MetaTOC stay on top of your field, easily

Journal of Personality

Impact factor: 2.73 5-Year impact factor: 3.554 Print ISSN: 0022-3506 Online ISSN: 1467-6494 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subject: Social Psychology

Most recent papers:

  • Big Five aspects of personality interact to predict depression.
    Timothy A. Allen, Bridget E. Carey, Carolina McBride, R. Michael Bagby, Colin G. DeYoung, Lena C. Quilty.
    Journal of Personality. October 20, 2017
    Objective Research has shown that three personality traits—Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness—moderate one another in a three‐way interaction that predicts depressive symptoms in healthy populations. We test the hypothesis that this effect is driven by three lower‐order traits: withdrawal, industriousness, and enthusiasm. We then replicate this interaction within a clinical population for the first time. Method Sample 1 included 376 healthy adults. Sample 2 included 354 patients diagnosed with current major depressive disorder. Personality and depressive tendencies were assessed via the Big Five Aspect Scales and Personality Inventory for DSM‐5 in Sample 1, respectively, and by the NEO‐PI‐R and Beck Depression Inventory‐II in Sample 2. Results Withdrawal, industriousness, and enthusiasm interacted to predict depressive tendencies in both samples. The pattern of the interaction supported a “best two out of three” principle, in which low risk scores on two trait dimensions protects against a high risk score on the third trait. Evidence was also present for a “worst two out of three” principle, in which high risk scores on two traits are associated with equivalent depressive severity as high risk scores on all three traits. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of examining interactive effects of personality traits on psychopathology.
    October 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12352   open full text
  • Interindividual differences in the intraindividual association of competence and well‐being: Combining experimental and intensive longitudinal designs.
    Andreas B. Neubauer, Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss.
    Journal of Personality. October 11, 2017
    Objective The aim of the present study is to assess whether people differ in the degree to which their well‐being is affected by fulfillment of the need for competence. Specifically, we want to examine (a) whether interindividual differences in the within‐person coupling of competence satisfaction and well‐being (competence satisfaction effect) and of competence dissatisfaction and well‐being (competence dissatisfaction effect) exist, and (b) whether these differences moderate the effects of an experimentally induced frustration of the need for competence. Method A daily diary study (N = 89) and a laboratory based experiment (N = 150) were conducted to investigate interindividual differences in need effects. In a third study, participants of an additional daily diary study (N = 129) were subsequently subjected to an experimental frustration of the need for competence. Results Including interindividual differences in the within‐person coupling of need fulfillment and well‐being improved model fit significantly, indicating that there were statistically meaningful interindividual differences in need effects. The interaction of competence satisfaction effect and competence dissatisfaction effect moderated the effect of an experimental competence frustration on negative affect. Conclusion Results show that interindividual differences in the association of competence fulfillment and well‐being are a matter of degree, but not quality. They also support the claim that need satisfaction and dissatisfaction are more than psychometric opposites.
    October 11, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12351   open full text
  • What's interpersonal in interpersonal perception? The role of target's attachment in the accuracy of perception.
    Gentiana Sadikaj, D. S. Moskowitz, David C. Zuroff.
    Journal of Personality. October 09, 2017
    Objective We examined the influence of attachment orientation on the accuracy of perception of negative affect in close relationships. We hypothesized that tracking accuracy of perceiving negative affect (a) would be lower among perceivers and targets with higher attachment avoidance and (b) would be lowest when both the target and perceiver were high on attachment avoidance. Tracking accuracy would be (c) higher among perceivers and targets with higher attachment anxiety and (d) highest when both the target and perceiver were high on attachment anxiety. Method We collected data from 92 couples who reported their negative affect and perception of their partner's negative affect in interactions with each other on 20 days. Results Results supported the hypotheses for attachment avoidance and tracking accuracy. Tracking accuracy of perceived negative affect was low when the target was high on attachment avoidance; accuracy was lowest when both the target and the perceiver were high on attachment avoidance. Conclusions Lower “readability” of high avoidantly attached targets' emotions may inhibit intimacy and sensitive responding, which thereby may contribute to poor relationship outcomes.
    October 09, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12343   open full text
  • Parents' traces in life: When and how parents are presented in spontaneous life narratives.
    Christin Köber, Tilmann Habermas.
    Journal of Personality. October 05, 2017
    Objective Although parents are acknowledged to be a part of their children's personality and narrative identity and to remain important across the life span, narrative personality research has not yet explored the spontaneous presentation of parents in life stories. Therefore, this study examined longitudinally the place given to parents when crafting one's life narrative and how this changes with age. Furthermore, in contrast to prior studies, we focused on spontaneous mentions of parents. Method We investigated how often parents are mentioned in life narratives of six age groups spanning from age 8 to 69, how the parental relationship is evaluated, whether narrators express understanding of their parents, and whether they respond to parental values. Results People of all ages dedicated a substantial part of their life narratives to their parents and evaluated their relationship with them in an increasingly differentiated manner. Parents were increasingly perceived as individuals beyond their parental nurturing role. Until late in life, individuals reflect on values and opinions that were transferred to them by their parents. Conclusions Parents hold a consistent place in life narratives, emphasizing their importance for narrative identity. Results are discussed in terms of lifelong child–parent relationships. Directions for future research are outlined.
    October 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12350   open full text
  • Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring personality in childhood and adulthood.
    Angelina R. Sutin, Heather A. Flynn, Antonio Terracciano.
    Journal of Personality. October 04, 2017
    Objective Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been associated with offspring internalizing and externalizing disorders. The purpose of this research is to examine whether MSDP is also associated with variations in normal personality traits in childhood and adulthood. Method This study uses four independent samples (total N = 16,323) to examine whether there are mean‐level differences in offspring personality traits by MSDP, controlling for relevant sociodemographic factors. Two samples are of children (Ns = 3,782 and 3,841) and two samples are of adults (Ns = 1,786 and 6,914). Results A meta‐analysis across the four samples indicated that offspring of mothers who did smoke during pregnancy scored higher in Neuroticism (p = .000) and Extraversion (p = .003) and lower in Conscientiousness (p = .002) than offspring of mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. The association between MSDP and Neuroticism and Conscientiousness held across both childhood and adulthood and when propensity score matching was used, whereas the association with Extraversion was only apparent in adulthood and did not hold with propensity scores. Conclusions These results suggest that MSDP is associated with individual differences in psychological traits in childhood and adulthood and may be one prenatal factor that contributes to trait Neuroticism and Conscientiousness.
    October 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12342   open full text
  • Extraversion and life satisfaction: A cross‐cultural examination of student and nationally representative samples.
    Hyunji Kim, Ulrich Schimmack, Shigehiro Oishi, Yoshiro Tsutsui.
    Journal of Personality. September 28, 2017
    Objective Previous research on Extraversion and life satisfaction suggests that extraverted individuals are more satisfied with their lives. However, existing studies provide inflated effect sizes, as they were based on simple correlations. In five studies, the authors provide better estimates of the relationship between Extraversion and life satisfaction. Method The current study examined student and nationally representative samples from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Japan (Study 1, N = 1,460; Study 2, N = 5,882; Study 3, N = 18,683; Study 4, N = 13,443; Study 5, Japan N = 952 and U.S. N = 891). The relationship between Extraversion and life satisfaction was examined using structural equation modeling by regressing life satisfaction on the Big Five traits. Results Extraversion was a unique predictor of life satisfaction in the North American student and nationally representative samples (Study 1, β = .232; Study 2, β = .225; Study 5, β = .217), but the effect size was weaker or absent in other non–North American samples (Germany, United Kingdom, and Japan). Conclusions The findings attest to the moderating role of culture on Extraversion and life satisfaction and the importance of controlling for shared method variance.
    September 28, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12339   open full text
  • A dyadic typology of social desires in couples.
    Thomas Czikmantori, Birk Hagemeyer, Stefan Engeser.
    Journal of Personality. September 26, 2017
    Objective Employing a couple‐centered approach to social motivation in intimate relationships, we developed a dyadic typology based on the ABC model of communal and agentic social desires. Method Using latent profile analysis, 631 heterosexual couples (age women: M = 39.7, SD = 13.6; age men: M = 42.0, SD = 14.1) were categorized regarding both partners' self‐reported desires for closeness with partner, for affiliation with friends, and for being alone. Couple types were described using self‐reported indicators of relationship functioning. Relationship stability was assessed after 1 year, and in stable couples, social desires were reassessed to examine continuity and change. Results We identified four motivational couple types. Three profiles showed similar orientations between partners and were labeled the communion, closeness, and distance couple types. Additionally, the distanced‐man type was characterized by a low desire for closeness and a high desire for being alone in men, but not women. The communion and closeness types showed better relationship functioning than the other types, and the distanced‐man type showed an increased rate of relationship break‐up. Conclusions A couple‐centered, typological approach provides a viable way of studying complex dyadic motivational constellations and their consequences. This is beneficial for researchers as well as practitioners.
    September 26, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12338   open full text
  • Identity development in cultural context: The role of deviating from master narratives.
    Kate C. McLean, Jennifer P. Lilgendahl, Chelsea Fordham, Elizabeth Alpert, Emma Marsden, Kathryn Szymanowski, Dan P. McAdams.
    Journal of Personality. September 26, 2017
    Objective The great majority of research on identity and personality development has focused on individual processes of development, to the relative neglect of the cultural context of development. We employ a recently articulated framework for the examination of identity development in context, centered on the construct of master narratives, or culturally shared stories. Method Across four studies, we asked emerging and midlife adults (N = 512) to narrate personal experiences of deviations from these master narratives. Results Across three quantitative studies, we show that (a) those who elaborated their deviation experiences were more likely to be in structurally marginalized positions in society (e.g., ethnic or sexual minorities); (b) those who elaborated an empowering alternative to the master narrative were more likely to be engaged in identity processes; and (c) master narratives maintain their rigidity by the frequency of their use. In study 4, using qualitative analyses, we illustrate the rigidity of master narratives, as well as the degree to which they take shape in social and group experiences. Conclusions These studies emphasize the importance of cultural context in considering personality and identity development.
    September 26, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12341   open full text
  • A worthy self is a caring self: Examining the developmental relations between self‐esteem and self‐compassion in adolescents.
    James N. Donald, Joseph Ciarrochi, Philip D. Parker, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Sarah L. Marshall, Jiesi Guo.
    Journal of Personality. September 22, 2017
    Objective Self‐compassion has been framed as a healthy alternative to self‐esteem, as it is nonevaluative. However, rather than being alternatives, it may be that the two constructs develop in a mutually reinforcing way. The present study tested this possibility among adolescents. Method A large adolescent sample (N = 2,809; 49.8% female) reported levels of trait self‐esteem and self‐compassion annually for 4 years. Autoregressive cross‐lagged structural equation models were used to estimate the reciprocal longitudinal relations between the two constructs. Results Self‐esteem consistently predicted changes in self‐compassion across the 4 years of the study, but not vice versa. Conclusions Self‐esteem appears to be an important antecedent of the development of self‐compassion, perhaps because the capacity to extend compassion toward the self depends on one's appraisals of worthiness. These findings add important insights to our theoretical understanding of the development of self‐compassion.
    September 22, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12340   open full text
  • Comparing the lexical similarity of the triarchic model of psychopathy to contemporary models of psychopathy.
    Dylan T. Gatner, Kevin S. Douglas, Stephen D. Hart.
    Journal of Personality. September 11, 2017
    Objective The triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) posits that psychopathic personality comprises three domains: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The present study aimed to clarify conceptual overlap between contemporary definitions of psychopathy, with particular emphasis given to the relevance of boldness (i.e., social dominance, venturesomeness, emotional resiliency)—a topic of recent debate. Method Undergraduate students (N = 439) compared the lexical similarity of triarchic domains with two contemporary models of psychopathy: the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP; Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2012) and the Five‐Factor Model of psychopathy (FFM; Widiger & Lynam, 1998). Results From a content validity perspective, meanness and disinhibition were lexically similar to both the CAPP and FFM psychopathy, whereas boldness was less strongly associated with these models. Meanness showed the strongest lexical similarity in comparison with past prototypicality ratings of the CAPP and FFM psychopathy. Conclusions These findings bear implications for defining and comparing conceptualizations of psychopathy that underpin its assessment.
    September 11, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12337   open full text
  • Chinese isms dimensions in mainland China and Taiwan: Convergence and extension of American isms dimensions.
    Zhuo Job Chen, Kung‐Yu Hsu, Xinyue Zhou, Gerard Saucier.
    Journal of Personality. September 06, 2017
    Objective Previous studies of American English isms terms have uncovered as many as five broad factors: tradition‐oriented religiousness (TR), subjective spirituality (SS), communal rationalism (CR), unmitigated self‐interest (USI), and inequality aversion (IA). The present studies took a similar lexical approach to investigate the Chinese‐language isms structures in both mainland China and Taiwan. Method and Results In Study 1, exploratory factor analyses with 915 mainland Chinese subjects uncovered four interpretable factors dimensionalizing 165 mainland Chinese dictionary isms terms. These factors represented contents of a combination of TR and SS, USI, CR, and a culturally unique Communist Party of China (CPC) ideology factor. In Study 2, exploratory factor analyses with 467 Taiwan Chinese subjects revealed four interpretable factors categorizing 291 Taiwan Chinese dictionary isms terms. These factors represented contents of a combination of TR and SS, USI, CR, and a culturally unique dimension expressing aspirations for happiness. Conclusions The results gave evidence for the existence of the isms factors TR and SS, USI, and CR in Chinese culture. Cultural uniqueness was reflected in the merging of TR and SS into the factor Syncretic Religiousness and the culture‐specific factors of CPC ideology in China and Happiness/Peace Promotion in Taiwan.
    September 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12336   open full text
  • The perniciousness of perfectionism: A meta‐analytic review of the perfectionism–suicide relationship.
    Martin M. Smith, Simon B. Sherry, Samantha Chen, Donald H. Saklofske, Christopher Mushquash, Gordon L. Flett, Paul L. Hewitt.
    Journal of Personality. September 04, 2017
    Objective Over 50 years of research implicates perfectionism in suicide. Yet the role of perfectionism in suicide needs clarification due to notable between‐study inconsistencies in findings, underpowered studies, and uncertainty about whether perfectionism confers risk for suicide. We addressed this by meta‐analyzing perfectionism's relationship with suicide ideation and attempts. We also tested whether self‐oriented, other‐oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism predicted increased suicide ideation, beyond baseline ideation. Method Our literature search yielded 45 studies (N = 11,747) composed of undergraduates, medical students, community adults, and psychiatric patients. Results Meta‐analysis using random effects models revealed perfectionistic concerns (socially prescribed perfectionism, concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, discrepancy, perfectionistic attitudes), perfectionistic strivings (self‐oriented perfectionism, personal standards), parental criticism, and parental expectations displayed small‐to‐moderate positive associations with suicide ideation. Socially prescribed perfectionism also predicted longitudinal increases in suicide ideation. Additionally, perfectionistic concerns, parental criticism, and parental expectations displayed small, positive associations with suicide attempts. Conclusions Results lend credence to theoretical accounts suggesting self‐generated and socially based pressures to be perfect are part of the premorbid personality of people prone to suicide ideation and attempts. Perfectionistic strivings' association with suicide ideation also draws into question the notion that such strivings are healthy, adaptive, or advisable.
    September 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12333   open full text
  • Reciprocal feedback between self‐concept and goal pursuit in daily life.
    Alexander E. Wong, Robin R. Vallacher.
    Journal of Personality. August 25, 2017
    Objective We hypothesized that self‐knowledge and goal perseverance are mutually reinforcing because of the roles of self‐knowledge in directing goal pursuit, and of goal pursuit in structuring the self‐concept. Method To test this hypothesis, we used a daily diary design with 97 college‐aged participants for 40 days to assess whether daily self‐concept clarity and grit predict one another's next‐day levels. Data were analyzed using multilevel cross‐lagged panel modeling. Results Results indicated that daily self‐concept clarity and grit had positive and symmetric associations with each other across time, while controlling for their respective previous values. Similar crossed results were also found when testing the model using individual daily self‐concept clarity and grit items. Conclusions The results are the first to indicate the existence of reinforcing feedback loops between self‐concept clarity and grit, such that fluctuations in the clarity of self‐knowledge are associated with fluctuations in goal resolve, and vice versa. Discussion centers on the implications of these results for the functional link between mind and action and on the study's heuristic value for subsequent research.
    August 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12334   open full text
  • Personality change across the life span: Insights from a cross‐cultural, longitudinal study.
    William J. Chopik, Shinobu Kitayama.
    Journal of Personality. July 29, 2017
    Objective Personality traits are characterized by both stability and change across the life span. Many of the mechanisms hypothesized to cause personality change (e.g., the timing of various social roles, physical health, and cultural values) differ considerably across culture. Moreover, personality consistency is valued highly in Western societies, but less so in non‐Western societies. Few studies have examined how personality changes differently across cultures. Method We employed a multilevel modeling approach to examine age‐related changes in Big Five personality traits in two large panel studies of Americans (n = 6,259; Mage = 46.85; 52.5% female) and Japanese (n = 1,021; Mage = 54.28; 50.9% female). Participants filled out personality measures twice, over either a 9‐year interval (for Americans) or a 4‐year period (for Japanese). Results Changes in Agreeableness and Openness to Experience did not systematically vary across cultures; changes in Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness did vary across cultures. Further, Japanese show significantly greater fluctuation in the level of all the traits tested over time than Americans. Conclusions The culture‐specific social, ecological, and life‐course factors that are associated with personality change are discussed.
    July 29, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12332   open full text
  • Individual differences in personality change across the adult life span.
    Ted Schwaba, Wiebke Bleidorn.
    Journal of Personality. July 06, 2017
    Objective A precise and comprehensive description of personality continuity and change across the life span is the bedrock upon which theories of personality development are built. Little research has quantified the degree to which individuals deviate from mean‐level developmental trends. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining individual differences in personality trait change across the life span. Method Data came from a nationally representative sample of 9,636 Dutch participants who provided Big Five self‐reports at five assessment waves across 7 years. We divided our sample into 14 age groups (ages 16–84 at initial measurement) and estimated latent growth curve models to describe individual differences in personality change across the study period for each trait and age group. Results Across the adult life span, individual differences in personality change were small but significant until old age. For Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, individual differences in change were most pronounced in emerging adulthood and decreased throughout midlife and old age. For Emotional Stability, individual differences in change were relatively consistent across the life span. Conclusions These results inform theories of life span development and provide future directions for research on the causes and conditions of personality change.
    July 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12327   open full text
  • On the quality of adjustment to retirement: The longitudinal role of personality traits and generativity.
    Rodrigo Serrat, Feliciano Villar, Michael W. Pratt, Arthur A. Stukas.
    Journal of Personality. July 05, 2017
    Objective Although psychological factors have been explored in relation to other life transitions, their influence on retirement adjustment quality has been largely overlooked. This study assessed the contribution of personality traits and generativity before retirement in the prediction of hedonic and eudaimonic well‐being at two temporal points after retirement. Method This article analyzes data from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) longitudinal sample. Specifically, it uses a subsample of people who were not retired at Time 1, but were 9 years after at Time 2 (n = 548) and 18 years after at Time 3 (n = 351). Results After controlling both for initial values on hedonic and eudaimonic well‐being and for the effects of personal attributes and resources, higher scores on Extraversion at Time 1 significantly predicted hedonic well‐being at Time 2, whereas lower scores on Neuroticism and higher scores on generativity at Time 1 significantly predicted eudaimonic well‐being at Time 2. Neuroticism and generative concern at Time 1 remained significant in the prediction of eudaimonic well‐being at Time 3. Conclusions The study shows that personality traits and generative concern at midlife explain a meaningful part of the variation in individuals' quality of subsequent retirement adjustment.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12326   open full text
  • Personal control decreases narcissistic but increases non‐narcissistic in‐group positivity.
    Aleksandra Cichocka, Agnieszka Golec de Zavala, Marta Marchlewska, Michał Bilewicz, Manana Jaworska, Mateusz Olechowski.
    Journal of Personality. July 04, 2017
    Objective We examined the effects of control motivation on in‐group positivity. Past research suggests that people compensate for low personal control by increasing support for social in‐groups. We predicted that the effect of personal control on in‐group positivity would depend on the type of in‐group positivity. Low personal control should increase compensatory, narcissistic in‐group positivity, whereas high personal control should increase secure, non‐narcissistic in‐group positivity. Method These hypotheses were tested in a cross‐sectional survey (Study 1 N = 1,083, 54% female, Mage = 47.68), two experiments (Study 2 N = 105, 50% female, Mage = 32.05; Study 3 N = 154, 40% female, Mage = 29.93), and a longitudinal survey (Study 4 N = 398, 51% female, Mage = 32.05). Results In all studies, personal control was negatively associated with narcissistic in‐group positivity but positively associated with non‐narcissistic in‐group positivity. The longitudinal survey additionally showed that the positive relationship between personal control and non‐narcissistic in‐group positivity was reciprocal. Moreover, both types of in‐group positivity differentially mediated between personal control and out‐group attitudes: Narcissistic in‐group positivity predicted negative attitudes, and non‐narcissistic positivity predicted positive attitudes. Conclusions These findings highlight the role of individual motivation in fostering different types of in‐group positivity and intergroup outcomes.
    July 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12328   open full text
  • Ratings of affective and interpersonal tendencies differ for grandiose and vulnerable narcissism: A replication and extension of Gore and Widiger (2016).
    Courtland S. Hyatt, Chelsea E. Sleep, Donald R. Lynam, Thomas A. Widiger, W. Keith Campbell, Joshua D. Miller.
    Journal of Personality. July 01, 2017
    Objective Theoretical conceptions of narcissism have long been characterized by two seemingly opposing poles: grandiosity and vulnerability. The goal of the current study was to investigate the extent to which traits associated with one profile are perceived to co‐occur with the other within an individual. Method Lay raters (N = 862; 56% female; 80% Caucasian; Mage = 37) recruited from Amazon's MTurk were assigned to one of four conditions in which they rated how often a series of narcissistic traits were displayed by a prototypical grandiose narcissist, a vulnerable narcissist, a close friend, or themselves. Vulnerable narcissism items were specifically worded to assess internalizing‐ versus externalizing‐based emotional responses. Results Results suggest that grandiosely narcissistic individuals are seen as responding angrily to ego‐threatening situations, whereas vulnerably narcissistic individuals are seen as responding with a broader array of negative emotions, including anger, sadness, and shame. In contrast, vulnerably narcissistic individuals were not rated as consistently demonstrating behaviors, attitudes, or cognitions associated with grandiose narcissism. Conclusions Grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic individuals both exhibit anger in response to ego threat, but sadness/shame responses are more characteristic of vulnerable narcissism.
    July 01, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12325   open full text
  • Too much of a good thing? Exploring the inverted‐U relationship between self‐control and happiness.
    Christopher W. Wiese, Louis Tay, Angela L. Duckworth, Sidney D’Mello, Lauren Kuykendall, Wilhelm Hofmann, Roy F. Baumeister, Kathleen D. Vohs.
    Journal of Personality. June 21, 2017
    Objective Can having too much self‐control make people unhappy? Researchers have increasingly questioned the unilateral goodness of self‐control and proposed that it is beneficial only up to a certain point, after which it becomes detrimental. The little empirical research on the issue shows mixed results. Hence, we tested whether a curvilinear relationship between self‐control and subjective well‐being exists. Method We used multiple metrics (questionnaires, behavioral ratings), sources (self‐report, other‐report), and methods (cross‐sectional measurement, dayreconstruction method, experience sampling method) across six studies (Ntotal = 5,318). Results We found that self‐control positively predicted subjective well‐being (cognitive and affective), but there was little evidence for an inverted U‐shaped curve. The results held after statistically controlling for demographics and other psychological confounds. Conclusion Our main finding is that self‐control enhances subjective well‐being with little to no apparent downside of too much self‐control.
    June 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12322   open full text
  • The Dynamics of Searching for Meaning and Presence of Meaning in Daily Life.
    David B. Newman, John B. Nezlek, Todd M. Thrash.
    Journal of Personality. June 05, 2017
    Objective Research on searching for meaning in life has focused on trait‐level relationships rather than within‐person relationships. Our goal was to examine within‐person relationships between daily states of searching for meaning in life, daily states of presence of meaning in life, and daily states of well‐being. Method To advance our understanding of searching for meaning in life, we conducted a daily diary study with two samples in which 254 undergraduate students (Mage = 18.54, SD = 1.55; 66.9% female) completed daily reports of presence and search for meaning in life and well‐being for 2 weeks (n = 3,288). Results Between persons, search was negatively related to presence and well‐being. In contrast, within persons, daily search was positively related to presence and well‐being. Relationships between daily search and daily well‐being were mediated by daily presence of meaning in life. Lagged analyses indicated that greater search on one day led to greater presence the next day. Conclusions The implications of these within‐person findings suggest that researchers should reconsider the potential consequences that occur from searching for meaning in life, including the possibility that greater searching is associated with increased well‐being.
    June 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12321   open full text
  • Trait and Perceived Environmental Competitiveness in Achievement Situations.
    Andrew J. Elliot, Mickaël Jury, Kou Murayama.
    Journal of Personality. May 27, 2017
    Objective Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness are typically studied separately, but they undoubtedly have a joint influence on goal pursuit and behavior in achievement situations. The present research was designed to study them together. We tested the relation between trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, and we tested these variables as separate and sequential predictors of both performance‐based goals and performance attainment. Method In Studies 1a (N = 387 U.S. undergraduates) and 1b (N = 322 U.S. undergraduates), we assessed participants' trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, as well as third variable candidates. In Study 2 (N = 434 MTurk workers), we sought to replicate and extend Study 1 by adding reports of performance‐based goal pursuit. In Study 3 (N = 403 U.S. undergraduates), we sought to replicate and extend Study 2 by adding real‐world performance attainment. The studies focused on both the classroom and the workplace. Results Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness were shown to be positively related and to positively predict separate variance in performance‐approach and performance‐avoidance goal pursuit. Perceived environmental competitiveness and performance‐based goal pursuit were shown to be sequential mediators of the indirect relation between trait competitiveness and performance attainment. Conclusions These studies highlight the importance of attending to the interplay of the person and the (perceived) situation in analyses of competitive striving.
    May 27, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12320   open full text
  • Social Comparison in Coping With Occupational Uncertainty: Self‐Improvement, Self‐Enhancement, and the Regional Context.
    Maria K. Pavlova, Clemens M. Lechner, Rainer K. Silbereisen.
    Journal of Personality. May 20, 2017
    Objective Taking into account the regional context, we investigated whether social comparison in coping with occupational uncertainty served self‐improvement (i.e., adaptive coping) or self‐enhancement (i.e., subjective well‐being). Method Respondents were 620 German adults aged 16 to 43, 59% female, who participated in three yearly follow‐ups of a larger survey. The number of observations was 1,309 for contemporaneous and 1,079 for longitudinal analyses. Participants reported on perceived occupational uncertainty (e.g., risk of losing a job and difficulties with career planning), strategies for coping with it, and whether, and in which direction, they made social comparisons in coping with occupational uncertainty. Results Making social comparisons (vs. not) was associated with higher goal engagement and lower goal disengagement. Upward (as opposed to downward) comparison prospectively predicted higher goal engagement. Under high regional unemployment, upward comparison prospectively predicted lower goal disengagement, whereas making social comparisons was contemporaneously associated with higher subjective well‐being. Higher regional unemployment rates predicted more frequent comparison, whereas comparison direction was predicted only by situational variables, especially personal control over the outcomes. Conclusions When operationalized as a conscious mental action and put in the context of coping with occupational uncertainty, social comparison serves primarily self‐improvement.
    May 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12317   open full text
  • Personality Traits as Patterns of Meaning Assignment Tendencies.
    Shulamith Kreitler.
    Journal of Personality. May 18, 2017
    Objective The purpose is to present a new conception about the nature of personality traits based on the Kreitler Meaning System. The major constructs of the meaning system are referent, meaning value, meaning unit, and meaning variables characterizing the meaning unit. The individual's meaning profile is the set of meaning variables the individual uses as assessed by the Test of Meanings. Personality traits are defined as patterns of meaning assignment tendencies. Method After introducing the meaning system, the article describes the new conception of personality traits and presents the example of extraversion. Correlation coefficients of four different extraversion scales with the meaning profiles are analyzed. Results The findings enable defining the meaning profile of extraversion and validating it in view of the information available about extraoversion. Conclusions Implications of the new conception are providing insight into the structure, nature, and dynamics of a trait, a factor, or a cluster of traits; comparing traits; validating traits; describing interactions between traits; assessing traits by the Test of Meanings; assessing traits and anti‐traits; identifying traits; classifying traits; describing traits in interaction with other tendencies; and applying interventions for modifying traits. Applications concerning attitudes, cognitive performance, emotions, defenses, coping, and psychopathology are presented.
    May 18, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12315   open full text
  • Cognitive‐Adaptive Trait Theory: A Shift in Perspective on Personality.
    Gerald Matthews.
    Journal of Personality. May 18, 2017
    Traditional, biologically based trait theories have deservedly gained broad acceptance, but some long‐standing core issues of personality research remain unresolved. Recent research questions whether (a) there can be a single universal structural model of personality superfactors, (b) current theory adequately specifies the processes that mediate behavioral and emotional expressions of traits, and (c) brain‐based accounts of traits adequately explain their role in real‐world functioning and adaptation. This article reviews the perspective on these issues provided by cognitive‐adaptive trait theory. This theory rejects the view that personality dimensions directly reflect brain systems. Instead, traits correspond to variation in strategies for managing key adaptive challenges. Thus, each trait is expressed in environments that pose those challenges, and each trait corresponds to skills and self‐knowledge that facilitate adaptation to those environments. The cognitive‐adaptive theory affords novel perspectives on trait psychometrics, theoretical accounts of mediating processes, and real‐world adaptation.
    May 18, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12319   open full text
  • Personality Traits: Hierarchically Organized Systems.
    Małgorzata Fajkowska.
    Journal of Personality. May 18, 2017
    Personality science has always been and is still ready for new theorizing on traits. Accordingly, this article presents the recently proposed traits as hierarchical systems (THS) model, where personality traits are not only the emergent properties of the three‐level hierarchy of the personality system, but are also hierarchical per se. As hierarchical systems, they are organized into three levels: mechanisms and processes, structures, and behavioral markers. In this approach, trait denotes the underlying, recurrent mechanisms that pattern its structure and account for the stability/variability of individual characteristics. Here, traits might be described as processes with a slow rate of change that can be substituted for structure. The main function of personality traits, within the personality system, is stimulation processing. Three dominant functions of stimulation processing in traits are proposed: reactive, regulative, and self‐regulative. Some important questions regarding the concept of trait remain, such as those concerning trait stability, determinacy, measurement, their relation to overt behaviors, personality type or state, and differentiation between temperament traits and other‐than‐temperament personality traits. All of these topics are discussed in this article, as well as the compatible and distinctive features of this approach in relation to selected modern trait theories.
    May 18, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12314   open full text
  • The Benefit of Punishment Sensitivity on Motor Performance Under Pressure.
    Harry Manley, Stuart Beattie, Ross Roberts, Gavin P. Lawrence, Lew Hardy.
    Journal of Personality. May 18, 2017
    Objective Humans are often required to perform demanding cognitive and motor tasks under pressure. However, in such environments there is considerable interindividual variability in the ability to successfully execute actions. Here, we consider how individual differences in self‐reported sensitivity to punishment influence skilled motor performance under pressure and whether this relationship is moderated by the temporal detection of threat. Method Across two studies, 160 UK participants (Study 1: N = 80, Mage = 21.6, 52 males; Study 2: N = 80, Mage = 24.95, 45 males) performed a precision‐grip task and received either early or late warning of an upcoming stressful manipulation involving social evaluation and performance‐dependent incentives. Results In both studies, we report an interaction where punishment sensitivity was adaptive for motor performance only when threats were detected early and there was opportunity to prepare for the upcoming stressor. Further, our results suggest that the benefits of punishment sensitivity are likely underpinned by the effective use of cognitive strategies. Conclusion Heightened sensitivity to punishment is adaptive for performance under pressure, provided threats are detected early and effective cognitive strategies are implemented.
    May 18, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12318   open full text
  • Accuracy of Self‐Esteem Judgments at Zero Acquaintance.
    Sarah Hirschmüller, Stefan C. Schmukle, Sascha Krause, Mitja D. Back, Boris Egloff.
