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Journal of Interpersonal Violence

Concerned with the Study and Treatment of Victims and Perpetrators of Physical and Sexual Violence

Impact factor: 1.355 5-Year impact factor: 1.942 Print ISSN: 0886-2605 Publisher: Sage Publications

Subjects: Applied Psychology, Criminology & Penology, Family Studies

Most recent papers:

  • Immediate and Long-Term Mental Health Outcomes in Adolescent Female Rape Survivors.
    Oshodi, Y., Macharia, M., Lachman, A., Seedat, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 11, 2016

    Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often has long-lasting health consequences. Compared with adult females, limited data exist on the psychological impact of rape in adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of emotional distress in a cohort of adolescent rape survivors in Cape Town. Participants in this prospective longitudinal study were 31 adolescent female rape survivors recruited from a rape clinic in Cape Town and assessed within 2 weeks of the assault. Assessment measures included a sociodemographic questionnaire and initial screening with the Child and Adolescent Trauma Survey (CATS), the patient-rated Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), and the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). The CATS, CDI, and MASC were repeated at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post enrollment. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the clinician-administered Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview–Child and Adolescent version (MINI-Kid). At baseline, on the MINI-Kid, a definitive diagnosis of major depressive episode was endorsed in 22.6% of the participants. Stress-related disorders were found in 12.9%, whereas 16.1% had anxiety disorders. There was no diminution of symptoms on self-reported psychopathology measures at follow-up assessment over the five follow-up time points, suggesting persistent psychopathology over a 1-year period despite repeated clinical assessments and supportive counseling. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in this sample of adolescent female rape survivors were high at enrollment and found to be persistent, underlining the need for long-term support, screening, and evidence-based follow-up care.

    December 11, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516682522   open full text
  • Childhood Abuse and Current Intimate Partner Violence: A Population Study in Hong Kong.
    Yan, E., Karatzias, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 09, 2016

    Previous studies have established that childhood violence victimization is associated with current experience of intimate partner violence (IPV). Existing literature, however, focused exclusively on female survivors and physical IPV and relied on non-representative samples. The present study examined the associations between life adversities and IPV using a representative sample of 1,239 men and women aged between 18 and 97. Participants provided information on their demographic characteristics, lifetime history of adverse life events, and past year IPV. Results show that IPV is common with 32.8% of the participants having reported past year psychological aggression, 4.5% reported physical abuse, and 1.1% reported injury. Various life adversities were also common with 21.7% having reported family disruption, 6% having experienced abuse or witnessing violence, and 2.1% life-threatening events. Logistic regression analyses revealed that experiencing abuse or witnessing violence in childhood is associated with a greater risk of past year psychological aggression, physical assault, and injury. Results were significant even after controlling for demographics and other life adversities. Family disruption in childhood was associated with increased risk of past year injury, but the association diminished after controlling for the rest of the variables. Experience of life-threatening events was not associated with any form of past year IPV. Altogether, our results point out that childhood victimization, especially physical abuse by parents, is associated with future long-term risk of IPV. This highlights the importance of early prevention and intervention for child abuse.

    December 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516682521   open full text
  • Inmate Violence and Correctional Staff Burnout: The Role of Sense of Security, Gender, and Job Characteristics.
    Isenhardt, A., Hostettler, U.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 05, 2016

    Violence in the workplace has serious consequences for employees and organizations. Based on a survey in early 2012 among employees from all work areas of 89 of the total 112 correctional facilities in Switzerland resulting in a sample of 2,045 employees (response rate 48.5%), this study (a) analyzed whether victimization has an impact on correctional staff burnout, (b) tested the hypothetical mediating role of sense of security in the relationship between victimization and burnout, and (c) included gender and job characteristics because work experiences and exposure to violence of staff differ strongly with gender and work tasks. Two different forms of violence were considered: (a) experienced violence (inmates-on-staff) and (b) observed violence (inmate-on-inmate). Analysis was carried out using structural equation modeling. Results show that victimization and witnessing violence between inmates negatively affect the personal sense of security and increase correctional staff burnout. In addition, the sense of security mediated the effect from experienced and observed violence on burnout. Gender and job characteristics also proved to be important. This is especially true for staff working as correctional officers and for employees working with young inmates and with inmates awaiting trial who reported a greater exposure to violence and a lower sense of security. The study adds to the knowledge on violence and its outcomes in corrections and contributes to the literature on the consequences of workplace violence in general and, specifically, in social service occupations.

    December 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516681156   open full text
  • Use of a Bogus Pipeline to Detect Mens Underreporting of Sexually Aggressive Behavior.
    Strang, E., Peterson, Z. D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 04, 2016

    Researchers rely on men’s self-reports of sexually aggressive behavior to identify the prevalence and correlates of men’s perpetration (i.e., their use of verbal or physical coercion to obtain sex from a nonconsenting partner). However, results from research based on men’s self-reported sexual perpetration are suspect because men may intentionally conceal their sexually aggressive behavior. The current study used a Bogus Pipeline (BPL) methodology to determine whether young, community men (N = 93) intentionally underreport their use of sexually aggressive strategies on two self-report measures of perpetration. Compared with men in a Standard Testing (ST) condition, men in an experimental BPL condition—who believed that the honesty of their responses was being monitored—had 6.5 times greater odds of endorsing the use of illegal sexual assault strategies on a widely used measure. Indeed, over a third of men in the BPL condition admitted to using such strategies. However, there was no significant difference in men’s reports of verbally coercive strategies in the BPL versus the ST condition on the same measure. There were also no significant differences in reporting on the other, less commonly used measure of sexual aggression as a function of condition. Based on these preliminary findings, men’s use of sexual assault strategies may be far more common than is suggested by most self-report studies. Self-reports of verbal coercion, however, may be more trustworthy.

    December 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516681157   open full text
  • Collecting Self-Reported Data on Dating Abuse Perpetration From a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Young Adults: A Comparison of Timeline Followback Interview and Interactive Voice Response Methods.
    Rothman, E. F., Heeren, T., Winter, M., Dorfman, D., Baughman, A., Stuart, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 04, 2016

    Dating abuse is a prevalent and consequential public health problem. However, relatively few studies have compared methods of collecting self-report data on dating abuse perpetration. This study compares two data collection methods—(a) the Timeline Followback (TLFB) retrospective reporting method, which makes use of a written calendar to prompt respondents’ recall, and (b) an interactive voice response (IVR) system, which is a prospective telephone-based database system that necessitates respondents calling in and entering data using their telephone keypads. We collected 84 days of data on young adult dating abuse perpetration using IVR from a total of 60 respondents. Of these respondents, 41 (68%) completed a TLFB retrospective report pertaining to the same 84-day period after that time period had ended. A greater number of more severe dating abuse perpetration events were reported via the IVR system. Participants who reported any dating abuse perpetration were more likely to report more frequent abuse perpetration via the IVR than the TLFB (i.e., may have minimized the number of times they perpetrated dating abuse on the TLFB). The TLFB method did not result in a tapering off of reported events past the first week as it has in prior studies, but the IVR method did result in a tapering off of reported events after approximately the sixth week. We conclude that using an IVR system for self-reports of dating abuse perpetration may not have substantial advantages over using a TLFB method, but researchers’ choice of mode may vary by research question, resources, sample, and setting.

    December 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516681154   open full text
  • Drama at Dunder Mifflin: Workplace Bullying Discourses on The Office.
    Sumner, E. M., Scarduzio, J. A., Daggett, J. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 04, 2016

    This study examines the portrayal and affective framing of workplace bullying behaviors on the popular American television show The Office. Quantitative and qualitative content analyses were conducted on 54 episodes spanning the show’s nine seasons. Results revealed 331 instances of workplace bullying, for an average of 6.13 bullying behaviors per episode. Workplace bullying behavior on The Office was grouped into five categories: sexual jokes, public humiliation, practical jokes, belittlement, and misuse of authority. In general, instances of workplace bully were scripted as humorous and lacking significant consequences, which could further contribute to social discourses that perpetuate the problem of bullying in real-life workplaces.

    December 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516681158   open full text
  • Factors Affecting Counseling Services in Social Service Structures Providing Support to Women Who Are Victims of Violence: A Qualitative Research in Greece.
    Flora, K., Argyroudi, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 04, 2016

    This qualitative study examines the factors that affect counseling services in structures aimed to provide support to women who are victims of violence. What has created the need to investigate the above issues is the increase in events of violence against women in Greece, and the subsequent development of relevant support and accommodation structures. Despite the clinical experience accumulated, research data from Greece are incomplete. The main research question concerns the factors that affect counseling in violence counseling structures. The participants were 10 professional counselors employed in violence counseling structures. The research data were collected through semi-structured interviews and their analysis followed the interpretative phenomenological method. The results designate two main axes: the personal and that of the others. The main categories of factors on the "personal" axis highlighted the importance of prior as well as continuing training for the counselor’s work with the specific population; the crucial role of experience, which is characterized as dense and very rich; and the necessary presence of unfailing supervision. Regarding the axis of "the others," the main categories that emerged are cooperation with colleagues—in the light of interdisciplinarity as well as support—and cooperation with the local authorities and the central responsible body, as an important determinant of the operation of the structure. The results are discussed on the basis of the factors’ importance and of possible implications for finding solutions.

    December 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516681877   open full text
  • Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences, Stress, and Social Support on the Health of College Students.
    Karatekin, C., Ahluwalia, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 04, 2016

    The goal of the study was to describe the nature of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) reported by undergraduates and to examine the effect of ACEs, perceived stress, and perceived social support on their health. Although respondents (N = 321) had parents with relatively high levels of education and indicated generally high levels of social support, results nevertheless showed a relatively high level of mental health problems and rates of ACEs that were similar to those in the general population in the state. Those with higher levels of ACEs had greater levels of stress and lower levels of social support. ACEs, social support, and stress explained more than half the variance in mental health scores, with stress making the greatest contribution. Despite the fact that we used different measures and an independent sample, findings generally replicated a previous study. Results point to a need to increase awareness of the association between ACEs and health on college campuses, to examine the effects of ACEs in more detail, and to design ACE-informed programs for this population.

    December 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516681880   open full text
  • Disclosure Recipients Social Reactions to Victims Disclosures of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Edwards, K. M., Dardis, C. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 30, 2016

    Prior research indicates that victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) are most likely to disclose their victimization experiences to an informal support (e.g., friend, family), and that IPV disclosures are often met with both positive (e.g., empathic support) and negative (e.g., victim blame) reactions. However, research on social reactions to disclosure largely has neglected the perspectives of disclosure recipients. Guided by the attribution framework, the current study extends prior research by assessing factors (i.e., situation-specific, individual, relational, attributional, and emotional response) related to positive and negative reactions from the perspective of disclosure recipients (N = 743 college students). Linear regression analyses indicated that positive social reactions were related to the victim being a woman, greater frequency of IPV victimization by the victim, greater frequency of IPV victimization by the disclosure recipient, less accepting attitudes toward IPV, a closer relationship with the victim, a less close relationship with the perpetrator, lower perceptions of victim responsibility, more empathy for the victim, and more emotional distress experienced by the disclosure recipient during the disclosure. Negative social reactions were associated with more accepting attitudes toward IPV, greater frequency of IPV victimization by the disclosure recipient, a less close relationship with the victim, higher perceptions of victim responsibility, and more emotional distress experienced by the disclosure recipient. Results suggest that programs to improve responses to victim disclosure should focus on decreasing IPV-supportive attitudes, increasing empathy, and assisting disclosure recipients in managing difficult emotional responses effectively.

    November 30, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516681155   open full text
  • No Differences in Health Outcomes After Routine Inquiry About Violence Victimization in Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Study in Swedish Youth Health Centers.
    Palm, A., Högberg, U., Olofsson, N., Skalkidou, A., Danielsson, I.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 30, 2016

    Youth is a period in life when the risk of violence victimization is high and association between victimization and ill health is well established. Youth rarely reveal violence victimization to health professionals if not directly asked but favor health professionals asking about victimization. The study’s primary aim was to examine health outcomes in young women being routinely asked about violence victimization and offered subsequent support, compared with controls, at 12-month follow-up. Secondary aims were to examine to what extent routine inquiry altered the consultation and re-victimization rates during the study period. A randomized controlled intervention study was conducted at Swedish youth health centers. Participants assigned to the intervention group were asked structured questions about violence. Victimized participants received empowering strategies and were offered further counseling. Participants in the control group completed questionnaires about victimization after the visit. Both groups answered questions about sociodemographics and health, constructed from validated instruments. A questionnaire was administered to all participants 12 months after baseline. Of 1,445 eligible young women, 1,051 (73%) participated, with 54% of the participants completing the 12-month follow-up. Lifetime violence victimization was reported by 53% in the intervention group and 60% in the control group, ns. There were no significant differences in health outcomes, between baseline and 12-month follow-up, within either group or between groups. Re-victimization rates were 16% in the intervention group and 12% in the control group, ns. Of victimized young women in the intervention group, 14% wanted and received further counseling. Routine inquiry about violence victimization and empowering strategies were feasible within ordinary consultations at youth health centers but did not demonstrate improved health outcomes at 12-month follow-up compared with controls. Questions about violence led to a high degree of disclosure, and 14% of victimized young women in the intervention group received further counseling as a result.

    November 30, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516681878   open full text
  • Health and Rural Context Among Victims of Partner Abuse: Does Justice Matter?
    Walker, R., Logan, T. K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 20, 2016

    Research typically compartmentalizes health and justice as separate areas of study. However, the current health literature on inequality suggests the two concepts are overlapping. For victims of partner violence, procedural justice (defined in this article as access to protective orders and enforcement of protective orders) potentially provides a step toward improved health and well-being by improving safety. There has been limited research examining these factors in rural compared with urban areas. This study examines the impact of procedural justice on health and well-being through interviews with rural and urban women 6 months prior to, and 6 months after, obtaining a protective order. Consistent with other literature, rural women who were victims of partner violence reported worse health, higher stress, and higher Stress-Related Consequences Scale scores compared with urban women. Women’s reported health consequences were related to the interaction of perceived ineffectiveness of the protective orders and their rural/urban environment. Thus, the perceived effectiveness of procedural justice may play an important role in alleviating victims’ safety, health, and well-being, all of which are components of contemporary views of justice.

    November 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675918   open full text
  • Faith and Marital Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploring the Links Between Religious Affiliation and Intimate Partner Violence Among Women in Ghana.
    Takyi, B. K., Lamptey, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 18, 2016

    Research shows that intimate partner violence is quite widespread throughout the world. In the case of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), studies have concluded that cultural and economic factors help to sustain the spread and maintenance of intimate partner violence in the region. Although the cultural interpretations predominate in current research, few have examined the links between religion, an important cultural variable, and intimate partner violence in SSA. Given the growth and importance of religion in African cultures, we used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey (n = 1,831) and ordinary least squares regression method to investigate the links between religious affiliation and intimate partner violence. Findings from our study point to some variations in intimate partner violence by affiliation. This is especially true with regard to women’s experience with sexual violence and emotional violence. Besides religion, we also found ideologies that support wife abuse, the nature of decision-making process at the household level, and husband’s use of alcohol to be important determinants of intimate partner violence in Ghana. We examined the implications of these findings.

    November 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516676476   open full text
  • Stories of Victimization: Self-Positioning and Construction of Gender in Narratives of Abused Women.
    Jarnkvist, K., Brännström, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 08, 2016

    The objective of this article is to analyze how women who have been victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) position themselves in relation to the image of the "ideal victim" and how gender is constructed in that positioning. There is a need for a gender analysis framework to understand how various forms of femininity are constructed and how narratives linked to this can either maintain a woman in an abusive relationship or encourage her to leave. Christie’s theory of the "ideal victim" and Connell’s gender theory are applied in this study, in which the narratives of 14 female IPV victims in Sweden are analyzed using a narrative method. Three strings of narratives, representing different forms of femininity, are revealed in the material. The master narrative of the ideal victim reveals a form of femininity that describes women as inferior in relation to men. In the alternative narrative, the narrator positions herself as inferior in relation to the offender but discusses resistance. She describes herself as a caring mother who risks a great deal to protect her children. In the counter-narrative, the narrator positions herself as strong and independent in relation to the offender and as a strong and caring mother. The positioning of different narrators may shift depending on the duration of the relationship and the type of violence. The narrator may also take different positions during different phases of the story. However, the dominant narrative among the narrators is the story of the caring mother, which may have several functions and can partially be understood as a sign of the strong discourse of motherhood in society. The study contributes to a more profound understanding of the complexity related to women’s own positioning and reveals that awareness is required when attempting to understand the narratives and behavior of abused women.

    November 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516676474   open full text
  • Are Gender Differences in DSM-5 PTSD Symptomatology Explained by Sexual Trauma?
    Guina, J., Nahhas, R. W., Kawalec, K., Farnsworth, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 08, 2016

    Although many studies have assessed gender differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence, few examine individual PTSD symptoms (PTSSs). Hypothesizing that trauma differences explain many gender differences in symptomatology, this is the first known study to adjust PTSSs for trauma type, and to compare gender differences in those with sexual traumas. Using a cross-sectional survey methodology in a sample of adult outpatients (n = 775), we examined gender, trauma type, PTSSs, suicide, alcohol, and tobacco. Among those with trauma (n = 483), women generally had more severe symptoms than men, but after adjusting for trauma type, only physical reactivity (p = .0002), excessive startle (p = .0005), external avoidance (p = .0007), internal avoidance (p = .0008), psychological reactivity (p = .0009), and suicide attempts (p = .001) remained significantly worse among women, whereas men more commonly reported alcohol problems (p = .007). Among those with PTSD (n = 164), there were no significant PTSS gender differences. Those with sexual trauma had worse symptoms (particularly amnesia) compared with non-sexual trauma (p < .0001 for PTSD diagnosis and total severity), including within each gender. Among those with sexual trauma (n = 157), men had worse recklessness (p = .004) and more commonly reported tobacco (p = .02), whereas women more commonly attempted suicide (p = .02) and had worse avoidance (p = .04). However, when isolating the effects of sexual trauma beyond other traumas, there were no significant symptom difference-in-differences between genders. Our findings suggest that, while women have higher PTSD rates, men with PTSD present similarly. In addition, while women have higher sexual trauma rates, men may have similarly severe responses. Most gender differences in PTSD presentation appear to be explained by trauma type, particularly women having higher rates of sexual trauma. We discuss potential biopsychosocial explanations.

    November 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516677290   open full text
  • Mother Blame and the Just World Theory in Child Sexual Abuse Cases.
    Toews, K., Cummings, J. A., Zagrodney, J. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 06, 2016

    Mothers are blamed for a variety of negative experiences and outcomes of their children, including child sexual abuse (CSA). According to just world hypothesis (JWH), people have a need to view the world as one where there is no such thing as an innocent victim; that is, the world is fair and just. These beliefs predict victim blaming in situations such as sexual abuse, physical abuse, and robbery. However, JWH has not been applied to the examination of mother blame, a situation in which the blame target did not directly experience the traumatic event. We examined this application in two studies: (a) a thematic analysis of focus group discussions and (b) a correlational study. Across both studies, participants identified personal characteristics of the mother that either increased or decreased blame, consistent with JWH. However, when directly asked, most participants denied holding just world beliefs, particularly as related to child sexual abuse. Our results indicate that methodological choices might affect results, and that socially constructed views of "ideal mothers" influence mother blame. We discuss implications for validity of just world theory (JWT), methodological choices, and reduction of mother blame.

    November 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675922   open full text
  • Negative Responses to Disclosure of Sexual Victimization and Victims Symptoms of PTSD and Depression: The Protective Role of Ethnic Identity.
    Nikulina, V., Bautista, A., Brown, E. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 03, 2016

    College-aged women experience high rates of sexual victimization. Their postassault symptoms are associated with the types of responses they receive from the people to whom they disclose these experiences. Negative responses are pervasive and associated with poorer outcomes. The current study examined whether a strong sense of ethnic identity and comfort with the mainstream culture moderate the association between negative responses to the first disclosure of sexual victimization and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A diverse sample (10% Black/African American, 51% White, 39% Other, and 66% Hispanic) of undergraduate women was recruited from two urban, Eastern United States universities for this online study. Participants reported histories of sexual victimization, demographics, responses to sexual assault disclosure (i.e., victim blame, treating the victim differently, taking control, distraction, and egocentric reactions), symptoms of PTSD and depression, and their ethnic identity and mainstream cultural comfort. Thirty-seven percent (n = 221) endorsed an experience of sexual victimization, and 165 disclosed it to someone. Hierarchical ordinary least squares regressions revealed that a stronger sense of ethnic identity was associated with fewer symptoms of PTSD for those women who experienced higher levels of control, distraction, and egocentric responses from the first disclosure recipient. A strong sense of affiliation with the mainstream culture did not protect survivors who reported receiving negative responses to disclosure against symptoms of PTSD or depression. Ethnic affiliation may protect women against PTSD when they receive high levels of negative messages about sexual victimization experiences.

    November 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516676475   open full text
  • Characteristics of Brazilian Offenders and Victims of Interpersonal Violence: An Exploratory Study.
    dAvila, S., Campos, A. C., Bernardino, I. d. M., Cavalcante, G. M. S., Nobrega, L. M. d., Ferreira, E. F. e.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 01, 2016

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of Brazilian offenders and victims of interpersonal violence, following a medicolegal and forensic perspective. A cross-sectional and exploratory study was performed in a Center of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry. The sample was made up of 1,704 victims of nonlethal interpersonal violence with some type of trauma. The victims were subject to forensic examinations by a criminal investigative team that identified and recorded the extent of the injuries. For data collection, a specific form was designed consisting of four parts according to the information provided in the medicolegal and social records: sociodemographic data of the victims, offender’s characteristics, aggression characteristics, and types of injuries. Descriptive and multivariate statistics using cluster analysis (CA) were performed. The two-step cluster method was used to characterize the profile of the victims and offenders. Most of the events occurred during the nighttime (50.9%) and on weekdays (66.3%). Soft tissue injuries were the most prevalent type (94.6%). Based on the CA results, two clusters for the victims and two for the offenders were identified. Victims: Cluster 1 was formed typically by women, aged 30 to 59 years, and married; Cluster 2 was composed of men, aged 20 to 29 years, and unmarried. Offenders: Cluster 1 was characterized by men, who perpetrated violence in a community environment. Cluster 2 was formed by men, who perpetrated violence in the familiar environment. These findings revealed different risk groups with distinct characteristics for both victims and offenders, allowing the planning of targeted measures of care, prevention, and health promotion. This study assesses the profile of violence through morbidity data and significantly contributes to building an integrated system of health surveillance in Brazil, as well as linking police stations, forensic services, and emergency hospitals.

    November 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674940   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Non-Consensual Sex and Risk of Depression in Female Undergraduates at Universities in Maritime Canada.
    McDougall, E. E., Langille, D. B., Steenbeek, A. A., Asbridge, M., Andreou, P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 01, 2016

    Sexual victimization and depression are common on university campuses, especially among females. Both are associated with negative health outcomes and efforts are made to minimize these as much as possible on university campuses. The current study examines the prevalence of, and independent association between, non-consensual sex and current risk of depression after controlling for related factors. The primary study question is as follows: Are female undergraduate students who have been sexually victimized while attending university at an increased risk of depression compared with those who have not been victimized? Cross-sectional data collected online from female students below the age of 30 at eight universities in Maritime Canada were analyzed. Non-consensual sex while at university was measured using one dichotomous item and current risk of depression was measured using the validated Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. All analyses were weighted and data were imputed using the sequential regression multiple imputation (SRMI) method. Analyses involved basic descriptive statistics, a series of unadjusted logistic regressions, and an adjusted multiple logistic regression. A total of 36.7% of female undergraduate students were found to be at risk of depression and 6.8% have been victim of non-consensual sex while attending university. After adjusting for covariates, females who were victimized were 2.11 times more likely to be at risk of depression than females who were not victimized (p < .0001). This study points to the possible unmet need for more mental health support for victims of sexual victimization and more efforts to prevent sexual violence on Canadian campuses. These findings can help to inform university mental health services such as mental health support for victims of sexual assault and can also be used to inform prevention and health promotion activities.

    November 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675468   open full text
  • Hope as a Mediator of the Link Between Intimate Partner Violence and Suicidal Risk in Turkish Women: Further Evidence for the Role of Hope Agency.
    Muyan, M., Chang, E. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 01, 2016

    The present study examined hope as a potential mediator of the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicidal risk, namely, depression and suicide ideation, in a sample of 149 Turkish female college students. Results from conducting bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that hope agency, but not hope pathways, mediated the link between IPV and suicidal risk in Turkish women. Importantly, the associations of IPV with both depression and suicide ideation became nonsignificant once hope was included in the prediction model. Some implications of the present findings for hope theory and practice in the context of IPV victimization among Turkish women are discussed.

    November 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675465   open full text
  • The "Golden Thread": Coercive Control and Risk Assessment for Domestic Violence.
    Myhill, A., Hohl, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 01, 2016

    Research on risk assessment for domestic violence has to date focused primarily on the predictive power of individual risk factors and the statistical validity of risk assessment tools in predicting future physical assault in sub-sets of cases dealt with by the police. This study uses data from risk assessment forms from a random sample of cases of domestic violence reported to the police. An innovative latent trait model is used to test whether a cluster of risk factors associated with coercive control is most representative of the type of abuse that comes to the attention of the police. Factors associated with a course of coercive and controlling conduct, including perpetrators’ threats, controlling behavior and sexual coercion, and victims’ isolation and fear, had highest item loadings and were thus the most representative of the overall construct. Sub-lethal physical violence—choking and use of weapons—was also consistent with a course of controlling conduct. Whether a physical injury was sustained during the current incident, however, was not associated consistently either with the typical pattern of abuse or with other context-specific risk factors such as separation from the perpetrator. Implications for police practice and the design of risk assessment tools are discussed. We conclude that coercive control is the "golden thread" running through risk identification and assessment for domestic violence and that risk assessment tools structured around coercive control can help police officers move beyond an "incident-by-incident" response and toward identifying the dangerous patterns of behavior that precede domestic homicide.

    November 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675464   open full text
  • An Empirical Examination of the Victim-Search Methods Utilized by Serial Stranger Sexual Offenders: A Classification Approach.
    Hewitt, A. N., Beauregard, E., Davies, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 01, 2016

    Past research on the spatial mobility of serial offenders has generally found that these individuals make calculated decisions about the ways in which they come into contact with suitable victims. Within the geographic profiling literature, four victim-search methods have been theorized that describe how serial predatory offenders hunt for their victims: hunter, poacher, troller, and trapper. Using latent class analysis, the aim of this study is to test whether this theoretical typology can be empirically derived using data that were collected from both police files and semi-structured interviews with 72 serial sex offenders who committed 361 stranger sexual assaults. Empirical support is found for each of the aforementioned victim-search methods, in addition to two others: indiscriminate opportunist and walking prowler. Chi-square analyses are also conducted to test for associations between this typology and characteristics of the offense such as victim information, environmental factors, and the offender’s modus operandi strategies. Findings from these analyses suggest that the types of victims and environments targeted by the offender, as well as the behaviors that take place both before and during the offense, are dependent upon the offender’s victim-search strategy. Although the theoretical hunter, poacher, troller, and trapper were intended to describe the victim-search methods of serial violent predators more generally, the finding that these strategies exist along with two others in this sample of sexual offenders may indicate that search behavior is specific to certain crime types. Furthermore, these findings may be of assistance in the investigation of stranger sexual assaults by providing law-enforcement officials with possible clues as to the characteristics of the unknown suspect, the times and places likely targeted in any past or future events, and possibly even his base of operations.

