importance of program involvement and mood impact on memory for advertisements is then reviewed. The major part of the review looks at the influence of humor, sex, violence, and unconventional sex roles in advertisements on their impact on viewer's memory. An attempt is made to document important and replicated findings in this area. Finally, some effort is made to consider future avenues of research. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 13, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3458   open full text
  • Deception and truth detection when analyzing nonverbal and verbal cues.
    Aldert Vrij.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary In this article, I present my view on the significant developments and theoretical/empirical tipping points in nonverbal and verbal deception and lie detection from the last 30 years and on prospects for future research in this domain. I discuss three major shifts in deception detection research: (a) From observing target persons' nonverbal behavior to analyzing their speech; (b) from lie detection based on differences between truth tellers and liars' levels of arousal to lie detection based on the different cognitive processes or strategies adopted to appear convincing; and (c) from passively observing target persons to actively interviewing them to elicit or enhance verbal cues to deceit. Finally, I discuss my ideas for future research, focusing on initiatives from my own lab. Hopefully, this will stimulate other researchers to explore innovative ideas in the verbal deception research domain, which already has seen so much progress in the last decade. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 13, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3457   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 11, 2018
    --- - |2 No abstract is available for this article. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 523-524, September/October 2018.
    September 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3361   open full text
  • ACP to publish Registered Reports.
    Graham M. Davies, Pär‐Anders Granhag.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 11, 2018
    --- - - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 525-525, September/October 2018.
    September 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3456   open full text
  • The effect of task relevance instructions on memory for text with seductive details.
    Matthew T. McCrudden.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 03, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Seductive details in text are interesting but unimportant text segments. Although seductive details can make expository text more interesting, they do not necessarily promote learning of main ideas. This study investigated whether task relevance instructions that targeted main ideas would promote memory for main ideas when students read a text with seductive details. Undergraduates (n = 102) read a text with seductive detail sentences and then did a free recall task. Before reading, participants received pre‐reading questions that either targeted main ideas or seductive details, or they read for understanding. The main finding was that students in the main idea relevance instruction condition recalled main ideas better than students in the control or seductive detail relevance instruction conditions. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed, and directions for future research are provided. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 03, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3455   open full text
  • Effects of probabilities, adverse outcomes, and status quo on perceived riskiness of medications: Testing explanatory hypotheses concerning gist, worry, and numeracy.
    Evan A. Wilhelms, Liana Fraenkel, Valerie F. Reyna.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 01, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We tested predictions of fuzzy‐trace theory that qualitative health status and gist representations (ordinal and categorical) of risks contribute to willingness to start medications, beyond effects of objective risk, emotion (worry), and numeracy. Adults in two experiments were given hypothetical scenarios based on actual medications, varying health status quo (acceptable or unacceptable), adverse event (pneumonia or cancer), and four levels of quantitative risk (from 1/100,000 to 1/100) between subjects. In both experiments, cancer and higher quantitative risk elicited greater worry and risk perceptions and reduced willingness to start a new medication. Willingness to start was also influenced by health status quo. After controlling for other variables, only status quo and gist representations consistently predicted willingness to start in both experiments. Results support an integrated approach to understanding and predicting perceptions of the risks of medications that encompasses numerical cognition, emotions (such as worry), and qualitative gist representations of medical information. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 01, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3448   open full text
  • Measuring the effectiveness of the sketch procedure for recalling details of a live interactive event.
    Joseph Eastwood, Brent Snook, Kirk Luther.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 01, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary The effectiveness of a sketch procedure for enhancing the recall of a live interactive event was assessed. Participants (N = 88) engaged in an interaction with a confederate, were administered a sketch, mental reinstatement of context (MRC), or control procedure and then asked to recall the experienced event. Results showed that participants who were administered a sketch procedure recalled more correct details than those administered an MRC or control procedure (d = 0.55 and d = 1.31, respectively). The increased recall was seen primarily for action and object details, with little difference between procedures for recall of person and verbal details. In addition, the effect of interview procedure on the number of incorrect details recalled was nonsignificant. The utility of the sketch procedure for investigative interviewing is discussed. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    September 01, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3454   open full text
  • Enhancing CCTV: Averages improve face identification from poor‐quality images.
    Kay L. Ritchie, David White, Robin S. S. Kramer, Eilidh Noyes, Rob Jenkins, A. Mike Burton.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 18, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Low‐quality images are problematic for face identification, for example, when the police identify faces from CCTV images. Here, we test whether face averages, comprising multiple poor‐quality images, can improve both human and computer recognition. We created averages from multiple pixelated or nonpixelated images and compared accuracy using these images and exemplars. To provide a broad assessment of the potential benefits of this method, we tested human observers (n = 88; Experiment 1), and also computer recognition, using a smartphone application (Experiment 2) and a commercial one‐to‐many face recognition system used in forensic settings (Experiment 3). The third experiment used large image databases of 900 ambient images and 7,980 passport images. In all three experiments, we found a substantial increase in performance by averaging multiple pixelated images of a person's face. These results have implications for forensic settings in which faces are identified from poor‐quality images, such as CCTV. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 18, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3449   open full text
  • Collaborative learning effects when students have complete or incomplete knowledge.
    Endah Retnowati, Paul Ayres, John Sweller.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 14, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Cognitive load theory was used to hypothesize that the effectiveness of collaborative learning is moderated by the completeness of the prerequisite knowledge bases of group members. It was predicted that when group members have gaps in their knowledge base that can be filled by other group members, collaborative is superior to individual learning. In contrast, if group members have no prerequisite knowledge gaps, then collaborative learning is redundant and as a consequence inferior to individual learning. To test these, 58 grade 7 Indonesian students were randomly assigned to work collaboratively or individually on intermediate mathematics problems, with either full knowledge or gaps in their knowledge base. The results indicated that with gaps, collaboration led to superior learning. However, with a more complete knowledge, individual learning was superior to collaborative learning due to redundancy effects. The results suggest that collaboration does not always lead to superior learning compared with individual study. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 14, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3444   open full text
  • Resistance to coaching in forced‐choice testing.
    Robin Orthey, Aldert Vrij, Ewout Meijer, Sharon Leal, Hartmut Blank.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 14, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary In forced‐choice tests (FCTs), examinees are typically presented with questions with two equally plausible answer alternatives, of which only one is correct. The rationale underlying this test is that guilty examinees tend to avoid relevant crime information, producing a nonrandom response pattern. The validity of FCTs is reduced when examinees are informed about this underlying rationale, with coached guilty examinees refraining from avoiding the correct information but trying to provide a random mix of correct and incorrect answers. To detect such intentional randomization, a “runs” test—looking at the distribution of the number of alternations between correct and incorrect answers—has been suggested but with limited success. We designed a runs test based on distinguishing between patterns that look random and patterns that are random. Specifically, we alternated the horizontal presentation (i.e., presentation left or right on the screen) of the correct answer alternative between each trial. As a consequence, guilty examinees were faced with having to choose to randomize either between correct and incorrect answers—leading to chance performance—or between answers presented on the left or right, producing a pattern that “looks” random. As innocent examinees are unaware of the correct answers, they can only randomize between horizontal positions. Results showed that the number of correct items selected distinguished guilty from innocent examinees only when they were not informed about the underlying rationale. In contrast, alternations between correct and incorrect answers did distinguish informed guilty from innocent examinees. Incremental validity of the alternation criterion and theoretical implications are discussed. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 14, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3443   open full text
  • The use of episodic and semantic memory systems in classroom context regarding time delay and college experience level.
    Nur Elibol‐Pekaslan, Basak Sahin‐Acar.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 14, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary This study aimed to examine freshmen and senior college students' episodic and semantic memory use in classroom context regarding short and long time delays and college experience level. Data were collected in 2014 and 2017, right after students' final exams (T1) and 5 weeks later (T2). Students were given exemplar questions from their final exams and asked whether they remembered a specific learning episode (episodic memory), if they knew the information (semantic memory), or they guessed the answer while answering exam questions. Senior students in 2017 were asked the same set of questions that they had answered in 2014 as T3. The analyses revealed that the ratio of remember responses to all types of responses decreased within 3 years, whereas know ratio remained stable. Moreover, remember‐to‐know shift occurred only for senior students. This study is important for demonstrating endurance of semantic memory longitudinally, and salience of college experience level cohort sequentially. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, EarlyView.
    August 14, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3447   open full text
  • Are you for real? Exploring language use and unexpected process questions within the detection of identity deception.
    Louise Marie Jupe, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Galit Nahari.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary The current study was to test whether reality monitoring and language use could distinguish identity liars from truth tellers when answering outcome questions and unexpected process questions. Truth tellers (n = 30) and liars (n = 30) discussed their identity in a recruitment interview. No differences emerged between truth tellers and liars in the details they provided. In terms of language use, liars used more positive language than truth tellers, whereas truth tellers used more cognitive process words than liars. However, neither were more pronounced when asking process questions. Overall, process questions elicited more cognitive process and cause words than outcome questions. Therefore, process questions may be able to contribute to the cognitive load approach. The findings suggest that reality monitoring may not be diagnostic when applied to identity deception. We discuss the language use differences in relation to impression management theory. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 622-634, September/October 2018.
    August 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3446   open full text
  • The effect of layout and pacing on learning from diagrams with unnecessary text.
    Gertjan Rop, Anne Schüler, Peter P.J.L. Verkoeijen, Katharina Scheiter, Tamara Van Gog.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Although the presentation of extraneous (i.e., irrelevant or unnecessary) information hinders learning, it is unclear whether and how layout and pacing influence this effect. In two experiments, participants learned how the heart functions using four different layouts: a diagram presented without unnecessary text (diagram only), with unnecessary text separated from the diagram (separated) or integrated into the diagram (integrated), or with separated unnecessary text and the instruction to integrate (integration instruction). In Experiment 1, study time was self‐paced for half of the participants and system paced for the other half. There were no effects of layout and of pacing on learning, although system pacing was more effortful than self‐pacing. In Experiment 2, which was system paced and employed eye tracking, the integrated condition showed worse learning outcomes than the separated condition. Moreover, in the integrated condition, participants made more integration attempts between the unnecessary text and the diagram than in the separated condition. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 610-621, September/October 2018.
    August 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3445   open full text
  • Increased conspiracy beliefs among ethnic and Muslim minorities.
    Jan‐Willem Prooijen, Jaap Staman, André P.M. Krouwel.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In the present study, we tested whether Muslim minority members are more susceptible to conspiracy theories than majority members in the Netherlands. We examined conspiracy theories that are relevant (portraying the Muslim community as victim or Jewish people as perpetrators) and irrelevant for participants' Muslim identity (about the 2007 financial crisis, and other theories such as that the moon landings were fake). Results revealed that Muslims believed both identity‐relevant and irrelevant conspiracy theories more strongly than non‐Muslims. These differences could not be attributed to the contents of Muslim faith: Ethnic minority status exerted similar effects independent of Muslim identity. Instead, evidence suggested that feelings of both personal and group‐based deprivation independently contribute to belief in conspiracy theories. We conclude that feelings of deprivation lead marginalized minority members to perceive the social and political system as rigged, stimulating belief in both identity‐relevant and irrelevant conspiracy theories. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 661-667, September/October 2018.
    July 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3442   open full text
  • Perceptual load affects change blindness in a real‐world interaction.
    Gillian Murphy, Lisa Murphy.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Change blindness is the striking inability to detect seemingly obvious changes that occur between views of a scene. The current study assessed perceptual load as a factor that may affect change blindness for human faces. The study had participants (n = 103) interact with a researcher in a testing room that imposed low or high perceptual load. Midway through the conversation, the researcher was replaced by another person. Thirty‐nine percent of participants failed to detect the change. There was a significant effect of perceptual load, with greater change detection under low load (71%) than high load (52%). This research suggests that the perceptual load imposed by a task may have a significant effect on the likelihood of change blindness and ought to be considered in future research. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 655-660, September/October 2018.
    July 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3441   open full text
  • Effects of label training and recall order on children's reports of a repeated event.
    Sonja P. Brubacher, Becky Earhart, Kim P. Roberts, Martine B. Powell.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Children aged 6–8 (N = 84) were interviewed 1 week after participating in a repeated event. Half received training in labeling episodes of a repeated autobiographical event (Label Training); remaining children practiced talking about the same without label training (Standard Practice). Subsequently, children recalled the target event in two recall order conditions: script for the events followed by a specific instance (Generic‐first) or the reverse (Episodic‐first). Training effects were modest, but the research has important implications for interviewers' elicitation of children's labels for instances of repeated events because 98% of the labels generated were unique. The study provides additional support for the notion that recalling the script first can be beneficial. Children in the Generic‐first condition were more accurate for some types of details, and reported more information in the first half of the interview about details that changed across instances, than children in the Episodic‐first condition. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 600-609, September/October 2018.
    July 23, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3440   open full text
  • The role of context expectations and cost of reporting on prospective person memory performance.
    Kara N. Moore, Andrew C. Provenzano, James Michael Lampinen.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Prospective person memory refers to the task of being on the lookout for a missing or wanted person. In both laboratory and field‐based tasks, prospective person memory performance has been poor. In the current study, we examined two factors that could be manipulated in the real world to increase successful recovery of missing or wanted persons: expectations of encounter and the cost of reporting wanted persons. Participants completed a computer task that simulated normal day‐to‐day tasks (i.e.., grocery shopping) while looking for four “wanted” persons. Participants who were given accurate context expectations made more accurate sightings and more inaccurate sightings than participants who were given inaccurate context expectations. The cost of reporting a sighting did not affect sighting rates. These findings indicate that people are more likely to notice a wanted person in their environment when they expect to encounter the wanted person in that environment. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 635-640, September/October 2018.
    July 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3426   open full text
  • The first direct replication on using verbal credibility assessment for the detection of deceptive intentions.
    Bennett Kleinberg, Lara Warmelink, Arnoud Arntz, Bruno Verschuere.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Verbal deception detection has gained momentum as a technique to tell truth‐tellers from liars. At the same time, researchers' degrees of freedom make it hard to assess the robustness of effects. Replication research can help evaluate how reproducible an effect is. We present the first replication in verbal deception research whereby ferry passengers were instructed to tell the truth or lie about their travel plans. The original study found truth‐tellers to include more specific time references in their answers. The replication study that closely mimicked the setting, procedure, materials, coding, and analyses found no lie–truth difference for specific time references. Although the power of our replication study was suboptimal (0.77), Bayesian statistics showed evidence in favor of the null hypothesis. Given the great applied consequences of verbal credibility tests, we hope this first replication attempt ignites much needed preregistered, high‐powered, multilab replication efforts. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 592-599, September/October 2018.
    July 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3439   open full text
  • Characteristics of memories for traumatic and nontraumatic birth.
    Rosalind Crawley, Stephanie Wilkie, Jenny Gamble, Debra K. Creedy, Jenny Fenwick, Nicola Cockburn, Susan Ayers.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Evidence for memory characteristic differences between trauma and other memories in non‐clinical samples is inconsistent. However, trauma is frequently confounded with the event recalled. This study compares trauma and nontrauma memories for the same event, childbirth, in a non‐clinical sample of 285 women 4–6 weeks after birth. None of the women met diagnostic criteria for post‐traumatic stress disorder. Traumatic birth, defined by the DSM‐5 event criterion, was reported by 100 women. The ratings of some memory characteristics did not differ between memories for traumatic and nontraumatic birth: All were rated highly coherent and central to women's lives, with moderate sensory memory. However, women who experienced traumatic births reported more involuntary recall, reliving, and negative/mixed emotions. Thus, trauma memories differed from nontrauma memories. In this non‐clinical sample, this is likely to be due to encoding during trauma rather than the distinctive memory profile for memories retrieved by those experiencing trauma symptoms. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 584-591, September/October 2018.
    July 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3438   open full text
  • Facilitating memory‐based lie detection in immediate and delayed interviewing: The role of mnemonics.
    Aleksandras Izotovas, Aldert Vrij, Lorraine Hope, Samantha Mann, Pär Anders Granhag, Leif A. Strömwall.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary We experimentally investigated how different mnemonic techniques employed in an interview conducted immediately after an event affected truth tellers' and liars' responses when they were interviewed again after a 2‐week delay. We also compared how verbal accounts changed over time within truth tellers and liars, and how consistent both groups were. Participants (n = 143) were shown a mock intelligence operation video and instructed either to tell the truth or lie about its contents in two interviews, one of which was immediately after watching the video and the other after a 2‐week delay. In the immediate interview, they were asked to provide a free recall and then asked to provide further information via one of three mnemonics: context reinstatement, sketch, or event‐line. In the delayed interview, they were asked to provide only a free recall. Truth tellers reported more visual, spatial, temporal, and action details than did liars both immediately and after a delay. Truth tellers experienced more of a decline in reporting details after a delay than did liars, and this decline was affected by the mnemonic used. Truth tellers thus showed, more than liars, patterns of reporting indicative of genuine memory decay. Liars produced patterns of a “stability bias” instead. Truth tellers and liars were equally consistent between their immediate and delayed statements. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 561-574, September/October 2018.
    July 16, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3435   open full text
  • Do tests facilitate decision‐making performance on a transfer task?
    Gunes Avci, Steven P. Woods, Savanna M. Tierney, Victoria M. Kordovski, Erin E. Morgan.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 11, 2018
    --- - |2 Abtract Testing can improve later recall of information. However, much less is known about the potential use of testing in promoting the transfer of learning. In this study, we investigated whether testing improves decision‐making performance on a transfer task in a sample of 98 university students using a between‐subjects design. After studying several statements about a fictional disease under different learning conditions (restudy, free recall, and multiple‐choice), participants were asked to recall this information and subsequently make medical decisions concerning the fictional disease (i.e., the transfer task). The present study found no advantage of testing conditions over restudy condition on the 30‐min delayed memory task. However, participants in the active retrieval practice (i.e., free recall) group performed significantly better on the transfer task over those in both restudy and multiple‐choice groups. These results suggest free‐recall tests promote the transfer of learning. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 575-583, September/October 2018.
    July 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3437   open full text
  • Fostering learning from instructional video in a second language.
    Hyunjeong Lee, Richard E. Mayer.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 11, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary This study investigated the most effective way to present an instructional video that contains words in the students' second language. Korean‐speaking university students received a 16‐min video lesson on Antarctica that included English narration (video + narration group), English text subtitles (video + text group), or English narration with simultaneous text subtitles (video + narration + text group). On a comprehension test, the video + text group scored higher than each of the other two groups, in contrast to the modality effect; and the video + narration + text group outscored the video + narration group, in contrast to the redundancy effect. Each of the lessons that included text was rated as less difficult than the lesson with narration only. The narration + text group reported lower effort than each of the other groups. Results highlight boundary conditions for two principles of multimedia instructional design that apply for college students who are learning in a second language. Theoretical implications are discussed. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 648-654, September/October 2018.
    July 11, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3436   open full text
  • Reduced autobiographical memory specificity as a mediating factor between general anxiety symptoms and performance on problem‐solving tasks.
    David J. Hallford, Narian Noory, David Mellor.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 08, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary This study sought to further explain the association between general anxiety symptoms and impaired problem‐solving by testing whether this occurs, in part, through a reduced ability to retrieve event‐level, specific autobiographical memory (AM). Participants (N = 301; M age = 28.2 SD = 7.7, 55.8% female) completed assessments of the retrieval of specific AM, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and rumination. They then completed the Means‐End Problem Solving Task, which assessed their ability to produce relevant problem‐solving steps. Participants who were higher in anxiety reported a lesser number of relevant problem‐solving steps, and this association was, in part, related to anxiety being associated with reduced AM specificity (after controlling for depressive symptoms). Rumination did not mediate anxiety and problem‐solving, nor anxiety and AM specificity. These findings provide further evidence that elevated anxiety is associated with reduced ability to retrieve specific AM, and a specific cognitive pathway through which anxiety may affect problem‐solving performance. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 641-647, September/October 2018.
    July 08, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3428   open full text
  • A sound effect: Exploration of the distinctiveness advantage in voice recognition.
    Sarah V. Stevenage, Greg J. Neil, Beth Parsons, Abi Humphreys.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 04, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Two experiments are presented, which explore the presence of a distinctiveness advantage when recognising unfamiliar voices. In Experiment 1, distinctive voices were recognised significantly better, and with greater confidence, in a sequential same/different matching task compared with typical voices. These effects were replicated and extended in Experiment 2, as distinctive voices were recognised better even under challenging listening conditions imposed by nonsense sentences and temporal reversal. Taken together, the results aligned well with similar results when processing faces, and provided a useful point of comparison between voice and face processing. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 526-536, September/October 2018.
    July 04, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3424   open full text
  • Within a hair's breadth of buying the product: The impact of tangible and intangible bodily cues of contamination: The role of disgust and mental imagery.
    Jessica Gérard, Agnès Helme‐Guizon.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary In most retail environments, customers can handle products. However, the downside of this freedom to touch products is product contamination. The objectives of this paper are threefold: (a) to examine the effects of contamination cues (tangible vs. intangible) on consumer responses; (b) to show the mediating role of contamination, disgust, and mental imagery; and (c) to assess the robustness of the results on three product categories for different levels of contact intimacy. Three experimental laboratory studies on different product categories (a book [n = 95], T‐shirt [n = 118], and apple [n = 102]) showed that tangible contamination cues decreased product evaluation and purchase intentions more than intangible contamination cues did. Moreover, contamination, disgust, and mental imagery mediated the effects of contamination cues on product evaluation and purchase intention. The findings provide theoretical and practical insights to help researchers and retailers understand the effect of tangible contamination cues on consumer responses. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 537-549, September/October 2018.
    June 29, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3425   open full text
  • Narrative skill and testimonial accuracy in typically developing children and those with intellectual disabilities.
    Deirdre A. Brown, Emma‐Jayne Brown, Charlie N. Lewis, Michael E. Lamb.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Summary Children must describe maltreatment coherently for their testimony to be influential in court. We know little about how well children with intellectual disabilities (CWID) describe their experiences relative to typically developing (TD) children, despite CWID's vulnerability to maltreatment. We investigated children's reports of an experienced event and compared coherence in CWID (mild to moderate impairment: 7–11 years) with TD children matched for mental (4–10 years) or chronological age (7–11 years). All children included important markers of narrative coherence in their reports. Children with lower mental ages, particularly those with an intellectual disability, included fewer markers of narrative coherence in their reports than children with higher mental ages. Individual markers of narrative coherence, particularly recall of content, predicted accuracy of testimony and resistance to suggestion even when disability and mental age were taken into account. These findings highlight the importance of helping children to describe their experiences coherently. - Applied Cognitive Psychology, Volume 32, Issue 5, Page 550-560, September/October 2018.
    June 27, 2018   doi: 10.1002/acp.3427   open full text
  • ‘Lyin' Ted’, ‘Crooked Hillary’, and ‘Deceptive Donald’: Language of Lies in the 2016 US Presidential Debates.
    Gary D. Bond, Rebecka D. Holman, Jamie‐Ann L. Eggert, Lassiter F. Speller, Olivia N. Garcia, Sasha C. Mejia, Kohlby W. Mcinnes, Eleny C. Ceniceros, Rebecca Rustige.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 18, 2017
    Language in the high‐stakes 2016 US presidential primary campaign was contentious, filled with name‐calling, personal attacks, and insults. Language in debates served at least three political functions: for image making, to imagine potential realities currently not in practice, and to disavow facts. In past research, the reality monitoring (RM) framework has discriminated accurately between truthful and deceptive accounts (~70% classification). Truthful accounts show greater sensory, time and space, and affective information, with little evidence of cognitive operations. An RM algorithm was used with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software to code candidates' language. RM scores were significantly higher in fact‐checked truth statements than in lies, and debate language in the 2016 primaries was as deceptive as fact‐checked lies. In a binary logistic regression model, one RM criterion, cognitive processes, predicted veracity using computerized RM, classifying 87% of fact‐checked truth statements but only 28% of fact‐checked lie statements (63% classification overall).Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 18, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3376   open full text
  • Alcohol Intoxication and Metamemory: Little Evidence that Moderate Intoxication Impairs Metacognitive Monitoring Processes.
    Jacqueline R. Evans, Nadja Schreiber Compo, Rolando N. Carol, Bennett L. Schwartz, Howard Holness, Stefan Rose, Kenneth G. Furton.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 17, 2017
    There is minimal research on metacognition in alcohol‐intoxicated participants. Study 1 examined metacognition across sober, intoxicated, and placebo groups, with the intoxicated group's breath alcohol concentration reaching 0.074 g/210 L on average immediately prior to the metacognition task. Participants answered cued recall general knowledge questions and provided confidence ratings and feeling‐of‐knowing judgments. They then completed a recognition (i.e., multiple choice) version of the same task, indicating an answer and a confidence rating for each question. Findings suggest that metacognitive accuracy generally did not vary across intoxication levels, although the control group's retrospective confidence judgments better discriminated between accurate and inaccurate responses than the alcohol groups in the recognition task. Study 2 surveyed academic psychologists about their expectations regarding the relation between alcohol and metacognition. Study 1's results were counter to their expectations, as respondents generally predicted a relation would be present. We discuss the implications for alcohol and memory.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3373   open full text
  • Does Overgeneralized Autobiographical Memory Facilitate or Inhibit Intrusive Images? Its Relation to Depressive Symptoms.
    Noboru Matsumoto, Toshihiko Sensui, Satoshi Mochizuki.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 16, 2017
    People with high levels of depressive symptoms experience overgeneralized autobiographical memory (OGM) in voluntary recall and intrusive images in involuntary recall. The present study examined the relationship between OGM and intrusive images and the influence of depressive symptoms on this relationship over 1 week. Fifty‐three students completed self‐report questionnaires, autobiographical memory test, and the trauma film paradigm. Subsequently, they reported intrusive images from the trauma film in a diary for 1 week. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that individuals with higher levels of depressive symptoms experienced more intrusive images than did individuals with low depressive symptoms. An interaction effect between negative memory specificity and depressive symptoms revealed that number of intrusive images was related to high negative memory specificity (i.e. low OGM) in individuals with higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results support the functional avoidance strategy of OGM in analogue trauma stimuli, especially in individuals with higher depressive symptoms.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3370   open full text
  • Social Desirability and the Interpretation of Uncertainty Terms in Self‐Report Questions.
    Thomas Holtgraves.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 10, 2017
    Uncertainty terms (e.g., possible) are words that are not fixed and hence open to interpretation. This research examined the role of social desirability in how these words are interpreted in self‐report questions. Participants in Experiments 1 (N = 96; MTurk workers) and 2 (N = 96; college students) judged trait (N = 48) and behavior (N = 36) items endorsed by a hypothetical individual to be more likely if they were lower in social desirability. In Experiments 3 (N = 97) and 4 (N = 97) college student participants interpreted four different uncertainty terms (likely, possible, unlikely, and pretty sure) as indicating greater certainty when they referred to socially undesirable (relative to socially desirable) traits (N = 36) and behaviors (N = 24). These results suggest that participants may interpret self‐report items differently, depending on the social desirability of the content.
    October 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3364   open full text
  • Comparing the Defendant to Images of the Culprit: Interpreting Results of Mock Witness Filler‐Control Tests.
    W. Burt Thompson, Miranda L. Lauher, Taylor R. Moody.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 10, 2017
    Criminals are occasionally recorded on video committing a crime. At trial, jurors may be shown images of the culprit to determine if they match the defendant. However, several sources of bias may influence juror matching decisions. Also, even with clear video, the accuracy of defendant‐culprit matching can be relatively poor. To reduce these problems, we propose that defendant‐culprit matching be viewed as a type of forensic test. If conducted as a forensic test, defendant‐culprit matching can be improved by adding fillers and testing mock witnesses rather than the actual jurors. A Bayesian analysis of data from two experiments shows that a filler‐control test can be highly diagnostic, even when the decisions of mock witnesses are far from unanimous. However, when viewing conditions are poor, a filler‐control test may not provide much new information about whether the defendant matches the culprit. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 10, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3365   open full text
  • Factor Structure, Internal Consistency and Criterion Validity of the Full‐form and Short‐form Versions of the Centrality of Events Scale in Young People.