    Journal of Personality. May 12, 2017
    Objective Perceptions of strangers’ self‐esteem can have wide‐ranging interpersonal consequences. Aiming to reconcile inconsistent results from previous research that had predominantly suggested that self‐esteem is a trait that can hardly be accurately judged at zero acquaintance, we examined unaquainted others’ accuracy in inferring individuals’ actual self‐esteem. Method Ninety‐nine target participants (77 female; Mage = 23.5 years) were videotaped in a self‐introductory situation, and self‐esteem self‐reports and reports by well‐known informants were obtained as separate accuracy criteria. Forty unacquainted observers judged targets' self‐esteem on the basis of these short video sequences (M = 23s, SD = 7.7). Results Results showed that both self‐reported (r = .31, p = .002) and informant‐reported self‐esteem (r = .21, p = .040) of targets could be inferred by strangers. The degree of accuracy in self‐esteem judgments could be explained with lens model analyses: Self‐ and informant‐reported self‐esteem predicted nonverbal and vocal friendliness, both of which predicted self‐esteem judgments by observers. In addition, observers’ accuracy in inferring informant‐reported self‐esteem was mediated by the utilization of targets’ physical attractiveness. Besides using valid behavioral information to infer strangers’ self‐esteem, observers inappropriately relied on invalid behavioral information reflecting nonverbal, vocal, and verbal self‐assuredness. Conclusions Our findings show that strangers can quite accurately detect individuals’ self‐reported and informant‐reported self‐esteem when targets are observed in a public self‐presentational situation.
    May 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12316   open full text
  • Think Positive? Examining the Impact of Optimism on Academic Achievement in Early Adolescents.
    Julia Tetzner, Michael Becker.
    Journal of Personality. April 21, 2017
    Objective Although optimism's beneficial role for various life areas is well documented, previous findings regarding its significance for students' achievement at school are inconclusive. This study examined the relation between optimism and academic achievement in early adolescents. It investigated the functional form of this relation, addressed whether the initial achievement level moderates this association, and compared this with effects on self‐esteem. Method We used a large German sample (N = 6,010; 53.2% females; baseline Mage = 14.1) with two measurement points over a period of 5 months (middle and end of 7th grade). Estimating LOESS curves and latent change‐regression models revealed three main findings. Results (a) Optimism showed a nonlinear association with subsequent changes in academic achievement: Optimism promoted academic achievement, but this positive association reached a plateau in above‐average optimism ranges and a minimum value in below‐average ranges of optimism. (b) The achievement level at t1 moderated this relation so that high optimism exerted a more positive effect for high‐achieving adolescents. (c) By contrast, optimism had an overall positive effect on self‐esteem. Conclusions The results therefore broaden the evidence on benefits of optimism by linking optimism to academic success in early adolescents but indicate only small and nonlinear associations.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12312   open full text
  • Self‐Other Agreement and Metaperception Accuracy Across the Big Five: Examining the Roles of Depression and Self‐Esteem.
    Daniel Moritz, John E. Roberts.
    Journal of Personality. April 13, 2017
    Objective The ability to judge other people's personality characteristics and to know how we are viewed by others are important aspects of social cognition. The present study tested the impact of depressive symptoms and low self‐esteem on self‐other agreement and the accuracy of metaperception (i.e., how we believe others view us) across the Big Five dimensions of personality. Method Participants who varied in depressive symptoms engaged in a 10‐minute “getting to know you” interaction in dyads. Ratings on the Big Five personality dimensions, depression, and self‐esteem were completed prior to the interaction. After the interaction, participants rated the personality of their partner and rated how they believed their partner would rate them (metaperception). Results Self‐other agreement was only found on Extraversion, whereas there was significant meta‐accuracy on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion. Depressive symptoms and low self‐esteem negatively biased metaperceptions of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism. Conclusions Depression and low self‐esteem function to negatively bias how we believe we are seen by others in new acquaintanceships and therefore may play an important role in the development of interpersonal relationships.
    April 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12313   open full text
  • Codevelopment Between Key Personality Traits and Alcohol Use Disorder From Adolescence Through Young Adulthood.
    Diana R. Samek, Brian M. Hicks, Emily Durbin, J. Benjamin Hinnant, William G. Iacono, Matthew McGue.
    Journal of Personality. April 13, 2017
    Objective Personality traits related to negative emotionality and low constraint are strong correlates of alcohol use disorder (AUD), but few studies have evaluated the prospective interplay between these traits and AUD symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. Method The Minnesota Twin Family Study (N = 2,769) was used to examine the developmental interplay between AUD symptoms and three personality measures of constraint, negative emotionality, and aggressive undercontrol from ages 17 to 29. Results Results from random‐intercept, cross‐lagged panel models showed that low constraint and aggressive undercontrol predicted subsequent rank‐order increases in AUD symptoms from ages 17 to 24. AUD symptoms did not predict rank‐order change in these traits from ages 17 to 24. There was support for both cross‐effects from ages 24 to 29. Biometric analysis of the twin data showed genetic influences accounted for most of the phenotypic correlations over time. Conclusion Results are consistent with the notion that personality traits related to low constraint and aggressive undercontrol are important vulnerability/predisposition factors for the development of early adult AUD. In later young adulthood, there is more evidence for the simultaneous codevelopment of personality and AUD. Implications are addressed with attention to personality‐based risk assessments and targeted AUD prevention approaches.
    April 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12311   open full text
  • Adolescents' Prosocial Behavior Predicts Good Grades Beyond Intelligence and Personality Traits.
    Maria Gerbino, Antonio Zuffianò, Nancy Eisenberg, Valeria Castellani, Bernadette Paula Luengo Kanacri, Concetta Pastorelli, Gian Vittorio Caprara.
    Journal of Personality. April 10, 2017
    Objective Researchers have demonstrated the prediction of academic functioning by children's prosocial behavior (PB). The goal of our study was to examine the contribution of adolescents' PB for middle and senior high school grades after controlling for stability of achievement and for intelligence, Big Five traits, and sociodemographic variables (i.e., sex and socioeconomic status). Method Study 1 examined on 165 adolescents (48.5% boys) the prediction by peer‐reported PB in 7th grade of academic achievement at the end of junior high school, after controlling for the above variables. Study 2 examined the prediction by 927 (52% girls) 8th graders' PB of academic achievement 5 years later, at the end of senior high school, taking into account the stability of grades, personality traits, and socio‐structural variables. Results Overall, hierarchical regression analysis indicated in both studies PB and Openness significantly predicted better grades in the short term and over time despite the high stability of grades across 5 years. Extraversion negatively predicted academic achievement across 1 year in junior high school. Conclusion Findings supported the view of PB as a strength and a key resource for adolescents' academic attainment.
    April 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12309   open full text
  • Personality Traits: A View From the Animal Kingdom.
    Alexander Weiss.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2017
    Given their backgrounds in classical ethology and in comparative psychology, researchers who study animal personality in biology and psychology, respectively, differ in how they measure personality, what questions they see as important, and how they address these questions. Despite these differences, both comparative psychologists and biologists embrace personality traits. By doing so, they have solved empirical and conceptual problems in animal behavior. Studies of animal personality have provided answers to questions about the evolution of human personality and have presented conceptual and empirical anomalies for sociocognitive theories. Animal personality research does not break from trait theories of personality. Instead, it enriches trait theories by conceiving of traits as not belonging to a species, but as expressed, with some modifications, across species. Broadening trait theory in this way has the potential to further enhance its ability to answer questions related to animal and human personality.
    April 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12310   open full text
  • Amplitude of Low‐ Frequency Fluctuations During Resting State Differentially Predicts Authentic and Hubristic Pride.
    Feng Kong, Qiaolin He, Xiqin Liu, Xiayu Chen, Xu Wang, Jingjing Zhao.
    Journal of Personality. April 05, 2017
    Objective Pride is an important, self‐conscious emotion composed of two distinct conceptual facets: arrogant, egotistic “hubristic pride,” and pro‐social, achievement‐oriented “authentic pride.” However, little is known about the neural basis of the two facets of pride. Here, we investigated the association between spontaneous brain activity and these two facets of pride in resting state. Method We measured 276 participants on authentic and hubristic pride. The fractional amplitude of low‐frequency fluctuations (fALFF) was used to identify pride‐related regions. Results The results revealed individual differences in authentic pride were associated with the fALFF in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), which has been implicated in social processing. In contrast, individual differences in hubristic pride were associated with the fALFF in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), which have been implicated in self‐referential and reward processing. Conclusions Together, our results provide initial evidence for the distinct neural substrates for authentic and hubristic pride.
    April 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12306   open full text
  • How Do Different Ways of Measuring Individual Differences in Zero‐Acquaintance Personality Judgment Accuracy Correlate With Each Other?
    Judith A. Hall, Mitja D. Back, Steffen Nestler, Denise Frauendorfer, Marianne Schmid Mast, Mollie A. Ruben.
    Journal of Personality. April 01, 2017
    Objective This research compares two different approaches that are commonly used to measure accuracy of personality judgment: the trait accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate among targets on a given trait, thus making intertarget comparisons, and the profile accuracy approach wherein participants discriminate between traits for a given target, thus making intratarget comparisons. We examined correlations between these methods as well as correlations among accuracies for judging specific traits. Method The present article documents relations among these approaches based on meta‐analysis of five studies of zero‐acquaintance impressions of the Big Five traits. Results Trait accuracies correlated only weakly with overall and normative profile accuracy. Substantial convergence between the trait and profile accuracy methods was only found when an aggregate of all five trait accuracies was correlated with distinctive profile accuracy. Importantly, however, correlations between the trait and profile accuracy approaches were reduced to negligibility when statistical overlap was corrected by removing the respective trait from the profile correlations. Moreover, correlations of the separate trait accuracies with each other were very weak. Conclusions Different ways of measuring individual differences in personality judgment accuracy are not conceptually and empirically the same, but rather represent distinct abilities that rely on different judgment processes.
    April 01, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12307   open full text
  • Effective Disengagement: Insecure People Are More Likely to Disengage From an Ongoing Task and Take Effective Action When Facing Danger.
    Tsachi Ein‐Dor, Adi Perry‐Paldi, Jenna Merrin, Yaniv Efrati, Gilad Hirschberger.
    Journal of Personality. March 29, 2017
    Objective People believe that they can respond effectively to threats, but actually they experience difficulties in disengaging from ongoing tasks and shifting their attention to life‐threatening events. We contend that this tendency is especially true for secure people with respect to their worldview and perception of others and not for insecure individuals. Method In Study 1 (N = 290), we examined individuals' reactions to various threat scenarios. In Study 2 (N = 65), we examined these reactions using a behavioral design high in ecological validity. In Study 3 (N = 78), we examined group‐level benefits for the actions of insecure individuals by manipulating asocial behavior in response to an emergency. Results Study 1 indicated that anxiously attached individuals stayed away from threats and sought help; avoidant people tended to take action by either assessing the risk of the event and/or enacting an asocial action such as fight or flight. Study 2 added ecological validity to these findings, and Study 3 showed that priming asocial behavior responses promoted actions that increased group members' chances of survival. Conclusion Results validate the central tenets of social defense theory and indicate that actions that are deemed asocial may paradoxically promote the survival of individuals and groups.
    March 29, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12308   open full text
  • A New Twist on Old Questions: A Life Span Approach to the Trait Concept.
    Sarah E. Hampson, Grant W. Edmonds.
    Journal of Personality. March 29, 2017
    Objective We examine three cardinal concerns in personality psychology from a life span perspective: trait structure, trait stability, and trait mechanisms that account for the predictive utility of traits. We draw on previously published and new findings from the Hawaii Longitudinal Study of Personality and Health, as well as work by others. Method The Hawaii study provides a unique opportunity to relate a comprehensive assessment of participants' childhood personality traits (over 2,000 children, mean age 10 years) to their adult personality traits and other self‐report outcomes in their 40s, 50s, and 60s, and their clinically assessed health at mean age 51. Results Our analyses have demonstrated that the Big Five can be used to describe childhood personality in this cohort. The stability of the Big Five from childhood teacher assessments to adult self‐ or observer reports is modest and varies from Big Five trait to trait. Personality mechanisms of life span health behavior and life span trauma experience explain some of the influence of childhood Conscientiousness on adult health outcomes. Conclusions A life span approach highlights the dynamic nature of traits and their long‐term predictive utility, and it offers numerous directions for future research.
    March 29, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12304   open full text
  • Narcissism and Social Networking Behavior: A Meta‐Analysis.
    Timo Gnambs, Markus Appel.
    Journal of Personality. March 23, 2017
    Objective The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook and Twitter has given rise to speculations that the intensity of using these platforms is associated with narcissistic tendencies. However, recent research on this issue has been all but conclusive. Method We present a three‐level, random effects meta‐analysis including 289 effect sizes from 57 studies (total N = 25,631) on the association between trait narcissism and social networking behavior. Results The meta‐analysis identified a small to moderate effect of ρ = .17 (τ = .11), 95% CI [.13, .21], for grandiose narcissism that replicated across different social networking platforms, respondent characteristics, and time. Moderator analyses revealed pronounced cultural differences, with stronger associations in power‐distant cultures. Moreover, social networking behaviors geared toward self‐presentation and the number of SNS friends exhibited stronger effects than usage durations. Conclusions Overall, the study not only supported but also refined the notion of a relationship between engaging in social networking sites and narcissistic personality traits.
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12305   open full text
  • Vulnerable Narcissism Is (Mostly) a Disorder of Neuroticism.
    Joshua D. Miller, Donald R. Lynam, Colin Vize, Michael Crowe, Chelsea Sleep, Jessica L. Maples‐Keller, Lauren R. Few, W. Keith Campbell.
    Journal of Personality. March 20, 2017
    Objective Increasing attention has been paid to the distinction between the dimensions of narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability. We examine the degree to which basic traits underlie vulnerable narcissism, with a particular emphasis on the importance of Neuroticism and Agreeableness. Method Across four samples (undergraduate, online community, clinical‐community), we conduct dominance analyses to partition the variance predicted in vulnerable narcissism by the Five‐Factor Model personality domains, as well as compare the empirical profiles generated by vulnerable narcissism and Neuroticism. Results These analyses demonstrate that the lion's share of variance is explained by Neuroticism (65%) and Agreeableness (19%). Similarity analyses were also conducted in which the extent to which vulnerable narcissism and Neuroticism share similar empirical networks was tested using an array of criteria, including self‐, informant, and thin slice ratings of personality; interview‐based ratings of personality disorder and pathological traits; and self‐ratings of adverse events and functional outcomes. The empirical correlates of vulnerable narcissism and Neuroticism were nearly identical (MrICC = .94). Partial analyses demonstrated that the variance in vulnerable narcissism not shared with Neuroticism is largely specific to disagreeableness‐related traits such as distrustfulness and grandiosity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the parsimony of using basic personality to study personality pathology and have implications for how vulnerable narcissism might be approached clinically.
    March 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12303   open full text
  • How Likable Are Personality Disorder and General Personality Traits to Those Who Possess Them?
    Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L. Maples‐Keller, Joshua D. Miller.
    Journal of Personality. March 04, 2017
    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate whether having higher scores on maladaptive personality traits was related to rating these traits as more likable. Method Two studies were conducted, one with personality disorder traits (N = 219; Mage = 19.4; 63.8% female; 76.6% Caucasian) and one with general personality traits (N = 198; Mage = 19.5; 69.7% female; 77.3% Caucasian). In each study, participants self‐rated their own personality and separately provided ratings of how “likable” they considered those personality traits. Results As expected, participants rated maladaptive traits more favorably if they considered themselves to possess those traits as well. Also as expected, individuals with higher Antagonism scores (including self‐rated Dark Triad constructs of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) rated Antagonism and its related facets as “tolerable”—not necessarily likable, but as less unlikable than the average participant. Conclusions These findings have implications for the ways that individuals with personality pathology perceive the people around them, which may in turn impact their expectations and behaviors.
    March 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12302   open full text
  • Sharing the Now in the Social Present: Duration of Nonverbal Synchrony Is Linked With Personality.
    Wolfgang Tschacher, Fabian Ramseyer, Sander L. Koole.
    Journal of Personality. February 17, 2017
    Objective The social present is a novel descriptor of dyadic nowness and social sharing, extending research on individual nowness (James's [1890] specious present) to the interpersonal and intersubjective domain. We wished to connect this descriptor to personality attributes. Method We define the social present by the duration of significant nonverbal synchrony, based on the phenomenon of movement synchrony that generally emerges in social interactions. It is thus an implicit and objective measure that can be implemented by automated video analyses. In this study, 168 healthy participants were invited to verbal conversations in same‐sex dyads. We analyzed the associations of the social present with personality attributes and interaction types (competition, cooperation, fun task). Results The average duration of the social present was 6.0 seconds, highest in competitive interactions and in male‐male dyads. People with higher Openness to Experience, higher avoidant attachment, and lower narcissistic interpersonal styles showed extended social present in their interactions. Conclusions The concept of the social present extends personality attributes to the interpersonal domain and to intersubjectivity. The social present may be computed based on movement synchrony but also prosodic or physiological synchronies. We foresee implications for health‐related interactions such as psychotherapy, where therapeutic presence is an essential property of alliance.
    February 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12298   open full text
  • Stuck in Limbo: Motivational Antecedents and Consequences of Experiencing Action Crises in Personal Goal Pursuit.
    Anne C. Holding, Nora H. Hope, Brenda Harvey, Ariane S. Marion Jetten, Richard Koestner.
    Journal of Personality. February 15, 2017
    Objective Action crises describe the intrapsychic conflicts individuals experience when they feel torn between further goal pursuit and goal disengagement. The present investigation introduces autonomous and controlled motivation as independent predictors of action crisis severity, beyond known personality‐level predictors (action orientation) and novel personality‐level predictors (Neuroticism and Conscientiousness). Method Using a multi‐wave prospective longitudinal design and multilevel modeling (MLM), we followed students pursuing three personal goals across an academic semester (N = 425 undergraduates; 76% female; 57% Caucasian; Mage = 20.2, SD = 2.3). In two follow‐up surveys, participants reported on the severity of their action crises, goal progress, and symptoms of depression. Results Results suggest that autonomous motivation shields individuals from experiencing action crises, whereas controlled motivation represents a risk factor for developing action crises beyond personality‐level predictors. Furthermore, MLM revealed that autonomous motivation is a significant predictor of action crisis severity at both the within‐ and between‐person levels of analysis. Action crises mediate both the relationship between autonomous motivation and goal progress, and the relationship between controlled motivation and symptoms of depression. Conclusions The implications of these findings for the prevention of action crises and motivation research are discussed.
    February 15, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12296   open full text
  • SNP‐Based Heritability Estimates of Common and Specific Variance in Self‐ and Informant‐Reported Neuroticism Scales.
    Anu Realo, Peter J. van der Most, Jüri Allik, Tõnu Esko, Bertus F. Jeronimus, Liisi Kööts‐Ausmees, René Mõttus, Felix C. Tropf, Harold Snieder, Johan Ormel.
    Journal of Personality. February 13, 2017
    Objective Our study aims to estimate the proportion of the phenotypic variance of Neuroticism and its facet scales that can be attributed to common single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two adult populations from Estonia (EGCUT; N = 3,292) and the Netherlands (Lifelines; N = 13,383). Method Genomic‐relatedness‐matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) using genome‐wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) software was employed. To build upon previous research, we used self‐ and informant reports of the 30‐facet NEO personality inventories and analyzed both the usual sum scores and the residual facet scores of Neuroticism. Results In the EGCUT cohort, the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the additive effects of common genetic variants in self‐ and informant‐reported Neuroticism domain scores was 15.2% (p = .070, SE = .11) and 6.2% (p = .293, SE = .12), respectively. The SNP‐based heritability estimates at the level of Neuroticism facet scales differed greatly across cohorts and modes of measurement but were generally higher (a) for self‐ than for informant reports, and (b) for sum than for residual scores. Conclusions Our findings indicate that a large proportion of the heritability of Neuroticism is not captured by additive genetic effects of common SNPs, with some evidence for Gene × Environment interaction across cohorts.
    February 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12297   open full text
  • Unique Associations Between Big Five Personality Aspects and Multiple Dimensions of Well‐Being.
    Jessie Sun, Scott Barry Kaufman, Luke D. Smillie.
    Journal of Personality. February 10, 2017
    Objective Personality traits are associated with well‐being, but the precise correlates vary across well‐being dimensions and within each Big Five domain. This study is the first to examine the unique associations between the Big Five aspects (rather than facets) and multiple well‐being dimensions. Method Two samples of U.S. participants (total N = 706; Mage = 36.17; 54% female) recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk completed measures of the Big Five aspects and subjective, psychological, and PERMA well‐being. Results One aspect within each domain was more strongly associated with well‐being variables. Enthusiasm and Withdrawal were strongly associated with a broad range of well‐being variables, but other aspects of personality also had idiosyncratic associations with distinct forms of positive functioning (e.g., Compassion with positive relationships, Industriousness with accomplishment, and Intellect with personal growth). Conclusions An aspect‐level analysis provides an optimal (i.e., parsimonious yet sufficiently comprehensive) framework for describing the relation between personality traits and multiple ways of thriving in life.
    February 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12301   open full text
  • Social Anhedonia and Romantic Relationship Processes.
    Lily Assaad, Edward P. Lemay.
    Journal of Personality. February 10, 2017
    Objective Social anhedonia is a deficiency in the capacity to experience pleasure from social interactions. This study examined the implications of social anhedonia for romantic relationship functioning, including the association of social anhedonia with sentiments toward romantic partners that are central to relationship functioning (satisfaction, commitment, regard for the partner, and care for the partner's welfare) and analogous perceptions of the partner's sentiments. Method Data were collected from 281 participants who were involved in romantic relationships. Results Social anhedonia predicted less satisfaction, regard, and care, and these effects were independent of attachment insecurity and self‐esteem. In addition, social anhedonia had an indirect negative effect on commitment via attachment avoidance. Social anhedonia also predicted more negative perceptions of the partner's sentiments. Conclusions Results suggest that social anhedonia may undermine the functioning of romantic relationships by reducing positive sentiments toward partners and security in the partner's sentiments toward the self.
    February 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12300   open full text
  • Feeling Better When Someone Is Alike: Poor Emotion Regulators Profit From Pro‐Social Values and Priming for Similarities With Close Others.
    Monischa B. Chatterjee, Nicola Baumann, Sander L. Koole.
    Journal of Personality. February 07, 2017
    Objective The dispositional inability to self‐regulate one's own emotions intuitively is described as state orientation and has been associated with numerous psychological impairments. The necessity to search for buffering effects against negative outcomes of state orientation is evident. Research suggests that state‐oriented individuals can benefit from feeling close to others. Yet, there are individual differences in the extent to which supportive relationships are valued. The objective of the present article was to examine whether high importance of relatedness increases the utilization of its situational activation among state‐oriented individuals. Method In two studies, we examined whether situational activation of relatedness (by priming for similarities with a close other) is particularly advantageous for state‐oriented individuals who attach high importance to relatedness (i.e., benevolence values). The sample consisted of 170 psychology undergraduates in Study 1 and 177 in Study 2. Results In both studies, state‐oriented participants high in benevolence had reduced negative mood after thinking about similarities (vs. differences). State‐oriented participants low in benevolence did not benefit from priming for similarities. In Study 2, physical presence of a close other did not boost priming effects for state‐oriented participants but stimulated action‐oriented participants to attune their self‐regulatory efforts to the context. Conclusions The results show that state‐oriented individuals who value benevolence do benefit from a situational activation of relatedness.
    February 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12292   open full text
  • The Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior and Positive Affect in Daily Life.
    Evelien Snippe, Bertus F. Jeronimus, Marije aan het Rot, Elisabeth H. Bos, Peter de Jonge, Marieke Wichers.
    Journal of Personality. February 02, 2017
    Objective To examine whether prosocial behaviors help sustain a positive mood, we tested the dynamic reciprocal associations between prosocial behavior and positive affect (PA) in daily life. A second aim was to examine whether the personality traits Neuroticism and Extraversion moderate these associations. Method The study included a community sample (N = 553). Participants completed an electronic diary assessing prosocial behavior and PA three times a day over 30 days. A subsample of 322 participants filled out the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory to assess Neuroticism and Extraversion. Multilevel autoregressive models were performed to examine the within‐person bidirectional associations between prosocial behavior and PA and possible moderation by Neuroticism and Extraversion. Results Within individuals, more PA was followed by more prosocial behavior at the next assessment, and more prosocial behavior was followed by more PA. The effect of prosocial behavior on PA was stronger for individuals high on Neuroticism. Extraversion did not moderate the associations under study. Conclusions The findings indicate that prosocial behavior and PA reinforce each other in daily life. Prosocial behavior seems most beneficial for individuals high on Neuroticism.
    February 02, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12299   open full text
  • Internalizing Symptoms and Personality Traits Color Parental Reports of Child Temperament.
    D. Angus Clark, C. Emily Durbin, M. Brent Donnellan, Tricia K. Neppl.
    Journal of Personality. January 23, 2017
    Objective Depressed parents have negatively distorted views of the personalities and behaviors of their children. Our goal was to evaluate how other internalizing symptoms and personality traits relate to perceptions of child temperament using data from mothers and fathers as well as a novel statistical method for modeling multi‐informant data. Method We applied the trifactor model (Bauer et al., 2013) to data collected from the parents of 273 children (aged 3–5 years). Results Internalizing symptoms and personality traits were related to both mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their children. Effects varied somewhat across dimensions of child temperament. Conclusions These results support concerns that psychological characteristics influence parental perceptions of their children. This research also provides insights about psychological predictors of potential parental biases.
    January 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12293   open full text
  • Clarifying the Links of Conscientiousness With Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology.
    Kristin Naragon‐Gainey, Leonard J. Simms.
    Journal of Personality. January 18, 2017
    Objective Although Conscientiousness/disinhibition plays a substantial role in internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We aim to clarify facet‐level associations and to examine whether (a) impairment mediates the link of Conscientiousness with internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and (b) demoralization (assessed via Neuroticism) accounts for their associations. Method A total of 450 participants (Mage = 42; primarily female and Caucasian) who reported current/recent psychiatric treatment completed two measures of domain‐ and facet‐level traits (i.e., NEO‐PI‐3, PID‐5), as well as interview measures of impairment and disorders. Correlation, regression, and mediation analyses were conducted. Results Internalizing disorders (and particularly, the distress disorders) were uniquely associated with facets related to low self‐efficacy, whereas externalizing disorders were uniquely associated with risk‐taking and disregarding rules. For the internalizing disorders only, these associations were reduced after accounting for Neuroticism, though associations with distress disorders remained significant. Impairment mediated the link between Conscientiousness and symptoms for internalizing disorders, but not consistently for externalizing disorders. Conclusions The internalizing and externalizing disorders are associated with Conscientiousness due to different facet‐level content. Demoralization and impairment both contribute to the link between internalizing disorders and Conscientiousness, whereas neither process accounts substantially for the relation of externalizing disorders with Conscientiousness.
    January 18, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12295   open full text
  • Personality Makes a Difference: Attachment Orientation Moderates Theory of Planned Behavior Prediction of Cardiac Medication Adherence.
    Shira Peleg, Noa Vilchinsky, William A. Fisher, Abed Khaskia, Morris Mosseri.
    Journal of Personality. January 17, 2017
    Objective To achieve a comprehensive understanding of patients' adherence to medication following acute coronary syndrome (ACS), we assessed the possible moderating role played by attachment orientation on the effects of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC), as derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991), on intention and reported adherence. Method A prospective longitudinal design was employed. During hospitalization, ACS male patients (N = 106) completed a set of self‐report questionnaires including sociodemographic variables, attachment orientation, and measures of TPB constructs. Six months post‐discharge, 90 participants completed a questionnaire measuring adherence to medication. Results Attachment orientations moderated some of the predictions of the TPB model. PBC predicted intention and reported adherence, but these associations were found to be significant only among individuals with lower, as opposed to higher, attachment anxiety. The association between attitudes and intention was stronger among individuals with higher, as opposed to lower, attachment anxiety. Only among individuals with higher attachment avoidance, subjective norms were negatively associated with intention to take medication. Conclusions Cognitive variables appear to explain both adherence intention and behavior, but differently, depending on individuals' attachment orientations. Integrating personality and cognitive models may prove effective in understanding patients' health behaviors.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12294   open full text
  • Does Shyness Vary According to Attained Social Roles? Trends Across Age Groups in a Large British Sample.
    Nejra Van Zalk, Michael E. Lamb, Peter Jason Rentfrow.
    Journal of Personality. January 10, 2017
    Objective The current study investigated (a) how a composite measure of shyness comprising introversion and neuroticism relates to other well‐known constructs involving social fears, and (b) whether mean levels of shyness vary for men and women depending on the adoption of various social roles. Method Study 1 used a sample of 211 UK participants aged 17–70 (64% female; Mage = 47.90). Study 2 used data from a large cross‐sectional data set with UK participants aged 17–70 (Ntarget = 552,663; 64% female; Mage = 34.19 years). Results Study 1 showed that shyness measured as a composite of introversion and neuroticism was highly correlated with other constructs involving social fears. Study 2 indicated that, controlling for various sociodemographic variables, females appeared to have higher levels, whereas males appeared to have lower levels of shyness. Males and females who were in employment had the lowest shyness levels, whereas those working in unskilled jobs had the highest levels and people working in sales the lowest levels of shyness. Participants in relationships had lower levels of shyness than those not in relationships, but parenthood was not associated with shyness. Conclusions Mean levels of shyness are likely to vary according to adopted social roles, gender, and age.
    January 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12291   open full text
  • The Motivating Power of Visionary Images: Effects on Motivation, Affect, and Behavior.
    Maika Rawolle, Oliver C. Schultheiss, Alexandra Strasser, Hugo M. Kehr.
    Journal of Personality. December 27, 2016
    Objective Visionary images are identity‐relevant, picture‐like mental representations of a desirable and attainable future appearing regularly in a person's stream of thought. Prior research indicates that both mental and real images provide access to implicit motives. We therefore proposed that visionary images motivate people by arousing their implicit motives and tested this hypothesis in two experimental studies. Method We used guided visualizations to administer motive‐domain‐specific visionary images (Study 1: achievement and neutral, Mage = 24.4, 51 participants, 34 women; Study 2: affiliation and power, Mage = 24.01, 51 participants, 28 women) to arouse the respective implicit motive. Motivation was measured via residual changes in affective (i.e., changes in affective arousal), behavioral (i.e., performance on a concentration task, behavioral choices in a prisoner's dilemma), and mental (i.e., motive imagery in the Picture Story Exercise) indicators of motivation. Results The results largely confirmed our hypothesis. Visionary images increased motivation in the targeted domain. Some effects were moderated by participants' implicit motives. Conclusions The findings underscore the role of implicit motives in understanding the motivational effectiveness of visionary images.
    December 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12285   open full text
  • Neuroticism and Extraversion Magnify Discrepancies Between Retrospective and Concurrent Affect Reports.
    Jennifer C. Lay, Denis Gerstorf, Stacey B. Scott, Theresa Pauly, Christiane A. Hoppmann.
    Journal of Personality. December 21, 2016
    Objective Although research often relies on retrospective affect self‐reports, little is known about personality's role in retrospective reports and how these converge or deviate from affect reported in the moment. This micro‐longitudinal study examines personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion) and emotional salience (peak and recent affect) associations with retrospective‐momentary affect report discrepancies over different time frames. Method Participants were 179 adults aged 20–78 (M = 48.7 years; 73.7% Caucasian/White) who each provided up to 60 concurrent affect reports over 10 days, then retrospectively reported overall intensity of each affective state after 1 day and again after 1–2 months. Results Multilevel models revealed that individuals retrospectively overreported or underreported various affective states, exhibiting peak associations for high arousal positive and negative affect, recency associations for low arousal positive affect, and distinct personality profiles that strengthened over time. Individuals high in both Extraversion and Neuroticism exaggerated high arousal positive and negative affect and underreported low arousal positive affect, high Extraversion/low Neuroticism individuals exaggerated high arousal positive affect and underreported low arousal positive affect, and low Extraversion/high Neuroticism individuals exaggerated high and low arousal negative affect. Conclusions This study is the first to identify arousal‐specific retrospective affect report discrepancies over time and suggests retrospective reports also reflect personality differences in affective self‐knowledge.
    December 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12290   open full text
  • Even Optimists Get the Blues: Interindividual Consistency in the Tendency to Brace for the Worst.
    Kate Sweeny, Angelica Falkenstein.
    Journal of Personality. December 21, 2016
    Objective The present research examined whether the tendency to brace for the worst by becoming pessimistic as news approaches varies across people, namely, people who differ in their trait‐like outlooks on the future (dispositional optimism, defensive pessimism). Method Across nine studies in laboratory and field settings, we examined the roles of dispositional optimism and defensive pessimism in the propensity to brace for the worst when awaiting uncertain news. The studies used a variety of paradigms, including predictions about performance on the bar exam, peer ratings of attractiveness, and feedback on an intelligence test. Results: Results from these studies consistently failed to support individual differences in the tendency to brace for the worst. Conclusions Trait‐like differences in future outlooks seem to influence only the level and not trajectories of outcome predictions, pointing to relative commonalities in the development of the tendency to brace for the worst.
    December 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12289   open full text
  • Adolescent Communal Narcissism and Peer Perceptions.
    Christopher T. Barry, Joyce H. L. Lui, Lauren M. Lee‐Rowland, Erin V. Moran.