    November 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675921   open full text
  • Defining and Predicting Pimps Coerciveness Toward Sex Workers: Socialization Processes.
    Stalans, L. J., Finn, M. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 01, 2016

    Prior research has found that pimps use both non-coercive and coercive management styles across and within market segments of the illicit sex trade. The current study is the first to examine the socialization processes underlying variation in the self-reported coerciveness of pimps. This study begins to fill a void in the almost non-existent research on pimps who are actively managing Internet-solicited sex workers, and adds to the sparse research on pimps’ coerciveness. We extend Anderson’s concepts of "street code" families, where respect is acquired through displaying physical violence and toughness, and "decent" families, where middle class values of avoiding unnecessary aggression and complying with the law prevail, to understand variation in the degree of coerciveness that pimps utilize toward sex workers. A purposive sample of 44 active pimps was obtained through referrals from selected pimps and through placing advertisements on Backpage, a website utilized by the illicit prostitution trade. Qualitative coding revealed a wide range of coercive control tactics such as supplying drugs, surveillance, and physical violence. Pimps who served as sex workers and those raised by parents who supported "the code of the street" reported use of a greater number of more severe coercive tactics. College-educated pimps, pimps operating business that charged fees of at least US$300, and those from "decent" families were more likely to use non-coercive management. These findings suggest that early prevention programs might address the "street code" mentality that contributes to coerciveness, and that "End Demand" policies need to recognize that many male pimps also have served as sex workers.

    November 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675919   open full text
  • Influence of Intimate Partner Violence Severity on the Help-Seeking Strategies of Female Victims and the Influence of Social Reactions to Violence Disclosure on the Process of Leaving a Violent Relationship.
    Domenech del Rio, I., Sirvent Garcia del Valle, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 01, 2016

    This article uses data from the 2015 Spanish Survey on Violence Against Women, a nationally representative survey of 10,171 women aged 16 or above, to analyze the relationship between the severity of intimate partner violence and formal and informal help-seeking strategies, the link between the severity of abuse and the reasons for not seeking formal help, and the influence of social reactions to violence disclosure on the process of leaving a violent relationship. The results show that in Spain, many abused women disclose violence and seek help. However, the severity of the violence strongly determines their help-seeking strategies, especially the search for formal help. Women who experienced less severe incidents tended to minimize their importance and did not seek formal help. For informal help, the differences were smaller, and a high proportion of women talked about the abuse with someone within their social environment, regardless of the severity of the suffered violence. A supportive reaction to violence disclosure had a strong and positive influence on the process of leaving the abusive relationship. The implications of these findings for the design of public policies, education, and awareness-raising campaigns are discussed.

    November 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516676473   open full text
  • The Social and Individual Characteristics of Women Associated With Engagement With Multiple Intimate Violent Partners.
    Stein, S. F., Grogan-Kaylor, A. A., Galano, M. M., Clark, H. M., Graham-Bermann, S. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 01, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem with known negative physical and mental health outcomes for women exposed. Studies have shown that with increased violence exposure, there are increased risks of negative outcomes for women. Likewise, chronicity of IPV across multiple partners is linked to more profound psychological suffering than acute exposure. However, little is known about the social- and individual-level characteristics of women that are correlated with engagement with multiple abusive partners. The current study (N = 164) identifies the characteristics of women that are associated with the number of violent partners with which they have been involved, with 35% of the sample reporting multiple IPV relationships. Participants reported on the number of violent partners, demographic characteristics, trauma history, current trauma and depressive symptoms, and exposure to IPV, including physical, sexual, and psychological violence. Results of multiple regression analysis indicate that trauma history (childhood sexual abuse, being held hostage, and torture) and current psychological violence were associated with women’s engagement with multiple violent partners. Additional findings reveal that identification as African American and White was associated with greater re-engagement compared with identification as Latina. Finally, current exposure to sexual violence was associated with fewer violent partners. The clinical implications of these findings for treatment for women at risk for engagement with multiple partners in IPV relationships are discussed.

    November 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516676477   open full text
  • Examining Sexual Assault Victimization and Loneliness as Risk Factors Associated With Nonlethal Self-Harm Behaviors in Female College Students: Is It Important to Control for Concomitant Suicidal Behaviors (and Vice Versa)?
    Chang, E. C., Lee, J., Wright, K. M., Najarian, A. S.- M., Yu, T., Chang, O. D., Hirsch, J. K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 26, 2016

    The present study examined sexual assault victimization and loneliness as predictors of self-harm behaviors in a sample of 224 female college students. Results from conducting regression analysis indicated that both sexual assault victimization and loneliness were unique and significant predictors of self-harm behaviors. This pattern remained even after controlling for concomitant suicidal behaviors. Interestingly, in a post hoc analysis predicting suicidal behaviors, it was found that loneliness, but not sexual assault victimization, was the only unique and significant predictor after controlling for self-harm behaviors. Some implications of the present findings for understanding self-harm behaviors in female college students and the importance of controlling for suicidal behaviors in studies of self-harm behaviors (and vice versa) are discussed.

    October 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675920   open full text
  • Post-Discharge Needs of Victims of Gun Violence in Chicago: A Qualitative Study.
    Patton, D., Sodhi, A., Affinati, S., Lee, J., Crandall, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 24, 2016

    The purpose of this study was to understand the post-discharge needs of violently injured patients and their families to improve health outcomes and reduce the impact of gun violence. We recruited 10 patients from the trauma registry of a Midwestern university hospital with a Level 1 Trauma Center (L1TC). After obtaining the informed consent, semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted. Discussions focused on post-discharge needs and resources to facilitate the recovery and rehabilitation process, and aid in community reintegration. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed thematically in stages of open, axial, and selective coding methods. Seven main themes were identified at the hospital and community level. These included the following: (a) feeling stigmatized by hospital personnel, (b) patient–provider communication, (c) feeling discharged too soon, (d) issues in obtaining medicines, (e) challenges with Chicago Police Department, (f) transportation to trauma center for follow-up care, and (g) concerns with returning back to the community. Patients reported the need for mental health counseling for themselves and their family, more follow-up, and help with financial paperwork among others. For the victims of gun violence, there exists a chasm between injury and care, and an even wider one between care and rehabilitation. The findings can inform health care, social workers, and rehabilitation professionals in their efforts to better address the myriad of unmet needs pre- and post-discharge. For trauma centers, the identified needs provide a template for developing an individualized- and community-centered resource pathway to improve outcomes and reduce suffering for this particularly vulnerable subset of patients.

    October 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669545   open full text
  • Norms of Masculinity and the Cultural Narrative of Intimate Partner Violence Among Men in Vietnam.
    James-Hawkins, L., Salazar, K., Hennink, M. M., Ha, V. S., Yount, K. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 24, 2016

    Semi-structured interviews with 31 men in Hung Yen Province in Northern Vietnam are used to elucidate a conceptual narrative to understand men’s perceptions and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Vietnam. This narrative suggests that cultural definitions of masculinity and changes in women’s participation in the labor force have contributed to status conflicts that normalize IPV as part of masculine superiority. The narratives of both IPV perpetrators and non-perpetrators demonstrate how violence is incorporated into the cultural definition of masculinity and illustrates how men use this definition to minimize their own and other men’s perpetration. We suggest that attempts to reduce IPV in Vietnam must address constructions of masculinity and the socio-historical context of IPV by providing gender-sensitivity training and opportunities for men to evaluate critically how constructions of masculinity in their families and communities contribute to IPV perpetration.

    October 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674941   open full text
  • The Promises and Pitfalls of Engaging Male Juvenile Offenders in Gender Violence Prevention and Bystander Education.
    Opsal, T., Aguilar, J., Briggs, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 24, 2016

    Drawing on interviews with and observations of boys enrolled in a bystander violence prevention program at a juvenile detention center, this article provides a sociological case study on how the boys’ biographies and violent lived experiences shaped their engagement with the program. Previous research on bystander prevention programs has typically focused on men enrolled in college who do not have the same kinds of violent histories as the boys in this study do. This article builds upon prior research on prevention programs by demonstrating how at-risk youth participants understand and access the program. We offer suggestions for tailoring bystander prevention programs to more adequately address the specific needs of these populations.

    October 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675466   open full text
  • Sources of Help for Dating Violence Victims: A Qualitative Inquiry Into the Perceptions of African American Teens.
    Madkour, A. S., Swiatlo, A., Talan, A., LeSar, K., Broussard, M., Kendall, C., Seal, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 24, 2016

    Although teen dating violence victims’ reticence in seeking help from adults is well documented, little is known about youths’ comparative perceptions of the types of help offered by and effectiveness of various sources. This qualitative study solicited teens’ perceptions of sources of help for victims using in-depth interviews with African American youth (ages 13-18) in two public high schools in New Orleans (N = 38). Participants were recruited purposively by researchers during lunchtime and via referral by school personnel. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two study team members. Thematic content analyses were conducted. Teens reported that victims were most likely to seek help from friends, who were largely expected to provide advice and comfort. Nearly half reported that teens would be likely to seek help from family, who would provide more active responses to dating violence (i.e., reporting to authorities, confronting the abuser). Fewer respondents believed teens would seek help from other adults, such as school personnel, who were also perceived as likely to enlist outside authorities. Fears about lack of confidentiality and over-reaction were the main perceived barriers to accessing help from adults. Furthermore, although respondents believed teens would be less likely to seek help from adults, adults were perceived as more effective at stopping abuse compared with peers. Interventions that train peer helpers, explain confidentiality to teens, increase school personnel’s ability to provide confidential counseling, and promote use of health services may improve access to help for teen dating violence victims.

    October 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516675467   open full text
  • The Effects of Exposure to Psychological Violence in the Workplace on Commitment and Turnover Intentions: The Moderating Role of Social Support and Role Stressors.
    Courcy, F., Morin, A. J. S., Madore, I.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 24, 2016

    Exposure to workplace violence has been identified as a serious and universal issue facing modern organizations. The present study focuses more specifically on exposure to psychological violence, and its association with turnover intentions as mediated by workplace affective commitment. In addition, we also explore the moderating role of various facets of job demands (role stressors) and resources (social support) on the aforementioned relations. Data collected from 1,228 university employees indicated that experiencing psychological violence at work was associated with lower levels of workplace affective commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions, and that the relation between psychological violence and turnover intentions was partially mediated by commitment. Furthermore, role stressors and social support were found to moderate the negative relation between exposure to psychological violence and workplace affective commitment, as well as between commitment and turnover intentions, but not the direct relation between psychological violence and turnover intentions. Theoretical and research implications for the literature on psychological violence and practical suggestions for minimizing its damaging consequences are proposed.

    October 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674201   open full text
  • Differences in Abuse, Neglect, and Exposure to Community Violence in Adolescents With and Without PTSD and Depression.
    No&#x0308;thling, J., Suliman, S., Martin, L., Simmons, C., Seedat, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 24, 2016

    South African adolescents are exposed to high levels of violence and trauma, including community violence, abuse, and neglect. Violence and trauma are associated with negative mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Demographic characteristics, additional exposure to trauma, community violence, and types of childhood abuse and neglect may place adolescents at greater risk of developing PTSD. This study aimed to first assess the weighted contribution of demographic factors, trauma load, community violence, and types of abuse and neglect in predicting PTSD symptom severity. Second, we aimed to determine group differences in demographic factors, trauma load, community violence, and types of abuse and neglect among participants with no disorder, PTSD only, PTSD and depression, and depression only. Participants were 215 adolescents identified with emotional and/or behavioral problems and referred to an adolescent trauma clinic from schools in the Western Cape region of South Africa. Clinical assessments were undertaken to assess community violence exposure; physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; physical and emotional neglect; and a clinical diagnosis of PTSD and comorbidity. Trauma-exposed adolescents with PTSD and depression reported significantly higher levels of emotional abuse and community violence exposure in comparison with trauma-exposed adolescents without a disorder. Emotional abuse, community violence exposure, and female gender were significant predictors of PTSD in regression analysis. These findings underscore the contribution of different types of trauma in the development of PTSD. Interventions focused on preventing trauma, PTSD, and depression should be multifaceted and be targeted at various levels, for example, individual/interpersonal level (reduce abuse in the household and immediate environment) and community/societal level (reduce crime rates in communities and strengthen conviction policies). Traumatized youth should routinely be screened for a history of abuse and particularly exposure to community violence, given their strong association with PTSD.

    October 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674944   open full text
  • Not Managing Expectations: A Grounded Theory of Intimate Partner Violence From the Perspective of Pakistani People.
    Ali, P. A., OCathain, A., Croot, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 21, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major social and public health problem affecting people from different cultures and societies. Much research has been undertaken to understand the phenomenon, its determinants, and its consequences in numerous countries. However, there is a paucity of research on IPV in many areas of the world including Pakistan. The present study aimed to develop a theory of the meaning and process of IPV from the perspective of Pakistani men and women living in and outside Pakistan.

    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672939   open full text
  • Psychological Distress and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: The Role of Maternal Satisfaction, Parenting Stress, and Social Support Among Mothers and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.
    Pinto, R. J., Correia-Santos, P., Levendosky, A., Jongenelen, I.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 21, 2016

    Studies of the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on parenting have usually not examined the role of the maternal perceptions, either its stress or maternal satisfaction, on the mothers’ and children’s mental health functioning. The present study aimed to assess whether maternal satisfaction, parenting stress, and social support are significantly associated with women’s psychological functioning. The study also assessed whether maternal perceptions of the role of parenting were significantly associated with children’s emotional well-being and social behavior. The sample included 160 mothers, 79 (49.4%) who were living with the aggressors and 81 (50.6%) in shelters, and their children (n = 61). The findings suggested that high levels of maternal satisfaction and perception of social support were significantly negatively associated with women’s posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychological distress, whereas parenting stress was significantly positively associated with these outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was the only parenting variable that predicted both maternal mental health and children’s emotional and behavioral problems, suggesting that it is a protective factor for both mothers and children. This study suggests that increasing maternal satisfaction with parenting and reducing parenting stress might promote better adjustment for both women and children victims of IPV.

    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674199   open full text
  • Male Partners Investment and Alternatives as Correlates of Womens Coerced First Sexual Intercourse in Chinese Dating Relationships: A Social Exchange Perspective.
    He, S., Tsang, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 21, 2016

    Social exchange theory has great potential to help our understanding of dating partners’ sexual interaction. Yet, to our knowledge, there is still no empirical study applying this theory to explain sexual coercion in the context of intimate relationships. This study examined the relationship between male partners’ social exchange variables (investment and alternatives) and women’s coerced first sexual intercourse in dating relationships, within both gender samples (not dyadic data). A total of 927 valid questionnaires were collected by purposive snowball sampling in five main cities in China of college students who were currently in a romantic relationship. Results showed that in the male sample, male partners’ investment significantly and positively correlated with emotional manipulation coercive tactics, and their alternatives significantly and positively predicted defection threats as coercive tactics. In the female sample, there were no such observations. The research hypotheses of this study have been partially supported, and its implications and limitations are discussed.

    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674939   open full text
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Propensity Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.
    Hilton, N. Z., Ham, E., Green, M. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 21, 2016

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), defined as exposure to abuse and adverse household events, are prevalent among certain offenders including those who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). However, it is not clear how ACEs relate to criminal propensity among IPV offenders, who have been shown to exhibit less antisociality and institutional violence than other offenders. We compared 99 male offenders with a current or previous offense of IPV with 233 non-IPV violent offenders and 103 nonviolent offenders undergoing institutional forensic assessment. This convenience sample allowed for use of extensive psychosocial records as well as study of institutional violence. IPV offenders had the highest mean ACE score and more extensive criminal propensity on some measures (violent and nonviolent criminal history and psychopathy) than both other groups. ACEs were associated with most measures of criminal propensity in the whole sample but with only one (actuarial risk of violent recidivism) in the subsample of IPV offenders. Finding that ACEs are prevalent among IPV offenders even in this sample with extensive mental illness demonstrates the robustness of this phenomenon. IPV offenders, though, are similar to other violent offenders in this respect, and there is insufficient evidence that ACEs represent a criminogenic need among IPV offenders specifically. Further research could draw from the batterer typology literature and attend to IPV offenders’ broader criminal careers.

    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674943   open full text
  • Comparison of the CADRI and CTS2 for Measuring Psychological and Physical Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization.
    Cascardi, M., Blank, S., Dodani, V.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 19, 2016

    Advancing dating violence (DV) research requires consistent conceptualization and measurement. However, empirical sudies on the measurement of psychological and physical DV perpetration and victimization are uncommon. There were three aims of the current study: (a) to examine the construct validity of psychological and physical DV perpetration and victimization on the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI) and Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) using factor analysis; (b) to compare empirically derived DV scales with ones using face valid definitions of psychological and physical DV within each measure; and (c) to compare results obtained from the CADRI with those obtained from the CTS2. A diverse sample of undergraduates (N = 512; 63.9% female, 50.0% White, 16.2% Black, and 22.9% Latino) completed an online survey. There were two-factor solutions for each survey and DV perpetration and victimization: moderate psychological DV and severe psychological/physical DV on the CADRI; and moderate psychological and physical DV and severe psychological and physical DV on the CTS2. Multiple regression analyses showed that results were similar for empirically and rationally derived scoring methods with one exception: On the CTS2, risk factors associated with moderate DV were not the same as those associated with psychological DV. Moreover, the unique contribution of risk factors to each form of DV depended on which survey was used. In multivariate studies of risk factors associated with psychological and physical DV, the CADRI and CTS2 do not appear to be interchangeable, and may lead to different conclusions about the relative importance of risk factors.

    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670182   open full text
  • The Role of Shame in the Relation Between Peer Victimization and Mental Health Outcomes.
    Irwin, A., Li, J., Craig, W., Hollenstein, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 19, 2016

    Youth who experience peer victimization are at risk of developing mental health problems. However, little is known about the emotional causal mechanisms linking peer victimization with these negative outcomes. This study investigated whether shame mediated this relationship. At three time points (T1-T3), 396 10- to 13-year-olds completed measures of peer victimization, shame (characterological, bodily, and behavioral; shame proneness), and mental health (depression, social anxiety, and externalizing behavior). Three multiple mediation models tested the indirect effects of T1 victimization on T3 mental health through the four T2 shame-related variables. Analyses revealed indirect effects for the shame-related mediators on depression, social anxiety, and externalizing behaviors. Specifically, indirect positive effects for characterological and bodily shame on depression and social anxiety were found, with greater bodily shame linked to higher levels of social anxiety in girls but not boys. In addition, an indirect negative effect for behavioral shame on externalizing problems was found, with higher levels of externalizing problems in victimized boys but not in girls. Finally, an indirect positive effect for shame proneness and externalizing problems was found. To clarify the directionality, three additional mediation models were run with mental health symptoms as predictors of shame and subsequent victimization. Indirect effects for the shame-related mediators were found for all outcomes, specifically bodily shame and shame proneness as mediators between internalizing and externalizing symptoms and victimization. These three models were compared and contrasted with the hypothesized models. In sum, findings support the role of shame as an underlying emotional mechanism of peer victimization, and may guide intervention programs to address the mental health concerns of victimized youth.

    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672937   open full text
  • Attitudes of Young Adult Men Toward Domestic Violence and Factors Affecting Their Attitudes in Turkey.
    Ad&#x0131;belli, D., U&#x0308;nal, A. S., Sen, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 19, 2016

    Domestic violence is commonly observed worldwide; however, exposure to violence is not often mentioned directly. Prevention of domestic violence may be one of the most important social problems and requires much time and effort to resolve. This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward domestic violence of Turkish males who are young adult and undertake military service, and the factors that affect these attitudes. A cross-sectional study design was used. This study was conducted with 221 young adult men who applied to Sarıkamıs Military Hospital between December 2012 and February 2013. A questionnaire and the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale were used for the collection of data. One-way ANOVA, T test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Mann–Whitney U test were used in the process of analyzing the data. In the study, it was found that 10% of the young adult men were exposed to violence within their own family and the average of their total scores from the Attitude Toward Domestic Violence Scale was 49.41 ± 7.27. It was confirmed that undereducated men have more negative attitudes toward domestic violence than other groups. The present study determined that men who have negative attitudes toward domestic violence and who have a low education level affected attitudes toward domestic violence negatively. It is important that violence is prevented before it occurs. In this respect, health professionals, politicians, teachers, academics, and all community leaders have an important role in preventing initiatives on violence.

    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516673630   open full text
  • Reluctance Versus Urge to Disclose Child Maltreatment: The Impact of Multi-Type Maltreatment.
    Lev-Wiesel, R., First, M., Gottfried, R., Eisikovits, Z.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 18, 2016

    Child maltreatment is a major public health issue in Israel. According to a recent Israeli national epidemiological survey, approximately half of Jewish and Arab girls and boys between the ages 12 and 17 experienced at least one type of child maltreatment, at any severity level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of multi-type maltreatment on Israeli children and youth survivors’ reluctance versus urge to disclose; with the effects of gender, age, and ethnicity taken into account. The study is important since non-disclosure has deleterious effects in terms of continuation of the abuse, delays in criminal prosecution and commencement of treatment. A self-report questionnaire incorporating the following instruments was administered: the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Disclosure of Trauma Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 6,253 Jewish and Arab children and youth who reported experiencing at least one lifetime child maltreatment event. Study results indicated that children and youth’s reluctance to disclose is positively associated with their emotional reactions to disclosure, as well as with higher instances of child maltreatment exposure; whereas urge to talk is negatively correlated with their emotional reactions to disclosure.

    October 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672938   open full text
  • The Role of Depression in the Relationship Between Psychological and Physical Intimate Partner Violence.
    Barros-Gomes, P., Kimmes, J., Smith, E., Cafferky, B., Stith, S., Durtschi, J., McCollum, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 18, 2016

    Physical and psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) are significant public health concerns often associated with negative consequences for individuals, families, and society. Because IPV occurs within an interpersonal relationship, it is important to better understand how each partner’s depressive symptoms, marital satisfaction, and psychological and physical IPV are interlinked. The purpose of this study was to identify actor and partner effects in a dyadic data analysis association between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms, its links to psychological IPV, and then to physical IPV. Guided by the social information processing model, this study has implications for understanding the processes leading to various types of IPV in people seeking couples therapy. Using cross-sectional data from 126 heterosexual couples, we conducted an actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) to test actor and partner effects. Indirect actor and partner effects were also assessed. More depressive symptoms were associated with lower marital satisfaction. More depressive symptoms were generally linked with increased perpetration of psychological and physical IPV. Psychological IPV was associated with an individual’s use of physical IPV. Effect sizes were moderate to large in magnitude. Four specific indirect effects were identified from depressive symptoms to psychological IPV to physical IPV. Depressive symptoms may be an important factor related to psychological and physical IPV for males and females. Implications include assessing for and treating depression in both partners, and discussing preferred ways of supporting each other that do not include psychological or physical IPV.

    October 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516673628   open full text
  • Not All Behind Closed Doors: Examining Bystander Involvement in Intimate Partner Violence.
    Taylor, E., Banyard, V., Grych, J., Hamby, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 18, 2016

    It is often said that intimate partner violence (IPV) happens "behind closed doors"; however, research on IPV and other crimes suggests that witnesses are sometimes present. This suggests that bystanders may be in a position to help victims or potential victims of violence. Bystander behavior has been studied primarily in school settings, and consequently, little is known about how often it occurs or what its effects may be in the broader community. This study examined IPV incidents in a rural sample to assess the presence and potential impact of bystanders on victim-reported outcomes. One thousand nine hundred seventy-seven adult participants completed a questionnaire that asked about five violent behaviors (my partner threatened to hurt me; pushed, grabbed, or shook me; hit me; beat me up; sexually assaulted me), bystander characteristics, and victim outcomes (fear; injury; disruption of daily routines; mental health). Adult or teen bystanders were present for each IPV approximately one third of the time, except in the case of sexual assault (14.3%). When a bystander was present, victims reported higher rates of injury, greater disruption in their routines, and poorer mental health. When a bystander’s safety was threatened, victims reported more physical injury and more routine disruption. A considerable number of IPV incidents do not happen behind closed doors, and the presence of a bystander was associated with worse outcomes for victims. Prevention efforts for adult IPV may need to take a more cautious or nuanced approach to encouraging bystander action, especially when confronted with more severe incidents. Bystander safety should be a priority for violence prevention.

    October 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516673629   open full text
  • Individual- and County-Level Religious Participation, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse of Children: An Exploratory study.
    Wolf, J. P., Kepple, N. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 18, 2016

    Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. In addition, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual- and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings.

    October 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674197   open full text
  • Do Jews and Arabs Differ in Their Fear of Terrorism and Crime?
    Shechory Bitton, M., Silawi, Y.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 18, 2016

    The current study was carried out with the aim of supplementing the existing literature and broadening the understanding of the determinants of two powerful types of fear, fear of terrorism and fear of crime, by comparing their presence among Jews and Arabs in Israel. Based on an overview of factors influencing fear of victimization, the study focused on individual variables (ethnicity, sex, age, objective, and subjective exposure) as well as on neighborhood disorder and social integration. The sample consisted of 375 Israeli students (191 Jews and 184 Arabs). Predictions of fear of terrorism and crime were conducted with two multiple regressions. Fear of terrorism was significantly predicted by gender (women more than men), higher self exposure to terror, and higher neighborhood disorder. The only interaction found with regard to exposure to incidents showed that previous victimization predicts only fear of terrorism and only among Arabs who were themselves affected or exposed to the victimization of others. Fear of crime was predicted by sector (Jews more than Arabs), gender (women more than men), higher neighborhood disorder, and lower social integration. As far as known, this is the first attempt to examine differences between Jews and Arabs with regard to these two types of fear and to predict their causes. The findings help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of crime and terrorism, in general and in the Arab–Jewish context in particular. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats. The results are discussed in accordance with the literature, concluding with the need for further research that will take into account the wider cultural and social context.

    October 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674198   open full text
  • Female Sex Offenders: Is There a Difference Between Solo and Co-Offenders?
    ten Bensel, T., Gibbs, B., Burkey, C. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 18, 2016

    Studies on female sex offending have been limited for a number of reasons, such as societal perceptions that females are incapable of engaging in such behaviors because of their role as caretakers and nurturers in society. However, over the past few decades, studies examining female sex offenders have increased, revealing that females do commit sexual offenses and differ from their male counterparts. We examined offender, victim, and offense characteristics of female sex offenders who were convicted from 1995 to 2013 (N = 223) in Arkansas and were sentenced to serve time in prison or placed on probation. We focused on the similarities and differences of solo and co-female sex offenders because we know from previous studies that the pathway of offending can differ between solo and co-female offenders, yet few studies have exclusively compared the similarities and differences among female sex offenders. Our data were collected from offender files that included basic personal offender information, offender survey and social history, criminal history, incident reports while incarcerated, court records, police investigation reports, initial offender and victim statements (prior to offender incarceration), and probation/parole reports. We believe the results of this study will provide further insight into the types of female sex offenders as well as the possible differences between co- and solo-offenders in relation to their victim preferences, risk levels, rehabilitation amenability, and recidivism propensities.

    October 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516674202   open full text
  • Victim, Allegation, and Investigation Characteristics Associated With Substantiated Reports of Sexual Abuse of Adults in Residential Care Settings.
    Abner, E. L., Teaster, P. B., Mendiondo, M. S., Ramsey-Klawsnik, H., Marcum, J. L., Crawford, T. N., Wangmo, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 17, 2016

    The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics of investigations of sexual abuse concerning vulnerable adults residing in facility settings that were associated with case substantiation. Data on 410 reports of sexual abuse were collected prospectively from Adult Protective Services (APS) and state licensure agency staff in New Hampshire, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin over a six-month period. Specifically, we examined differences between reports that were substantiated and those that were not by comparing characteristics of alleged victims, alleged perpetrators, and aspects of investigation using logistic regression. We found that a relatively low proportion of cases (18%) were substantiated overall. Compared to cases that were not substantiated, cases that were substantiated were more likely to feature nursing home residents, older victims, female victims, and allegations of physical contact between the alleged perpetrator and victim. Despite the high proportion of alleged perpetrators who were facility staff (51%) compared to resident perpetrators (25%), cases with resident-to-resident allegations of abuse were much more likely to be substantiated, accounting for 63% of substantiated cases. In light of these findings, we believe it is important that investigators are trained to handle sexual abuse cases appropriately and that they are able to investigate the case thoroughly, promptly, and with as much information as possible. It is also critical that investigators make substantiation decisions using the appropriate standard for confirmation (e.g., preponderance of the evidence, beyond a reasonable doubt, clear and convincing evidence) as state law dictates.