    Santiago Galán, Elena Castarlenas, Mélanie Racine, Elisabet Sánchez‐Rodríguez, Catarina Tomé‐Pires, Mark P. Jensen, Jordi Miró.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 09, 2017
    The perceived centrality of a traumatic event has been hypothesized to impact subsequent responses to that event and shown to be positively associated to a number of psychological problems. In order to understand the role of this construct in adjustment to stress and trauma, reliable and valid measures are needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factor structure, internal consistency and convergent validity of the full‐form and short‐forms of the Centrality of Event Scale when used with young people. A sample of 262 undergraduate students completed this study. Confirmatory factor analyses, Cronbach alpha coefficients and Pearson correlation coefficients were performed. The findings support a one‐factor structure of the full 20‐item and the short 7‐item versions. We also found that both versions provide reliable and valid scores when used with young people. We recommend the use of the 7‐item version to minimize assessment burden. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3369   open full text
  • A Goal‐Activation Framework of True and False Intentions.
    Erik Mac Giolla, Pär Anders Granhag, Karl Ask.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 09, 2017
    We propose a novel cognitive framework to distinguish between statements of true and false intent based on research on goal‐directed behaviour. A true intention comes with a commitment to carry out the stated intention. This commitment activates the behavioural goal of a true intention. In contrast, a false intention does not come with a commitment to carry out the stated intention. Hence, the behavioural goal of a stated false intention should be inactive. Active goals have profound and predictable influences on human behaviour. For instance, active goals influence planning, future thought and evaluations. Such influences are functional—they aid in goal attainment. Insofar as true intentions activate goals, but false intentions do not, the expected influences of active goals should be weaker or non‐existent for those stating a false intention. The framework parsimoniously accounts for previous intention‐focused deception studies while generating new directions for future research.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 09, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3366   open full text
  • The Relationship between Online Game Experience and Multitasking Ability in a Virtual Environment.
    Yun‐Hsuan Chang, De‐Cyuan Liu, Yong‐Quan Chen, Shulan Hsieh.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 04, 2017
    Online game playing has become popular entertainment, yet its relationship with individuals' multitasking ability was inconsistent. Types of online game genre so far have not been compared and may be associated with multitasking abilities. This study proposed to explore the relationships between types of online game playing and multitasking ability, using Edinburgh Virtual Errands Test (EVET). One hundred and sixteen participants playing different online game genres, including multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA), other online game playing, and no‐online game playing were compared. Each participant was required to fill in Chen's Internet Addiction Scale and the Internet Usage Questionnaire and perform EVET and working memory tests. The results showed a positive correlation between multitasking ability and working memory. In addition, a positive association was found between MOBA‐type gaming and multitasking abilities measured by EVET. In conclusion, MOBA‐type gaming compared with other game playing is associated with better multitasking abilities in a virtual environment.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 04, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3368   open full text
  • The Effects of Cycling on a Desk Bike on Attention, Retention and Mood during a Video Lecture.
    Margina Ruiter, Sofie Loyens, Fred Paas.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 25, 2017
    This study investigated whether cycling on a desk bike would foster sustained attention in a lecture setting. This was measured by effects on retention, task experience (e.g. self‐reported attention) and affect (i.e. happiness and energy). Participants were 122 students, who watched a two‐part video lecture and made the associated retention tests administered right after each lecture part. In four experimental conditions, students sat still during the first part of the lecture and either cycled or not during the second part of the lecture and the subsequent retention test. Our main hypothesis that cycling would reduce negative time‐on‐task effects on retention of the lecture content, task experience (e.g. self‐reported attention) and affect was only confirmed for energy ratings. The results of this study suggest that desk bikes can be used in educational facilities without negatively affecting memory and positively influencing learners' affective state.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3355   open full text
  • Does Time Fly 20 m above the Ground? Exploring the Role of Affective Response on Time Perception in a High‐risk Sport.
    Judit Castellà, Cristina Cuello, Antoni Sanz.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 25, 2017
    A field study (n = 61) was performed in a Via Ferrata to explore how affective response influences time perception during an arousing activity in a real‐life setting (passing through a 69‐m‐long, 20‐m‐high, two‐rope bridge). Two questionnaires were administered (i) at the end point of the bridge (high‐arousing condition) and (ii) close to the end of the Via Ferrata (low‐arousing condition). Participants assessed their affect (arousal, valence, and dominance) and provided retrospective (duration estimation and passage of time judgments) and prospective (to produce a subjective minute using a stopwatch) temporal judgments. The results showed that the actual performance mediated the relationship between affect and retrospective time perception measures, with the exception of dominance, which directly predicted passage of time judgments. Regarding prospective measures, an increase in arousal was parallel to shorter temporal productions. The results are discussed in terms of the emotional factors underlying time perception in ecological contexts.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 25, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3367   open full text
  • The Testing Effect is Preserved in Stressful Final Testing Environment.
    Ágnes Szőllősi, Attila Keresztes, Bálint Novák, Barnabás Szászi, Szabolcs Kéri, Mihály Racsmány.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 21, 2017
    Previous studies have shown that retrieval practice leads to better long‐term memory than additional study of a material (a phenomenon termed the testing effect). In this study, we compared the effectiveness of these learning strategies when the final test occurs under stress (such as in an exam). Participants studied word pairs; then half of the material was repeatedly studied, whereas the other half was repeatedly tested. Following a 7‐day delay, participants were exposed to either a psychosocially stressful situation or a control task, followed by an associative recall task that tested memory for all items. Multiple measures were used to assess stress levels: emotional state assessments as well as assays of salivary cortisol and alpha‐amylase levels. Results are in favour of the ecological validity of retrieval‐based learning. Participants recalled more retested items than restudied items regardless of being exposed to a stressful situation and the hormonal (cortisol) response to stress.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 21, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3363   open full text
  • The Effects of Programme Context on Memory for Humorous Television Commercials.
    Da Eun Han, Alastair McClelland, Adrian Furnham.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 31, 2017
    This study investigated the effects of programme context on memory for humorous television advertisements in South Korean participants. Humorous and nonhumorous Korean advertisements were embedded within two programme contexts: humorous and nonhumorous. When the programme ratings of humour, enjoyment and involvement were higher, unaided recall was poorer. In addition, unaided recall of the advertisements was better when they were embedded within a nonhumorous programme. However, there was no significant programme‐advertisement interaction effect. Overall, both free and cued recall were higher for humorous advertisements than for the nonhumorous advertisements. The findings are discussed in terms of cultural differences and changes in television programmes and advertising over time.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3354   open full text
  • Sleep Quality and the Subjective Experience of Autobiographical Memory: Differential Associations by Memory Valence and Temporality.
    Angela F. Lukowski, Valentina Valentovich, Jennifer G. Bohanek, Emily M. Slonecker.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 31, 2017
    The primary goal of the present research was to examine associations between sleep quality and the subjective experience of autobiographical events. In an online study, 141 university students reported on past events that varied by valence (positive or negative) and temporality (most significant or from the previous 2 weeks); they also completed measures of sleep quality and depression. Relative to participants with good sleep quality, participants with poor sleep quality thought more about their negative experiences, reported negative events that occurred more frequently, and used more negative emotion words when describing recent negative events. In some instances, depressive symptoms mediated the relation between sleep quality and elements of autobiographical reports. Future experimental work should examine the directionality of these effects, with the ultimate goal of improving sleep quality, mental health, and the manner in which individuals discuss and make meaning of their negative life events. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 31, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3356   open full text
  • Using Selective Redundancy to Eliminate the Seductive Details Effect.
    Carole L. Yue, Elizabeth Ligon Bjork.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 22, 2017
    The seductive details effect occurs when adding interesting, but extraneous, details to a lesson impairs learning of the lesson's key information. Although instructors could simply remove such interesting details, prior research suggests that interest can be a powerful motivating factor for learning. In the present research, we attempted to recruit the motivational benefits of seductive details without eliciting their detrimental effects by manipulating the redundancy between narrated and on‐screen verbal information within a multimedia lesson. We presented 69 college students with different instructional videos, one in which key facts were presented with on‐screen text slightly different from the narration, while seductive details were presented with on‐screen text that was identical to the narration. We eliminated the seductive details effect for these participants, indicating that partial redundancy can be used as a means by which interesting details can be included in a lesson without detracting from the learning of key facts.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3348   open full text
  • From Eyewitness to Academic Contexts: Examining the Effect of Misinformation in First and Second Languages.
    Kendra C. Smith, Kristi S. Multhaup, Rivka C. Ihejirika.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 22, 2017
    The present study adapts the typical eyewitness misinformation paradigm into an academic context. Unbalanced English–Spanish bilinguals (N = 81) listened to a lecture in English (L1) or Spanish (L2), read notes in L1 or L2, and completed a forced‐choice recognition test in the lecture language. Unlike prior studies with proficient bilinguals, unbalanced English‐dominant participants showed greater recognition memory accuracy for material presented in English only than did material presented in Spanish only. English misinformation had a greater impact on memory for the Spanish lecture than vice versa. Most importantly, the modified misinformation paradigm is an effective tool to investigate academic misinformation effects and could be used in bilingual and monolingual research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3352   open full text
  • Investigating Optimal Memory Enhancement Procedures in Foreign Language Learning.
    William B. Huffman, Sowon Hahn.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 22, 2017
    We investigated the effects of learning schedule and multi‐modality stimulus presentation on foreign language vocabulary learning. In Experiment 1, participants learned German vocabulary words utilizing three learning methods that were organized either in a blocked or interleaved fashion. We found interleaving with the keyword mnemonic and rote study advantageous over blocking, but retrieval practice was better served in a blocked schedule. It is likely that the excessively delayed feedback for the retrieval practice in the interleaved practice schedule impeded learning while the spacing involved in the interleaved schedule enhanced learning in the keyword mnemonic and rote study. In Experiment 2, we examined whether a multi‐modality stimulus presentation from visual and auditory channels is better suited for aiding learning over a visual presentation condition. We found benefits of multi‐modality presentation only for the keyword mnemonic condition, presumably because the nature of the keyword mnemonic involving sound and visualization was particularly relevant with the multi‐modality presentation. The present study suggests that optimal foreign language learning environments should incorporate learning schedules and multimedia presentations based on specific learning methods and materials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3351   open full text
  • Exploring the Relations between Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Mathematics Achievement.
    Damien C. Cormier, Okan Bulut, Kevin S. McGrew, Deepak Singh.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 22, 2017
    As standardized measures of cognitive abilities and academic achievement continue to evolve, so do the relations between the constructs represented in these measures. A large, nationally representative sample of school‐aged children and youth between 6 and 19 years of age (N = 4,194) was used to systematically evaluate the relations between cognitive abilities and components of academic achievement in mathematics. The cognitive abilities of interest were those identified from the Cattell–Horn–Carroll model of intelligence. Specific areas of mathematics achievement included math calculation skills and math problem solving. Results suggest that fluid reasoning (Gf), comprehension‐knowledge (Gc), and processing speed (Gs) have the strongest and most consistent relations with mathematics achievement throughout the school years.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3350   open full text
  • Pre‐admonition Suggestion in Live Showups: When Witnesses Learn that the Cops Caught ‘the’ Guy.
    Mitchell L. Eisen, Amaia Skerrit‐Perta, Jennifer M. Jones, Jade Owen, Gabriela C. Cedré.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 22, 2017
    Participants (N = 189) witnessed the theft of a computer and were immersed into what they were led to believe was an actual police investigation that culminated in a live showup. After the crime, an officer responded to the scene to take witness statements. Minutes after his arrival, the officer received a radio dispatch that could be heard clearly by the witnesses. The dispatch either stated that the Sherriff had ‘…caught the guy…’ or ‘…detained a suspect who matched the thief's description…’ and instructed the officer to bring the witnesses to identify the suspect. The witnesses then met with two deputies who conducted a live showup with an innocent suspect or the actual culprit. Choosers were more confident than rejecters across all conditions. Also, overhearing the suggestion that the sheriff had caught the guy significantly increased false identifications, and boosted witness confidence in these errors, but did not affect accurate suspect identifications.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3349   open full text
  • Empathy's Relation to Appraisal of the Emotional Child Witness.
    Daniel Bederian‐Gardner, Deborah Goldfarb, Gail S. Goodman.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 17, 2017
    When observing others, we often try to determine how they ‘really feel’ deep down inside (emotional feeling) regardless of their outward expression (emotional appearance). We examined whether child victim empathy predicts appraisal of a child sexual assault victim's emotional feelings and, in turn, child and defendant believability and verdict decisions. Undergraduates (N = 50) rated photographs of 5‐ and 13‐year‐olds' degree of sadness. Then, a new group of undergraduates (N = 354), randomly assigned within a 2 (victim age) × 2 (victim gender) × 3 (victim sadness: low, medium, and high/teary) factorial design, read trial scenarios accompanied by one of the photographs. Participants rated the victim's emotional feeling and emotional appearance, victim and defendant believability, defendant guilt, and confidence in their verdict. A structural equation model that included a relation between empathy and emotion appraisal fit the data well: Empathy predicted appraisal of the victim's feelings, which, in turn, predicted perceived believability. Implications are discussed.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3345   open full text
  • A Repeated Forced‐choice Line‐up Procedure Provides Suspect Bias Information with No Cost to Accuracy for Older Children and Adults.
    Kaila C. Bruer, Heather L. Price.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 14, 2017
    In two experiments and one follow‐up analysis, we examined the impact of using a repeated forced‐choice (RFC) line‐up procedure with child and adult eyewitnesses. The RFC procedure divides the identification task into a series of exhaustive binary comparisons that produces not only traditional line‐up information (identification decision and confidence) but also information about witness' selection behavior. Experiment 1 revealed that younger children (6‐ to 8‐year‐olds) struggled with the RFC procedure, while older children (9‐ to 11‐year‐olds) performed as well with the RFC procedure as with a simultaneous procedure (with wildcard). Experiment 2 replicated this comparable performance with adults. Witnesses' suspect selection behavior during the RFC was predictive of identification accuracy for older children and adults. A model examined the additional information provided by the RFC in experiments 1 and 2 and provided evidence that witnesses' patterns of responding can be used to estimate suspect selection bias (a proxy for suspect recognition strength) associated with individual line‐up decisions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 14, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3342   open full text
  • Effects of Feedback on Self‐Evaluations and Self‐Regulation in Elementary School.
    Mariëtte H. Loon, Claudia M. Roebers.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 11, 2017
    Elementary school learners are typically highly confident when judging accuracy of their test responses, relatively independent of whether these are correct. While feedback has been shown to improve accuracy of adults' and adolescents' self‐evaluations and subsequent self‐regulation, little is known about beneficial effects for elementary school children. We investigated effects of fine‐grained feedback on fourth and sixth graders' self‐evaluations and restudy selections by presenting them the ideas they were meant to bring up in their test responses. One group received full‐definition feedback standards, whereas the other group received idea‐unit feedback standards. The two types of feedback strongly improved fourth and sixth graders' self‐evaluations for commission errors and for partially correct responses. While restudy selections before feedback were more adaptive for sixth than fourth graders, age differences disappeared after receiving feedback. Findings imply that feedback standards are a suitable tool to calibrate elementary school learners and to support effective self‐regulation.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 11, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3347   open full text
  • Effect of 45‐Day −6° Head‐Down Bed Rest on Cooperation and Aggression.
    Yun Wang, Yuan Zhou, Li‐Lin Rao, Rui Zheng, Zhu‐Yuan Liang, Xiao‐Ping Chen, Cheng Tan, Zhi‐Qiang Tian, Chun‐Hui Wang, Yan‐Qiang Bai, Shan‐Guang Chen, Shu Li.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 11, 2017
    High levels of cooperation and low aggression seem obviously vital to the successful implementation of space missions. To elucidate the effect of microgravity on these behaviors, we investigated whether cooperative and aggressive behaviors would be affected in 16 male volunteers during 45‐day −6° head‐down bed rest, which is a reliable simulation model for most physiological effects of spaceflight. We used an ultimatum game task to evaluate the cooperative behavior and a revised competitive reaction time test to evaluate the aggressive behavior simultaneously. We found that (1) the participants became less cooperative in the post‐bed rest phase in comparison with the pre‐bed rest phase and (2) the participants became more aggressive in the in‐bed rest phase in comparison with the pre‐bed rest phase. These findings provide evidence that head‐down bed rest may affect both cooperative and aggressive behaviors in males, suggesting an important perspective for future studies in space psychology.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 11, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3346   open full text
  • Life Story Chapters, Specific Memories, and Conceptions of the Self.
    Kristina L. Steiner, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen, David B. Pillemer.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 08, 2017
    Two studies investigated the effects of recalling either life story chapters or specific memories on measures of self‐continuity and self‐esteem. Participants were assigned to recall important chapters, important specific memories, or impersonal facts, and they provided ratings of emotional tone. Participants also completed trait and state measures of self‐continuity, self‐esteem, and mood. Although effects of recall condition on state and trait measures were not statistically significant, within‐group analyses identified strong and consistent relationships between the positivity of life story chapters and both trait and state self‐continuity and self‐esteem. In contrast, the positivity of specific memories was related only to state self‐esteem. Qualities of life story chapters appear to be more central to enduring conceptions of the self than do qualities of specific life story memories.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 08, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3343   open full text
  • ROCs in Eyewitness Identification: Instructions versus Confidence Ratings.
    Laura Mickes, Travis M. Seale‐Carlisle, Stacy A. Wetmore, Scott D. Gronlund, Steven E. Clark, Curt A. Carlson, Charles A. Goodsell, Dawn Weatherford, John T. Wixted.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 03, 2017
    From the perspective of signal detection theory, different lineup instructions may induce different levels of response bias. If so, then collecting correct and false identification rates across different instructional conditions will trace out the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)—the same ROC that, theoretically, could also be traced out from a single instruction condition in which each eyewitness decision is accompanied by a confidence rating. We tested whether the two approaches do in fact yield the same ROC. Participants were assigned to a confidence rating condition or to an instructional biasing condition (liberal, neutral, unbiased, or conservative). After watching a video of a mock crime, participants were presented with instructions followed by a six‐person simultaneous photo lineup. The ROCs from both methods were similar, but they were not exactly the same. These findings have potentially important policy implications for how the legal system should go about controlling eyewitness response bias.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3344   open full text
  • Over‐selective Responding in a Diagnostic Judgment Task.
    Martyn Quigley, Phil Reed.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 26, 2017
    Medical diagnoses are often made on the basis of the presence of multiple symptoms. However, little is known about how the presence of multiple simultaneous symptoms may influence a bias in determining which symptoms are identified, in part due to a lack of an experimental analogue of this process. The current article presents a laboratory analogue of this process and explores whether over‐selectivity influences the ability to identify symptoms indicative of particular illnesses. In two experiments, participants completed a diagnosis task that required them to rate the degree to which symptoms predicted illnesses, with predictor symptoms being presented either singly or in compound. In both experiments, over‐selectivity was observed; one symptom of the compound received lower ratings, compared to the other element of the compound and the single predictor, while the other component received comparable ratings with the element. These findings are discussed in relation to associative accounts of over‐selectivity and as a procedure to study biases in medical decision making.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3341   open full text
  • Selective Association Between Tetris Game Play and Visuospatial Working Memory: A Preliminary Investigation.
    Alex Lau‐Zhu, Emily A. Holmes, Sally Butterfield, Joni Holmes.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 12, 2017
    Recent experimental and clinical research has suggested that Tetris game play can disrupt maladaptive forms of mental imagery because Tetris competes for limited cognitive resources within visuospatial working memory (WM) that contribute to imagery. Whether or not Tetris performance is selectively associated with visuospatial WM remains to be tested. In this study, young adults (N = 46) completed six standardized measures indexing verbal and non‐verbal reasoning, verbal and visuospatial short‐term memory, and verbal and visuospatial WM. They also played Tetris. Consistent with the hypothesis that visuospatial WM resources support Tetris game play, there was a significant moderate positive relationship between Tetris scores and visuospatial WM performance but no association with other cognitive ability measures. Findings suggest that Tetris game play involves both storage and processing resources within visuospatial WM. These preliminary results can inform interventions involving computer games to disrupt the development of maladaptive visual imagery, for example, intrusive memories of trauma.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3339   open full text
  • Perceptions of Credibility for a Memory Report of a Single Versus Repeated Event.
    Camille C. Weinsheimer, Patricia I. Coburn, Kristin Chong, Carla L. MacLean, Deborah A. Connolly.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 12, 2017
    Summary: When a person experiences an event that has multiple similar instances (i.e., a repeated event), memories for details that change across instances are challenging to recall. We expected that third parties would perceive memory reports of instances of repeated events as less credible than they would unique (i.e., single) events. Undergraduates participated in a single or repeated event, during which critical details were presented. Participants were asked to recall the session 2 days later, and memory reports were video recorded. New participants then viewed one video and evaluated the credibility of the speaker's memory report. Overall, repeated‐event reports were seen as less credible than were single‐event reports, despite the reports being equally accurate. Although credibility research in the context of repeated events has focused exclusively on child populations, a range of applications exists for adults (e.g., criminal and industrial eyewitnesses, and asylum seekers); we discussed our findings in these areas.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3340   open full text
  • Executive Functions in School‐age Children: Influence of Age, Gender, School Type and Parental Education.
    Geise Machado Jacobsen, Clarissa Martins Mello, Renata Kochhann, Rochele Paz Fonseca.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 12, 2017
    Summary: This study aimed to evaluate whether age, gender, type of school and parental education could predict executive performance in school‐age children. Unconstrained, phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks (n = 402), as well as the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (n = 275) and the Random Number Generation task (n = 274) were administered to typically developing 6‐to‐12‐year‐old children. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed (p ≤ 0.05). The most significant explanatory models involved child age and parental education, as well as these two variables in addition to the type of school attended by the child. The main individual predictors of executive performance were age and school type. These results may be related to structural and functional alterations in the brain, an increased repertoire of cognitive strategies, the effects of education and the intensity of environmental cognitive stimulation. These findings may contribute to the development of stimulation and intervention programs for EF in clinical and educational settings.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3338   open full text
  • Psychometric Comparison of Dissociative Experiences Scales II and C: A Weak Trauma‐Dissociation Link.
    Lawrence Patihis, Steven Jay Lynn.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 12, 2017
    The debate regarding the relationship between dissociation and trauma has raised questions regarding the validity of measures of dissociation. Dalenberg et al.'s () meta‐analysis included studies using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES II), but excluded the DES‐Comparison (DES‐C) scale, claiming that it lacked validity as a measure of dissociation. Lynn et al. () contended that omitting those studies might have skewed the results. In the current study, we compared the psychometric properties of both measures in two nonclinical US adult (student, general population) samples to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales. We found support for the DES‐II as a measure of dissociation as well as the validity and reliability of the DES‐C, which compares well to the DES II. Compared with studies in Dalenberg et al., we found lower correlations between trauma and dissociation. No empirical basis exists to exclude studies using the DES‐C in literature reviews. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 12, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3337   open full text
  • The Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Accuracy and the Confidence–Accuracy Relationship in Photographic Simultaneous Line‐ups.
    Heather D. Flowe, Melissa F. Colloff, Nilda Karoğlu, Katarzyna Zelek, Hannah Ryder, Joyce E. Humphries, Melanie K.T. Takarangi.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 27, 2017
    Acute alcohol intoxication during encoding can impair subsequent identification accuracy, but results across studies have been inconsistent, with studies often finding no effect. Little is also known about how alcohol intoxication affects the identification confidence–accuracy relationship. We randomly assigned women (N = 153) to consume alcohol (dosed to achieve a 0.08% blood alcohol content) or tonic water, controlling for alcohol expectancy. Women then participated in an interactive hypothetical sexual assault scenario and, 24 hours or 7 days later, attempted to identify the assailant from a perpetrator present or a perpetrator absent simultaneous line‐up and reported their decision confidence. Overall, levels of identification accuracy were similar across the alcohol and tonic water groups. However, women who had consumed tonic water as opposed to alcohol identified the assailant with higher confidence on average. Further, calibration analyses suggested that confidence is predictive of accuracy regardless of alcohol consumption. The theoretical and applied implications of our results are discussed.© 2017 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    June 27, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3332   open full text
  • Statistical Bias and Endorsement of Conspiracy Theories.
    Neil Dagnall, Andrew Denovan, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter Clough.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 05, 2017
    Previous research proposes that endorsement of anomalous beliefs is associated with proneness to conjunction error. This supposition ignores important differences between belief types. Correspondingly, the present study examined the degree to which components of statistical bias predicted conspiratorial ideation and belief in the paranormal. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling revealed that conjunction error was associated with conspiratorial ideation, whilst perception of randomness most strongly predicted belief in the paranormal. These findings opposed the notion that anomalous beliefs, by virtue of possession of common characteristics, relate similarly to conjunction error. With regard to conspiracy, conjunction‐framing manipulations produced only minor variations in relationship strength. This supported the notion that conspiratorial ideation was associated with a domain‐general susceptibility to conjunction error. Framing, however, did influence the relationship between belief in the paranormal and conjunction; whilst paranormal conjunctions were generally easier to solve, performance declined as level of paranormal belief increased.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 05, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3331   open full text
  • Under High Perceptual Load, Observers Look but Do Not See.
    Ciara M. Greene, Gillian Murphy, Julia Januszewski.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 29, 2017
    High perceptual load reduces distractor processing and increases inattentional blindness for unexpected stimuli. We reported previously that high perceptual load reduces memory accuracy and impairs eyewitness identification. Here, we used eye tracking to investigate whether memory impairments under load are due to inattentional blindness or a failure to visually inspect stimuli. Seventy‐two participants viewed high or low load versions of a video depicting a theft and identified characters in the video from photographic line‐ups. High perceptual load impaired participants' ability to identify the peripheral character (witness) but not the central character (thief). There was no effect of perceptual load on number of ocular fixations on the witness, time to first fixation or total visit duration. We conclude that memory impairments under load are due to attentional failures rather than differences in visual search behaviour. These findings suggest that high perceptual load scenes may hamper eyewitnesses' ability to encode easily visible stimuli. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 29, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3335   open full text
  • Cultural Interpretations of Global Information? Hindsight Bias after Reading Wikipedia Articles across Cultures.
    Ina Beck, Aileen Oeberst, Ulrike Cress, Steffen Nestler.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 22, 2017
    Summary: Hindsight bias is the mistaken belief that an outcome could have been foreseen once it is known. But what happens after learning about an event? Can reading biased media amplify hindsight distortions? And do people from different cultural backgrounds — with different cognitive thinking styles — draw equal conclusions from equal media reports? We report two studies with Wikipedia articles and samples from different cultures (Study 1: Germany, Singapore, USA, Vietnam, Japan, Sweden, N = 446; Study 2: USA, Vietnam, N = 144). Participants read one of two article versions (foresight and hindsight) about the Fukushima Nuclear Plant and estimated the likelihood, inevitability, and foreseeability of the nuclear disaster. Reading the hindsight article increased individuals' hindsight bias independently of analytic or holistic thinking style. Having excluded survey language as potential impact factor (Study 2), this result remains. Our findings extend prior research on hindsight bias by demonstrating the amplifying effect of additional (biased) information on hindsight bias. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 22, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3329   open full text
  • Is the Road Still Bumpy Without the Most Frequent Life Events?