    Journal of Personality. December 21, 2016
    Objective The present study extended recent work on communal narcissism to a sample of at‐risk adolescents. Although narcissism is widely considered an agentic personality construct, Gebauer and colleagues (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken, & Maio, 2012) demonstrated the existence and utility of a communal narcissism construct in adults. The extent to which this variant of narcissism applies to adolescents is not yet known. Because communal narcissism (e.g., feeling that one is the most helpful, is a great influence on others, will bring about world peace) may actually be aversive to others, we investigated the associated self‐ and peer perceptions of adolescent communal narcissism. Method Participants were 136 adolescents (104 males, 32 females; 52.2% White, 42.2% Black, 5.6% Other) aged 16–19, who were attending a 22‐week residential program together. Participants completed self‐report measures of narcissism and interpersonal behavior, as well as a peer nomination procedure. Results Self‐reported communal narcissism was significantly related to self‐reported pro‐social behavior but was associated with peer‐reported aggression, similar to the findings for nonpathological narcissism, which is considered agentic. Conclusions Adolescent communal narcissism appears to be tied to negative peer perceptions. The implications for understanding the interpersonal consequences of adolescent grandiosity in communal domains are discussed.
    December 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12287   open full text
  • Disentangling the Influence of Socioeconomic Risks on Children's Early Self‐Control.
    Terry Ng‐Knight, Ingrid Schoon.
    Journal of Personality. December 10, 2016
    Objective Previous studies have shown that individual differences in self‐control emerge early in childhood and predict a range of important outcomes throughout childhood and adulthood. There is, however, less knowledge about the social origins of self‐control, including the mechanisms by which early socioeconomic adversity may lead to lower levels of self‐control. This study aimed to extend understanding of the link between socioeconomic adversity and self‐control by (a) testing which individual aspects of socioeconomic risk uniquely predict lower self‐control; (b) testing whether objective socioeconomic risk operates independently of, or via, subjective parental stress; and (c) examining the interplay of socioeconomic risk factors and individual differences in children's temperament as predictors of early self‐control. Method Data were from a UK population birth cohort of 18,552 children born in 2000 and 2001. Results Multiple individual socioeconomic risk factors have independent associations with children's self‐control, including low parental education, income, and occupational class; insecure housing tenure; and younger parenthood. Results point to independent additive effects of exposure to objective and subjective risk. There was evidence of mothers' subjective stress partially mediating objective socioeconomic risks but only weak evidence of hypothesized interaction effects between temperament and socioeconomic risk. Conclusions Results were consistent with additive risk and bioecological perspectives.
    December 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12288   open full text
  • Issue Information ‐ Forthcoming Articles.

    Journal of Personality. November 09, 2016
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    November 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12213   open full text
  • Blissfully Blind or Painfully Aware? Exploring the Beliefs People With Interpersonal Problems Have About Their Reputation.
    Erika N. Carlson, Aidan G. C. Wright, Hira Imam.
    Journal of Personality. October 28, 2016
    Objective Problematic interpersonal behavior might stem from and be maintained by the beliefs people have about how others see them (i.e., metaperceptions). The current study tested whether people with interpersonal problems formed more or less accurate metaperceptions about their personality (meta‐accuracy), whether they thought others saw them in more or less positive ways (positivity), and whether they underestimated or overestimated how much others saw them as they saw themselves (transparency). Method Participants (NTime1 = 189; NTime2 = 175; Mage = 19.78; 36% male) completed a measure of interpersonal problems and provided personality judgments and metaperceptions for a group of peers after a first impression and after 4 months of acquaintanceship. Results Generalized distress was associated with less positive metaperceptions at both times and with higher meta‐accuracy after 4 months. Dominance problems were not associated with meta‐accuracy, positivity, or transparency after a first impression, but dominance was linked to lower meta‐accuracy and lower positivity after 4 months. Affiliation problems were associated with higher meta‐accuracy after a first impression and with higher positivity and transparency at both times. Conclusions Metaperceptions were linked to interpersonal problems, and these expectations might partially explain some maladaptive patterns of behavior.
    October 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12284   open full text
  • Daily Experiences and Relationship Well‐Being: The Paradoxical Effects of Relationship Identification.
    Emilie Auger, Danielle Menzies‐Toman, John E. Lydon.
    Journal of Personality. October 01, 2016
    Objective Even couples in healthy romantic relationships experience conflict at times. We examine whether relationship identification (the extent to which the relationship is incorporated into the self) predicts immediate reactivity to partner transgressions and also promotes global resilience over time. Method Sixty‐three couples participated in a 2‐week event‐contingent diary study. Results On a daily basis, experiencing more partner transgressions than usual predicted decreases in relationship well‐being and increases in negative affect. This within‐person association was stronger for those high in relationship identification. However, after 2 weeks, changes in global relationship evaluations of low identifiers, but not of high identifiers, were contingent on the accumulation of partner transgressions and the degree of negative affect in response to these daily transgressions. Conclusions This study suggests that internalizing a relationship into the self does not blind intimates to immediate negative events but rather provides a basis for their global relationship evaluations that is not contingent on recent events.
    October 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12283   open full text
  • Mate Value Discrepancy and Mate Retention Behaviors of Self and Partner.
    Yael Sela, Justin K. Mogilski, Todd K. Shackelford, Virgil Zeigler‐Hill, Bernhard Fink.
    Journal of Personality. September 30, 2016
    Objective This study investigated the relationship between perceived mate value discrepancy (i.e., the difference between an individual's mate value and their partner's mate value) and perceived frequency of mate retention performed by an individual relative to his or her partner. Method In two studies, participants in long‐term, exclusive, sexual, heterosexual relationships reported their own, and their partner's, mate value and mate retention. Samples included 899 community members (Study 1) and 941 students and community members (Study 2). Results In Study 1, we documented that individuals with higher self‐perceived short‐term mate value, and who perceive their partner to have lower (vs. higher) short‐term mate value, perform less frequent Benefit‐Provisioning mate retention, controlling for the partner's Benefit‐Provisioning mate retention. In Study 2, we documented that individuals who perceive that they could less easily replace their partner, and who perceive their partner could more (vs. less) easily replace them, perform more frequent mate retention (Benefit‐Provisioning and Cost‐Inflicting), controlling for the partner's mate retention. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of assessing perceived discrepancies in mate value (notably, regarding the replaceability of self and partner with another long‐term mate) and perceived mate retention behaviors of self, relative to partner, between men and women in long‐term relationships.
    September 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12281   open full text
  • Cognitive Defusion Predicts More Approach and Less Avoidance Coping With Stress, Independent of Threat and Self‐Efficacy Appraisals.
    James N. Donald, Paul W. B. Atkins, Philip D. Parker, Alison M. Christie, Jiesi Guo.
    Journal of Personality. September 19, 2016
    Objective Recent evidence suggests that the way in which individuals relate to their aversive thoughts predicts behavioral effectiveness more than the content of such thoughts. This article is among the first to explore whether this is true for coping with stressful events. Method Three studies with emerging adults (Study 1, N = 202) and adults (Study 2, N = 201; Study 3, N = 141) tested whether changes in how individuals relate to their stress‐related thoughts, measured using the individual‐difference construct of cognitive defusion, predicted more approach and less avoidance coping behavior, controlling for stress‐related appraisals. Results We found that cognitive defusion predicted more approach coping (Studies 1 and 3) and less avoidance coping (Studies 2 and 3) following laboratory‐induced stress (Study 1), naturally occurring monthly stress (Study 2), and daily stress (Study 3). These effects occurred independently of the effects of threat appraisals (Studies 1–3) and self‐efficacy appraisals (Study 3) on coping responses. Conclusions Cognitive defusion may be an important individual‐difference predictor of coping behavior, adding to established theories of coping such as Lazarus and Folkman's (1987) transactional theory.
    September 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12279   open full text
  • Neuroticism Increases PTSD Symptom Severity by Amplifying the Emotionality, Rehearsal, and Centrality of Trauma Memories.
    Christin M. Ogle, Ilene C. Siegler, Jean C. Beckham, David C. Rubin.
    Journal of Personality. September 17, 2016
    Objective Although it is well established that neuroticism increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), little is known about the mechanisms that promote PTSD in individuals with elevated levels of neuroticism. Across two studies, we examined the cognitive‐affective processes through which neuroticism leads to greater PTSD symptom severity. Method Community‐dwelling adults with trauma histories varying widely in severity (Study 1) and clinically diagnosed individuals exposed to DSM‐IV‐TR A1 criterion traumas (Study 2) completed measures of neuroticism, negative affectivity, trauma memory characteristics, and PTSD symptom severity. Results Longitudinal data in Study 1 showed that individuals with higher scores on two measures of neuroticism assessed approximately three decades apart in young adulthood and midlife reported trauma memories accompanied by more intense physiological reactions, more frequent involuntary rehearsal, and greater perceived centrality to identity in older adulthood. These properties of trauma memories were in turn associated with more severe PTSD symptoms. Study 2 replicated these findings using cross‐sectional data from individuals with severe trauma histories and three additional measures of neuroticism. Conclusions Results suggest that neuroticism leads to PTSD symptoms by magnifying the emotionality, availability, and centrality of trauma memories as proposed in mnemonic models of PTSD.
    September 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12278   open full text
  • Owning Up to Negative Ingroup Traits: How Personal Autonomy Promotes the Integration of Group Identity.
    Lisa Legault, Netta Weinstein, Jahlil Mitchell, Michael Inzlicht, Kristen Pyke, Afzal Upal.
    Journal of Personality. September 15, 2016
    Objective Our experiences, attributes, and behaviors are diverse, inconsistent, and often negative. Consequently, our capacity to assimilate divergent experiences—particularly negative aspects—is important to the development of a unified self. Whereas this process of integration has received attention at the level of personal identity, it has not been assessed at the level of group identity. Objective We examined the mechanisms involved in integrating positive and negative ingroup identities, as well as related outcomes. Method In three experiments, participants (N = 332) high and low in autonomy identified either positive or negative aspects of their ingroup and then indicated the extent to which they integrated the attribute. Results Those high in personal autonomy integrated both positive and negative identities, whereas those low in autonomy acknowledged only positive identities. Study 2 showed that, regardless of identity valence, those high in autonomy felt satisfied and close with their group. Conversely, those low in autonomy felt less close and more dissatisfied with their group after reflecting on negative identities. Finally, reflecting on a negative identity reduced prejudice, but only for those high in autonomy. Conclusions Owning up to negative group traits is facilitated by autonomy and demonstrates benefits for ingroup and intergroup processes.
    September 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12277   open full text
  • Issue Information ‐ Forthcoming Articles.

    Journal of Personality. September 07, 2016
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    September 07, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12210   open full text
  • Dispositional Affect Moderates the Stress‐Buffering Effect of Social Support on Risk for Developing the Common Cold.
    Denise Janicki Deverts, Sheldon Cohen, William J. Doyle.
    Journal of Personality. August 22, 2016
    Objective The aim was to examine whether trait positive and negative affect (PA, NA) moderate the stress‐buffering effect of perceived social support on risk for developing a cold subsequent to being exposed to a virus that causes mild upper respiratory illness. Method Analyses were based on archival data from 694 healthy adults (Mage = 31.0 years, SD = 10.7 years; 49.0% female; 64.6% Caucasian). Perceived social support and perceived stress were assessed by self‐report questionnaire and trait affect by aggregating responses to daily mood items administered by telephone interview across several days. Subsequently, participants were exposed to a virus that causes the common cold and monitored for 5 days for clinical illness (infection + objective signs of illness). Results Two 3‐way interactions emerged—Support × Stress × PA and Support × Stress × NA. The nature of these effects was such that among persons with high trait PA or low trait NA, greater social support attenuated the risk of developing a cold when under high but not low perceived stress; this stress‐buffering effect did not emerge among persons with low trait PA or high trait NA. Conclusions Dispositional affect might be used to identify individuals who may be most responsive to social support and support‐based interventions.
    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12270   open full text
  • The Influence of Agreeableness and Ego Depletion on Emotional Responding.
    Anna J. Finley, Adrienne L. Crowell, Eddie Harmon‐Jones, Brandon J. Schmeichel.
    Journal of Personality. August 19, 2016
    Objective Agreeable individuals report more intense withdrawal‐oriented negative emotions across aversive situations. Two studies tested the hypothesis that self‐regulatory depletion (i.e., ego depletion) moderates the relationship between trait Agreeableness and negative emotional responding. Method Ego depletion was manipulated using a writing task. Emotional responding was measured with startle eye‐blink responses (Study 1, N = 71) and self‐reported valence, arousal, and empathic concern (Study 2, N = 256) during emotional picture viewing. Trait Agreeableness was measured using a questionnaire. Results In Study 1, Agreeableness predicted especially large startle responses during aversive images and especially small startles during appetitive images. After exercising self‐control, the relationship between startle magnitudes and Agreeableness decreased. In Study 2, Agreeableness predicted more empathic concern for aversive images, which in turn predicted heightened self‐reported negative emotions. After exercising self‐control, the relationship between Agreeableness and empathic concern decreased. Conclusions Agreeable individuals exhibit heightened negative emotional responding. Ego depletion reduced the link between Agreeableness and negative emotional responding in Study 1 and moderated the indirect effect of Agreeableness on negative emotional responding via empathic concern in Study 2. Empathic concern appears to be a resource‐intensive process underlying heightened responding to aversive stimuli among agreeable persons.
    August 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12267   open full text
  • Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?
    Nicolas Souchon, Gregory R. Maio, Paul H. P. Hanel, Brigitte Bardin.
    Journal of Personality. August 10, 2016
    Objective We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Method Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Results Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. Conclusions These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value‐attitude‐behavior relations.
    August 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12269   open full text
  • Long‐Term Developmental Changes in Children's Lower‐Order Big Five Personality Facets.
    Amaranta de Haan, Sarah De Pauw, Alithe van den Akker, Maja Deković, Peter Prinzie.
    Journal of Personality. August 05, 2016
    Objective This study examined long‐term developmental changes in mother‐rated lower‐order facets of children's Big Five dimensions. Method Two independent community samples covering early childhood (2–4.5 years; N = 365, 39% girls) and middle childhood to the end of middle adolescence (6–17 years; N = 579, 50% girls) were used. All children had the Belgian nationality. Developmental changes were examined using cohort‐sequential latent growth modeling on the 18 facets of the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. Results In early childhood, changes were mostly similar across child gender. Between 2 and 4.5 years, several facets showed mean‐level stability; others changed in the direction of less Extraversion and Emotional Stability, and more Benevolence and Imagination. The lower‐order facets of Conscientiousness showed opposite changes. Gender differences became more apparent from middle childhood onward for facets of all dimensions except Imagination, for which no gender differences were found. Between 6 and 17 years, same‐dimension facets showed different shapes of growth. Facets that changed linearly changed mostly in the direction of less Extraversion, Benevolence, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Imagination. Changes in facets for which nonlinear growth was found generally moved in direction or magnitude during developmental transitions. Conclusion This study provides comprehensive, fine‐grained knowledge about personality development during the first two decades of life.
    August 05, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12265   open full text
  • Cultural and Intellectual Openness Differentially Relate to Social Judgments of Potential Work Partners.
    Caitlin M. Porter, Scott E. Parrigon, Sang Eun Woo, Rachel M. Saef, Louis Tay.
    Journal of Personality. August 05, 2016
    Objective This study investigates the differential functioning of cultural and intellectual openness (the two aspects of Openness to Experience) in relation to social cognitive processes by examining how they influence people's perceptions and interpretations of social information when deciding to initiate working relationships. Method Using a policy‐capturing design, 681 adult participants were asked to rate their similarity to and preference to work with potential work partners characterized by varying nationalities and levels of work‐related competence. Multilevel moderated mediation was conducted to simultaneously evaluate whether the indirect effects of potential work partners’ characteristics (i.e., nationalities and levels of work‐related competence) on work partner preference through perceived similarity were moderated by cultural and intellectual openness. Results Perceived similarity mediated the relationships between work partner nationality and work‐related competence and participants’ work partner preferences. Furthermore, the negative indirect effect of work partner nationality on work partner preference via perceived similarity was attenuated by cultural openness, and the positive indirect effect of work partner work‐related competence on work partner preference via perceived similarity was strengthened by intellectual openness. Conclusions Cultural and intellectual openness may have distinct functions that influence how people perceive, evaluate, and appreciate social information when making social judgments.
    August 05, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12266   open full text
  • Happy Now, Tired Later? Extraverted and Conscientious Behavior Are Related to Immediate Mood Gains, but to Later Fatigue.
    Sointu Leikas, Ville‐Juhani Ilmarinen.
    Journal of Personality. July 14, 2016
    Objective Experience sampling studies on Big Five–related behavior show that people display the whole spectrum of each trait in their daily behavior, and that desirable Big Five states—especially state Extraversion—are related to positive mood. However, other research lines suggest that extraverted and conscientious behavior may be mentally depleting. The present research examined this possibility by extending the time frame of the measured personality processes. Method A 12‐day experience sampling study (N = 48; observations = 2,328) measured Big Five states, mood, stress, and fatigue five times a day. Results Extraverted and conscientious behavior were concurrently related to positive mood and lower fatigue, but to higher fatigue after a 3‐hour delay. These relations were not moderated by personality traits. The relation between extraverted behavior and delayed fatigue was mediated by the number of people the person had encountered. Whether the person had a goal mediated the relation between conscientious behavior and delayed fatigue. Conclusion Extraverted and conscientious behavior predict mental depletion after a 3‐hour delay. The results help reconcile previous findings regarding the consequences of state Extraversion and provide novel information about the consequences of state Conscientiousness.
    July 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12264   open full text
  • Intuitive and Deliberative Empathizers and Systemizers.
    Annika M. Svedholm‐Häkkinen, Marjaana Lindeman.
    Journal of Personality. July 12, 2016
    Objective Recent findings suggest there may be some overlap between individual differences in orientations for intuitive thinking and empathizing, and between deliberative thinking and systemizing. This overlap is surprising, given that intuitive and deliberative thinking derive from dual‐process theories that concern domain‐general types of processing, whereas theoretically, empathizing and systemizing are domain‐specific orientations for understanding people and lawful physical phenomena. Method The present studies (Study 1: N = 2,789, Study 2: N = 87; Finnish volunteers ages 15–69, 65% females) analyzed each of these four constructs using self‐report as well as performance measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis showed that systemizing was strongly and positively related to deliberative thinking and negatively related to intuitive thinking. Empathizing was negatively related to deliberative thinking, whereas no association between empathizing and intuition was found. However, some deliberative aspects and some intuitive aspects were involved in empathizing. Conclusions The findings indicate that a distinction between “intuitive empathizing” and “deliberative systemizing” is not warranted.
    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12263   open full text
  • Accuracy of Judging Affect and Accuracy of Judging Personality: How and When Are They Related?
    Judith A. Hall, Sarah D. Gunnery, Tera D. Letzring, Dana R. Carney, C. Randall Colvin.
    Journal of Personality. July 12, 2016
    Objectives The present research is concerned with the relation between accuracy in judging targets' affective states and accuracy in judging the same targets' personality traits. In two studies, we test the link between these two types of accuracy with the prediction that accuracy of judging traits and of judging states will be associated when fundamental affective qualities are shared. Method In Study 1, affective states and personality traits of 29 targets were rated by 124 judges whose individual accuracy was scored as the correlation between their ratings and target criterion scores (across targets). In Study 2, a comparable analysis was done using 30 different targets and 330 different judges. Results Accuracy in judging distressed affect was significantly positively correlated with accuracy in judging Neuroticism in both studies, as well as in a meta‐analysis across the two studies. Accuracy in judging positive affect was significantly positively correlated with accuracy in judging Extraversion in one of the two studies, with the meta‐analysis across the two studies being significant. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary evidence for a new model (State and Trait Accuracy Model) that outlines when concordance in accuracy across traits and states should be expected.
    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12262   open full text
  • Issue Information ‐ Forthcoming Articles.

    Journal of Personality. July 09, 2016
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    July 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12207   open full text
  • On the Development of Perfectionism: The Longitudinal Role of Academic Achievement and Academic Efficacy.
    Lavinia E. Damian, Joachim Stoeber, Oana Negru‐Subtirica, Adriana Băban.
    Journal of Personality. June 29, 2016
    Objective Although perfectionism is a prominent personality disposition, only a few longitudinal studies have investigated how perfectionism develops. Theoretical models and qualitative studies have posited that academic success is a developmental antecedent of perfectionism. Yet, quantitative studies tend to interpret the cross‐sectional relationships as academic success being an outcome of perfectionism. In light of these gaps in the literature, the present study was the first to investigate the longitudinal relationships between perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, academic achievement, and academic efficacy by examining academic success as an antecedent of perfectionism. Method The study examined 487 adolescents (aged 12–19 years, 54% female) using a cross‐lagged longitudinal design with three time points spaced 4–5 months apart. Results Results showed that academic achievement predicted relative increases in both perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, even when including academic efficacy. In addition, academic efficacy predicted relative increases in perfectionistic strivings. Conclusions This is the first study to show that academic achievement is a common factor in the development of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, whereas academic efficacy plays a role only in the development of perfectionistic strivings. Implications of the findings for the development of perfectionism are discussed.
    June 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12261   open full text
  • Combining Stress Exposure and Stress Generation: Does Neuroticism Alter the Dynamic Interplay of Stress, Depression, and Anxiety Following Job Loss?
    George W. Howe, Maria Cimporescu, Ryan Seltzer, Jenae M. Neiderhiser, Francisco Moreno, Karen Weihs.
    Journal of Personality. June 17, 2016
    Objective Emerging models of stress point to a dynamic formulation where stressors and internalizing symptoms reciprocally influence each other. This study tested whether this dynamic interplay is the result of a general internalizing process underlying both depression and anxiety, and whether it varies with neuroticism. Method A total of 426 adults (51% female; 47% White, 42% African American) were assessed five times over 6 months following loss of employment, using repeated measurements of stressors, depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. Results Latent growth across 6 months and multilevel cross‐lagged regressions across 6 weeks supported the hypothesis that stressors and internalizing symptoms have reciprocal effects after job loss. Findings for unique variation in depression paralleled those for general internalizing, whereas few findings emerged for general or social anxiety after controlling for internalizing. Neuroticism strengthened the association of change in stressors with change in symptoms across 6 months. Those with high neuroticism showed less reduction in internalizing following reemployment and were less likely to be reemployed when starting with higher internalizing. Conclusions The moderated reciprocal effects model helps account for onset, maintenance, and resolution of symptoms following job loss. We speculate that these findings may be due in part to differential emotion regulation and reductions in motivation.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12260   open full text
  • Out of Sight, Out of Mind? Accuracy and Bias in Emotion Regulation Trait Judgments.
    Lameese Eldesouky, Tammy English, James J. Gross.
    Journal of Personality. June 09, 2016
    Objective The current study examined accuracy and bias in judging trait‐level emotion regulation strategy use in romantic relationships and tested emotion‐related and global predictors of these judgments. Method Both members of 120 heterosexual couples (Mage = 20.39 years; 56.3% Caucasian) completed measures of emotion regulation (self‐reported and perceived partner use of suppression and reappraisal), emotionality, emotional expressivity, and relationship quality. Results Romantic partners were relatively accurate in judging suppression and reappraisal, although they had a tendency to underestimate use of both strategies. Reappraisal use was overestimated more among targets higher in positive expressivity, whereas suppression use was underestimated among targets higher in emotionality. In addition, women overestimated their partner's reappraisal use more than did men, and higher relationship quality predicted more positive biases in judging emotion regulation patterns. Conclusions These findings suggest that romantic partners can judge each other's emotion regulation patterns with some degree of accuracy, but certain biases exist for specific strategies. The amount of accuracy and bias in emotion regulation judgments within romantic relationships may be influenced by both specific emotion‐related characteristics of targets and global characteristics that broadly affect personality judgments.
    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12259   open full text
  • The Relation Between Valence and Arousal in Subjective Experience Varies With Personality and Culture.
    Peter Kuppens, Francis Tuerlinckx, Michelle Yik, Peter Koval, Joachim Coosemans, Kevin J. Zeng, James A. Russell.
    Journal of Personality. May 28, 2016
    Objective: While in general arousal increases with positive or negative valence (a so‐called V‐shaped relation), there are large differences among individuals in how these two fundamental dimensions of affect are related in people's experience. In two studies, we examined two possible sources of this variation: personality and culture. Method: In Study 1, participants (Belgian university students) recalled a recent event that was characterized by high or low valence or arousal and reported on their feelings and their personality in terms of the Five‐Factor Model. In Study 2, participants from Canada, China/Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Spain reported on their feelings in a thin slice of time and on their personality. Results: In Study 1, we replicated the V‐shape as characterizing the relation between valence and arousal, and identified personality correlates of experiencing particular valence–arousal combinations. In Study 2, we documented how the V‐shaped relation varied as a function of Western versus Eastern cultural background and personality. Conclusions: The results showed that the steepness of the V‐shaped relation between valence and arousal increases with Extraversion within cultures, and with a West‐East distinction between cultures. Implications for the personality–emotion link and research on cultural differences in affect are discussed.
    May 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12258   open full text
  • The Odyssey of Episodic Memories: Identifying the Paths and Processes Through Which They Contribute to Well‐Being.
    Frederick L. Philippe, Léa Bernard‐Desrosiers.
    Journal of Personality. May 25, 2016
    Objective: This research highlights the processes through which lasting episodic memories and their characterized level of need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) can impact well‐being, both at the situational level and over time. Method: Study 1 (N = 92, Mage = 42.07 years, 72% female) investigated the effect of the unconscious activation of a personal episodic memory on situational well‐being using a subliminal priming procedure. Study 2 (N = 275, Mage = 22.45 years, 84% female) followed the odyssey of an episodic memory by examining at various points over time its abstraction into perceptions of general need satisfaction and its long‐term effect on well‐being. Results: Study 1 revealed that the activation of a need‐satisfying memory produced an immediate increase in well‐being, whereas the triggering of a need‐thwarting memory led to an immediate decrease in well‐being compared to controls. Study 2 revealed little influence of individual differences, but need satisfaction in episodic memories had a significant cumulative impact on well‐being at different points in time over months and was abstracted into greater perceptions of general need satisfaction over time. Conclusion: Results provide convincing evidence for the directive function of memories on well‐being, both at the situational level and over time.
    May 25, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12257   open full text
  • Once a Utilitarian, Consistently a Utilitarian? Examining Principledness in Moral Judgment via the Robustness of Individual Differences.
    Erik G. Helzer, William Fleeson, R. Michael Furr, Peter Meindl, Maxwell Barranti.
    Journal of Personality. May 14, 2016
    Although individual differences in the application of moral principles, such as utilitarianism, have been documented, so too have powerful context effects—effects that raise doubts about the durability of people's moral principles. In this article, we examine the robustness of individual differences in moral judgment by examining them across time and across different decision contexts. In Study 1, consistency in utilitarian judgment of 122 adult participants was examined over two different survey sessions. In Studies 2A and 2B, large samples (Ns = 130 and 327, respectively) of adult participants made a series of 32 moral judgments across eight different contexts that are known to affect utilitarian endorsement. Contrary to some contemporary theorizing, our results reveal a strong degree of consistency in moral judgment. Across time and experimental manipulations of context, individuals maintained their relative standing on utilitarianism, and aggregated moral decisions reached levels of near‐perfect consistency. Results support the view that on at least one dimension (utilitarianism), people's moral judgments are robustly consistent, with context effects tailoring the application of principles to the particulars of any given moral judgment.
    May 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12256   open full text
  • The Relatives’ Big Five Personality Influences the Trajectories of Recovery of Patients After Severe TBI: A Multilevel Analysis.
    Chiara S. Haller.
    Journal of Personality. May 13, 2016
    This study examines the influence of the personality of relatives on the trajectories of recovery of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present subsample (N = 376) of a larger population‐based, prospective, 12‐month multicenter cohort study in Switzerland (2007–2011) consists of patients with severe TBI (age ≥ 16) and their relatives. The predictors are the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory and time (trajectory of functioning of the patient over time). The outcomes are the patients’ (a) neurological functioning; (b) reported emotional, interpersonal, cognitive, and total functioning post‐injury; and (c) health‐related quality of life (HRQoL). The covariates included Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the head region and age. Results for patients > 50 are (a) relatives’ Extraversion influenced patients’ total, interpersonal, and cognitive functioning; (b) relatives’ Agreeableness influenced patients’ interpersonal functioning; and (c) relatives’ Conscientiousness influenced patients’ physical HRQoL (ps < .05). Results for patients ≤ 50 are (a) relatives’ Neuroticism influenced patients’ neurological and emotional functioning, and (b) relatives’ Extraversion influenced patients’ emotional functioning and psychological HRQoL (ps < .05). The personality traits of the relative covary with the functioning of the patient, and psychological adaptation to the loss of function may progress at a later stage after physical health improvements have been achieved. Thus, a biopsychosocial perspective on the rehabilitation process is needed.
    May 13, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12254   open full text
  • When Empathy Matters: The Role of Sex and Empathy in Close Friendships.
    Joseph Ciarrochi, Philip D. Parker, Baljinder K. Sahdra, Todd B. Kashdan, Noona Kiuru, James Conigrave.
    Journal of Personality. May 13, 2016
    Based on prior theory and research (Ciarrochi & Heaven, 2009; Eagly & Wood, 1999), we hypothesized that the link between empathy and friendship would be moderated by sex: Girls will nominate empathic boys as friends, whereas boys will not tend to nominate empathic girls. We collected measures of empathy, friendship social support, and close friendship nominations in grade 10 across 1,970 students in 16 schools (Mage = 15.70, SD = .44; males = 993, females = 977). Multilevel models revealed that boys high in cognitive empathy attracted an average of 1.8 more girl friendship nominations than did their low empathy counterparts, whereas empathic girls did not attract a greater number of opposite‐sex friends. In addition, the more friendship nominations a boy received from either boys or girls, the more they felt supported by their friends; the number of friendship nominations received by girls, in contrast, had no effect on their felt support by friends. Regardless of the quantity of friendship nominations, empathy was linked to more supportive friendships for both males and females. These results inform a contextual understanding of the role of empathy in selecting and maintaining friendships.
    May 13, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12255   open full text
  • Issue Information ‐ Forthcoming Articles.

    Journal of Personality. May 09, 2016
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    May 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12204   open full text
  • I Know My Story and I Know Your Story: Developing a Conceptual Framework for Vicarious Life Stories.
    Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen, David B. Pillemer.
    Journal of Personality. April 30, 2016
    Vicarious life stories are mental representations of other people's life stories. We propose a conceptual framework that situates the study of vicarious life stories at the crossroads between personality and social cognition, identifies their potential functions, and describes possible connections between vicarious and personal life stories. Two preliminary studies compared chapters and specific memories in personal and close others' life stories in two groups of student participants. Ages associated with chapters and specific memories in personal and vicarious life stories showed similar temporal distributions. Emotion ratings of both personal and vicarious life story chapters were related to personality traits and self‐esteem, although relations were more consistent for personal chapters. In conclusion, personal and vicarious life stories share important similarities. Mental models of other people include vicarious life stories that serve to expand the self as well as facilitate understanding of others.
    April 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12253   open full text
  • Long‐Term Effects of an Extensive Cognitive Training on Personality Development.
    Julia Sander, Florian Schmiedek, Annette Brose, Gert G. Wagner, Jule Specht.
    Journal of Personality. April 22, 2016
    Previous research found that cognitive training increases the Big Five personality trait Openness to Experience during and some weeks after the intervention. The present study investigated whether long‐term changes happen in Openness to Experience and other personality traits after an extensive cognitive training of memory and perceptual speed. The intervention group consisted of 204 adults (20–31 years and 65–80 years; 50% female) who received daily 1‐hour cognitive training sessions for about 100 days. The control group consisted of 86 adults (21–29 years and 65–82 years; 51% female) who received no cognitive training. All participants answered the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory before and 2 years after the cognitive training. Latent change models were applied that controlled for age group (young vs. old) and gender. In the long run, the cognitive training did not affect changes in any facet of Openness to Experience. This was true for young and old participants as well as for men and women. Instead, the cognitive training lowered the general increase of Conscientiousness. Even an extensive cognitive training on memory and perceptual speed does not serve as a sufficient intervention for enduring changes in Openness to Experiences or one of its facets.
    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12252   open full text
  • Psychopathy and Machiavellianism: A Distinction Without a Difference?
    Joshua D. Miller, Courtland S. Hyatt, Jessica L. Maples‐Keller, Nathan T. Carter, Donald R. Lynam.
    Journal of Personality. April 06, 2016
    A robust literature has emerged on the Dark Triad (DT) of personality—Machiavellianism (MACH), psychopathy, and narcissism. Questions remain as to whether MACH and psychopathy are distinguishable and whether MACH's empirical and theoretical networks are consistent. In Study 1 (N = 393; MTurk research participants), factor analyses were used to compare two‐factor (MACH and psychopathy combined + narcissism) and three‐factor models, with both fitting the data equally well. In Studies 1 and 2 (N = 341; undergraduate research participants), DT scores were examined in relation to a variety of external criteria, including self‐ and informant ratings of personality, adverse developmental experiences, and psychopathological symptoms/behaviors. In both studies, MACH and psychopathy manifested nearly identical empirical profiles and both were significantly related to disinhibitory traits thought to be antithetical to MACH. In Study 3 (N = 36; expert raters), expert ratings of the Five‐Factor Model traits prototypical of MACH were collected and compared with empirically derived profiles. Measures of MACH yielded profiles that were inconsistent with the prototypical expert‐rated profile due to their positive relations with a broad spectrum of impulsivity‐related traits. Ultimately, measures of psychopathy and MACH appear to be measuring the same construct, and MACH assessments fail to capture the construct as articulated in theoretical descriptions.