    October 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672051   open full text
  • Associations Between Sexual Assault Severity and Psychological and Physical Health Outcomes: Similarities and Differences Among African American and Caucasian Survivors.
    Pegram, S. E., Abbey, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 17, 2016

    There are well-established associations between sexual assault victimization and deleterious psychological and physical health outcomes. The present study contributes to the emerging health disparities literature by examining similarities and differences in relationships between the severity of the sexual assault and health in a community sample of African American and Caucasian survivors. Although the overall pattern of relationships was expected to be comparable for all survivors, some associations were hypothesized to be stronger for African American survivors as compared with Caucasian survivors based on theories of chronic stress. Single, African American, and Caucasian women were recruited for a study of dating experiences through random digit dialing in one large metropolitan area. Participants who experienced a sexual assault since age 14 were included in this study (121 African American and 100 Caucasian women). Multigroup path analyses indicated that for both African American and Caucasian survivors, sexual assault severity was significantly positively associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and depressive symptoms were significantly positively associated with physical health symptoms. Among African American survivors, sexual assault severity affected physical health symptoms indirectly through its impact on depressive symptoms, and assault severity indirectly affected drinking problems through its impact on PTSD symptoms; these relationships were not found for Caucasian survivors. These findings highlight the need for additional research that focuses on health disparities in sexual assault survivors’ recovery process, so that treatment programs address culturally relevant issues.

    October 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516673626   open full text
  • The Reliability and Factorial Validity of the Swedish Version of the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale.
    Jansson, B., Sundin, O.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 13, 2016

    This study focused on the factor structure of the victimization form of the revised Controlling Behaviors Scale (CBS-R). Data from 1,218 women and men were analyzed in the study. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) failed to find support for the proposed five-factor structure of the scale, as the items on the scale were better represented by one common factor. In addition, when examining if controlling behaviors are distinct from psychological aggression, the CFA indicated that the items on the CBS-R are clearly distinguishable from the items on the psychological aggression (as measured with the subscales of the revised Conflict Tactic Scales [CTS2]), and that this holds for both males and females. Implications for the general use of the CBS-R and for use in conjunction with psychological aggression and physical aggression in intimate partner violence were discussed.

    October 13, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672936   open full text
  • The Nature of Bias Crime Injuries: A Comparative Analysis of Physical and Psychological Victimization Effects.
    Fetzer, M. D., Pezzella, F. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 13, 2016

    The core justification of bias crime statutes concerns whether bias-motivated crimes are qualitatively different from otherwise motivated crimes. We test the hypothesis that bias crimes are more detrimental than non-bias crimes by testing for multi-dimensional injuries to victims of bias and non-bias-motivated criminal conduct. Using National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Extract 2013 Collection Year Incident-level Extract File, we analyzed physical injuries and psychological trauma to NCVS victims during 2013. We found a range of covariates consistent with the likelihood of physical injury and psychological trauma. These included whether the incident was bias motivated, whether weapons (firearms, knives, other or unknown type of weapons) were involved, whether the incident involved multiple offenders or strangers, or whether drugs or alcohol were involved. Our findings reinforce previous studies that detected empirical evidence of multi-dimensional physical and psychological injuries to bias crime victims.

    October 13, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672940   open full text
  • Antisocial Behavior and Victimization Over 2-Year Follow-Up in Subgroups of Childhood Arrestees.
    van Domburgh, L., Geluk, C., Jansen, L., Vermeiren, R., Doreleijers, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 09, 2016

    Not only are childhood onset offenders at high risk of becoming serious persistent offenders, they are also at high risk of becoming victimized themselves. Furthermore, studies in the general population suggest that a combined perpetrator–victim group can be distinguished from a perpetrator-only and a victim-only group on individual and family risk factors. The current study investigated the co-occurrence of offending and victimization among first-time arrestees and the 2-year predictive value of previously found clusters of dynamic risk factors of offending. Childhood first-time arrestees (N = 308; Mage = 10.3, SD = 1.45) were clustered into three groups based on dynamic risk factors of offending in the individual, peer, school, and family domains: a pervasive high, an externalizing intermediate, and a low problem group. Police records and self-report data on re-offending and victimization of these children were collected over a 2-year follow-up period. Compared with the low problem group, the prevalence of re-offending was higher in both the externalizing intermediate group and the pervasive high group. The pervasive high group was most likely to display co-occurring future antisocial behavior and victimization. These findings emphasize that attention should be paid to victimization in addition to future antisocial behavior, especially if additional internalizing and family problems are present. Furthermore, the differences in re-offending and victimization between subgroups of childhood onset offenders stress the need for specific interventions tailored to the risk profile of a child.

    October 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672052   open full text
  • Analyzing Predictors of Bullying Victimization With Routine Activity and Social Bond Perspectives.
    Cecen-Celik, H., Keith, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 09, 2016

    Bullying victimization in school settings is a serious problem in many countries including the United States. It has been associated with serious incidents of school violence as well as detrimental physical, psychological, emotional, and social consequences for its victims. Given its consequences, it is crucial to understand who is more likely to be targeted for bullying victimization. This study examines whether a number of important factors such as gender, physical and interactionist school security measures, and involvement in extracurricular activities influence an individual’s risk of bullying victimization from social bond and routine activity perspectives. The study employs the 2011 School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to investigate the causes of bullying victimization. The results show that gender, interactionist school security measures, and extracurricular activities affect an individual’s likelihood of bullying victimization.

    October 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672941   open full text
  • The Mediating Effect of Perceived Social Acknowledgment on the Relationship Between Patient Assaults and Posttraumatic Stress Reactions in Emergency Nurses.
    Guan, R., Gao, J., Liu, G., Cheng, F., Ge, B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 09, 2016

    This study explored whether posttraumatic stress symptoms resulted from workplace assaults were mediated by the perception of social acknowledgment by the victim. A sample of 444 emergency room nurses in China completed questionnaires measuring the frequency and types of patient assaults, the severity of physical injury, the perception of social acknowledgment, and the posttraumatic stress symptoms. Cross-sectional design, multiregression, and bootstrapping mediation analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Results showed that general disapproval and family disapproval mediated the relationship between the frequency of patient assaults and the severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms. These two factors also mediated the links between the injury severity of patient assaults and the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Implications for clinical practice and future research were discussed.

    October 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516673627   open full text
  • Violence Against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon.
    Usta, J., Masterson, A. R., Farver, J. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 05, 2016

    This study used focus group discussions to explore 29 Syrian women’s experiences of being displaced refugees in Lebanon. Women reported intimate partner violence (IPV), harassment, and community violence. They experienced difficult living conditions characterized by crowding and lack of privacy, adult unemployment, and overall feelings of helplessness. Most frequently, they used negative coping strategies, including justification and acceptance of IPV and often physically harmed their own children due to heightened stress. Some sought support from other Syrian refugee women. Although the study did not address the root causes of IPV, the results shed light on women’s experiences and indicate that training them in positive coping strategies and establishing support groups would help them face IPV that occurs in refugee settings.

    October 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670881   open full text
  • Risk Factors Associated With Inpatient Violence During Medium Security Treatment.
    Jeandarme, I., Wittouck, C., Vander Laenen, F., Pouls, C., Oei, T. I., Bogaerts, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 05, 2016

    Violence is a common phenomenon both in regular and forensic psychiatric settings, and has a profound impact on staff and other patients. Insight into the individual risk factors associated with violence in forensic psychiatric settings is rare and is therefore the subject of this research. A retrospective file study in three medium security units in Flanders was conducted to compare non-violent inpatients with inpatients who engaged in (verbal and physical) violent behavior. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine which variables contributed independently to the risk of violence. The results showed that absconding during treatment was independently associated with physical violence. A personality disorder diagnosis and general non-compliance with treatment were associated with verbal violence. Both types of violence predicted early termination of treatment. Contrary to previous research, the results from the risk assessment tools were not associated with inpatient violence. Clinical implications are discussed and include, among others, that clinicians should remain vigilant for early warning signs of non-compliance during treatment.

    October 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670884   open full text
  • Who Gets Protection? A National Study of Multiple Victimization and Child Protection Among Taiwanese Children.
    Shen, A. C.-T., Feng, J. Y., Feng, J.-Y., Wei, H.-S., Hsieh, Y.-P., Huang, S. C.-Y., Hwa, H.-L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 05, 2016

    This study aims to examine the prevalence of multiple types of child victimization and the effects of multiple types of victimization on children’s mental health and behavior in Taiwan. The study also examines the child-protection rate and its correlates among children experiencing various types of victimization. This study collected data with a self-report questionnaire from a national proportionately stratified sample of 6,233 fourth-grade students covering every city and county in Taiwan in 2014. After calculating the 1-year prevalence of child victimization, the study found that bullying was the most prevalent (71%), followed by physical neglect (66%), psychological violence (43%), inter-parental violence (28%), community violence (22%), physical abuse (21%), and sexual violence (9%). As the number of victimization types increased, children were more likely to report greater posttraumatic symptoms, psychiatric symptoms, suicide ideation, self-harm thoughts, and violent behaviors. Gender, neonatal status, parental marital status, and other family risks were significantly associated with elevated incidences of the victimization types. Only 20.6% of the children who had experienced all seven types of victimization had received child protective services. A child was more likely to receive child protective services if he or she had experienced sexual violence, community violence, inter-parental violence exposure, higher family risks, higher suicidal ideation, or living in a single-parent or separated family. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the cumulative effects and the harmful effects that children’s experience of multiple types of victimization can have on the children’s mental health and behavior. The present findings also raise alarms regarding the severity of under-serving in child-victimization cases. These results underscore the importance of assessing, identifying, and helping children with multiple victimization experiences.

    October 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670885   open full text
  • Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence Victimization: Results From an Online Survey of Australian Adults.
    Powell, A., Henry, N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 03, 2016

    Online forms of sexual harassment and abuse as experienced by adults represent an emerging yet under-researched set of behaviors, such that very few studies have sought to estimate the extent of the problem. This article presents the results of an online survey of 2,956 Australian adult (aged 18 to 54 years) experiences of technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) victimization. The prevalence of TFSV was analyzed in relation to a 21-item scale developed in accordance with prior conceptual research identifying multiple dimensions of TFSV including digital sexual harassment, image-based sexual abuse, sexual aggression and/or coercion, and, gender and/or sexuality-based harassment (including virtual sexual violence). Results revealed significant differences in lifetime TFSV victimization for younger (18-24) and non-heterosexual identifying adults. Lifetime TFSV victimization for men and women was not significantly different, though women were more likely to report sexual harassment victimization and men were more likely to report victimization through the distribution of non-consensual images, as well as gender and/or sexuality-based harassment. The authors conclude that although women and men report experiencing similar overall prevalence of TFSV victimization, the nature and impacts of those experiences differ in particular gendered ways that reflect broader patterns in both gender relations and "offline" sexual harassment.

    October 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672055   open full text
  • The Predictive Role of Maternal Parenting and Stress on Pupils Bullying involvement.
    Alizadeh Maralani, F., Mirnasab, M., Hashemi, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 03, 2016

    The link between inappropriate parenting style and both bullying and victimization is well documented. However, it is not clear as to which kind of parenting style is associated with victimization. Furthermore, no studies have yet been conducted regarding the role of parental stress in bullying and victimization. This study aimed to examine the role of parenting styles and maternal stress in pupils’ bullying and victimization. A total of 300 primary school pupils, enrolled in fourth and fifth grades, participated in the study. Initially, 100 noninvolved pupils were randomly selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Then using a screening method, 100 bully pupils and 100 victimized peers were selected. Olweus Bullying Scale and teacher nomination were administered for screening these pupils. Baumrind Parenting Style Questionnaire and revised version of Abidin Parental Stress Index (short form) were also applied to all pupils in the study. Data were analyzed using discriminant function analysis. The findings showed that (a) with regard to parenting styles, significant differences were found among groups. Authoritarian parenting style could significantly predict pupils’ bullying behavior, whereas victimization was predictable in families with permissive parenting style. In addition, noninvolved pupils were predicted to have authoritative parenting style. (b) Considering maternal stress, significant differences were observed across groups. Parents of bullies and victims were predicted to have higher maternal stress than noninvolved pupils. The implications of the study in relation to the role of mothers in bullying and victimization are discussed.

    October 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672053   open full text
  • Reactive Protection? Fear, Victimization, and Fighting Among U.S. High School Students.
    Sattler, L. J., Thomas, K. A., Cadet, T. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 03, 2016

    Youth violence in high schools is a pervasive and persistent problem in the United States. Students engage in physical fights, experience bullying and teen dating violence (TDV), are threatened with weapons, and miss school due to safety concerns. However, despite theoretical support, research has not sufficiently addressed the relationship between students’ fear and fighting at school. This secondary analysis used data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 13,583) to examine the relationship between fear at school, victimization, and engagement in fighting at school among high school students. We created a 3-item composite fear variable, conducted logistic regression to examine likelihood of fighting, and multinomial regression to examine risk for multiple fights, and stratified all models by gender. Findings indicate that both male and female students who experienced fear were more likely to engage in fights at school than peers who did not experience fear, even when controlling for other factors. Likewise, the more fear incidents a student experienced, the more at risk they were for engaging in multiple fights. Findings on victimization indicate that the relationship with fighting is more straightforward for male students than for female students. For males, being bullied and experiencing multiple incidents of physical and sexual TDV were all associated with fighting at school. For females, however, only one type of victimization was associated with fighting at school: experiencing multiple incidents of physical TDV. Overall, findings suggest that fear may be more than merely a by-product of fighting, but rather—as the extant research supports—fear also can be generalized across situations and displayed through patterns of aggression. Findings support the need for interventions aimed at skill-building in areas of communication, emotion regulation, conflict resolution, and healthy relationships to help youth—particularly those in younger grades—negotiate interpersonal relationships without the use of violence.

    October 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516672054   open full text
  • Comparing Childrens and Caseworkers Reports of Physical Violence.
    Nofziger, S., Stein, R. E., Rosen, N. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 28, 2016

    In cases of suspected child maltreatment, the caseworkers’ evaluations of the harm and risk to the child are vital in determining if children are being abused and ultimately whether services are provided to the family. These evaluations are dependent on information caseworkers are able to uncover during their investigation, but may not reflect the experiences of the child. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I), this study first compares how consistent children’s claims of physical victimization are with caseworkers’ assessments of harm, severity of risk, and whether there is physical abuse occurring. Second, we examine whether any discrepancies are influenced by the demographic characteristics of the child. Based on cross-tabulations, mean tests of difference, and one-way ANOVA, we find a high degree of overlap in children’s reports of violence with caseworkers’ reports of harm, the potential for risk, and the presence of physical abuse. However, there are also important differences. Among children who reported acts of physical violence occurred "lots of times," 23% of the cases were viewed by the caseworker as causing "no harm" to the child and over 60% were not regarded as physical abuse. The children’s age and sex are both significant predictors of discrepancies, with more discrepancies between caseworkers and young children or teens as well as boys. Implications of this study are that additional training is needed to help caseworkers build rapport with the children. We also suggest that Child Protective Services (CPS) should implement alternative ways for children to report their experiences other than face-to-face interviews with caseworkers.

    September 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670880   open full text
  • A Global Exploratory Analysis of Men Participating in Gender-Based Violence Prevention.
    Tolman, R. M., Casey, E. A., Allen, C. T., Carlson, J., Leek, C., Storer, H. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 26, 2016

    Organizations addressing gender-based violence (GBV) increasingly include men as partners in prevention efforts. However, little is known about men who get involved in those efforts and what specific actions they take. We present analyses of data from an international sample of men involved in gender-based prevention work that aimed to describe (a) the nature of participants’ involvement in prevention efforts, in both formal programming and in their daily lives; (b) characteristics of engaged men, including gender and bystander-related attitudes and beliefs, and social networks; and (c) factors that sustain men’s involvement in GBV movements over time. Comparisons across global regions for these variables were also conducted. A total of 379 male-identified participants above 18 who had attended a GBV event in the past year completed an online survey (available in English, French, and Spanish). Respondents represented all continents except Antarctica, although North America was over-represented in the sample. Overall, respondents scored well above North American norms for men on support for gender equality and recognition of male privilege, and this was true across all geographic regions. Men in all regions reported moderate support from friends and somewhat less support from male relatives for their involvement in GBV prevention. Respondents in all regions reported high levels of active bystander and violence-preventive behavior. The most commonly reported motivations for involvement in GBV prevention included concern for related social justice issues, exposure to the issue of violence through work, hearing a moving story, or disclosures about domestic or sexual violence. Results were mainly similar across regions, but when regional differences emerge, they tended to be contrasts between the global north and global south, highlighting the importance of cross-fertilization across regions and a willingness to adapt critical learnings in new geographic settings.

    September 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670181   open full text
  • Resource Loss Moderates the Association Between Child Abuse and Current PTSD Symptoms Among Women in Primary-Care Settings.
    Costa, E. C. V., Guimaraes, S., Ferreira, D., Pereira, M. G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 26, 2016

    This study examined if abuse during childhood, rape in adulthood, and loss of resources predict a woman’s probability of reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether resource loss moderates the association between reporting childhood abuse and PTSD symptoms. The sample included 767 women and was collected in publicly funded primary-care settings. Women who reported having been abused during childhood also reported more resource loss, more acute PTSD symptoms, and having suffered more adult rape than those who reported no childhood abuse. Hierarchical logistic regression yielded a two-variable additive model in which child abuse and adult rape predict the probability of reporting or not any PTSD symptoms, explaining 59.7% of the variance. Women abused as children were 1 to 2 times more likely to report PTSD symptoms, with sexual abuse during childhood contributing most strongly to this result. Similarly, women reporting adult rape were almost twice as likely to report symptoms of PTSD as those not reporting it. Resource loss was unexpectedly not among the predictors but a moderation analysis showed that such loss moderated the association between child abuse and current PTSD symptoms, with resource loss increasing the number and severity of PTSD symptoms in women who also reported childhood abuse. The findings highlight the importance of early assessment and intervention in providing mental health care to abused, neglected, and impoverished women to help them prevent and reverse resource loss and revictimization.

    September 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670883   open full text
  • Utilizing a General Strain Framework to Examine Behavioral Responses to Psychological Intimate Partner Violence: Are Responses Gendered?
    Pesta, R., Peralta, R. L., Novisky, M. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 25, 2016

    We know from the violence literature that a distinct sex disparity exists in the perpetration of other-directed violence (ODV). Some scholars suggest that this disparity is explained in part by gendered reactions to stress, strain, or violence victimization, in which males and females engage in different coping mechanisms, with males more likely to engage in ODV than females. Using a college sample, we investigate the behavioral responses of male and female victims of psychological intimate partner abuse. We find that although there is a sex disparity in the use of ODV as a coping mechanism, there is also a distinct gender orientation disparity. Our results indicate that victims who ascribe to a masculine identity are more likely than those of a feminine identity to engage in ODV, regardless of biological sex. These findings shed light on the impact of gender orientation as both a risk and protective factor in the use of ODV.

    September 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669165   open full text
  • "Mouth Wide Shut": Strategies of Female Sex Workers for Coping With Intimate Partner Violence.
    Puente-Martinez, A., Ubillos-Landa, S., Garcia-Zabala, M., Paez-Rovira, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 25, 2016

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between possible violence suffered by female sex workers in their intimate relationships, with their affects, coping strategies, and emotional regulation to overcome such violence and improve their well-being. Structured personal interviews were carried out with female sex workers in three different settings: street, club, and flats. The sample was composed of 137 Spanish female sex workers (85.4% are foreign and 20% Spanish-born sex workers). High levels of tension and problems with their partners were linked to an affective imbalance and poor well-being. Positive affectivity determined the use of adaptive strategies, whereas negative affectivity predicted dysfunctional strategies. Three different path analyses and theoretical support concluded that self-control was the only strategy related to improve well-being in female sex workers who reported lower potential tension and difficulty in their intimate relationships. In contrast, inhibition was associated with an increase on distress levels when negative affectivity predominated and sex workers had reported potential tension and difficulty situations with their partners. It was a cross-sectional study, and thus we cannot infer causality or direction from the observed associations. Given these findings, violence prevention strategies in the intimate relationships should be prioritized in the prostitution context.

    September 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670180   open full text
  • Predicting the Effects of Sexual Assault Research Participation: Reactions, Perceived Insight, and Help-Seeking.
    Kirkner, A., Relyea, M., Ullman, S. E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 25, 2016

    This study examined effects of participating in survey research for women sexual assault survivors with other trauma histories to understand the role of study participation on perceived insight and long-term help-seeking behaviors. A diverse sample of 1,863 women from a large Midwestern city participated in a 3-year study on women’s experiences with sexual assault. Regression analyses were conducted to (a) examine predictors of immediate positive and negative reactions to survey participation and (b) assess the impact of the survey on perceived insight and women’s long-term help-seeking behavior. Overall, most women in the study had a higher positive than negative reaction to the survey (92%), with a significant proportion indicating they sought additional services as a result of participation (55%). Women with child sexual abuse (CSA), more emotion dysregulation, and more characterological self-blame had more negative reactions to the survey, whereas those with more education and individual adaptive coping had more positive reactions. Women who said they gained insight from answering survey questions were most likely to seek additional help. This study extends the literature by examining cumulative trauma and postassault symptoms in relation to the effects of survey participation. This is also the first study of women sexual assault survivors to find a relationship between gaining perceived insight from research and subsequent help-seeking. Participating in sexual assault research may help survivors gain greater insight into their recovery, which can lead them to seek out more resources for their ongoing trauma-related problems.

    September 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670882   open full text
  • A Within-Subjects Analysis of Mens Alcohol-Involved and Nonalcohol-Involved Sexual Assaults.
    Kirwan, M., Parkhill, M. R., Schuetz, B. A., Cox, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 22, 2016

    Previous research has determined that alcohol use is frequently associated with sexual aggression perpetration. However, little research has examined the differences between alcohol-involved and nonalcohol-involved assaults among men who are repeat perpetrators of sexual aggression. Eighty men from the community who had self-reported perpetration of two or more sexual assaults, including at least one assault in which the participant was drinking and one assault in which they were sober, were recruited for a within-subjects survey. Data analysis examined the differences between participants’ most recent alcohol-involved assault and their most recent nonalcohol-involved assault. A variety of differences were observed between nonalcohol and alcohol-involved assaults including the participants’ primary appraisals, secondary appraisals, and the degree of force they used to obtain unwanted sex. These results provide further insight into the effect that alcohol has on perpetration of sexual aggression. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.

    September 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670179   open full text
  • A Step Toward a Better Understanding of the Relationship Between Victimization and Emotional Distress: Indirect Effect of Adult Attachment and Interaction With Household Dysfunction.
    dos Santos Mesquita, C., da Costa Maia, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 21, 2016

    A history of victimization has been linked to the latter development of emotional distress. However, not all victims develop emotional distress in response to victimization, emphasizing the need to identify mediators that can guide intervention, as well as moderators to more targeted preventive actions. Within a developmental psychology framework, we aimed to test two models: (a) the role of adult attachment as a mediator in the relationship between victimization and emotional distress, and (b) the role of household dysfunctions as moderators in the relationship between victimization and emotional distress, in psychiatric patients. Participants were 120 adult psychiatric patients, between ages 20 and 79 years (M = –47.22, SD = 13.102) that responded to questions assessing household dysfunction in the family of origin, victimization, and adult attachment. Results revealed that adult attachment was a significant mediator in the association between victimization and emotional distress. Parental mental disorder and total household adversity were significant moderators for that same association. These results provide important clues for intervention. The focus on promoting secure adult relationships may contribute not only to the psychosocial adjustment of psychiatric patients but also to a healthier family functioning. Reducing the household dysfunction may provide a protective environment for the development of children, promoting a positive psychosocial adjustment, also preventing the intergenerational transmission of violence, insecure attachment, and emotional distress.

    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669541   open full text
  • African American Perspectives and Experiences of Domestic Violence in a Rural Community.
    Valandra, , Murphy-Erby, Y., Higgins, B. M., Brown, L. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 21, 2016

    Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community–based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women (n = 28) and men (n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants’ perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.

    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669542   open full text
  • Predictors of Perceived Need for and Actual Action Taking Among Women in Violent Relationships.
    Katerndahl, D. A., Burge, S. K., Ferrer, R. L., Becho, J., Wood, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 21, 2016

    Decision-making of women in violent relationships is poorly understood. The study seeks to identify predictors of need-for-action and actions taken by women in violent relationships. The participants were 143 women who experienced violence in previous month from 6 primary care clinics. The methods involved multiple times series using daily assessments of household environment, marital relationship, concerns, violence, and need-for-action collected via telephone interactive voice response for 8 weeks. Outcomes include daily need-for-action and reports of actions taken. Same-day correlates and prior-day associations using vector autoregressions were sought, combined across subjects using meta-analytic techniques. Need for help depended on stalking, concern for child safety, forgiveness, and low perceived control; actually seeking help depended on sense of control with same-day stress and need for help. Need for legal action depended on concern for child safety and finances with desire to keep family together; actually taking legal action, correlated only with prior-day stalking and concerns about child safety but less about effects of violence on child. Need to leave depended on his violence, with concern about its effect on child, her forgiveness, and a low desire to keep family together, while actually leaving was primed by a day of his drinking, and triggered by same-day stress and need to leave, but lower levels of her drinking or his seeking forgiveness. Once gone, prior-day stalking and his alcohol use correlated with returning to the relationship. Taking action depends upon few prior- and same-day factors unique to each action.

    September 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669543   open full text
  • Women Veterans Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-Partner Sexual Assault in the Context of Military Service: Implications for Supporting Womens Health and Well-Being.
    Dichter, M. E., Wagner, C., True, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 20, 2016

    Women who have served in the military in the United States experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner sexual assault (SA). The military setting presents challenges and opportunities not experienced in other employment contexts that may compound the negative impacts of IPV/SA on women’s lives. The purpose of this study was to explore the intersection of women’s experiences of IPV/SA and military service through analysis of women veterans’ narrative accounts. We conducted in-depth face-to-face qualitative interviews with 25 women veterans receiving primary care at a U.S. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. We draw upon Adler and Castro’s (2013) Military Occupational Mental Health Model to frame our understanding of the impact of IPV/SA as a stressor in the military cultural context and to inform efforts to prevent, and support women service members who have experienced, these forms of violence. Our findings highlight the impact of IPV/SA on women’s military careers, including options for entering and leaving military service, job performance, and opportunities for advancement. Women’s narratives also reveal ways in which the military context constrains their options for responding to and coping with experiences of IPV/SA. These findings have implications for prevention of, and response to, intimate partner or sexual violence experienced by women serving in the military and underscore the need for both military and civilian communities to recognize and address the negative impact of such violence on women service members before, during, and after military service.

    September 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669166   open full text
  • It All Just Piles Up: Challenges to Victim Credibility Accumulate to Influence Sexual Assault Case Processing.
    Morabito, M. S., Pattavina, A., Williams, L. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 20, 2016

    The underreporting of sexual assault is well known to researchers, practitioners, and victims. When victims do report, their complaints are unlikely to end in arrest or prosecution. Existing research on police discretion suggests that the police decision to arrest for sexual assault offenses can be influenced by a variety of legal and extra-legal factors particularly challenges to victim credibility. Although extant literature examines the effects of individual behaviors on police outcomes, less is known about how the accumulation of these behaviors, attributions, and characteristics affects police decision making. Using data collected from the Los Angeles Police Department and Sheriff’s Department, we examine one police decision point—the arrest to fill this gap in the literature. First, we examine the extent to which the effects of potential challenges to victim credibility, based on victim characteristics and behaviors, influence the arrest decision, and next, how these predictors vary across circumstances. Specifically, we examine how factors that challenge victim credibility affect the likelihood of arrest in sexual assault cases where the victim and offender are strangers, acquaintances, and intimate partners.

    September 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669164   open full text
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Bidirectional Violence in Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence Residing at Shelters.
    Holmes, S. C., Johnson, N. L., Rojas-Ashe, E. E., Ceroni, T. L., Fedele, K. M., Johnson, D. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 20, 2016

    There has been a long-standing debate regarding whether or not there is gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV); however, shelter samples have been understudied thus far. This study investigates the prevalence and predictors of IPV perpetration in a sample of 227 women in battered women’s shelters. Participants were asked to complete a number of measures assessing demographics, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) diagnoses, traumatic life events, and perpetration and victimization of IPV. Although the vast majority of women in this sample (93%) report perpetrating some form of IPV, few women endorsed violence that was not mutual (5.3%). Furthermore, for every type of IPV assessed, women were victimized significantly more than they perpetrated. Results also indicate that women’s perpetration of IPV, and predictors of such perpetration, varied across type, severity, and measurement of violence. However, most IPV outcome variables were predicted by women’s experience of victimization. Taken as a whole, these results support the assertion that context matters when examining the relative rates of perpetration as well as its predictors.