    Berivan Ece, Sami Gülgöz.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 16, 2017
    Two studies were conducted to explore the effect of the most frequent life events on the reminiscence bump. The first study examined the life scripts and autobiographical memories of 44 adults [Mage = 62.8, standard deviation (SD) = 2.8] by removing the most frequent 10 life events. The regular reminiscence bump disappeared in the distribution of both event types. The second study explored whether results of the first study would be extended to autobiographical memories evoked by different methods. Cue word and important memories reported by 64 adults (Mage = 66.6, SD = 2.8) were examined. Important memories had later bump than cue word memories, but removing the top 10 life events affected the bumps of both memory types with a stronger impact on important memories. Different retrieval strategies activated by these two methods may lead to different temporal peaks, which further influence the sensitivity of distributions to the most frequent life event categories.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3330   open full text
  • Fostering Analytic Metacognitive Processes and Reducing Overconfidence by Disfluency: The Role of Contrast Effects.
    Elisabeth Pieger, Christoph Mengelkamp, Maria Bannert.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 03, 2017
    Overconfidence leads to premature termination of study and, thus, to decreased performance. The aim of the present study is to improve students' monitoring and control. We assume that disfluency fosters analytic metacognitive processes and thus reduces overconfidence. However, we expect that contrast effects moderate the fluency effects on metacognitive processes because disfluency activates analytic metacognitive processes not only for disfluent but also for succeeding fluent learning material. To test our hypotheses, university students (N = 75) learned either with a fluent text first and afterward a disfluent text or with a disfluent text first and afterward a fluent text. The results show fluency effects on control, monitoring, and monitoring accuracy only when students learned with a fluent and afterward a disfluent text. Performance was worse for disfluent than for fluent texts in both conditions. Therefore, instructional settings that help students to implement accurate monitoring into better control and better performance are required.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3326   open full text
  • Cognitive Load Theory, Element Interactivity, and the Testing and Reverse Testing Effects.
    Jose Hanham, Wayne Leahy, John Sweller.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 24, 2017
    Summary: The testing effect arises when learners who are tested rather than relearning material obtain superior scores on a final test than those who relearn. Based on cognitive load theory, six experiments examined whether the effect was evident under low or high element interactivity (a measure of complexity) conditions. Students learning to write types of text were participants. In all experiments, effects on a final common test of two presentations were compared with a single presentation followed by a preliminary test. The testing effect on immediate tests was larger and more likely using lower element interactivity materials. A reverse testing effect was likely on immediate tests tapping higher element interactivity material but possibly eliminated by using a delayed test. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3324   open full text
  • “I Should not Forget the Apples!”—Mind‐Wandering Episodes Used as Opportunities for Rehearsal in an Interrupted Recall Paradigm.
    Lena Steindorf, Jan Rummel.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 24, 2017
    Mind‐wandering is mostly studied for its negative effects on ongoing cognitive tasks but may be also of adaptive value. We tested the idea of mind‐wandering providing opportunities for rehearsal by asking participants to study 20 grocery items for a recall test. After cued recall of 10 items, participants were either told that the recall task was finished or that it was interrupted for another task. All participants then performed a two‐back task during which thought contents were repeatedly probed. Cued recall of the remaining items was better in the interrupted than in the finished condition, and this effect was accompanied by a more efficient rehearsal strategy: Participants' thought‐reports in the interrupted condition revealed a stronger and more persistent engagement in shopping‐task‐related thoughts. Activating a relevant goal led to mind‐wandering episodes being persistently used as opportunities for rehearsal revealing participants' adaptive usage of off‐task thoughts.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3328   open full text
  • Effects of Integrating Physical Activities Into a Science Lesson on Preschool Children's Learning and Enjoyment.
    Myrto‐Foteini Mavilidi, Anthony D. Okely, Paul Chandler, Fred Paas.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 24, 2017
    Summary: This study investigated the effects of physical activities that were integrated into a science lesson on learning among preschool children. A total of 90 children from seven childcare centres (Mage = 4.90, SD = 0.52; 45 girls) were randomly assigned across an integrated physical activity condition including task‐relevant physical activities, a nonintegrated physical activity condition involving task‐irrelevant physical activities, or a control condition involving the predominantly conventional sedentary style of teaching. Children learned the names of the planets and their order, based on the distance from the sun. For both the immediate and delayed (6 weeks after the programme) assessments, results showed that learning outcomes were highest in the integrated condition and higher in the nonintegrated condition than in the control condition. Children in the integrated condition scored higher on perceived enjoyment of learning than children in the control condition. Implications of integrated physical activity programmes for preschool children's health, cognition, and learning are further discussed.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3325   open full text
  • Observers' Language Proficiencies and the Detection of Non‐native Speakers' Deception.
    Amy‐May Leach, Renée L. Snellings, Mariane Gazaille.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 17, 2017
    We examined whether observers' language proficiencies affected their abilities to detect native and non‐native speakers' deception. Native and non‐native English speakers were videotaped as they either lied or told the truth about having cheated on a test. A total of 284 laypersons—who were either native or non‐native English speakers themselves—viewed these videos and indicated whether they believed that the speakers were being truthful or deceptive. Observers were more accurate when judging native speakers than when judging non‐native speakers, suggesting that perceptual fluency aided deception detection. Although there was no effect of observers' language proficiencies on discrimination, their belief that interviewees were telling the truth increased with proficiency. On the whole, these findings suggest that non‐native speakers may be at greater risk of being incorrectly classified in forensic contexts.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3322   open full text
  • The Police Officer Tacit Knowledge Inventory (POTKI): Towards Determining Underlying Structure and Applicability as a Recruit Screening Tool.
    Teresa Z. Taylor, Beatrice I.J.M. Van der Heijden, Matthew C. Genuchi.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 17, 2017
    Summary The purpose of this research was to examine the potential application of the police officer tacit knowledge inventory (POTKI) as a police recruit screening tool. The POTKI is a situational judgment test and consists of knowledge gained on the job by experienced officers that is thought to be important for problem‐solving. In the present study, four police agencies from a western US state administered the POTKI along with other screening measures to police applicants. Performance of the novice recruits was subsequently rated by their supervisors using the measure of professional expertise (MOE). Principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance were conducted on the POTKI response options. POTKI response options were found to be predictive of supervisor MOE ratings. Principal component analysis results identified intrapersonal tacit knowledge components that predicted MOE metacognitive, skill, and social recognition supervisor ratings and distinguished novice from expert police officers.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3321   open full text
  • The Effects of Cell Phone Use and Emotion‐regulation Style on College Students' Learning.
    Seungyeon Lee, Myeong W. Kim, Ian M. McDonough, Jessica S. Mendoza, Min Sung Kim.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 17, 2017
    Cell phones are becoming an inevitable part of the classroom, but extant research suggests that using cell phones in the classroom impairs academic performance. The present study examined the impact of different cell phone policies on learning and emotion‐regulation style. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: cell phone usage allowed, cell phone possession allowed but without usage, cell phones removed, and a no‐instruction control group. All participants watched a 20‐minute lecture and were sent text messages to mimic classroom distractions. Afterward, participants took a multiple‐choice test and filled out questionnaires assessing their level of obsessiveness, nomophobia, and mindfulness. Participants who had their cell phone taken away performed best on the test with no other differences. None of the emotional‐regulation measures moderated the results. These findings provide important insight as to how cell phone policies can optimize learning in the classroom.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3323   open full text
  • The Confident Co‐witness: The Effects of Misinformation on Memory After Collaborative Discussion.
    Kerri A. Goodwin, Passion J. Hannah, Meg C. Nicholl, Jenna M. Ferri.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 28, 2017
    We explored the influence of co‐witness confidence and misinformation on the accuracy of collaborative and individual memory reports. Participants viewed a robbery video and discussed the event with a co‐witness who was scripted to provide accurate or misleading details and to exhibit either high or low memory confidence. In a demonstration of memory conformity in co‐witness discussions, highly confident co‐witnesses who provided misleading or correct details led participants to report more misleading or correct information in both collaborative and individual reports. Furthermore, participants exhibited a confidence conformity effect, in which participants' confidence in their own memories mimicked the confidence of their co‐witnesses.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3320   open full text
  • Adult Eyewitness Memory for Single Versus Repeated Traumatic Events.
    Tjeu P.M. Theunissen, Thomas Meyer, Amina Memon, Camille C. Weinsheimer.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 28, 2017
    Reports from individuals who have witnessed multiple, similar emotional events may differ from reports from witnesses of only a single event. To test this, we had participants (N = 65) view a video of a road traffic accident. Half of the participants saw two additional (similar) aversive films. Afterwards, participants filled out the Self‐Administered Interview on the target film twice with an interval of 1 week. Participants who saw multiple similar films were less accurate in recalling details from the target film than participants in the control condition. On their second report, participants were less complete but more accurate compared with their first report. These results indicate that adults who have witnessed multiple repeated events may appear less reliable in their reports than adults who have witnessed a single event. These findings are relevant when evaluating eyewitness evidence and call for new approaches to questioning witnesses about repeated events.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 28, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3314   open full text
  • Examining Relations between Aging, Life Story Chapters, and Well‐Being.
    Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen, Majse Lind, David B. Pillemer.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 27, 2017
    Socio‐emotional selectivity theory holds that older age is associated with a sense of limited remaining time. We suggest that life story chapters may be involved in this experience. In this first study on the connection between socio‐emotional selectivity theory and chapters, we examined whether older age is associated with fewer, temporally less distant, and less positive future chapters. We also examined relations between chapters and subjective well‐being. Two samples (18–84 years) described past and future chapters and completed well‐being measures. Older age was associated with fewer, less temporally extended, and less positive future chapters. Less positive past chapters was most consistently related to lower subjective well‐being, but less positive future chapters also predicted lower subjective well‐being in some analyses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 27, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3318   open full text
  • Understanding the Individual Cognitive Potential of Persons with Intellectual Disability in Workshops for Adapted Work.
    Katharina Sebastian, Tandra Ghose, Jeffrey M. Zacks, Markus Huff.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 17, 2017
    We aimed at using simple judgments of event segmentation to reveal cognitive problems in workers with intellectual disability regarding their assembly performance. We investigated event perception and assembly performance in 32 workers (mean IQ = 64.4). First, we assessed their ability to segment activity into meaningful events. The task involved segmenting four videos in coarse and fine events. We assessed event segmentation performance and compared it to 30 controls (IQ > 100). The workers detected fewer event boundaries than controls. A subgroup of the workers (12 of 32) defined more event boundaries in the coarse than the fine condition, indicating misconception of higher‐ and lower‐level content. The remaining 20 workers showed diminished hierarchical alignment compared to controls. Second, workers executed a Lego task. Better event segmentation performance was associated with enhanced assembly performance. These results suggest that the event segmentation task can serve as a diagnostic assessment for cognitive potential.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3315   open full text
  • What's Context Got to Do with It? Comparative Difficulty of Test Questions Influences Metacognition and Corrected Scores for Formula‐scored Exams.
    Michelle M. Arnold, Kristin Graham, Sinead Hollingworth‐Hughes.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 17, 2017
    Summary: On formula‐scored exams students receive points and penalties for correct and incorrect answers, respectively, but they can avoid the penalty by withholding incorrect answers. However, test‐takers have difficulty strategically regulating their accuracy and often set an overly conservative metacognitive response bias (e.g., Higham, 2007). The current experiments extended these findings by exploring whether the comparative difficulty of surrounding test questions (i.e., easy vs. hard)—a factor unrelated to the knowledge being tested—impacts metacognitive response bias for medium‐difficulty test questions. Comparative difficulty had no significant influence on participants' ability to choose correct answers for medium questions, but it did affect willingness to report answers and confidence ratings. This difference carried over to corrected scores (scores after penalties are applied) when comparative difficulty was manipulated within‐subjects: Scores were higher in the hard condition. Results are discussed in terms of implications for interpreting formula‐scored tests and underlying mechanisms of performance.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3312   open full text
  • The Effect of Sexual Programme Content on the Recall of Foreign Sexual and Non‐sexual Advertisements.
    Anita Toverljani, Alastair McClelland, Adrian Furnham.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 17, 2017
    This study explored the effect of programme content (sexual and non‐sexual) on the recall of sexual and non‐sexual advertisements. Seventy‐eight participants were allocated randomly to four different groups and viewed either a sexual or non‐sexual programme with either sexual or non‐sexual advertisements placed within. Free recall and cued recall of the advertisements were assessed. The sexual content of programmes impaired advertisement recall, for both free recall and cued recall. Furthermore, advertisements that were of a sexual nature were remembered better than neutral advertisements. There was also an interaction between advertisement type and gender; women remembered more sexual than non‐sexual advertisements, but this was not the case for men. Finally, there was an interaction between programme type and gender, with a marked tendency for men to recall fewer advertisements embedded in the sexual programme than women. Limitations and implications of this research are discussed.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3317   open full text
  • The Individual Depictive Style: Individual Differences in Narrating Personal Experiences.
    Nina Heering, Renate Volbert.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 17, 2017
    This study aims to identify characteristic variables of individual narrative habits. A total of 59 participants each related three personal experiences of varying emotional valence. Their transcribed statements were coded for a range of linguistic and content‐related variables and aspects of narrative style. In addition, transcripts were analyzed by the computer program Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. By definition, a variable was considered to be indicative of the individual depictive style when all paired correlations of the three statement conditions as well as the global measure of internal consistency were significant. Ten linguistic variables and eight Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count features met the predefined demands. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted to illuminate underlying cognitive mechanisms. The meaning of the results for deception detection is discussed: vague descriptions and overgeneralizations might be considered as indicators of deception; however, they may just be the expression of a stable individual narrative habit. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3319   open full text
  • The Effects of Feedback and Reflection on the Questioning Style of Untrained Interviewers in Simulated Child Sexual Abuse Interviews.
    Niels Krause, Francesco Pompedda, Jan Antfolk, Angelo Zappalá, Pekka Santtila.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 17, 2017
    We provided immediate and detailed feedback in a training paradigm in which simulated interviews with computer‐generated avatars were used to improve interviewers' questioning style. Fifty‐nine untrained student/interviewers conducted eight interviews each and were randomly assigned to a control, feedback or feedback and reflection group. Compared to the control group, the groups receiving feedback used a higher percentage of recommended questions and retrieved more relevant details while using a lower percentage of not recommended questions and retrieved less wrong details. Only the groups that received feedback reached a reliable change in the proportion of recommended questions. The reflection intervention proposed in the present study did not enhance training effects above and beyond feedback in the present sample. The present study replicated previous findings regarding the role of feedback in improving the quality of investigative interviews, however, failing to show an effect of reflection. Further studies on different reflection tasks are suggested.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3316   open full text
  • Voluntary Remembering: Elucidating the Mental Strategies Used to Recall the Past.
    John H. Mace, Amanda M. Clevinger, Dayna M. Delaney, Amanda S. Mendez, Stephen H. Simpson.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 17, 2017
    This study investigated the possibility that people use multiple different types of voluntary retrieval strategies when they are attempting to recall past episodes. In two experiments, we used a retrieve out loud procedure where participants were required to verbalize their thoughts while attempting to retrieve personal memories in response to phrase cues. In Experiment 1, we hypothesized that three main types of voluntary retrieval strategies would be evident during the retrieve out loud procedure, repeating, temporal, and generative/hierarchical retrieval. The results confirmed our hypothesis, showing that the three strategies were used equally. In Experiment 2, we examined the retrieval speed and success rates of the three strategies. The results showed that the repeating strategy was statistically faster than the other two strategies, while also showing that the temporal strategy had the least success in generating memories.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 17, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3313   open full text
  • Strategy and Misdirection in Forced Choice Memory Performance Testing in Deception Detection.
    Robin Orthey, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Hartmut Blank.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 03, 2017
    We examined forced choice memory performance testing in deception detection from a theoretical perspective. Evidence suggests that participants form different strategies to defeat this test. We attempted to describe these strategies within the framework of Cognitive Hierarchy Theory, a theory that distinguishes strategies based on their degree of anticipation of opponents' strategies. Additionally, we explored whether the strategy selection process is malleable. Truth tellers and liars were subjected to a forced choice memory test about a mock crime. Additionally, half of the sample was subjected to a misdirection changing the appearance of the test to that of a polygraph examination. We found detection accuracies and strategies similar to previous experiments and our misdirection manipulation elicited new strategies and behaviour. Theoretical and practical applications are discussed.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 03, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3310   open full text
  • Developmental Reversals in Report Conformity: Psycho‐Legal Implications.
    In‐Kyeong Kim, Enoch S. Kwon, Stephen J. Ceci.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 26, 2017
    Young children, young adults, and older adults witnessed a scene in groups of four same‐aged acquaintances. Unbeknownst to the group, a technology allowed the scene to appear differently to one member (minority) than to the others (majority), which obviated the need to rehearse confederates or to artificially provide misinformation for the report conformity effect. After viewing, participants had public recollections, and 3 days later, their cued memory and confidence (for adults) were tested privately. Majority members' reports influenced the minority members' but only for adults, not for children (17% conformity compared with 35% for adults), thus providing evidence of developmental reversals in memory reports of verbatim details. Answer changes between the sessions were dramatically higher for minority participants at all three ages (6.7 vs. 66.7% for children, 10 vs. 50% for younger adults, and 26.7 vs. 63.3% for older adults). We discuss the implications of these findings for questioning cowitnesses.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3309   open full text
  • The Elephant in the Road: Auditory Perceptual Load Affects Driver Perception and Awareness.
    Gillian Murphy, Ciara M. Greene.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 26, 2017
    Summary Perceptual load theory research has shown that the level of perceptual load in a task affects processing of additional information. Less certain are the cross‐modal effects of perceptual load—does load in one modality affect processing in another? The current study assessed the effect of auditory perceptual load on visual attention in a driving simulator task. While driving, participants listened to traffic updates on the radio, which imposed either low or high perceptual load. Awareness for an unexpected animal as well as less novel objects (such as billboards and other vehicles) was markedly reduced under high load. Driver behaviour was also significantly affected, with impaired lateral control, longer reaction times to hazards and more collisions under high load. This study has important implications for load theory and also more general implications for road safety, as it suggests that auditory load may be an important, often overlooked factor in driver attention.Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 26, 2017   doi: 10.1002/acp.3311   open full text
  • Personal and Intergenerational Narratives of Transgression and Pride in Emerging Adulthood: Links to Gender and Well‐Being.
    Natalie Merrill, Etasha Srinivas, Robyn Fivush.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 30, 2016
    Intergenerational narratives, stories parents share with children about their own youthful experiences, may facilitate the understanding of challenging life experiences and be related to psychological well‐being; yet, little research has examined what young people know of their parents' self‐challenging and self‐enhancing experiences and how they interpret them. Research examining intergenerational narratives has observed relations between adolescents' narratives and their psychological well‐being, but these relations may depend upon gender and narrative type. In the current study, 94 college students provided intergenerational and personal narratives of transgression and pride experiences. Narratives were coded for emotional, cognitive, and evaluative content. Results show that transgression and pride narratives differed in content, and that women provided more interpretative content than men. Stories about mothers contained more interpretative content than fathers, but this pattern varied by participant gender. Finally, relations to well‐being were observed, especially for cognitive content in stories of participants' same‐gender parent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.StartCopTextStartCopTextStartCopTextCopyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3308   open full text
  • The External Validity of the Concealed Information Test: The Effect of Choosing to Commit a Mock Crime.
    Tal Nahari, Assaf Breska, Lotem Elber, Nathalie Klein Selle, Gershon Ben‐Shakhar.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 28, 2016
    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) aims to detect concealed information through differential physiological and behavioral responses to the concealed items. Although extensive experimental research has demonstrated the empirical validity of the CIT, the external validity of these studies has been questioned. One essential difference between experimental setups and realistic contexts is the voluntary act of committing the crime and concealing the critical (crime‐related) items. The present study examined whether the detection efficiency of the CIT alters under conditions of free choice to commit a mock crime. In the ‘choice’ condition, participants chose to perform a mock crime or a computerized task, while in the control, ‘instructed’ condition participants were instructed either to commit the mock crime or a computerized task. The results revealed no significant differences in the detection efficiency between the two conditions in electrodermal, respiration, and reaction time measures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3304   open full text
  • Children's Reasoning About Which Episode of a Repeated Event is Best Remembered.
    Meaghan C. Danby, Sonja P. Brubacher, Stefanie J. Sharman, Martine B. Powell, Kim P. Roberts.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 27, 2016
    Despite much research into children's ability to report information from an individual episode of a repeated event, their capacity to identify well‐remembered episodes is unknown. Children (n = 177) from Grades 1 to 3 participated in four episodes of a repeated event and were later asked to recall the time that they remembered ‘best’ and then ‘another time.’ Post‐recall, children were asked what they believed ‘the time you remember best’ meant, and how they decided which episode to recall. Older children were better able than younger to understand the prompt and nominate an episode, but children of all ages showed improved ability to produce an episode for discussion when subsequently asked about ‘another time.’ All children struggled to describe their decision‐making processes, suggesting that they had yet to develop sufficient metamemory knowledge for the task. Results suggest that children have difficulty explicitly identifying well‐remembered episodes of repeated events.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3306   open full text
  • Interviewing Preschoolers: Response Biases to Yes–No Questions.
    Mehdi B. Mehrani, Carole Peterson.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 21, 2016
    In the present study we examined the influence of question format and age on Iranian children's responses to various types of yes–no questions, to assess potential response biases. The participants were 177 2‐to 6‐year old native speakers of Persian who were asked both positively and negatively formulated yes–no questions about eight household objects. The results showed that children of different ages are influenced differently by the way questions are formulated. The findings also suggest that children display a compliance tendency when asked yes–no questions. That is, they tend to respond to yes–no questions in the direction implied by the question: ‘yes’ to positively worded questions and ‘no’ to negatively worded questions. This tendency, however, seems to grow weaker as children get older. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3305   open full text
  • Line‐up Fairness Affects Postdictor Validity and ‘Don't Know’ Responses.
    Kylie N. Key, Stacy A. Wetmore, Jeffrey S. Neuschatz, Scott D. Gronlund, Daniella K. Cash, Sean Lane.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 20, 2016
    We investigated the impact of filler quality and presence on confidence, response latency, and propensity to respond ‘don't know’ in eyewitness line‐ups and showups. More specifically, we tested the hypothesis that confident, fast witnesses would be accurate in fair line‐ups and showups, but the inclusion of duds (poor fillers) would break down these relationships in a biased line‐up. Participants viewed a mock crime video, made a timed identification decision, and gave a confidence judgment. As predicted, biased line‐up witnesses were fast and confident, regardless of accuracy, and rarely responded ‘don't know’. In addition, we found that witnesses who are the fastest and most confident were equally accurate in fair line‐ups and showups, and both were better than biased line‐ups. These findings suggest that biased line‐ups should not be used (although, unfortunately, they frequently are); in fact, it may be better to conduct a showup than a biased line‐up. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3302   open full text
  • ‘Look This Way’: Using Gaze Maintenance to Facilitate the Detection of Children's False Reports.
    Hannah Lawrence, Lucy Akehurst, Amy‐May Leach, Julie Cherryman, Aldert Vrij, Megan Arathoon, Zarah Vernham.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 20, 2016
    In two experiments, we investigated whether imposing a secondary task is an effective technique for detecting child deceit. First, 85 children aged 8 to 11 years old provided either a true or false report of a recent school event. At interview, some children were asked to gaze towards either the interviewer's face (IF) or a teddy bear's face (TF), whereas some children were given no gaze instruction. In both the IF and TF conditions, lie‐tellers provided significantly fewer details than truth‐tellers. A total of 192 adult evaluators then judged the credibility of 10 children's reports from one of the three ‘gaze’ conditions with and without guidance on level of detail. Evaluators discriminated truths from lies successfully when judging children instructed to look at IF, but not when children were asked to gaze towards TF. Evaluators who received guidance demonstrated better discrimination between true and false reports than evaluators who received no such information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 20, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3303   open full text
  • Convince Me: The Effects of Persuasive Writing on Event Centrality.
    Steven L. Lancaster, Christopher R. Erbes.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    Recent research has demonstrated that event centrality, the degree to which an event has become part of one's identity, predicts post‐event distress. However, little research has examined factors or situations which may increase centrality. The aim of the current study was to examine how the instructions in a writing task may impact event centrality. Participants identified their ‘worst’ event and then either wrote persuasively about the impact of the event or wrote a factual account of the event and completed self‐report measures pre‐writing and post‐writing. We found no group differences when examining all participants; however, we did find significantly higher centrality in the persuasive group for those participants who had experienced a traumatic event as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. Our results demonstrate that event centrality is amenable to change in response to written interventions, and these results may have significant implications for situations in which individuals are required to convincingly describe their traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3296   open full text
  • Assessing the Initial Pleasantness for Fading Affect, Fixed Affect, Flourishing Affect, and Flexible Affect Events.
    Jeffrey A. Gibbons, Leslie Rollins.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    Over time, autobiographical memories demonstrate fixed affect (i.e., maintain initial affect), fading affect, flourishing affect (i.e., increased affect), or flexible affect (i.e., change from unpleasant to pleasant or vice versa). Walker and Skowronski argued that events low in initial pleasantness are more likely to exhibit flourishing affect and flexible affect and that unpleasant events are more likely to demonstrate flexible affect than pleasant events. However, because of the low frequency of flourishing affect and flexible affect events in individual studies, research had not examined differences between these event categories. The present study examined initial pleasantness ratings for fading affect, fixed affect, flourishing affect, and flexible affect events across four published studies. We expected and generally found lower initial pleasantness for flourishing affect and flexible affect events than for fading affect and fixed affect events. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3295   open full text
  • Advertising Effectiveness and Attitude Change Vary as a Function of Working Memory Capacity.
    Christopher A. Sanchez, Zoe M. Alley.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    Prior research has confirmed that the amount of attention paid to an advertisement will influence its effectiveness when it comes to changing consumer attitudes. This study expands on this understanding by exploring how individual differences in the ability to control attention (i.e., working memory capacity; WMC) might further moderate the effect of attention on advertising. Participants who varied in WMC were evaluated on their attitudes towards a consumer brand before and after viewing a video advertisement. While the advertisement did make participants more positive towards the product overall, this change in attitude was directly related to participants' ability to control attention and the degree to which the ad fostered the activation of autobiographical memories. Further, these changes in attitude were unrelated to how well the ad was remembered. This suggests that individual differences in attentional control can influence how advertisements impact customer attitude and the acceptance of persuasive messaging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3290   open full text
  • Procedural Multimedia Presentations: The Effects of Working Memory and Task Complexity on Instruction Time and Assembly Accuracy.
    Natalia Irrazabal, Gastón Saux, Debora Burin.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    Procedural text conveys information of a series of steps to be performed. This study examined the role of verbal and visuo‐spatial WM in comprehension and execution of assembly instructions, as a function of format (text, images, multimedia) and task complexity (three or five steps). One hundred and eight participants read and executed 27 instructions to assemble a LEGOTM object, in single and dual task conditions. Study times and errors during assembly were measured. Participants processed faster pictorial and multimedia instructions than text instructions, and made fewer errors in the execution of multimedia instructions. Dual task affected more text or picture‐only, than multimedia presentation. A verbal secondary task caused more errors in text or picture‐only presentations, and spatial secondary task also caused interference in text‐only instructions. Overall, these results support the multimedia advantage, and the role of both verbal and visuo‐spatial WM, when understanding instructions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3299   open full text
  • Effects of Cognitive Load on Affordance‐based Interactions.
    Joseph E. Grgic, Mary L. Still, Jeremiah D. Still.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    Affordances are design clues that allow users to effortlessly determine how objects should be used. Since their introduction to the human–computer interaction design community, their use within interfaces has become a staple. But, despite work to understand how affordances make an interface's available actions transparent, few empirical studies have examined the cognitive origins of this interaction type. Therefore, we explored the impact of cognitive load on affordance‐based interactions. Participants were asked to perform a series of affordance‐based interactions while under different types of working memory load (no load, verbal, spatial, and central executive). Affordance‐based interactions were consistently slowed under central executive load, but never when under verbal load. We conclude that affordance‐based interactions do require cognitive resources, but resource costs may only manifest under heavy load. With this knowledge, designers may be able to better predict when an affordance will (or will not) act as if it is resource free. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3298   open full text
  • The Influence of Culture on Goal Perception: Qatar Versus Denmark.