    April 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12251   open full text
  • Feeling Closer to the Future Self and Doing Better: Temporal Psychological Mechanisms Underlying Academic Performance.
    Robert Mark Adelman, Sarah D. Herrmann, Jessica E. Bodford, Joseph E. Barbour, Oliver Graudejus, Morris A. Okun, Virginia S. Y. Kwan.
    Journal of Personality. April 04, 2016
    This research examined the function of future self‐continuity and its potential downstream consequences for academic performance through relations with other temporal psychological factors and self‐control. We also addressed the influence of cultural factors by testing whether these relations differed by college generation status. Undergraduate students enrolled at a large public university participated in two studies (Study 1: N = 119, Mage = 20.55, 56.4% women; Study 2: N = 403, Mage = 19.83, 58.3% women) in which they completed measures of temporal psychological factors and psychological resources. In Study 2, we also obtained academic records to link responses to academic performance. Future self‐continuity predicted subsequent academic performance and was related positively to future focus, negatively to present focus, and positively to self‐control. Additionally, the relation between future focus and self‐control was stronger for continuing‐generation college students than first‐generation college students. Future self‐continuity plays a pivotal role in academic contexts. Findings suggest that it may have positive downstream consequences on academic achievement by directing attention away from the present and toward the future, which promotes self‐control. Further, the strategy of focusing on the future may be effective in promoting self‐control only for certain cultural groups.
    April 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12248   open full text
  • Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism in Middle Childhood.
    Ryan Y. Hong, Stephanie S. M. Lee, Ren Ying Chng, Yuqi Zhou, Fen‐Fang Tsai, Seok Hui Tan.
    Journal of Personality. March 30, 2016
    The developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism, along with their consequences and origins, were examined in middle childhood. A sample of Singaporean children and their parents (N = 302) were recruited for a longitudinal study when the children were 7 years old. Subsequent follow‐up assessments were made at ages 8, 9, and 11. A multimethod approach was adopted where parent reports, child reports, and observational data on a dyadic interaction task were obtained. Using latent class growth modeling, four distinct classes were obtained for critical self‐oriented perfectionism (SOP‐C), whereas two classes emerged for socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP). Children with high and/or increasing SOP‐C and SPP trajectories constituted 60% and 78% of the sample, respectively. For both SOP‐C and SPP, trajectories with high initial status were associated with higher internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Parental intrusiveness and negative parenting predicted high and/or increasing SOP‐C trajectories, whereas the child temperament dimension of surgency predicted high SPP trajectory. Both SOP‐C and SPP trajectories tended to co‐occur, suggesting a mutually reinforcing process. This study yields important findings that help advance current understanding of the emergence and developmental pathways of maladaptive perfectionism in children.
    March 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12249   open full text
  • Personality Strengths as Resilience: A One‐Year Multiwave Study.
    Fallon R. Goodman, David J. Disabato, Todd B. Kashdan, Kyla A. Machell.
    Journal of Personality. March 30, 2016
    We examined how personality strengths prospectively predict reactions to negative life events. Participants were 797 community adults from 42 countries. At five points over the course of 1 year, participants completed a series of questionnaires measuring seven personality strengths (hope, grit, meaning in life, curiosity, gratitude, control beliefs, and use of strengths), subjective well‐being, and frequency and severity of negative life events. Using hierarchical linear modeling with assessment periods nested within participants, results from lagged analyses found that only hope emerged as a resilience factor. To illustrate the importance of using appropriate lagged analyses in resilience research, we ran nonlagged analyses; these results suggest that all seven personality strengths moderated the effect of negative life events on subjective well‐being, with greater strengths associated with healthier outcomes. To provide evidence that personality strengths confer resilience, a prospective examination is needed with the inclusion of events and responses to them. The use of concurrent methodologies and analyses, which is the norm in psychology, often leads to erroneous conclusions. Hope, the ability to generate routes to reach goals and the motivation to use those routes, was shown to be particularly important in promoting resilience.
    March 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12250   open full text
  • Do the Emotional Benefits of Optimism Vary Across Older Adulthood? A Life Span Perspective.
    Carsten Wrosch, Joelle Jobin, Michael F. Scheier.
    Journal of Personality. March 25, 2016
    This study examined whether the emotional benefits of dispositional optimism for managing stressful encounters decrease across older adulthood. Such an effect might emerge because age‐related declines in opportunities for overcoming stressors could reduce the effectiveness of optimism. This hypothesis was tested in a 6‐year longitudinal study of 171 community‐dwelling older adults (age range = 64–90 years). Hierarchical linear models showed that dispositional optimism protected relatively young participants from exhibiting elevations in depressive symptoms over time, but that these benefits became increasingly reduced among their older counterparts. Moreover, the findings showed that an age‐related association between optimism and depressive symptoms was observed particularly during periods of enhanced, as compared to reduced, stress. These results suggest that dispositional optimism protects emotional well‐being during the early phases of older adulthood, but that its effects are reduced in advanced old age.
    March 25, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12247   open full text
  • Whose “Storm and Stress” Is It? Parent and Child Reports of Personality Development in the Transition to Early Adolescence.
    Richard Göllner, Brent W. Roberts, Rodica I. Damian, Oliver Lüdtke, Kathrin Jonkmann, Ulrich Trautwein.
    Journal of Personality. March 23, 2016
    The present study investigated Big Five personality trait development in the transition to early adolescence (from the fifth to eighth grade). Personality traits were assessed in 2,761 (47% female) students over a 3‐year period of time. Youths’ self‐reports and parent ratings were used to test for cross‐informant agreement. Acquiescent responding and measurement invariance were established with latent variable modeling. Growth curve models revealed three main findings: (a) Normative mean‐level changes occurred for youths’ self‐report data and parent ratings with modest effects in both cases. (b) Agreeableness and Openness decreased for self‐reports and parent ratings, whereas data source differences were found for Conscientiousness (decreased for self‐reports and remained stable for parent ratings), Extraversion (increased for self‐reports and decreased for parent ratings), and Neuroticism (remained stable for self‐reports and decreased for parent ratings). (c) Girls showed a more mature personality overall (self‐reports and parent ratings revealed higher levels of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness) and became more extraverted in the middle of adolescence (self‐reports). Personality changes modestly during early adolescence whereby change does not occur in the direction of maturation, and substantial differences exist between parent ratings and self‐reports.
    March 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12246   open full text
  • The Interpersonal Adaptiveness of Dispositional Guilt and Shame: A Meta‐Analytic Investigation.
    Stefanie M. Tignor, C. Randall Colvin.
    Journal of Personality. March 08, 2016
    Despite decades of empirical research, conclusions regarding the adaptiveness of dispositional guilt and shame are mixed. We use meta‐analysis to summarize the empirical literature and clarify these ambiguities. Specifically, we evaluate how guilt and shame are uniquely related to pro‐social orientation and, in doing so, highlight the substantial yet under‐acknowledged impact of researchers’ methodological choices. A series of meta‐analyses was conducted investigating the relationship between dispositional guilt (or shame) and pro‐social orientation. Two main methodological moderators of interest were tested: test format (scenario vs. checklist) and statistical analysis (semi‐partial vs. zero‐order correlations). Among studies employing zero‐order correlations, dispositional guilt was positively correlated with pro‐social orientation (k = 63, Mr = .13, p < .001), whereas dispositional shame was negatively correlated, (k = 47, Mr = –.05, p = .07). Test format was a significant moderator for guilt studies only, with scenario measures producing significantly stronger effects. Semi‐partial correlations resulted in significantly stronger effects among guilt and shame studies. Although dispositional guilt and shame are differentially related to pro‐social orientation, such relationships depend largely on the methodological choices of the researcher, particularly in the case of guilt. Implications for the study of these traits are discussed.
    March 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12244   open full text
  • Personality Traits Predict the Developmental Course of Externalizing: A Four‐Wave Longitudinal Study Spanning Age 17 to Age 29.
    Kate E. Walton, Robert F. Krueger, Irene Elkins, Cassandra D'Accordo, Matt McGue, William G. Iacono.
    Journal of Personality. March 08, 2016
    The objective of the present study was to determine whether and how personality predicts the developmental course of externalizing problems, including antisocial behavior and substance dependence. In a large, population‐based longitudinal study (N = 1,252), the 11 personality traits assessed by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire were measured at age 17, and DSM diagnoses of adult antisocial behavior, alcohol dependence, and drug dependence were obtained at ages 17, 20, 24, and 29. We fit a quadratic multiple indicator latent growth model where the three diagnoses loaded onto an externalizing factor. This model fit the data well, and externalizing increased until it started to decline at age 24. High aggression and low control were the most significant predictors of the development of externalizing, with aggression playing a significant role in the development of externalizing across the 12‐year time span, and control predicting the development from age 17 to 24. The findings highlight the importance of considering the developmental course of externalizing in the context of personality and suggest that the specific personality traits of aggression and control might be targeted in externalizing prevention and intervention programs.
    March 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12245   open full text
  • Temporal Doppler Effect and Future Orientation: Adaptive Function and Moderating Conditions.
    Yiqun Gan, Miao Miao, Lei Zheng, Haihua Liu.
    Journal of Personality. March 02, 2016
    The objectives of this study were to examine whether the temporal Doppler effect exists in different time intervals and whether certain individual and environmental factors act as moderators of the effect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the existence of the temporal Doppler effect and the moderating effect of future orientation among 139 university students (Study 1), and then the moderating conditions of the temporal Doppler effect using two independent samples of 143 and 147 university students (Studies 2 and 3). Results indicated that the temporal Doppler effect existed in all of our studies, and that future orientation moderated the temporal Doppler effect. Further, time interval perception mediated the relationship between future orientation and the motivation to cope at long time intervals. Finally, positive affect was found to enhance the temporal Doppler effect, whereas control deprivation did not influence the effect. The temporal Doppler effect is moderated by the personality trait of future orientation and by the situational variable of experimentally manipulated positive affect. We have identified personality and environmental processes that could enhance the temporal Doppler effect, which could be valuable in cases where attention to a future task is necessary.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12242   open full text
  • Living in the Past, Present, and Future: Measuring Temporal Orientation With Language.
    Gregory Park, H. Andrew Schwartz, Maarten Sap, Margaret L. Kern, Evan Weingarten, Johannes C. Eichstaedt, Jonah Berger, David J. Stillwell, Michal Kosinski, Lyle H. Ungar, Martin E. P. Seligman.
    Journal of Personality. February 29, 2016
    Temporal orientation refers to individual differences in the relative emphasis one places on the past, present, or future, and it is related to academic, financial, and health outcomes. We propose and evaluate a method for automatically measuring temporal orientation through language expressed on social media. Judges rated the temporal orientation of 4,302 social media messages. We trained a classifier based on these ratings, which could accurately predict the temporal orientation of new messages in a separate validation set (accuracy/mean sensitivity = .72; mean specificity = .77). We used the classifier to automatically classify 1.3 million messages written by 5,372 participants (50% female; ages 13–48). Finally, we tested whether individual differences in past, present, and future orientation differentially related to gender, age, Big Five personality, satisfaction with life, and depressive symptoms. Temporal orientations exhibit several expected correlations with age, gender, and Big Five personality. More future‐oriented people were older, more likely to be female, more conscientious, less impulsive, less depressed, and more satisfied with life; present orientation showed the opposite pattern. Language‐based assessments can complement and extend existing measures of temporal orientation, providing an alternative approach and additional insights into language and personality relationships.
    February 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12239   open full text
  • Dispositional Anxiety and Frontal‐Midline Theta: On the Modulatory Influence of Sex and Situational Threat.
    Roman Osinsky, Christian Karl, Johannes Hewig.
    Journal of Personality. February 24, 2016
    In their adaptive control hypothesis, Cavanagh and Shackman (2015) recently claimed that dispositional anxiety is correlated with frontal‐midline theta (FMθ) as a generic “need for control” signal of the anterior midcingulate cortex. Here, we tested this assumption, also considering potential modulatory influences of anticipatory threat and individuals’ sex. In a nonclinical sample of 168 participants (84 women), electroencephalogram was recorded while individuals performed a simple two‐choice task. Half of the participants were assigned to a threat anticipation condition (anticipation of public speaking), whereas the other half was assigned to a control condition. State anxiety was monitored across the experiment. Dispositional anxiety was assessed by self‐report scales, which were completed before individuals came to the laboratory. Target stimuli in the two‐choice task induced a transient increase in FMθ power that was subject to an interaction of dispositional anxiety, sex, and experimental group. Only in women who anticipated public speaking did we observe a substantial positive relation between dispositional anxiety and general FMθ power. Our results indicate that the link between dispositional anxiety and FMθ is not universal but rather depends on complex interactions of individuals’ sex and situational threat.
    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12241   open full text
  • Perfectionistic Concerns, Social Negativity, and Subjective Well‐Being: A Test of the Social Disconnection Model.
    Sean P. Mackinnon, Ivy‐Lee L. Kehayes, Kenneth E. Leonard, Ronald Fraser, Sherry H. Stewart.
    Journal of Personality. February 19, 2016
    Partner‐specific perfectionistic concerns (PC) include concern over mistakes, self‐criticism, and socially prescribed perfectionism as it pertains to one's partner. The social disconnection model proposes that PC influences well‐being indirectly through interpersonal problems. Thus, we hypothesized that social negativity (expressed anger, hostility, and rejection) would mediate the relationship between dyadic PC and subjective well‐being. Data from 203 romantic dyads (92.1% heterosexual) were collected using self‐report surveys and a four‐wave, 4‐week longitudinal design. Participants were predominantly female (53.1%), young (M = 22.69 years), and Caucasian (82.3%). Data were analyzed using an actor‐partner interdependence model with multilevel structural equation modeling. There were significant actor effects at the between‐subjects and within‐subjects levels, and significant partner effects for the relationship between PC and social negativity at the within‐subject level. Social negativity mediated the relationships between PC and both negative affect and life satisfaction. However, positive affect was more weakly related to PC and social negativity. The social disconnection model was supported. PC was positively associated with one's own social negativity and evoked hostile behaviors from one's partner. Hostile, rejecting behaviors reduced the well‐being of the actor, but not the partner. Results suggest perfectionism may be best understood within an interpersonal context.
    February 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12243   open full text
  • Lay Conceptions of Volitional Personality Change: From Strategies Pursued to Stories Told.
    Erica N. Baranski, Patrick J. Morse, William L. Dunlop.
    Journal of Personality. February 18, 2016
    Recent research suggests that individuals play an active role in their own personality development. Here, we investigated lay conceptions of this volitional personality change process. In Study 1, participants (N = 602) provided open‐ended descriptions of their desired personality changes as well as the strategies they were using to achieve these changes. In Study 2, participants (N = 578) completed these same measures and provided narrative descriptions of the emergence of their desires for (and previous) personality changes. Desired changes were quantified in a manner consistent with the Five‐Factor Model (though desires pertinent to Openness to Experience were rare), whereas reported strategies were distinguished on the basis of cognitive and behavioral content. Desires to increase in Extraversion corresponded negatively with the use of cognitive strategies and positively with the use of behavioral strategies, whereas desires to increase in Agreeableness exhibited the opposite pattern. Finally, desires for change were typically construed as stimulated by specific events, whereas previous personality changes were attributed to shifts in social roles. Laypersons hold a diverse range of desired changes and strategies. In addition, different categories of events are recognized as catalysts of desires for (and previous) changes.
    February 18, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12240   open full text
  • Who Reaps the Benefits of Social Change? Exploration and Its Socioecological Boundaries.
    Clemens M. Lechner, Martin Obschonka, Rainer K. Silbereisen.
    Journal of Personality. February 16, 2016
    We investigated the interplay between the personality trait exploration and objective socioecological conditions in shaping individual differences in the experience of two individual‐level benefits of current social change: new lifestyle options, which arise from the societal trend toward individualization, and new learning opportunities, which accrue from the societal trend toward lifelong learning. We hypothesized that people with higher trait exploration experience a greater increase in lifestyle options and learning opportunities––but more so in social ecologies in which individualization and lifelong learning are stronger, thus offering greater latitude for exploring the benefits of these trends. We employed structural equation modeling in two parallel adult samples from Germany (N = 2,448) and Poland (N = 2,571), using regional divorce rates as a proxy for individualization and Internet domain registration rates as a proxy for lifelong learning. Higher exploration was related to a greater perceived increase in lifestyle options and in learning opportunities over the past 5 years. These associations were stronger in regions in which the trends toward individualization and lifelong learning, respectively, were more prominent. Individuals higher in exploration are better equipped to reap the benefits of current social change––but the effects of exploration are bounded by the conditions in the social ecology.
    February 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12238   open full text
  • Individual Differences in Good Manners Rather Than Compassion Predict Fair Allocations of Wealth in the Dictator Game.
    Kun Zhao, Eamonn Ferguson, Luke D. Smillie.
    Journal of Personality. February 08, 2016
    One of the most common tools for studying pro‐sociality is the dictator game, in which allocations to one's partner are often described in terms of altruism. However, the motivations driving these allocations may represent either emotional concern for others (compassion), adherence to social norms regarding fairness (politeness), or both. In this article, we apply personality psychology to the study of behavior in the dictator game, in which we examine the discriminant validity of distinct pro‐social constructs from the Big Five and HEXACO models in relation to allocations of wealth. Across four studies (Study 1: N = 192; Study 2: N = 212; Study 3: N = 304; Study 4: N = 90) utilizing both hypothetical and incentivized designs, we found that the politeness—but not compassion—aspect of Big Five Agreeableness, as well as HEXACO Honesty‐Humility, uniquely predicted dictator allocations within their respective personality models. These findings contribute to a growing literature indicating that the standard dictator game measures “good manners” or adherence to norms concerning fairness, rather than pure emotional concern or compassionate motives, and have important implications for how this paradigm is used and interpreted in psychological research.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12237   open full text
  • Just World Beliefs Are Associated With Lower Levels of Metabolic Risk and Inflammation and Better Sleep After an Unfair Event.
    Cynthia S. Levine, Devika Basu, Edith Chen.
    Journal of Personality. January 29, 2016
    This study's goal was to conduct a preliminary test of the theory that just world beliefs can buffer against negative physiological outcomes after people experience certain types of negative life events by testing associations between just world beliefs and physiological outcomes among people with different life event histories. In a sample of 247 adults (Mage = 46.01; 24.31% men; 60.78% White), this research investigated the relationship between just world beliefs and metabolic symptoms, inflammation, and sleep among people who had recently experienced an unfair event, another type of negative event, or no negative event. Stronger just world beliefs correlated with lower metabolic risk, lower inflammation, and better sleep among people who had recently experienced an unfair event, but not among those in the other two event groups. These findings suggest that people's beliefs about the world may interact with their life experiences in ways that have implications for health‐relevant outcomes.
    January 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12236   open full text
  • Capturing the DSM‐5 Alternative Personality Disorder Model Traits in the Five‐Factor Model's Nomological Net.
    Takakuni Suzuki, Sarah A. Griffin, Douglas B. Samuel.
    Journal of Personality. January 29, 2016
    Several studies have shown structural and statistical similarities between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM‐5) alternative personality disorder model and the Five‐Factor Model (FFM). However, no study to date has evaluated the nomological network similarities between the two models. The relations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI‐R) and the Personality Inventory for DSM‐5 (PID‐5) with relevant criterion variables were examined in a sample of 336 undergraduate students (Mage = 19.4; 59.8% female). The resulting profiles for each instrument were statistically compared for similarity. Four of the five domains of the two models have highly similar nomological networks, with the exception being FFM Openness to Experience and PID‐5 Psychoticism. Further probing of that pair suggested that the NEO PI‐R domain scores obscured meaningful similarity between PID‐5 Psychoticism and specific aspects and lower‐order facets of Openness. The results support the notion that the DSM‐5 alternative personality disorder model trait domains represent variants of the FFM domains. Similarities of Openness and Psychoticism domains were supported when the lower‐order aspects and facets of Openness domain were considered. The findings support the view that the DSM‐5 trait model represents an instantiation of the FFM.
    January 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12235   open full text
  • Studying the Motivated Agent Through Time: Personal Goal Development During the Adult Life Span.
    William L. Dunlop, Brittany L. Bannon, Dan P. McAdams.
    Journal of Personality. December 13, 2015
    This research examined the rank‐order and mean‐level consistency of personal goals at two periods in the adult life span. Personal goal continuity was considered among a group of young adults (N = 145) who reported their goals three times over a 3‐year period and among a group of midlife adults (N = 163) who specified their goals annually over a 4‐year period. Goals were coded for a series of motive‐based (viz., achievement, affiliation, intimacy, power) and domain‐based (viz., finance, generativity, health, travel) categories. In both samples, we noted a moderate degree of rank‐order consistency across assessment periods. In addition, the majority of goal categories exhibited a high degree of mean‐level consistency. The results of this research suggest that (a) the content of goals exhibits a modest degree of rank‐order consistency and a substantial degree of mean‐level consistency over time, and (b) considering personality continuity and development as manifest via goals represents a viable strategy for personality psychologists.
    December 13, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12234   open full text
  • Further Evaluation of the Tripartite Structure of Subjective Well‐Being: Evidence From Longitudinal and Experimental Studies.
    Samantha J. Metler, Michael A. Busseri.
    Journal of Personality. December 03, 2015
    Subjective well‐being (SWB; Diener, 1984) comprises three primary components: life satisfaction (LS), positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). Multiple competing conceptualizations of the tripartite structure of SWB have been employed, resulting in widespread ambiguity concerning the definition, operationalization, analysis, and synthesis of SWB‐related findings (Busseri & Sadava, 2011). We report two studies evaluating two predominant structural models (as recently identified by Busseri, 2015): a hierarchical model comprising a higher‐order latent SWB factor with LS, PA, and NA as indicators; and a causal systems model specifying unidirectional effects of PA and NA on LS. A longitudinal study (N = 452; Mage = 18.54; 76.5% female) and a lab‐based experiment (N = 195; Mage = 20.42 years; 87.6% female; 81.5% Caucasian) were undertaken. Structural models were evaluated with respect to (a) associations among SWB components across time (three months, three years in Study 1; one week in Study 2) and (b) the impact of manipulating the individual SWB components (Study 2). A hierarchical structural model was supported in both studies; conflicting evidence was found for the causal systems model. A hierarchical model provides a robust conceptualization for the tripartite structure of SWB.
    December 03, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12233   open full text
  • The Higher Your Implicit Affiliation‐Intimacy Motive, the More Loneliness Can Turn You Into a Social Cynic: A Cross‐Cultural Study.
    Jan Hofer, Holger Busch, Carolin Raihala, Iva Poláčková Šolcová, Peter Tavel.
    Journal of Personality. November 21, 2015
    Research has shown that the strength of the implicit affiliation‐intimacy motive moderates the effects of satisfaction and frustration of the need for affiliation‐intimacy: Low relatedness was more closely related to envy for people high in the implicit affiliation‐intimacy motive. The present study tests a moderating effect of the strength of the implicit affiliation‐intimacy motive on the association between low relatedness and social cynicism in samples of elderly people from Germany, the Czech Republic, and Cameroon. A total of 616 participants provided information on their implicit affiliation‐intimacy motive, relatedness, and social cynicism. As hypothesized, a moderation effect of the strength of the implicit affiliation‐intimacy motive was found that held true regardless of participants’ culture of origin: For people high in the implicit affiliation‐intimacy motive, a lack of relatedness was associated with higher levels of social cynicism. Our findings complement other theories stating that positive relationships with others are a significant part of successful aging.
    November 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12232   open full text
  • Implicit Theories About Willpower Predict Subjective Well‐Being.
    Katharina Bernecker, Marcel Herrmann, Veronika Brandstätter, Veronika Job.
    Journal of Personality. October 29, 2015
    Lay theories about willpower—the belief that willpower is a limited versus nonlimited resource—affect self‐control and goal striving in everyday life (Job, Dweck, & Walton, 2010). Three studies examined whether willpower theories also relate to people's subjective well‐being by shaping the progress they make toward their personal goals. A cross‐sectional (Study 1) and two longitudinal studies (Studies 2 and 3) measured individuals’ willpower theories and different indicators of subjective well‐being. Additionally, Study 3 measured goal striving and personal goal progress. A limited theory about willpower was associated with lower subjective well‐being in a sample of working adults (Study 1, N = 258). Further, a limited theory predicted lower levels of well‐being at a time when students faced high self‐regulatory demands (Study 2, N = 196). Study 3 (N = 157) replicated the finding that students with a limited theory experienced lower well‐being in phases of high self‐regulatory demands and found that personal goal progress mediated this relationship. Results suggest that the belief that willpower is based on a limited resource has negative implications not only for self‐control but also for personal goal striving and subjective well‐being.
    October 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12225   open full text
  • Does the Value Circle Exist Within Persons or Only Across Persons?
    Ingwer Borg, Anat Bardi, Shalom H. Schwartz.
    Journal of Personality. October 21, 2015
    This study tests whether the Schwartz (1992) value circle exists within individuals, not only across individuals, thereby providing evidence for the within‐person rationale underlying the value circle. We analyze responses from five samples (a representative sample in Britain, a general population sample in the United States, and university students in Britain and Iran) varying in value measures of the Schwartz value theory (SVS, PVQ40, PVQ21). An unfolding model is used to map each person's value profile into a two‐dimensional space representing both persons and values. In all samples, clear value circles were found, with values ordered around the circle largely according to the theory. The model also represents most individuals well. The value circle exists within individuals, providing strong support for the underlying within‐person rationale for the Schwartz (1992) value theory. The unfolding analysis allows identifying which persons fit the model less well and in which way, identifying how meaningful subgroups differ in their value profiles, and testing whether meaningful subgroups have different value structures. The model opens up many new possibilities for research linking values to other variables.
    October 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12228   open full text
  • Obsessive Passion: A Compensatory Response to Unsatisfied Needs.
    Daniel Lalande, Robert J. Vallerand, Marc‐André K. Lafrenière, Jérémie Verner‐Filion, François‐Albert Laurent, Jacques Forest, Yvan Paquet.
    Journal of Personality. October 21, 2015
    The present research investigated the role of two sources of psychological need satisfaction (inside and outside a passionate activity) as determinants of harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion. Four studies were carried out with different samples of young and middle‐aged adults (e.g., athletes, musicians; total N = 648). Different research designs (cross‐sectional, mixed, longitudinal) were also used. Results showed that only a rigid engagement in a passionate activity (OP) was predicted by low levels of need satisfaction outside the passionate activity (in an important life context or in life in general), whereas both OP and a more favorable and balanced type of passion, HP were positively predicted by need satisfaction inside the passionate activity. Further, OP led to negative outcomes, and HP predicted positive outcomes. These results suggest that OP may represent a form of compensatory striving for psychological need satisfaction. It appears important to consider two distinct sources of need satisfaction, inside and outside the passionate activity, when investigating determinants of optimal and less optimal forms of activity engagement.
    October 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12229   open full text
  • College Student Samples Are Not Always Equivalent: The Magnitude of Personality Differences Across Colleges and Universities.
    Katherine S. Corker, M. Brent Donnellan, Su Yeong Kim, Seth J. Schwartz, Byron L. Zamboanga.
    Journal of Personality. October 08, 2015
    This research examined the magnitude of personality differences across different colleges and universities to understand (a) how much students at different colleges vary from one another and (b) whether there are site‐level variables that can explain observed differences. Nearly 8,600 students at 30 colleges and universities completed a Big Five personality trait measure. Site‐level information was obtained from the Integrated Postsecondary Education System database (U.S. Department of Education). Multilevel models revealed that each of the Big Five traits showed significant between‐site variability, even after accounting for individual‐level demographic differences. Some site‐level variables (e.g., enrollment size, requiring letters of recommendation) explained between‐site differences in traits, but many tests were not statistically significant. Student samples at different universities differed in terms of average levels of Big Five personality domains. This raises the possibility that personality differences may explain differences in research results obtained when studying students at different colleges and universities. Furthermore, results suggest that research that compares findings for only a few sites (e.g., much cross‐cultural research) runs the risk of overgeneralizing differences between specific samples to broader group differences. These results underscore the value of multisite collaborative research efforts to enhance psychological research.
    October 08, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12224   open full text
  • Longing for Ex‐Partners out of Fear of Being Single.
    Stephanie S. Spielmann, Geoff MacDonald, Samantha Joel, Emily A. Impett.
    Journal of Personality. September 29, 2015
    This research investigated whether people who fear being single have a more difficult time letting go of ex‐partners following a romantic breakup. Data were collected in a cross‐sectional study (N = 209, 64% women, Mage = 30 years old) as well as a 1‐month daily experience study of individuals who just went through a romantic breakup (N = 117, 44% women, Mage = 27 years old). Findings from both studies revealed that those with stronger fear of being single (Spielmann et al., 2013) reported greater longing for their ex‐partners. Pre‐ to post‐breakup analyses revealed that fear of being single increased after a breakup, regardless of who initiated the breakup. Within‐day analyses revealed that longing for an ex‐partner and attempts to renew the relationship were greater on days with stronger fear of being single. Lagged‐day analyses provided support for the conclusion that fear of being single increased longing and renewal attempts over time, but longing and renewal attempts did not influence fear of being single. These findings suggest that fear of being single is a particularly useful construct for understanding the romantic detachment process.
    September 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12222   open full text
  • The Bright Side of Threatened Narcissism: Improved Performance Following Ego Threat.
    Barbora Nevicka, Matthijs Baas, Femke S. Ten Velden.
    Journal of Personality. September 25, 2015
    Narcissistic individuals have highly positive self‐views and overestimate their abilities. Consequently, they tend to react aggressively whenever they receive information that does not match their high self‐views (ego threat). We argue that focusing on aggression merely portrays a one‐sided view of narcissistic individuals and the manner in which they counter ego threats. We propose that following ego threat, narcissism can also fuel performance. In four studies, we measured nonclinical narcissism and allocated Dutch undergraduate university students (N1 = 175, N2 = 142, N3 = 159, N4 = 174) to either an ego threat or a no ego threat condition. Ego threat involved negative feedback (Studies 1–2) or threat to uniqueness (Studies 3–4). We measured participants’ intentions to complete a challenging task (Study 1), their creative performance (Studies 2–3), and their performance on an anagram task (Study 4). Across Studies 1–3, we consistently found that following ego threat, higher nonclinical narcissism was associated with greater willingness to perform tasks that enabled demonstration of abilities and enhanced creative performance. These results were confirmed using a meta‐analysis. However, anagram performance was not enhanced following ego threat. We provide additional analyses that might help explain this. Our findings thus reveal a more positive side to the way narcissistic individuals manage threats to their self‐image.
    September 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12223   open full text
  • Effects of Trait Self‐Control on Response Conflict About Healthy and Unhealthy Food.
    Marleen Gillebaart, Iris K. Schneider, Denise T. D. De Ridder.
    Journal of Personality. September 14, 2015
    Self‐control leads to positive life outcomes, but it is poorly understood. While previous research has focused on self‐control failure, self‐control success remains unexplored. The current studies aim to shed more light on the mechanisms of self‐control by focusing on the resolution of response conflict as a key component in self‐control success. Trait self‐control was measured, and participants reported on the magnitude of response conflict they experienced about healthy and unhealthy foods in Study 1 (N = 146; Mage = 33.03; 59 females, 83 males, 4 unknown). The response conflict process was assessed in Study 2 (N = 118; Mage = 21.45; 68 females, 41 males, 9 unknown). Outcomes showed that self‐reported evaluative response conflict about food items was smaller for people high in trait self‐control. Study 2 revealed that higher trait self‐control predicted faster resolution of self‐control conflict, and an earlier peak of the response conflict. Taken together, these results provide insight into what makes people with high trait self‐control successful, namely, how they handle response conflict. Implications for self‐control theories and future directions are discussed.
    September 14, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12219   open full text
  • The Benefits of Goal Adjustment Capacities for Well‐Being Among Women With Breast Cancer: Potential Mechanisms of Action.
    Maria G. Mens, Michael F. Scheier.
    Journal of Personality. September 10, 2015
    Breast cancer can seriously disrupt a person's important life goals. As such, the ability to adjust one's goals may be critical for well‐being. The present study investigated the relationships between disengagement/reengagement capacity and well‐being among women with breast cancer, as well as several potential mechanisms (intrusive thoughts, life purpose, and physical activity) that could explain these relationships. The sample consisted of 230 women with early‐stage (n = 172) or late‐stage (n = 58) breast cancer, who were followed prospectively for 8 months. Well‐being measures consisted of global mental health, perceived physical health, positive/negative affect, and sleep efficiency. Disengagement capacity did not predict any outcome variable. In contrast, reengagement capacity prospectively predicted changes in global mental health, positive affect, negative affect, sleep efficiency, life purpose, and physical activity. Life purpose mediated the prospective relationship between reengagement capacity and multiple aspects of well‐being. The relationships between purpose and positive/negative affect were reciprocal over time. Results also suggested that physical activity is not a mediator, but is in fact a result of the effect of reengagement capacity on well‐being. The results demonstrate that reengagement capacity is important for well‐being among women with breast cancer.