    September 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516670183   open full text
  • Psychopathic Traits and the Cheater-Hawk Hypothesis.
    Book, A., Methot-Jones, T., Blais, J., Hosker-Field, A., Volk, A., Visser, B. A., Gauthier, N., Holden, R. R., DAgata, M. T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 19, 2016

    The present study was a direct test of the cheater–hawk hypothesis which argues that psychopathy is related to two potentially adaptive interpersonal strategies: cheating and aggression. As expected, the measures of cheater and hawk behaviors comprised a single factor, according to a maximum-likelihood factor analysis. As hypothesized, psychopathic traits exhibited large positive correlations with measures of both cheater (entitlement, exploitiveness, and short-term mating orientation) and hawk (vengeance and aggression) behaviors. Furthermore, psychopathic traits were associated with the tendency of using individualistic and competitive tactics in an altruism game and being less likely to act in a prosocial manner. Finally, scores on the combined–cheater hawk variable were significantly correlated with psychopathic traits. As hypothesized, individuals scoring high on Factor 1 of psychopathy were more likely to utilize behaviors and strategies associated with the cheater–hawk designation, whether or not they scored high on Factor 2 of psychopathy. In general, the findings support the conceptualization that psychopathy represents a fast life-history strategy characterized by seeking personal gain over others, including exploitiveness (cheater), aggression (hawk), and risk taking. Results also indicate that cheater and hawk behaviors are part of a single strategy more often employed by those higher on psychopathic traits. Implications for treatment success are discussed.

    September 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669168   open full text
  • Intra- and Extra-Familial Victimization Experiences: Differentiating Between Incarcerated Serious Youth Offenders and Youth Rapists.
    Yoder, J. R., Hodge, A. I., Ruch, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 19, 2016

    Although research is becoming increasingly nuanced by exploring differential risk factors linked with types of youth offenders, typological distinctions have rarely been made between youth rapists and other serious youth offenders. This study tests the relative effects of intra- and extra-familial victimization—while holding other theoretically driven variables constant—on membership in three mutually exclusive youth offending groups: non-serious non-sexual offenders (n = 4,013), serious non-sexual offenders (n = 2,571), and rapists (n = 489). Data were drawn from the Survey of Youth in Residential Placement (SYRP). Incarcerated youth (N = 7,073) were surveyed on multiple constructs. Using appropriate weights in analyses, a multinomial logistic regression (referencing serious offenders) revealed youth who were victims of intra-familial physical abuse (22%) and intra-familial forced sex (42%) had a decreased risk of being in the non-serious offender category relative to the serious offender category. Furthermore, intra-familial emotional abuse (75%) and intra-familial forced sex (202%) demonstrated an increased risk of being in the rapist category relative to serious offender category. Although extra-familial victimization was statistically significant, victimization within the family had larger effects when predicting rape group membership. The research and practice implications are discussed.

    September 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669167   open full text
  • Cognitive Distortions Among Sexual Offenders Against Women in Japan.
    Hazama, K., Katsuta, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 15, 2016

    Research in Western countries has indicated that the cognitive distortions of sexual offenders play an etiological and maintenance role in offending. The present study examines whether the cognitive distortions hypothesized by previous Western studies can be found in Japanese sexual offenders against women. This study used the questionnaire administered by probation officers in the special cognitive-behavioral treatment programs for sexual offenders, which have been implemented since 2006 in Japan. Participants in the offender group were 80 Japanese male probationers and parolees (more than 19 years old, M age = 34.6, SD = 8.8) convicted of rape (n = 39) or indecent assault (n = 41). All of them attended special treatment programs at probation offices. The non-offender comparison group consisted of 95 Japanese male probation officers and police officers (M age = 35.5, SD = 11.4). A factor analysis of the questionnaire responses extracted three factors: Blaming the Victim, Minimization, and Avoidance of Responsibility. The data analyses showed that sexual offenders scored significantly higher than non-offender participants on the three subscales. No significant differences were found among four sexual offender groups classified as rapists or indecent assaulters and with or without previous convictions for sexual offenses. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that rapists and indecent assaulters placed on probation or parole in Japan hold cognitive distortions concerning sexual assaults against women than the control group of probation and police officers. The findings of this study also suggest that cognitive distortions exhibited by sexual offenders against women transcend cultural divides.

    September 15, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516669544   open full text
  • Exploitation, Offense, or Private Issue? Guardians Perceptions and Self-Efficacy in Handling Girl Compensated Dating in Hong Kong.
    Li, J. C. M., Cheung, C.-k., Jia, C. X. S., Mlyakado, B. P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 29, 2016

    Compensated dating (CD) has emerged as a global concern since the 1990s. Although considerable empirical research has been conducted to assess the patterns of and factors influencing CD, limited information is currently available on the attitudes of guardians (e.g., social workers, police officers, parents of students, and community representatives) in a Chinese community toward this issue. Using survey data collected from 962 guardians, the current study analyzes the guardians’ perceptions of CD and their self-efficacy in handling this issue. Results show that these guardians perceive CD to be exploitative or harmful and that their self-efficacy in handling this issue was low. In particular, social workers appeared to be considerably tolerant for this phenomenon. Perceptions of CD were partly predictable by age, gender, and educational attainment, whereas self-efficacy was partly predictable by experience working with cases involving CD. This study represents the first attempt to analyze the guardians’ views on a new form of child abuse. Moreover, this research has implications for social intervention, policy, and future research.

    August 29, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516665106   open full text
  • Self-Control and Emotional and Verbal Aggression in Dating Relationships: A Dyadic Understanding.
    Baker, E. A., Klipfel, K. M., van Dulmen, M. H. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 26, 2016

    Guided by the dynamic developmental systems perspective, this study extends past research by examining the association between self-control and emotional and verbal aggression (EVA) using a dyadic multi-method design. Guided by empirical research and the dynamic developmental systems perspective, we hypothesized that (a) there would be a negative association between one’s own self-control and one’s own perpetration of EVA and (b) there would also be a negative association between one’s partner’s self-control and one’s own perpetration of EVA. One hundred twenty heterosexual dating couples (ages 18-25 years) provided data on self-control (Grasmick et al.’s Low Self-Control Scale; reverse scored for ease of interpretation), self-reported perpetration of EVA (Emotional and Verbal Abuse subscale of the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory), and observationally assessed perpetration of EVA. Data were analyzed using path analyses within the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) framework. Consistent with previous findings, we found that self-control was negatively associated with the perpetration of EVA. Furthermore, we found partner effects, such that female—but not male—self-control predicted partner-observed perpetration of EVA. These findings highlight the importance of examining risk factors for EVA of both partners. Our findings also suggest that the association between self-control and EVA is partially a function of whether EVA is assessed through self-report or observational methodology. This highlights the need to conduct multi-method assessments in future research. As discussed in the article, our findings have implications for theories on intimate partner violence, study designs, and couple interventions.

    August 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516636067   open full text
  • Are Narcissists More Likely to Be Involved in Cyberbullying? Examining the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem.
    Fan, C.-y., Chu, X.-w., Zhang, M., Zhou, Z.-k.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 26, 2016

    Although cyberbullying, a new type of aggressive behavior via electronic means, has been found to be strongly linked with individuals’ personality characteristics, few studies to date have investigated its relationship with narcissism, especially overt and covert narcissism. The current study tested the associations between overt and covert narcissism on one hand and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization on the other. To explain these differences further, self-esteem was tested as a mediator through which the two types of narcissism may exert their influences on cyberbullying. An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 814 Chinese adolescents aged 11 to 18. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that after controlling for gender and student status (middle or high school students), covert narcissism positively predicted both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization, whereas overt narcissism had no association with either perpetration or victimization. Furthermore, when gender and student status were controlled, self-esteem mediated the relationships between overt/covert narcissism and cyberbullying perpetration and victimization, highlighting the possibility that self-esteem is an explanatory mechanism for the associations between the two types of narcissism and cyberbullying. These findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing engagement in cyberbullying may be more urgent and important for individuals with high levels of covert narcissism. Boosting self-esteem needs to be particularly highlighted in developing anti-bullying measures and policies.

    August 26, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516666531   open full text
  • The Operational Challenges for Batterer Intervention Programs: Results From a 2-Year Study.
    Morrison, P. K., Hawker, L., Miller, E. P., Cluss, P. A., George, D., Fleming, R., Bicehouse, T., Wright, K., Burke, J., Chang, J. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 24, 2016

    Batterers intervention programs (BIPs) constitute a primary intervention for perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). There is little understanding as to what operational, or program-level, challenges BIPs face that can impede their effectiveness and adherence to state standards. As part of a 2-year ethnographic study, we conducted 36 individual semistructured interviews with professionals working with BIPs and identified five themes related to program-level challenges for BIPs: (a) information barriers, (b) safety issues, (c) facilitator retention and training, (d) the need for monitoring, and (e) funding constraints. We conclude that continued work needs to be done at both the state and local level, and in coordination with community judicial, mental health, human services, and other agencies to help provide resources that support BIPs in sustained, safe, and as effective as possible work.

    August 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662307   open full text
  • Relationships Among Dispositional Mindfulness, Distress Tolerance, and Womens Dating Violence Perpetration: A Path Analysis.
    Brem, M. J., Khaddouma, A., Elmquist, J., Florimbio, A. R., Shorey, R. C., Stuart, G. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 24, 2016

    Scant research examined mechanisms underlying the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and dating violence (DV) perpetration. Using a cross-sectional design with 203 college women, we examined whether distress tolerance mediated the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and DV perpetration (i.e., psychological aggression and physical assault). Path analyses results revealed indirect effects of mindfulness facets nonjudging of inner experiences and nonreactivity to inner experiences on both psychological aggression and physical assault through distress tolerance. Mindfulness facets observing, describing, and acting with awareness were not linked to DV perpetration through distress tolerance. Results suggest that women who allow internal experiences to come and go without assigning criticism or avoidance are better able to tolerate transient distress and less likely to abuse a dating partner. Future research may examine distress tolerance and dispositional mindfulness facets as potential intervention targets for women who abuse dating partners.

    August 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516664317   open full text
  • Risk Factors for Concordance Between Partners in Assault Among University Student Couples.
    Straus, M. A., Saito, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 24, 2016

    Based on information 11,408 university students provided on perpetration of physical assault in a romantic relationship, they were classified into three Dyadic Concordance Types (DCTs). We then examined six risk factors drawn from previous literature of partner violence: physical abuse as a child, antisocial personality characteristics, alcohol abuse, coercive control, chronic denigration in a relationship, and patriarchy at the societal level. We hypothesized that some risk factors for assault are different dependent on the DCT. Using multinomial logistic regression, we found that some risk factors were associated with an increase in the risk of a couple being in the Male Only assaulted DCT more than the other two DCTs (e.g., men who were high in antisocial personality characteristics). Other risk factors were found to be associated with a greater increase in the risk a couple being in the Both assaulted DCTs (e.g., chronic denigration). These results suggest that theories about the etiology of partner violence should take into account whether the couple is Male Only, Female Only, and Both assaulted. Identification of the DCTs of cases can be helpful in focusing research, treatment, and prevention of partner violence in a way that better reflects the actual situation.

    August 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516665108   open full text
  • Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.
    Barnett, M. D., Sligar, K. B., Wang, C. D. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 24, 2016

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory.

    August 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516665110   open full text
  • Mothering, Guiding, and Responding to Children: A Comparison of Women Abused and Not Abused by Intimate Partners.
    Ateah, C. A., Radtke, H. L., Tutty, L. M., Nixon, K., Ursel, E. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 22, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has many negative outcomes for women, children, and families. However, researchers have opposing perspectives and findings with respect to the effects on mothering for abused women. The assumption by some service providers that abused mothers are compromised in their parenting generally ignores the larger issue of male violence and women’s and children’s safety. The question examined in this study was whether there were differences in reported positive parenting responses with children between women who have experienced IPV and those who have not experienced IPV. The sample consisted of 1,211 mothers and came from two studies: The National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, and The Healing Journey: A Longitudinal Study of Mothers Affected by Intimate Partner Violence. The Positive Interaction and Rational Parenting scales, adapted from Strayhorn and Weidman’s Parenting Practices Scale, were used to measure parenting interactions. Bivariate correlations between the outcome variables and maternal age, maternal education, child age, and child sex were calculated to determine whether any of these variables were significantly related to the Positive Interaction Scale or Rational Parenting Scale. This was followed by ANCOVA to determine whether mothers who had experienced IPV differed in their scores on the two parenting scales from mothers who had not experienced IPV. Findings did not support the notion that abused women are compromised in their parenting responses with their children in regard to positive interactions and behavior management. Recommendations include a greater focus on the prevention of IPV, addressing the source of violence and providing appropriate support for mothers who experience IPV.

    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516665109   open full text
  • "I Know It When I See It": Recent Victimization and Perceptions of Rape.
    Haugen, A. D., Salter, P., Phillips, N. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 19, 2016

    This study examined various individual differences that influence perceptions of sexual assault (SA), specifically focusing on participants’ self-reported recent experiences of rape or sexual coercion. Female college students (N = 214) read 16 short SA encounter vignettes, indicated whether what they read constituted rape, and completed individual difference measures. Results indicated that participants who confirmed a recent history of SA endorsed rape myths to a greater degree, held more adversarial sexual beliefs, reported higher levels of sociosexuality, and were less likely to construct the SA encounters as rape when compared with women who do not report recent SA or coercion. Further analyses showed that these variables interacted to predict rape perception in ambiguous SA vignettes, as identified by the participants. These findings illuminate some of the impacts of SA and coercion on women and provide suggestions for future research to further examine the relationship between recent assault history and perceptions of rape.

    August 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516664314   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Self-Determination Needs and Gender-Power Constructs Among Rural South African Women.
    Mpondo, F., Ruiter, R. A. C., van den Borne, B., Reddy, P. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 19, 2016

    This study aimed to identify psychosocial correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) by using constructs derived from the self-determination theory (SDT) and gender-power scales. Cross-sectional data (N = 238) were collected from women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and were used to test a structural equation model (SEM). The majority (87%) of the participants reported having sexual partners in the past 3 months, and in terms of IPV victimization, 36% and 26% of women had ever experienced verbal and physical abuse, respectively. Bivariate correlations showed that autonomy and beliefs about gender equality (BGE) were strongly associated with IPV. This finding was also confirmed in the SEM analysis, which indicated that autonomy had a direct effect on IPV suggesting that women who are in relationships that allow them to make decisions along with their partners possibly experience less IPV. In addition BGE, which was hypothesized to play a mediating role showed a significant direct association with IPV, suggesting that women who are aware of their rights may experience less IPV by choosing partners who do not espouse hegemonic masculinities or strong patriarchal beliefs. Our findings suggest that it would be important to incorporate decision-making skills and human rights awareness in future community-based sexual health and reproductive rights interventions.

    August 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516664316   open full text
  • The Relation Between Contempt, Anger, and Intimate Partner Violence: A Dyadic Approach.
    Sommer, J., Iyican, S., Babcock, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 19, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a persistent problem in our society, and there is strong evidence for the existence of bidirectional violence in heterosexual romantic relationships. Couples’ research has long focused on conflict and distressed communication patterns as a source of relationship distress and eventual dissolution. In addition to relationship dissatisfaction, dysfunctional communication also appears to be associated with elevated risk of IPV. In fact, one study found that communication difficulties were one of the most frequently self-reported motivations for committing partner violence in a sample of both males and females arrested for IPV. The current study sought to explore the association between the expression of distressed communication (contempt and anger) during a laboratory conflict discussion and reports of IPV perpetration using a dyadic data analysis method, the Actor Partner Interdependence Model, in a large ethnically diverse sample of heterosexual couples. We found that negative communication in the form of contempt was not only associated with one’s own physical assault perpetration, but it was also associated with physical assault perpetration of the other partner. In contrast, anger was only associated with one’s own physical assault perpetration. Therefore, our results highlight the potential efficacy of treatments for IPV that target negative communication patterns and affect.

    August 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516665107   open full text
  • Reporting Crimes to the Police Depends on Relationship Networks: Effects of Ties Among Victims, Advisors, and Offenders.
    Knoth, L. K., Ruback, R. B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 17, 2016

    A victim’s decision to report a crime to the police is typically made after talking with someone else, usually a friend or relative, but sometimes a stranger. The advice this person gives depends primarily on the seriousness of the crime, and to some extent on the gender and age of the victim. The present research, which used experimental vignettes, examined the role of social networks in reporting: How do the relationships among a victim, the advisor, and the offender affect the advice to report or not to report a violent or nonviolent crime? Results from Study 1 indicated that relationships matter: Crimes are least likely to be reported if the offender is part of the same triad as the victim and the advisor, and crimes are most likely to be reported if the victim, the advisor, and the offender are all strangers. Study 1 also found that males are more likely to protect friends who are offenders (by advising against reporting), while females are more likely to protect friends who are victims (by advising them to report). Study 2 found that the effect of these relationships on reporting is conditioned by the nature of the organization to which the offender belongs, such that males are particularly likely to protect their friends in athletic organizations and fraternities when accused of minor property crimes. Both studies found that gender differences in the advice to report are moderated by characteristics of the crime and triad structure.

    August 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662848   open full text
  • Stress Management and Health Promotion in a Sample of Women With Intimate Partner Violence: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Kokka, A., Mikelatou, M., Fouka, G., Varvogli, L., Chrousos, G. P., Darviri, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 15, 2016

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of a stress management program regarding mitigating psychological repercussions in women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial took place from January 2015 to June 2015, in Attica, Greece. A total of 60 women were randomly assigned into an intervention and control group, with the intervention group (n = 30) receiving stress management and a lifestyle program. Self-reported measures were used to assess stress, depression and anxiety levels, daily routine, severity of abuse, self-esteem, health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Statistical analysis showed a significant improvement in measures of stress, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and self-efficacy in the intervention group. Daily routine and physical exercise also improved. Based on these findings, we strongly encourage health professionals to advise women experiencing current and past IPV to adopt stress management techniques to their daily program, as a further means of empowerment.

    August 15, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516658759   open full text
  • Mutilation in Korean Homicide: An Exploratory Study.
    Sea, J., Beauregard, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 15, 2016

    Mutilation is a rare and unusual act performed on a victim, especially in cases of homicide. Knowledge on mutilation homicide is scarce as the base rate of this type of homicide is very low. Moreover, previous studies examining this specific criminal behavior have been mainly descriptive, neglecting to look at other factors related to the act of mutilation. Furthermore, depending on the cultural context and country of origin, the infliction of mutilation pre-, per-, or post-homicide translates into different meanings. Therefore, it is important to examine mutilation homicide in the context of non-Western countries. Using crime and forensic examination reports subjected to forensic examination and convicted for a homicide between 1995 and 2011 (N = 1,200) in Korea, the rate of mutilation homicide was estimated. Based on the 65 cases (5.4%) identified, information on the offenses and offenders were described. Moreover, using a series of bivariate analyses, the current study compared cases of mutilation homicides in Korea with other countries. Findings revealed interesting differences and similarities between mutilation homicide cases from Korea and the other countries. For instance, offender–victim relationship, victim’s gender, and criminal history were significantly different from the comparison groups. In addition, compared with Korea, mutilation homicide cases were significantly more likely to involve an accomplice in Finland, suggesting the need to carry the body over a long distance. Investigators and researchers need to understand the cultural context in which these acts are committed as the infliction of mutilation may serve different purposes across different countries.

    August 15, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516663898   open full text
  • Mobbing and Its Impact on Interpersonal Relationships at the Workplace.
    da Silva Joao, A. L., Saldanha Portelada, A. F.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2016

    Mobbing is characterized by the repetition, over a long period of time, of hostile behavior and unethical conduct carried out by a hierarchical superior or co-worker, against someone’s physic and mental integrity, endangering one’s job or disturbing the work environment. This current investigative study intends to assess the existence, frequency, and intensity of mobbing within the Portuguese nurse population, as well as its impact on their well-being and interpersonal relationships. The study carried out was quantitative, correlational, and cross-sectional. A questionnaire was used as the form to collect data. The questionnaire was sent out to 11 institutions in Portugal which were chosen at random, and it was also made available on a website for whoever wished to respond. The sample was composed of 3,227 nurses from various health institutions in Portugal. From the results obtained it was observed that on average each nurse undergoes 11 aggression conducts in their main place of work. The types of aggression suffered with greater intensity by the victims are communication blockage and being discredited at work. The predominant types of mobbing are the horizontal and the descending type. Nurses suspected the following motivations for those who had perpetrated mobbing against them: envy or jealous, not yielding or having been influenced by blackmail, not being subservient and being innovative, or entrepreneurial in the new work methods or perspectives. Almost half of the victims claim to have had health problems as a result of having suffered mobbing in their workplace.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662850   open full text
  • Stalking Victimization and Substance Use in College Dating Relationships: An Exploratory Analysis.
    Strauss, C. V., Haynes, E. E., Cornelius, T. L., Shorey, R. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2016

    Traditionally, most dating violence research has focused on physical aggression and has left stalking behaviors largely unexamined, despite evidence that stalking of an intimate partner occurs with high frequency. Moreover, the extent to which stalking victimization has the same negative mental health consequences as other forms of dating violence is unclear. Thus, using a sample of male and female undergraduate students in current dating relationships (N = 357), the association between stalking victimization and alcohol and drug use was explored. Results indicated that for both men and women, stalking victimization from a dating partner was related to alcohol and drug use, even after controlling for age, gender, length of dating relationship, and physical aggression victimization. These preliminary findings suggest that stalking victimization is associated with deleterious consequences; thus, additional research is needed to better understand the longitudinal, long-term consequences of stalking victimization. Additional implications and directions for future research are discussed.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516663899   open full text
  • Longitudinal Risks for Domestic Violence.
    Iratzoqui, A., Watts, S. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2016

    Much research has examined the connections between victimization experiences in the family during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, research that frames these different victimization experiences across the life course as part of a broader, longitudinal risk for experiencing domestic violence on the part of the individual, particularly within a theoretically driven model, is lacking. The current study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of American adolescents, to examine how child abuse connects to victimization by dating partners during adolescence and victimization by romantic and marital partners during adulthood, and whether dating victimization mediates the relationship between child abuse and intimate partner victimization in adulthood. Results suggest that this is indeed the case, with child abuse having a direct effect on adolescent dating victimization and a direct and indirect effect on adult intimate partner victimization. Implications of the findings for theory and policy are discussed.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516663897   open full text
  • Rural Location and Relative Location: Adding Community Context to the Study of Sexual Assault Survivor Time Until Presentation for Medical Care.
    Johnson, I. D., Hiller, M. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2016

    Despite a strong empirical base linking community context and proximity to resources to individual health care access, studies examining predictors of sexual assault survivor time until presentation for medical care have not yet examined these relationships. This study addresses this gap. The data included retrospective records on a sample of 1,630 female survivors who reported their sexual assault to law enforcement and were subsequently seen by a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) in one of eight Alaskan communities between the years 1996 and 2006. Logistic regression models were used to determine whether delays in presentation (presentation 12 hr or more after assault) differed for women presenting in unique communities (rural location), and between those whose assault and exam occurred in different communities versus occurring in the same community (relative location). Although rural location did not seem to have a unique impact on time until presentation, differing locations (i.e., relative location) of assaults and exams increased the likelihood of delays in presentation. Non-American Indian/Alaska Native race/ethnicity and knowing one’s assailant(s) also increased the likelihood of delays. These results indicate that in addition to a need for further research, there is a need for more appropriate and reliable sexual assault medical services across communities, and that survivors assaulted by known assailants should be targeted in efforts to reduce time until presentation.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516663900   open full text
  • Disseminating the Community Advocacy Project in Mexico: A Feasibility Study.
    Sullivan, C. M., Aguilar, E., Lopez-Zeron, G., Parra-Cardona, J. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2016

    The Community Advocacy Project is an evidence-based practice that has been shown to lead to numerous positive changes in the lives of intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors. Prior research conducted in the Midwest United States, and with primarily African American and Anglo American survivors, has shown that this short-term, community-based advocacy intervention results in increased safety and quality of life even 2 years after the intervention ends. The current study describes the process of culturally adapting and disseminating this program in Monterrey, Mexico, with a sample of low-income Mexican IPV survivors exposed to a variety of considerable contextual stressors. Interviews were conducted with advocates, advocate supervisors, and survivors to examine the acceptability and utility of the intervention. Twenty-seven IPV survivors, seven advocates, and four advocate supervisors participated in the intervention research. Advocates and their supervisors were highly laudatory, believing the intervention to be culturally relevant and effective. Encouraging changes were found for survivors as well, with positive changes over time being found on safety, quality of life, social support, and depression.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516663901   open full text
  • Flexible Funding as a Promising Strategy to Prevent Homelessness for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Sullivan, C. M., Bomsta, H. D., Hacskaylo, M. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2016

    The complex interrelationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and housing instability has been well established. Being the victim of IPV is a leading cause of homelessness for women, and once someone is homeless, their lives often spiral downward quickly. While some IPV survivors require extensive and possibly long-term assistance to achieve safe and stable housing (especially if they are contending with multiple complex issues), others could avoid homelessness if provided with immediate, individualized, and flexible assistance. For these survivors, whose housing has been otherwise stable but who face homelessness because of a crisis related to IPV, a brief intervention that includes flexible funding can restore a family’s equilibrium and prevent the devastating repercussions associated with homelessness. A longitudinal evaluation of a flexible funding program in Washington, D.C., found that this brief, relatively inexpensive intervention may increase housing stability—94% of clients were housed 6 months after funding was received. Implications for both research and practice are discussed.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516664318   open full text
  • Disordered Eating Behaviors and Sexual Harassment in Italian Male and Female University Students.
    Romito, P., Cedolin, C., Bastiani, F., Saurel-Cubizolles, M.-J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2016

    The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains—sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment—and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.

    August 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516664315   open full text
  • Acute Precipitants of Physical Elder Abuse: Qualitative Analysis of Legal Records From Highly Adjudicated Cases.
    Rosen, T., Bloemen, E. M., LoFaso, V. M., Clark, S., Flomenbaum, N. E., Breckman, R., Markarian, A., Riffin, C., Lachs, M. S., Pillemer, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 09, 2016

    Elder abuse is a common phenomenon with potentially devastating consequences for older adults. Although researchers have begun to identify predisposing risk factors for elder abuse victims and abusers, little is known about the acute precipitants that lead to escalation to physical violence. We analyzed legal records from highly adjudicated cases to describe these acute precipitants for physical elder abuse. In collaboration with a large, urban district attorney’s office, we qualitatively evaluated legal records from 87 successfully prosecuted physical elder abuse cases from 2003 to 2015. We transcribed and analyzed narratives of the events surrounding physical abuse within victim statements, police reports, and prosecutor records. We identified major themes using content analysis. We identified 10 categories of acute precipitants that commonly triggered physical elder abuse, including victim attempting to prevent the abuser from entering or demanding that he or she leave, victim threatening or attempting to leave/escape, threat or perception that the victim would involve the authorities, conflict about a romantic relationship, presence during/intervention in ongoing family violence, issues in multi-generational child rearing, conflict about the abuser’s substance abuse, confrontation about financial exploitation, dispute over theft/destruction of property, and disputes over minor household issues. Common acute precipitants of physical elder abuse may be identified. Improved understanding of these acute precipitants for escalation to physical violence and their contribution to elder abuse may assist in the development of prevention and management strategies.