    Christina Lundsgaard Ottsen, Jonathan Koppel, Kim Berg Johannessen, Dorthe Berntsen.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    Expectations of control put forth by societal norms impose a constant influence on goal perception. To examine the influence of culture on perception of personal goals, 124 Middle Easterners and 128 Scandinavians rated their perceived locus of control, generated goals and evaluated goal characteristics. Findings show several cultural and gender differences, most notably in perceived locus of control, unhappiness despite goal achievement and adherence to cultural life script. Many differences were qualified by interactions, suggesting that Middle Eastern men deviate from Middle Eastern women and Scandinavians of both sexes. The Middle Eastern men demonstrated greater ambivalence regarding goal achievement, and contrary to previous findings from other cultural samples, they also showed a significant positive association between internal and external control. Furthermore, goals generated by Middle Easterners showed a greater overlap with their imagined future events, and were largely represented by life script events. These findings are consistent with the view that especially Middle Eastern men experience a greater responsibility for the fulfilment of culturally defined goals. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3297   open full text
  • Emotional Valence and Perceived Event Frequency Affect Memory Accuracy for a Personally Relevant Life Event.
    Juliana Maria Steffen do Nascimento, Luciano Grüdtner Buratto, Alexandre Schaefer, Lilian Milnitsky Stein.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    False autobiographical remembering is known to be affected both by an event's emotional valence and its perceived frequency (PEF). Here, we present a procedure that enables the assessment of retrieval accuracy for details of an overarching personally relevant real‐life event (a graduation ceremony) while taking into account variations in both their valence and PEF. Former university students who attended the same graduation ceremony completed a questionnaire with true and false statements about the ceremony. Their task was to judge whether the event details were true. Event details were previously rated for valence (positive vs. negative) and PEF (high vs. low) and their truth status was confirmed with original video footage from the ceremony. The results showed that valence modulated the effect of PEF on memory accuracy in that a decrease in false memory judgements was observed only for negative low‐PEF (implausible) event details. These results are interpreted within the affect‐as‐information framework. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3294   open full text
  • The Effect of the Running‐Man Emergency Exit Sign and Its Installed Location on Human Directional Choice.
    Chobok Kim, Minyoung Hur, Yoonkyung Oh, Jun‐Ho Choi, Jong‐Jin Jeong.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    Understanding the meaning of an emergency exit sign is essential for escaping from a building during a disaster. According to International Organization for Standardization 7010:2011, there are leftward and rightward running‐man exit signs indicating the location of an exit door. However, there is neither an application rule regarding which direction the sign should point nor a rule for where it should be attached in the horizontal dimension. We examined the effect of the heading direction of the running man and its horizontal locations on the selection of exit directions. A modified spatial Stroop task as an unforced‐choice task was designed by combining the running man's heading direction and its horizontal location. The results showed both facilitation and inhibition effects, conflict adaptation, and post‐error slowing reflecting top‐down control. These findings suggest that the heading direction of the running‐man exit sign includes evident directionality. This should be considered in designing and establishing standardized emergency exit signs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3293   open full text
  • The Effect of Backloading Instructions on Eyewitness Identification from Simultaneous and Sequential Lineups.
    Curt A. Carlson, Maria A. Carlson, Dawn R. Weatherford, Amanda Tucker, Jane Bednarz.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    The sequential lineup is multifaceted, including serial presentation of faces, multiple decisions, and often backloading (indicating to an eyewitness that a lineup contains more photos than there actually are). We evaluated the effect of backloading instructions on response bias and sensitivity with an eyewitness identification paradigm. Importantly, we included an ‘undisclosed’ condition that provided no information to participants about the number of lineup members to expect. Experiment 1 (N = 780) tested sequential lineups; Experiment 2 (N = 532) tested simultaneous lineups. As predicted, signal detection analysis showed that backloading induced participants to be more conservative in choosing from both lineup types, but did not affect d′. We conclude that the criminal justice system should be mindful of this shift in response bias, as it has implications for both guilty and innocent suspect identifications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3292   open full text
  • The Use of Recollection Rejection in the Misinformation Paradigm.
    Kara N. Moore, James Michael Lampinen.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    The purpose of this research was to determine the role of recollection rejection in the rejection of misinformation. In Experiment 1, we examined the use of recollection rejection to reject contradictory and additive misinformation. We measured recollection rejection by comparing misinformation acceptance rates, graphing confidence‐accuracy data using phantom receiver operating characteristic curves, examining high confidence rejections of misinformation, and examining self‐report responses. These measures converged on the finding that participants used recollection rejection to reject both types of misinformation but used recollection rejection more on contradictory misinformation. In Experiment 2, we manipulated the delay between the event and misinformation and between misinformation and test. The length of both of these delays affected misinformation acceptance. Participants were more likely to use recollection rejection to reject contradictory misinformation after a short delay before encountering misinformation. Overall these findings indicate that people can spontaneously induce recollection rejection to reject misinformation and prevent false memories. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3291   open full text
  • Thinking About What Might Have Happened: Counterfactual Thinking and Post‐traumatic Stress in Individuals Directly and Indirectly Exposed to the 2011 Oslo Bombing.
    Ines Blix, Alf Børre Kanten, Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Øivind Solberg, Alexander Nissen, Trond Heir.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 09, 2016
    Counterfactual thinking (CFT), that is thinking about what might have happened, is linked to post‐traumatic stress. We studied the relationship between type and frequency of CFT and post‐traumatic stress in a sample of directly (n = 50) and indirectly exposed (n = 50) ministerial employees 4 years after the 2011 Oslo bombing. The results showed that frequency of CFT was associated with levels of post‐traumatic stress, among both directly and indirectly exposed participants. In the directly exposed group, self‐reported frequencies of downward counterfactuals were associated with post‐traumatic stress. A similar trend was found for upward counterfactuals. In the indirectly exposed group, self‐reported frequencies of both upward and downward counterfactuals were associated with higher levels of post‐traumatic stress. These results point to the intriguing possibility that people may not only develop post‐traumatic stress disorder as a result of actual experiences, but also via mental simulations of traumatic events that could have happened. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3289   open full text
  • Why Education Predicts Decreased Belief in Conspiracy Theories.
    Jan‐Willem Prooijen.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. November 28, 2016
    People with high education are less likely than people with low education to believe in conspiracy theories. It is yet unclear why these effects occur, however, as education predicts a range of cognitive, emotional, and social outcomes. The present research sought to identify mediators of the relationship between education and conspiracy beliefs. Results of Study 1 revealed three independent mediators of this relationship, namely, belief in simple solutions for complex problems, feelings of powerlessness, and subjective social class. A nationally representative sample (Study 2) replicated these findings except for subjective social class. Moreover, variations in analytic thinking statistically accounted for the path through belief in simple solutions. I conclude that the relationship between education and conspiracy beliefs cannot be reduced to a single mechanism but is the result of the complex interplay of multiple psychological factors that are associated with education. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Cognitive Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    November 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3301   open full text
  • More Evidence for Three Types of Cognitive Style: Validating the Object‐Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire Using Eye Tracking when Learning with Texts and Pictures.
    Tim N. Höffler, Marta Koć‐Januchta, Detlev Leutner.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. November 28, 2016
    There is some indication that people differ regarding their visual and verbal cognitive style. The Object‐Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ) assumes a three‐dimensional cognitive style model, which distinguishes between object imagery, spatial imagery and verbal dimensions. Using eye tracking as a means to observe actual gaze behaviours when learning with text–picture combinations, the current study aims to validate this three‐dimensional assumption by linking the OSIVQ to learning behaviour. The results largely confirm the model in that they show the expected correlations between results on the OSIVQ, visuo‐spatial ability and learning behaviour. Distinct differences between object visualizers, spatial visualizers and verbalizers could be demonstrated.© 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    November 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3300   open full text
  • Fading of Affect Associated with Negative Child‐Related Memories Varies by Parental Child Abuse Potential.
    John J. Skowronski, Julie L. Crouch, Sarah L. Coley, Sapir Sasson, Michael F. Wagner, Ericka Rutledge, Kreila Cote, Christie Miksys, Joel S. Milner.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. November 10, 2016
    Positive memories tend to hold their affective intensity across time better than negative memories, a phenomenon referred to as the fading affect bias (FAB). An initial study explored this bias in the context of parents' affective responses to memories involving their children. Specifically, parents (N = 90 for Study 1) were asked to recall three positive events and three negative events involving their children. Next, parents rated how positively or negatively they felt when each event occurred and at recall. Results revealed that parents at high risk of physical child abuse showed a smaller FAB than low‐risk parents. The smaller FAB effect observed among high‐risk parents occurred largely because affect associated with negative child‐related events faded minimally over time. This risk moderation effect did not emerge in a second study in which parents (N = 90 for Study 2) recalled general events that were not limited to events involving children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3287   open full text
  • How do Lawyers Examine and Cross‐Examine Children in Scotland?
    Samantha J. Andrews, Michael E. Lamb.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 26, 2016
    In the first study to systematically assess lawyers' questioning of children in Scotland, we examined 56 trial transcripts of 5‐ to 17‐year‐old children testifying as alleged victims of sexual abuse, focusing on differences between prosecutors and defense lawyers with respect to the types of questions asked and effects on witnesses' responses. Prosecutors used more invitations, directives, and option‐posing prompts than defense lawyers, who used more suggestive prompts than prosecutors. Children were more unresponsive and less informative when answering defense lawyers than prosecutors. All children contradicted themselves at least once, with defense lawyers eliciting more self‐contradictions than prosecutors. Suggestive questions were most likely to elicit self‐contradictions, with suggestive confrontational and introductory questions eliciting significantly more self‐contradictions than suggestive suppositions. Children also acquiesced more in response to tagged suggestions than untagged suggestions. Overall, lawyers altered their behavior little in response to variations in children's ages. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 26, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3286   open full text
  • False Memories and Free Speech: Is Scientific Debate Being Suppressed?
    Bernice Andrews, Chris R. Brewin.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 14, 2016
    Commentators have raised important points, including the relative contribution of false beliefs versus false memories and the issue of how findings in the laboratory can be generalized to the real world, which we have addressed here. However, some of the commentaries misrepresent what we said, make criticisms that are unfounded, or imply that our article should not have been published in Applied Cognitive Psychology. We relate these responses to a more general literature on the suppression of unwanted scientific findings and suggest that the study of false memory would be better served by more openness to alternative perspectives.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3285   open full text
  • Impromptu Decisions to Deceive.
    Jeffrey J. Walczyk, Talar Tcholakian, Danielle N. Newman, Terri Duck.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 14, 2016
    This research furthers understanding of the factors that induce individuals to choose deception. Its goals were to expand and test a recent account of the cognition of deception, Activation–Decision–Construction–Action Theory (ADCAT), in a mock job interview inviting impromptu deception. Decisions to lie are hypothesized to depend on the truth and other information activated from long‐term memory by the social context. Activated information then guides evaluation of the likely costs of truth telling and benefits of deception; 166 college students participated in the job interview, who learned about the position and then adopted the role of job applicants. Afterward, participants shared their thoughts when responding to five questions from the interview. The most important findings are that the negative expectations of sharing truths and the positive expectations of sharing deceptions each account for unique variance in deciding to lie. Implications for lie reduction and detection are considered. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 14, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3282   open full text
  • Examining Measurement Invariance Across Gender in Self‐defining Autobiographical Memory Characteristics Using a Shortened Version of the Memory Experiences Questionnaire.
    Karen L. Siedlecki, Francesca Falzarano.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 11, 2016
    Participants between the ages of 18 and 94 years (n = 279) provided ratings on different phenomenological memory characteristics regarding a self‐defining autobiographical memory by completing a slightly shortened version of the Memory Experiences Questionnaire. Results of a multi‐group invariance analyses across men and women provided evidence of configural, metric, scalar, and structural invariance across gender. These results help to empirically substantiate the assumption that memory phenomenology is invariant across gender. Subsequent latent means analysis found that women, as compared with men, rated their self‐defining memories as being more coherent, having greater emotional intensity, having greater sensory detail, having higher levels of vividness/time perspective, and being more likely to be from a first‐person perspective. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3276   open full text
  • Teachers' Ratings of Working Memory in English Language Learners: Do Laboratory Measures Predict Classroom Analogues?
    Harpreet Kaur Uppal, H. Lee Swanson.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 11, 2016
    This study investigated the relationship between teachers' classroom ratings of working memory (WM) and laboratory measures of WM of English language learners (ELLs) in the elementary grades. Multilevel modeling was used to identify whether teacher ratings accurately predicted ELL children's performance on WM tasks. The results indicated that teachers' ratings of WM were predicted by isolated components of WM even when measures of achievement, vocabulary and gender representation were entered into the analysis. Teacher ratings of WM were predictive of student performance on latent measures of Spanish short‐term memory and the executive component of WM. Entering inattention ratings into the analysis partialed out the influence of the executive component of WM, while leaving variance related to a language‐specific storage system as a significant predictor of teachers' classroom ratings of WM. The results suggest that classroom ratings of WM provide a valid analogue of student laboratory performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3273   open full text
  • Influences of Fertility Status on Risky Driving Behaviour.
    Federica Biassoni, Paola Iannello, Alessandro Antonietti, Maria Rita Ciceri.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 11, 2016
    The effects of hormones on human behaviour have been extensively studied, but little attention has been paid to the influence of ovarian hormones on risky driving. Twenty‐five normally cycling women took part in three sessions, including an ovulatory phase estimation session and two experimental sessions: high vs low fertile phases. These two phases were monitored through a urine‐based luteinizing hormone predictor test. In the two experimental sessions, participants were administered the Driving Behaviour Questionnaire and the Vienna Risk‐Taking Test. Results showed that women are more risk‐averse in their driving behaviour during their high‐fertile phase. The influence of hormonal fluctuations on self‐perception of risk attitude when driving was non‐significant. Findings are discussed from an evolutionary perspective. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3283   open full text
  • Phonetic Symbolism and Memory for Advertisements.
    Marilyn G. Boltz, Grace M. Mangigian, Molly B. Allen.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 11, 2016
    This study investigated whether phonetic symbolism within brand names influences the memory of advertisements. Participants both saw and heard brand names with front vs. back vowels paired with small vs. large products in a congruent vs. incongruent fashion. When later given several unexpected memory tasks, it was found that congruent (vs. incongruent) pairings led to enhanced brand name and product recall as well as the efficiency of both brand name and paired recognition. These findings are consistent with a theory of cross‐modal processing involving perceptual unification. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3284   open full text
  • Passport Checks: Interactions Between Matching Faces and Biographical Details.
    Jennifer M. McCaffery, A. Mike Burton.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 11, 2016
    Matching unfamiliar faces is known to be a difficult task. However, most research has tested viewers' ability to match pairs of faces presented in isolation. In real settings, professionals are commonly required to examine photo ID that contains other biographical information too. In three experiments, we present faces embedded in passport frames and ask viewers to make face matching decisions and to check biographical information. We find that the inclusion of a passport frame reduces viewers' ability to detect a face mismatch. Furthermore, the nature of the face match influences biographical data checking—true matches lead to fewer detections of invalid data. In general, viewers were poor at spotting errors in biographical information. This pattern suggests that detection of fraudulent photo ID is even harder than current experimental studies suggest. Possible mechanisms for these effects are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3281   open full text
  • Judging Knowledge in the Digital Age: The Role of External‐Memory Organization.
    Kristy A. Hamilton, Kevin P. McIntyre, Paula T. Hertel.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. October 11, 2016
    Two studies examined relations between features of external‐memory repositories (personal computers) and confidence in knowing. Participants judged their confidence in knowledge related to their work or studies and then answered questions about the way they store and use information. Participants who maintained more organized repositories were more confident in their knowledge. Furthermore, moderation analyses showed that the participants who navigated through their files by manually clicking through folders to find documents, but not those who use an automated search feature, felt more knowledge confident if they maintained a well‐organized electronic repository. These results provide evidence for relation between assessments of internally ‘stored’ knowledge and the degree of organization of their externally stored ‘knowledge.’ Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3277   open full text
  • Effect of Daylight Saving Time on Punctuality for Medical Appointments.
    Marie‐Françoise Valax, Anne‐Claire Rattat, Bruno Baracat, Julien Cegarra.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 21, 2016
    We studied the effect of the switch from daylight saving time to winter time on punctuality for medical appointments, thus allowing us to investigate the role of dynamic and analytic modes of time management in time‐based prospective memory tasks. Insofar as some authors assume that the dynamic mode of time management is based on rhythms, we hypothesised that the switch from daylight saving time would cause more disturbances when participants' everyday activity had a weak temporal structure. Results showed that after the switch, participants arrived early for their appointments, but this earliness was not higher for participants whose everyday activity had a low temporal structure than for participants with highly structured everyday activity. Nevertheless, compared to the time they planned to arrive, participants with low regularity of activity arrived earlier after the switch, suggesting that their temporal reference would the time fixed by themselves, rather than the appointment time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3278   open full text
  • The Influence of Perpetrator Exposure Time and Weapon Presence/Timing on Eyewitness Confidence and Accuracy.
    Curt A. Carlson, David F. Young, Dawn R. Weatherford, Maria A. Carlson, Jane E. Bednarz, Alyssa R. Jones.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 21, 2016
    Crimes can occur in a matter of seconds, with little time available for an eyewitness to encode a perpetrator's face. The presence of a weapon can further exacerbate this situation. Few studies have featured mock crimes of short duration, especially with a weapon manipulation. We conducted an experiment to investigate the impact of weapon presence and short perpetrator exposure times (3 vs. 10 seconds) on eyewitness confidence and accuracy. We found that recall concerning the perpetrator was worse when a weapon was present, replicating the weapon focus effect. However, there was no effect on eyewitness identification accuracy. Calibration analyses revealed that all conditions produced a strong confidence–accuracy relationship. Confidence–accuracy characteristic curves illustrated almost perfect accuracy for suspect identifications at the highest levels of confidence. We conclude that weapon presence during a brief crime does not necessarily result in negative consequences for either eyewitness identification accuracy or the confidence–accuracy relationship. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3275   open full text
  • Public Attitudes on the Ethics of Deceptively Planting False Memories to Motivate Healthy Behavior.
    Robert A. Nash, Shari R. Berkowitz, Simon Roche.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 21, 2016
    Researchers have proposed that planting false memories could have positive behavioral consequences. The idea of deceptively planting ‘beneficial’ false memories outside of the laboratory raises important ethical questions, but how might the general public appraise this moral dilemma? In two studies, participants from the USA and UK read about a fictional ‘false‐memory therapy’ that led people to adopt healthy behaviors. Participants then reported their attitudes toward the acceptability of this therapy, via scale‐rating (both studies) and open‐text (study 2) responses. The data revealed highly divergent responses to this contentious issue, ranging from abject horror to unqualified enthusiasm. Moreover, the responses shed light on conditions that participants believed would make the therapy less or more ethical. Whether or not deceptively planting memories outside the lab could ever be justifiable, these studies add valuable evidence to scientific and societal debates on neuroethics, whose relevance to memory science is increasingly acute. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3274   open full text
  • Self‐Control Success Revealed: Greater Approach Motivation Towards Healthy versus Unhealthy Food.
    Tracy Cheung, Marleen Gillebaart, Floor Kroese, Denise Ridder.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 21, 2016
    Deviating from existing literature on self‐control failure the current research examines self‐control success and the role of motivation. Functional research suggests people visually perceive objects to be bigger when they are motivated to approach them. Using the size perception task, participants estimated the size of a healthy and an unhealthy food object that were identical in size. In the current research we simulated a reflective state vs. impulsive state using an ego‐depletion manipulation in Study 1 and a cognitive load manipulation in Study 2. Results from both studies revealed that participants in a reflective state (vs. impulsive state) assigned increased size estimations to the healthy food item compared to the unhealthy food item. Current findings demonstrate greater approach motivation towards a ‘virtue’ (i.e., healthy food) as a mechanism that underlies self‐control success, suggesting that successful self‐control involves initiating approach towards a virtue rather than inhibiting a vice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3258   open full text
  • It Must Be My Favourite Brand: Using Retroactive Brand Replacements in Doctored Photographs to Influence Brand Preferences.
    Maria V. Hellenthal, Mark L. Howe, Lauren M. Knott.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 21, 2016
    We examined whether memories for personally chosen brands could be altered by retroactive exposure to less‐liked competitor brands embedded in manipulated photographs. In addition, we investigated whether memory errors would lead to preference change for falsely remembered brands. Fifty participants were asked to compile their personal ‘brand lifestyle basket’, which was then captured in a photo showing the basket and participant. After 1 week, participants were exposed to the photograph in which some of the originally chosen brands were replaced by different brands of the same category. Results of a memory test revealed a robust misinformation effect. The analysis of premanipulation and postmanipulation preference ratings indicated a positive shift in attitude and behaviour towards falsely accepted misinformation brands. Our findings contribute to what we know about the behavioural consequences of false memories and extend the generalizability of false memory effects to what might be considered a futuristic advertising measure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3271   open full text
  • Using the Model Statement to Elicit Information and Cues to Deceit from Native Speakers, Non‐native Speakers and Those Talking Through an Interpreter.
    Sarah Ewens, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Samantha Mann, Eunkyung Jo, Alla Shaboltas, Maria Ivanova, Juliana Granskaya, Kate Houston.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 21, 2016
    We examined how the presence of an interpreter during an interview affects eliciting information and cues to deceit, whilst using a method that encourages interviewees to provide more detail (model statement, MS). Sixty native English speakers were interviewed in English, and 186 non‐native English speakers were interviewed in English or through an interpreter. Interviewees either lied or told the truth about a mock security meeting, which they reported twice: in an initial free recall and after listening to the MS. The MS resulted in the native English speakers and those interviewed with an interpreter providing more reminiscences (additional detail) than the non‐native English speakers interviewed without an interpreter. As a result, those interviewed through an interpreter provided more detail than the non‐native English speakers, but only after the MS. Native English participants were most detailed in both recalls. No difference was found in the amount of reminiscences provided by liars and truth tellers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3270   open full text
  • Does Working Memory Mediate the Link Between Dispositional Optimism and Depressive Symptoms?
    Tracy Packiam Alloway, John C. Horton.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 21, 2016
    The aim of this study was to explore the interplay between working memory (WM), dispositional optimism, and depressive symptoms in participants across a wide age band (16–79 years) in a nonclinical sample using a computer‐based interface. We administered tests of visuospatial WM (processing and recall), dispositional optimism (optimism and pessimism), and self‐reported depression. There were two main findings: 1) both optimism and pessimism were independent predictors of a self‐rated depression score; 2) WM recall scores predicted both optimism and pessimism. The findings suggest the following pattern: according to the negativity bias, a pessimistic outlook presents as a strong stimulus for attentional allocation, which results in depression. However, a strong WM can counter this pattern, as individuals can allocate attention to the weaker stimulus, which is an optimistic outlook. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3272   open full text
  • Conspiracy Formation Is in the Detail: On the Interaction of Conspiratorial Predispositions and Semantic Cues.
    Fabian Gebauer, Marius H. Raab, Claus‐Christian Carbon.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. September 21, 2016
    Significant events are frequently followed by discussions about the event's ‘true nature’. Yet, there is only little evidence whether the conspiratorial reasoning of conspiracy believers and sceptics is a priori determined, or if certain characteristics of information are responsible for provoking a polarization. We investigated how depicted causation (direct vs. indirect; Study 1) and intention (strong vs. weak purposeful; Study 2) might invoke a bias in believers and sceptics regarding conspiratorial reasoning about an ongoing event, namely, whether US investigations against FIFA were more or less likely to be seen as a conspiracy against Russia to sabotage the football World Cup in 2018. We revealed that judgments of conspiracy believers and sceptics about the event's ‘true nature’ are not a priori divided—in fact, conspiracy formation is only affected when direct causation or strong purposeful intentions were obvious. Results point to the relevance of conspiratorial predispositions and semantic cues in conspiracy formation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3279   open full text
  • Disguising Superman: How Glasses Affect Unfamiliar Face Matching.
    Robin S. S. Kramer, Kay L. Ritchie.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 21, 2016
    Could a simple pair of glasses really fool us into thinking Superman and Clark Kent are two different people? Here, we investigated the perception of identity from face images with a task that relies on visual comparison rather than memory. Participants were presented with two images simultaneously and were asked whether the images depicted the same person or two different people. The image pairs showed neither image with glasses, both images with glasses, and ‘mixed’ pairs of one image with and one without glasses. Participants' accuracies, measured by both percentage correct and d′ sensitivity, were significantly lower for ‘mixed’ trials. Analysis of response bias showed that when only one face wore glasses, people tended to respond ‘different’. We demonstrate that glasses affect face matching ability using unconstrained images, and this has implications for both disguise research and authenticating identity in the real world. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3261   open full text
  • Investigating Predictors of Superior Face Recognition Ability in Police Super‐recognisers.
    Josh P. Davis, Karen Lander, Ray Evans, Ashok Jansari.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 02, 2016
    There are large individual differences in the ability to recognise faces. Super‐recognisers are exceptionally good at face memory tasks. In London, a small specialist pool of police officers (also labelled ‘super‐recognisers’ by the Metropolitan Police Service) annually makes 1000's of suspect identifications from closed‐circuit television footage. Some suspects are disguised, have not been encountered recently or are depicted in poor quality images. Across tests measuring familiar face recognition, unfamiliar face memory and unfamiliar face matching, the accuracy of members of this specialist police pool was approximately equal to a group of non‐police super‐recognisers. Both groups were more accurate than matched control members of the public. No reliable relationships were found between the face processing tests and object recognition. Within each group, however, there were large performance variations across tests, and this research has implications for the deployment of police worldwide in operations requiring officers with superior face processing ability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3260   open full text
  • LearningRx Cognitive Training Effects in Children Ages 8–14: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Dick M. Carpenter, Christina Ledbetter, Amy Lawson Moore.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 02, 2016
    In a randomized controlled study, we examined the effects of a one‐on‐one cognitive training program on memory, visual and auditory processing, processing speed, reasoning, attention, and General Intellectual Ability (GIA) score for students ages 8–14. Participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group to complete 60 h of cognitive training or to a wait‐list control group. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in multiple cognitive skills after completing cognitive training with ThinkRx, a LearningRx program. Results showed statistically significant differences between groups on all outcome measures except for attention. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are examined. © 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    August 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3257   open full text
  • Observation of Depictive Versus Tracing Gestures Selectively Aids Verbal Versus Visual–Spatial Learning in Primary School Children.
    Margot Wermeskerken, Nathalie Fijan, Charly Eielts, Wim T. J. L. Pouw.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 02, 2016
    Previous research has established that gesture observation aids learning in children. The current study examined whether observation of gestures (i.e. depictive and tracing gestures) differentially affected verbal and visual–spatial retention when learning a route and its street names. Specifically, we explored whether children (n = 97) with lower visual and verbal working‐memory capacity benefited more from observing gestures as compared with children who score higher on these traits. To this end, 11‐ to 13‐year‐old children were presented with an instructional video of a route containing no gestures, depictive gestures, tracing gestures or both depictive and tracing gestures. Results indicated that the type of observed gesture affected performance: Observing tracing gestures or both tracing and depictive gestures increased performance on route retention, while observing depictive gestures or both depictive and tracing gestures increased performance on street name retention. These effects were not differentially affected by working‐memory capacity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3256   open full text
  • Rapport‐Building in Investigative Interviews of Alleged Child Sexual Abuse Victims.