    September 10, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12217   open full text
  • The Benefits of Benevolence: Basic Psychological Needs, Beneficence, and the Enhancement of Well‐Being.
    Frank Martela, Richard M. Ryan.
    Journal of Personality. September 09, 2015
    Pro‐social behaviors have been associated with enhanced well‐being, but what psychological mechanisms explain this connection? Some theories suggest that beneficence—the sense of being able to give—inherently improves well‐being, whereas evidence from self‐determination theory (Weinstein & Ryan, 2010) shows that increases in well‐being are mediated by satisfaction of innate psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Here we simultaneously assess these two explanations. Study 1 (N = 335) used a cross‐sectional survey with an Internet sample to develop a measure to assess beneficence satisfaction. The next two cross‐sectional Internet‐sample studies tested mediators between pro‐social behavior and general well‐being (Study 2, N = 332) and situational peak moment well‐being (Study 3, N = 180). A fourth study (N = 85) used a diary method with university students to assess daily fluctuations in well‐being associated with needs and beneficence. It was shown across all studies that both the three psychological needs and beneficence satisfaction mediate the relations between pro‐social actions and well‐being, with all four factors emerging as independent predictors. Together, these studies underscore the role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in explaining the well‐being benefits of benevolence, and they also point to the independent role of beneficence as a source of human wellness.
    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12215   open full text
  • What Triggers Anger in Everyday Life? Links to the Intensity, Control, and Regulation of These Emotions, and Personality Traits.
    Todd B. Kashdan, Fallon R. Goodman, Travis T. Mallard, C. Nathan DeWall.
    Journal of Personality. September 05, 2015
    Why do people experience anger? Most of our knowledge on anger‐triggering events is based on the study of reactions at a single time point in a person's life. Little research has examined how people experience anger in their daily life over time. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the situational determinants of anger over the course of 3 weeks. Using daily diary methodology, people (N = 173; 2,342 anger episodes) reported their most intense daily anger and, with an open‐ended format, described the trigger. Participants also answered questions on anger intensity, control, and regulatory strategies, along with baseline personality trait measures. Using an iterative coding system, five anger trigger categories emerged: other people, psychological and physical distress, intrapersonal demands, environment, and diffuse/undifferentiated/unknown. Compared with other triggers, when anger was provoked by other people or when the source was unknown, there was a stronger positive association with anger intensity and lack of control. Personality traits (i.e., anger, mindfulness, psychological need satisfaction, the Big Five) showed few links to the experience and regulation of daily anger. Although aversive events often spur anger, the correlates and consequences of anger differ depending on the source of aversion; personality traits offer minimal value in predicting anger in daily life.
    September 05, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12214   open full text
  • Personality Correlates of Midlife Cardiometabolic Risk: The Explanatory Role of Higher‐Order Factors of the Five‐Factor Model.
    Sarah S. Dermody, Aidan G. C. Wright, JeeWon Cheong, Karissa G. Miller, Matthew F. Muldoon, Janine D. Flory, Peter J. Gianaros, Anna L. Marsland, Stephen B. Manuck.
    Journal of Personality. September 04, 2015
    Varying associations are reported between Five‐Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we further examine dispositional correlates of cardiometabolic risk within a hierarchical model of personality that proposes higher‐order traits of Stability (shared variance of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, inverse Neuroticism) and Plasticity (Extraversion, Openness), and we test hypothesized mediation via biological and behavioral factors. In an observational study of 856 community volunteers aged 30–54 years (46% male, 86% Caucasian), latent variable FFM traits (using multiple‐informant reports) and aggregated cardiometabolic risk (indicators: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, adiposity) were estimated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The cardiometabolic factor was regressed on each personality factor or higher‐order trait. Cross‐sectional indirect effects via systemic inflammation, cardiac autonomic control, and physical activity were tested. CFA models confirmed the Stability “meta‐trait,” but not Plasticity. Lower Stability was associated with heightened cardiometabolic risk. This association was accounted for by inflammation, autonomic function, and physical activity. Among FFM traits, only Openness was associated with risk over and above Stability, and, unlike Stability, this relationship was unexplained by the intervening variables. A Stability meta‐trait covaries with midlife cardiometabolic risk, and this association is accounted for by three candidate biological and behavioral factors.
    September 04, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12216   open full text
  • Seeing the World Through “Pink‐Colored Glasses”: The Link Between Optimism and Pink.
    Lior Kalay‐Shahin, Allon Cohen, Rachel Lemberg, Gil Harary, Thalma E. Lobel.
    Journal of Personality. August 20, 2015
    This study investigated optimism, which is considered a personality trait, from the grounded cognition perspective. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the association between pink and optimism. In Experiment 1A, 22 undergraduates (10 females; Mage = 23.68) were asked to classify words as optimistic or pessimistic as fast as possible. Half the words were presented in pink and half in black. Experiment 1B (N = 24; 14 females; Mage = 22.82) was identical to 1A except for the color of the words—black and light blue instead of pink—to rule out the possible influence of brightness. Experiment 2 exposed 144 participants (74 females; Mage = 25.18) to pink or yellow and then measured their optimism level. The findings for Experiments 1A and 1B indicated an association between pink and optimism regardless of brightness. Experiment 2 found that mere exposure to pink increased optimism levels for females. These results contribute to the dynamic view of personality, current views on optimism, and the growing literature on grounded cognition.
    August 20, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12195   open full text
  • The Role of Unconditional Parental Regard in Autonomy‐Supportive Parenting.
    Guy Roth, Yaniv Kanat‐Maymon, Avi Assor.
    Journal of Personality. August 06, 2015
    Two studies explored the role of parents’ unconditional positive regard (UCPR) as perceived by adolescents and young adults in promoting the effectiveness of specific parenting practices that may support offspring's academic autonomous motivation. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that UCPR predicts rationale‐giving and choice‐provision practices and, at the same time, moderates their relations with adolescents’ autonomous motivation. Study 2 replicated the association between UCPR and the parental practices, and further explored the role of parents’ authenticity as an antecedent of UCPR and parental autonomy support. Study 1 included 125 adolescents and Study 2 considered 128 college‐students and their mothers. The offspring reported on their perceptions of their mothers and on their autonomous motivation, and the mothers reported on their sense of authenticity. Both studies found consistent associations between UCPR and parenting practices that may support autonomous motivation. Moreover, Study 1 demonstrated that the rationale giving and choice provision were more strongly related to adolescents’ autonomous motivation when adolescents perceived mothers as high on UCPR. Finally, Study 2 demonstrated that mothers’ authenticity predicted UCPR, which in turn was related to autonomy‐supportive parenting. Findings support the assumption that parents’ autonomy‐supportive practices are more effective when accompanied by UCPR.
    August 06, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12194   open full text
  • Keeping Up with the Joneses: Friends’ Perfectionism and Students’ Orientation Toward Extrinsic Aspirations.
    Nora Hope, Richard Koestner, Anne Holding, Brenda Harvey.
    Journal of Personality. August 06, 2015
    Kasser and Ryan (1993,1996) have contrasted two types of life values: intrinsic aspirations, which include community contribution, building close relationships, and self‐growth, and extrinsic aspirations, which include fame, wealth, and physical beauty. Prioritization of extrinsic relative to intrinsic aspirations has been related cross‐sectionally to decreased well‐being (Kasser, 2002). However, the influence of close others in the etiology of young adults' prioritization of extrinsic aspirations, and the prospective effects of aspirations on well‐being, are not well understood. In a multiple‐informant prospective study of 341 university students (mean age = 19.4; 64% Caucasian; 74% female), we examined the influence of friends’ and family members’ perfectionism on participants’ aspirations, and the outcomes of prioritization of extrinsic aspirations. Having friends high in other‐oriented perfectionism was significantly positively related to prioritization of extrinsic over intrinsic aspirations. Furthermore, living with friends amplified the effect. Last, prioritization of extrinsic aspirations at T1 was related to decreased subjective well‐being and self‐concordance for goals 3 months later. The study provides preliminary evidence for a relationship between friends’ other‐oriented perfectionism and students’ orientation toward extrinsic aspirations, as well as negative prospective consequences of students’ orientation to extrinsic aspirations.
    August 06, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12193   open full text
  • Ordinary Social Interaction and the Main Effect Between Perceived Support and Affect.
    Brian Lakey, Randy J. Vander Molen, Elizabeth Fles, Justin Andrews.
    Journal of Personality. August 06, 2015
    Relational regulation theory hypothesizes that (a) the main effect between perceived support and mental health primarily reflects ordinary social interaction rather than conversations about stress and how to cope with it, and (b) the extent to which a provider regulates a recipient's mental health primarily reflects the recipient's personal taste (i.e., is relational), rather than the provider's objective supportiveness. In three round‐robin studies, participants rated each other on supportiveness and the quality of ordinary social interaction, as well as their own affect when interacting with each other. Samples included marines about to deploy to Afghanistan (N = 100; 150 dyads), students sharing apartments (N = 64; 96 dyads), and strangers (N = 48; 72 dyads). Perceived support and ordinary social interaction were primarily relational, and most of perceived support's main effect on positive affect was redundant with ordinary social interaction. The main effect between perceived support and affect emerged among strangers after brief text conversations, and these links were partially verified by independent observers. Findings for negative affect were less consistent with theory. Ordinary social interaction appears to be able to explain much of the main effect between perceived support and positive affect.
    August 06, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12190   open full text
  • Burning With Envy? Dispositional and Situational Influences on Envy in Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism.
    Darren C. Neufeld, Edward A. Johnson.
    Journal of Personality. July 29, 2015
    Research on narcissism and envy suggests a variable relationship that may reflect differences between how vulnerable and grandiose narcissism relate to precursors of envy. Accordingly, we proposed a model in which dispositional envy and relative deprivation differentially mediate envy's association with narcissistic vulnerability, grandiosity, and entitlement. To test the model, 330 young adults completed dispositional measures of narcissism, entitlement, and envy; one week later, participants reported on deprivation and envy feelings toward a peer who outperformed others on an intelligence test for a cash prize (Study 1) or earned higher monetary payouts in a betting game (Study 2). In both studies, structural equation modeling broadly supported the proposed model. Vulnerable narcissism robustly predicted episodic envy via dispositional envy. Entitlement—a narcissistic facet common to grandiosity and vulnerability—was a significant indirect predictor via relative deprivation. Study 2 also found that (a) the grandiose leadership/authority facet indirectly curbed envy feelings via dispositional envy, and (b) episodic envy contributed to schadenfreude feelings, which promoted efforts to sabotage a successful rival. Whereas vulnerable narcissists appear dispositionally envy‐prone, grandiose narcissists may be dispositionally protected. Both, however, are susceptible to envy through entitlement when relative deprivation is encountered.
    July 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12192   open full text
  • Discrepancy in Personality Perceptions Is Related to Relationship Satisfaction: Findings from Dyadic Latent Discrepancy Analyses.
    Kathrin Schaffhuser, Mathias Allemand, Christina S. Werner, Mike Martin.
    Journal of Personality. July 20, 2015
    The current study investigated discrepancies in self‐, partner‐, and meta‐perceptions of the Big Five traits and their associations with relationship satisfaction in intimate couples. The study was based on a subsample of the Swiss study “Co‐Development in Personality: Longitudinal Approaches to Personality Development in Dyads Across the Life Span” (CoDiP) including cross‐sectional data of 216 heterosexual couples. We adapted the Latent Congruence Model (LCM) for the study of discrepancies in personality perceptions in dyads. Beyond personality trait levels, the discrepancies between self‐ and partner‐perceptions and between partner‐ and meta‐perceptions of the Big Five traits were related to relationship satisfaction as actor and partner effects. In general, flattering and favorable partner‐perceptions in relation to self‐ and meta‐perceptions seem to positively contribute to relationship satisfaction. The present study implies that not only personality trait levels but also discrepancies between personality perceptions are important for understanding relationship satisfaction.
    July 20, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12189   open full text
  • The Winding Paths of the Lonesome Cowboy: Evidence for Mutual Influences Between Personality, Subjective Health, and Loneliness.
    Marcus Mund, Franz J. Neyer.
    Journal of Personality. July 15, 2015
    Prior research demonstrated influences of personality traits and their development on later status of subjective health and loneliness. In the present study, we intended to extend these findings by examining mutual influences between health‐related characteristics and personality traits and their development over time. German adults were assessed at two time points across 15 years (NT1 = 654, NT2 = 271; Mage at Time 1 = 24.39, SD = 3.69). Data were analyzed with multivariate structural equation models and a multivariate latent change model. Neuroticism was found to predict later levels and the development of subjective health and loneliness. While subjective health likewise predicted later levels of Neuroticism, loneliness was found to be predictive of later levels as well as the development of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. Correlated changes indicated that developing a socially more desirable personality is associated with slower declines in subjective health and slower increases in loneliness. The findings indicate that characteristics related to an individual's health are reciprocally associated with personality traits. Thus, the study adds to the understanding of the development of personality and health‐related characteristics.
    July 15, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12188   open full text
  • Thin Images Reflected in the Water: Narcissism and Girls’ Vulnerability to the Thin‐Ideal.
    Sander Thomaes, Constantine Sedikides.
    Journal of Personality. July 03, 2015
    The purpose of this research is to test how adolescent girls’ narcissistic traits—characterized by a need to impress others and avoid ego‐threat—influence acute adverse effects of thin‐ideal exposure. Participants (11–15 years; total N = 366; all female) reported their narcissistic traits. Next, in two experiments, they viewed images of either very thin or average‐sized models, reported their wishful identification with the models (Experiment 2), and tasted high‐calorie foods in an alleged taste test (both experiments). Narcissism kept girls from wishfully identifying with thin models, which is consistent with the view that narcissistic girls are prone to disengage from thin‐ideal exposure. Moreover, narcissism protected vulnerable girls (those who experience low weight‐esteem) from inhibiting their food intake, and led other girls (those who consider their appearance relatively unimportant) to increase their food intake. These effects did not generalize to conceptually related traits of self‐esteem and perfectionism, and were not found for a low‐calorie foods outcome, attesting to the specificity of findings. These experiments demonstrate the importance of narcissism at reducing girls’ thin‐ideal vulnerability. Girls high in narcissism disengage self‐protectively from threats to their self‐image, a strategy that renders at least subsets of them less vulnerable to the thin‐ideal.
    July 03, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12187   open full text
  • Weekly Cycles in Daily Report Data: An Overlooked Issue.
    Yu Liu, Stephen G. West.
    Journal of Personality. June 29, 2015
    Daily diaries and other everyday experience methods are increasingly used to study relationships between two time‐varying variables X and Y. Although daily data potentially often have weekly cyclical patterns (e.g., stress may be higher on weekdays and lower on weekends), the majority of daily diary studies have ignored this possibility. In this study, we investigated the effect of ignoring existing weekly cycles. We reanalyzed an empirical dataset (stress and alcohol consumption) and performed Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the impact of omitting weekly cycles. In the empirical dataset, ignoring cycles led to the inference of a significant within‐person X–Y relation whereas modeling cycles suggested that this relationship did not exist. Simulation results indicated that ignoring cycles that existed in both X and Y led to bias in the estimated within‐person X–Y relationship. The amount and direction of bias depended on the magnitude of the cycles, magnitude of the true within‐person X–Y relation, and synchronization of the cycles. We encourage researchers conducting daily diary studies to address potential weekly cycles in their data. We provide guidelines for detecting and modeling cycles to remove their influence and discuss challenges of causal inference in daily experience studies.
    June 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12182   open full text
  • The Benefits of Following Your Pride: Authentic Pride Promotes Achievement.
    Aaron C. Weidman, Jessica L. Tracy, Andrew J. Elliot.
    Journal of Personality. June 25, 2015
    Although the emotion authentic pride has been posited to promote achievement, it remains unclear precisely how this works. Here, we tested whether authentic pride promotes adaptive downstream achievement outcomes by motivating individuals to engage in appropriate behavioral responses to success and failure. In two longitudinal studies (N = 1,132), we measured pride emotional responses to a prior performance and subsequent changes in achievement‐oriented behavior and performance outcomes among (a) adults training for long‐distance running races and (b) undergraduates completing class exams. Authentic pride shifted in direct response to achievement outcomes, such that those who performed well felt greater pride. Furthermore, individuals who felt low authentic pride responded to these feelings by changing their achievement behavior in a functional manner. In Studies 2a, 2b, and 2c, we found that pride‐driven behavioral changes led to improved future performance among low performers. In these studies we also demonstrated that the effect of authentic pride on achievement is independent of that of self‐efficacy, which in fact works in an opposite manner. Taken together, these results suggest that authentic pride functions as a barometer of achievement, promoting behavioral responses that lead to improved performance.
    June 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12184   open full text
  • Neural Correlates of Biased Responses: The Negative Method Effect in the Rosenberg Self‐Esteem Scale Is Associated with Right Amygdala Volume.
    Yinan Wang, Feng Kong, Lijie Huang, Jia Liu.
    Journal of Personality. June 19, 2015
    Self‐esteem is a widely studied construct in psychology that is typically measured by the Rosenberg Self‐Esteem Scale (RSES). However, a series of cross‐sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that a simple and widely used unidimensional factor model does not provide an adequate explanation of RSES responses due to method effects. To identify the neural correlates of the method effect, we sought to determine whether and how method effects were associated with the RSES and investigate the neural basis of these effects. Two hundred and eighty Chinese college students (130 males; mean age = 22.64 years) completed the RSES and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Behaviorally, method effects were linked to both positively and negatively worded items in the RSES. Neurally, the right amygdala volume negatively correlated with the negative method factor, while the hippocampal volume positively correlated with the general self‐esteem factor in the RSES. The neural dissociation between the general self‐esteem factor and negative method factor suggests that there are different neural mechanisms underlying them. The amygdala is involved in modulating negative affectivity; therefore, the current study sheds light on the nature of method effects that are related to self‐report with a mix of positively and negatively worded items.
    June 19, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12185   open full text
  • A Comparison of Human Narrative Coding of Redemption and Automated Linguistic Analysis for Understanding Life Stories.
    Sara J. Weston, Keith S. Cox, David M. Condon, Joshua J. Jackson.
    Journal of Personality. June 13, 2015
    The majority of life narrative research is performed using trained human coders. In contrast, automated linguistic analysis is oft employed in the study of verbal behaviors. These two methodological approaches are directly compared to determine the utility of automated linguistic analysis for the study of life narratives. In a study of in‐person interviews (N = 158) and a second study of life stories collected online (N = 242), redemption scores are compared to the output of the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (Pennebaker, Francis & Booth, 2001). Additionally, patterns of language are found using exploratory principal components analysis. In both studies, redemption scores are modestly correlated with some LIWC categories and unassociated with the components. Patterns of language do not replicate across samples, indicating that the structure of language does not extend to a broader population. Redemption scores and linguistic components are independent predictors of life satisfaction up to 3 years later. These studies converge on the finding that human‐coded redemption and automated linguistic analysis are complementary and nonredundant methods of analyzing life narratives, and considerations for the study of life narratives are discussed.
    June 13, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12183   open full text
  • The Kind of Student You Were in Elementary School Predicts Mortality.
    Marion Spengler, Brent W. Roberts, Oliver Lüdtke, Romain Martin, Martin Brunner.
    Journal of Personality. June 03, 2015
    We examined the association of self‐reported and teacher‐rated student characteristics assessed at the end of primary school with all‐cause mortality assessed through age 52. Data stem from a representative sample of students from Luxembourg assessed in 1968 (N = 2,543; M = 11.9 years, SD = 0.6; 49.9% female; N = 166 participants died). Results from logistic regression analyses showed that the self‐reported responsible student scale (OR = .81; CI = [.70; .95]) and the teacher rating of studiousness (OR = .80; CI = [.67; .96]) were predictive for all‐cause mortality even after controlling for IQ, parental SES, and sex. These findings indicate that both observer–rated and self–reported student behaviors are important life‐course predictors for mortality and are perhaps more important than childhood IQ.
    June 03, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12180   open full text
  • Self‐Concept Clarity in Adolescents and Parents: A Six‐Wave Longitudinal and Multi‐Informant Study on Development and Intergenerational Transmission.
    Elisabetta Crocetti, Monica Rubini, Susan Branje, Hans M. Koot, Wim Meeus.
    Journal of Personality. May 29, 2015
    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to disentangle patterns of change and stability in self‐concept clarity (SCC) in adolescents and in their parents and (b) to examine processes of intergenerational transmission of SCC in families with adolescents. Participants were 497 Dutch families including the father (baseline Mage = 46.74), the mother (baseline Mage = 44.41), and their adolescent child (56.9% males; baseline Mage = 13.03). Each family member completed the SCC scale for six waves, with a one‐year interval between each wave. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that adolescent boys reported higher SCC than girls. Furthermore, fathers and mothers reported higher SCC than their children, and it increased over time. Indices of SCC rank‐order stability were high and increased from T1 to T2, T2 to T3, etc., for each family member, especially for adolescents. Multivariate latent growth curve analyses and cross‐lagged models highlighted a unidirectional transmission process, with fathers’ and mothers’ SCC influencing adolescents’ SCC. This result was not moderated by adolescent gender. These findings indicate that self‐concept clarity is transmitted from parents to children.
    May 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12181   open full text
  • Personality Predicts Health Declines Through Stressful Life Events During Late Mid‐Life.
    Juliette M. Iacovino, Ryan Bogdan, Thomas F. Oltmanns.
    Journal of Personality. May 26, 2015
    Personality predicts the occurrence of dependent stressful life events (SLE; i.e., events reliant, at least in part, on an individual's behavior). This process, termed stress generation, contributes to psychiatric outcomes, but its role in physical health is unknown. Data were included from 998 participants (aged 55–64) in the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) study. Assessments occurred every 6 months for 18 months. Neuroticism, impulsivity, and agreeableness were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Dependent (e.g., divorce) and independent (e.g., family death) SLE occurring within 6 months following baseline were assessed with the List of Threatening Experiences and confirmed by interviews. Health problems occurring within a year after SLE were the outcome. Analyses examined whether neuroticism, impulsivity, and agreeableness indirectly predict the onset of new health problems through exposure to dependent SLE. Each personality trait was associated with dependent, but not independent, SLE. Only dependent SLE predicted new health problems. Each personality trait indirectly predicted the onset of new health problems through dependent SLE. Findings suggest that personality‐driven stress generation influences physical health during late mid‐life. Addressing personality in interventions may reduce the occurrence of SLE, in turn decreasing health risks.
    May 26, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12179   open full text
  • The World at 7:00: Comparing the Experience of Situations Across 20 Countries.
    Esther Guillaume, Erica Baranski, Elysia Todd, Brock Bastian, Igor Bronin, Christina Ivanova, Joey T. Cheng, François S. de Kock, Jaap J. A. Denissen, David Gallardo‐Pujol, Peter Halama, Gyuseog Q. Han, Jaechang Bae, Jungsoon Moon, Ryan Y. Hong, Martina Hřebíčková, Sylvie Graf, Paweł Izdebski, Lars Lundmann, Lars Penke, Marco Perugini, Giulio Costantini, John Rauthmann, Matthias Ziegler, Anu Realo, Liisalotte Elme, Tatsuya Sato, Shizuka Kawamoto, Piotr Szarota, Jessica L. Tracy, Marcel A. G. van Aken, Yu Yang, David C. Funder.
    Journal of Personality. May 07, 2015
    The purpose of this research is to quantitatively compare everyday situational experience around the world. Local collaborators recruited 5,447 members of college communities in 20 countries, who provided data via a Web site in 14 languages. Using the 89 items of the Riverside Situational Q‐sort (RSQ), participants described the situation they experienced the previous evening at 7:00 p.m. Correlations among the average situational profiles of each country ranged from r = .73 to r = .95; the typical situation was described as largely pleasant. Most similar were the United States/Canada; least similar were South Korea/Denmark. Japan had the most homogenous situational experience; South Korea, the least. The 15 RSQ items varying the most across countries described relatively negative aspects of situational experience; the 15 least varying items were more positive. Further analyses correlated RSQ items with national scores on six value dimensions, the Big Five traits, economic output, and population. Individualism, Neuroticism, Openness, and Gross Domestic Product yielded more significant correlations than expected by chance. Psychological research traditionally has paid more attention to the assessment of persons than of situations, a discrepancy that extends to cross‐cultural psychology. The present study demonstrates how cultures vary in situational experience in psychologically meaningful ways.
    May 07, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12176   open full text
  • Self‐esteem Is Mostly Stable Across Young Adulthood: Evidence from Latent STARTS Models.
    Jenny Wagner, Oliver Lüdtke, Ulrich Trautwein.
    Journal of Personality. May 06, 2015
    How stable is self‐esteem? This long‐standing debate has led to different conclusions across different areas of psychology. Longitudinal data and up‐to‐date statistical models have recently indicated that self‐esteem has stable and autoregressive trait‐like components and state‐like components. We applied latent STARTS models with the goal of replicating previous findings in a longitudinal sample of young adults (N = 4,532; Mage = 19.60, SD = 0.85; 55% female). In addition, we applied multigroup models to extend previous findings on different patterns of stability for men versus women and for people with high versus low levels of depressive symptoms. We found evidence for the general pattern of a major proportion of stable and autoregressive trait variance and a smaller yet substantial amount of state variance in self‐esteem across 10 years. Furthermore, multigroup models suggested substantial differences in the variance components: Females showed more state variability than males. Individuals with higher levels of depressive symptoms showed more state and less autoregressive trait variance in self‐esteem. Results are discussed with respect to the ongoing trait–state debate and possible implications of the group differences that we found in the stability of self‐esteem.
    May 06, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12178   open full text
  • The Downsides of Extreme Conscientiousness for Psychological Well‐being: The Role of Obsessive Compulsive Tendencies.
    Nathan T. Carter, Li Guan, Jessica L. Maples, Rachel L. Williamson, Joshua D. Miller.
    Journal of Personality. May 06, 2015
    Although conscientiousness exhibits positive relations with psychological well‐being, theoretical and empirical work suggests individuals can be too conscientious, resulting in obsessive‐compulsiveness, and therein less positive individual outcomes. However, the potential for curvilinearity between conscientiousness and well‐being has been underexplored. We measured 912 subjects on facets of conscientiousness, obsessive‐compulsive personality, and well‐being variables (life satisfaction, job satisfaction, self‐esteem, positive affect, negative affect, work stress). Methods of scoring included traditional sum‐scoring, traditional item response theory (IRT), and a relatively new IRT approach. Structural models were estimated to evaluate curvilinearity. Results confirmed the curvilinear relationship between conscientiousness and well‐being, and demonstrated that differential facet‐level relationships underlie weaker curvilinearity at the general trait level. Consistency was found in the strength of relation between conscientiousness facets with their obsessive‐compulsive variants and their contribution to decreased well‐being. The most common association was that higher standing on conscientiousness facets was positively related to negative affect. Findings support the idea that extreme standing on facets of conscientiousness more strongly linked to their obsessive‐compulsive variants contributed to lower well‐being, highlighting the importance of considering alternative functional representations of the relationship between personality and other constructs. Future work should seek to further clarify the link between conscientiousness and negative affect.
    May 06, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12177   open full text
  • Dissociating Indifferent, Directional, and Extreme Responding in Personality Data: Applying the Three‐Process Model to Self‐ and Observer Reports.
    Ingo Zettler, Jonas W. B. Lang, Ute R. Hülsheger, Benjamin E. Hilbig.
    Journal of Personality. April 23, 2015
    Research suggests that respondents vary in their tendency to use the response scale of typical (Likert‐style) questionnaires. We study the nature of the response process by applying a recently introduced item response theory modeling procedure, the three‐process model, to data of self‐ and observer reports of personality traits. The three‐process model captures indifferent, directional, and extreme responding. Substantively, we hypothesize that, and test whether, trait Honesty‐Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. We applied the three‐process model to personality data of 577 dyads (self‐ and observer reports of the HEXACO Personality Inventory‐Revised; Lee & Ashton, ) of Dutch and German undergraduate respondents. First, we provide evidence that indifferent, directional, and extreme responding can be separated from each other in personality data through the use of the three‐process model. Second, we show that the various response processes show a pattern of correlations across traits and rating sources which is in line with the idea that indifferent and extreme responding are person‐specific tendencies, whereas directional responding is content‐specific. Third, we report findings supporting the hypothesis that Honesty‐Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. In Likert‐based personality data, applying the three‐process model can unveil individual differences in the response process.
    April 23, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12172   open full text
  • Controlled by Love: The Harmful Relational Consequences of Perceived Conditional Positive Regard.
    Yaniv Kanat‐Maymon, Guy Roth, Avi Assor, Abira Raizer.
    Journal of Personality. April 23, 2015
    Research on conditional positive regard (CPR) has shown that this seemingly benign practice has maladaptive correlates when used by parents. However, there is no research on the correlates of this practice in romantic relationships or on the processes mediating its effects. Building on self‐determination theory (Deci & Ryan, ), three studies tested the hypothesis that perceived CPR impairs relationship quality, partly because it undermines the fulfillment of the basic psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness. Study 1 (N = 125) examined perceived CPR and relationship quality across four relationship targets: mother, father, romantic partner, and best friend. Study 2, involving romantic partners (N = 142), examined whether needs fulfillment mediated the association between perceived CPR and relationship quality. Study 3, involving romantic dyads (N = 85), also included partner reports on CPR. Across the three studies, CPR was linked with poor relationship quality between relationships, between people, and between dyadic partners. Moreover, results of Study 2 and Study 3 revealed that the inverse association between perceived CPR and relationship quality was mediated by dissatisfaction of autonomy but not relatedness. Despite its seemingly benign nature, CPR is detrimental to relationship quality, partly because it thwarts the basic need for autonomy.
    April 23, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12171   open full text
  • Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle‐Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?
    Christopher D. Nye, Mathias Allemand, Samuel D. Gosling, Jeff Potter, Brent W. Roberts.
    Journal of Personality. April 21, 2015
    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite—age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle‐aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self‐ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from –.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts.
    April 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12173   open full text
  • Trait Mindfulness Predicts Efficient Top‐Down Attention to and Discrimination of Facial Expressions.
    Jordan T. Quaglia, Robert J. Goodman, Kirk Warren Brown.
    Journal of Personality. April 15, 2015
    In social situations, skillful regulation of emotion and behavior depends on efficiently discerning others' emotions. Identifying factors that promote timely and accurate discernment of facial expressions can therefore advance understanding of social emotion regulation and behavior. The present research examined whether trait mindfulness predicts neural and behavioral markers of early top‐down attention to, and efficient discrimination of, socioemotional stimuli. Attention‐based event‐related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral responses were recorded while participants (N = 62; White; 67% female; Mage = 19.09 years, SD = 2.14 years) completed an emotional go/no‐go task involving happy, neutral, and fearful facial expressions. Mindfulness predicted larger (more negative) N100 and N200 ERP amplitudes to both go and no‐go stimuli. Mindfulness also predicted faster response time that was not attributable to a speed‐accuracy trade‐off. Significant relations held after accounting for attentional control or social anxiety. This study adds neurophysiological support for foundational accounts that mindfulness entails moment‐to‐moment attention with lower tendencies toward habitual patterns of responding. Mindfulness may enhance the quality of social behavior in socioemotional contexts by promoting efficient top‐down attention to and discrimination of others' emotions, alongside greater monitoring and inhibition of automatic response tendencies.
    April 15, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12167   open full text
  • Individual Differences in Accurately Judging Personality From Text.
    Judith A. Hall, Jin X. Goh, Marianne Schmid Mast, Christian Hagedorn.
    Journal of Personality. April 10, 2015
    This research examines correlates of accuracy in judging Big Five traits from first‐person text excerpts. Participants in six studies were recruited from psychology courses or online. In each study, participants performed a task of judging personality from text and performed other ability tasks and/or filled out questionnaires. Participants who were more accurate in judging personality from text were more likely to be female; had personalities that were more agreeable, conscientious, and feminine, and less neurotic and dominant (all controlling for participant gender); scored higher on empathic concern; self‐reported more interest in, and attentiveness to, people's personalities in their daily lives; and reported reading more for pleasure, especially fiction. Accuracy was not associated with SAT scores but had a significant relation to vocabulary knowledge. Accuracy did not correlate with tests of judging personality and emotion based on audiovisual cues. This research is the first to address individual differences in accurate judgment of personality from text, thus adding to the literature on correlates of the good judge of personality.
    April 10, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12170   open full text
  • Do Personality Traits Moderate Relations Between Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Problem Behavior in Adolescents?
    Elien Mabbe, Bart Soenens, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Karla Van Leeuwen.