    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662305   open full text
  • Skills for Healthy Adult Relationships at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County: Program Development and Preliminary Data.
    Khalifian, C. E., Murphy, C. M., Barry, R. A., Herman, B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 09, 2016

    The present study examines the development and preliminary pilot findings of Skills for Healthy Adult Relationships at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (SHARe@UMBC)—an intimate partner violence prevention program for college students. SHARe@UMBC is based on an integrative cognitive-behavioral model of communication and emotion regulation in close interpersonal relationships. There were four aims of the present study: first, to describe program development; second, to examine program acceptability and participant satisfaction; third, to examine the extent to which participants acquired relationship skills and their level of confidence in using those skills; and fourth, to examine perpetration and victimization of physical, sexual, and psychological aggression. These aims utilized data collected before program initiation, immediately after program completion, and at a follow-up 9 to 15 months after program completion. Findings from two pilot groups (15 students in total; eight women and seven men) indicated high ratings of program acceptability and satisfaction, reductions in negative communication, improvements in confidence using conflict management strategies with romantic partners and peers, and confidence initiating new romantic relationships. In addition, large effect sizes were observed for confidence providing emotional support to a romantic partner and self-disclosure with peers. Participants reported no incidents of physical, sexual, or psychological aggression perpetration or victimization at follow-up. Pilot implementation and initial uncontrolled results are encouraging and provide support for initiating a more extensive controlled investigation of program efficacy.

    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662303   open full text
  • Implementing a Systematic Screening Procedure for Older Adult Mistreatment Within Individual Clinical Supervision: Is It Feasible?
    Couture, M., Israe&#x0308;l, S., Soulieres, M., Sasseville, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 09, 2016

    Home care professionals are well positioned to witness or prevent older adult mistreatment in the community. Screening efforts are important because most victims will not easily come forth. Two Canadian local community service centers implemented a systematic screening procedure within preexisting individual clinical supervision sessions to support social workers and improve detection of mistreatment. The aim of this pilot project was to assess fidelity, acceptability, and feasibility of the new procedure. Qualitative data was collected using individual interviews with two clinical supervisors, one focus group with eight social workers and content transcribed from 15 supervision sessions. It was estimated that 400 clients were screened for older adult mistreatment using this new procedure. Results showed the procedure was judged acceptable because it sensitized social workers to risk factors, gave them time to reflect upon and discuss probable cases with their clinical supervisor. Nonetheless, participants did not use the designated statistical code in the new procedure to document mistreatment situations. Feasibility was mainly challenged by the fact that screening for older adult mistreatment competes with other organizational priorities. Future initiatives must develop strategies to counteract those barriers.

    August 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662851   open full text
  • Predictors of Intimate Partner Homicide in a Sample of Portuguese Male Domestic Offenders.
    Cunha, O. S., Goncalves, R. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 07, 2016

    Intimate partner homicide (IPH) is a major social problem, and it is important to determine the predictors of this violent behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between intimate partner violence (IPV) and IPH and to identify the variables that predict IPH. The sample was composed of 35 perpetrators of IPH, who were compared with 137 perpetrators of IPV. The data were collected using the Spousal Abuse Risk Assessment. The data suggest that IPH presents different dynamics from IPV. Being older, exhibiting suicidal and/or homicidal ideation/intent, and the use of weapons and/or credible threats of death substantially increase a man’s risk of committing IPH. Inversely, not being single, violating conditional release, and being victimized in childhood decrease the likelihood of committing IPH. These findings reinforce the assumption that IPV and IPH have both commonalities and differences and challenge the view that IPV and IPH are different phenomena and that intimate partner murder is an inexplicable event. Implications for preventing IPV and IPH are discussed.

    August 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662304   open full text
  • Wireless Participant Incentives Using Reloadable Bank Cards to Increase Clinical Trial Retention With Abused Women Drinkers: A Natural Experiment.
    Rodgers, M., Meisel, Z., Wiebe, D., Crits-Christoph, P., Rhodes, K. V.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 07, 2016

    Retaining participants in longitudinal studies is a unique methodological challenge in many areas of investigation, and specifically for researchers aiming to identify effective interventions for women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Individuals in abusive relationships are often transient and have logistical, confidentiality, and safety concerns that limit future contact. A natural experiment occurred during a large randomized clinical trial enrolling women in abusive relationships who were also heavy drinkers, which allowed for the comparison of two incentive methods to promote longitudinal retention: cash payment versus reloadable wireless bank cards. In all, 600 patients were enrolled in the overall trial, which aimed to incentivize participants using a reloadable bank card system to promote the completion of 11 weekly interactive voice response system (IVRS) phone surveys and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up phone or in person interviews. The first 145 participants were paid with cash as a result of logistical delays in setting up the bank card system. At 12 weeks, participants receiving the bank card incentive completed significantly more IVRS phone surveys, odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [0.01, 1.69]. There were no significant differences between the two groups related to satisfaction or safety and/or privacy. The bank card system delivered lower administrative burden for tracking payments for study staff. Based on these and other results, our large medical research university is implementing reloadable bank card as the preferred method of participant incentive payments.

    August 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662849   open full text
  • Making Judgments: How Blame Mediates the Influence of Rape Myth Acceptance in Police Response to Sexual Assault.
    Venema, R. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 04, 2016

    As research continues to describe negative experiences and high case attrition within sexual assault cases reported to the police, it is important to better understand the role of first-responding police officers. This study surveyed a sample of sworn police officers (N = 174) from one department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region to examine the effect of individual police officer characteristics, rape myth acceptance (RMA), attributions of blame, and case characteristics from a hypothetical vignette, on officer perceptions of a "good" case and behavioral intentions. Results found that although RMA predicts both perceptions of the case and behavioral intentions to respond in ways indicative of perceived seriousness, RMA is mediated by attributions of suspect blame. Victim alcohol use was found to decrease an officer’s likelihood of responding more vigorously, showing less likelihood of calling a detective or arresting the suspect, if identified. Future research should begin to connect not only case characteristics but also individual police officer characteristics, attitudes, and attributions of blame, with real case outcomes, in addition to hypothetical scenarios.

    August 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662437   open full text
  • The Nonlinear Effect of Informal Social Control on Repeat Intimate Partner Violence Victimization.
    Valentine, C. L., Stults, B. J., Hasbrouck, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 04, 2016

    Prior research has examined the effects of neighborhood context on intimate partner violence (IPV) with mixed results. While most studies find that neighborhood disadvantage is positively associated with risk of IPV, the effects are less consistent for characteristics such as social ties and informal social control. One possible explanation for these mixed findings draws from theoretical and empirical literature arguing that a high level of collective efficacy can aid in the control of criminal behavior, but it can also deter residents from acting against crime committed by neighbors. This suggests the possibility of a nonlinear effect of collective efficacy where the risk of IPV may be high in areas with very low levels of collective efficacy because of the inability of neighborhoods to collectively control residents, but it may also be high in areas with very high levels of collective efficacy where residents are less willing to report on the criminal behavior of fellow residents. We test this possibility using survey data for female victims of IPV in Chicago merged with neighborhood characteristics. Findings suggest that the risk of repeat victimization is highest in areas with either very high or very low levels of informal social control.

    August 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662847   open full text
  • Use of Health Services by Maltreated Children in Two Different Sociocultural Contexts: Where Can Doors for Interventions Be Opened?
    Suglia, S. F., Shen, S., Cohall, A., Bird, H., Canino, G., Brown, J., Duarte, C. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 31, 2016

    Among maltreated children, elevated use of non-routine (for illness or injury) services may coexist with underutilization of preventive services. Besides physical health problems, lack of contact with primary care may preclude the identification and delivery of appropriate interventions. We examined health service utilization in the longitudinal Boricua Youth Study of Puerto Rican children residing in the South Bronx (SBx), New York City (n = 901), and San Juan metropolitan area, Puerto Rico (n = 1,163). Parents and children (Mage = 9 years) reported on child physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect. Parents reported if their child had been to illness, injury, and well-child visits in the past year. In the SBx site, caretakers were more likely to report the children seeing a doctor for a well-child visit (90%) compared with children in Puerto Rico (71%). Children in Puerto Rico were more likely to visit a doctor for an injury in the past year compared with children in the SBx (39% vs. 24%). Twenty-one percent of children in the SBx reported maltreatment versus 16% in Puerto Rico. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, compared with non-maltreated children, those who experienced two or more types of maltreatment were more likely to have an illness visit in Puerto Rico (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.1, 2.2]) and the SBx (PR = 1.8, 95% CI = [1.1, 3.0]), or an injury visit (PR = 4.1, 95% CI = [1.9, 8.9]) in Puerto Rico only. Children in the SBx who reported only one type of maltreatment were less likely to use services for injuries than non-maltreated children (PR = 0.42, 95% CI = [0.2, 0.9]). No relation between maltreatment and well-child visits was noted. Children who experience maltreatment may frequently come in contact with health care providers, presenting opportunities for intervention and the prevention of further maltreatment.

    July 31, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660973   open full text
  • Parental Physical Force and Alcohol Use in Emerging Adults: Mediation by Psychological Problems.
    Pollard, M. W., McKinney, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 27, 2016

    Research has indicated that negative parenting practices, such as physical punishment, are associated with negative outcomes in children. These negative outcomes can present during childhood and during emerging adulthood. One negative consequence can be excessive alcohol use, a problematic outcome with its own myriad consequences. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of parental physical force on emerging adult functioning, specifically alcohol and psychological problems. A sample of 488 young adults completed questionnaires on current perceptions related to alcohol-related problems, physical and psychological aggression by their parents experienced during the previous year, and current emotional and behavioral functioning. Results showed full mediation between paternal physical force and emerging adult alcohol problems by emerging adult psychological problems. Emerging adult psychological problems partially mediated the effect of maternal physical force on emerging adult alcohol problem. Gender did not moderate these effects. The results support existing literature suggesting that the use of parental physical force may lead to a chain reaction of problems, even during emerging adulthood. These results also reveal that emerging adults report currently receiving physical force from their parents, which brings to light a concerning lack of literature on the use of parental physical force on emerging adult children. These results advocate for positive parenting practives and efforts to teach them, even for emerging adult children. The results may also clinically suggest that paying attention to parental force in emerging adult clients could yield a better understanding of their current functioning, especially including excessive alcohol use.

    July 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516659654   open full text
  • Risk Factors for Domestic Child Sex Trafficking in the United States.
    Fedina, L., Williamson, C., Perdue, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 27, 2016

    Despite increased effort to respond to human trafficking at national and state levels, very little empirical research has been conducted on domestic child sex trafficking. This study retrospectively examines associations between multiple risk factors and domestic child sex trafficking (i.e., entry into the commercial sex industry under the age of 18) in a sample of individuals aged 16 and older currently involved in the commercial sex industry (N = 273). Two primary research questions are addressed: (1) What set of risk factors, prior to entering the commercial sex industry, are associated with domestic child sex trafficking and (2) what group differences, if any, exist in risk factors between current or former domestic child sex–trafficking victims and non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry? A cross-sectional survey was administered using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) in five cities in one Midwestern state. Overall, 115 participants (48.3%) were identified as current or former domestic child sex–trafficking victims. Bivariate results suggest that childhood emotional and sexual abuse, rape, ever running away from home, having family members in sex work, and having friends who purchased sex were significantly associated with domestic child sex trafficking. Multivariate results indicate that domestic child sex trafficking victims were significantly more likely to have ever run away and to be a racial/ethnic minority than non-trafficked adults engaged in the commercial sex industry. Findings can inform state-level policies on human trafficking and assist child protection and juvenile justice agencies in developing prevention and intervention responses to commercial sexual exploitation.

    July 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516662306   open full text
  • Relations Among Victimization, Witnessing, and Perpetration of Aggression: Impact of Gender Among Youth Offenders.
    Tisak, M. S., Tisak, J., Baker, E. R., Graupensperger, S. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 25, 2016

    The participants included 251 (158 males; 93 females) youth offenders who were arrested and incarcerated in a juvenile facility in the Midwest United States. The aims were to assess (a) how often they were a victim, a witness, and/or a perpetrator of social aggression, simple assault, and aggravated assault during the past year; (b) to examine whether exposure (either witness or victim or both) predicted committing three types of aggressive behaviors; and (c) to assess the impact of gender among the youth offenders. Differential predictability models were utilized to assess gender differences. The findings revealed that gender was an important predictor. For example, females reported higher rates of being a witness, a victim, and a perpetrator of social aggression than did males. Moreover, female offenders committed simple assault more often than males and males committed aggravated assault more often than females. The general results suggest that it is important to examine the various forms of aggression, and exposure, as well as how gender affects these relationships.

    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516659658   open full text
  • Psychopathy Traits and Violent Assault Among Men With and Without History of Arrest.
    Reidy, D. E., Lilienfeld, S. O., Berke, D. S., Gentile, B., Zeichner, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 25, 2016

    Although research suggests that the antisocial behavior (ASB) facet of psychopathy generally carries the greatest predictive power for future violence, these findings are drawn primarily from forensic samples and may reflect criterion contamination between historical violence and future violence perpetration. Likewise, these findings do not negate the association of other psychopathy facets to violence or their role in the development of violence, nor do they offer practical utility in the primary prevention of violence. There are a number of empirical and theoretical reasons to suspect that the callous affect (CA) facet of psychopathy may demonstrate stronger statistical association to violence in nonforensic populations. We tested the association of CA to severe acts of violence (e.g., assault with intent to harm, injure, rape, or kill) among men with and without history of arrest (N = 600) using both the three- and four-facet models of psychopathy. CA was robustly associated with violence outcomes across the two groups in the three-facet model. When testing the four-facet model, CA was strongly associated with violence outcomes among men with no history of arrest, but only moderately associated with assaults causing injury among men with history of arrest. These results are consistent with data from youth populations that implicate early emotional deficits in later aggressive behavior and suggest CA may help to identify individuals at risk for violence before they become violent. Implications for the public health system and the primary prevention of violence are discussed.

    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660972   open full text
  • Gendered Perceptions of Drugs, Aggression, and Violence.
    Helm, S., Okamoto, S. K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 25, 2016

    Drug use has been linked empirically with aggression and violence among youth in national and State of Hawai‘i samples. In addition, aggression and violence appear to be gendered experiences perceived differently by girls and boys. This article explores the intersection of drug offers/drug refusals with aggression and violence with specific attention paid to gendered perceptions of drug use situations as a context for aggression and violence. A qualitative study, in which 14 sex-specific focus group discussions were held, focused on rural Native Hawaiian middle school students (N = 64). Students were asked to discuss drug refusal strategies in a variety of drug offer contexts. Feminist theories and approaches were used to examine the role of aggression and violence in drug refusal as perceived by Native Hawaiian girls as compared with boys. Girls and boys differed in their perceptions of aggression and violence in drug offer situations, initially as evidenced by the extent to which the girl groups focused on the intersection of drugs and violence. Furthermore, qualitative analyses reflected gender norms and stereotypes about aggression and violence perpetration, and girls’ apparently unique concerns about sexual violence victimization. Implications are discussed in terms of prevention research and practice, specifically in terms of school-based prevention curricula.

    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660301   open full text
  • Cyberbullying Perpetration by Arab Youth: The Direct and Interactive Role of Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Characteristics.
    Khoury-Kassabri, M., Mishna, F., Massarwi, A. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 25, 2016

    This study adopts a social-ecological/contextual perspective to explore Arab youth involvement in cyberbullying perpetration. We explored the association between individual (age, gender, and impulsivity), family (socioeconomic status and parental monitoring), and community (experiencing neighborhood violence) characteristics and cyberbullying perpetration. A moderation model exploring individual, family, and context interactions was tested. A sample of 3,178 Arab students in Grades 7 to 11 completed a structured, anonymous self-report questionnaire. The findings suggest that almost 14% of the participants have cyberbullied others during the last month. Adolescent boys with high impulsivity, low parental monitoring, and who experience a high level of violence in their neighborhood are at especially high risk of cyberbullying perpetration. Parental monitoring moderated the effects of impulsivity and experiencing neighborhood violence on adolescents’ involvement in perpetrating cyberbullying. Furthermore, the results show that impulsive adolescents who experience high levels of neighborhood violence are at higher risk of cyberbullying perpetration than low impulsive children who experience the same levels of neighborhood violence. The results highlight the central role parenting plays in protecting their children from involvement in cyberbullying perpetration by buffering the effects of personal and situational risk factors.

    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660975   open full text
  • Exploring Empathy and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Predictors of Animal Abuse Perpetrated by Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.
    Hartman, C., Hageman, T., Williams, J. H., Mary, J. S., Ascione, F. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 25, 2016

    We explored the relation between empathy, callous–unemotional (CU) traits, and animal abuse in a sample of 290 seven- to twelve-year-old children whose mothers were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The sample comprises mostly Latino and White participants, and 55% of the children’s mothers were born outside the United States (primarily Mexico). To our knowledge, among studies examining child-perpetrated animal abuse, this study is the first to examine empathy levels and one of only a few to examine CU traits. When comparing Griffith Empathy Measure (empathy) and Inventory of Callous–Unemotional Traits (callous–unemotional [CU] traits) scores with those from studies of White schoolchildren, our sample scored lower on affective empathy, higher on cognitive empathy, and lower for overall CU scores as well as Callous and Unemotional subscales. Of 290 children, 47 (16.2%) harmed an animal at least once according to either mother or child report. There were no significant sex or age differences between Abuse and No Abuse groups. The Abuse group scored significantly higher on affective empathy, CU, and Callousness/Unemotional subscales, and significantly lower on cognitive empathy. However, in regression analyses that controlled for income, only lower cognitive empathy and higher CU significantly predicted having abused an animal. In summary, low cognitive empathy (but not affective empathy) and CU traits may serve as reliable predictors of child animal abuse. However, replication of these results is necessary. A larger sample with a high percentage of Latino children whose mothers were exposed to IPV, along with a non-exposed comparison group, would be ideal.

    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660971   open full text
  • A Preliminary Test of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide in Women Seeking Shelter From Intimate Partner Violence.
    Wolford-Clevenger, C., Smith, P. N., Kuhlman, S., DAmato, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 25, 2016

    Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence (IPV) are at greater risk of suicide ideation and attempts compared with women in the general population. A theoretically grounded understanding of suicide risk in shelter-seeking women is critical to improve assessment and management of suicide risk in this population. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide ideation results from hopelessness about thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. However, suicide ideation does not progress to death by suicide unless one has acquired the capability for suicide (i.e., pain tolerance and fearlessness about death) via repeated exposure to painful and fearsome events. The present study provides a preliminary test of the IPTS in a sample of 134 women seeking shelter from IPV. First, we examined factors theoretically related to suicide ideation, demonstrating that only at high levels of hopelessness was perceived burdensomeness associated with suicide ideation. The study also examined factors theoretically related to the acquired capability for suicide (ACS), indicating that physical partner violence perpetration was associated with ACS. These findings suggest that perceived burdensomeness, particularly in the context of increased hopelessness, is important in the assessment and treatment of suicide ideation. Furthermore, violence perpetration may indicate greater risk of the capability to die by suicide among women seeking shelter from IPV.

    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660974   open full text
  • Religiosity,Conservatism, and Acceptability of Anti-Female Spousal Violence in Egypt.
    Kposowa, A. J., Aly Ezzat, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 25, 2016

    Physical violence directed at women is a significant social and public health problem globally. Initial studies tended to concentrate on developed countries, often relying on clinical or shelter samples to assess incidence and prevalence. Although prevalence is critical, reducing or eliminating some problems also requires comprehension of cultural norms and expectations. In the present study, we use a population-based survey to understand factors contributing to attitudes in support of physical violence against married women. More specifically, the aim of the study was to investigate the impact of religiosity and social conservatism on acceptability of physical spousal violence in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Data utilized were derived from Wave 6 of the World Values Survey conducted in 2013. Bivariate and multivariate regression models were fitted to the data. It was found that religiosity was significantly associated with physical spousal violence (b = –123, t = –4.480). Individuals who attended more often were less apt to accept physical spousal violence. Social conservatism was strongly tied to approval of physical violence (b = .368, t = –4.115). It was concluded that culturally biased and patriarchal attitudes that devalue women in Egypt, instead of religion, may be the underlying reason for spousal abuse. It was also concluded that improving higher education for both men and women would reduce physical spousal violence.

    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660976   open full text
  • Psychosocial Vulnerability Among Patients Contacting a Norwegian Sexual Assault Center.
    Vik, B. F., No&#x0308;ttestad, J. A., Schei, B., Rasmussen, K., Hagemann, C. T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 22, 2016

    In this study, the objective was to assess the occurrence of specific vulnerability factors among adult and adolescent females attending a Norwegian sexual assault center (SAC). We also explored assault characteristics and investigated whether these characteristics differed between the group of patients with vulnerability factors compared with the group without such factors. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 573 women ≥ 12 years of age attending the SAC at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010. A patient was considered vulnerable if at least one of the following features was present: intellectual or physical disability; history of present/former mental health problems; history of present/former alcohol/substance abuse; or former sexual assault. At least one vulnerability factor was present in 59% of the cases. More than one vulnerability factor was present in 29%. Reporting at least one vulnerability factor was associated with a higher patient age, unemployment, a higher frequency of reported light/moderate physical violence, and the documentation of minor body injury. In contrast, those without vulnerability more often were students assaulted during night time, by a casual or stranger assailant and reporting a higher intake of alcohol prior to the assault. There are obvious patterns of differences in the nature of sexual assaults reported among victims with specific vulnerability factors compared with victims without these factors. Future research should address these differences and possible solutions for better protection of especially vulnerable individuals against sexual offenses, such as those with mental health and substance abuse difficulties.

    July 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516659657   open full text
  • Deconstructing the Myths About Intimate Partner Violence: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News Reporting in Hong Kong.
    Leung, L.-C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 20, 2016

    This article depicts the dominant discourses on intimate partner violence (IPV) in newspaper reports and discusses how the myths about IPV are perpetuated in news reporting in Hong Kong. The myths about IPV consist of a set of prevalent assumptions in society that adversely affect the help-seeking behavior of survivors and impede social change. It is sometimes assumed that the victims cause the abuse and are personally responsible for solving the problem. This study reveals how news reporting in Hong Kong perpetuates the myths about IPV by engendering unequal power relations through the language and text used in newspapers. A critical discourse analysis is performed to depict the language used in the text and the embedded meanings in discourses on IPV in two popular local newspapers, Apple Daily and Ming Pao. The findings indicate that the two newspapers tend to use five major discursive frameworks in their reporting on IPV, namely, (a) gender symmetry, (b) stereotyping the abuser, (c) labeling the abused, (d) blaming the victim, and (e) ignoring women’s rights. The study reveals evidence of the systematic stereotyping of IPV abusers and blaming of survivors in newspaper reporting. These powerful discourses may perpetuate the myths about IPV and marginalize IPV survivors in society.

    July 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660298   open full text
  • The Reliability and Validity of the Dating Abuse Perpetration Acts Scale in an Urban, Emergency Department-Based Sample of Male and Female Youth.
    Goncy, E. A., Rothman, E. F.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 20, 2016

    Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) is an important public health problem, but existing measurement instruments have limitations. This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Dating Abuse Perpetration Acts Scale (DAPAS), a medium-length instrument (24 items) designed for use with adolescents aged 16 to 21 years. In Phase 1, 466 adolescent pediatric emergency department patients who reported perpetrating at least one act of physical ADA in the last year completed the DAPAS. In the second phase, 33 patients completed the DAPAS; two previously established dating violence measures, the Safe Dates Perpetration Act Scale and the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2); and a measure of violence, the Self-Report of Offending (SRO). Categorical confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a one-factor model of ADA perpetration best fit the data. Validity analyses showed moderate to high correlations between the DAPAS and both the Safe Dates measure and the CTS2 (r = .70 and .59) scores, and a small to moderate correlation between the DAPAS and SRO (r = .43). Sensitivity and specificity analysis of the DAPAS using 10 cut-points revealed an optimal cut-point, which correctly classified 85% of the respondents. The DAPAS showed concurrent validity with the Safe Dates measure and CTS2, as well as discriminant validity in its ability to differentiate perpetrators of violence in general from perpetrators of ADA. The DAPAS scale is a good alternative to the Safe Dates measure and should be considered for use in research studies of ADA.

    July 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660299   open full text
  • Sexting Coercion as a Component of Intimate Partner Polyvictimization.
    Ross, J. M., Drouin, M., Coupe, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 20, 2016

    We examined the role of sexting coercion as a component of the intimate partner abuse (IPA) construct among young adults to determine whether sexting coercion would emerge alongside other forms of partner aggression as a cumulative risk factor for psychological, sexual, and attachment problems. In a sample of 885 undergraduates (301 men and 584 women), 40% had experienced some type of coercion. Although there was some overlap between sexual coercion and sexting coercion (21% of participants had experienced both), some individuals had experienced only sexting coercion (8%) and some only sexual coercion (11%). Women were more likely than men to be coerced into sexting. Both sexting coercion and sexual coercion were significantly and independently related to negative mental health symptoms, sexual problems, and attachment dysfunction, and, notably, sexting coercion was found to be a cumulative risk factor for nearly all of these negative effects. These data support the idea that digital sexual victimization is a new component of IPA polyvictimization, potentially increasing the negative effects experienced by victims of multiple forms of partner aggression.

    July 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660300   open full text
  • "Its a Dogs Life": Culture, Empathy, Gender, and Domestic Violence Predict Animal Abuse in Adolescents--Implications for Societal Health.
    Plant, M., van Schaik, P., Gullone, E., Flynn, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 19, 2016

    Whereas the majority of previous research conducted on animal abuse has been in environments where animal abuse is rarely evidenced, the current study investigated the ramifications of animal abuse in an environment wherein the national culture creates an ethos of the "social acceptability" of animal abuse in society. Two survey studies were conducted with adolescent participants, to investigate the role played by several factors in the prediction of animal abuse in this age group. In Study 1, with samples from two different national cultures (101 from Germany and 169 from Romania; 143 boys/135 girls; age 13 to 17), animal abuse was negatively associated with affective empathy and national culture; more frequent animal abuse was found in Romania. Affective empathy fully mediated the association between gender and animal abuse. Specifically, girls were found to be higher in affective empathy; in turn, participants who were higher in affective empathy committed less animal abuse. Witnessing animal abuse was also predictive of engaging in animal abuse, but not independent of national culture. In Study 2, 15-year-old males (n = 21) and females (n = 39) took part, 29 from rural and 31 from urban locations in Romania. Rural adolescents were more likely to abuse animals and had higher exposure to domestic violence, which (in turn) was associated with more animal abuse. The implications of these findings in a society where animal abuse is encouraged and enacted on a national scale are discussed.

    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516659655   open full text
  • Bullied by Siblings and Peers: The Role of Rejecting/Neglecting Parenting and Friendship Quality Among Korean Children.
    Kim, J., Kim, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 19, 2016

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect links of rejecting/neglecting parenting, sibling victimization, and friendship quality with peer victimization using a convenience sample of 584 Korean children in Grades 3 to 6. In addition, we tested whether these associations differed between male and female students. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results revealed rejecting/neglecting parenting indirectly influenced peer victimization through sibling victimization for both males and females, although such effects were stronger for females than males. Sibling victimization had a direct effect on peer victimization across both sexes, although it indirectly influenced peer victimization through poor friendship quality only for males. Therefore, bullying prevention and intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware of the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles and involvement in sibling conflicts. Furthermore, while the role of friendship quality needs to be highlighted to prevent peer victimization among males, future research continues to explore other peer variables that are related to decreased peer victimization for females.

    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516659659   open full text
  • Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Examine Beliefs About Verbal Sexual Coercion Among Urban Black Adolescents.
    Eaton, A. A., Stephens, D. P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 19, 2016

    This study used the theory of planned behavior to identify urban Black adolescents’ beliefs about male-to-female verbal sexual coercion. Interviews were conducted with 91 urban, Black adolescents (53 boys and 38 girls) to identify their behavioral, normative, and control beliefs about verbal sexual coercion perpetration (for males) and resistance (for females). Boys reported that perpetrating verbal sexual coercion could result in negative relationship outcomes, and the main benefit of using this tactic was to obtain sex. Unsupportive peers and some male family members were seen as encouraging boys to use verbal sexual coercion, whereas parents were seen as opposed to the use of coercion. Being in a private context with a girl and having persuasive skill were seen as facilitating the use of coercion, whereas being with an experienced or skilled girl was a barrier. For girls, positive relationship outcomes and sexual health risks were the benefits and pitfalls of resisting verbal sexual coercion. "Real" friends and family were described as supporting girls’ resistance to coercion, while "fake" friends, promiscuous girls, and male peers were seen as not supporting resistance. Girls believed being in a safe, public context would make it easier to resist coercion, while being in a stable relationship with an attractive and persistent partner would make it more difficult to resist. Knowing urban, Black adolescents’ beliefs about verbal sexual coercion is the first step toward predicting and intervening on their perpetration and resistance behaviors.