    Eleanor A. Price, Elizabeth C. Ahern, Michael E. Lamb.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 27, 2016
    Research shows that both utterance type and rapport‐building can affect children's productivity during the substantive phase of investigative interviews. However, few researchers have examined the effects of utterance type and content on children's productivity within the rapport‐building phase. In the present study, transcripts of interviews with 94 4‐ to 13‐year‐old alleged victims were examined. Interviews were conducted using either the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol or the Memorandum of Good Practice (MoGP). The NICHD Protocol interviews contained more invitations and questions about events and hobbies/likes than the MoGP interviews. Children's productivity was associated with utterance type and topic, showing both the benefits of invitations and questions asking about past events. Our findings complement research focusing on the substantive phase of child forensic interviews, suggesting that both utterance type and prompt content during the rapport‐building phase can affect children's immediate productivity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 27, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3249   open full text
  • A Walk Down the Lane Gives Wings to Your Brain. Restorative Benefits of Rest Breaks on Cognition and Self‐Control.
    Michael B. Steinborn, Lynn Huestegge.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 25, 2016
    We investigated the effect of rest breaks on mental‐arithmetic performance, examining performance as a function of the factor rest, time‐on‐task, and demand. We asked the following questions: (i) Does rest (vs a continuous‐work condition) improve cognitive performance? (ii) Is active rest (taking a walk) better than passive rest (watching a video)? (iii) Do compensatory effects of rest increase with time‐at‐work? (iv) Are there differential effects of rest on automatic and controlled processes? (v) Are there differential effects of rest on performance speed versus variability? The results indicate that while rest is generally beneficial for performance, these benefits are similar for active and passive rest. The benefits increase with time‐on‐task and are larger for high (vs low) demand. Further, the effects on average response speed originated only partially from a reduction in the probability of attentional failure, as indicated by reaction‐time (ex‐Gaussian model) distributional and delta‐plot analysis.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3255   open full text
  • The Impact of Testing on the Formation of Children's and Adults' False Memories.
    Nathalie Brackmann, Henry Otgaar, Melanie Sauerland, Mark L. Howe.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 19, 2016
    Witnesses are frequently questioned immediately following a crime. The effects of such testing on false recall are inconclusive: Testing may inoculate against subsequent misinformation or enhance false memory formation. We examined whether different types of processing can account for these discrepancies. Drawing from Fuzzy‐trace and Associative‐activation theories, immediate questions that trigger the processing of the global understanding of the event can heighten false memory rates. However, questions that trigger the processing of specific details can inoculate memories against subsequent misinformation. These effects were hypothesized to be more pronounced in children than in adults. Seven/eight‐, 11/12‐, 14/15‐year‐olds, and adults (N = 220) saw a mock‐theft film and were tested immediately with meaning or item‐specific questions. Test results on the succeeding day replicated classic misinformation and testing effects, although our processing hypothesis was not supported. Only adults who received meaning questions benefited from immediate testing and, across all ages, testing led to retrieval‐enhanced suggestibility. © 2016 The Authors. Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3254   open full text
  • Sleep Increases Susceptibility to the Misinformation Effect.
    Dustin P. Calvillo, Jocelyn A. Parong, Briana Peralta, Derrick Ocampo, Rachael Van Gundy.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 19, 2016
    When individuals witness an event and are exposed to misleading postevent information, they often incorporate the misleading information into their memory for the original event, a phenomenon known as the misinformation effect. The present study examined the role of sleep in the misinformation effect. Participants (N = 177) witnessed two events; were exposed to misleading postevent information immediately, 12 hours later the same day, 12 hours later the next day, or 24 hours later; and then took a recognition test. All groups demonstrated the misinformation effect, and this effect was larger in groups with an overnight retention interval. Signal detection analyses revealed that sleep decreased sensitivity. These results suggest that sleep increases susceptibility to the misinformation effect, which may occur because sleep results in gist‐based representations of original events or because sleep improves learning of postevent information. Implications for interviewing eyewitnesses are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3259   open full text
  • Equal Protection versus Free Speech Rights: When Gains Loom Larger than Losses.
    Katherine M. K. Kimble, Richard L. Wiener.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 19, 2016
    This paper examines the tension between equal protection and free speech in the hate speech context through a prospect theory lens. Two hundred and fifty‐four participants recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk read a First Amendment free speech or Fourteenth Amendment equal protection argument framed to endorse the protections gained by each right, the losses avoided by each right, or the security provided by each right. Results showed gain‐framing was more persuasive than loss‐framing. Participant race and constitutional principle influenced punishment invoked for cross burning but not destruction of property or trespassing. Participants who received a positive framed equal protection argument believed the target would experience stronger negative emotions, particularly under low intimidation. Furthermore, participants receiving a positive frame speech argument believed the target would be less willing to support suppression. Unlike previous research, which suggests an equal protection principle default, this study demonstrated an impact of framed statements on decisions.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3247   open full text
  • Training Melanoma Detection in Photographs Using the Perceptual Expertise Training Approach.
    Buyun Xu, Liam Rourke, June K. Robinson, James W. Tanaka.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 19, 2016
    Although a deadly form of skin cancer, melanoma is treatable if detected early. However, current rule‐based training practices in melanoma detection are not effective. We assessed an innovative technique to train melanoma detection using the perceptual expertise principles. Participants in the training group were trained to categorize melanoma and benign lesions to 95% accuracy. Participants in the control group received no training. Prior to testing all participants reviewed the ABCDE rules. Training was evaluated by the pre and post tests using the Melanoma Detection Test where participants categorized images of melanoma and benign lesions. As compared to the control group, the training group showed significant improvement in melanoma detection and became less liberal (i.e., bias toward categorizing a lesion as melanoma), and both improvements maintained a week after the training. These findings indicate that perceptual expertise training is a promising approach to train melanoma detection.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3250   open full text
  • Please be Honest and Provide Evidence: Deterrents of Deception in an Online Insurance Fraud Context.
    Sharon Leal, Aldert Vrij, Galit Nahari, Samantha Mann.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 19, 2016
    The present experiment examined whether people could be deterred from lying in an online insurance claim setting. A total of 96 participants were asked to submit a theft insurance claim. Reflecting real life, submitting a claim that went beyond the actual costs of the stolen items was associated with advantages and disadvantages. Two deterrence factors were introduced: asking claimants to provide evidence that they actually owned the stolen items (Evidence Instruction, often used by insurers) and asking participants to read out before starting to submit the claim that they will be truthful (Honesty Statement, not often used by insurers). We also examined at what stage of the interview claimants embedded their lies in their otherwise truthful stories. The honesty statement but not the evidence instruction made claimants more honest, and participants lied more as the interview progressed.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3252   open full text
  • Improving the Enhanced Cognitive Interview With a New Interview Strategy: Category Clustering Recall.
    Rui M. Paulo, Pedro B. Albuquerque, Ray Bull.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 30, 2016
    Increasing recall is crucial for investigative interviews. The enhanced cognitive interview (ECI) has been widely used for this purpose and found to be generally effective. We focused on further increasing recall with a new interview strategy, category clustering recall (CCR). Participants watched a mock robbery video and were interviewed 48 hours later with either the (i) ECI; (ii) revised enhanced cognitive interview 1 (RECI1) — with CCR instead of the change order mnemonic during the second recall; or (iii) revised enhanced cognitive interview 2 (RECI2) — also with CCR but conjunctly used with ‘eye closure’ and additional open‐ended follow up questions. Participants interviewed with CCR (RECI1 and RECI2) produced more information without compromising accuracy; thus, CCR was effective. Eye closure and additional open‐ended follow up questions did not further influence recall when using CCR. Major implications for real‐life investigations are discussed.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3253   open full text
  • Does a Judicial Warning Improve Defendant‐Culprit Matching?
    W. Burt Thompson, Nicole Dunkelberger, Salvatore Vescio, Claire Elling.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 30, 2016
    During a trial, jurors may be asked to compare the defendant with video of the culprit. Yet matching unfamiliar people in this manner can be difficult and error‐prone. Judges may warn jurors about the dangers of identification from video images, but the effect of warnings is unknown. Here we report two studies that assessed the effect of warning instructions on defendant‐culprit matching. In Experiment 1, college students read either control, warning, or illustrated warning instructions before deciding if a defendant seen in one video matched the culprit in another video. Experiment 2 compared control and warning instructions in a sample of Amazon Mechanical Turk workers. Matching accuracy in both experiments was poor, and warnings did not consistently improve performance or make participants more cautious. These results do not support the supposition that warning instructions help jurors compare the defendant to images of the culprit.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 30, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3251   open full text
  • Split‐Attention and Coherence Principles in Multimedia Instruction Can Rescue Performance for Learners with Lower Working Memory Capacity.
    Barbara Fenesi, Emily Kramer, Joseph A. Kim.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 16, 2016
    This study examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and the principles of Split‐Attention (Experiment 1) and Coherence (Experiment 2) in multimedia learning. Split‐Attention refers to reduced comprehension when learners must divide their attention between images and text, and Coherence refers to reduced comprehension when learners must process irrelevant information. In Experiment 1, those with lower WMC performed worse compared with those with higher WMC when learning from the Split‐Attention condition (audio + on‐screen text + images), but not when learning from the Complementary condition (audio + images). In Experiment 2, those with lower WMC performed worse compared with those with higher WMC when learning from the Incongruent condition (audio + irrelevant images), but not when learning from the Congruent condition (audio + relevant images). Findings reinforce the importance of pedagogically sound instructional design, as it may especially benefit those with lower WMC and equate learning across working memory abilities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 16, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3244   open full text
  • Does Poor Understanding of Physical World Predict Religious and Paranormal Beliefs?
    Marjaana Lindeman, Annika M. Svedholm‐Häkkinen.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 10, 2016
    Although supernatural beliefs often paint a peculiar picture about the physical world, the possibility that the beliefs might be based on inadequate understanding of the non‐social world has not received research attention. In this study (N = 258), we therefore examined how physical‐world skills and knowledge predict religious and paranormal beliefs. The results showed that supernatural beliefs correlated with all variables that were included, namely, with low systemizing, poor intuitive physics skills, poor mechanical ability, poor mental rotation, low school grades in mathematics and physics, poor common knowledge about physical and biological phenomena, intuitive and analytical thinking styles, and in particular, with assigning mentality to non‐mental phenomena. Regression analyses indicated that the strongest predictors of the beliefs were overall physical capability (a factor representing most physical skills, interests, and knowledge) and intuitive thinking style. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3248   open full text
  • Dynamics of Repeated Interviews with Children.
    Genevieve F. Waterhouse, Anne M. Ridley, Ray Bull, David La Rooy, Rachel Wilcock.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 10, 2016
    Concerns regarding repeat interviews with child witnesses include greater use of suggestive questions in later interviews due to bias, and that children may appear inconsistent and, therefore, be judged as less reliable in court. UK transcripts of first and second interviews with 21 child victims/witnesses (conducted by qualified interviewers) were coded for question types and child responses. Interviewers were consistent in their proportional use of question types across interviews. Furthermore, children were as informative in second interviews as in first, mostly providing new details consistent with their prior recall. Despite the apparent lack of training in conducting repeated interviews, no negative effects were found; second interviews appeared to be conducted as well as initial interviews, and children provided new details without many contradictions. It is suggested that when a child's testimony is paramount for an investigation, a well‐conducted supplementary interview may be an effective way of gaining further investigative leads.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3246   open full text
  • Using Implementation Intentions in Shopping Situations: How Arousal Can Help Shield Consumers Against Temptation.
    Benjamin G. Serfas, Oliver B. Büttner, Arnd Florack.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 10, 2016
    Previous research has suggested that individuals who repeatedly experience self‐regulatory failure in purchasing behaviour have trouble shielding themselves against temptations. Because shopping is often accompanied by increased arousal, we examined whether attending to affective arousal could help people keep their attention focused. Before participants completed a visual distraction task embedded in a shopping context, we (i) instructed them to formulate an implementation intention with affective arousal as the eliciting cue and concentrating on the task as the intention; (ii) instructed them to formulate the goal intention of concentrating on the task without mentioning an eliciting cue; or (iii) gave them no further instructions. During the task, we recorded eye movements to measure the time they looked at the target products. The findings suggest that implementation intentions with affective arousal as an eliciting cue enable consumers who repeatedly perceive self‐regulatory failure to focus their attention on their initial shopping goal. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3241   open full text
  • Direct Application of Specially Formulated Scent Compositions (AromaStick®) Prolongs Attention and Enhances Visual Scanning Speed.
    Rainer Schneider.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 06, 2016
    Recently, a series of experiments demonstrated that direct stimulation of the olfactory system by means of an odor inhaler targets brain areas associated with stress reduction and pain relief. This paper follows up on these findings and investigates whether such effects can also be found for inhalers specially designed to increase attention and concentration. In a three‐armed, randomized, controlled experiment participants' cognitive ability to discriminate between similar visual stimuli was tested either with or without the use of an odor inhaler. Concentration, visual scanning speed, and accuracy were assessed to gauge differential effects. Both odor inhalers outperformed the control condition where no odor was used. The effects were large and showed in all parameters. The direct application of specially designed essential oil compositions enhances attention and concentration when used during short‐term breaks in a stressful and attention‐demanding cognitive task.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3237   open full text
  • Distributed Practice and Retrieval Practice in Primary School Vocabulary Learning: A Multi‐classroom Study.
    Nicole A. M. C. Goossens, Gino Camp, Peter P. J. L. Verkoeijen, Huib K. Tabbers, Samantha Bouwmeester, Rolf A. Zwaan.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 06, 2016
    Distributed practice and retrieval practice are promising learning strategies to use in education. We examined the effects of these strategies in primary school vocabulary lessons. Grades 2, 3, 4, and 6 children performed exercises that were part of the regular curriculum. For the distributed practice manipulation, the children performed six exercises distributed within 1 week (short‐lag repetition) or across 2 weeks (long‐lag repetition). For the repetition type manipulation, children copied a part of the description of a word (restudy) or recalled the description (retrieval practice). At the end of each week, the children received a cued‐recall vocabulary test. After 1 to 11 weeks they received a multiple‐choice vocabulary test. Both on the cued‐recall test and on the multiple‐choice test no benefits of long‐lag repetition and retrieval practice were found. These results put into question the practical value of long‐lag repetition and retrieval practice in real‐life primary school vocabulary lessons.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3245   open full text
  • The Predictive Utility of a Working Memory Span Task Depends on Processing Demand and the Cognitive Task.
    Kaisa Kanerva, Virpi Kalakoski.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 06, 2016
    The relationship between performance in working memory (WM) span tasks, scholastic skills and fluid intelligence was investigated to determine how WM span is related to higher order cognition. The predictive utility of two WM span tasks differing in the demand of the processing task was studied with controlled presentation times and a broad set of academic criterion tasks. Sixty‐eight adolescents (mean age 16 years) completed two WM span tasks, Raven's Progressive Matrices and several scholastic performance measures. The results showed that the more demanding WM span task predicted fluid intelligence, but did not contribute uniquely in explaining scholastic performance. In contrast, the less demanding WM task predicted scholastic performance. The results suggest that the strength of the relation between WM performance and higher order cognition varies in conjunction with both the demand of the WM span task and the type of higher order cognition measure.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 06, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3243   open full text
  • The Role of Temporal and Spatial Information Cues in Locating Missing Persons.
    Kara N. Moore, James M. Lampinen, Andrew C. Provenzano.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 03, 2016
    Prospective person memory refers to the search for a missing or wanted person. Performance on prospective person memory tasks has been found to be poor in field‐based experiments. Prior research suggests that the size of the search space may influence success on prospective person memory tasks. In the present research, we gave participants randomly assigned temporal and spatial cues about a mock missing person's whereabouts. Participants were offered a monetary reward for accurately reporting seeing the missing person. Participants who were told the missing person would appear in the building, where they were, had higher expectations of encountering the missing person and made more sightings than participants told the missing person would appear on the university campus. Expectations of encounter predicted participants' intent to look for the missing person, which predicted actual looking behavior, which ultimately predicted accurate sightings.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 03, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3242   open full text
  • Note Taking and Note Reviewing Enhance Jurors' Recall of Trial Information.
    Craig Thorley.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 01, 2016
    Jurors forget critical trial information and this can influence their verdicts. This study assessed (1) whether or not note taking during a trial improves mock jurors' recall of trial information and (2) whether or not reviewing these notes prior to recalling the trial offers any additional enhancement. Mock jurors first watched a trial video. Three‐quarters were permitted to take notes whilst watching it. One‐third of these mock jurors then reviewed their notes, one‐third mentally reviewed the trial only, and one‐third completed a filler task to prevent any form of reviewing. The remainder took no notes during the trial and also completed a filler task afterwards. All then had their memory of the trial assessed via free recall. The principal findings were (1) note taking enhanced recall of the trial and (2) note reviewing offered an additional recall enhancement. The applied implications of these findings are discussed.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3240   open full text
  • Die Hard in Notting Hill: Gender Differences in Recalling Contents from Action and Romantic Movies.
    Peter Wühr, Sascha Schwarz.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 01, 2016
    We investigated the impact of movie genre preferences on memory for movie content. Starting from a well‐documented gender gap in movie preferences, we predicted that women would recall more contents from a romantic movie than from an action movie, whereas men were expected to recall more contents from an action movie than from a romantic movie. In two experiments, male and female participants watched 30‐minute clips from action and romantic movies and then answered 30 questions on movie content and additional questions. Both experiments showed that women recalled relatively more information from a romantic movie than from an action movie, whereas men showed the opposite pattern. Further analyses showed that these effects were independent from participants' familiarity with the movie and not mediated by participants' liking of a particular movie. In general, the results of our study provide further evidence for an effect of (gender‐related) interests on memory performance.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3238   open full text
  • Improving Unfamiliar Face Matching by Masking the External Facial Features.
    Richard I. Kemp, Alita Caon, Mark Howard, Kevin R. Brooks.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 01, 2016
    Counter‐terrorism and crime prevention often depend on our ability to match images of unfamiliar faces. For example, when issuing passports, staff must establish an applicant's identity by comparing the submitted photograph witht those in the database of current passports to ensure that multiple documents are not issued to the same person under different names. Previous research has shown that this is a difficult and error prone task. We suggest that this ‘passport problem’ may be due to an over‐reliance on the appearance of external facial features that can be unreliable cues to identity. Compatible with this explanation, we demonstrate that in difficult trials involving a change of appearance or attempted fraud involving a similar looking foil, participants are better able to determine whether two images are of the same person when shown only the internal features of the faces rather than whole images. This discovery has significant practical implications and could form the basis of a procedure to improve the detection of identity fraud.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 01, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3239   open full text
  • Recognition Practice Results in a Generalizable Skill in Older Adults: Decreased Intrusion Errors to Novel Objects Belonging to Practiced Categories.
    Ashleigh M. Maxcey, Jessica Bostic, Ted Maldonado.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 12, 2016
    Accessing memories is often accompanied by both positive and negative consequences. For example, practice recognizing some visual images held in memory can improve memory for the practiced images and hurt memory for related images (i.e., recognition‐induced forgetting). However, visual stimuli have been shown to improve memory for older adults by decreasing false memories. This suggests that older adults may be immune to recognition‐induced forgetting and that recognition practice may decrease susceptibility to intrusion errors. We first tested the hypothesis that older adults are immune to recognition‐induced forgetting. We found older adults exhibit recognition‐induced forgetting. Next, we tested the hypothesis that recognition practice decreases older adult's rates of intrusion errors. We found lower intrusion errors for novel objects from practiced categories. This represents a generalizable learning effect; practice recognizing a target object (e.g., your pill bottle) improves the rejection of new lures (e.g., identifying the pill bottle that is not yours).Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3236   open full text
  • Facial Wipes don't Wash: Facial Image Comparison by Video Superimposition Reduces the Accuracy of Face Matching Decisions.
    Ailsa Strathie, Allan McNeill.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 10, 2016
    In cases of disputed CCTV identification, expert testimony based on the results of analysis by facial image comparison may be presented to the Jury. However, many of the techniques lack empirical data to support their use. Using a within‐participants design, we compared the accuracy of face‐matching decisions when images were presented using a ‘facial wipe’ technique (where one image is superimposed on another and the display gradually ‘wipes’ between the two) with decisions based on static images. Experiment 1 used high‐quality image pairs; Experiment 2 used disguised target images; and Experiment 3 used degraded target images. Across all three experiments, rather than optimising performance, facial wipes reduced accuracy relative to static presentations. Further, there is evidence that video wipes increase false positives and therefore may increase the likelihood that images of two different people will be incorrectly judged to show the same individual.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3218   open full text
  • Gender Identity Predicts Autobiographical Memory Phenomenology.
    Azriel Grysman, Robyn Fivush.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 03, 2016
    Gender differences emerge regularly in autobiographical memory research. We suggest that gender differences in phenomenological self‐report measures of autobiographical memory are rooted in gender identity rather than categorical gender. Reminiscing about the past is perceived as a female‐typical activity, and therefore, gender‐typical individuals will conform to these stereotypes. In this study, 196 participants, age 18–40, each rated the phenomenology of four event memories. Ratings of feminine gender identity, also completed by participants, consistently correlated with MEQ scores, indicating that greater endorsement of feminine gender norms predicted higher memory quality and valence. Masculine gender identity also correlated with MEQ scores, but these correlations were less consistent. Findings suggest that a focus on gender identity can both explain the source of some gender differences in autobiographical memory and potentially explain some inconsistencies in the current literature.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3235   open full text
  • Collaborative Inhibition and Semantic Recall: Improving Collaboration Through Computer‐mediated Communication.
    Joanne M. Hinds, Stephen J. Payne.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 03, 2016
    Two experiments investigated the recall of nominal and collaborating groups to test the following hypotheses: (i) semantic memory, as well as episodic memory, is disrupted by collaborative recall and (ii) both episodic and semantic recall will be greater in groups collaborating via computer‐mediated communication (CMC) than groups collaborating face to face. Experiment 1 investigated different collaborative constellations (nominal, face to face and parallel CMC) in a series of episodic and semantic word recall tasks. In Experiment 2, collaborative groups (nominal, face to face, parallel CMC and cyclic CMC) completed a Scrabble task in which they were required to generate words from a set of 12 letters. Both experiments demonstrated that collaborative inhibition was present in semantic recall. Parallel CMC improved recall by comparison with face‐to‐face collaboration in both experiments, whereas cyclic CMC did not. The underlying causes of collaborative inhibitory effects and the potential for reducing them with CMC are discussed.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3228   open full text
  • Impact of the Arrangement of Game Information on Recall Performance of Multiplayer Online Battle Arena Players.
    Justin W. Bonny, Lisa M. Castaneda.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 03, 2016
    Individuals who have domain‐specific knowledge, such as chess players and dancers, have been found to use schemas to organize and anticipate information. We examined whether multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) game players use a similar strategy. Participants were presented with a memory task where they recalled the status of game features as displayed on a mini‐map. The task contained two conditions: a condition where game features were arranged in a manner consistent with gameplay and a condition where game features were arranged in a random manner. Recall accuracy for highly structured game features was affected by whether a mini‐map was consistent or arbitrarily arranged and varied with participants' MOBA expertise. This is in line with previous expertise research that has found that knowledge of underlying probability structures of events contained within schemas is indicative of domain‐specific knowledge. This suggests that MOBA players can be used to study skill acquisition.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3234   open full text
  • Learning about Probability from Text and Tables: Do Color Coding and Labeling through an Interactive‐user Interface Help?
    Virginia Clinton, Kinga Morsanyi, Martha W. Alibali, Mitchell J. Nathan.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 25, 2016
    Learning from visual representations is enhanced when learners appropriately integrate corresponding visual and verbal information. This study examined the effects of two methods of promoting integration, color coding and labeling, on learning about probabilistic reasoning from a table and text. Undergraduate students (N = 98) were randomly assigned to learn about probabilistic reasoning from one of 4 computer‐based lessons generated from a 2 (color coding/no color coding) by 2 (labeling/no labeling) between‐subjects design. Learners added the labels or color coding at their own pace by clicking buttons in a computer‐based lesson. Participants' eye movements were recorded while viewing the lesson. Labeling was beneficial for learning, but color coding was not. In addition, labeling, but not color coding, increased attention to important information in the table and time with the lesson. Both labeling and color coding increased looks between the text and corresponding information in the table. The findings provide support for the multimedia principle, and they suggest that providing labeling enhances learning about probabilistic reasoning from text and tables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3223   open full text
  • Paranormal Believers' Susceptibility to Confirmatory Versus Disconfirmatory Conjunctions.
    Paul Rogers, John E. Fisk, Emma Lowrie.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 25, 2016
    This study examines paranormal believers' susceptibility to the conjunction fallacy for confirmatory versus non‐confirmatory conjunctive events. Members of the UK public (N = 207) read 16 hypothetical vignettes before judging the likelihood that each constituent and their conjunction would (co) occur. Event type (paranormal versus non‐paranormal), outcome type (confirming versus disconfirming) and level of paranormal belief (in either extrasensory perception, psychokinesis or life after death)—plus relevant interaction terms—were entered into a linear mixed model analysis. As hypothesised, paranormal belief was associated with more conjunction errors regardless of event type with, in general, more errors made for confirmatory over disconfirmatory conjunctions. These trends existed for extrasensory perception and psychokinesis believers with those for life after death believers approaching significance. Consistent with Crupi and Tentori's Confirmation–Theoretical Framework, current findings suggest that paranormal believers are prone to a generic and confirmatory conjunction fallacy. Theoretical implications, methodological limitations and future research ideas are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 25, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3222   open full text
  • Sensitizing Potential Jurors to Variations in Eyewitness Evidence Quality Using Counterfactual Thinking.
    Dario N. Rodriguez, Melissa A. Berry.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 17, 2016
    Jurors often have difficulty evaluating eyewitness testimony. Counterfactual thinking is a type of mental simulation that informs causal inference. Encouraging jurors to think counterfactually about eyewitness factors may sensitize them to these factors' causal influence on eyewitness identification and testimony accuracy, improving their overall judgments (such as verdicts). One hundred twenty‐one undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to read a scenario containing either high‐quality or low‐quality eyewitness evidence and to evaluate eyewitness factors adopting either their default or a counterfactual mindset via a question‐order manipulation. Logistic regressions and analyses of variance revealed that a counterfactual mindset lowered perceptions of eyewitness accuracy and guilty verdicts (compared with the default mindset) when the evidence was poor; a counterfactual mindset, however, did not increase perceptions of accuracy and guilty verdicts when evidence was strong. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying these effects and identify several potential avenues for future research.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3233   open full text
  • The ‘Magical’ Effect of Integration on Event Memory.
    Kaila C. Bruer, Heather L. Price, Tom L. Phenix.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 17, 2016
    Only a handful of studies have extended our understanding of retrieval induced forgetting (RIF) during development and even fewer have tested for RIF effects outside word‐list paradigms. The purpose of these experiments was to: (i) examine how partial retrieval of a witnessed event would impact subsequent retrieval of that event in school‐aged children; and (ii) examine the robustness of semantic integration as a boundary condition on RIF. Two experiments were conducted using the three traditional phases of the RIF paradigm: study phase, practice phase, and test phase. We found clear evidence of RIF in event memory. There was also evidence of the robust impact that integration instructions have on minimizing RIF. Integration appears to not only have a dampening effect on RIF, but integration instructions may also influence how children process all aspects of an experience, regardless of whether a person is passively or actively part of the experience.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3232   open full text
  • Does Providing Prompts During Retrieval Practice Improve Learning?