    Journal of Personality. April 09, 2015
    This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self‐determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross‐sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent‐reported parenting and mother‐reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed.
    April 09, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12166   open full text
  • The Little Six Personality Dimensions From Early Childhood to Early Adulthood: Mean‐Level Age and Gender Differences in Parents' Reports.
    Christopher J. Soto.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2015
    The present research pursues three major goals. First, we develop scales to measure the Little Six youth personality dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity. Second, we examine mean‐level age and gender differences in the Little Six from early childhood into early adulthood. Third, we examine the development of more specific nuance traits. We analyze parent reports, made using the common‐language California Child Q‐Set (CCQ), for a cross‐sectional sample of 16,000 target children ranging from 3 to 20 years old. We construct CCQ–Little Six scales that reliably measure each Little Six dimension. Using these scales, we find (a) curvilinear, U‐shaped age trends for Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness, with declines followed by subsequent inclines; (b) monotonic, negative age trends for Extraversion and Activity; (c) higher levels of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness among girls than boys, as well as higher levels of Activity among boys than girls; and (d) gender‐specific age trends for Neuroticism, with girls scoring higher than boys by mid‐adolescence. Finally, we find that several nuance traits show distinctive developmental trends that differ from their superordinate Little Six dimension. These results highlight childhood and adolescence as key periods of personality development.
    April 08, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12168   open full text
  • Sex Differences in Judgments of Social Desirability.
    Sampo V. Paunonen.
    Journal of Personality. April 06, 2015
    This study evaluates sex differences in the perceived desirability of personality behaviors and beliefs. Men and women (N = 149, Mage = 18.7) judged the social desirability scale values (SDSVs) of 150 personality statements as applied either to a male target or a female target. For comparison, some estimated SDSVs with no target sex specified. A separate sample of 537 respondents endorsed the 150 items via self‐report. Raters showed a high consensus in their SDSV judgments within conditions (α = .86 to .90) and no sex‐of‐rater effects across conditions. Substantial sex‐of‐target effects (p < .001), however, revealed many behaviors that were viewed as desirable for one sex but not for the other. The behaviors seen as more (less) desirable when applied to men rather than to women were endorsed more (less) by men than by women in the respondent sample. Similar results were found when no target sex was specified for the SDSV ratings, presumably because judges evaluated the behaviors as applied to a target of their own sex. The present results have important implications for the measurement and reporting of SDSVs, the evaluation of substance versus style in self‐reports, and the construction of desirability‐reduced personality inventories.
    April 06, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12169   open full text
  • Calibrating Use of Emotion Regulation Strategies to the Relationship Context: An Attachment Perspective.
    Heike A. Winterheld.
    Journal of Personality. March 25, 2015
    This research tested whether adult attachment orientations predict use of emotion regulation strategies in theoretically consistent ways, and whether associations among attachment orientations and emotion regulatory strategies are moderated by critical features of the relationship context. Ninety‐six couples (192 individuals) reported on their attachment orientations, habitual use of emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, negative emotion expressivity), and perceptions of relationship closeness and negative partner behaviors. Highly secure individuals reported greater use of cognitive reappraisal, especially when they felt closer to their partners, and engaged in less suppression when their partners behaved more negatively toward them. Highly avoidant individuals reported greater use of suppression, especially when they perceived more negative partner behaviors, and when their partners were more avoidant. Highly anxious individuals also used more suppression when their partners were more avoidant, but they expressed more negative emotions when they were paired with less avoidant partners. Fearful‐avoidant individuals' emotion regulation patterns resembled those of both highly secure and dismissive‐avoidant individuals. This study illustrates how attending to moderating effects within specific relationships and testing joint effects of both partners' personality characteristics can help identify contextual boundaries of emotion regulation strategies and clarify emotional response patterns in couples.
    March 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12165   open full text
  • A Meta‐Analytic Multitrait Multirater Separation of Substance and Style in Social Desirability Scales.
    Brian S. Connelly, Luye Chang.
    Journal of Personality. February 24, 2015
    Though unlikely virtues scales have a long history in personality, clinical, and applied psychology for detecting socially desirable responding, using such social desirability (SD) scales has generally failed to improve the validity of personality measures. We examined whether this is because (a) response distortion itself has minimal impact on personality's validity, (b) SD scales are ineffective at assessing response distortion, or (c) SD scales are conflated with substantive trait variance. We compiled a meta‐analytic multitrait multimethod matrix consisting of multirater personality traits, SD scales, and performance outcomes. We examined the influence of trait factors and self‐report method factors on SD scales and performance. We found that self‐report method variance (a) was negatively related to performance, (b) would suppress personality‐performance relationships for self‐report measures, and (c) was (partially) assessed by SD scales. However, relative to the effects of self‐report method variance, SD scales are even more strongly influenced by Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Agreeableness. It is not the case that SD scales are insensitive to inflated responding but that their susceptibility to personality trait variance likely outweighs their benefits. We discuss the implications of these results for using SD scales in research and practice.
    February 24, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12161   open full text
  • Sound the Alarm: The Effect of Narcissism on Retaliatory Aggression Is Moderated by dACC Reactivity to Rejection.
    David S. Chester, C. Nathan DeWall.
    Journal of Personality. February 17, 2015
    Narcissists behave aggressively when their egos are threatened by interpersonal insults. This effect has been explained in terms of narcissists' motivation to reduce the discrepancy between their grandiose self and its threatened version, though no research has directly tested this hypothesis. If this notion is true, the link between narcissism and retaliatory aggression should be moderated by neural structures that subserve discrepancy detection, such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). This study tested the hypothesis that narcissism would only predict greater retaliatory aggression in response to social rejection when the dACC was recruited by the threat. Thirty participants (15 females; Mage = 18.86, SD = 1.25; 77% White) completed a trait narcissism inventory, were socially accepted and then rejected while undergoing fMRI, and then could behave aggressively toward one of the rejecters by blasting him or her with unpleasant noise. When narcissists displayed greater dACC activation during rejection, they behaved aggressively. But there was only a weak or nonsignificant relation between narcissism and aggression among participants with a blunted dACC response. Narcissism's role in aggressive retaliation to interpersonal threats is likely determined by the extent to which the brain's discrepancy detector registers the newly created gap between the grandiose and threatened selves.
    February 17, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12164   open full text
  • Regulatory Focus and the Interpersonal Dynamics of Romantic Partners’ Personal Goal Discussions.
    Heike A. Winterheld, Jeffry A. Simpson.
    Journal of Personality. February 17, 2015
    Guided by regulatory focus theory, we examined how romantic partners’ chronic concerns with promotion (advancement) and prevention (security) shape the interpersonal dynamics of couples’ conversations about different types of personal goals. Members of 95 couples (N = 190) first completed chronic regulatory focus measures and then engaged in videotaped discussions of two types of goals that were differentially relevant to promotion and prevention concerns. Participants also completed measures of goal‐ and partner‐relevant perceptions. Independent observers rated the discussions for support‐related behaviors. Highly promotion‐focused people approached their partners more, perceived greater partner responsiveness, and received more support when discussing goals that were promotion‐relevant and that they perceived as less attainable. When partners’ responsiveness to promotion‐relevant goals was low, highly promotion‐focused people reported greater self‐efficacy regarding these goals. Highly prevention‐focused people perceived more responsiveness when partners were less distancing during discussions of their prevention‐relevant goals, and greater responsiveness perceptions reassured them that these goals are less disruptive to the relationship. These findings suggest that chronic concerns with promotion and prevention orient people to their relationship environment in ways that are consistent with these distinct motivational needs, especially when discussing goals that increase the salience of these needs.
    February 17, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12158   open full text
  • Self‐Monitoring and the Metatraits.
    Michael P. Wilmot, Colin G. DeYoung, David Stillwell, Michal Kosinski.
    Journal of Personality. February 13, 2015
    Prior attempts at locating self‐monitoring within general taxonomies of personality traits have largely proved unsuccessful. However, past research has typically neglected (a) the bidimensionality of the Self‐Monitoring Scale and (b) the hierarchical nature of personality. The objective of this study was to test hypotheses that the two self‐monitoring factors are located at the level of the metatraits. Using data from two large multi‐informant samples, one community (Sample 1: N = 552, Mage = 51.26, 61% female; NPeers = 1,551, Mage = 48.61, 37% female) and one online (Sample 2: N = 3,726, Mage = 24.89, 59% female; NPeers = 17,868, Mage = 26.23, 64% female), confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Results confirmed hypotheses that acquisitive self‐monitoring would have a strong positive relation to metatrait Plasticity, whereas protective self‐monitoring would have a moderate negative relation to metatrait Stability. In both samples, constraining the correlation between acquisitive self‐monitoring and Plasticity to unity did not alter model fit indices, indicating that the two putatively distinct constructs are identical. Findings have wide‐ranging implications, including integration of the construct of self‐monitoring into the mainstream of personality research, as the latter moves toward the development of broad explanatory theories.
    February 13, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12162   open full text
  • Specifying Associations Between Conscientiousness and Executive Functioning: Mental Set Shifting, Not Prepotent Response Inhibition or Working Memory Updating.
    Kimberly A. Fleming, Samantha J. Heintzelman, Bruce D. Bartholow.
    Journal of Personality. February 11, 2015
    Conscientiousness is characterized by self‐control, organization, and goal orientation and is positively related to a number of health and professional outcomes. Thus, it is commonly suggested that conscientiousness should be related to superior executive functioning (EF) abilities, especially prepotent response inhibition. However, little empirical support for this notion has emerged, perhaps due to oversimplified and underspecified modeling of EF. The current study sought to fill this gap by testing relations between conscientiousness and three facets of EF using a nested factors latent variable approach. Participants (N = 420; Mage = 22.5; 50% male; 91% Caucasian) completed a measure of conscientiousness and nine EF tasks designed to tap three related yet distinguishable facets of EF: working memory updating, mental set shifting, and prepotent response inhibition. Structural equation models showed that conscientiousness is positively associated with the EF facet of mental set shifting but not response inhibition or working memory updating. Despite the common notion that conscientiousness is associated with cognitive abilities related to rigid control over impulses (i.e., inhibition), the current results suggest the cognitive ability most associated with conscientiousness is characterized by flexibility and the ability to adapt to changing environmental contingencies and task demands.
    February 11, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12163   open full text
  • Wisdom and Psychosocial Functioning in Later Life.
    Paul Wink, Ursula M. Staudinger.
    Journal of Personality. February 04, 2015
    We investigated the connection between wisdom‐related performance, personality, and generativity to further the understanding of how they are interrelated. Our sample consisted of 163 men and women 68–77 years of age, mostly White, and predominantly middle class. Wisdom was assessed with the performance‐based Berlin Wisdom Paradigm, with the remaining measures being mostly self‐report. As hypothesized, on the zero‐order level, wisdom‐related performance (WRP) was positively associated with (a) growth, a personality component indexed by Openness to Experience, psychological mindedness, and a sense of well‐being derived from growth, purpose in life, and autonomy; (b) adjustment, a personality component associated with life satisfaction, high levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, low Neuroticism, a sense of well‐being derived from positive relations with others, self‐acceptance, and environmental mastery; and (c) a generative concern for the welfare of others. Latent path analysis indicated that the bivariate associations between adjustment and wisdom and between generativity and wisdom were mediated by growth. Wise individuals are characterized by their ability to balance different personal strengths and interests, an integration that occurs, however, within the context of a dominant personality style marked by the pursuit of maturity through personal growth.
    February 04, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12160   open full text
  • Judgments of Meaning in Life, Religious Beliefs, and the Experience of Cognitive (Dis)Fluency.
    William E. Davis, Joshua A. Hicks.
    Journal of Personality. January 29, 2015
    The primary aim of the current studies was to test whether religiousness interacted with self‐reported levels of meaning in life (MIL) to predict the ease or difficulty in judging one's MIL, the search for meaning itself, and religious doubt. Undergraduate students in Study 1 (N = 111) and adult participants recruited online in Study 2 (N = 206) completed measures of religious beliefs, MIL, cognitive fluency related to MIL, and related variables. Study 3 merged these data sets. In Study 4 (N = 255), online participants completed measures of religious beliefs, cognitive fluency related to religious beliefs, and MIL. Studies 1 and 2 showed that highly religious people with lower MIL reported greater difficulty making their MIL judgments than other people. Study 3 showed that they were also more likely to search for MIL and that disfluency mediated this effect. Study 4 demonstrated that they also reported more difficult judgments of religious beliefs and more religious doubts than their religious peers with high MIL. The current studies demonstrate that the experience of ease or difficulty associated with MIL judgments represents an important yet largely unexamined aspect of MIL. Our findings have implications for understanding the cognitive mechanisms underlying responses to meaning threats.
    January 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12159   open full text
  • Passion for a Cause: How It Affects Health and Subjective Well‐Being.
    Ariane C. St‐Louis, Noémie Carbonneau, Robert J. Vallerand.
    Journal of Personality. January 28, 2015
    Using the dualistic model of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), this research investigated how harmonious passion (HP) or obsessive passion (OP) for a cause can affect volunteers' health and subjective well‐being. Three studies with volunteers for local (local emergency crises and community help) and international (humanitarian missions) causes assessed physical and psychological health using cross‐sectional and longitudinal designs. Study 1 (N = 108) showed that HP was positively related to satisfaction with one's involvement in the cause and unrelated to physical injuries due to cause involvement. OP was unrelated to satisfaction but positively associated with injuries. Findings were replicated in Study 2 (N = 83). Moreover, self‐neglect mediated the positive and negative effects of HP and OP, respectively, on injuries. Study 3 (N = 77) revealed that HP predicted an increase in satisfaction and health over a 3‐month mission. OP predicted an increase in physical symptoms and a decrease in health. Furthermore, OP before a mission was positively related to self‐neglect that was positively associated with physical symptoms after a mission. OP also positively predicted rumination that was conducive to posttraumatic stress disorder. HP was unrelated to these variables. Findings underscore the role of passion for a cause in predicting intrapersonal outcomes of volunteers.
    January 28, 2015   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12157   open full text
  • Adolescent Personality: Associations With Basal, Awakening, and Stress‐Induced Cortisol Responses.
    Odilia M. Laceulle, Esther Nederhof, Marcel A. G. Aken, Johan Ormel.
    Journal of Personality. May 26, 2014
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between personality facets and hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Previous studies have mainly focussed on stress‐induced HPA‐axis activation. We hypothesized that other characteristics of HPA‐axis functioning would have a stronger association with personality based on the neuroendocrine literature. Data (n = 343) were used from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a large prospective cohort study of Dutch adolescents. We studied the association between facets of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness and basal cortisol, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and four measures of stress‐induced HPA‐axis activity. Basal cortisol levels were related to facets of all three personality traits. The CAR and stress‐induced cortisol were not related to personality. Possibly due to its more trait‐like nature, basal cortisol seems more informative than stress‐induced cortisol when investigating trait‐like characteristics such as personality facets.
    May 26, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12101   open full text
  • Recent Decreases in Specific Interpretation Biases Predict Decreases in Neuroticism: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study With Young Adult Couples.
    Christine Finn, Kristin Mitte, Franz J. Neyer.
    Journal of Personality. May 22, 2014
    Engaging in a romantic relationship represents one important life experience in young adulthood that has been shown to catalyze age‐related decrease in neuroticism (Neyer & Lehnart, 2007). The current research builds directly on this finding by investigating one process that underlies the partnership effect. We focused on the relationship‐specific interpretation bias (RIB; Finn, Mitte, & Neyer, 2013), which is the tendency to interpret ambiguous partner and relationship scenarios in a negative way. It was expected that the RIB decreases within relationships in young adulthood and that this decrease in turn predicts long‐term declines in neuroticism. A sample of 245 young adult romantic couples was assessed four times across 9 months. Actor and partner effects of changes in the RIB on changes in neuroticism were analyzed using a dyadic dual change model. Recent time‐to‐time decreases in the RIB predicted one's own (actor effect) decline in neuroticism across 9 months. Similarly, there was a trend for a partner effect. We conclude that changes in biased relationship‐specific interpretations reflect one unique process that contributes to the understanding of romantic relationship effects on personality development.
    May 22, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12102   open full text
  • Personality Interacts With Implicit Affect to Predict Performance in Analytic Versus Holistic Processing.
    Miguel Kazén, Julius Kuhl, Markus Quirin.
    Journal of Personality. May 16, 2014
    Both theoretical approaches and empirical evidence suggest that negative affect fosters analytic processing, whereas positive affect fosters holistic processing, but these effects are inconsistent. We aim to show that (a) differences in affect regulation abilities (“action orientation”) and (b) implicit more so than self‐reported affect assessment need to be considered to advance our understanding of these processes. Forty participants were asked to verify whether a word was correctly or incorrectly spelled to measure analytic processing, as well as to intuitively assess whether sets of three words were coherent (remote associates task) to measure holistic processing. As expected, implicit but not explicit negative affect interacted with low action orientation (“state orientation”) to predict higher d' performance in word spelling, whereas implicit but not explicit positive affect interacted with high action orientation to predict higher d' performance in coherence judgments for word triads. Results are interpreted according to personality systems interaction theory. These findings suggest that affect and affect changes should be measured explicitly and implicitly to investigate affect‐cognition interactions. Moreover, they suggest that good affect regulators benefit from positive affect for holistic processing, whereas bad affect regulators benefit from negative affect for analytical processing.
    May 16, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12100   open full text
  • Empathy Development in Adolescence Predicts Social Competencies in Adulthood.
    Mathias Allemand, Andrea E. Steiger, Helmut A. Fend.
    Journal of Personality. May 04, 2014
    This 23‐year study explored the predictive associations between empathy development in adolescence and self‐reported social competencies and outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). The predictor variable (adolescent empathy) was measured yearly at the ages of 12 to 16 years. The outcome variables (adult empathy, communication skills, social integration, relationship satisfaction, and conflicts in relationships) were measured at the age of 35 years. Five important results stand out. First, longitudinal measurement invariance was established for the measure of adolescent empathy. Second, empathy tended to increase during the adolescent years. Third, significant interindividual differences in level and change of adolescent empathy were found. Fourth, gender was related to level of adolescent empathy, favoring girls over boys. Fifth, not only level but also change in adolescent empathy predicted individual differences in social competencies in adulthood two decades later. These findings demonstrate that developmental processes that are relevant for adjustment reveal long‐term social consequences beyond the adolescent years.
    May 04, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12098   open full text
  • Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.
    Kyla A. Machell, Todd B. Kashdan, Jerome L. Short, John B. Nezlek.
    Journal of Personality. April 20, 2014
    Objective Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. Method One hundred sixty two college students completed daily reports for two weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty two college students completed daily reports for two weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms these relationships. Results Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. Conclusion These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life.
    April 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12103   open full text
  • Goal Internalization and Persistence as a Function of Autonomous and Directive Forms of Goal Support.
    Richard Koestner, Theodore A. Powers, Marina Milyavskaya, Noémie Carbonneau, Nora Hope.
    Journal of Personality. April 18, 2014
    Two prospective studies examined the relations of autonomy support and directive support to goal internalization and goal persistence over a year. Study 1 examined the role of support and internalization in semester‐long goals set by college students and whether the goals were reset in the following semester. Study 2 examined semester‐long goals and long‐term developmental goals. Study 1 showed that autonomy support was not only significantly associated with greater internalization and goal success in the fall semester, but it was also significantly associated with actually resetting and subsequently succeeding at goals that one had failed to reach. Study 2 showed that autonomy support was significantly associated with progress for short‐term goals over the semester, whereas directive support was unrelated to progress. For long‐term goals, autonomy support was significantly related to greater internalization of goals and to greater goal satisfaction, whereas directive support was significantly negatively related to these outcomes. These studies point to the beneficial effects of autonomy support on goal internalization and resilient persistence. The effects of directive support (null vs. negative) were moderated by the timeline of the goals.
    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12093   open full text
  • Adverse Events in Emerging Adulthood Are Associated with Increases in Neuroticism.
    Adriel Boals, Shana Southard‐Dobbs, Heidemarie Blumenthal.
    Journal of Personality. April 18, 2014
    Previous studies have produced mixed results when examining whether experiencing an adverse event can lead to changes in Neuroticism. We sought to examine this effect when (a) the event was relatively recent, (b) the event occurred during a relatively early development stage (i.e., emerging adulthood), and (c) the event was severely adverse. A sample of 1,108 undergraduates completed three measures of Neuroticism twice, separated by approximately 3 months, and indicated the most traumatic or adverse event they experienced during the intervening 3 months. We examined two operationalizations of adverse events: one that is more objectively defined (indicated experiencing a trauma listed on a trauma history measure) and another more subjectively defined (participant ratings of event centrality). The results revealed that high Neuroticism at Time 1 predicted future exposure to both types of adverse events. Critically, participants who experienced either type of adverse event during the semester reported significant increases in Neuroticism. Experiencing a high event centrality event was also associated with small increases in the personality traits Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness. The results are discussed in terms of the conditions necessary for adverse events to affect personality traits.
    April 18, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12095   open full text
  • Accurate Judgments of Neuroticism at Zero Acquaintance: A Question of Relevance.
    Sarah Hirschmüller, Boris Egloff, Stefan C. Schmukle, Steffen Nestler, Mitja D. Back.
    Journal of Personality. April 15, 2014
    Prior studies have consistently found a surprising inaccuracy of people's neuroticism judgments at zero acquaintance. Based on the Realistic Accuracy Model (Funder, 1995), we hypothesize that this is due to a lack of relevance of the situation in which targets are typically observed. Fifty participants were videotaped in a highly trait‐relevant (i.e., socially stressful) situation as well as three less relevant situations. An aggregate of self‐reports and informant reports was used as the accuracy criterion. Four independent groups of unacquainted observers judged participants' neuroticism based on these short video sequences. Results showed that neuroticism judgments were significantly more accurate for the most trait‐relevant situation compared with the other three situations. This finding can be explained using lens model analyses: Only in the most relevant situation did neuroticism predict both visual nervousness and vocal nervousness, both of which in turn predicted neuroticism judgments by lay observers. Our findings show that strangers are sensitive to interindividual differences in neuroticism as long as targets are observed in a trait‐relevant situation.
    April 15, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12097   open full text
  • Social Exclusion Predicts Impaired Self‐Regulation: A 2‐Year Longitudinal Panel Study Including the Transition from Preschool to School.
    Frode Stenseng, Jay Belsky, Vera Skalicka, Lars Wichstrøm.
    Journal of Personality. April 14, 2014
    The need‐to‐belong theory stipulates that social exclusion (i.e., being rejected by peers) impairs the ability to self‐regulate, and experimental studies with adults support this contention, at least on a short‐term basis. Few studies have investigated whether social exclusion affects the development of self‐regulation of children in a more enduring manner. By using data from a community sample of 762 children, we investigated reciprocal relations between social exclusion and self‐regulation from age 4 to age 6. Social exclusion was reported by teachers, whereas self‐regulation was reported by parents. Autoregressive latent cross‐lagged analyses showed that social exclusion predicted impaired development of dispositional self‐regulation and, reciprocally, that poor self‐regulation predicted enhanced social exclusion. In other words, social exclusion undermines children's development of self‐regulation, whereas poor self‐regulation increases the likelihood of exclusion. Results illuminate the applied relevance of the need‐to‐belong theory.
    April 14, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12096   open full text
  • Trait Agreeableness and Social Status Moderate Behavioral Responsiveness to Communal Behavior.
    Qi Yao, Debbie S. Moskowitz.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2014
    The present study examined the influence of trait Agreeableness and its interaction with social role status on interpersonal correspondence as reflected in the within‐person relation between a person's communal (agreeable‐quarrelsome) behavior and perceptions of the interaction partner's communal behavior. We used a sample of working adults (original data set: 113 participants and 12,303 interpersonal events; constrained data set in the work setting: 109 participants and 3,193 interpersonal events) and an event‐contingent recording procedure to assess behavior in naturalistic interpersonal events. The results of multilevel modeling indicated that interpersonal correspondence was lower for high trait Agreeableness persons than for low trait Agreeableness persons, apparently due to less responsiveness to more disagreeable behavior by the other person in an interaction. High Agreeableness persons manifest greater interpersonal correspondence when in a high‐status role than when in a low‐status role, apparently by increasing responsiveness to disagreeable behavior from others. The results imply that high social role status may influence the effortful control process of high trait Agreeableness persons over their behavioral reactions to others' disagreeable behavior during interpersonal interactions.
    April 08, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12094   open full text
  • Neuroticism and Attitudes Toward Action in 19 Countries.
    Molly E. Ireland, Justin Hepler, Hong Li, Dolores Albarracin.
    Journal of Personality. March 31, 2014
    Objective Although individuals scoring high on neuroticism tend to avoid taking action when faced with challenges, neuroticism is also characterized by impulsivity. To explore cognitive bases related to this costly behavior pattern, we tested whether individuals who rated themselves as higher in neuroticism would evaluate the general concepts of action and inaction as respectively more negative and positive. We further investigated whether anxiety and depression would mediate and individualism‐collectivism would moderate these relations in a large international sample. Method Participants (N = 3,827; 69% female) from 19 countries completed surveys measuring neuroticism, attitudes toward action and inaction, depression, anxiety, and individualism‐collectivism. Hierarchical linear models tested the above predictions. Results Neuroticism negatively correlated with attitudes toward action and positively correlated with attitudes toward inaction. Furthermore, anxiety was primarily responsible for emotionally unstable individuals′ less positive attitudes toward action, and individuals who endorsed more collectivistic than individualistic beliefs showed a stronger negative association between neuroticism and attitudes toward action. Conclusion Researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and remediating the negative consequences of neuroticism should pay greater attention to attitudes toward action/inaction, particularly focusing on their links with anxiety and individualism‐collectivism.
    March 31, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12099   open full text
  • Personality Trait Changes Among Young Finns: The Role of Life Events and Transitions.
    Sointu Leikas, Katariina Salmela‐Aro.
    Journal of Personality. March 06, 2014
    Recent research has shown that personality traits continue to develop throughout the life span, but most profound changes are typically found during young adulthood. Increasing evidence suggests that life events play a significant role in many of these changes. The present longitudinal study examined the role of work, education, social, and health‐related life events in the development of the Big Five traits among young Finns. Participants were originally recruited in 2004 through elementary schools in a middle‐sized Finnish city. Participants' Big Five traits and life events were measured via self‐reports at ages 20 and 23 (Ns = 597 and 588, respectively). Entering work life, beginning a relationship, and studying in university predicted increases in Conscientiousness, trying drugs predicted increases in Neuroticism, and onset of a chronic disease predicted increases in Neuroticism and Conscientiousness between ages 20 and 23. The results suggest that mature life transitions relate to stronger increases in Conscientiousness in young adulthood, and that non‐normative life choices and events may predict increases in Neuroticism.
    March 06, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12088   open full text
  • Personality Traits as Potential Susceptibility Markers: Differential Susceptibility to Support Among Parents.
    Meike Slagt, Judith Semon Dubas, Jaap J. A. Denissen, Maja Deković, Marcel A. G. Aken.
    Journal of Personality. March 06, 2014
    In this study, we examined whether parents are differentially susceptible to support from their spouse and adolescent child depending on their personality traits, and whether differences in susceptibility to support among parents, in turn, are linked to the quality of support parents give to their children. Participants in this three‐wave longitudinal study were 288 two‐parent Dutch families with an adolescent child. Fathers were on average 43.9 years old (SD = 3.7 years), mothers were 41.7 years old (SD = 3.3 years), and adolescents (50% girls) were 14.5 years old (SD = 0.8 years). We found that the association between support from children toward their parents and subsequent support from parents toward their children was more pronounced for parents high on Openness, for better and for worse. Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability did not emerge as markers of differences in susceptibility. Also, parents did not differ in their susceptibility to support from their spouse, nor were differences in susceptibility found a year later when using data from a third wave. We found very modest support for differential susceptibility, only for Openness, and depending on the source of perceived support and on the timing of measurement.
    March 06, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12091   open full text
  • The Effect of Motive‐Trait Interaction on Satisfaction of the Implicit Need for Affiliation Among German and Cameroonian Adults.
    Jan Hofer, Holger Busch, Carolin Schneider.
    Journal of Personality. March 06, 2014
    Research provided evidence that personality traits influence the realization of implicit motives: Extraversion supported the successful realization of the implicit motives for affiliation and power, whereas introversion deflected implicit motives away from significant goals and created difficulties in goal attainment. Based on those findings on motive‐trait interaction, we tested whether the traits of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Extraversion affect the satisfaction of the implicit affiliation motive (i.e., the need for establishing and maintaining close relationships with other people) approximately 18 months later. Data on personality traits, the implicit affiliation motive, and need satisfaction were assessed from 244 Cameroonian and German adults. As expected, across cultural groups, Neuroticism constrains but Agreeableness supports the realization of the implicit affiliation motive. No significant results could be found for Extraversion, even if the effect was in the assumed direction. The findings support the argument that different significant personality components ought to be taken into account in research on implicit motives and their psychological and behavioral correlates.
    March 06, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12092   open full text
  • Extending Color Psychology to the Personality Realm: Interpersonal Hostility Varies by Red Preferences and Perceptual Biases.
    Adam K. Fetterman, Tianwei Liu, Michael D. Robinson.
    Journal of Personality. March 05, 2014
    The color psychology literature has made a convincing case that color is not just about aesthetics, but also about meaning. This work has involved situational manipulations of color, rendering it uncertain as to whether color‐meaning associations can be used to characterize how people differ from each other. The present research focuses on the idea that the color red is linked to, or associated with, individual differences in interpersonal hostility. Across four studies (N = 376 undergraduates), red preferences and perceptual biases were measured along with individual differences in interpersonal hostility. It was found that (a) a preference for the color red was higher as interpersonal hostility increased, (b) hostile people were biased to see the color red more frequently than nonhostile people, and (c) there was a relationship between a preference for the color red and hostile social decision making. These studies represent an important extension of the color psychology literature, highlighting the need to attend to person‐based, as well as situation‐based, factors.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12087   open full text
  • Subjective Age and Personality Development: A 10‐Year Study.
    Yannick Stephan, Angelina R. Sutin, Antonio Terracciano.
    Journal of Personality. March 05, 2014
    Personality theory and research typically focus on chronological age as a key indicator of personality development. This study examines whether the subjective experience of age is an alternative marker of the biomedical and psychosocial factors that contribute to individual differences in personality development. The present study uses data from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal survey (N = 3,617) to examine how subjective age is associated with stability and change in personality and the dynamic associations between subjective age and personality traits over a 10‐year period. Regression analyses indicated that a younger subjective age at baseline was associated with increases in Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness; correlated changes were also found. The rank‐order stability of Extraversion and Openness and overall profile consistency were higher among those with a younger subjective age at baseline and were also associated with the rate of subjective aging over time. The present study reveals that beyond chronological age, the age an individual feels is related to changes in characteristic ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving over time.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12090   open full text
  • The Concept of Mental Toughness: Tests of Dimensionality, Nomological Network, and Traitness.
    Daniel F. Gucciardi, Sheldon Hanton, Sandy Gordon, Clifford J. Mallett, Philip Temby.
    Journal of Personality. February 27, 2014
    Mental toughness has received increased scholarly attention in recent years, yet conceptual issues related to its (a) dimensionality, (b) nomological network, and (c) traitness remain unresolved. The series of studies reported in this article were designed to examine these three substantive issues across several achievement contexts, including sport, education, military, and the workplace. Five studies were conducted to examine these research aims—Study 1: N = 30; Study 2: calibration sample (n = 418), tertiary students (n = 500), athletes (n = 427), and employees (n = 550); Study 3: N = 497 employees; Study 4: N = 203 tertiary students; Study 5: N = 115 army candidates. Collectively, the results of these studies revealed that mental toughness may be best conceptualized as a unidimensional rather than a multidimensional concept; plays an important role in performance, goal progress, and thriving despite stress; and can vary and have enduring properties across situations and time. This series of studies provides a foundation for further basic and applied research of mental toughness across various achievement contexts.
    February 27, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12079   open full text
  • Left Hemispheric Lateral Preference and High Neuroticism Predict Disinhibition in Two Go/No‐Go Experiments.
    Elliroma Gardiner, Chris J. Jackson, Natalie J. Loxton.
    Journal of Personality. February 27, 2014
    Although disinhibition is widely implicated in impulse‐control‐related psychopathologies, debate remains regarding the underlying approach and avoidance processes of this construct. In two studies, we simultaneously tested three competing models in which varying levels of extraversion, neuroticism, and hemispheric lateral preference are associated with disinhibition. In both studies (Study 1, N = 92; Study 2, N = 124), undergraduate students were randomly allocated to one of two versions of the go/no‐go task: one where participants were primed through reward to make more “go” responses and another where no such priming occurred. Neuroticism, extraversion, and hemispheric lateral preference measures were also collected. Across both studies, disinhibition was greatest in individuals who reported both a left hemispheric lateral preference and high neuroticism. This pattern was only found for those who were primed through reward to make more “go” responses. There was no association with extraversion. Contrary to previous research, our results suggest that left hemispheric asymmetry and neuroticism and not extraversion drive disinhibited approach, following the establishment of a prepotent approach response set. This has salient implications for the theoretical understanding of disinhibited behavior, as well as for the study of continued maladaptive approach behavior.