    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516659653   open full text
  • Psychopathic Traits and Moral Disengagement Interact to Predict Bullying and Cyberbullying Among Adolescents.
    Orue, I., Calvete, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 19, 2016

    The aim of this study was to test a model in which psychopathic traits (callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible) and moral disengagement individually and interactively predict two types of bullying (traditional and cyberbullying) in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 765 adolescents (464 girls and 301 boys) completed measures of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits at Time 1, and measures of bullying and cyberbullying at Time 1 and 1 year later, at Time 2. The results showed that callous-unemotional traits predicted both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, grandiose-manipulative and impulsive-irresponsible traits only predicted traditional bullying, and moral disengagement only predicted cyberbullying. Callous-Unemotional Traits x Moral Disengagement and Grandiose-Manipulative x Moral Disengagement were significantly correlated with the residual change in cyberbullying. Callous-unemotional traits were positively related to cyberbullying at high levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was low. In contrast, grandiose-manipulative traits were positively related to cyberbullying at low levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was high. These findings have implications for both prevention and intervention. Integrative approaches that promote moral growth are needed, including a deeper understanding of why bullying is morally wrong and ways to stimulate personality traits that counteract psychopathic traits.

    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660302   open full text
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression in Men and Women Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence.
    Breet, E., Seedat, S., Kagee, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 17, 2016

    Poor mental health is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Literature suggests that gender differences play a role in this association. The aims of this study were to examine the: 1) prevalence of IPV perpetrated by men and women; and 2) association between symptoms of depression or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and IPV perpetration among men and women. A convenience sample of 210 people living in three peri-urban areas in South Africa completed self-report questionnaires that assessed symptoms of common mental health disorders and IPV. Gender differences were not found with regard to perpetrating physical assault and psychological aggression, although men were more likely than women to report perpetration of sexual coercion (42.9% vs. 23.8%). Men who reported higher symptoms of PTSD were 3 times (OR = 2.63, p = .023) more likely to report perpetrating sexual coercion, when controlling for demographic characteristics and symptoms of depression, than men who reported lower levels of PTSD. Women who reported moderate to severe symptoms of depression were 4 times (OR = 3.9, p = .01) more likely to report perpetrating physical assault, when controlling for demographic characteristics and symptoms of PTSD, than women who reported minimal to mild symptoms of depression. Findings add further support for differences in rates of IPV perpetration, and poor mental health as a risk for IPV perpetration. Interventions aimed at reducing IPV perpetration in the South African setting will only be marginally effective if gender-specific interventions are not developed that consider co-occurring symptoms of PTSD and depression.

    July 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516660297   open full text
  • Make a Move: A Comprehensive Effect Evaluation of a Sexual Harassment Prevention Program in Dutch Residential Youth Care.
    van Lieshout, S., Mevissen, F. E. F., van Breukelen, G., Jonker, M., Ruiter, R. A. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 12, 2016

    Sexual harassment—unwanted sexual comments, advances, or behaviors—and sexual violence are still prevalent worldwide, leading to a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional problems among those being harassed. In particular, youth in care are at risk of becoming perpetrators (and victims) of sexual harassment. However, in general, there are very few interventions targeting this at-risk group, and no such programs exist in the Netherlands. To this end, a group intervention program—Make a Move—targeting determinants of sexual harassment was developed. This program was implemented and evaluated among boys (N = 177) in Dutch residential youth care (20 institutions). A pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up design including an intervention and a waiting list control group with randomized assignment of institutions (cluster randomized trial) was used to measure the effects of the intervention on determinants of sexual harassment. Multilevel (mixed) regression analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α = .005) showed no significant effects of Make a Move on determinants of sexual harassment (ps > .03, Cohen’s ds < .44). Results are discussed in light of a three-way explanatory model focusing on intervention content, evaluation, and implementation as potential explanations for not finding any measurable intervention effects.

    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516654932   open full text
  • Experiencing External Workplace Violence: Differences in Indicators Between Three Types of Emergency Responders.
    van Reemst, L., Fischer, T. F. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 12, 2016

    Police officers, firefighters, and emergency medical workers are at a relatively high risk of experiencing external workplace violence (EWPV), that is, violence initiated by people outside the organization. Based on criminal opportunities theories, the aim of this research was to study to what extent socio-demographic and work characteristics are related to experiencing EWPV. In addition, the aim was to explore how these relations differ between the three types of emergency responders. Data from a workplace violence survey of the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations of the Netherlands was used, from which emergency medical workers (n = 264), firefighters (n = 255), and police officers (n = 296) were selected. Results indicated that police officers experienced most and firefighters experienced least EWPV. Younger professionals and professionals who have more frequent and risky contact experienced more EWPV. The expectations that males and those with less skills or experience to avoid EWPV experience more EWPV were not convincingly supported. The relationships between characteristics and EWPV, and the explanatory power of the models, differed between types of emergency responders. The studied characteristics best explained variations in EWPV of police officers, and therefore prevention of EWPV by addressing these characteristics will be most successful for police officers. The prediction of EWPV should be improved, for example, by studying the relationship with "attractiveness" or "vulnerability" of the possible victim, such as psychological characteristics of professionals. The study showed that research about indicators and prevention of EWPV should be aimed at separate professions.

    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516657913   open full text
  • Womens Drinking Decisions in Heterosocial Situations: Development and Validation of Scenarios to Assess Influence of Attraction and Risk-Awareness.
    Noel, N. E., Ogle, R. L., Maisto, S. A., Jackson, L. A., Loomis, R. B., Heaton, J. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 12, 2016

    These three related studies created a set of ecologically valid scenarios for assessing relative associations of both attraction and sexual coercion risk-recognition in college women’s heterosocial situational drinking decisions. The first study constructed nine scenarios using input from heterosexual drinking women in the age cohort (18-30) most likely to experience alcohol-related sexual coercion. In the second study, 50 female undergraduates (ages 18-25) assessed the salience of three important dimensions (attraction, risk, and realism) in these scenarios. The third study was a factor analysis (and a follow-up confirmatory factor analysis) of the elements of coercion-risk as perceived by the target group with two female samples recruited 1 year apart (Sample 1: N = 157, ages 18-29); Sample 2: N = 157, ages 18-30). Results confirmed that the scenarios could be a useful vehicle for assessing how women balance out risk and attraction to make in-the moment heterosocial drinking decisions. The factor analysis showed participants perceived two types of situations, based on whether the male character was "Familiar" or "Just Met" and perceived themselves as happier and more excited with Familiar males. However, in contrast to HIV risk studies, Familiar males were perceived as higher risk for unwanted sex. Future research will use the six scenarios that emerged from the factor analysis to study how attraction and risk perception differentially affect young adult women’s social drinking decisions.

    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516658754   open full text
  • Medical Evaluations Then and Now.
    Alexander, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 10, 2016

    The role of medicine for children suspected of having been sexually abused has advanced significantly since the 1980s. Newer tests such as DNA and nucleic acid amplification have added to the detection of perpetrators and disease, respectively. Non-acute examination physical findings are seen in only 5% to 10% of instances. Physical findings regarding the hymen and anus have been found to often be normal variants—findings that some used to regard as signs of sexual abuse. Newer considerations for clinicians include Internet child pornography, human trafficking, and use of video/photographic recording. New technologies such as high definition digital photography and telemedicine help to document abuse in a much improved way than existed several decades ago. Nevertheless, the basic approach of careful history-taking remains a bedrock for the diagnosis of child sexual abuse.

    July 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516657354   open full text
  • Factors Related to Rape Reporting Behavior in Brazil: Examining the Role of Spatio-Temporal Factors.
    Melo, S. N. d., Beauregard, E., Andresen, M. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 10, 2016

    The reporting of rape to police is an important component of this crime to have the criminal justice system involved and, potentially, punish offenders. However, for a number of reasons (fear of retribution, self-blame, etc.), most rapes are not reported to police. Most often, the research investigating this phenomenon considers incident and victim factors with little attention to the spatio-temporal factors of the rape. In this study, we consider incident, victim, and spatio-temporal factors relating to rape reporting in Campinas, Brazil. Our primary research question is whether or not the spatio-temporal factors play a significant role in the reporting of rape, over and above incident and victim factors. The subjects under study are women who were admitted to the Women’s Integrated Healthcare Center at the State University of Campinas, Brazil, and surveyed by a psychologist or a social worker. Rape reporting to police was measured using a dichotomous variable. Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of rape reporting based on incident, victim, and spatio-temporal factors. Although we find that incident and victim factors matter for rape reporting, spatio-temporal factors (rape/home location and whether the rape was in a private or public place) play an important role in rape reporting, similar to the literature that considers these factors. This result has significant implications for sexual violence education. Only when we know why women decide not to report a rape may we begin to work on strategies to overcome these hurdles.

    July 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516658758   open full text
  • Characteristics and Post-Decision Attitudes of Non-Reporting Sexual Violence Victims.
    Ceelen, M., Dorn, T., van Huis, F. S., Reijnders, U. J. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 10, 2016

    Although the physical and psychological consequences of sexual violence can be severe, many victims do not report the violence to the police force. The current study examined the characteristics and the post-decisional attitude of the non-reporting sexual violence victims. In total, 287 victims of sexual violence completed an anonymous online questionnaire that assessed characteristics of the violence, whether or not the crime was reported, reasons for not reporting, and aspects that would have convinced non-reporters to report in retrospect. Eighty percent of the victims did not report the most recent sexual violence incident to the police (n = 229). Nevertheless, 65% of the non-reporting victims (n = 148) in retrospect would have reported to the police ("potential reporters"). Specific reasons for non-reporting and incident characteristics appear to relate to the post-decision attitude of non-reporting victims of sexual violence. "Lack of evidence" and "feelings of shame, guilt, and other emotions" appear to be more frequently mentioned by potential reporters as reasons for their decision to not report as compared with the definitive non-reporters. Likewise, being raped or sexually assaulted is predictive of potential reporting. Our findings are useful for policy makers to develop strategies to increase reporting rates of sexual violence victims.

    July 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516658756   open full text
  • An Updated Review of Institutions of Higher Educations Responses to Sexual Assault: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample.
    Richards, T. N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 10, 2016

    It has been more than a decade since Karjane, Fisher, and Cullen reviewed a nationally representative sample of Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs) and documented "sexual assault on college campuses" and "what colleges are doing about it." The current research aimed to examine the current state of IHE’s response to campus sexual assault as well as any changes in IHE’s response over the previous decade. To this end, the present study provides a comparison of data reported in Karjane et al. and 2015 data from a statistically equivalent sample (n = 820). IHE’s utilization of policies and procedures that reflect recent guidance by the Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR) and best practices indicated by the 2014 White House Task Force to Protect Students From Sexual Assault are also presented and discussed.

    July 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516658757   open full text
  • Residents Experiences of Abuse and Harassment in Emergency Departments.
    Sadrabad, A. Z., Bidarizerehpoosh, F., Farahmand Rad, R., Kariman, H., Hatamabadi, H., Alimohammadi, H.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 10, 2016

    The widespread epidemic of emerging abuse in Emergency Departments (ED) toward residents generates negative effects on the residents’ health and welfare. The purpose of this study was to determine and highlight the high prevalence of abuse and harassment toward Emergency residents. In 2011, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional study was conducted at seven Emergency Residencies of central hospitals in Iran. Residents were asked about their age, marital status, postgraduate year (PGY) levels, and work experiences before residency. Prevalence of abuse in four categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; verbal and physical threat; physical assault and sexual harassment; and by whom. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Two hundred fifteen of the 296 residents (73%) completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 89%; 43% of residents experienced verbal and physical threats, 10% physical assault, and 31% sexual harassment. Verbal abuse and verbal and physical threats without the use of weapons were higher in men in comparison with women (p< .04). Women were more likely than men to encounter sexual harassment (31% vs. 7%, p< .01). Among the sexual harassment categories, sexual jokes (51%) were the most prevalent between residents. Junior residents (PGY-1) were more likely to experience abuse than senior residents (PGY-2 and PGY-3; p< .01). Patients and their companions were the main agents of abusive behaviors. Abuse and harassment during residency in ED are highly prevalent. Educational programs and effective preventive measures against this mistreatment are urgently required.

    July 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645575   open full text
  • To Stay in or Leave an Abusive Relationship: Losses and Gains Experienced by Battered Filipino Women.
    Estrellado, A. F., Loh, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 07, 2016

    The present study aimed to describe and analyze the losses and gains experienced by battered Filipino women as a result of their decision to stay in or leave an abusive relationship. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 60 battered women, 30 of the women were still living with their abusive husbands/partners and 30 have left their abusive husbands/partners. Results from the phenomenological data analysis of the qualitative data revealed that the women who stayed in and left their abusive partners experienced both losses and gains. For the women who stayed in an abusive relationship, they lost a sense of self, the opportunity for a better life, peace of mind, psychological well-being, and love for their partners. However, these women had the benefits of having a complete family and a partner to help raise their children. In contrast, despite not having a complete family or a partner to help them raise their children, women who left an abusive relationship gained back their sense of self, peace of mind, freedom, inner strength, and hope. Implications for counseling practice were discussed.

    July 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516657912   open full text
  • Psychological Distress and Revictimization Risk in Youth Victims of Sexual Abuse.
    Pittenger, S. L., Schreier, A., Meidlinger, K., Pogue, J. K., Theimer, K., Flood, M. F., Hansen, D. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 07, 2016

    Psychological distress, including depression and anxiety, has been associated with increased risk for sexual revictimization in youth who have experienced child sexual abuse. The present study utilized assessment information from treatment seeking youth with histories of sexual abuse to explore specific risk indicators for revictimization—risk taking, social problems, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress—that may be indicated by self-reported distress. The relationship between initial levels of distress and change in symptoms over a 12-week course of treatment was also explored. Participants were 101 youth referred to a child-focused therapeutic group for victims of sexual abuse, 65 youth referred to an adolescent-focused group, and their non-offending caregivers. Results revealed that when combined into a distress score, depression and anxiety were associated with delinquent behaviors, interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and posttraumatic stress symptoms for child and adolescent group participants at presentation to treatment. Children exhibited improvement on measures of interpersonal difficulties, maladaptive cognitions, and self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Adolescents exhibited less change over time, with significant improvement on self-reported social problems and PTSD only. Higher psychological distress was associated with less improvement in regard to negative expectations of abuse impact for child group participants. The findings suggest that distress indicates the presence of specific revictimization risk indicators, helping to identify targetable symptoms for intervention. Therefore, screening for psychological distress after discovery of sexual abuse may help detect youth at higher risk for revictimization and guide treatment.

    July 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516658755   open full text
  • Sexual Violence History and Welfare in Transgender People.
    Fernandez-Rouco, N., Fernandez-Fuertes, A. A., Carcedo, R. J., Lazaro-Visa, S., Gomez-Perez, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 06, 2016

    This study focuses on sexual violence experiences suffered by Spanish transgender individuals throughout the life span. Using a cross-sectional design, 33 face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted which included questions regarding the presence and/or absence of sexual violence, the nature of said sexual violence, by whom sexual violences were committed, coping mechanisms used, and certain mental health indicators. Results found a high percentage of transgender individuals to have been victims of sexual violence during childhood, to use avoidance as a coping mechanism for said experiences, as well as the frequent recurrence of experiences of sexual violence, showing victimization processes. In addition, the relationship between said experiences and mental health indicators were observed. This study highlights the importance of and need for addressing sexual violence among this population, and discusses and analyzes possible components of future educative and clinical intervention strategies.

    July 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516657911   open full text
  • Boozy Nights and Violent Fights: Perceptions of Environmental Cues to Violence and Crime in Licensed Venues.
    de Andrade, D., Homel, R., Mazerolle, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 05, 2016

    This article examines perceptions of environmental cues to crime, violence, and injuries in barroom settings, and how they differ between bar fight participants and non-participants. Bouncer friendliness, patron sex composition, and room temperature were chosen as experimental variables based on three criteria: (a) emerged as a theme in bar user focus groups, (b) unclear effects in the literature, and (c) policy relevant and easy to modify. These experimental variables were manipulated in written vignettes set in a bar. A three-part online questionnaire recorded 681 male university students’ responses to questions on demographics, the experiment, drinking and clubbing habits, and the Snell Masculinity Scale. A 2 x 2 x 2 randomized independent groups factorial design with covariates was embedded in the questionnaire, measuring the effects of the experimental variables on bar users’ perceived fear of victimization, likelihood and frequency of crime, venue preference, and perceived severity of injuries after accounting for prior bar fight participation and masculinity. Participants generally rated perceived fear of victimization, likelihood and frequency of crime, and severity of injuries to be highest when the bouncer was unfriendly, the temperature was hot, and patrons were majority male. Only main effects were significant (p < .01). Masculinity scale responses were not related to participant perceptions. While fight participants (9.8% of the sample) and non-participants had similar perceptions of the risk associated with certain environmental cues, fight participants were significantly (a) less fearful of victimization in settings they perceived as dangerous and (b) more willing to drink in any hypothetical venue.

    July 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516657910   open full text
  • Knowledge Dissemination of Intimate Partner Violence Intervention Studies Measured Using Alternative Metrics: Results From a Scoping Review.
    Madden, K., Evaniew, N., Scott, T., Domazetoska, E., Dosanjh, P., Li, C. S., Thabane, L., Bhandari, M., Sprague, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 04, 2016

    Alternative metrics measure the number of online mentions that an academic paper receives, including mentions in social media and online news outlets. It is important to monitor and measure dispersion of intimate partner violence (IPV) victim intervention research so that we can improve our knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) processes improving utilization of study findings. The objective of this study is to describe the dissemination of published IPV victim intervention studies and to explore which study characteristics are associated with a greater number of alternative metric mentions and conventional citations. As part of a larger scoping review, we conducted a literature search to identify IPV intervention studies. Outcomes included znumber of alternative metric mentions and conventional citations. Fifty-nine studies were included in this study. The median number of alternative metric mentions was six, and the median number of conventional citations was two. Forty-one percent of the studies (24/59) had no alternative metric mentions, and 27% (16/59) had no conventional citations. Longer time since publication was significantly associated with a greater number of mentions and citations, as were systematic reviews and randomized controlled trial designs. The majority of IPV studies receive little to no online attention or citations in academic journals, indicating a need for the field to focus on implementing strong knowledge dissemination plans. The papers receiving the most alternative metric mentions and conventional citations were also the more rigorous study designs, indicating a need to focus on study quality. We recommend using alternative metrics in conjunction with conventional metrics to evaluate the full dissemination of IPV research.

    July 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516657914   open full text
  • Relationships Between Mental Health, Skill Sets, and Violence Perpetration Among Adolescent Girls.
    Philippe, C. D., Gloppen, K., Sieving, R. E., Borowsky, I. W., Pettingell, S. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 03, 2016

    This study examines relationships between emotional health, stress management skills, fight-avoidance skills, and two forms of violence perpetration among adolescent girls at high risk for violence involvement. Participants (n = 253) were 13- to 17-year-old girls enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. The current study was completed with baseline data collected prior to the start of the intervention. Analyses examined self-report outcome measures of physical violence perpetration in the past 6 months (five-item scale, α = .79) and relational aggression perpetration in the past 30 days (six-item scale, α = .77). Independent variables included baseline measures of self-esteem (four-item scale, α = .89), emotional distress (six-item scale, α = .89), stress management skills (eight-item scale, α = .86), and fight avoidance skills (five-item scale, α = .70). Multivariate regression models predicted each form of violence perpetration controlling for age, race/ethnicity, violence victimization, and clustering of participants within clinics. Initial bivariate results showed that stress management skills and fight avoidance skills were inversely and significantly related to perpetration of both relational and physical violence. Emotional distress was related to significantly higher levels of both violence outcomes. In contrast, self-esteem was not significantly related to either violence outcome. Multivariate analyses revealed that stress management skills and fight avoidance skills were significantly protective against perpetration of both relational aggression and physical violence. In conclusion, findings suggest that clinicians providing services to adolescent girls involved in high risk behaviors assess and foster girls’ development of stress management and fight avoidance skills to help reduce their risk of involvement in relational violence and physical fighting.

    July 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516657909   open full text
  • Mirror Mirror on the Wall, Which Is the Most Convincing of Them All? Exploring Anti-Domestic Violence Posters.
    Shortland, N. D., Palasinski, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 28, 2016

    Although domestic abuse of women by men has received significant media, police, and research attention, domestic violence directed toward men has been marginalized across the board and is still rarely treated seriously. The purpose of this research, then, is to examine and compare different anti-domestic violence messages in which the abuser’s gender is not always clear. In Study 1, 200 U.K. participants (100 females and 100 males, aged 18-67, M = 28.98, SD = 9.613) evaluated posters that varied across three levels; in that the subject (male or female) was depicted as being silenced, bruised, or experiencing live abuse. The results showed that the posters featuring female victims were all rated as more effective than posters showing male victims. In Study 2, 140 different U.K. participants (95 females; 45 males) aged 18 to 59 (M = 27.27, SD = 10.662) evaluated the cartoon facial images of Disney characters who had been altered to look like victims of violence and real-life corresponding photos of human models. The results showed that the realistic posters were found to be more believable, emotional, and effective than the cartoons. The implications of such perceptions are discussed.

    June 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516654931   open full text
  • Domestic Violence in Pregnant Women: A Study Conducted in the Postpartum Period of Adolescents and Adults.
    Lima, L. H. M. d., Mattar, R., Abrahao, A. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 15, 2016

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence in adolescent and adult mothers who were admitted to obstetrics services centers in Brazil and to identify risk factors of domestic violence and any adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Researchers used standardized interviews, the questionnaire Abuse Assessment Screen, and a review of patients’ medical records. Descriptive statistical analyses were also used. The prevalence of domestic violence among all participants totaled 40.1% (38.5% of adolescents, 41.7% of adults). Factors associated with domestic violence during pregnancy were as follows: a history of family violence, a greater number of sexual partners, and being a smoker. No statistically significant association was found for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. Results showed that, in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, pregnancy did not protect a woman from suffering domestic violence.

    June 15, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516650968   open full text
  • Victim Characteristics, Situational Factors, and the Lethality of Urban Gun Violence.
    Altheimer, I., Schaible, L. M., Klofas, J., Comeau, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 12, 2016

    The objective of this study is to hone in on the contextual, social, and individual characteristics that influence lethal outcomes across shootings. Although most criminological research focuses on differential outcomes for gun violence relative to nongun violence, we argue that great insight can be drawn through examining shootings in isolation. We focus on five ways that shooting outcomes vary: the number of shots fired, the number of times the victim was hit, where the victim was hit, the number of victims that were hit, and whether the shooting resulted in a fatality. Building on the adversary effects hypothesis and public health research on the impact of gunshot wound volume and location, we examine the factors that account for variation across shooting outcomes. Our analysis of data from the Rochester Shooting Database suggests that both adversary effects and random factors influence shooting outcomes. In addition, the results also reveal that adversary effects are more important during some stages of a shooting than others. The implications of these findings are discussed.

    June 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516652264   open full text
  • Rape Myth Acceptance, Efficacy, and Heterosexual Scripts in Mens Magazines: Factors Associated With Intentions to Sexually Coerce or Intervene.
    Hust, S. J. T., Rodgers, K. B., Ebreo, S., Stefani, W.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 12, 2016

    Sexual coercion has gained researchers’ attention as an underreported form of sexual abuse or harm. The percentage of male and female college students who reported engaging in sexual coercion was as high as 82% for verbally coercive behaviors over the course of a year. Guided by heterosexual scripting theory and the integrated model of behavioral prediction, we examine potential factors associated with college students’ intentions to sexually coerce or to intervene when friends plan to sexually coerce (bystander intention). Factors included young college students’ beliefs about rape myth acceptance, perceived norms, efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk, and exposure to men’s and women’s magazines. As predicted, results indicate rape myth acceptance was positively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and negatively associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Students’ efficacy to reduce sexual-assault risk was negatively associated with intentions to sexually coerce, and positively associated with bystander intentions. Exposure to the heterosexual scripts in men’s magazines, which connect sexual prowess to masculinity, was associated with intentions to sexually coerce. Exposure to magazines was not associated with bystander intentions to intervene. Overall, an understanding of the independent contribution of these factors toward sexual coercion and intervention has implications for dating violence prevention programming.

    June 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516653752   open full text
  • Stigmatizing Reactions Versus General Negative Reactions to Partner Violence Disclosure as Predictors of Avoidance Coping and Depression.
    Overstreet, N. M., Willie, T. C., Sullivan, T. P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 12, 2016

    Despite increased attention to the relation between negative social reactions to intimate partner violence (IPV) disclosure and poorer mental health outcomes for victims, research has yet to examine whether certain types of negative social reactions are associated with poorer mental health outcomes more so than others. Furthermore, research is scarce on potential mediators of this relationship. To fill these gaps, the current study examines whether stigmatizing reactions to IPV disclosure, such as victim-blaming responses and minimizing experiences of IPV, are a specific type of negative social reaction that exerts greater influence on women’s depressive symptoms than general negative reactions, such as being angry at the perpetrators of IPV. We also examine avoidance coping as a key mediator of this relationship. A cross-sectional correlational study was conducted to examine these relationships. Participants were 212 women from an urban northeast community who indicated being physically victimized by their male partner in the past 6 months. Findings from a multiple regression analysis showed that stigmatizing reactions, not general negative reactions, predicted women’s depressive symptoms. In addition, a multiple mediation analysis revealed that avoidance coping strategies, but not approach coping strategies, significantly accounted for the relationship between stigmatizing social reactions and women’s depressive symptoms. Findings have implications for improving support from informal and formal sources and subsequently, IPV-exposed women’s psychological well-being.

    June 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516653753   open full text
  • Reductions in Parental Use of Corporal Punishment on Pre-School Children Following Participation in the Moms Empowerment Program.
    Grogan-Kaylor, A., Galano, M. M., Howell, K. H., Miller-Graff, L., Graham-Bermann, S. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 09, 2016

    Corporal punishment is a widely used and widely endorsed form of parental discipline. Inter-partner violence places enormous stress upon women. The rate of corporal punishment is higher in homes where other types of domestic violence are also occurring. This study compares two groups: those who participated in an intervention for women exposed to intimate partner violence (The Moms’ Empowerment Program [MEP]) and those in a comparison group. Using standardized measures, women in both groups were assessed at baseline and at the end of the program, 5 weeks later. The 113 mothers who participated in the MEP program had significantly improved their parenting, such that they had less use of physical punishment post-intervention. Findings suggest that a relatively brief community-based intervention program can reduce the use of parental physical punishment even in disadvantaged populations coping with stressful circumstances.

    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651627   open full text
  • Examining Ethno-Racial Related Differences in Child Molester Typology: An MTC:CM3 Approach.
    Schaaf, S., Jeglic, E. L., Calkins, C., Raymaekers, L., Leguizamo, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 09, 2016

    Sex offender typologies have been developed in an effort to better understand the heterogeneity of sexual offending as well as offenders’ varied risk and therapeutic needs. Perhaps the most well-known and validated child molester typology is the Massachusetts Treatment Center: Child Molester Typology–Version 3 (MTC:CM3). However, this typology was developed and validated using primarily White sex offenders. The current study aimed to replicate this typology in an ethno-racially diverse sample of incarcerated White, Black, and Latino child molesters (N = 499). Overall, we found that the MTC:CM3 was applicable to non-White child molesters but that there were differences in the proportion of offenders of different ethno-racial groups in Axis I type classifications. We found no differences in Axis II type classifications. Specifically, Black offenders were more often classified as socially incompetent and sexually attracted to adults compared with White and Latino offenders. Whereas White offenders were more often classified as socially incompetent and sexually fixated on children when compared with Black offenders, Latino offenders were more often classified as high in social competence and sexually attracted to adults than Black offenders. On Axis II, the majority of all three subsamples were classified as not having sexual contact with children beyond the offense, unlikely to inflict physical harm on victims, and as not having sadistic interests. Addressing these typological characteristics in the development and implementation of prevention and treatment efforts might increase the responsiveness of specific sex offender populations.