    Megan A. Smith, Janell R. Blunt, Joshua W. Whiffen, Jeffrey D. Karpicke.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 17, 2016
    The purpose of this investigation was to identify ways to prompt retrieval practice to make recall even more effective at producing meaningful learning. In two experiments, subjects read educational texts and practiced retrieval across two periods. During prompted retrieval, subjects were cued to explain and describe concepts from the text, whereas during free recall, subjects recalled as much of the material from the text as they could. A reading control condition was also included. Learning was assessed using both verbatim and higher‐order questions 1 week later. Practicing retrieval improved learning relative to the control on both types of questions; however, whether subjects practiced free or prompted retrieval did not matter for learning. Subjects rated prompted retrieval as less enjoyable and interesting than the other retrieval conditions. Results demonstrate practicing retrieval promoted meaningful learning, and that subjects' initial retrieval success was highest when they used their own retrieval strategies during recall. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3227   open full text
  • Professional Experience and Referencing Context Explain Variance in Use of Spatial Frames of Reference.
    Lisa Hüther, Tanja Müller, Hans Spada.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 15, 2016
    The location of objects in relation to other objects can be perceived of and communicated in different ways. Assuming that variance in spatial Frame of Reference (FoR) use may be explained by practical professional requirements, we reasoned that medical professionals may increasingly use the intrinsic FoR which because of its observer‐independence is less prone to misunderstandings than relative FoRs. We compared FoR‐use of beginner and advanced medical students (n = 142) to that of law students (n = 191) using 40 ambiguous referencing tasks. We found that medical students applied the intrinsic FoR more frequently than law students in a medical yet not in a generic context. Beginners did not differ from advanced students. Within contexts, individuals were highly consistent in their FoR‐use. Investigation of latencies indicates that processing of the intrinsic FoR becomes easier with practice. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 15, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3231   open full text
  • Brief Report: Comparing the Autobiographical Remembering of Iranian Immigrant Trauma Survivors with That of Iranian and British Trauma Survivors.
    Laura Jobson, Sepideh Cheraghi, Ali Reza Moradi.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 15, 2016
    This study investigated how culture and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) influence the autobiographical remembering of Iranian trauma survivors living in Britain compared to the remembering of British trauma survivors living in their host culture (Britain) and Iranians in their culture of origin (Iran). Iranian immigrants with and without PTSD completed measures of autobiographical remembering. Data was compared to previously collected data from British and Iranian trauma survivors with and without PTSD. It was found that the memory‐content of Iranian immigrants' memories resembled that of Iranian trauma survivors in Iran, while the phenomenological properties of their autobiographical remembering more closely resembled that of British trauma survivors. Moreover, there were pan‐cultural distortions and deficits in the autobiographical remembering of those with PTSD. The findings suggest that immigrants with PTSD have similar disruptions and distortions in their autobiographical remembering as that of individuals with PTSD living in their host culture and culture of origin.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 15, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3230   open full text
  • Reading Without Words: Eye Movements in the Comprehension of Comic Strips.
    Tom Foulsham, Dean Wybrow, Neil Cohn.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 15, 2016
    The study of attention in pictures is mostly limited to individual images. When we ‘read’ a visual narrative (e.g., a comic strip), the pictures have a coherent sequence, but it is not known how this affects attention. In two experiments, we eyetracked participants in order to investigate how disrupting the visual sequence of a comic strip would affect attention. Both when panels were presented one at a time (Experiment 1) and when a sequence was presented all together (Experiment 2), pictures were understood more quickly and with fewer fixations when in their original order. When order was randomised, the same pictures required more attention and additional ‘regressions’. Fixation distributions also differed when the narrative was intact, showing that context affects where we look. This reveals the role of top‐down structures when we attend to pictorial information, as well as providing a springboard for applied research into attention within image sequences.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 15, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3229   open full text
  • Effects of Task Interruption and Background Speech on Word Processed Writing.
    Marijke Keus van de Poll, Patrik Sörqvist.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 13, 2016
    Task interruptions and background speech, both part of the everyday situation in office environments, impair cognitive performance. The current experiments explored the combined effects of background speech and task interruptions on word processed writing—arguably, a task representative of office work. Participants wrote stories, in silence or in the presence of background speech (monologues, halfalogues and dialogues), and were occasionally interrupted by a secondary task. Writing speed was comparably low during the immediate period after the interruption (Experiments 1 and 2); it took 10–15 s to regain full writing speed. Background speech had only a small effect on performance (Experiment 1), but a dialogue was more disruptive than a halfalogue (Experiment 2). Background speech did not add to the cost caused by task interruptions. However, subjective measures suggested that speech, just as interruptions, contributed to perceived workload. The findings are discussed in view of attentional capture and interference‐by‐process mechanisms.© 2016 The Authors. Applied Cognitive Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 13, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3221   open full text
  • Cognitive Biases in Visual Pilots' Weather‐Related Decision Making.
    Stephen Walmsley, Andrew Gilbey.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 08, 2016
    Flights into deteriorating weather conditions are a significant cause of fatalities in general aviation accidents. This study investigated whether three common cognitive heuristics (anchoring and adjustment, confirmation, outcome) could lead to cognitive biases that might adversely affect pilots' weather‐related decision making. Study 1 found that weather reports obtained before a flight affected how pilots interpreted weather cues during flights (anchoring and adjustment). Study 2 found no evidence that pilots favoured disconfirmatory evidence over confirmatory evidence when deciding which environmental cues were most useful in deciding whether to continue a flight (confirmation). Study 3 found that pilots interpreted the decisions of pilots who flew into deteriorating weather conditions more favourably when the outcome was positive than when it was negative (outcome). These findings suggest that use of these three cognitive heuristics may lead to pilots continuing to fly into deteriorating weather conditions when the safer option is to divert or turn back. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 08, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3225   open full text
  • Creating Memories for False Autobiographical Events in Childhood: A Systematic Review.
    Chris R. Brewin, Bernice Andrews.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 08, 2016
    Using a framework that distinguishes autobiographical belief, recollective experience, and confidence in memory, we review three major paradigms used to suggest false childhood events to adults: imagination inflation, false feedback and memory implantation. Imagination inflation and false feedback studies increase the belief that a suggested event occurred by a small amount such that events are still thought unlikely to have happened. In memory implantation studies, some recollective experience for the suggested events is induced on average in 47% of participants, but only in 15% are these experiences likely to be rated as full memories. We conclude that susceptibility to false memories of childhood events appears more limited than has been suggested. The data emphasise the complex judgements involved in distinguishing real from imaginary recollections and caution against accepting investigator‐based ratings as necessarily corresponding to participants' self‐reports. Recommendations are made for presenting the results of these studies in courtroom settings. © 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    April 08, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3220   open full text
  • The Launching and Ensnaring Effects of Construing a Traumatic Event as Central to One's Identity and Life Story.
    Ines Blix, Marianne Skogbrott Birkeland, Øivind Solberg, Marianne Bang Hansen, Trond Heir.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 08, 2016
    Construing a traumatic event as central to one's life story and identity is associated with posttraumatic stress. The longitudinal relationship between centrality of event and trajectories of posttraumatic stress was examined. Data from ministerial employees were collected 10 months, 2 years, and 3 years after the 2011 Oslo bombing (N = 259). Using structural equation modeling, the launch and the snare hypotheses were tested. Support for the launch hypothesis was found; higher levels of event centrality 10 months after the attack were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress across time. Support for the snare hypothesis was also found; higher levels of centrality 10 months and 2 years after the bombing were related to higher levels of posttraumatic stress, beyond what could be anticipated based on the individual's general trajectory. This suggests that event centrality can influence the overall trajectory, and may also have additional time‐specific effects on posttraumatic stress.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 08, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3224   open full text
  • Structure Building Predicts Grades in College Psychology and Biology.
    Kathleen M. Arnold, David B. Daniel, Jamie L. Jensen, Mark A. McDaniel, Elizabeth J. Marsh.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 07, 2016
    Knowing what skills underlie college success can allow students, teachers, and universities to identify and to help at‐risk students. One skill that may underlie success across a variety of subject areas is structure building, the ability to create mental representations of narratives (Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, ). We tested if individual differences in structure‐building ability predicted success in two college classes: introductory to psychology and introductory biology. In both cases, structure building predicted success. This effect was robust, with structure building explaining variance in course grades even after accounting for high school GPA and SAT scores (in the psychology course) or a measure of domain knowledge (in the biology course). The results support the claim that structure building is an important individual difference, one that is associated with learning in different domains. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 07, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3226   open full text
  • Working Memory Capacity and Self‐Explanation Strategy Use Provide Additive Problem‐Solving Benefits.
    Jenni L. Redifer, David J. Therriault, Christine S. Lee, Amber N. Schroeder.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 31, 2016
    The present study examined the impact of working memory capacity (WMC) on college students' ability to solve probability problems while using a self‐explanation strategy. Participants learned to solve probability problems in one of three conditions: a backward‐faded self‐explanation condition, an example problem pairs self‐explanation condition, or a control (no self‐explanation) condition. Even when accounting for the impact of WMC, learning to problem‐solve using self‐explanation led to superior problem‐solving performance. Conditions that prompted self‐explanation during problem‐solving resulted in significantly better problem‐solving performance than the control condition. These findings provide insight into the influence of individual differences on problem‐solving when strategies are provided, as well as information about the effectiveness of the self‐explanation strategy during mathematical problem‐solving. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 31, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3219   open full text
  • Misperception of Chance, Conjunction, Framing Effects and Belief in the Paranormal: A Further Evaluation.
    Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Denovan, Andrew Parker, Kevin Rowley.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 19, 2016
    Studies exploring relationships between belief in the paranormal and vulnerability to cognitive bias suggest that believers are liable to misperception of chance and conjunction fallacy. Research investigating misperception of chance has produced consistent findings, whilst work on conjunction fallacy is less compelling. Evidence indicates also that framing biases within a paranormal context can increase believers' susceptibility. The present study, using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling, examined the contribution of each bias to belief in the paranormal and assessed the merits of previous research. Alongside, the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale, participants completed standard and paranormal framed perception of randomness and conjunction problems. Perception of randomness was more strongly associated with belief in the paranormal than conjunction fallacy. Inherent methodological issues limited the usefulness of framing manipulations; presenting problems within a paranormal context weakened their predictive power.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 19, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3217   open full text
  • Perceptual Load Induces Inattentional Blindness in Drivers.
    Gillian Murphy, Ciara M. Greene.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 10, 2016
    Perceptual load theory states that the level of perceptual load in a task predicts the processing of task‐irrelevant information. High perceptual load has been shown to result in increased inattentional blindness; however, there is little evidence that this extends beyond artificial computer‐based tasks to real‐world behavior. In this study, we adapted a typical load‐blindness paradigm for use in a driving simulator. Forty‐two drivers performed a series of gap perception tasks where they judged if their vehicle could fit between two parked vehicles, with the task imposing either low or high perceptual load. Awareness for an unexpected pedestrian or animal at the side of the road was found to be significantly lower in the high perceptual load condition. This study is the first to demonstrate perceptual load effects on awareness in an applied setting and has important implications for road safety and future applied research on the perceptual load model.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3216   open full text
  • Exploring the Use of Experience Sampling to Assess Episodic Thought.
    Janie Busby Grant, Erin Walsh.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 10, 2016
    Mental time travel is the ability to mentally relive events in one's own past (episodic recall) and pre‐live potential personal future events (episodic foresight). Recent research has used experience sampling to reveal when and how often we think about the past and future in everyday life; however, it remains unclear how much of thought is episodic, involving the sense of self that underpins mental time travel. In this study, we investigate the use of experience sampling to assess the frequency of episodic past and future thought in everyday life. Participants (n = 214) were exposed to 20 short message service prompts over 1 or 2 days. Half of thoughts were sited in the present; of the remainder, future‐oriented thoughts were more frequent than past‐oriented thoughts. Participants reported 20% of thoughts as episodic. This study suggests that experience sampling methodology can provide a means of assessing episodic thought during everyday activities.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3215   open full text
  • Memorial Monitoring and Control: How Confidence and Social and Financial Consequences Affect Eyewitnesses' Reporting of Fine‐Grain Information.
    Nicole A. McCallum, Neil Brewer, Nathan Weber.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 10, 2016
    Research suggests that accessible coarse‐grain (i.e. general) information is sometimes under‐reported in memory accounts. In two experiments, socially motivating conditions were manipulated to determine whether, and under what contexts, coarse‐grain information is avoided because eyewitnesses are motivated to be specific and willing to risk accuracy. In Experiment 1, response privacy (private, public) and audience (high authority, low authority) were manipulated. Response privacy and penalty for inaccurate reporting (penalty, no penalty) were manipulated in Experiment 2. Across both experiments, eyewitnesses' confidence estimation (i.e. monitoring) was effective, suggesting that coarse‐grain information is under‐reported through poor decision making (i.e. control). Eyewitnesses avoided coarse‐grain information because they sometimes displayed a bias towards reporting fine‐grain information. This bias was more apparent, and coarse‐grain information avoiding more likely, when the perceived consequences for reporting were minimal (i.e. when in private in Experiment 1 and when no penalty for inaccuracy was imposed in Experiment 2). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 10, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3212   open full text
  • Teenage Offenders' Ability to Detect Deception in Their Peers.
    Louise Jupe, Lucy Akehurst, Zarah Vernham, James Allen.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 17, 2016
    This study investigated the deception detection abilities of teenage offenders and teenage non‐offenders who made veracity judgments about 12 videotaped interviewees and also explored the behavioural characteristics of teenage liars and truth tellers. The findings revealed that teenage offenders were significantly more accurate in their credibility judgments than teenage non‐offenders. However, the offenders' impressive accuracy rates were not as a consequence of using valid cues to deceit. The feedback hypothesis helps to explain why the offenders were more accurate in their decisions: Operating within a criminal environment may mean that teenage offenders frequently lie and are lied to. Consequently, they receive more feedback than non‐offenders regarding the effectiveness of their lies as well as how successful they are at detecting lies. As a result, their lie detection ability improves. The current study suggests moving away from individual deceptive cues as predictors of deceit towards a more intuitive and holistic approach to lie detection, such as the Brunswikian Lens Model.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3214   open full text
  • Uncovering Uncertainty through Disagreement.
    Susannah B. F. Paletz, Joel Chan, Christian D. Schunn.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 17, 2016
    This study explored the association between different types of brief disagreements and subsequent levels of expressed psychological uncertainty, a fundamental cognitive aspect of complex problem solving. We examined 11 hours (11 861 utterances) of conversations in expert science teams, sampled across the first 90 days of the Mars Exploration Rover mission. Utterances were independently coded for micro‐conflicts and expressed psychological uncertainty. Using time‐lagged hierarchical linear modeling applied to blocks of 25 utterances, we found that micro‐conflicts regarding rover planning were followed by greater uncertainty. Brief disagreements about science issues were followed by an increase in expressed uncertainty early in the mission. Examining the potential reverse temporal association, uncertainty actually predicted fewer subsequent disagreements, ruling out indirect, third variable associations of conflict and uncertainty. Overall, these findings suggest that some forms of disagreement may serve to uncover important areas of uncertainty in complex teamwork, perhaps via revealing differences in mental models.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 17, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3213   open full text
  • Modeling Individual Differences in Autobiographical Memory Distributions Using Mixed Logitnormal Regression.
    Daniel Zimprich, Tabea Wolf.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 02, 2016
    We introduce a model for examining individual differences in the lifespan distribution of autobiographical memories (after the exclusion of recent memories). The model is based on the logitnormal distribution, contains two submodels, one for location (average age at which autobiographical memories were encoded) and one for scale (range of ages at which autobiographical memories were encoded), allows for the inclusion of predictor variables, and includes random effects. The model was used to analyze autobiographical memories reported by 90 older participants. Results show that there were reliable individual differences in location and scale. Moreover, age, proportion of positive memories, proportion of first‐time experiences, comprehensibility, and meaningfulness accounted for 26% of individual differences in location and 23% of individual differences in scale of autobiographical memory distributions. These findings indicate that individual differences are present in autobiographical memory distributions and can, in part, be accounted for by characteristics of the memories and of the person who generated them.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 02, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3211   open full text
  • Tracks to a Medical Diagnosis: Expertise Differences in Visual Problem Solving.
    Thomas Jaarsma, Henny P. A. Boshuizen, Halszka Jarodzka, Marius Nap, Peter Verboon, Jeroen J. G. Merriënboer.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 28, 2016
    This study focuses on the visual problem‐solving process of clinical pathologists. Its aim is to find expertise‐related differences in the temporal arrangement of this process, with a special focus on the orientation phase. A theoretical model of the visual diagnostic process of medical specialists is extended with general problem‐solving theory. Participants were 13 experts, 12 intermediates, and 13 novices, who all diagnosed seven microscopic images. Their microscope movements and thinking aloud were recorded. To study temporal arrangement of the process, we applied a time‐grid to the data. The results reflected several aspects of general problem‐solving theory. Experts and intermediates showed a more extensive orientation phase and more refined schemata than novices. Intermediates also showed a control phase at the end of the diagnostic process. Novices showed a uniform process. These phases were reflected in microscope navigation and thinking aloud, which justifies the extension of the theoretical model.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 28, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3201   open full text
  • Creating Nostalgic Advertising Based on the Reminiscence Bump: Diachronic Relevance and Purchase Intent.
    Ilyoung Ju, Yunmi Choi, Jon Morris, Hsiao‐Wen Liao, Susan Bluck.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 22, 2016
    Nostalgic advertising uses images relevant to past periods in individuals' lives to market products. The current study examines the reminiscence bump in a new context: reactions to nostalgic advertising. We examine diachronic relevance and its influence on purchase intent using a 3 (time frame: bump advertisements, non‐bump past advertisements, present‐focused advertisements) × 2 (age group: Generation X, late‐stage baby boomers) between‐subject design. Results show that advertisements for a fictional camera brand (i.e., Optimax) that focus on a bump year (i.e., 15–24 years) have more diachronic relevance than advertisements from either a non‐bump past year or present‐focused advertisements. In addition, advertisements focused on bump years elicit greater intent to purchase the advertised product than non‐bump past and present‐focused advertisements. Analyses show that intent to purchase the product is fully mediated by diachronic relevance of the bump‐year advertisement. These effects hold across both age groups.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3210   open full text
  • The Productivity of Wh‐ Prompts when Children Testify.
    Samantha J. Andrews, Elizabeth C. Ahern, Stacia N. Stolzenberg, Thomas D. Lyon.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 22, 2016
    Wh‐ prompts (what, how, why, who, when, and where) vary widely in their specificity and accuracy, but differences among them have largely been ignored in research examining the productivity of different question types in child testimony. We examined 120 six‐ to 12‐year‐olds' criminal court testimony in child sexual abuse cases to compare the productivity of various wh‐ prompts. We distinguished among wh‐ prompts, most notably the following: what/how‐happen prompts focusing generally on events, what/how‐dynamic prompts focusing on actions or unfolding processes/events, what/how‐causality prompts focusing on causes and reasons, and what/how‐static prompts focusing on non‐action contextual information regarding location, objects, and time. Consistent with predictions, what/how‐happen prompts were the most productive, and both what/how‐dynamic prompts and wh‐ prompts about causality were more productive than other wh‐ prompts. Prosecutors asked proportionally more what/how‐dynamic prompts and fewer what/how‐static prompts than defense attorneys. Future research and interviewer training may benefit from finer discrimination among wh‐ prompts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 22, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3204   open full text
  • Children as Earwitnesses: Memory for Emotional Auditory Events.
    Lisa Victoria Burrell, Miriam Sinkerud Johnson, Annika Melinder.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 21, 2016
    We examined the influence of age and emotionality of auditory stimuli on long‐term memory for environmental sound events. Sixty children aged 7–11 years were presented with two environmental sound events: an emotional car crash and a neutral event, someone brushing their teeth. The sound events comprised six individual environmental sounds, and the participants passively listened to the sound events through a headset. After a two‐week delay, participants performed a cued recall task and a recognition task. Independent of age, children were notably poor at recalling the sound events. Children recalled and recognized significantly more sounds from the emotional sound event than the neutral sound event. Additionally, the older children performed the recall task better than the younger children. The present findings confirm and expand the previously reported superiority of emotional material in memory.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 21, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3202   open full text
  • False Memories for an Analogue Trauma: Does Thought Suppression Help or Hinder Memory Accuracy?
    Jacinta M. Oulton, Deryn Strange, Melanie K.T. Takarangi.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 18, 2016
    In the current study, we investigated whether suppression can produce an amplified memory for a traumatic experience. Participants viewed a distressing film depicting a multi‐fatality car accident. We broke the film down into several short clips, some of which were removed. After viewing the film, we instructed participants to (i) suppress and monitor film‐related thoughts, (ii) think freely and monitor film‐related thoughts or (iii) just think freely. Twenty‐four hours later, participants completed a recognition test. Memory distortion was comparable across conditions; however, suppression and monitoring of trauma‐related thoughts removed the typical bias to falsely remember the most critical and traumatic clips of the film over the least critical clips. Our data suggest that suppression may be effective in reducing trauma‐related cognitions and, therefore, does not predict a more ‘amplified’ memory for trauma. Instead, suppression and thought monitoring encourage an unbiased, although inaccurate, memory for trauma.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 18, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3208   open full text
  • Looking at Both Sides of the Coin: Mixed Representation Moderates Attribute‐framing Bias in Written and Auditory Messages.
    Hamutal Kreiner, Eyal Gamliel.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 12, 2016
    Objects and events are often evaluated more favourably when presented in a positive frame than when presented in the complementary negative framing. Recent studies show that this attribute‐framing bias can be moderated when both positive and negative frames are represented in the message. Most attribute‐framing studies used written messages, although important messages are often conveyed auditorily. Unlike written messages, recipients cannot reread auditory messages and have to rely on their memory when evaluating them; consequently, the moderating effect of mixed representation may depend on memory constraints. The current study compared the framing bias in single‐attribute versus mixed‐attribute representations in written and auditory messages. In both written and auditory messages, single‐attribute representation yielded substantial framing bias whereas mixed‐attribute representation moderated the bias. The results are discussed in terms of the role of memory and attention in the attribute‐framing bias. Theoretical and practical implications are considered, and future research is suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 12, 2016   doi: 10.1002/acp.3203   open full text
  • Social Contagion in Competitors Versus Cooperators.
    Su Hyoun Park, Lisa K. Son, Min‐Shik Kim.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. November 19, 2015
    The current study examined social contagion—or the spreading of memories from individual to individual—in two different social contexts: Competition and Cooperation. Participants were provided with words (Experiments 1A and 1B) or scenes (Experiment 2) to study. After study, participants were randomly divided: Half were given a competitive context, and the other half, a cooperative context. Then, in the paired recall phase, each participant took turns with a confederate partner in recalling the previously studied items. On a subsequent test, participants had to report the items that were recalled on the pair recall phase, in addition to who had recalled that item. The results showed that competitors, as compared with cooperators, were more likely to focus on other people's memories, and surprisingly, the same difference obtained for false memories. Essentially, people who are primed with a competitive context were more easily ‘infected’ by memories, true or false. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 19, 2015   doi: 10.1002/acp.3197   open full text
  • Rational Thinking Promotes Suspect‐friendly Legal Decision Making.
    Eric Rassin.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. November 17, 2015
    Judges, juries, and other legal decision makers are frequently obligated to find facts about an alleged crime. Does this fact finding benefit from purely rational decision making or from a more intuitive approach? In three studies, rationality was found to be related to more suspect‐lenient decision making. The data suggest that fact finding in criminal proceedings is served best with strictly rational analyses of the evidence, rather than with intuition, gut feeling, and other obscure decision processes.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    November 17, 2015   doi: 10.1002/acp.3198   open full text
  • Examining the Relationship Between Conspiracy Theories, Paranormal Beliefs, and Pseudoscience Acceptance Among a University Population.
    Emilio Lobato, Jorge Mendoza, Valerie Sims, Matthew Chin.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 02, 2014
    Very little research has investigated whether believing in paranormal, conspiracy, and pseudoscientific claims are related, even though they share the property of having no epistemic warrant. The present study investigated the association between these categories of epistemically unwarranted beliefs. Results revealed moderate to strong positive correlations between the three categories of epistemically unwarranted beliefs, suggesting that believers in one type tended to also endorse other types. In addition, one individual difference measure, looking at differences in endorsing ontological confusions, was found to be predictive of both paranormal and conspiracy beliefs. Understanding the relationship between peoples' beliefs in these types of claims has theoretical implications for research into why individuals believe empirically unsubstantiated claims. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3042   open full text
  • Mediators of the Relationship Between Life Events and Memory Functioning in a Community Sample of Adults.
    Nicole C. M. Korten, Martin J. Sliwinski, Hannie C. Comijs, Joshua M. Smyth.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 02, 2014
    The present study examines the association of frequency and severity of life events with memory functioning in a community sample of adults. We tested the hypothesis that stress‐related cognitive interference mediated the effects of recent life events on cognition, in addition to examining the potential roles of fatigue, sleep disturbances, and depression. The sample consisted of 310 adults (age range 19–83 years) who received a battery of cognitive tests assessing their primary memory, episodic memory, and working memory. Individuals rated how stressful previous life events were when they occurred, as well as how stressful the events were for them currently. Ratings of current but not past severity were negatively associated with working memory performance. Both stress‐related cognitive interference and depressive symptoms independently mediated this association. These findings highlight the importance of intrusive and avoidant thinking as a potential focus of psychosocial treatment for remediating stress‐related memory dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3043   open full text
  • Implementation Intentions Improve Prospective Memory and Inhibition Performances in Older Adults: The Role of Visualization.
    Christina Burkard, Lucien Rochat, Joëlle Emmenegger, Anne‐Claude Juillerat Van der Linden, Gabriel Gold, Martial Van der Linden.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 02, 2014
    Implementation intentions have been shown to be a very effective strategy in improving prospective memory in older adults. However, their efficacy in improving inhibition has never been assessed in aging. We thus examined the efficacy of implementation intentions in a prospective memory task and an inhibition task in 87 older participants. Following a crossover design, half of the participants were instructed to form an implementation intention in the prospective memory task, the other half in the inhibition task. The moderating role of working memory, visualization and verbalization habits, and impulsivity were also assessed. Regression analyses revealed that for both tasks, participants benefited from implementation intentions but only if they were used to using visual strategies in daily life. The efficacy of implementation intentions was not moderated by working memory, impulsivity, or the use of verbal strategies in everyday life. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3046   open full text
  • Interview Protocols to Facilitate Human Intelligence Sources' Recollections of Meetings.
    Drew A. Leins, Ronald P. Fisher, Leonie Pludwinski, Jillian Rivard, Belinda Robertson.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 26, 2014
    Two experiments tested mnemonics for enhancing memory for family meeting occurrences and details. Experiment 1 tested a set of seven mnemonics to facilitate recollections of family meeting occurrences. Mnemonics helped respondents report 70% more event occurrences than were reported during unaided free recall. Experiment 2 tested (i) a revised set of mnemonics to facilitate recollections of family meeting occurrences and (ii) a version of the cognitive interview to facilitate recollections of event details. Similar to Experiment 1, the revised set of mnemonics helped respondents recall double the number of events recalled during unaided free recall. For event details, when compared with a control interview, the cognitive interview elicited more than twice as many person, conversation, action, and setting details. The mnemonics used in these experiments are relatively easy to modify and implement in intelligence‐gathering interviews with human intelligence sources. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 26, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3041   open full text
  • Unexpected Positive Events Do Not Result in Flashbulb Memories.
    Amanda Kraha, Jennifer M. Talarico, Adriel Boals.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 16, 2014
    The study of flashbulb memories has typically been confined to negative events such as the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. Previous studies that investigated the role of affect on memory formation have produced conflicting results, making it difficult to ascertain the properties of positive flashbulb memories. In the current study, we employ previously established methods to investigate flashbulb memory formation for the assassination of Osama bin Laden. This resonated as a highly positive event for many Americans evidenced by the thousands of people flooding the streets of Washington, D.C., and New York City to celebrate. Results confirm the fading of memory details over time and further suggest that positive events do not result in the heightened vividness and confidence seen in negatively valenced flashbulb memories. We argue that these findings are additional evidence against a special memory mechanism in flashbulb memory formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 16, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3039   open full text
  • The Who, What, and Why of Human Intelligence Gathering: Self‐Reported Measures of Interrogation Methods.