    February 27, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12084   open full text
  • Individual Differences in Commitment to Value‐Based Beliefs and the Amplification of Perceived Belief Dissimilarity Effects.
    Matthew A. Maxwell‐Smith, Clive Seligman, Paul Conway, Irene Cheung.
    Journal of Personality. February 27, 2014
    The commitment to beliefs (CTB) framework (Maxwell‐Smith & Esses, 2012) proposes that there are individual differences in the extent to which people generally follow beliefs that are a reflection of their values. The current research hypothesized that CTB would amplify the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility, such that individuals higher in CTB would display more pronounced reactions to belief‐relevant groups, events, or individuals seen as incompatible with their value‐based beliefs. We tested our hypothesis in three studies that assessed participants' CTB and their perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility with regard to other religious groups (Study 1), political parties during a national election (Study 2), and their romantic partner (Study 3). CTB amplified the effects of perceived belief dissimilarity or incompatibility on people's biases toward other religious groups, voting intentions and behavior in a national election, and their evaluative and behavioral responses toward their romantic partner. These results collectively suggest that perceptions of belief dissimilarity or incompatibility are particularly important cues for individuals with higher levels of CTB as they encounter other people or events that are relevant to their beliefs.
    February 27, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12089   open full text
  • The Indirect Nature of Social Motives: The Relation of Social Approach and Avoidance Motives with Likeability via Extraversion and Agreeableness.
    Jana Nikitin, Alexandra M. Freund.
    Journal of Personality. February 12, 2014
    The current study tested assumptions derived from the whole‐trait theory (Fleeson, 2012), which proposes a connection between personality and motivation. We hypothesized that individual differences in social approach and avoidance motives are associated with personality as observed by others. In addition, we expected that observed personality links social approach and avoidance motives to interpersonal outcomes. The sample was composed of 83 young adults (25.3% males, Mage = 21.66 years) who had recently moved into a shared apartment. Roommates (N = 83; 50.6% males, Mage = 22.83 years) evaluated the newcomers on Extraversion, Agreeableness, and likeability. Approach motives had an indirect positive effect on likeability through other‐reported Extraversion and Agreeableness. Although avoidance motives had some negative effects on likeability mediated through low Extraversion, they were positively associated with Agreeableness. These results demonstrate the complexity of social approach and avoidance motives. Moreover, they highlight the importance of motivational factors for observed personality.
    February 12, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12086   open full text
  • Personality, Relationships, and Health.
    Charlotte N. Markey, Patrick M. Markey.
    Journal of Personality. February 08, 2014
    This special issue of the Journal of Personality focuses on the importance of considering both personality and relationship forces when examining physical and psychological health. The nine articles presented in this issue employed a variety of research designs, theoretical rationales, health outcomes, and advanced statistical methodologies in order to better understand how both individual differences and social factors are relevant to our health. These articles embody several prominent themes: Conscientiousness is a robust predictor of health; traits beyond the Five‐Factor Model should be considered in attempts to understand personality, relationships, and health; links among personality, relationships, and health begin early in life; and relationship transitions are consequential to health. It is hoped that these studies inspire personality researchers to consider the relationship context of health and relationship researchers to consider individual differences when attempting to understand health behaviors and outcomes.
    February 08, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12080   open full text
  • Are Implicit Self‐Esteem Measures Valid for Assessing Individual and Cultural Differences?
    Carl F. Falk, Steven J. Heine, Kosuke Takemura, Cathy X. J. Zhang, Chih‐Wei Hsu.
    Journal of Personality. February 08, 2014
    Objective: Our research utilized two popular theoretical conceptualizations of implicit self‐esteem: 1) implicit self‐esteem as a global automatic reaction to the self; and 2) implicit self‐esteem as a context/domain specific construct. Under this framework, we present an extensive search for implicit self‐esteem measure validity among different cultural groups (Study 1) and under several experimental manipulations (Study 2). Method: In Study 1, Euro‐Canadians (N = 107), Asian‐Canadians (N = 187), and Japanese (N = 112) completed a battery of implicit self‐esteem, explicit self‐esteem, and criterion measures. Included implicit self‐esteem measures were either popular or provided methodological improvements upon older methods. Criterion measures were sampled from previous research on implicit self‐esteem and included self‐report and independent ratings. In Study 2, Americans (N = 582) completed a shorter battery of these same types of measures under either a control condition, an explicit prime meant to activate the self‐concept in a particular context, or prime meant to activate self‐competence related implicit attitudes. Results: Across both studies, explicit self‐esteem measures far outperformed implicit self‐esteem measures in all cultural groups and under all experimental manipulations. Conclusion: Implicit self‐esteem measures are not valid for individual or cross‐cultural comparisons. We speculate that individuals may not form implicit associations with the self as an attitudinal object.
    February 08, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12082   open full text
  • Trait Self‐Control Predicts Adolescents’ Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Stressful Events.
    Brian M. Galla, Jeffrey J. Wood.
    Journal of Personality. January 29, 2014
    The current study used an influence model of personality and stress processes to examine the association between individual differences in trait self‐control and daily stress exposure and reactivity in adolescent youth. A total of 129 adolescents (Mage = 14.7 years, 59% female) completed individual difference measures of self‐control, neuroticism, and measures of responses to stress. Participants then reported on daily stressful events, stress severity, mood, coping, and mindlessness (a predictor of acting on impulse) for 14 consecutive days. Self‐control predicted less exposure to daily stress, less reactivity to daily stress, and more adaptive responses to stress. Specifically, adolescents with higher self‐control experienced fewer daily stressors and reported lower stress severity, particularly when daily mindlessness was high. Second, adolescents with higher self‐control reported less mindlessness in response to daily stress relative to those with lower self‐control, but they did not show differences in emotional reactivity to stress. Finally, results also offered evidence for an indirect effect of problem‐focused coping strategies between self‐control and emotional reactivity to stress. The current investigation illustrates the importance of trait self‐control in daily stress processes among adolescents and suggests possible mechanisms through which self‐control confers these positive effects.
    January 29, 2014   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12083   open full text
  • Guilty, But Not Ashamed: “True” Self‐Conceptions Influence Affective Responses to Personal Shortcomings.
    Matthew Vess, Rebecca J. Schlegel, Joshua A. Hicks, Jamie Arndt.
    Journal of Personality. August 13, 2013
    The current research examined how true self‐conceptions (who a person believes he or she truly is) influence negative self‐relevant emotions in response to shortcomings. In Study 1 (N = 83), an Internet sample of adults completed a measure of authenticity, reflected on a shortcoming or positive life event, and completed state shame and guilt measures. In Study 2 (N = 49), undergraduates focused on true versus other determined self‐attributes, received negative performance feedback, and completed state shame and guilt measures. In Study 3 (N = 138), undergraduates focused on self‐determined versus other determined self‐aspects, reflected on a shortcoming or neutral event, and completed state shame, guilt, and self‐esteem measures. In Study 4 (N = 75), undergraduates thought about true self‐attributes, an achievement, or an ordinary event; received positive or negative performance feedback; and completed state shame and guilt measures. In Study 1, differences in true self‐expression positively predicted shame‐free guilt (but not guilt‐free shame) following reminders of a shortcoming. Studies 2–4 found that experimental activation of true self‐conceptions increased shame‐free guilt and generally decreased guilt‐free shame in response to negative evaluative experiences. The findings offer novel insights into true self‐conceptions by revealing their impact on negative self‐conscious emotions.
    August 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12046   open full text
  • Source Personality and Persuasiveness: Big Five Predispositions to Being Persuasive and the Role of Message Involvement.
    Shaul Oreg, Noga Sverdlik.
    Journal of Personality. August 12, 2013
    In the present studies we incorporate a Person × Situation perspective into the study of the persuasion source. Specifically, we aimed to identify the personality characteristics of the persuasive individual and test the moderating role of target and source involvement. In three studies we found support for hypothesized relationships between source persuasiveness and Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience, and evidence for a moderating effect of involvement. In a preliminary study (N = 66, Mage = 22.7, 64% female), we demonstrated expected differences in the personality ratings assigned to a hypothetical persuasive versus nonpersuasive individual. In Study 1 (N = 95, Mage = 24.1, 62% female), through sets of two‐person debates, we showed that source Extraversion and Openness to Experience were positively, and Neuroticism negatively, associated with source persuasiveness. In Study 2 (N = 148, Mage = 24.3, 61% female), we manipulated the level of involvement and mostly replicated the results from Study 1, but, corresponding with our predictions, only when involvement was low. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of an interactionist approach to the study of persuasion, highlighting the role of personality in the study of the persuasion source.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12049   open full text
  • Common Heritable Effects Underpin Concerns Over Norm Maintenance and In‐Group Favoritism: Evidence From Genetic Analyses of Right‐Wing Authoritarianism and Traditionalism.
    Gary J. Lewis, Timothy C. Bates.
    Journal of Personality. August 12, 2013
    Research has shown that in‐group favoritism is associated with concerns over the maintenance of social norms. Here we present two studies examining whether genetic factors underpin this association. A classical twin design was used to decompose phenotypic variance into genetic and environmental components in two studies. Study 1 used 812 pairs of adult U.S. twins from the nationally representative MIDUS II sample. Study 2 used 707 pairs of middle‐age twins from the Minnesota Twin Registry. In‐group favoritism was measured with scales tapping preferences for in‐group (vs. out‐group) individuals; norm concerns were measured with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire–Traditionalism (Study 1) and Right‐Wing Authoritarianism (RWA; Study 2) scales. In Study 1, heritable effects underlying traditionalism were moderately (c. 35%) overlapping with the genetic variance underpinning in‐group favoritism. In Study 2, heritable influences on RWA were entirely shared with the heritable effects on in‐group favoritism. Moreover, we observed that Big Five Openness shared common genetic links to both RWA and in‐group favoritism. These results suggest that, at the genetic level, in‐group favoritism is linked with a system related to concern over normative social practices, which is, in turn, partially associated with trait Openness.
    August 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12055   open full text
  • Narcissism and Discrepancy Between Self and Friends' Perceptions of Personality.
    Sun W. Park, C. Randall Colvin.
    Journal of Personality. August 09, 2013
    Most research on narcissism and person perception has used strangers as perceivers. However, research has demonstrated that strangers' ratings are influenced by narcissists' stylish appearance (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010). In the present study, we recruited participants and their close friends, individuals whose close relationship should immunize them to participants' superficial appearance cues. We investigated the relation between narcissism and personality ratings by self and friends. Participants (N = 66; 38 women; Mage = 20.83 years) completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) and described their personality on the 100‐item California Adult Q‐Sort (CAQ; Block, 2008). Participants' personality was also described on the CAQ by close friends. The “optimally adjusted individual” prototype was used to summarize participant and friend personality ratings (Block, 2008). Participants with high narcissism scores were ascribed higher optimal adjustment by self than by friends. Narcissistic individuals' self‐ratings were extremely positive and more favorable than friends' ratings of them.
    August 09, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12053   open full text
  • Psychological and Physiological Predictors of Health in Romantic Relationships: An Attachment Perspective.
    Sarah C. E. Stanton, Lorne Campbell.
    Journal of Personality. August 08, 2013
    This article reviews the burgeoning literature linking greater individual differences in attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance to poorer health. Extant research indicates that more anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals experience heightened psychological (e.g., distress) and physiological (e.g., HPA axis activation) responses to stressful situations, as well as have poorer mental (e.g., depression) and physical (e.g., immune system functioning) health. Research also suggests that perceived social support processes are sometimes beneficial for more anxiously and avoidantly attached persons' mental health, but are not helpful in alleviating physiological responses to stress. Future studies could fruitfully delve into the possible dyadic influences on health and interventions to improve the health experiences of more anxiously and avoidantly attached individuals. Lastly, future research could benefit from longitudinal explorations of health.
    August 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12056   open full text
  • Yes, But Are They Happy? Effects of Trait Self‐Control on Affective Well‐Being and Life Satisfaction.
    Wilhelm Hofmann, Maike Luhmann, Rachel R Fisher, Kathleen D. Vohs, Roy F. Baumeister.
    Journal of Personality. August 08, 2013
    Does trait self‐control (TSC) predict affective well‐being and life satisfaction—positively, negatively, or not? We conducted three studies (Study 1: N = 414, 64% female, Mage = 35.0 years; Study 2: N = 208, 66% female, Mage = 25.24 years; Study 3: N = 234, 61% female, Mage = 34.53 years). The key predictor was TSC, with affective well‐being and life satisfaction ratings as key outcomes. Potential explanatory constructs including goal conflict, goal balancing, and emotional distress also were investigated. TSC is positively related to affective well‐being and life satisfaction, and managing goal conflict is a key as to why. All studies, moreover, showed that the effect of TSC on life satisfaction is at least partially mediated by affect. Study 1's correlational study established the effect. Study 2's experience sampling approach demonstrated that compared to those low in TSC, those high in TSC experience higher levels of momentary affect even as they experience desire, an effect partially mediated through experiencing lower conflict and emotional distress. Study 3 found evidence for the proposed mechanism—that TSC may boost well‐being by helping people avoid frequent conflict and balance vice‐virtue conflicts by favoring virtues. Self‐control positively contributes to happiness through avoiding and dealing with motivational conflict.
    August 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12050   open full text
  • Impression Management (“Lie”) Scales Are Associated With Interpersonally Oriented Self‐Control, Not Other‐Deception.
    Liad Uziel.
    Journal of Personality. August 07, 2013
    This article explores the status of impression management (IM) scales (“lie scales,” notably, BIDR‐IM) as measures of response bias, offers theory‐driven substantive meaning to them, and compares them with self‐deception enhancement (SDE). Study 1 (N = 99) compared self‐descriptions of actual self and ideal self given in a non‐anonymous setting. High similarity indicates self‐enhancement. Study 2 (70 dyads) analyzed self‐other agreement about IM and SDE. Agreement indicates substantive basis to the scales' scores. Study 3 (N = 182) explored the centrality of self‐control in the self‐perception of individuals varying in IM and SDE. Study 4 (95 dyads) corroborated self‐reports about self‐control using informants' reports. In Study 1, IM was associated with relative humility, whereas SDE was associated with self‐enhancement. In Study 2, strong self‐other agreement was found only for IM, indicating that high IM (but not SDE) is grounded in real‐life behavior. In Study 3, self‐control was central in the self‐perception of high IM and high SDE individuals. In Study 4, strong relations with self‐control were corroborated by informants only for IM. IM scales measure substantive content associated with self‐control aimed at social adaptation, whereas the SDE scale depicts individuals with a grandiose self‐perception, who fail to impress knowledgeable others.
    August 07, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12045   open full text
  • When the Going Gets Tough: The “Why” of Goal Striving Matters.
    Nikos Ntoumanis, Laura C. Healy, Constantine Sedikides, Joan Duda, Brandon Stewart, Alison Smith, Johanna Bond.
    Journal of Personality. August 06, 2013
    No prior research has examined how motivation for goal striving influences persistence in the face of increasing goal difficulty. This research examined the role of self‐reported (Study 1) and primed (Study 2) autonomous and controlled motives in predicting objectively assessed persistence during the pursuit of an increasingly difficult goal. In Study 1, 100 British athletes (64 males; Mage = 19.89 years, SDage = 2.43) pursued a goal of increasing difficulty on a cycle ergometer. In Study 2, 90 British athletes (43 males; Mage = 19.63 years, SDage = 1.14) engaged in the same task, but their motivation was primed by asking them to observe a video of an actor describing her or his involvement in an unrelated study. In Study 1, self‐reported autonomous goal motives predicted goal persistence via challenge appraisals and task‐based coping. In contrast, controlled goal motives predicted threat appraisals and disengagement coping, which, in turn, was a negative predictor of persistence. In Study 2, primed autonomous (compared to controlled) goal motives predicted greater persistence, positive affect, and future interest for task engagement. The findings underscore the importance of autonomous motivation for behavioral investment in the face of increased goal difficulty.
    August 06, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12047   open full text
  • Are You in a Healthy Relationship? Linking Conscientiousness to Health via Implementing and Immunizing Behaviors.
    Patrick L. Hill, Lauren B. Nickel, Brent W. Roberts.
    Journal of Personality. August 06, 2013
    The benefits of living a conscientious life have been demonstrated across multiple domains, and yet, few studies have sought to explain how the positive effects in one area may help explain those in another. The current article considers the possibility that conscientious individuals live healthier lives by virtue of having greater success in their relationships. Using both past research and new findings to support our model, we set forth a framework by which to consider how Conscientiousness affects relationship functioning, which in turn leads to better physical, emotional, and psychological health. In so doing, we also provide a new outlook on the health benefits associated with Conscientiousness, and how these may be conferred by relationship success.
    August 06, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12051   open full text
  • Attachment‐Related Individual Differences in the Consistency of Relationship Behavior Interpretation.
    Michael J. Marks, David Trafimow, Stephen C. Rice.
    Journal of Personality. August 05, 2013
    The consistency with which people interpret relationship‐based information has important implications for attachment theory and research. Our objective is to determine whether there are attachment‐related individual differences in the manner and the consistency with which individuals interpret hypothetical relationship behaviors. In two studies (N = 629, 79% female, 63% American, Mage = 29; N = 820, 78% female, 65% American, Mage = 29), we assessed participants' ability and consistency in relationship behavior interpretation across two blocks and estimated how they would have performed had they interpreted information perfectly consistently. Secure participants were generally more consistent in their interpretations relative to insecure participants. Estimates of perfectly consistent interpretation revealed that improvements to both systematic factors related to behavior interpretation (e.g., working models) and consistency would have led to a more secure interpretation style for participants of all attachment styles. Results imply that both secure and insecure individuals process relationship‐based information according to secure scripts, but insecure individuals do so inconsistently. Our results imply that, due to the inconsistent behavioral responses that may occur as a result of inconsistent information processing, the consistency with which people process relationship‐related information will be related to relationship satisfaction. Further directions for future research are discussed.
    August 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12048   open full text
  • The Influence of Avoidance Temperament and Avoidance‐Based Achievement Goals on Flow.
    Daniela Oertig, Julia Schüler, Veronika Brandstätter, Adam A. Augustine.
    Journal of Personality. July 16, 2013
    In the present research, we conducted two studies designed to examine the joint influence of avoidance temperament and avoidance‐based achievement goals on the experience of flow on a creativity task. In both a laboratory study (N = 101; Mage = 22.61, SDage = 4.03; 74.3% female) and a naturalistic study (N = 102; Mage = 16.23, SDage = 1.13; 48% female), participants high in avoidance temperament were shown to experience greater flow when performance‐avoidance goals were induced; no differences were found in any of the other three achievement goal conditions from the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. These findings reveal a short‐term benefit for a disposition‐goal match grounded in avoidance motivation, and point to the need for more research on both avoidance‐based matches and the short‐term versus long‐term implications of such matches.
    July 16, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12043   open full text
  • Traits in Transition: The Structure of Parent‐Reported Personality Traits from Early Childhood to Early Adulthood.
    Christopher J. Soto, Oliver P. John.
    Journal of Personality. July 16, 2013
    The present research was conducted to map the hierarchical structure of youths' personality traits, to identify the foundational level of this structure, and to test whether the meanings of some youth personality dimensions shift with age. We addressed these issues by analyzing personality parent reports describing a cross‐sectional sample of 16,000 children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 3 to 20). These parent reports were made using a broadband measure of youths' personal characteristics, the common‐language California Child Q‐Set. Analyses of the full sample and comparisons of 16 age groups supported three main conclusions. First, the hierarchical structure of youths' personality traits both resembles and differs from the adult personality hierarchy in important ways. Second, a set of six dimensions—Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Activity—may constitute the foundational level of the youth personality hierarchy from middle childhood through adolescence. This “Little Six” structure represents a union of the most prominent personality and temperament dimensions. Third, the meanings of some youth personality dimensions (e.g., Activity, Conscientiousness) shift systematically with age. These findings advance our understanding of when and how personality structure develops during the first two decades of life.
    July 16, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12044   open full text
  • The Hierarchical Structure and Construct Validity of the PID‐5 Trait Measure in Adolescence.
    Barbara De Clercq, Filip De Fruyt, Marleen De Bolle, Alain Van Hiel, Kristian E. Markon, Robert F. Krueger.
    Journal of Personality. July 07, 2013
    The DSM‐5 may be the first edition that enables a developmental perspective on personality disorders because of its proposal to include a trait assessment in the Axis II section. The current study explores the reliability, structure, and construct validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM‐5 (PID‐5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) in adolescents, a measure that assesses the proposed DSM‐5 traits. A community sample of Flemish adolescents (N = 434; 44.7% male) provided self‐reports on the PID‐5 and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Itempool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Results indicate an acceptable reliability for the majority of the PID‐5 facets and a tendency toward structural convergence of the adolescent PID‐5 structure with the adult proposal. Convergent validity with age‐specific facets of personality pathology was generally supported, but discriminant validity appeared to be low. Beyond the findings that support the applicability of the PID‐5 in adolescents, developmental issues may be responsible for specific differences in the adolescent PID‐5 structure, the rather poor discriminant validity of the PID‐5, and the lower reliability of a small number of PID‐5 facets. These results indicate that further research on the validity of the PID‐5 in younger age groups is required.
    July 07, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12042   open full text
  • Does Language Affect Personality Perception? A Functional Approach to Testing the Whorfian Hypothesis.
    Sylvia Xiaohua Chen, Verónica Benet‐Martínez, Jacky C. K. Ng.
    Journal of Personality. June 24, 2013
    Whether language shapes cognition has long been a controversial issue. The present research adopts a functional approach to examining the effects of language use on personality perception and dialectical thinking. We propose that language use activates corresponding cultural mindsets, which in turn influence social perception, thinking, and behavior. Four studies recruited Chinese‐English bilinguals (N = 129 in Study 1, 229 in Study 2, 68 in Study 3, 106 in Study 4) and used within‐subjects and between‐subjects design, written and behavioral reports, and self‐ and other perceptions. The four studies converged to show that Chinese‐English bilinguals exhibit higher dialectical thinking and more variations in self‐ and observer ratings of personality when using the Chinese language than when using English. Furthermore, dialectical thinking predicted more self‐ and other‐perceived variations in personality and behavior across bilingual contexts. These results highlight the important role of culture in understanding the relations between language and cognition, and attest to the malleability of personality perception and dialectical thinking within and across individuals in response to culture‐related linguistic cues.
    June 24, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12040   open full text
  • Integrating Content and Structure Aspects of the Self: Traits, Values, and Self‐Improvement.
    Sonia Roccas, Lilach Sagiv, Shani Oppenheim, Andrey Elster, Avigail Gal.
    Journal of Personality. June 13, 2013
    Research on the structure of the self has mostly developed separately from research on its content. Taking an integrative approach, we studied two structural aspects of the self associated with self‐improvement—self‐discrepancies and perceived mutability—by focusing on two content areas, traits and values. In Studies 1A–C, 337 students (61% female) reported self‐discrepancies in values and traits, with the finding that self‐discrepancies in values are smaller than in traits. In Study 2 (80 students, 41% female), we experimentally induced either high or low mutability and measured perceived mutability of traits and values. We found that values are perceived as less mutable than traits. In Study 3, 99 high school students (60% female) reported their values, traits, and the extent to which they wish to change them. We found that values predict the wish to change traits, whereas traits do not predict the wish to change values. In Study 4, 172 students (47.7% female) were assigned to one of four experimental conditions in which they received feedback denoting either uniqueness or similarity to others, on either their values or their traits. The results indicated that feedback that one's values (but not traits) are unique affected self‐esteem. Integrating between theories of content and structure of the self can contribute to the development of both.
    June 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12041   open full text
  • The Role of Personality in Predicting Repeat Participation in Periodic Health Screening.
    Galit Armon, Sharon Toker.
    Journal of Personality. June 10, 2013
    Objective Drawing on the Five‐Factor Model of personality, the aim of the present study was to find out which personality traits predict health maintenance behaviors, reflected in routine participation in health screenings, over and above objective and subjective health status. Method Participants were 2,803 employed individuals (61% men), free of background diseases, who underwent a routine health examination and were subsequently notified whether they were healthy or at risk. These participants were invited to repeat the examination within the next few years, as is medically recommended. Results Logistic and negative binomial regressions were used to predict participants' odds of returning for a second examination, within the next 7 years, as well as the number of consecutive visits, while controlling for sociodemographic factors, objective and subjective health, and length of follow‐up. We found that both endpoints were positively predicted by Conscientiousness and negatively predicted by Extraversion and Openness. The association between Neuroticism and these endpoints followed a bell‐shaped curve (i.e., individuals high or low in Neuroticism were less likely to return). Conclusions The present findings suggest that personality traits should be taken into consideration in the planning and implementation of health‐promoting interventions.
    June 10, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12021   open full text
  • Changes in Neuroticism Following Trauma Exposure.
    Christin M. Ogle, David C. Rubin, Ilene C. Siegler.
    Journal of Personality. May 09, 2013
    Using longitudinal data, the present study examined change in midlife neuroticism following trauma exposure. Our primary analyses included 670 participants (Mage = 60.55; 65.22% male, 99.70% Caucasian) who completed the NEO Personality Inventory at ages 42 and 50 and reported their lifetime exposure to traumatic events approximately 10 years later. No differences in pre‐ and post‐trauma neuroticism scores were found among individuals who experienced all of their lifetime traumas in the interval between the personality assessments. Results were instead consistent with normative age‐related declines in neuroticism throughout adulthood. Furthermore, longitudinal changes in neuroticism scores did not differ between individuals with and without histories of midlife trauma exposure. Examination of change in neuroticism following life‐threatening traumas yielded a comparable pattern of results. Analysis of facet‐level scores largely replicated findings from the domain scores. Overall, our findings suggest that neuroticism does not reliably change following exposure to traumatic events in middle adulthood. Supplemental analyses indicated that individuals exposed to life‐threatening traumas in childhood or adolescence reported higher midlife neuroticism than individuals who experienced severe traumas in adulthood. Life‐threatening traumatic events encountered early in life may have a more pronounced impact on adulthood personality than recent traumatic events.
    May 09, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12037   open full text
  • The Role of Active Assortment in Spousal Similarity.
    David Watson, Andrew Beer, Elizabeth McDade‐Montez.
    Journal of Personality. May 09, 2013
    Previous research has established the existence of active assortment, that is, a preference for similarity in a potential mate. Few studies, however, have directly related mate preferences to dyadic similarity by examining them in the same participants. We collected both similarity and mate preference data in two studies: undergraduate students (N = 519) and newlyweds (N = 335). In both studies, women placed a higher value on desirable personality characteristics (e.g., higher Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, lower Neuroticism) than did men. Nevertheless, our data also provided strong evidence of consensual mate preferences: Men and women both desired partners who were agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, intelligent, and physically attractive; furthermore, participants desired partners who were better (e.g., more agreeable and attractive) than they were. In contrast, attitudinal variables such as religiousness and political orientation displayed much weaker consensus but showed significant dyadic similarity in both samples; similarity coefficients for personality tended to be positive, but lower. Finally, analyses revealed a direct link between actual and desired similarity: Couples displayed the strongest similarity on those variables for which participants expressed the strongest preference for similarity. Our findings strongly suggest that active assortment is partly responsible for dyadic similarity.
    May 09, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12039   open full text
  • Variability in Personality Expression Across Contexts: A Social Network Approach.
    Allan Clifton.
    Journal of Personality. May 09, 2013
    The current research investigated how the contextual expression of personality differs across interpersonal relationships. Two related studies were conducted with college samples (Study 1: N = 52, 38 female; Study 2: N = 111, 72 female). Participants in each study completed a five‐factor measure of personality and constructed a social network detailing their 30 most important relationships. Participants used a brief Five‐Factor Model scale to rate their personality as they experience it when with each person in their social network. Multiple informants selected from each social network then rated the target participant's personality (Study 1: N = 227, Study 2: N = 777). Contextual personality ratings demonstrated incremental validity beyond standard global self‐report in predicting specific informants' perceptions. Variability in these contextualized personality ratings was predicted by the position of the other individuals within the social network. Across both studies, participants reported being more extraverted and neurotic, and less conscientious, with more central members of their social networks. Dyadic social network–based assessments of personality provide incremental validity in understanding personality, revealing dynamic patterns of personality variability unobservable with standard assessment techniques.
    May 09, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12038   open full text
  • Optimism Is Universal: Exploring the Presence and Benefits of Optimism in a Representative Sample of the World.
    Matthew W. Gallagher, Shane J. Lopez, Sarah D. Pressman.
    Journal of Personality. April 12, 2013
    Current theories of optimism suggest that the tendency to maintain positive expectations for the future is an adaptive psychological resource associated with improved well‐being and physical health, but the majority of previous optimism research has been conducted in industrialized nations. The present study examined (a) whether optimism is universal, (b) what demographic factors predict optimism, and (c) whether optimism is consistently associated with improved subjective well‐being and perceived health worldwide. The present study used representative samples of 142 countries that together represent 95% of the world's population. The total sample of 150,048 individuals had a mean age of 38.28 (SD = 16.85) and approximately equal sex distribution (51.2% female). The relationships between optimism, subjective well‐being, and perceived health were examined using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that most individuals and most countries worldwide are optimistic and that higher levels of optimism are associated with improved subjective well‐being and perceived health worldwide. The present study provides compelling evidence that optimism is a universal phenomenon and that the associations between optimism and improved psychological functioning are not limited to industrialized nations.
    April 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12026   open full text
  • A Basic Bivariate Structure of Personality Attributes Evident Across Nine Languages.
    Gerard Saucier, Amber Gayle Thalmayer, Doris L. Payne, Robert Carlson, Lamine Sanogo, Leonard Ole‐Kotikash, A. Timothy Church, Marcia S. Katigbak, Oya Somer, Piotr Szarota, Zsofia Szirmák, Xinyue Zhou.
    Journal of Personality. April 12, 2013
    Here, two studies seek to characterize a parsimonious common‐denominator personality structure with optimal cross‐cultural replicability. Personality differences are observed in all human populations and cultures, but lexicons for personality attributes contain so many distinctions that parsimony is lacking. Models stipulating the most important attributes have been formulated by experts or by empirical studies drawing on experience in a very limited range of cultures. Factor analyses of personality lexicons of nine languages of diverse provenance (Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Turkish, Greek, Polish, Hungarian, Maasai, and Senoufo) were examined, and their common structure was compared to that of several prominent models in psychology. A parsimonious bivariate model showed evidence of substantial convergence and ubiquity across cultures. Analyses involving key markers of these dimensions in English indicate that they are broad dimensions involving the overlapping content of the interpersonal circumplex, models of communion and agency, and morality/warmth and competence. These “Big Two” dimensions—Social Self‐Regulation and Dynamism—provide a common‐denominator model involving the two most crucial axes of personality variation, ubiquitous across cultures. The Big Two might serve as an umbrella model serving to link diverse theoretical models and associated research literatures.
    April 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12028   open full text
  • A Neuropsychological Model of Mentally Tough Behavior.
    Lew Hardy, James Bell, Stuart Beattie.
    Journal of Personality. April 12, 2013
    Four studies were conducted with two primary objectives: (a) to conceptualize and measure mental toughness from a behavioral perspective and (b) to apply relevant personality theory to the examination of between‐person differences in mentally tough behavior. Studies 1 (N = 305 participants from a range of different sports) and 2 (N = 110 high‐level cricketers) focused on the development of an informant‐rated mental toughness questionnaire that assessed individual differences in ability to maintain or enhance performance under pressure from a wide range of stressors. Studies 3 (N = 214) and 4 (N = 196) examined the relationship between reinforcement sensitivities and mentally tough behavior in high‐level cricketers. The highest levels of mental toughness reported by coaches occurred when cricketers were sensitive to punishment and insensitive to reward. Study 4 suggested that such players are predisposed to identify threatening stimuli early, which gives them the best possible opportunity to prepare an effective response to the pressurized environments they encounter. The findings show that high‐level cricketers who are punishment sensitive, but not reward sensitive, detect threat early and can maintain goal‐directed behavior under pressure from a range of different stressors.
    April 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12034   open full text
  • Affect Is Greater Than, Not Equal to, Condition: Condition and Person Effects in Affective Priming Paradigms.
    Adam A. Augustine, Randy J. Larsen, Andrew J. Elliot.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    Affective primes may impact ensuing behavior through condition and person effects. However, previous research has not experimentally disentangled these two sources of influence in affective priming paradigms. In the current research, we simultaneously examine the influence of condition factors, in terms of prime valence, and person factors, in terms of affect reactivity and personality. In both studies, undergraduate participants (total N = 174) were primed with either positive or negative affective stimuli (words, Study 1; pictures, Study 2) prior to judging the likability of a neutral target (Arabic characters, Study 1; inkblots, Study 2). Although we did observe between‐condition differences for positive and negative primes, person‐level effects were more consistent predictors of target ratings. Affect reactivity (affect Time 2, controlling Time 1) to the primes predicted evaluative judgments, even in the absence of condition effects. In addition, the personality traits of Neuroticism (Study 1) and behavioral inhibition system sensitivity (Study 2) predicted evaluative judgments of neutral targets following negative affective primes. With effects for condition, affect reactivity, and personality, our results suggest that affective primes influence ensuing behaviors through both informational and affective means. Research using affective priming methodologies should take into account both condition and person‐level effects.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12024   open full text
  • Personalized Psychotherapy: A Treatment Approach Based on Theodore Millon's Integrated Model of Clinical Science.