    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516653550   open full text
  • Personal and Environmental Predictors of Depression Among Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: Comparison of Immigrant and Israeli-Born Women.
    Refaeli, T., Levy, D., Ben-Porat, A., Dekel, R., Itzhaky, H.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 09, 2016

    In the present study, ecological theory was used as a basis for predicting depression among women who survive intimate partner violence (IPV). The predictors examined in the study derived from three ecological systems: the microsystem (background variables and frequency of the violence), the ontogenic system (personal resources), and the mesosystem (support resources). One hundred twenty-five women who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union and 149 Israeli-born Jewish women filled in questionnaires when they entered shelters for victims of IPV. The research findings indicate that background variables, including immigration, did not contribute significantly to the women’s depression. Frequency of violence contributed slightly to depression, whereas the women’s sense of mastery and social support contributed most significantly. The results highlight the need to strengthen these resources when women are in shelters, and to conduct further research to determine whether these results also hold true for women who receive services for prevention of violence in the community.

    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651624   open full text
  • Education, Perception Factors, and Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence: Empirical Research on Chinese University Students Perceptions and Attitudes Concerning Intimate Partner Violence.
    Wang, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 09, 2016

    Research on perceptions and attitudes regarding intimate partner violence (IPV), a prominent predictor of IPV, is limited, and surveys on the relationships of the influencing factors are even rarer. Using a convenience sample of 2,057 students and assessed by the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, this study explored Chinese university students’ perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV to improve IPV prevention programs. It focused on the existences of the different perceptions and attitudes regarding gender, residence, major, and age under the same condition of educational attainment. Significant gender differences were found, with female students possessing better perceptions, which indicated that with the same education levels, the perceptions of females were better than those of males. Significant differences were also found for the first time in the literature between science students and arts students, with the latter holding better attitudes. No significant differences were seen between students from rural areas and students from urban areas, suggesting that with the same educational attainment, there were no perception differences between rural and urban residents. No significant perception differences were found among freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors, which revealed that neither university education nor urban life had a significant effect on perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV for students who had finished high school education. In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that among the other factors such as gender, residence, and age, education was the most powerful factor influencing perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV.

    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516652263   open full text
  • Gender and Conflict Resolution Strategies in Spanish Teen Couples: Their Relationship With Jealousy and Emotional Dependency.
    Perles, F., San Martin, J., Canto, J. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 08, 2016

    Previous research has pointed to the need to address the study of violence in teen couples. However, research has not delved into the study of the variables related to the different types of violence employed by boys and girls. The purpose of this study was to test whether gender, jealousy, and dependency predict specific strategies for conflict resolution (psychological aggression and mild physical aggression). Another objective of the study was to test gender differences in the conflict resolution strategies used by Spanish teen couples and to test the association between these variables and jealousy and emotional dependency. A sample of 296 adolescent high school students between 14 and 19 years of age of both genders from the south of Spain participated in this study. Hierarchical regression models were used to estimate the relationship between psychological aggression and mild physical aggression, and jealousy, and dependency. Results showed that jealousy correlated with psychological aggression and mild physical aggression in girls but not in boys. Psychological aggression and mild physical aggression were associated with dependency in boys. Girls scored higher in psychological aggression and jealousy than did boys. Finally, the interaction between jealousy and dependency predicted psychological aggression only in girls. These results highlight the need to address the role of the interaction between dependence and jealousy in the types of violence employed in teen dating. However, it is necessary to delve into the gender differences and similarities to develop appropriate prevention programs.

    June 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651316   open full text
  • Rape Myths and the Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale in China.
    Xue, J., Fang, G., Huang, H., Cui, N., Rhodes, K. V., Gelles, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 05, 2016

    The study examines the similarities and differences between China and the United States with regard to rape myths. We assessed the individual level of rape myth acceptance among Chinese university students by adapting and translating a widely used measure of rape myth endorsement in the United States, the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) scale. We assessed whether the IRMA scale would be an appropriate assessment of attitudes toward rape among young adults in China. The sample consisted of 975 Chinese university students enrolled in seven Chinese universities. We used explorative factor analysis to examine the factor structure of the Chinese translation of the IRMA scale. Results suggest that the IRMA scale requires some modification to be employed with young adults in China. Our analyses indicate that 20 items should be deleted, and a five-factor model is generated. We discuss relevant similarities and differences in the factor structure and item loadings between the Chinese Rape Myth Acceptance (CRMA) and the IRMA scales. A revised version of the IRMA, the CRMA, can be used as a resource in rape prevention services and rape victim support services. Future research in China that employs CRMA will allow researchers to examine whether individual’s response to rape myth acceptance can predict rape potential and judgments of victim blaming and community members’ acceptance of marital rape.

    June 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651315   open full text
  • Sexual Victimization and Benefit Expectations of Risky Behavior Among Female College Students.
    Carlson, G. C., Duckworth, M. P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 05, 2016

    Sexual victimization has been shown to positively relate to both engagement in risky behavior and subsequent sexual victimization. Research has focused on the degree to which women consider the risks or costs of engaging in risky behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree to which women weigh the costs and benefits of engaging in risky behaviors. Using self-report data from 113 female undergraduates, two separate hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the contributions of number of sexual victimization experiences, emotion dysregulation, cost expectations of risky behavior, and benefit expectations of risky behavior to latency to exit a risk perception vignette involving a stranger and frequency of engagement in risky behavior. Regression analyses revealed that the full set of predictors accounted for 13% of the variance in latency to exit the risk perception vignette involving a stranger, with emotion dysregulation and benefit expectations making significant and independent contributions. Regression analyses revealed that the same set of predictors accounted for 34% of the variance in frequency of engagement in risky behavior, with number of sexual victimization experiences and benefit expectations making significant and independent contributions. The current findings suggest that sexual victimization risk may be influenced by perceived benefits of risky behavior. Implications of the current findings will be discussed in the context of sexual victimization risk reduction.

    June 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651626   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence Among Same-Sex Couples in College: A Propensity Score Analysis.
    Graham, L. M., Jensen, T. M., Givens, A. D., Bowen, G. L., Rizo, C. F.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 01, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive social issue with numerous detrimental effects on individuals, families, and society. Existing research and a social-ecological minority stress framework suggest, as compared with mixed-sex couples, those in same-sex relationships may be at heightened risk for perpetrating and experiencing IPV. Using a U.S. sample of college students (N = 4,081), this secondary data analysis contrasted the prevalence of five forms of IPV (i.e., physical, sexual, psychological, injury, any type) between those in mixed-sex (n = 3,960) and those in same-sex (n = 121) intimate partnerships. Comparative analyses were supplemented with propensity score weighting to help balance members of mixed-sex and same-sex relationships across eight potentially confounding variables (e.g., biological sex, age). Prior to the application of propensity score weighting, results suggested those in same-sex relationships are significantly more likely to perpetrate and/or experience IPV resulting in physical injury. Results from post-weighting analyses retained the significance and magnitude of model estimates. Taken together, results suggest, as compared with mixed-sex couples, U.S. college students in same-sex couples have greater odds of experiencing IPV perpetration and victimization resulting in physical injury, even after accounting for the influence of several potentially confounding variables. Findings support the utility and future application of propensity score analytic techniques in this type of research as well as the importance of recognizing the unique IPV risk and service needs of people in same-sex relationships.

    June 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651628   open full text
  • A Gendered Analysis of the Effects of Social Ties and Risky Behavior on Intimate Partner Violence Victimization.
    Policastro, C., Daigle, L. E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 01, 2016

    Recent studies have begun to explore how social ties relate to adolescent dating violence. Building upon prior literature that investigates the relationship between lifestyle patterns and dating violence, the current research explores how social ties developed early in life may indirectly affect intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization risk among adults by influencing risky behavior in late adolescence. Furthermore, the study explores the possibility that the relationship between social ties, risk behavior, and IPV may be gendered. To examine the direct and indirect effects, the current study uses data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to estimate multiple mediation models. Peer engagement and adolescent risky behavior have significant direct effects on IPV risk in young adulthood. Tests of indirect effects provide evidence of mediation with the social tie measures indirectly influencing IPV risk via their influence on risky behavior. Finally, there is evidence that the pathways to IPV victimization vary by sex. Implications for theory and policy, and directions for future research are discussed.

    June 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516652271   open full text
  • Heterogeneity Within Domestic Violence Exposure: Young Adults Retrospective Experiences.
    Haselschwerdt, M. L., Hlavaty, K., Carlson, C., Schneider, M., Maddox, L., Skipper, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 01, 2016

    Using Holden’s taxonomy of domestic violence (DV) exposure as a guiding framework, the current study examined young adults’ diverse DV exposure experiences. Twenty-five young adults (ages 19-25) exposed to father-perpetrated DV during their childhood and adolescence were interviewed using a qualitative descriptive design. Data analyses focused on coercive control exposure through reports of non-physical abuse tactics, types of exposure (e.g., direct, indirect), physical violence exposure (e.g., severity, frequency), and child abuse and harsh parenting practices. DV-exposed young adults were directly and indirectly exposed to physical violence and an array of non-physical abuse tactics toward their mothers. Young adults categorized as having been exposed to coercive controlling violence reported exposure to ongoing, non-physical abuse tactics and more frequent and severe physical violence. These young adults were also more likely to intervene and become victimized during physical violence and reported repeated episodes of child abuse and harsh parenting. Although coercive control appeared to be associated with physical violence and child abuse, generalizations should be made with caution as a few participants exposed to situational conflict were exposed to frequent and severe DV. The findings suggest that DV exposure should be measured in methodologically sophisticated ways to capture the heterogeneity in experiences, with the goal of promoting empirically driven intervention and prevention initiatives that are tailored to individual and family needs.

    June 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651625   open full text
  • Perceptions and Experiences of Intrusive Behavior and Stalking: Comparing LGBTIQ and Heterosexual Groups.
    Sheridan, L. P., Scott, A. J., Campbell, A. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 27, 2016

    The present research employed a mixed-methods approach and quasi-experimental design to examine perceptions and experiences of intrusive behavior (comprising 47 individual intrusive activities) within individuals identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or queer (LGBTIQ) with a matched (in terms of age, sex, and income) sample of individuals identifying as heterosexual (N = 214). Despite only minor differences between the LGBTIQ and heterosexual groups concerning perceptions of the acceptability of intrusive behavior, the LGBTIQ group was more likely to report experiencing a range of individual intrusive activities and to report experiencing stalking victimization (self-reported rates of 35.5% vs. 15.0%). Participant sex and personal experience of being stalked were minimally associated with perceptions of the acceptability of intrusive behavior. Sexual orientation significantly predicted whether a person had experienced stalking victimization, whereas participant sex did not. The qualitative analysis revealed that the two groups shared some experiences of intrusive behavior, whereas others represented a unique subset of intrusions that related to sexual orientation.

    May 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651313   open full text
  • "I Will Never Know the Person Who I Could Have Become": Perceived Changes in Self-Identity Among Adult Survivors of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse.
    Easton, S. D., Leone-Sheehan, D. M., OLeary, P. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 25, 2016

    Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse (CPSA) during childhood represents a tragic betrayal of trust that inflicts damage on the survivor, the family, and the parish community. Survivors often report CPSA has a disturbing impact on their self-identity. Despite intense media coverage of clergy abuse globally in the Catholic Church (and other faith communities) over several decades, relatively few empirical studies have been conducted with survivors. Beyond clinical observations and advocacy group reports, very little is known about survivors’ perceptions of how the abuse impacted their long-term self-identity. Using data collected during the 2010 Health and Well-Being Survey, this qualitative analysis represents one of the first large-scale studies with a non-clinical sample of adult male survivors of CPSA from childhood (N = 205). The negative effects of the sexual abuse on participants were expressed across six domains of self-identity: (a) total self, (b) psychological self, (c) relational self, (d) gendered self, (e) aspirational self, and (f) spiritual self. These findings highlight the range and depth of self-suffering inflicted by this pernicious form of sexual violence. The findings are useful for developing clinical services for survivors, shaping public and institutional policies to address clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse, and guiding future research with this population.

    May 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516650966   open full text
  • Beyond Advocacy: Mapping the Contours of Victim Work.
    Globokar, J. L., Erez, E., Gregory, C. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 25, 2016

    In contrast to works on victim advocacy in specific organizational contexts, this article introduces the term "victim work" to capture the vast array of victim-related roles and tasks that have proliferated in recent decades. Data are derived from in-depth interviews with 30 "victim workers" in public and private agencies in two Midwestern states. The interviews revealed diverse work experiences that spanned hotlines, crisis response, legal proceedings, and postconviction support. Three themes emerged that characterize "victim work": flexibility, emotions, and the challenge of "fit"—the multifaceted difficulties of interacting with victims and agents of the justice system. Based on the findings, we offer a revised model of criminal justice vis-à-vis victims and implications for practice and future research.

    May 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516650969   open full text
  • The Cycle of Violence Revisited: Childhood Victimization, Resilience, and Future Violence.
    Wright, K. A., Turanovic, J. J., ONeal, E. N., Morse, S. J., Booth, E. T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 25, 2016

    The individual and social protective factors that help break the cycle of violence are examined. Specifically, this study investigates (a) the individual and social protective factors that reduce violent offending among previously victimized children, and (b) whether certain protective factors are more or less important depending on the type and frequency of childhood victimization experienced. Data on young adults from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health are used (N = 13,116). Negative binomial regression models are estimated to examine the protective factors that promote resiliency to violent offending among individuals who reported being physically and sexually victimized as children. Results indicate that a number of individual and social protective factors reduce violent offending in young adulthood. With a few exceptions, these factors are specific to the type, frequency, and comorbidity of abuse experienced. The results suggest a number of promising approaches to break the cycle of violence among previously victimized children. Future research should move beyond explaining the cycle of violence to examine how the cycle may be broken.

    May 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651090   open full text
  • The Development of Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence: An Examination of Key Correlates Among a Sample of Young Adults.
    Copp, J. E., Giordano, P. C., Longmore, M. A., Manning, W. D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 25, 2016

    Social learning theory remains one of the leading explanations of intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on attitudes toward IPV represents a logical extension of the social learning tradition, as it is intuitive to expect that individuals exposed to violence in the family of origin may internalize behavioral scripts for violence and adopt attitudes accepting of IPV. Yet despite this assumed link between family violence and attitudes toward IPV, few studies have empirically examined factors associated with the development of such attitudes. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS), we examine the role of family violence on the adoption of attitudes accepting of IPV among a sample of young adults (n = 928). The current investigation contributes to existing literature on attitudes toward IPV by (a) providing an empirical examination of factors associated with attitudes toward IPV in predictive models; (b) relying on a multifaceted index, describing specific conditions under which IPV may be deemed justifiable; (c) examining extra-familial factors, in addition to family violence exposure, to provide a more comprehensive account of factors associated with attitudes toward IPV; and (d) focusing particular attention on the role of gender, including whether the factors associated with attitudinal acceptance of IPV are similar for men and women. Findings indicated considerable variation in overall endorsement of attitudes regarding the use of violence across conditions, with greater endorsement among women. Consistent with social learning approaches to IPV, exposure to violence in the family of origin was associated with attitudes toward IPV. Yet findings also signaled the salience of factors beyond the family, including a range of sociodemographic, relationship, and adult status characteristics. We discuss the relevance of our findings for future theorizing and research in the area of attitudes toward IPV.

    May 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651311   open full text
  • Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence.
    Berke, D. S., Reidy, D. E., Gentile, B., Zeichner, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 24, 2016

    Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men’s use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men’s experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV.

    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516650967   open full text
  • Fear of Crime: The Influence of General Fear, Risk, and Time Perspective.
    Chadee, D., Ng Ying, N. K., Chadee, M., Heath, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 24, 2016

    Prior research on fear of crime has focused less on psychological causes than on sociological and demographic factors. This study, however, introduces time perspective (TP) as an important psychological variable in the understanding of fear of crime. Specifically, the article assesses the relationship between TP as a stable personality factor and the mediation of risk and general fear on fear of crime levels. Data were collected using the survey method from a sample of 375 respondents utilizing the following scales: Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) consisting of five TP subscales, Ferraro’s perceived risk of victimization and fear of crime scales, and a general (non-crime) fear scale measuring pragmatic and abstract fear. Path analysis shows no significant direct relationships between the five TP subscales and fear of crime. However, indirect effects are observed for Past Negative TP and Present Fatalistic TP, with general fear (pragmatic and abstract) and risk of victimization mediating the relationship, and pragmatic fear having the greatest significant effect size. Results are discussed in the context of risk and general fear sensitivity and construal level theory. We conclude with recommendations for future research.

    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516650970   open full text
  • The Sexual Stratification Hypothesis: Is the Decision to Arrest Influenced by the Victim/Suspect Racial/Ethnic Dyad?
    ONeal, E. N., Beckman, L. O., Spohn, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 24, 2016

    The sexual stratification hypothesis suggests that criminal justice responses to sexual victimization will differ depending on the victim/suspect racial/ethnic dyad. Previous research examining the sexual stratification hypothesis has primarily focused on court processes, and the small body of literature examining arrest decisions is dated. There remains substantial opportunity for testing the sexual stratification hypothesis at response stages apart from the court level (i.e., arrest). Using quantitative data on 655 sexual assault complaints that were reported to the Los Angeles County Sherriff’s Department (LASD) and the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) in 2008, this study examines the effect of the victim/suspect racial/ethnic dyad on the decision to arrest. Findings suggest that police consider the victim/suspect racial/ethnic dyad when making arrest decisions. In addition, victim characteristics, strength of evidence indicators, and measures of case factors predict the police decision to make an arrest.

    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651093   open full text
  • Attachment Anxiety as a Risk Factor for Subsequent Intimate Partner Violence Victimization: A 6-Month Prospective Study Among College Women.
    Sandberg, D. A., Valdez, C. E., Engle, J. L., Menghrajani, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 24, 2016

    Recent research suggests that individuals with attachment difficulties are at increased risk for experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. However, most studies conducted on this topic have been cross-sectional, leaving it unclear whether attachment difficulties actually precede this type of violence. The current 6-month prospective study examined the relation between adult attachment and subsequent IPV victimization in a sample of 133 college women. At Time 1, participants completed the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) questionnaire to assess the two underlying orthogonal dimensions of adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ) to assess prior exposure to interpersonal traumatic events. At follow-up, participants completed a modified version of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2) to assess IPV victimization. Results indicated that attachment anxiety was associated with an increased risk for experiencing physical assault during the 6-month follow-up period, even after statistically adjusting for prior interpersonal trauma. In contrast, attachment avoidance was unrelated to subsequent IPV victimization.

    May 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651314   open full text
  • Willing but Not Able: Patient and Provider Receptiveness to Addressing Intimate Partner Violence in Johannesburg Antenatal Clinics.
    Hatcher, A. M., Woollett, N., Pallitto, C. C., Mokoatle, K., Sto&#x0308;ckl, H., Garcia-Moreno, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 22, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is associated with maternal and infant health. However, in South Africa, where 20% to 35% of pregnant women report experiencing IPV, antenatal care rarely addresses violence. Little research has explored how clinic staff, community members, or pregnant women themselves view IPV. We conducted formative, qualitative research with 48 participants in urban Johannesburg. Focus group discussions with pregnant women (n = 13) alongside qualitative interviews with health providers (n = 10), managers and researchers (n = 10), non-governmental organizations (n = 6), community leaders (n = 4), and pregnant abused women (n = 5) explored the context of IPV and health care response. Data were analyzed using a team approach to thematic coding in NVivo 10. We found that pregnant women in the urban Johannesburg setting experience multiple forms of IPV, but tend not to disclose violence to antenatal care providers. Providers are alert to physical injuries or severe outcomes from IPV, but miss subtler cues, such as emotional distress or signs of poor mental health. Providers are uncertain how to respond to IPV, and noted few existing tools, training, or referral systems. Nevertheless, providers were supportive of addressing IPV, as they noted this as a common condition in this setting. Providers and managers considered the safety and well-being of mother and infant to be a strong rationale for the identification of IPV. Pregnant women were receptive to being asked about violence in a kind and confidential way. Understaffing, insufficient training, and poorly developed referral systems were noted as important health system problems to address in future interventions. South African patients and providers are receptive to the identification of and response to IPV in antenatal care, but require tools and training to be able to safely address violence in the health care setting. Future interventions should consider the urban South African antenatal clinic a supportive, if under-resourced, entry point for improving the health of pregnant women experiencing violence.

    May 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651094   open full text
  • Sex Offending and the Transition From Adolescence to Adulthood: A Cross-Lagged Analysis of General Offending and Sexual Assault in College Males.
    Walters, G. D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 22, 2016

    The purpose of this study was to determine the direction of the general offending–sexual assault relationship in young males transitioning from late adolescence to early adulthood. It was predicted that the path leading from general offending to sexual assault would be significant and the path leading from sexual assault to general offending would be non-significant. This hypothesis was tested in a convenience sample of 851 male college students using three waves of data. Four cross-lagged correlations were compared after controlling for race, relationship status, blame attributions, and precursors for each predicted variable. Consistent with the hypothesis, both general offending leading to sexual assault pathways were statistically significant and both sexual assault leading to general offending pathways were not non-significant. Supplemental analyses revealed that more than half the specific non-sexual offenses contributing to the general offending score were capable of predicting general offending, indicating that the non-significant sexual assault pathways were not simply a function of the more limited size or scope of the sexual assault measure. The fact that general offending predicted sexual assault but not vice versa suggests that adult-onset sexual assault may be an extension of prior non-sexual offending.

    May 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651095   open full text
  • Additional Layers of Violence: The Intersections of Gender and Disability in the Violence Experiences of Women With Physical Disabilities in South Africa.
    van der Heijden, I., Abrahams, N., Harries, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 20, 2016

    South Africa has unprecedented levels of violence and many South African women are exposed to violence during their lifetime. This article explores how gender and disability intersect in women’s experiences of violence during their lifetime. Repeat in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 physically disabled women in Cape Town reveal that women with physical disabilities are exposed to various forms of violence, and shows how their impairments shape their violence experiences. The most common forms of violence women with disabilities experience are psychological violence, financial abuse, neglect, and deprivation, with disability stigma playing a central role and contributing to how women with disabilities are exploited and dehumanized. Constructions of women as asexual shape their sexual relationships and experiences of sexual violence. This article identifies that women with disabilities are more at risk and experience additional layers of violence than women without disabilities. These additional risks and layers of violence need to be recognized and inform interventions to prevent and respond to violence against women with disabilities in the country. Prevention of violence against women with physical disabilities in South Africa needs to address the role of disability stigma that shapes the types of violence they experience, change gender norms, and create accessible and safe environments and economic empowerment opportunities.

    May 20, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645818   open full text
  • Posttraumatic Growth in Relation to the Frequency and Severity of Traumatic Experiences Among Police Officers in Small to Midsize Departments.
    Chopko, B. A., Palmieri, P. A., Adams, R. E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 18, 2016

    The Critical Incident History Questionnaire (CIHQ) measures, through multiple measurement methods, the severity and frequency of traumatic events experienced by law enforcement officers. We, however, found no studies utilizing the CIHQ to examine posttraumatic growth (PTG) as measured by the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. The purpose of this brief report was to assess the strength and direction of the relationships between PTG with trauma frequency, trauma severity, and health variables, including subjective traumatic stress, relationship stress, nontraumatic work stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and alcohol use among law enforcement officers (N = 193) from small and midsize agencies. In addition, we sought to explore differences between cognitive and behavioral PTG. Based on results from bivariate and multivariate analyses, we found that an idiosyncratic view of trauma severity shaped by personal experience demonstrated the strongest relationship with PTG among the frequency and severity variables and that increased PTG was not associated with reduced psychological distress. Alcohol use, a variable that is assessed primarily through behaviors compared with cognitions, was not significantly associated with PTG. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate the importance for future research to consider both the frequency and severity of trauma exposure in the development of PTG and its impact on health outcomes.

    May 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516651089   open full text
  • Informal Control by Family and Risk Markers for Alcohol Abuse/Dependence in Seoul.
    Emery, C. R., Wu, S., Yang, H., Lee, H., Kim, J., Chan, K. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 08, 2016

    Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband’s coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.

    May 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516647003   open full text
  • From Victim to Offender: How Nuisance Property Laws Affect Battered Women.
    Arnold, G. W.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 04, 2016

    Nuisance property laws, which fine people for excessive 911 calls, have become increasingly popular in cities of all sizes. However, research into how these laws affect battered women is still in its early stages. This research study was designed to address the question of whether nuisance property laws harm battered women and, if so, how. Using a qualitative research design, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 primarily low-income African American battered women in St. Louis metropolitan area who had come into contact with a nuisance property law because of domestic violence. Interviews addressed circumstances of contact with a nuisance law, the response of law enforcement officials, and how the law affected the participant’s housing, ability to call 911, sense of safety, finances, access to health care, and family stability. Using a multi-stage qualitative analytic procedure, each transcript was coded for themes and then descriptive categories developed for each theme. The data demonstrate that nuisance property laws harm victims of domestic violence in several ways, including by hindering their access to safe and secure housing, discouraging them from calling 911, increasing their vulnerability to violence, and compounding the trauma of the intimate partner violence. This research also reveals ways in which nuisance laws reinforce gender, race, and class inequality. The findings show that nuisance property laws enhance the abuser’s power over his victim, hold victims accountable for the abuse, exacerbate the class- and race-based risks many battered women already face, and obscure the real crime of domestic violence. Policy makers need to be informed of these consequences so that they can take action to reform nuisance laws.

    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516647512   open full text
  • Correlates of Duration of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women Seeking Services at a Domestic Violence Support Center.
    Triantafyllou, D., Wang, C., North, C. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 04, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) duration may reflect factors preventing women from leaving abusive relationships. Although many studies have analyzed factors associated with IPV occurrence, few studies have evaluated factors associated with IPV duration. This exploratory study examined intake forms completed by 230 women seeking services at an IPV support center over a 2.5-year period, beginning in 2006. These women spent an average of 11 years in abusive relationships during their lives, which was more than twice the lifetime duration of their non-abusive relationships. In a multivariate analysis model, longer lifetime IPV duration was significantly associated with greater age, having children, non-minority racial/ethnic membership, and having no parental IPV history. The current study found that many factors associated with IPV duration were different from factors previously found to be associated with IPV occurrence. Therefore, efforts aimed at preventing IPV occurrence may also need to differ from efforts to limit IPV duration.

    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516647522   open full text
  • A Longitudinal Study of IPV Victimization Among Sexual Minority Youth.
    Whitton, S. W., Newcomb, M. E., Messinger, A. M., Byck, G., Mustanski, B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 03, 2016

    Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, little is known regarding its developmental patterns, risk factors, or health-related consequences. We examined IPV victimization in an ethnically diverse community-based convenience sample of 248 LGBT youth (aged 16-20 at study outset) who provided six waves of data across a 5-year period. Results from multilevel models indicated high, stable rates of IPV victimization across this developmental period (ages 16-25 years) that differed between demographic groups. Overall, 45.2% of LGBT youth were physically abused and 16.9% were sexually victimized by a dating partner during the study. Odds of physical victimization were 76% higher for female than for male LGBT youth, 2.46 times higher for transgender than for cisgender youth, and 2 to 4 times higher for racial-ethnic minorities than for White youth. The prevalence of physical IPV declined with age for White youth but remained stable for racial-ethnic minorities. Odds of sexual victimization were 3.42 times higher for transgender than for cisgender youth, 75% higher for bisexual or questioning than for gay or lesbian youth, and increased more with age for male than female participants. Within-person analyses indicated that odds of physical IPV were higher at times when youth reported more sexual partners, more marijuana use, and lower social support; odds of sexual IPV were higher at times when youth reported more sexual partners and more LGBT-related victimization. In prospective analyses, sexual IPV predicted increased psychological distress; both IPV types marginally predicted increased marijuana use.