    Allison D. Redlich, Christopher E. Kelly, Jeaneé C. Miller.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 13, 2014
    A great deal of research in the past two decades has been devoted to interrogation and interviewing techniques. This study contributes to the existing literature using an online survey to examine the frequency of use and perceived effectiveness of interrogation methods for up to 152 military and federal‐level interrogators from the USA. We focus on the who (objective and subjective interrogator characteristics), the what (situational and detainee characteristics), and the why (intended goal of interrogation). Results indicate that rapport and relationship‐building techniques were employed most often and perceived as the most effective regardless of context and intended outcome, particularly in comparison to confrontational techniques. In addition, context was found to be important in that depending on the situational and detainee characteristics and goal, interrogation methods were viewed as more or less effective. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 13, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3040   open full text
  • Learning More About and With the Face–Name Mnemonic Strategy.
    Russell N. Carney, Joel R. Levin.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 08, 2014
    With the face–name mnemonic strategy, choosing and using ‘prominent’ facial features in interactive images can be difficult. The temptation is to stray from less‐than‐distinctive facial features and instead to associate an individual's name clue with an additional concrete detail (e.g., a headband). To examine this issue, undergraduates viewed face photographs with or without additional details under one of three conditions: own best method, fully imposed mnemonic, and partially imposed mnemonic. Experiment 2 examined a somewhat parallel situation that occurs when applying the strategy to abstract artwork (paintings with less familiar, less concrete elements) versus applying it to representational artwork (paintings with more familiar concrete elements). Our findings suggest that some pictorial stimuli (e.g., facial photos with details; representational paintings) are easier to work with mnemonically than are others (e.g., facial photos by themselves; abstract art). Moreover, in both experiments, mnemonic students displayed performance advantages on both immediate and delayed tests. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 08, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3036   open full text
  • A Longitudinal Examination of Overgeneral Memory and Psychopathology in Children Following Recent Trauma Exposure.
    Caitlin Hitchcock, Reginald David Vandervord Nixon, Nathan Weber.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 29, 2014
    This study represents the first longitudinal examination of the trajectory of overgeneral memory (OGM) in children and how this relates to psychopathology immediately after trauma exposure. We recruited fifty 7‐ to 17‐year‐olds who had experienced an accidental injury that resulted in hospital admission. Assessment of psychological symptoms, OGM and cognitive processes proposed to drive OGM was completed at three points over a 6‐month period post‐trauma. We found that OGM was not related to depressive symptoms and that time since trauma exposure moderated the relationship between post‐traumatic stress disorder symptoms and OGM. Although no relationship was found in the first 3 months following trauma, OGM was protective against post‐traumatic stress disorder symptoms at 6 months post‐trauma. Despite models of OGM (e.g. Williams et al., ) emphasising the role of rumination and executive control in explaining OGM, we found no evidence that they were related to OGM. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 29, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3027   open full text
  • Fool Me Twice: The Consequences of Reading (and Rereading) Inaccurate Information.
    Matthew E. Jacovina, Scott R. Hinze, David N. Rapp.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 27, 2014
    Readers frequently encounter inaccuracies in texts that contradict what they should know to be true. The current project examined readers' moment‐by‐moment processing of inaccuracies and whether any difficulty with such material is reduced when readers are already familiar with accurate versions of that content. In two experiments, participants read stories that either accurately or inaccurately described the outcome of a well‐known historic event. Preceding story contexts supported accurate outcomes or introduced suspense to create uncertainty about outcome likelihoods. During initial readings, participants took longer to read inaccurate than accurate outcomes. But this difficulty was substantially reduced when suspenseful contexts called into question the likelihood of well‐known outcomes. Similar reading patterns emerged when participants read the exact same material after week‐long and 5‐minute delays. These results indicate that biasing contexts can influence readers' processing of inaccuracies for even familiar events. Rereading proves insufficient for encouraging reliance on accurate prior knowledge. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 27, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3035   open full text
  • Testing the Cognitive Interview with Professional Interviewers: Enhancing Recall of Specific Details of Recurring Events.
    Jillian R. Rivard, Ronald P. Fisher, Belinda Robertson, Dana Hirn Mueller.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 25, 2014
    Laboratory research and field research have reliably shown that the cognitive interview (CI) enhances eyewitness recall in comparison with standard interview protocols in a criminal investigation context. To address some of the major criticisms of the existing CI literature, the current experiment compared the CI with the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center's five‐step interview protocol in an intelligence‐gathering context using experienced interviewers and adult interviewees. The CI elicited significantly more event‐relevant information from the interviewees than the five‐step model, the standard training offered at Federal Law Enforcement Training Center. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 25, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3026   open full text
  • Retrieval (Sometimes) Enhances Learning: Performance Pressure Reduces the Benefits of Retrieval Practice.
    Scott R. Hinze, David N. Rapp.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 22, 2014
    Academic testing has received substantial support as a useful educational activity with robust retention benefits, given that tests can promote retrieval practice. However, testing can also instantiate performance‐related pressure and anxiety that may misappropriate the resources responsible for producing learning benefits. The current project examined the effects of performance pressure on retrieval practice. In two experiments, we instantiated performance pressure with either high‐stakes or low‐stakes quizzes, and assessed memory and comprehension of content on both quizzes and final tests. Quiz performance was equivalent under high‐stakes and low‐stakes conditions, demonstrating that learners adapted to high‐pressure quizzes. However, final test performance was better after low‐stakes versus high‐stakes quizzes, and only low‐stakes quizzes led to a performance advantage over a rereading control group. Participants additionally exhibited some sensitivity to the difficulty of retrieving under pressure. These data highlight the benefits of retrieval practice but indicate that they can be disrupted under pressure‐driven conditions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 22, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3032   open full text
  • What is in a Name: Drug Names Convey Implicit Information about Their Riskiness and Efficacy.
    Alessandra Tasso, Teresa Gavaruzzi, Lorella Lotto.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 22, 2014
    The present research provides empirical evidence that drug names may entail implicit promises about their therapeutic power. We asked people to evaluate the perceived efficacy and risk associated with hypothetical drug names and other secondary related measures. We compared opaque (without meaning), functional (targeting the health issue that the drug is meant to solve) and persuasive (targeting the expected outcome of the treatment) names. Persuasive names were perceived as more efficacious and less risky than both opaque and functional names, suggesting that names that target the expected outcome of the drug may bias the perception of risk and efficacy. Implications for health‐related communication are discussed in light of both the increasing use of over‐the‐counter drugs and the concern about people's low health literacy. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 22, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3033   open full text
  • Drawn Into the Life of Crime: Learning from, by, and for Child Victims and Witnesses.
    Michael E. Lamb.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 10, 2014
    In this paper, the author describes the origins of a research programme focused on children's testimony, noting that it was prompted initially by a focus on the effects of abuse. Growing evidence of failed communication between researchers and investigative interviewers led his research group to develop a detailed guide, based on extensive research, which forensic interviewers could use to structure their interactions with alleged victims, offenders and witnesses. Considerable research has since documented the value of that tool, and it has also been instrumental in research exploring children's communicative and cognitive development. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 10, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3031   open full text
  • Improving Students' Critical Thinking: Empirical Support for Explicit Instructions Combined with Practice.
    Anita Heijltjes, Tamara Gog, Fred Paas.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 09, 2014
    This experiment investigated the impact of different types of critical thinking instruction and dispositions on bias in economics students' (N = 141) reasoning performance. The following conditions were compared: (A) implicit instruction; (B) implicit instruction with practice; (C) implicit instruction with explicit instruction and practice; (D) implicit instruction with explicit instruction, practice, and self‐explanation prompts; and (E) implicit instruction with explicit instruction, practice, and activation prompts. Results showed that explicit instruction combined with practice is required to improve critical thinking (i.e., conditions A/B < C/D/E). Prompting during practice had no added performance benefits. Participants' dispositions toward actively open‐minded thinking predicted their pre‐test and post‐test scores but did not interact with instruction condition, suggesting that receiving explicit instruction combined with practice was equally effective for all students. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 09, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3025   open full text
  • Partner Characteristics and Social Contagion: Does Group Composition Matter?
    Jessica J. Andrews, David N. Rapp.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 02, 2014
    People's incorrect recalls can contaminate their collaborators' performance on subsequent tasks, referred to as the social contagion of memory. Research investigating how expectations about group members' abilities and affiliations relate to such contagion has given little attention to the mechanisms underlying any differential reliance on collaborators' contributions. In two experiments, we investigated whether expectations about a collaborative partner influence social contagion and whether source monitoring was related to any differential reliance. Contagion was reduced, for both accurate and inaccurate information, when participants worked with a partner perceived to be of low as compared with high credibility. Participants also showed reduced contagion after working with an out‐group as compared with an in‐group partner. These findings indicate that partner characteristics influence whether the information generated during a collaborative task is encoded and/or relied upon later. Expectations about potentially problematic sources can motivate resistance to misinformation through careful monitoring of partner contributions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 02, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3024   open full text
  • Skilled Observation and Change Blindness: A Comparison of Law Enforcement and Student Samples.
    Shannon M. Smart, Melissa A. Berry, Dario N. Rodriguez.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 01, 2014
    Some evidence suggests that expertise and observational skills training can reduce attentional errors, such as change blindness. Laypeople typically assume that law enforcement officers possess acute observational skills, but no research to date has compared law enforcement and lay samples on their susceptibility to change blindness. In the present study, student and law enforcement samples completed a change blindness task and attempted to identify the target(s) from four line‐ups. Law enforcement officers and students were equally susceptible to change blindness regarding the switch in the target's identity, but students were more likely than officers to detect changes in the target's clothing. Students also performed better on the line‐up task, overall, than officers. Additionally, whereas students' confidence was positively correlated with identification accuracy under some circumstances, officers' confidence was either uncorrelated or negatively correlated with accuracy. We discuss the implications of these findings and suggest some factors accounting for law enforcement officers' relatively poor performance on these tasks. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 01, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3021   open full text
  • Is There a Cultural Life Script for Public Events?
    Steve M. J. Janssen.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 25, 2014
    The reminiscence bump is the higher prevalence of autobiographical memories from adolescence and early adulthood. The reminiscence bump has also been found in the memory for public events, which could, as recently has been suggested, be explained by cultural life scripts. Life scripts are culturally shared knowledge about the order and timing of life events in an idealized life course. They are examined by categorizing which events are expected to occur in a prototypical person's life and when these events are supposed to occur. The present study found, however, no support for cultural life scripts as an explanation for the reminiscence bump in the memory for public events. Most public events were expected to occur before the reminiscence bump period. Although there was some agreement about which public events are likely to happen in a prototypical person's life, there was little agreement about when these events are supposed to occur. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 25, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3022   open full text
  • Cue‐Based Processing Capacity, Cognitive Load and the Completion of Simulated Short‐Duration Vigilance Tasks in Power Transmission Control.
    Aaron J. Small, Mark W. Wiggins, Thomas Loveday.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 24, 2014
    The interaction between human operators and advanced technology systems has become increasingly complex, particularly with the introduction of automated and semi‐automated systems. This complexity is evident in increasing demands for vigilance in what might be regarded as low stimulus environments. Using resource theory as an explanation of the reduction in sustained attention to a task, the present study sought to examine the relationship between cue utilisation and sustained attention in the context of simulated power system control. The participants comprised power system operators from an Australian power transmission organisation, together with university engineering students. Controlling for experience, the results identified a relationship between different levels of cue utilisation and response latency over successive trials on a short vigilance task, consistent with resource theory. At an applied level, the results have implications for the selection and assessment for operators in environments where sustained attention is a necessary requirement. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3016   open full text
  • How Awareness of Possible Evidence Induces Forthcoming Counter‐Interrogation Strategies.
    Timothy J. Luke, Evan Dawson, Maria Hartwig, Pär Anders Granhag.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 12, 2014
    We propose that suspects' counter‐interrogation strategies vary as a function of their perception of the interrogator's knowledge about the events in question. The present study investigates the verbal behavior of guilty and innocent suspects when they are aware that there may be incriminating evidence against them. Participants (N = 143) took part in either a simulated act of terrorism or a benign task. They were then interviewed about their activities. Participants were randomly assigned to receive no additional information or to be informed that an investigative team may have collected evidence from surveillance cameras. Results suggest that when alerted to possible evidence against them, guilty suspects adopt either extremely withholding or extremely forthcoming verbal strategies. Theoretical implications of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3019   open full text
  • You'd Better Ask an Expert: Mitigating the Comprehensibility Effect on Laypeople's Decisions About Science‐Based Knowledge Claims.
    Lisa Scharrer, Marc Stadtler, Rainer Bromme.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 12, 2014
    Research shows that laypeople rely more on their capabilities to make decisions about science‐based knowledge claims after reading comprehensible compared with less comprehensible topic information. This can be problematic, because complex science‐based issues usually cannot be understood fully without experts' further advice. The present study investigated whether making readers aware of the ‘epistemic topic complexity’ of an issue (i.e., the extent of existing topic knowledge, the complexity of relationships between concepts, and the existence of multiple expert perspectives) can mitigate this influence of comprehensibility. Undergraduate students read comprehensible or less comprehensible health texts with topic knowledge being described as complex, uncomplex, or not described at all. They reported whether they agreed with the claim and would rely on their decision. Results showed that after reading comprehensible information, participants' reliance on their decision increased less when they considered topic knowledge to be complex. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3018   open full text
  • Enhancing Immediate Retention with Clickers Through Individual Response Identification.
    Karl M. Oswald, Adam B. Blake, Dario T. Santiago.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 06, 2014
    Classroom audience response systems, in which students respond to class questions via a remote ‘clicker’ unit, are widely used as a method for increasing student participation and providing immediate feedback in the form of a group frequency distribution. The phenomenon of social facilitation shows that task performance can be enhanced with co‐action of others or with the presence of an audience. To enhance the audience effect, we employed a unique feedback system that displays each individual's response. After reading a text passage, participants responded via a remote clicker to a series of comprehension questions. Participants were provided with no feedback regarding other respondents' answers, group feedback, or individual feedback. The results demonstrated significantly higher test performance with individual response identification. Implications are discussed in terms of applied classroom settings and social facilitation with enhanced options for displaying different types of feedback with clickers during instruction. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3010   open full text
  • Protecting and Enhancing Eyewitness Memory: The Impact of an Initial Recall Attempt on Performance in an Investigative Interview.
    Lorraine Hope, Fiona Gabbert, Ronald P. Fisher, Kat Jamieson.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 06, 2014
    Evidence‐gathering begins at the scene of an incident. Available witnesses may be asked to provide an account of what happened, either in response to an open request for information or, in some regions, by completing a Self‐Administered Interview (SAI©). In both cases, an investigative interview may be conducted at some later date. This study sought to determine the impact of an initial retrieval attempt on a subsequent interview. After exposure to a mock crime, participants completed an SAI© or a free recall (FR), or did not engage in an initial retrieval (Control). One week later, participants were interviewed with a Cognitive Interview. SAI© participants reported more correct information and maintained higher accuracy than FR and Control participants. Consistency analyses revealed that the SAI© was effective because it preserved more of the originally recalled items (Time 1) than did an initial FR, and not because it yielded new recollections at Time 2. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.2984   open full text
  • Who's the Best? A Relativistic View of Expertise.
    David J. Weiss, James Shanteau.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 06, 2014
    The dictionary and the expert performance approach view an expert as one who, after sufficient training and experience in a domain, can perform the requisite tasks above a threshold level. In contrast, we argue for a performance‐based approach that implies expertise is a continuum; the experts are the best performers. Most tasks in which expertise can be demonstrated have an underlying core of judgment, including domains in which the tasks call for judgment to be overlain with performance, prediction, or instruction. To evaluate judgment, we employ the metaphor of the judge as a measuring instrument. Like an instrument, expert judgment according to the performance‐based approach has three key properties: discrimination, consistency, and validity. Validity requires ground truth and is usually difficult to establish; but the other two properties are readily observable, and they are combined in the Cochran–Weiss–Shanteau index. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3015   open full text
  • Lineup Member Similarity Effects on Children's Eyewitness Identification.
    Ryan J. Fitzgerald, Brittany F. Whiting, Natalie M. Therrien, Heather L. Price.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 26, 2014
    To date, research investigating the similarity among lineup members has focused on adult eyewitnesses. In the present research, children made identifications from lineups containing members of lower or higher similarity to a target person. In Experiment 1, following a live interaction, children's (6–14 years) correct identification rate was reduced in higher‐similarity relative to lower‐similarity lineups. In Experiment 2, children (6–12 years) and adults watched a video containing a target person. Again, higher‐similarity lineup members reduced children's correct identifications; however, similarity had no effect on adults' correct identification rate. Although children benefited from lower‐similarity lineups when the target was present, lower‐similarity lineups generally increased misidentifications of an innocent suspect when the target was absent. Thus, increasing similarity in lineups for children had a cost on target‐present lineups and a benefit on target‐absent lineups. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 26, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3012   open full text
  • Near‐ and Far‐Transfer Effects of Working Memory Updating Training in Elderly Adults.
    Zhao Xin, Zhou‐Ren Lai, Fu. Li, Joseph H. R. Maes.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 26, 2014
    Age‐related declines in working memory, especially with regard to updating ability, affect many high‐level aspects of cognition in elderly adults. Recent studies have demonstrated that training might improve working memory. We investigated the effects of 20 days of adaptive training of working memory updating in healthy elderly adults. Comparing the performance on cognitive function tests before and after training in a trained group and a non‐trained group, significant positive training effects were observed in a numerical updating task and a digit‐span test, but not in a non‐verbal reasoning test. The results suggest beneficial effects of working memory updating training to working memory tasks that use different content material and task formats than those used during training. However, confirming the results of previous studies, transfer effects to other higher order cognitive processes seem to be absent in elderly adults. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 26, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3011   open full text
  • Overgeneral Autobiographical Memories: Gender Differences in Depression.
    Laura Ros, Jorge J. Ricarte, Juan P. Serrano, Marta Nieto, Maria J. Aguilar, Jose M. Latorre.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 26, 2014
    Considering the higher prevalence of depression in women than in men, the study of the variables that underlie this gender difference becomes important for both the prevention and the treatment of depression. This study explores gender differences in the relationship between depressive symptoms, rumination, repressive coping, and overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) in a nonclinical population. There are 141 men and 148 women who completed the measures of depression, rumination, and repression, and the Autobiographical Memory Test to assess OGM. Women remembered a higher number of specific memories than men. Most importantly, results showed a different pattern of association between rumination, repression, depression, and OGM by gender. Depressive symptoms were associated with repressive coping and OGM in women. However, depressive symptomatology was related to repressive coping but not to OGM in men. These results suggest that the role of OGM in depression may be less important in men than in women. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 26, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3013   open full text
  • Crime Type, Perceived Stereotypicality, and Memory Biases: A Contextual Model of Eyewitness Identification.
    Danny Osborne, Paul G. Davies.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 24, 2014
    The fallibility of eyewitness identifications is well documented. Nevertheless, research has yet to assess the possibility that the type of crime committed systematically influences who eyewitnesses mistakenly identify. We address this oversight by presenting a contextual model of eyewitness identification (CMEI). The CMEI asserts that discrete crimes automatically activate distinct stereotypes about a perpetrator's appearance. Depending on the congruence between these stereotypes and the perpetrator's actual appearance, eyewitnesses will remember the perpetrator as appearing more (or less) representative of his or her group (i.e., higher or lower on perceived stereotypicality). Estimator and system variables are posited to affect identifications at different stages of the identification process. The literatures on stereotype activation, perceived stereotypicality, and stereotype‐consistent memory biases are reviewed to support the CMEI. Our conceptual integration provides a model of eyewitness identification that explains when mistaken identifications are likely to occur and who they are likely to affect. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 24, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3009   open full text
  • Effects of Problem Solving after Worked Example Study on Primary School Children's Monitoring Accuracy.
    Martine Baars, Tamara Gog, Anique Bruin, Fred Paas.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 19, 2014
    Research on expository text has shown that the accuracy of students' judgments of learning (JOLs) can be improved by instructional interventions that allow students to test their knowledge of the text. The present study extends this research, investigating whether allowing students to test the knowledge they acquired from studying a worked example by means of solving an identical problem, either immediately or delayed, would enhance JOL accuracy. Fifth grade children (i) gave an immediate JOL, (ii) a delayed JOL, (iii) solved a problem immediately and then gave a JOL, (iv) solved a problem immediately and gave a delayed JOL, or (v) solved a problem at a delay and then gave a JOL. Results show that problem solving after example study improved children's JOL accuracy (i.e., overestimation decreased). However, no differences in the accuracy of restudy indications were found. Results are discussed in relation to cue utilization when making JOLs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 19, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3008   open full text
  • When Interrogative Self‐talk Improves Task Performance: The Role of Answers to Self‐posed Questions.
    Małgorzata M. Puchalska‐Wasyl.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 19, 2014
    Nearly all the self‐talk cues studied so far have been self‐statements. However, the findings of Senay, Albarracin, and Noguchi suggest that interrogative self‐talk produces better task performance than declarative one. Two of the experiments reported here were meant to replicate that study, but the expected differences were not confirmed. Experiment 3 showed that if a self‐posed question about future behavior was answered positively, task performance was better than in groups exposed either to the self‐statement ‘I will do it’ or to a negative answer following the question. However, these differences occurred only in those who self‐reported the awareness of the impact of self‐talk on their thought processes. This effect and the possible reasons why between‐group differences were not found in Experiments 1 and 2 are discussed. An alternative explanation for the results of Experiment 3 is also proposed beside that stressing the impact of internal answer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 19, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3007   open full text
  • Eye Movements Indicate the Temporal Organisation of Information Processing in Graph Comprehension.
    Christof Körner, Margit Höfler, Barbara Tröbinger, Iain D. Gilchrist.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 12, 2014
    Hierarchical graphs (e.g. file system browsers and preference trees) represent objects (e.g. files and folders) as graph nodes and relations between them (e.g. sub‐folder relations) as lines. We investigated the temporal organisation of two processes that are necessary for comprehending such graphs—search for the graph nodes and reasoning about their relation. We tracked eye movements to change graphs while participants interpreted them. In Experiment 1, we masked the graph at a time when search processes had finished but reasoning was hypothetically ongoing. We observed a dramatic deterioration in comprehension compared with unmasked graphs. In Experiment 2, we changed the relation between critical graph nodes after search for them had finished, unbeknownst to participants. Participants mostly based their response on the graph as presented after the change. These results suggest that comprehension processes are organised in a sequential manner, an observation that can potentially be applied to the interactive presentation of graphs. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3006   open full text
  • The Role of Memory Distrust in Cases of Internalised False Confession.
    Gisli Hannes Gudjonsson, Jon Fridrik Sigurdsson, Arndis Soffia Sigurdardottir, Haraldur Steinthorsson, Valgerdur Maria Sigurdardottir.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. February 12, 2014
    This paper reviews the literature on the role of ‘memory distrust’ in cases of internalised false confessions and provides a heuristic model for understanding the antecedents and mechanism involved. It also provides an in‐depth analysis of two real life cases of ‘suspected’ murders involving six convicted persons, five of whom showed evidence of profound memory distrust regarding the alleged offences. The key factors were coercive interviewing, lengthy solitary confinement, contamination, psychological vulnerabilities (both state and trait) and lack of independent support during questioning. The vulnerabilities in such cases typically involve a combination of cognitive (memory flaws, lack of confidence in memory and failure to invoke distinctiveness heuristic), personality (suggestibility and compliance), health problems and motivational (desire and willingness to assist the police) factors. The two cases suggest that the process of internalised false confessions may be conceptualised in terms of five sequential steps: a trigger, plausibility, acceptance, reconstruction and resolution. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    February 12, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3002   open full text
  • Believing in a Purpose of Events: Cross‐Cultural Evidence of Confusions in Core Knowledge.
    Justin Barber.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 21, 2014
    We examined beliefs in the purpose of events in the American population. Previously, separate researchers surveyed these beliefs in the Finnish population. Their methodology was used to assess the beliefs in a dissimilar demographic. Four hypotheses were tested using questionnaire responses (N = 429; 301 women; Mage = 20.46) and analyzed with structural equation modeling. As hypothesized, a positive correlation was found between beliefs in the purpose of events and paranormal beliefs. Confusions of core biological, physical, and psychological knowledge predicted the belief variables—as hypothesized, although model fit was mediocre. Core knowledge confusions were also hypothesized to predict religiousness and purposeful‐event beliefs. A close‐fitting model displayed weak predictive power and was interpreted as insufficient support for the third hypothesis. Lastly, we hypothesized and found that participants rated events they experienced as more purposeful than events that they did not experience. We provide insight for the findings and make suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 21, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3003   open full text
  • Safeguarding Youth Interrogation Rights: The Effect of Grade Level and Reading Complexity of Youth Waiver Forms on the Comprehension of Legal Rights.
    Stuart Freedman, Joseph Eastwood, Brent Snook, Kirk Luther.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 21, 2014
    The extent to which youths understand their interrogation rights was examined. High school students (N = 160) from five different grades were presented with one of two Canadian youth waiver forms—varying widely in reading complexity—and tested on their knowledge of their legal rights. Results showed that comprehension of both waiver forms was equally deficient, and systematic misunderstandings of vital legal rights were discovered (e.g., the right to remain silent). There was also a positive linear relationship between high school grade level and amount of comprehension. Potential ways to enhance youths' understanding of their rights and provide them protection during interrogations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 21, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3001   open full text
  • The Weapon Focus Effect in Target‐Present and Target‐Absent Line‐Ups: The Roles of Threat, Novelty, and Timing.
    William Blake Erickson, James Michael Lampinen, Juliana K. Leding.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 21, 2014
    When an eyewitness suffers an impairment of memory for a perpetrator because the criminal used a weapon during the crime, this impairment is called the weapon focus effect. The literature is split on how this arises: Some implicate the narrowing of attentional cues to the weapon because the arousal of the victim increases, whereas others claim that the weapon is a novel object in most everyday contexts, and novel objects demand more attention than contextually appropriate ones. The current study employed a simulated crime paradigm featuring a normal, novel, or threatening object. Timing of the object's presentation was manipulated such that it was visible before, after, or during the time when the culprit's face was visible. Target‐present and target‐absent line‐ups as well as retrospective questions were administered. Both the novel object and the weapon resulted in increased mistaken identifications in target‐absent line‐ups. Structural equation modeling suggested that object novelty mediated this effect. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 21, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3005   open full text
  • Examining the Life Script of African‐Americans: A Test of the Cultural Life Script.
    Justin T. Coleman.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 15, 2014
    Life scripts are expectations of the timings of important events in the normative life and are considered to represent an idealized lifecourse. However, whether they always represent an idealized lifecourse has not yet been tested in groups that may experience an increased prevalence of negative emotional events, such as historically unfairly treated minorities. In the present study, 255 African‐American adults completed a test of the life script. To ascertain the existence of a unique, African‐American life script, half nominated events likely to happen in the prospective life of a typical infant and half nominated those events for a prototypical infant of their race. Whereas some novel events specifically relevant to African‐Americans were mentioned in the current study, and a larger proportion of infrequently mentioned events were present compared with previous studies, overall, the findings support the expectations of the life script, as described by Rubin and Berntsen. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 15, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.3000   open full text
  • The Role of Working Memory when ‘Learning How’ with Multimedia Learning Material.