    Stephen Strack, Theodore Millon.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    In this article we present personalized psychotherapy, a treatment approach for people with a wide range of personality problems and clinical syndromes that is a central part of Theodore Millon's unified clinical science model of personality and psychopathology. Because the intervention strategy is fully integrated with an evolutionary perspective on human development, we offer it in this context. We begin with a historical overview of Millon's model and its relationship to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). We then present his basic theoretical principles and personality taxonomy, and discuss variations in personality functioning across the normal–abnormal continuum. We move on to describe assessment measures that were developed to operationalize his concepts and ideas, and which are used as the basis for creating treatment plans. The premises and principles of personalized psychotherapy are described to show how the intervention model is squarely focused on the integrated unity of the person. We look at presenting problems of all kinds from the point of view of how they emanate from, and are related to, the individual's unique combination of temperament, traits, preferences, behavioral patterns, and coping strategies. We then specify multimodal interventions (e.g., a combination of pharmacologic, cognitive, behavioral, phenomenological, interpersonal, and/or intrapsychic treatments) and apply them in a particular sequence to maximize their impact, not only on the target symptoms, but on the underlying personality elements believed to be their primary cause.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12013   open full text
  • Cognitive‐Affective Processing System Analysis of Intra‐Individual Dynamics in Collaborative Therapeutic Assessment: Translating Basic Theory and Research Into Clinical Applications.
    Yuichi Shoda, Nicole L. Wilson, Jessica Chen, Amanda K. Gilmore, Ronald E. Smith.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    According to the cognitive‐affective processing system (CAPS) model, behavior is a function of how the distinctive cognitive‐affective system of the individual responds to one's subjective experience of the situation encountered. Thus an individual's maladaptive coping processes may be understood by identifying the nature of the situations that a client experiences as highly stressful and the psychological reactions they trigger. An initial study established the feasibility and utility of an Internet‐based CAPS daily diary program; it was then used to facilitate a clinical stress‐management intervention. The daily diary enabled researchers and clinicians to gather Highly‐Repeated Within‐Persons (HRWP) data on the situational features, cognitions, affect, and coping behaviors associated with daily life stress, which were then analyzed separately for each participant to identify each individual's unique and distinctive pattern of intra‐individual dynamics. Results suggested that individuals differed reliably in the features of psychological situations that triggered stress and maladaptive coping behaviors. HRWP analysis of daily diary data enhanced the efficacy of clinical intervention, and clients' self‐regulatory capabilities and life satisfaction were shown to increase over the course of the intervention. We discuss how our program of research fits into the larger goals of translational science and current NIMH clinical research priorities.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12015   open full text
  • Situational and Dispositional Goal Adjustment in the Context of Metastatic Cancer.
    Elizabeth Thompson, Annette L. Stanton, Julienne E. Bower.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    Striving toward goals is associated with higher levels of subjective well‐being; however, many potential roadblocks to goal achievement exist. The current study extends the understanding of goal regulation processes in its examination of the relationships between dispositional and situational goal adjustment to a profound stressor and their associations with psychological adjustment. Women (N = 103; M age = 57.2 years; 82% Caucasian) with metastatic breast cancer completed semistructured interviews and self‐report measures at study entry and 3 months later. Measures of dispositional and situational goal reengagement were significantly correlated, but dispositional and situational goal disengagement were unrelated. Greater dispositional and situational goal disengagement abilities were associated with fewer cancer‐related intrusive thoughts at Time 1. Dispositional and situational reengagement were positively associated with life satisfaction and sense of purpose and negatively associated with depressive symptoms at Time 1. However, greater initial situational goal disengagement predicted an increase in depressive symptoms over time. Both how an individual typically responds to goal blockage, as well as how an individual is currently responding to a specific blocked goal, appear related to psychological adjustment.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12025   open full text
  • Pals, Problems, and Personality: The Moderating Role of Personality in the Longitudinal Association Between Adolescents’ and Best Friends’ Delinquency.
    Rongqin Yu, Susan Branje, Loes Keijsers, Hans M. Koot, Wim Meeus.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    We examined the potential moderating role of Block's personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, and resilients) on the longitudinal associations between adolescents’ and their best friends’ delinquency. Across three annual waves, 497 Dutch adolescents (283 boys, MAge = 13 years at Wave 1) and their best friends reported on their delinquent behaviors. Adolescents’ three personality types were obtained by latent class growth analysis on their annual reports on Big Five personality. A three‐group cross‐lagged panel analysis was performed on three waves of data. Delinquency of overcontrollers was predicted by their best friends’ delinquency, whereas delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients was not. Delinquency of undercontrollers and resilients predicted their best friends’ delinquency, but overcontrollers’ delinquency did not. These findings suggest that personality may play an important role in adolescents’ susceptibility to the influence of friends’ delinquency, as well as in youths’ ability to influence friends through their own delinquency.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12027   open full text
  • Convincing Yourself to Care About Others: An Intervention for Enhancing Benevolence Values.
    Sharon Arieli, Adam M. Grant, Lilach Sagiv.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    To study value change, this research presents an intervention with multiple exercises designed to instigate change through both effortful and automatic routes. Aiming to increase the importance attributed to benevolence values, which reflect the motivation to help and care for others, the intervention combines three mechanisms for value change (self‐persuasion, consistency‐maintenance, and priming). In three experiments, 142 undergraduates (67% male, ages 19–26) participated in an intervention emphasizing the importance of either helping others (benevolence condition) or recognizing flexibility in personality (control condition). We measured the importance of benevolence values before and after the task. In Experiment 1, the intervention increased U.S. participants' benevolence values. In Experiment 2, we replicated these effects in a different culture (Israel) and also showed that by enhancing benevolence values, the intervention increased participants' willingness to volunteer to help others. Experiment 3 showed that the increases in the importance of benevolence values lasted at least 4 weeks. Our results provide evidence that value change does not require fictitious feedback or information about social norms, but can occur through a 30‐min intervention that evokes both effortful and automatic processes.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12029   open full text
  • Personality Change in the Oldest‐Old: Is It a Matter of Compromised Health and Functioning?
    Anne Ingeborg Berg, Boo Johansson.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    The present longitudinal study investigates continuity and change in the personality dimensions of extraversion and neuroticism among the oldest‐old. Overall disease load, self‐rated health, functional capacity, impaired vision and hearing, self‐reported cognitive impairment, and measured cognitive status were tested for their role as potentially relevant late‐life predictors of personality change. The sample consists of 408 individuals aged 80–98 in the Swedish OCTO‐Twin Study who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory at four measurement occasions during a 6‐year period. Growth curve analyses revealed an age‐related linear decrease in extraversion and stability in neuroticism. More extraverted individuals were more educated and perceived their health and cognition as better. Notably, only hearing impairment was found to be related to a steeper age‐related decline in extraversion. A life span developmental model focusing on health‐related changes can improve our understanding of personality change in late life.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12030   open full text
  • Conservatives Anticipate and Experience Stronger Emotional Reactions to Negative Outcomes.
    Samantha Joel, Caitlin M. Burton, Jason E. Plaks.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow‐up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower‐than‐desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12031   open full text
  • Meaning in Life in Emerging Adulthood: A Person‐Oriented Approach.
    Jessie Dezutter, Alan S. Waterman, Seth J. Schwartz, Koen Luyckx, Wim Beyers, Alan Meca, Su Yeong Kim, Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Byron L. Zamboanga, Richard M. Lee, Sam A. Hardy, Larry F. Forthun, Rachel A. Ritchie, Robert S. Weisskirch, Elissa J. Brown, S. Jean Caraway.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    The present study investigated naturally occurring profiles based on two dimensions of meaning in life: Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning. Cluster analysis was used to examine meaning‐in‐life profiles, and subsequent analyses identified different patterns in psychosocial functioning for each profile. A sample of 8,492 American emerging adults (72.5% women) from 30 colleges and universities completed measures on meaning in life, and positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Results provided support for five meaningful yet distinguishable profiles. A strong generalizability of the cluster solution was found across age, and partial generalizability was found across gender and ethnicity. Furthermore, the five profiles showed specific patterns in relation to positive and negative psychosocial functioning. Specifically, respondents with profiles high on Presence of Meaning showed the most adaptive psychosocial functioning, whereas respondents with profiles where meaning was largely absent showed maladaptive psychosocial functioning. The present study provided additional evidence for prior research concerning the complex relationship between Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning, and their relation with psychosocial functioning. Our results offer a partial clarification of the nature of the Search for Meaning process by distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive searching for meaning in life.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12033   open full text
  • Personality Development at Work: Workplace Conditions, Personality Changes, and the Corresponsive Principle.
    Kimdy Le, M. Brent Donnellan, Rand Conger.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    Investigations concerning adult personality development have increasingly focused on factors that are associated with apparent personality trait changes. The current study contributes to this literature by replicating and extending previous research concerning personality trait development in young adulthood and perceptions of workplace conditions. Analyses were based on up to 442 individuals who participated in the ongoing Family Transitions Project (e.g., Conger & Conger, 2002). The current analyses included personality trait data from 1994 and 2003, high school grades and socioeconomic status indicators from 1994, and reports about work conditions in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Personality attributes were prospectively associated with work conditions and income. Findings also support the corresponsive principle of personality development (e.g., Roberts, Caspi, & Moffitt, 2003): Traits that were prospectively associated with particular workplace conditions often seemed to be accentuated by those conditions. Personality traits are prospectively associated with perceptions of the workplace. Workplace conditions are also associated with trait development.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12032   open full text
  • Full House of Fears: Evidence That People High in Attachment Anxiety Are More Accurate in Detecting Deceit.
    Tsachi Ein‐Dor, Adi Perry.
    Journal of Personality. April 08, 2013
    Lying is deep‐rooted in our nature, as over 90% of all people lie. Laypeople, however, do only slightly better than chance when detecting lies and deceptions. Recently, attachment anxiety was linked with people's hypervigilance toward threat‐related cues. Accordingly, we tested whether attachment anxiety predicts people's ability to detect deceit and to play poker—a game that is based on players' ability to detect cheating. In Study 1, 202 participants watched a series of interpersonal interactions that comprised subtle clues to the honesty or dishonesty of the speakers. In Study 2, 58 participants watched clips in which such cues were absent. Participants were asked to decide whether the main characters were honest or dishonest. In Study 3, we asked 35 semiprofessional poker players to participate in a poker tournament, and then we predicted the amount of money won during the game. Results indicated that attachment anxiety, but not other types of anxiety, predicted more accurate detection of deceitful statements (Studies 1–2) and a greater amount of money won during a game of poker (Study 3). Results are discussed in relation to the possible adaptive functions of certain personality characteristics, such as attachment anxiety, often viewed as undesirable.
    April 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12035   open full text
  • Self‐Regulation and Mechanisms of Action in Psychotherapy: A Theory‐Based Translational Perspective.
    Timothy J. Strauman, Elena L. Goetz, Allison M. Detloff, Katherine E. MacDuffie, Luisa Zaunmüller, Wolfgang Lutz.
    Journal of Personality. February 22, 2013
    Psychotherapy is a complex, multilayered process with the potential to bring about changes at multiple levels of functioning, from the neurobiology of the brain to the individual's role in the social world. Although studies of the mechanisms by which psychotherapy leads to change continue to appear, there remains much to be learned about how psychological interventions work. To guide explorations of how and for whom particular treatment approaches lead to change, researchers can rely on theory to identify potential loci for change and on translational research methods to integrate basic behavioral science and neuroscience with clinical science. In this article, we describe research linking individual differences in the self‐regulation of personal goal pursuit with the etiology and treatment of mood disorders. The research draws upon regulatory focus theory as a model of self‐regulation and on microintervention designs—controlled laboratory investigations of a specific therapeutic technique—to generate and test hypotheses about how psychological interventions can help to reverse maladaptive self‐regulatory processes.
    February 22, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12012   open full text
  • (In)Congruence of Implicit and Explicit Communal Motives Predicts the Quality and Stability of Couple Relationships.
    Birk Hagemeyer, Wiebke Neberich, Jens B. Asendorpf, Franz J. Neyer.
    Journal of Personality. February 21, 2013
    Objective Previous research has shown that motive congruence, as observed in convergingly high or low scores on implicit and explicit motive measures, promotes well‐being and health. Extending this individual perspective to the realm of couple relationships, the present investigation examined intra‐ and interpersonal effects of communal motive (in)congruence on relationship satisfaction and stability. Method The implicit partner‐related need for communion, the explicit desire for closeness, and relationship satisfaction were assessed in a sample of 547 heterosexual couples aged 18 to 73 years. In a one‐year follow‐up study, information on relationship stability was obtained, and relationship satisfaction was reassessed. The researchers tested cross‐sectional and longitudinal effects of motive (in)congruence by dyadic moderation analyses. Results Individuals scoring congruently high on both motives reported the highest relationship satisfaction in concurrence with motive assessment and 1 year later. In addition, motive incongruence predicted an increased risk of relationship breakup over 1 year. Conclusions The results highlight the significance of both implicit and explicit motives for couple relationships. Motive incongruence was confirmed as a dispositional risk factor that so far has not been considered in couple research. Future research directions addressing potential mediators of the observed effects and potential moderators of motive (in)congruence are discussed.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12016   open full text
  • What Do We Know When We Know a Person Across Contexts? Examining Self‐Concept Differentiation at the Three Levels of Personality.
    William L. Dunlop, Lawrence J. Walker, Thomas K. Wiens.
    Journal of Personality. February 21, 2013
    Objective Previous research examining self‐concept differentiation (SCD) has been characterized by (a) a focus on behavioral traits and (b) the conflation of mean‐level and inter‐contextual differentiation. In two studies, we considered non‐conflated measures of SCD at the three levels of personality description in relation to adjustment. Method In Study 1, participants completed measures of adjustment, rated their behavioral tendencies (dispositional traits), produced a list of goals (characteristic adaptations), and recalled a self‐defining memory (life narratives), from within professional and personal domains. In Study 2, the procedure was modified: Participants reporting either low or high levels of adjustment subsequently rated their behavioral traits, provided a list of goals, or produced a self‐defining memory, from five contexts. Results In Study 1, adjustment related positively to SCD at the level of characteristic adaptations but negatively to SCD at the level of life narratives. In Study 2, well‐adjusted participants exhibited a greater degree of SCD at the level of characteristic adaptations but a greater degree of thematic consistency at the level of life narratives, relative to those low in adjustment. Conclusions These results highlight the dynamic nature of SCD across levels of personality and align with the notion that differentiation represents virtue and vice.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12018   open full text
  • Avoidance Goal Pursuit Depletes Self‐Regulatory Resources.
    Daniela Oertig, Julia Schüler, Jessica Schnelle, Veronika Brandstätter, Marieke Roskes, Andrew J. Elliot.
    Journal of Personality. February 21, 2013
    Objective Research on the strength model of self‐regulation is burgeoning, but little empirical work has focused on the link between distinct types of daily goal pursuit and the depletion of self‐regulatory resources. The authors conducted two studies on the link between avoidance goals and resource depletion. Method Study 1 (283 [228 female] Caucasians, ages 18–51) investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relations between avoidance goals and resource depletion over a 1‐month period. Study 2 (132 [93 female] Caucasians, ages 18–49) investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relations between avoidance goals and resource depletion over a 1‐month period and explored resource depletion as a mediator of the avoidance goal to subjective well‐being relation. Results Studies 1 and 2 documented both a concurrent and a longitudinal negative relationship between avoidance goals and self‐regulatory resources, and Study 2 additionally showed that self‐regulatory resources mediate the negative link between avoidance goals and subjective well‐being. Ancillary analyses demonstrated that the results observed in the two studies were independent of neuroticism. Conclusions These findings advance knowledge in both the resource depletion and avoidance goal literatures, and bolster the view that avoidance goal pursuit over time represents a self‐regulatory vulnerability.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12019   open full text
  • It's Not Just What We Encode, but How We Encode It: Associations Between Neuroticism and Learning.
    Nicola C. Byrom, Robin A. Murphy.
    Journal of Personality. February 21, 2013
    Objective Neuroticism is a strong predictor of future mental health problems. The informativeness of this association has been questioned because of the limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying Neuroticism. In this article the authors extend our understanding of the association between information processing and Neuroticism. Method Two independent studies involving separate sets of college students (N = 89 and N = 33), use self‐rated Neuroticism scores to compare individuals' ability to learn simple and more complex discriminations, between simple shapes and words presented alone and in compound. Results Neuroticism was found to be associated with differences in learning to discriminate simple stimuli from compounds containing the same simple stimuli. Individuals with high levels of Neuroticism appeared to process compounds of stimuli as whole units even when this ceased to be an effective strategy for learning. In contrast, individuals with lower levels of Neuroticism performed better with discriminations that could be solved while learning about separate stimuli, rather than compounds. Conclusions The authors discuss possible mechanisms of learning identified by these tasks and consider what implications their observations have for an understanding of the relationship between Neuroticism and mental health problems.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12022   open full text
  • Eriksonian Personality Research and Its Implications for Psychotherapy.
    James Marcia, Ruthellen Josselson.
    Journal of Personality. February 21, 2013
    Erikson's comprehensive theory of human development has been empirically validated by personality researchers who have taken a status approach to the adult stages of the life cycle: Identity, Intimacy, Generativity, and Integrity. An understanding of these stages has implications for psychotherapy. Erikson's theory provides a descriptive language for where the individual stands currently within a psychosocial developmental context, where he/she might have gotten “stuck” in the past, and where she/he is heading in terms of developmental goals. This article attempts to link the empirical research on Erikson's developmental theory with an approach to therapeutic intervention that could be utilized by therapists from an array of therapeutic approaches. The authors, who are developmental, personality and clinical psychologists, illustrate the use of Eriksonian personality theory in psychotherapy by discussing case examples from their own psychotherapy practices.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12014   open full text
  • Unifying the Aspects of the Big Five, the Interpersonal Circumplex, and Trait Affiliation.
    Colin G. DeYoung, Yanna J. Weisberg, Lena C. Quilty, Jordan B. Peterson.
    Journal of Personality. February 21, 2013
    Objective Two dimensions of the Big Five, Extraversion and Agreeableness, are strongly related to interpersonal behavior. Factor analysis has indicated that each of the Big Five contains two separable but related aspects. The present study examined the manner in which the aspects of Extraversion (Assertiveness and Enthusiasm) and Agreeableness (Compassion and Politeness) relate to interpersonal behavior and trait affiliation, with the hypothesis that these four aspects have a structure corresponding to the octants of the interpersonal circumplex. A second hypothesis was that measures of trait affiliation would fall between Enthusiasm and Compassion in the IPC. Method These hypotheses were tested in three demographically different samples (N = 469; 294; 409) using both behavioral frequency and trait measures of the interpersonal circumplex, in conjunction with the Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS) and measures of trait affiliation. Results Both hypotheses were strongly supported. Conclusions These findings provide a more thorough and precise mapping of the interpersonal traits within the Big Five and support the integration of the Big Five with models of interpersonal behavior and trait affiliation.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12020   open full text
  • An Attachment Perspective on Therapeutic Processes and Outcomes.
    Mario Mikulincer, Phillip R. Shaver, Ety Berant.
    Journal of Personality. February 21, 2013
    Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest in clinical applications of attachment theory. In the present article, we briefly describe John Bowlby's model of therapeutic change, the therapeutic relationship, and the therapist's role in emotional healing. We then review empirical evidence for three key propositions in Bowlby's model. First, a client's sense of security during therapy is crucial for facilitating therapeutic work. Second, a therapist's own sense of security contributes to positive therapeutic outcomes. Third, attachment insecurities can be effectively reduced in therapy, and movement toward greater attachment security is central to achieving favorable therapeutic outcomes. In sum, research evidence confirms the importance of establishing what Bowlby called a safe haven and a secure base within a therapeutic relationship.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00806.x   open full text
  • Clients' and Therapists' Stories about Psychotherapy.
    Jonathan M. Adler.
    Journal of Personality. February 20, 2013
    This article provides an overview of the emerging field of research on clients' stories about their experiences in psychotherapy. The theory of narrative identity suggests that individuals construct stories about their lives in order to provide the self with a sense of purpose and unity. Psychotherapy stories serve both psychological functions. Focusing on the theme of agency as a vehicle for operationalizing purpose and coherence as a way of operationalizing unity, this article will describe the existing scholarship connecting psychotherapy stories to clients' psychological well‐being. Results from cross‐sectional qualitative and quantitative studies as well as longitudinal research indicate a connection between the stories clients tell about therapy and their psychological well‐being, both over the course of treatment and after it is over. In addition, a preliminary analysis of therapists' stories about their clients' treatment is presented. These analyses reveal that the way therapists recount a particular client's therapy does not impact the relationships between clients' narratives and their improvement. The article concludes with a discussion of how this body of scholarship might be fruitfully applied in the realm of clinical practice.
    February 20, 2013   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00803.x   open full text
  • Does Ego Development Increase During Midlife? The Effects of Openness and Accommodative Processing of Difficult Events.
    Jennifer Pals Lilgendahl, Ravenna Helson, Oliver P. John.
    Journal of Personality. February 05, 2013
    Objective Although Loevinger's model of ego development is a theory of personality growth, there are few studies that have examined age‐related change in ego level over developmentally significant periods of adulthood. To address this gap in the literature, we examined mean‐level change and individual differences in change in ego level over 18 years of midlife. Method In this longitudinal study, participants were 79 predominantly White, college‐educated women who completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test in early (age 43) and late (age 61) midlife as well as measures of the trait of Openness (ages 21, 43, 52, and 61) and accommodative processing (assessed from narratives of difficult life events at age 52). Results As hypothesized, the sample overall showed a mean‐level increase in ego level from age 43 to age 61. Additionally, a regression analysis showed that both the trait of Openness at age 21 and accommodative processing of difficult events that occurred during (as opposed to prior to) midlife were each predictive of increasing ego level from age 43 to age 61. Conclusions These findings counter prior claims that ego level remains stable during adulthood and contribute to our understanding of the underlying processes involved in personality growth in midlife.
    February 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12009   open full text
  • It Takes Two: A Longitudinal Dyadic Study on Predictors of Fertility Outcomes.
    Roos Hutteman, Wiebke Bleidorn, Lars Penke, Jaap J. A. Denissen.
    Journal of Personality. February 05, 2013
    Objective Although previous studies have found personality traits to be associated with reproductive behavior, it remains unclear whether there are dyadic associations between partners' personality and couples' decisional process to have children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between partners' personality, parenthood expectations and intentions, and the couple's fertility outcomes one year later. Method We used dyadic longitudinal data from 2,482 couples with a mean age of 32.7 years (SD = 5.9) participating in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (PAIRFAM). Results Self‐esteem, shyness, and aggressiveness of both partners were related to one's own and one's partner's expectations about parenthood. These expectations were associated with one's own and one's partner's intentions to become a parent, which in turn predicted the couple's actual fertility outcomes. Personality traits of both partners were directly associated with the fertility outcome, with self‐esteem of both partners and male aggressiveness predicting the couple's decision to have their first child. The effect of self‐esteem on the decision to become a parent was mediated by the partner's intention. Conclusions In sum, our findings stress the importance of psychological factors in fertility outcomes and emphasize the role of dyadic processes.
    February 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12006   open full text
  • Longitudinal Correlated Changes in Conscientiousness, Preventative Health‐Related Behaviors, and Self‐Perceived Physical Health.
    Yusuke Takahashi, Grant W. Edmonds, Joshua J. Jackson, Brent W. Roberts.
    Journal of Personality. January 14, 2013
    Objective Previous research has found that conscientiousness has positive associations with preventative health‐related behaviors and self‐perceived health, but little is known about the links between changes in these variables over time. In the present study, we examined how levels and changes in conscientiousness were linked to levels and changes in both preventative health‐related behaviors and self‐perceived physical health. Method Personality and health questionnaires were administered to participants in two waves, with an interval of approximately three years. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 94. To elucidate the tripartite relations between conscientiousness, preventative health‐related behaviors, and self‐perceived physical health, we used latent change models to estimate levels and changes of these latent constructs over time. Results Changes in conscientiousness were significantly and positively correlated with changes in preventative health behaviors and changes in self‐perceived physical health. Changes in preventative health behaviors partially mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and changes in self‐perceived physical health. Conclusions This longitudinal study extends previous research on conscientiousness and health by exploring the relations between latent variables over a 3‐year period. It provides evidence that increases in conscientiousness and preventative health‐related behaviors are associated with improvements in self‐perceived health over the same time period.
    January 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12007   open full text
  • Heterogeneous Patterns of Stress Over the Four Years of College: Associations With Anxious Attachment and Ego‐Resiliency.
    Isaac R. Galatzer‐Levy, George A. Bonanno.
    Journal of Personality. January 14, 2013
    Objective A growing body of literature suggests that college students display alarming rates of psychological distress. However, studies of responses to significant life stressors in other contexts have found that people respond in heterogeneous ways and that attachment style and ego‐resiliency mitigate the effects of stressors on mental health. Method Individual differences in distress among a cohort of students (N = 157; Mean age = 18.8 years, 62.6% female) across the four years of college were analyzed using latent class growth analysis. Trajectories were then regressed on levels of anxious and avoidant attachment and ego‐resiliency. Results Four discrete patterns emerged characterized by healthy and maladaptive patterns of stress response, indicating that students respond to college in heterogeneous ways. Several patterns showed significant variability in distress by semester. Low levels of anxious but not avoidant attachment predicted membership in the stable‐low distress or resilient class while ego‐resiliency predicted membership in both the resilient and moderate distress classes. Conclusions Findings indicate that low levels of anxious attachment and the ability to flexibly cope with adversity may be associated with better mental health throughout college. Implications from stress response and developmental perspectives are discussed.
    January 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12010   open full text
  • Lost in Translation? Finding the Person in the Emerging Paradigm of Clinical Science: Introduction to a Special Issue on Personality Psychology and Psychotherapy.
    Jefferson A. Singer.
    Journal of Personality. January 14, 2013
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    January 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12017   open full text
  • The Role of Scripts in Psychological Maladjustment and Psychotherapy.
    Amy P. Demorest.
    Journal of Personality. January 11, 2013
    This article considers the value of script theory for understanding psychological maladjustment and psychotherapy. Scripts are implicit expectations that individuals develop to understand and deal with emotionally significant life experiences. Script theory provides a way to understand the complex patterns of thinking, feeling, and behavior that characterize personal consistency, as well as a way to address personality development and change. As such it is a vital model for understanding both personality and clinical phenomena. The article begins by describing script theory and noting similar models in personality and clinical psychology. It then outlines both idiographic and nomothetic methods for assessing scripts and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each. A survey of the author's program of research follows, using a nomothetic method to examine the role of interpersonal scripts in psychological maladjustment and psychotherapy. The article concludes by presenting a promising method for future research synthesizing idiographic and nomothetic approaches and raising important questions for future research on the role of scripts in psychological maladjustment and psychotherapy.
    January 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12003   open full text
  • Clinical Application of the Five‐Factor Model.
    Thomas A. Widiger, Jennifer Ruth Presnall.
    Journal of Personality. January 11, 2013
    The Five‐Factor Model (FFM) has become the predominant dimensional model of general personality structure. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a clinical application. A substantial body of research indicates that the personality disorders included within the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) can be understood as extreme and/or maladaptive variants of the FFM (the acronym “DSM” refers to any particular edition of the APA DSM). In addition, the current proposal for the forthcoming fifth edition of the DSM (i.e., DSM‐5) is shifting closely toward an FFM dimensional trait model of personality disorder. Advantages of this shifting conceptualization are discussed, including treatment planning.
    January 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12004   open full text
  • Self‐Defining Memories, Scripts, and the Life Story: Narrative Identity in Personality and Psychotherapy.
    Jefferson A. Singer, Pavel Blagov, Meredith Berry, Kathryn M. Oost.
    Journal of Personality. January 11, 2013
    An integrative model of narrative identity builds on a dual memory system that draws on episodic memory and a long‐term self to generate autobiographical memories. Autobiographical memories related to critical goals in a lifetime period lead to life‐story memories, which in turn become self‐defining memories when linked to an individual's enduring concerns. Self‐defining memories that share repetitive emotion‐outcome sequences yield narrative scripts, abstracted templates that filter cognitive‐affective processing. The life story is the individual's overarching narrative that provides unity and purpose over the life course. Healthy narrative identity combines memory specificity with adaptive meaning‐making to achieve insight and well‐being, as demonstrated through a literature review of personality and clinical research, as well as new findings from our own research program. A clinical case study drawing on this narrative identity model is also presented with implications for treatment and research.
    January 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/jopy.12005   open full text
  • Toward a Tripartite Model of Intrinsic Motivation.
    Noémie Carbonneau, Robert J. Vallerand, Marc‐André K. Lafrenière.
    Journal of Personality. March 20, 2012
    Intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to engaging in an activity for the pleasure inherent in the activity. Objective: The present paper presents a tripartite model of IM consisting of IM to know (engaging in an activity to experience pleasure while learning and trying to understand something new), IM toward accomplishment (engaging in an activity for the pleasure experienced when attempting task mastery), and IM to experience stimulation (engaging in an activity for feelings of sensory pleasure). The Tripartite Model of IM posits that each type of IM can result from task, situational, and personality determinants and can lead to specific types of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this research was to test some predictions derived from this model. Method: Across four studies (Study 1: N=331; Study 2: N=113; Study 3: N=58; Study 4: N=135), the three types of IM as well as potential determinants and consequences were assessed. Results: Results revealed that experiencing one type of IM over the others depends in part on people's personality styles. Also, each type of IM was found to predict specific outcomes (i.e., affective states and behavioral choices). Conclusions: The implications of the Tripartite Model of IM for motivation research are discussed.
    March 20, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00785.x   open full text
  • The View From The Looking Glass: How Are Narcissistic Individuals Perceived by Others?
    Mallory L. Malkin, Virgil Zeigler‐Hill, Christopher T. Barry, Ashton C. Southard.
    Journal of Personality. February 13, 2012
    Previous studies have found that narcissistic individuals are often viewed negatively by those who know them well. The present study sought to extend these previous findings by examining whether normal and pathological aspects of narcissism were associated with perceiver ratings of narcissistic characteristics and aggression. This was accomplished by having each of our participants (288 targets) recruit friends or family members to complete ratings of the target who recruited them (1,296 perceivers). Results revealed that perceived entitlement was strongly associated with perceived aggression. Further, self‐reported levels of pathological narcissism moderated these results such that vulnerable narcissism exacerbated the association between perceived entitlement and aggression whereas grandiose narcissism mitigated the association. Discussion will focus on the implications of these results for understanding the various features of narcissism.
    February 13, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00780.x   open full text
  • Dyadic Parent‐Child Interaction During Early Childhood: Contributions of Parental and Child Personality Traits.
    Sylia Wilson, C. Emily Durbin.
    Journal of Personality. November 03, 2011
    Objective: Individual differences in personality play a major role for functioning in a multitude of important life domains, including one's interpersonal relationships. The present study examined the effects of parental personality and child temperament traits on dyadic parent‐child interaction during early childhood. Method: Participants were a community sample of 145 mothers, fathers, and their 3‐ to 6‐year‐old children. Child traits were assessed using standardized laboratory paradigms, parents reported on their own traits, and parent‐child interaction was assessed observationally. Results: Parental Positive Emotionality, Negative Emotionality, and Constraint subtraits were related to parental responsiveness; the number and type of parental bids and the quality of parental responsiveness were also a function of child Positive Emotionality and Effortful Control subtraits, and, for mothers, child Negative Emotionality subtraits. Child traits were related to their own interaction behaviors; children higher on Positive Emotionality subtraits made more social bids and children higher on Effortful Control subtraits made more influence attempts and fewer negative bids; child Positive Emotionality and Effortful Control subtraits were associated with higher‐quality child responsiveness. Conclusions: Findings speak to coherence in personality constructs across the lifespan, with comparable traits measured in adults and early childhood‐aged children demonstrating remarkably consistent effects on dyadic interaction behavior.
    November 03, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00760.x   open full text
  • Sweets, Sex, or Self‐Esteem? Comparing the Value of Self‐Esteem Boosts with Other Pleasant Rewards.
    Brad J. Bushman, Scott J. Moeller, Jennifer Crocker.
    Journal of Personality. December 01, 2010
    Many people ascribe great value to self‐esteem, but how much value? Do people value self‐esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self‐esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self‐esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self‐esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self‐esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies); and people who highly value self‐esteem pursue potentially maladaptive self‐image goals, presumably to elevate their self‐esteem (Study 2).
    December 01, 2010   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00712.x   open full text