    Erlijn Genuchten, Charlotte Hooijdonk, Anne Schüler, Katharina Scheiter.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 06, 2014
    The aim of the reported experiment was to obtain insight into how learners' visuo‐spatial working memory is involved during learning how to perform procedural‐motor tasks from a multimedia instruction (i.e. ‘learning how’). Eighty‐two participants studied first‐aid procedures using text only or multimedia. Working memory involvement was gauged by measuring the interference between learning first‐aid procedures and performing a spatial dual task. Learning outcomes were measured as task performance and task description. The results showed that performing a spatial dual task interfered to a larger extent with learning from text only than from multimedia. The results tend to support the assumption that pictures in tasks focusing on ‘learning how’ are beneficial to learning, because they might omit the need to engage in imagery and therewith reduce the cognitive effort that is required to understand the learning material. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.2998   open full text
  • Remembering the Historical Roots of Remembering the Personal Past.
    Susan Bluck, Nicole Alea, Sideeka Ali.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. January 06, 2014
    As scholars, remembering the historical past in one's area of study provides a foundation for purposefully pursuing knowledge. As individuals, remembering our personal past provides direction and purpose in everyday life. Taken together, these percepts provide the impetus for the current paper, which traces the contributions of six early pioneers who wrote about how humans remember their personal past. Analysis demonstrates how their historical ideas support current literatures focused on the personal past: reminiscence‐based mental health interventions, the adaptive psychosocial functions of autobiographical remembering, and the construction of identity as a life story. Three future research directions are also briefly presented: the human ability for mental ‘time travel’, a lifespan approach to remembering the personal past, and reflection on one's past as a route to wisdom. Understanding the human phenomenon of remembering the personal past has long‐standing historical roots that continue to stimulate basic and applied research. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    January 06, 2014   doi: 10.1002/acp.2987   open full text
  • The Cost of Detecting Deception: Judging Veracity Makes Eyewitnesses Remember a Suspect Less Accurately but With More Certainty.
    Kerri L. Pickel, Brittney M. Klauser, Heather M. Bauer.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. December 17, 2013
    The current study extends previous research demonstrating the detrimental effects of divided attention during encoding on eyewitness memory. Previous data indicate that judging the veracity of a suspect causes witnesses to scrutinize him or her carefully and requires relatively high cognitive effort. We therefore hypothesized that performing this task while simultaneously observing the suspect should impair witnesses' memory for his or her appearance and message while ironically inflating their certainty and other testimony‐relevant judgments. Our results supported these predictions. Moreover, inducing witnesses to be suspicious about the suspect's truthfulness (Experiment 1) and motivating them to judge veracity as accurately as possible (Experiment 2) amplified the memory impairment effect and further increased several testimony‐relevant ratings. Additionally, compared with witnesses who incorrectly identified the suspect in a line‐up, those who made a correct decision expressed greater certainty about their line‐up accuracy and also provided higher ratings on some other testimony‐relevant measures. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    December 17, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2991   open full text
  • How Speech Modifies Visual Attention.
    Ian Spence, Andrew Jia, Jing Feng, Jonny Elserafi, Ying Zhao.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 15, 2013
    Auditory distractions can have serious consequences in critical situations such as driving. Mobile phones, radios, media players, and information devices that interpret and produce speech are increasingly common in vehicles, but the threats to visual attention are not yet fully understood. In three experiments, we found that most speech tasks had relatively small adverse effects on the detection of a briefly presented target among distractors across a 60° subarea of the visual field. Although there was a little impact on detectability, moderately difficult speech tasks slowed responding relative to silence. Our most demanding condition—generating and speaking a word beginning with the last letter of another word—had the greatest effects on accuracy and latency, with responding slowed by about 900 ms. An impairment of this magnitude presents a significant threat to safe driving and calls into question the belief that hands‐free voice‐controlled devices are the answer to the problem of driver distraction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 15, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2943   open full text
  • The Effects of Recent Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Current Sleepiness on Eyewitness Memory.
    Craig Thorley.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 07, 2013
    This study examined whether three sleep‐related variables (current sleepiness, the duration of the previous night's sleep and the quality of that sleep) were predictors of an eyewitness's ability to remember central and peripheral details from a crime. Participants first completed a self‐report questionnaire assessing their current sleepiness, then watched a video of a bank robbery, next completed a self‐report questionnaire about their previous night's sleep, and then had their memory of the crime tested. It was found that as the eyewitnesses' sleep quality decreased and their sleepiness increased, their ability to accurately recollect peripheral details from the crime was compromised. This is the first demonstration that variations in sleep prior to witnessing a crime, and sleepiness at the time of a crime, can predict eyewitness memory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 07, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2938   open full text
  • Back to the Real: Efficacy and Perception of a Modified Cognitive Interview in the Field.
    Cindy Colomb, Magali Ginet, Daniel Wright, Samuel Demarchi, Christophe Sadler.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 06, 2013
    Since the Cognitive Interview (CI) was developed, many experiments have been published, but only two have investigated its efficacy in real criminal cases. Here, a Modified CI (MCI) is tested with real interviews in an inquisitor justice system. Several moderators and the interviewers' attitudes towards the CI/MCI are also examined. Eighty‐one witnesses were interviewed by 27 French military police officers, with a Standard Police Interview, a Structured Interview (SI), or an MCI. The MCI produced the most forensically relevant information, especially for victims. Trainees judged the SI and the MCI useful, usable, and acceptable, and felt efficient in using them, beliefs that increased after 1 year of practice. The self‐efficacy was linked with the declared use of the techniques. In all, this study confirmed the efficacy of the CI/MCI as a tool to be used in the field, with some cautions to be underlined, notably because of the small sample size considered. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2942   open full text
  • Stimulus Sequence Features Influence Physicians' Response Tendencies in Radiological Image Interpretation.
    Jason W. Beckstead, Kathy Boutis, Martin R. Pecaric, Martin V. Pusic.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 06, 2013
    Decades of research on perception and prediction of randomness led us to speculate that the various response tendencies observed in these studies might manifest in multi‐trial discrimination tasks used in medical education. By re‐analyzing data from a previously published study in which 46 physicians and medical trainees judged 234 pediatric ankle radiographs, we show that (i) response tendencies can be differentially induced when individuals receive uniquely ordered sequences and (ii) response patterns consistent with win‐stay/lose‐shift and win‐shift/lose‐stay heuristics can be predicted from stimulus alternation rates and marginal distributions. Our results illustrate the importance of carefully arranging trials when studying discrimination and when using discrimination tasks to teach or to assess learners' skill levels. We call into question the wisdom of designing studies that present uniquely ordered stimulus sequences and discuss alternatives. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2941   open full text
  • Task Importance Effects on Prospective Memory Strategy Use.
    Suzanna L. Penningroth, Walter D. Scott.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 06, 2013
    Mnemonic strategies generally improve prospective memory (PM) performance. However, little is known about why people use such strategies. In the Motivational‐Cognitive Prospective Memory model, task importance is thought to influence performance via multiple mechanisms, including increased strategy use. Our main purpose was to test this mechanism: higher PM task importance was hypothesized to cause greater strategy use. We also tested whether importance would specifically increase the use of more effective (external) strategies. Participants reported their strategy use for two hypothetical PM tasks. As predicted, they listed more strategies for more important tasks. This result demonstrates one mechanism for motivational effects in early phases of the task. We found weaker support for the prediction that participants would selectively increase their use of better strategies for more important tasks. This finding supports a relatively pessimistic view of meta‐memory in PM, at least when it comes to modulating one's use of dependable strategies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2945   open full text
  • Double Exposure: The Effects of Repeated Identification Lineups on Eyewitness Accuracy.
    Nancy K. Steblay, Robert W. Tix, Samantha L. Benson.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. August 06, 2013
    Eyewitnesses may be asked to identify the same suspect from a lineup on successive occasions. This study explored the effects on eyewitness decisions of repeated same‐suspect lineups, within a 2 × 2 × 2 mixed‐model factorial design. Witnesses to a video crime attempted to identify the culprit from two same‐format lineups (simultaneous or sequential) separated by a 2‐week retention interval (Lineup1, Lineup2) in which a suspect (guilty or innocent) was common to the lineups. We predicted two components of a posited repeated lineup effect: that positive identification errors made at the first lineup would be carried forward rather than corrected at the second lineup and that the number of false identifications of the innocent suspect would rise from first to second lineup. Predictions were supported, with a stronger negative impact of repeated lineups for simultaneous than sequential lineups. Additionally, witnesses who made selections of the guilty suspect and of the innocent suspect at Lineup2 were equally confident and were significantly more confident than witnesses who declined to pick. The results underscore concerns about possible negative outcomes from repeated lineups. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    August 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2944   open full text
  • The Elusive Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Visual Attention and Eyewitness Memory.
    Alistair J. Harvey, Wendy Kneller, Alison C. Campbell.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 30, 2013
    Alcohol is a contributing factor in many crimes, yet little is known of its effects on eyewitness memory and face identification. Some authors suggest that intoxication impairs attention and memory, particularly for peripheral scene information, but the data supporting this claim are limited. The present study therefore sought to determine whether (i) intoxicated participants spend less time fixating on peripheral regions of crime images than sober counterparts, (ii) whether less information is recognised from image regions receiving fewer gaze fixations and (iii) whether intoxicated participants are less able to identify the perpetrator of a crime than sober participants. Contrary to expectations, participants' ability to explore and subsequently recognise the contents of the stimulus scenes was unaffected by alcohol, suggesting that the relationship between intoxication, attention and eyewitness memory requires closer scrutiny. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 30, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2940   open full text
  • Memory for Sexual and Nonsexual Television Commercials as a Function of Viewing Context and Viewer Gender.
    Jona Leka, Alastair McClelland, Adrian Furnham.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 30, 2013
    The present study investigated memory for sexual and nonsexual commercials as a function of programme‐commercial congruity and programme‐induced level of involvement. Participants were allocated to one of four conditions: sexual programme with sexual or nonsexual commercials and nonsexual programme with sexual or nonsexual commercials. Recall and involvement levels were tested with a series of memory tests and programme ratings. It was predicted that sexual advertisements would be recalled and recognised better overall, that the sexual programme context would impair memory for commercials, and that level of involvement with the programme would inversely correlate with recall and recognition of the commercials and their content. Recall of sexual advertisements was found to be better than for nonsexual advertisements, and subjective ratings of programme involvement were higher for the sexual programme. Neither the perceived involvement level nor programme type affected memory for the commercials overall, but men were shown to remember sexual advertisements better than nonsexual advertisements—particularly when the sexual advertisements were embedded in a sexual programme. Women were equally good at remembering sexual and nonsexual advertisements. Implications of the current results and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 30, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2939   open full text
  • Gestures in Instructional Animations: A Helping Hand to Understanding Non‐human Movements?
    Björn B. Koning, Huib K. Tabbers.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 11, 2013
    Recent research on dynamic visualizations suggests that these visualizations are effective for learning human movements such as knot tying or paper folding. Using embodied theories of cognition, this study investigated whether learning non‐human movements from a dynamic visualization can also be enhanced by grounding these movements in the learner's motor system. University students viewed an animation on lightning formation, and followed the animation's movements with gestures, saw an on‐screen human hand follow the movements or saw an arrow follow the movements. Results showed that observing an on‐screen human hand following the movements in the animation, but not actually performing these movements, enhanced retention and transfer performance compared with watching the animation without gestures. This suggests that observation of human hand movement in animation‐based instruction, which plays an important role in learning of procedural‐motor tasks, can also improve people's learning from other dynamic systems. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 11, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2937   open full text
  • The Clinical and Forensic Value of Information that Children Report While Drawing.
    Emily Macleod, Julien Gross, Harlene Hayne.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. July 08, 2013
    Drawing is commonly used in clinical interviews to help children talk about their experiences. Research has shown that drawing increases the amount of information that children report about some emotional experiences. Here, we aimed to investigate the use of drawing in interviews about other, clinically relevant emotions, and the clinical and forensic relevance of the information that children report while drawing. To do this, sixty 5‐ to 6‐ and 11‐ to 12‐year‐olds drew and told, or told, about prior experiences that had made them feel happy, angry, proud (confident), and worried (nervous). For all emotions, drawing and telling increased the amount of forensically relevant, episodic details (e.g., who was there and what happened) that children reported relative to telling alone. In contrast, drawing and telling did not alter the amount of information that children reported about clinically relevant details (e.g., thoughts and emotions). We discuss the implications of these findings for using drawing in interviews with children. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    July 08, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2936   open full text
  • Expressed Emotions and Perceived Credibility of Child Mock Victims Disclosing Physical Abuse.
    Ellen Wessel, Svein Magnussen, Annika Maria Desiree Melinder.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 18, 2013
    The influence of emotions displayed by child witnesses during disclosure of abuse on judgments of credibility and guilt were examined. Eight mock police interviews with child actors, telling a story of physical abuse with different emotional expressions, were video‐recorded. In a between‐group design, jury eligible lay persons (n = 162) and professional child protective service (CPS) workers (n = 154) rated the credibility of the child witnesses and the probability that the alleged perpetrator was guilty of crime. The emotions displayed by the child witnesses strongly affected judgments of credibility and guilt. The patterns of ratings were closely similar in the two participant samples, but the overall ratings of the CPS workers were higher than those of the lay participants. Judgments of the probability of guilt followed a similar pattern with a correlation of .68 between the two variables. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 18, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2935   open full text
  • Decision‐making Under Uncertainty in the Cash Cab.
    Matthew R. Kelley, Robert J. Lemke.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 03, 2013
    Television game shows have long been used to analyze risk‐taking behavior. We used episodes of Cash Cab to investigate how a variety of pre‐game and in‐game factors affected contestants' decisions to accept or reject a double‐or‐nothing gamble offered at the end of the game. As expected, the analysis confirmed the standard influences of gender, age, and group size on the willingness to accept the gamble. More interestingly, however, the data suggested that contestants also used in‐game experiences to update their subjective probability of success when considering the final gamble. Surprisingly, contestants did not appear to use correct performance (e.g., number correct, and streaks of correct) when updating, but the number and distribution of highly confident and correct responses were important when assessing the final gamble. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2933   open full text
  • The Advantages of Predictive Interval Forecasts for Non‐Expert Users and the Impact of Visualizations.
    Sonia Savelli, Susan Joslyn.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 03, 2013
    Three experiments demonstrated advantages over conventional deterministic forecasts for participants making temperature estimates and precautionary decisions with predictive interval weather forecasts showing the upper and lower boundaries within which the observed value is expected with a specified probability. Participants using predictive intervals were better able to identify unreliable forecasts, expected a narrower range of outcomes, and were more decisive than were participants using deterministic forecasts. Predictive interval format was also manipulated to determine whether adding visualizations enhanced understanding. Some participants using visualizations misinterpreted predictive intervals as expressions of diurnal fluctuations (deterministic forecasts). Almost no misinterpretations occurred when the predictive interval was expressed in text alone. Moreover, no advantages were found for visualizations over text‐only formats, demonstrating that visualizations, especially those investigated in these studies, may not be suitable for expressing this concept. Thus, predictive intervals are both understandable and advantageous to non‐expert decision makers, as long as they are carefully expressed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2932   open full text
  • Increasing Accuracy of Video Quality Ratings through Direction of Attention and Training.
    Rochelle E. Evans, Philip Kortum.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. June 03, 2013
    This paper describes the results of two studies undertaken to better understand the strong positive relationship between the content of a video clip and viewers' subjective ratings of the video quality of that clip. Experiment 1 evaluated the effect of training on video quality ratings. Experiment 2 assessed the impact of attention in these assessments. Experiment 1 showed that training participants on video quality assessment techniques removed viewers' heuristic reliance on affect while increasing accuracy. Experiment 2 demonstrated that participants' video quality ratings could also be improved by directing their focus of attention. Focusing viewers on quality did not show a moderation of the relationship between content immersion and video quality, as participants maintained high levels of content immersion even when focusing on video quality. Because training and attention increased quality rating accuracy, they could be utilized in video quality testing to improve the viewer feedback received. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2934   open full text
  • Landmark Frames of Reference in Interactive Route Description Tasks.
    Morgane Roger, Dominique Knutsen, Nathalie Bonnardel, Ludovic Le Bigot.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 29, 2013
    The current study investigated the use of frames of reference in an asymmetrical spatial dialogue task. Participants navigated through a real environment by following instructions provided by other participants guiding them over the phone. The dialogues were transcribed and analysed to locate the introduction of landmarks. We examined which frames of reference were used to introduce these landmarks and how far their use was determined by each participant's role within the dyads (i.e. guide vs. guided person). Results revealed that both partners contributed to the dialogue by introducing landmarks. However, the guides introduced more landmarks than the guided persons and were also more likely to use perspective taking when doing so. These results are discussed in the light of perspective taking and collaboration in dialogue. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 29, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2927   open full text
  • Antisocial Behavior: Exploring Behavioral, Cognitive, and Environmental Influences on Expulsion.
    Tracy Packiam Alloway, Ashley Lawrence, Susan Rodger.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 28, 2013
    We investigated the role of three significant potential contributors to antisocial behavior (ASB)—behavior, cognitive, and environmental influences—and their impact on expulsion. The following measures were administered to a community sample of antisocial adolescents: nonverbal ability and working memory, behavioral profile (rated by the social worker and self‐rated), and environmental background (socio‐economic background and family structure). The data indicated that their working memory performance was in the average range; however, group means were significantly lower in the nonverbal ability test. Although social workers' assessments of the adolescents' behavior were closely related to their self‐reports, it was the latter that was best able to correctly classify those who had been expelled from their non‐expelled ASB peers. Environmental background did not appear to have a strong role in expulsion rates. The results are discussed in the context of persistency of ASB and ways forward to provide support and intervention for adolescents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 28, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2931   open full text
  • E‐readers, Computer Screens, or Paper: Does Reading Comprehension Change Across Media Platforms?
    Sara J. Margolin, Casey Driscoll, Michael J. Toland, Jennifer Little Kegler.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 28, 2013
    The present research examined the impact of technology on reading comprehension. While previous research has examined memory for text, and yielded mixed results of the impact technology has on one's ability to remember what they have read, the reading literature has not yet examined comprehension. In comparing paper, computers, and e‐readers, results from this study indicated that these three different presentation modes do not differentially affect comprehension of narrative or expository text. Additionally, readers were not consistently compensating for difficulties with comprehension by engaging in different reading behaviors when presented with text in different formats. These results suggest that reading can happen effectively in a variety of presentation formats. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 28, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2930   open full text
  • Exercise Improves Cognitive Control: Evidence from the Stop Signal Task.
    Concepcion Padilla, Laura Perez, Pilar Andres, Fabrice B. R. Parmentier.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 23, 2013
    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that exercise improves executive control. We compared the performance of physically active and passive young participants in two versions of the stop signal task: a strategic (more executive) and a standard version. The results showed that active participants were more efficient than passive at inhibiting a response in the strategic version, suggesting that (1) physical exercise appears positively associated with improved cognitive control in healthy young participants, adding to evidence gathered in children, aging and clinical populations; and that (2) the strategic version of the stop signal task constitutes a more sensitive task than executive tasks previously used. Although the data point out a link between physical activity and executive control, they also have potential practical implications for health authorities and the general public by strengthening the view that exercise, beyond its physical health benefits, also has positive effects on cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2929   open full text
  • Reuse and Recycle: The Development of Adaptive Expertise, Routine Expertise, and Novelty in a Large Research Team.
    Susannah B. F. Paletz, Kevin H. Kim, Christian D. Schunn, Irene Tollinger, Alonso Vera.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 23, 2013
    Combining innovation and efficiency is ideal in many organizational settings. Adaptive expertise represents a cognitive explanation of how individuals and teams can learn to achieve simultaneous innovation and efficiency. In 2004, scientists led twin rovers on Mars in the search for historical water. The science team experienced a remarkable increase in efficiency, adapting with flexibility to unexpected events and dynamic, dwindling resources. After discussing the conceptual differences between adaptive expertise and related team learning and innovation concepts, we examine longitudinal behavioral data on novelty, routine and adaptive expertise. Sequential time series ARIMA analyses reveal that novelty fluctuated randomly, but both routine and adaptive expertise significantly increased over time. In addition, novelty, routine expertise, and adaptive expertise did not significantly predict each other directly or at a lag, suggesting that these are indeed three distinct constructs. Implications for theory and research on efficiency and innovation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2928   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Arousal and the Remembered Duration of Positive Events.
    Sofie Frederickx, Philippe Verduyn, Peter Koval, Karen Brans, Bettina Brunner, Isabelle De Laet, Barbara Ogrinz, Madeline Pe, Joeri Hofmans.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 06, 2013
    The relation between affect and retrospective duration estimation has hardly been examined. In this paper, we contribute to filling this gap by studying the influence of arousal on the remembered duration of positive events. On the basis of the contextual change model, we expected that high‐arousal positive events would be remembered as longer compared with low‐arousal positive events. To test this hypothesis, we set up a naturalistic study in which participants were asked at the end of a pleasant amusement park ride at the local fair to rate how pleasant and aroused they felt during the ride as well as to estimate the ride's duration. Feeling more aroused during a ride was associated with longer estimates of the ride's duration. Results are discussed within the framework of retrospective time estimation models. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 06, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2926   open full text
  • The Influence of Expertise on Maritime Driving Behaviour.
    Hayward J. Godwin, Stuart Hyde, Dominic Taunton, James Calver, James I. R. Blake, Simon P. Liversedge.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. May 01, 2013
    We compared expert and novice behaviour in a group of participants as they engaged in a simulated maritime driving task. We varied the difficulty of the driving task by controllling the severity of the sea state in which they were driving their craft. Increases in sea severity increased the size of the upcoming waves while also increasing the length of the waves. Expert participants drove their craft at a higher speed than novices and decreased their fixation durations as wave severity increased. Furthermore, the expert participants increased the horizontal spread of their fixation positions as wave severity increased to a greater degree than novices. Conversely, novice participants showed evidence of a greater vertical spread of fixations than experts. By connecting our findings with previous research investigating eye movement behaviour and road driving, we suggest that novice or inexperienced drivers show inflexibility in adaptation to changing driving conditions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    May 01, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2925   open full text
  • Intended and Unintended Reverberation of Traditional and Pro‐age Commercials as a Function of Viewer Age.
    Matthias Bluemke, Juliane Degner, Julia Lotz, Lisa Ritzenhöfer, Lisa Shelliem.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 23, 2013
    Pro‐age advertising campaigns feature mature models, at least in part to reduce the depiction of unrealistic body ideals associated with the use of young models. The introduction of mature models into advertising campaigns may have hitherto unexamined effects on viewers' self‐esteem. We therefore compared the impact of mature and young models on women's levels of self‐esteem. Young adult and middle‐aged women were subtly exposed to young or pro‐age female models before completing an affective priming task designed to measure self‐esteem. As predicted, exposure influenced only appearance‐based self‐esteem, but not global self‐esteem. Furthermore, age congruency led to decreased self‐esteem, whereas age incongruency led to increased self‐esteem. Specifically, exposure to young models decreased young women's self‐esteem, just as exposure to mature models decreased middle‐aged women's self‐esteem. By contrast, exposure to mature models increased young women's self‐esteem, and exposure to young models increased middle‐aged women's self‐esteem. The implications for marketing campaigns are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 23, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2924   open full text
  • Associations between Thematic Content and Memory Detail in Trauma Narratives.
    Courtney Welton‐Mitchell, Daniel N. McIntosh, Anne P. DePrince.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. April 01, 2013
    This study examined whether thematic content (e.g., fear, anger, alienation, self‐blame, and spirituality) in trauma narratives predicted memory detail. Trauma‐specific memory models suggest that trauma narrative themes are associated with much sensory detail; general autobiographical memory models suggest that themes are associated with little context detail. Seventy‐one narratives from a diverse community sample exposed to a variety of traumatic events (e.g., sexual assault, natural disasters) were coded for themes and detail. Analyses controlled for narrative length, childhood or adulthood occurrence, self‐reported post‐traumatic stress disorder, depression and dissociation symptoms. Fear themes were associated with greater sensory detail; anger and spirituality themes were associated with less context detail. Findings support a link between thematic content and detail, and may partially explain why details in memory for traumatic events sometimes appear better and other times worse than memory for other events. Memory models may benefit from specification based on themes in trauma narratives. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    April 01, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2923   open full text
  • How Inspecting a Picture Affects Processing of Text in Multimedia Learning.
    Alexander Eitel, Katharina Scheiter, Anne Schüler.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 25, 2013
    We investigated how a picture fosters learning from text, both with self‐paced presentation and with short presentation before text. In an experiment, participants (N = 114) learned about the structure and functioning of a pulley system in one of six conditions: text only, picture presentation for 150 milliseconds, 600 milliseconds, or 2 seconds, or self‐paced before text, or self‐paced concurrent presentation of text and picture. Presenting the picture for self‐paced study time, both before and concurrently with text, fostered recall and comprehension and sped up text processing compared with presenting text only. Moreover, even inspecting the picture for only 600 milliseconds or 2 seconds improved comprehension and yielded faster reading of subsequent text about the spatial structure of the system compared with text only. These findings suggest that pictures, even if attended for a short time only, may yield a spatial mental scaffold that allows for the integration with verbal information, thereby fostering comprehension. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 25, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2922   open full text
  • Does Multitasking Impair Studying? Depends on Timing.
    Harold Pashler, Sean H. K. Kang, Renita Y. Ip.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 18, 2013
    It is often said that contemporary students frequently study while ‘multitasking’. However, this rather diffuse term encompasses situations that vary as to the whether the learner controls the pace at which educational materials are provided. On the basis of prior cognitive research, we hypothesize that this may well be a critical determinant of interference. Three studies required students to read or listen to several short historical narratives and also to engage in five to eight very short conversations (akin to an instant messaging conversation). In Experiment 1, subjects read the narratives; here, multitasking marginally increased total time spent reading the narratives, especially when it occurred at random times. However, final memory for the narratives was not significantly affected. Similar results were obtained when the narratives were presented in audio format and the learner could pause them while conversing (Experiment 2). By contrast, when audio narratives did not pause, interruptions reduced comprehension performance (Experiment 3). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2919   open full text
  • How Do Interviewers and Children Discuss Individual Occurrences of Alleged Repeated Abuse in Forensic Interviews?
    Sonja P. Brubacher, Lindsay C. Malloy, Michael E. Lamb, Kim P. Roberts.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 12, 2013
    Police interviews (n = 97) with 5‐ to 13‐year‐olds alleging multiple incidents of sexual abuse were examined to determine how interviewers elicited and children recounted specific instances of abuse. Coders assessed the labels for individual occurrences that arose in interviews, recording who generated them, how they were used and other devices to aid particularisation such as the use of episodic and generic language. Interviewers used significantly more temporal labels than did children. With age, children were more likely to generate labels themselves, and most children generated at least one label. In 66% of the cases, interviewers ignored or replaced children's labels, and when they did so, children reported proportionately fewer episodic details. Children were highly responsive to the interviewers' language style. Results indicate that appropriately trained interviewers can help children of all ages to provide the specific details often necessary to ensure successful prosecution. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 12, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2920   open full text
  • Attention and Memory for Newspaper Advertisements: Effects of Ad–Editorial Congruency and Location.
    Jaana Simola, Markus Kivikangas, Jarmo Kuisma, Christina M. Krause.
    Applied Cognitive Psychology. March 12, 2013
    Previous research suggests that the same ad can have different effects depending upon the media context in which the ad appears. This experiment investigated how the semantic relation between the content of advertisements and editorial texts, and the ad location on newspaper pages affect attention and memory for advertisements. We recorded participants' eye movements while they read newspaper articles to rate how interesting the texts were. Recognition for ads, logos, and editorial headlines was measured on the following day. Results revealed a discrepancy between attention and memory results, suggesting that incongruency increased attention to ads, whereas congruency improved recognition of ads. In addition, ads presented on the right attracted more attention and were recognized better than ads on the left. The results have implications for pretesting of advertisements, because attention and memory for ads were associated with higher preference for brands, and purchase intention was enhanced for the brands that were recognized. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    March 12, 2013   doi: 10.1002/acp.2918   open full text