    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516646093   open full text
  • Perceptions of Blame in Intimate Partner Violence: The Role of the Perpetrators Ability to Arouse Fear of Injury in the Victim.
    Russell, B., Kraus, S. W., Chapleau, K. M., Oswald, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 03, 2016

    Men are more likely to be blamed more for intimate partner violence (IPV) than are women who commit the same offense. However, because men are typically stronger and perceived as more physically aggressive than women are, perpetrator sex is confounded with masculinity and the ability to arouse fear in the victim. This study disentangled the construct of gender in understanding bystanders’ attributions of blame in IPV. Participants (N = 639) read a scenario in which the perpetrator’s sex (male/female) and gender identity (masculine/feminine), and the victim’s sex (male/female) were manipulated and rated how much they blamed the perpetrator and the perpetrator’s ability to arouse fear of injury in the victim. Results showed that male perpetrators (regardless of gender identity) who assaulted a female victim were attributed the most blame and were perceived as having the greatest ability to arouse victim fear. In contrast, feminine female perpetrators were attributed the least blame and perceived as arousing the least victim fear regardless of the victim’s gender. Furthermore, controlling for the perpetrator’s ability to arouse fear in the victim resulted in the elimination of the interaction effects for blame. This finding suggests that perpetrators’ ability to arouse fear is an underlying factor in bystanders’ attributions of blame.

    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516646999   open full text
  • Within and Inter-Institutional Differences Between Death Certifiers on Autopsy Conclusions.
    Hsieh, M.-L., Neuilly, M.-A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 03, 2016

    This study seeks to establish whether medico-legal practitioners differ in their autopsy conclusions within and across medico-legal institutions. Data include 459 violent deaths (homicides, suicides, and accidents) autopsy reports written by more than 20 death certifiers from four medico-legal institutions in two countries (France and the United States). Multinomial models show that compared with accidental deaths, weapon use and decedents’ characteristics both influence a homicide verdict, but not a suicide one. In addition, French practitioners are more likely than Americans to reach a conclusion of homicide or suicide compared with accident, and homicides are more likely to be certified by male practitioners.

    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516647006   open full text
  • Examining Childhood Maltreatment and School Bullying Among Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study From Anhui Province in China.
    Wang, G.-F., Jiang, L., Wang, L.-H., Hu, G.-Y., Fang, Y., Yuan, S.-S., Wang, X.-X., Su, P.-Y.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 03, 2016

    Although a body of research has established the relationship between childhood maltreatment and bullying in Western culture backgrounds, few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and bullying in China. Moreover, to date, the relationship between multiple types of childhood maltreatment and cyber bullying is poorly understood. This study examined the association between multiple types of childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and multiple forms of school bullying (physical, verbal, relational, and cyber). A cross-sectional study using three-stage random cluster-sampling approach was conducted in Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang, in Anhui Province. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 5,726 middle school students to assess their school bullying involvement and childhood maltreatment experiences. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between each single type of childhood maltreatment and each single form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of bullying as bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Specifically, both childhood physical neglect and emotional neglect were associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with involvement in cyber bullying. Students who experienced multiple types of childhood maltreatment seem to report more forms of school bullying. Furthermore, multiple forms of school bullying caused the co-occurrence of several forms of school bullying. Our results indicated a significant association between school bullying and childhood maltreatment among adolescents. Interventions to reduce school bullying encompassing prevention toward childhood maltreatment might get better results in China.

    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516647000   open full text
  • Do Single Experiences of Childhood Abuse Increase Psychopathology Symptoms in Adulthood?
    Rehan, W., Antfolk, J., Johansson, A., Santtila, P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 03, 2016

    Experiencing emotional, physical, and/or sexual abuse in childhood increases the risk (compared with baseline) of developing psychopathological symptoms in adulthood. In the present study, we explored the effects of experiencing only a single abusive event on adulthood psychopathology, and compared this with the risk in individuals with no abusive experiences and with the risk in individuals with several abusive experiences. We used a Finnish population-based sample of 10,980 adult participants (3,766 male and 7,214 female twins and their siblings). The participants reported abuse experiences using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and current psychopathology symptoms using the depression and anxiety scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory–18 (BSI-18). We found that in both men and women even single experiences of emotional and sexual abuse were associated with increased psychopathology symptoms compared with no abuse experiences. Single experiences of physical abuse did not, however, increase the risk in either women or men. As expected, experiences of repeated abuse (of all abuse types) increased the risk of psychopathology symptoms compared with experiences of single abuse. When we isolated individuals who only had a single experience of any type of abuse (i.e., emotional, physical, or sexual) to control for possible co-morbidity, no increased risk was found. This study shows that individuals who report experiencing single events of abuse of a specific abuse type have an increased risk of displaying psychopathology symptoms in adulthood. This increase is, however, mainly due to co-morbidity of abuse types.

    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516647004   open full text
  • Outcomes and Recidivism in Mandated Batterer Intervention Before and After Introducing a Specialized Domestic Violence Court.
    Tutty, L. M., Babins-Wagner, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 03, 2016

    Both specialized domestic violence (DV) courts and batterer intervention programs were developed to more adequately address intimate partner abuse and recidivism; however, little research has studied them concurrently. The current research examined clinical outcomes and police-reported recidivism in 382 men mandated to attend the Calgary Counselling Centre’s Responsible Choices for Men’s (RCM) groups between 1998 and 2009, before and after a specialized DV court was established in 2001. The study examines associations between categorical demographic and criminal justice variables, most of which were not correlated with post-group recidivism. Before the specialized court was implemented, 45 RCM members reported significantly more clinical issues at pretest than the 282 RCM members after court implementation (all scores adjusted by social desirability), although the effect sizes were negligible. Regarding group outcomes, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (adjusted for social desirability) significantly improved on average for all RCM members irrespective of court implementation. Before the specialized DV court was developed, recidivism occurred after RCM program completion for a large proportion of men (41.2%), compared with only 8.2% after court implementation, a significant difference with a moderate effect size. The recidivism results are interpreted in the context of the significant justice and community collaborations entailed in creating the specialized DV court.

    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516647005   open full text
  • Evolution and Analysis of Cultural and Cognitive Factors Related With Domestic Violence Against Women.
    Alves, M. J. V., Manita, C., Caldas, I. M., Fernandez-Martinez, E., Gomes da Silva, A., Magalhaes, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. May 02, 2016

    Despite the occurrence of encouraging political and social changes in the past few years, many beliefs about women’s role in intimate relationships persist, influencing their response to domestic violence (DV). This study aims to analyze the influence of recent policies against DV in Portugal, concerning particularly intimate partner violence against women and their perceptions about the victimization process. Two samples of women (n = 126 each) reporting an aggressive act allegedly perpetrated by the current or former male partner were interviewed with a hiatus of 5 years (before and after some most relevant policy updates). Results suggest a positive influence of the recent policies against DV. Many significant and encouraging changes were found in the more recent women sample (S2) relatively to the first sample (S1) regarding their information, awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward DV. They seem to show less tolerance and endurance to DV, placing responsibility on the offender, as well as seem more empowered to report. In S2, there was a decrease in the acceptance of violent behaviors as normal and of reasons to explain violence; the fears, shame, and helplessness about DV; the elapsed time between the beginning of the abuse and its report; and the prevalence of more severe types of physical abuse. In S2, there was an increase on the acknowledgment of DV as a crime, the number of reports in cases without cohabitation, the report of psychological abuses, and the feeling of safety and assurance while reporting.

    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645570   open full text
  • To Stay or to Leave: Factors Influencing Victims Decisions to Stay or Leave a Domestic Violence Emergency Shelter.
    Fisher, E. M., Stylianou, A. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 28, 2016

    Domestic violence (DV) emergency shelters play a vital role in supporting victims who seek to leave abusive partners and gain independence. Research indicates that numerous positive outcomes for victims and their children are associated with utilization of DV shelter programs. Yet, research also suggests that DV shelter programs may be unable to comprehensively meet the needs of all victims, and many choose to leave shelters soon after their arrival. To better understand the ways in which DV shelter programs support victims but also fail to meet their needs, this article explores the factors that influence victims’ decisions to stay or leave a DV emergency shelter program through qualitative interviews with 33 DV shelter residents. Study participants indicate that three types of factors influence their decision to stay or leave the shelter program: (a) contextual factors, (b) partner or family relationship factors, and (c) shelter-specific factors. Shelter-specific factors cited as important contributors to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with shelter living include policies, staff and services, displacement from one’s home community, and facilities. Findings provide information from the perspective of victims on the factors that influence one’s decision to stay or leave a DV program and can be used to support service providers and advocates in building programs that are both supportive of victims’ needs and conductive to longer shelter stays.

    April 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645816   open full text
  • Cyberbullying Awareness for Mitigating Consequences in Higher Education.
    Elci, A., Seckin, Z.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 28, 2016

    Technology has many positive effects on education, but negative effects also exist. One of the negative effects is cyberbullying spreading out of school boundaries to the social networks. The increasing popularity of social media among youngsters engenders cyberbullies who exploit the virtual environment besides the usual emails. This distresses the students and adversely affects their families, teachers, and others around them. Although research studies mainly concentrate on prior education, there seems to be a need to investigate the situation in higher education. This study focuses on students studying technology and related disciplines, who are hence likely to be well connected with cyberspace, and explores their awareness about cyberbullying. The findings reveal that female students have significantly less awareness than males. This study will help address some gender issues in cyberbullying.

    April 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516646095   open full text
  • Perception of the Threat of Terrorism.
    Cohen-Louck, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 28, 2016

    In light of the tense and ongoing security situation in Israel, one important issue that needs to be analyzed and understood is the perception of terrorism threats. Most studies focused mainly on the psychological implications of terrorist acts; this study examines the complexity of the manner in which the individual perceives the threat of terrorism. In all, 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men) were interviewed using semistructured in-depth interviews. Qualitative analysis indicates that the components of the perception of terrorism that construct the evaluation and subjective perception of the participants are as follows: (a) perception of control, which is a feeling of loss of control and helplessness due to uncertainty, inability to predict threats, and the vagueness of the threat; (b) perception of vulnerability to the threat, such as a feeling of vulnerability to and potential victimization by terrorism; and (c) perception of fear of terrorism that includes responses of fear, anxiety, feeling of danger, and emotional distress. In addition, gender differences were found in the analysis. The findings of this study help gain a better understanding as to how people perceive the threat of terrorism. The findings also enable an understanding of the complexity of living under ongoing terrorism threats and may assist in understanding how citizens cope with and adjust to this threat.

    April 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516646091   open full text
  • Responding to Intimate Partner Violence: Challenges Faced Among Service Providers in Northern Communities.
    Wuerch, M. A., Zorn, K. G., Juschka, D., Hampton, M. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 27, 2016

    The current study examined the needs of women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in a profiled northern community in Saskatchewan, Canada. A focus group was conducted with eight knowledgeable and experienced service providers to gain an increased understanding of the needs of women IPV survivors in northern regions of Canada. The discussion was guided by the question of "What do you see as the needs of women coming through your services with regard to intimate partner violence?" Qualitative analyses highlighted important findings pertaining to the unique needs of women experiencing IPV and the challenges service providers face in northern regions. Suggestions for improvement among resources and services were discussed. The findings will enhance the ability of government representatives and community service providers to decipher the effectiveness of support services and resources for women living in geographically diverse areas.

    April 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645573   open full text
  • A Nationwide Evaluation of Services Provided to Domestic Violence Survivors at Shelters in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    Muftic, L. R., Deljkic, I., Fansher, A. K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 27, 2016

    The shelter movement in Bosnia-Herzegovina was born out of a tradition of assisting survivors of gender-based violence in the early 1990s during the Bosnian conflict. To date, nine shelters are in existence providing emergency shelter and services to survivors. Little is known about these shelters, or the clients these shelters serve. The purpose of this study is to examine what services are provided to domestic violence survivors by shelters in Bosnia-Herzegovina and who these survivors are. A total of 43 service providers from all existing shelters within the country were surveyed about shelter characteristics, client demographics, and services provided. Findings revealed that the typical Bosnian shelter had been in operation for 11 years and had assisted 64 survivors in the previous year; the majority of whom were married females with minor children who had sought shelter services before. Core services were provided by the majority of shelters, including crisis services, legal and medical advocacy, counseling, and community education. While services were provided to a diverse group of survivors (e.g., children, elderly women, victims of human trafficking), shelters were less likely to be available for male and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender survivors. Implications from these findings, as well as limitations and suggestions for further research, are discussed.

    April 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645571   open full text
  • Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Experiences: Psychological and Social Well-Being Consequences for Women.
    Saez, G., Valor-Segura, I., Exposito, F.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 27, 2016

    Sexual objectification as a form of sexist discrimination accounts for the higher prevalence of psychological problems among women. More specifically, sexual objectification manifests itself in different ways with different intensities, in turn affecting women’s psychological well-being differently. On one hand, experiences of body evaluation are more subtle and work by perpetuating sexist attitudes among women themselves. On the other hand, more explicit forms of sexual objectification (unwanted explicit sexual advances) are linked to higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of self-esteem. The first study, on a sample of 343 Spanish women, aims to analyze the consequences of different forms of sexual objectification on women’s psychological well-being and the effect of sexism and enjoyment of objectification on these consequences. The second study, on a sample of 144 Spanish women, focuses on analyzing the ideological variables that have an effect on response to acts of sexist discrimination. Both studies reveal the significance of the more subtle experiences of sexual objectification as a mechanism that plays a part in keeping women in a subordinate position, where they end up feeling that this process is positive or pleasing.

    April 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645813   open full text
  • On the Lived Experience of Sex Offenders Therapists: Their Perceptions of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Consequences and Patterns of Coping.
    Elias, H., Haj-Yahia, M. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 27, 2016

    In the last two decades, there has been a growing understanding that the therapeutic encounter with sex offenders takes a cost and has consequences on therapists. Despite the increasing research on the consequences of treating sex offenders, these studies in fact, have merely described the consequences, without providing an outlook for how therapists cope with them. The study presented in this article was part of a larger qualitative research project conducted among social workers, using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Emphasis is placed on therapists’ perceptions of the intrapersonal and interpersonal consequences they experience from treating sex offenders, as well as the strategies they use to cope with these consequences. The study’s central findings concern the therapists’ perception of the intrapersonal consequences, which included two levels: primary responses and cumulative responses, and their perception of the interpersonal consequences that included their parenting relationships, intimate relationships, their attitude toward others (strangers and acquaintances), loss of their quality of life, and further positive consequences. The findings indicated a sequence and integrated use of the strategies to cope with the consequences. The results are discussed in light of the theoretical framework of Lazarus and Folkman’s stress and coping theory. The limitations of the study as well as its implications for future research are discussed.

    April 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516646090   open full text
  • I Love You but I Cyberbully You: The Role of Hostile Sexism.
    Martinez-Pecino, R., Duran, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 25, 2016

    Cyberbullying is attracting social, political, and academic interest as the use of electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones by young people has increased dramatically. However, little is known about the factors involved in their perpetration, particularly in the context of college students’ dating relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of college students in cyberbullying in the context of their dating relationships and to explore the impact of sexism on males’ cyberbullying of their girlfriends. Participants are 219 undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain. Results showed that 48.4% of participants reported having bullied their partners during the last year via mobile phone and 37.5% via Internet. Males reported a greater extent of cyberbullying of their girlfriends through both means. Regression analyses indicated that males’ levels of hostile sexism are related to males’ cyberbullying of their girlfriends. These findings suggest a modernization in the forms of violence toward women among college students and also expand current literature by revealing the influence of participants’ hostile sexism on this type of cyber aggression against women in dating relationships.

    April 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645817   open full text
  • The Mediator Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Impulsive Symptoms in Female Survivors of CSA.
    Estevez, A., Ozerinjauregi, N., Herrero-Fernandez, D., Jauregui, P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 24, 2016

    Child abuse is a traumatic experience that may have psychological consequences such as dysfunctional beliefs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impulsive behaviors (alcohol abuse, gambling, drug abuse, eating disorders, Internet abuse, videogame abuse, shopping and sex addiction) in sexual abuse survivors and to study the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the appearance of impulsive behaviors in adult female victims. The sample consisted of 182 adult women who had suffered childhood sexual abuse (CSA), mostly referred by associations for the treatment of childhood abuse and maltreatment. Sexual abuse was found to be positively related to the domains of Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Autonomy. Moreover, these domains were significantly related to impulsivity and impulsive behaviors. Finally, the Disconnection/Rejection domain was found to mediate between CSA and eating disorders and alcohol abuse. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention.

    April 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645815   open full text
  • Examining the Role of Supportive Family Connection in Violence Exposure Among Male Youth in Urban Environments.
    Culyba, A. J., Ginsburg, K. R., Fein, J. A., Branas, C. C., Richmond, T. S., Miller, E., Wiebe, D. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 24, 2016

    Family connection has demonstrated protective effects on violence perpetration, victimization, and witnessing in the general U.S. adolescent population. However, several studies examining the impact of family connection on violence exposure in adolescents living in low-resource urban environments have failed to demonstrate similar protective effects. We interviewed male youth in low-resource neighborhoods in Philadelphia recruited through household random sampling. Adjusted logistic regression was used to test whether a supportive relationship with an adult family member was inversely associated with violence involvement and violence witnessing. In 283 youth participants aged 10 to 24 years, 33% reported high violence involvement, 30% reported high violence witnessing, and 17% reported both. Youth who identified at least one supportive adult family member were significantly less likely to report violence involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.18, 0.69]) and violence witnessing (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.24, 0.88]). Youth with two supportive parents, and those with supportive mothers only, also demonstrated significant inverse associations with violence involvement. Supportive parental relationships were inversely but not significantly related to witnessing violence. The findings suggest that supportive parental relationships may not prevent youth in low-resource neighborhoods from witnessing violence but may help prevent direct violence involvement. Next studies should be designed such that the mechanisms that confer protection can be identified, and should identify opportunities to bolster family connection that may reduce adolescent violence involvement among youth in low-resource urban environments.

    April 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516646094   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence Among Older Portuguese Immigrant Women in Canada.
    Souto, R. Q., Guruge, S., Merighi, M. A. B., de Jesus, M. C. P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 24, 2016

    One third of the immigrant population around the world is made up of women. Of these women, many belong to the Portuguese community. Immigrants account for more than one in five Canadians. The Portuguese older immigrant women living in Canada are vulnerable to be victims of intimate partner violence (IPV), which is a prevalent and important global health issue that affects differently diverse groups. There are few available researches regarding IPV on this population. The objective of this study is to understand how Portuguese older immigrant women living in Canada experience IPV. This is a qualitative study with a social phenomenological focus. Alfred Schutz’s motivation theory was used to analyze the impulses that led older women to face IPV. The data were collected from July to October 2013 in the Greater Toronto Area. Ten women 60 years or older were included in the study. The participants perceived themselves as being victimized by their current or ex partners. They are unhappy and suffer from a variety of health problems, which they related to their experience of IPV. These factors, along with participants’ personal beliefs, and their legal situations as immigrants in Canada, made them act, either in a way that would try to maintain their relationships, or tried to escape the violent situation. IPV is a complex phenomenon, with different perceptions surrounding it. The experiences of the older immigrant women showed that ending the marriage is not always a possibility to them because of cultural issues and their immigrant status in Canada. Some women wish help and support to improve their relationships.

    April 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516646101   open full text
  • Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence.
    Sianko, N., Hedge, J. M., McDonell, J. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 22, 2016

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents’ reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed.

    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645574   open full text
  • Maltreated Childrens Ability to Make Temporal Judgments Using a Recurring Landmark Event.
    McWilliams, K., Lyon, T. D., Quas, J. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 22, 2016

    This study examined whether maltreated children are capable of judging the location and order of significant events with respect to a recurring landmark event. One hundred sixty-seven 6- to 10-year-old maltreated children were asked whether the current day, their last court visit, and their last change in placement were "near" their birthday and "before or after" their birthday. Children showed some understanding that the target event was "near" and "before" their birthday when their birthday was less than 3 months hence, but were relatively insensitive to preceding birthdays. Therefore, children exhibited a prospective bias, preferentially answering with reference to a forthcoming birthday rather than a past birthday. The results demonstrate that the recurring nature of some landmark events makes questions about them referentially ambiguous and children’s answers subject to misinterpretation.

    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516645812   open full text
  • Examining Positive and Negative Reactions and Conciliatory Behaviors After Partner Violence Perpetration.
    LaMotte, A. D., Remington, N. A., Rezac, C., Murphy, C. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 18, 2016

    This study investigated positive and negative reactions and conciliatory behaviors after perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). The goals were to examine the rates of these reactions and their associations with key attitudinal and personality factors. During program intake at a community agency, 172 partner violent men completed assessments of positive reactions (e.g., feeling justified) and negative reactions (e.g., feeling ashamed) after IPV, conciliatory behaviors after IPV (e.g., buying flowers for the partner), frequency of physical assault and abuse perpetration, and motivational readiness to change. In addition, a subset of participants (n = 64-71) completed assessments of outcome expectancies of IPV and borderline, antisocial, and psychopathic personality characteristics. The vast majority of participants (89.8%) reported negative reaction(s) after IPV; 32.7% reported positive reaction(s), and 67.5% reported conciliatory behavior(s). Positive reactions after IPV were associated with positive outcome expectancies of IPV, more frequent abuse perpetration, and antisocial features. Negative reactions after IPV were associated with greater motivation to change, more frequent abuse perpetration, and borderline features, and were inversely linked to psychopathic traits. Conciliatory behaviors were associated with motivation to change, borderline characteristics, and lower levels of psychopathic traits. Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to IPV may be important for stimulating clinical discussion of motivations and barriers to change, and can inform the functional analysis of IPV.

    April 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516644596   open full text
  • Reflections on the Translation Into Arabic and Validation Process of the NorAQ Abuse Questionnaire.
    Wangel, A.-M., Ouis, P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 18, 2016

    The use of validated instruments and questionnaires on abuse is of great importance to evaluate and compare the prevalence in different populations worldwide. However, most of the questionnaires available and published are in English. For example, the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire (NorAQ) instrument which was used for the Bidens study in six European countries. A substantial proportion of the pregnant population in the catchment area of the clinical site in Sweden is Arabic-speaking women. As abuse and violence against women is a global concern, it is important to translate these questionnaires to other languages. This process is not just merely a matter of finding a correlating word but also needs to be validated for content and consider the wording in a linguistic and cultural context. This article gives an account of the translation and content validity process and its challenges and pitfalls from Swedish and English into the Arabic language version.

    April 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516644595   open full text
  • Microfinance Participation, Control Over Resources, and Justification of IPV: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Women.
    Murshid, N. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 13, 2016

    A high percentage of men and women are purported to justify intimate partner violence (IPV) in countries that are steeped in patriarchy even in the presence of programs such as microfinance that aim to address gender equity. This article examines two assertions that emerge from the literature on microfinance and its potential for positive outcomes for women who participate in it: (a) Microfinance participation is associated with reduced justification of IPV, and (b) microfinance participants with control over their own resources are less likely to justify IPV when compared with microfinance participants who do not have control over their resources. Couples data from a nationally representative survey, the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, were used in the present study. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analyses were conducted to reveal that (a) microfinance participation was not associated with justification of IPV and that (b) women who participated in microfinance were less likely to justify IPV when they had no control over their resources. Implications for practitioners and policymakers are discussed.

    April 13, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516641284   open full text
  • Aggressive Children With Mental Illness: A Conceptual Model of Family-Level Outcomes.
    Sporer, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 13, 2016

    The purpose of this research was to examine how families adapt and respond to an aggressive child with mental illness. This article presents findings from a qualitative study of four families, which were selected as typifying the experiences of a larger sample of 14 families; each family included a child with mental illness and a history of violent behavior. The analysis revealed a five-stage pattern in how families perceived and responded to victimization and their child or sibling’s mental illness. The study suggests that families with a violent child with mental illness and other healthy children cannot live through episodes of violence without removing the child with mental illness from the home or suffering considerable damage to the family. The article concludes with recommendations for mental health practitioners and family intervention specialists.

    April 13, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516641283   open full text
  • Victim Consciousness Among Youth and Their Responses to Violent Encounters.
    Zaykowski, H.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 13, 2016

    This study examines how youth interpret potentially violent encounters, their own identity as victims, and their responses to dangerous situations. The purpose is to understand when "victimization" does or does not lead to a violent response and how individuals negotiate risky situations. Qualitative interviews from 147 youth, aged 12 to 23 across three high-crime neighborhoods in Philadelphia, were examined. Of these youth, 86 individuals described 136 encounters with violent or threatening situations. Coding examined themes in youth perceptions of these encounters, as well as their responses. Three themes emerged in the youth’s accounts: youth as victims, youth as street smart, and youth action as self-defense. Youth’s understanding of risk and situational dynamics of the encounter shaped their perceptions of violent incidents and consequently if they responded with violence or used other strategies such as help seeking, avoidance, negotiation, or tolerance. Youth’s understanding of victimhood should be considered in research on the victim–offender overlap and generally in youth violence studies. Implications for the victim–offender overlap include incorporating a more nuanced perspective on social distance and power dynamics as understood by victims. Implications for policy include providing culturally sensitive violence reduction models and victim services that account for youth’s own understanding of their experiences.

    April 13, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516642292   open full text
  • Attitudes Toward Sexual Violence Survivors: Differences Across Professional Sectors in Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Ferdowsian, H., Kelly, S., Burner, M., Anastario, M., Gohlke, G., Mishori, R., McHale, T., Naimer, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 11, 2016

    Sexual violence survivors who decide to report their assault interact with health care, law enforcement, and legal and judicial professionals. Professionals’ attitudes about sexual violence and survivors play an important role in caring for survivors and in the pursuit of justice. Despite evidence showing the relationship between service provider beliefs and survivor outcomes, relatively little is known about professionals’ beliefs about sexual violence or their attitudes toward sexual violence survivors. Between June 2012 and December 2014, our study examined the beliefs and attitudes of 181 professionals from the health care, legal, and law enforcement sectors in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and the Rift Valley region of Kenya, areas with a high prevalence of sexual violence. To determine correlates of beliefs and attitudes about sexual violence and sexual violence survivors, multiple logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic and occupational characteristics. Respondents who agreed that survivors got what they deserved (7%) or that survivors should feel ashamed (9%) were the minority, while those who would be willing to care for a family member with a history of sexual violence (94%) were the majority. Profession was significantly associated with beliefs and attitudes about sexual violence and survivors. Law enforcement professionals were more likely than health professionals and lawyers to indicate that survivors should feel ashamed. Our findings suggest a need for interventions that adequately address potentially harmful beliefs and attitudes of some professionals serving sexual violence survivors.

    April 11, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639257   open full text
  • Lessons Learned: Conducting Research With Victims Portrayed in Sexual Abuse Images and Their Parents.
    Walsh, W. A., Wolak, J., Lounsbury, K., Howley, S., Lippert, T., Thompson, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 11, 2016

    Victims portrayed in sexual abuse images may be resistant to participate in research because of embarrassment or shame due to the sensitive nature and potential permanency of images. No studies we are aware of explore reactions to participating in research after this type of crime. Telephone interviews were conducted with convenience samples of parents (n = 46) and adolescents who were victims of child sexual abuse (n = 11; some of whom were portrayed in sexual abuse images), and online surveys were completed by adult survivors depicted in abuse images (N = 133). The first lesson was that few agencies tracked this type of crime. This lack of tracking raises the question as to what types of data should be collected and tracked as part of an investigation. The second lesson was that few victims at the two participating agencies had been portrayed in sexual abuse images (4%-5%). The third lesson was that once possible cases were identified, we found relatively high percentages of consent to contact and interview completions. This implies that researchers and service providers should not be hesitant about conducting research after an investigation of child sexual abuse. The fourth lesson was that the vast majority of participants reported not being upset by the questions. We hope that the data presented here will encourage agencies to reconsider the types of data being tracked and will encourage researchers to conduct in-depth research with populations that are often difficult to reach to continue improving the professional response to child victimization.

    April 11, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640545   open full text
  • Measuring the Effects of Limited and Persistent School Bullying Victimization: Repeat Victimization, Fear, and Adaptive Behaviors.
    Randa, R., Reyns, B. W., Nobles, M. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 06, 2016

    Extant research on school bullying has largely focused on the incidence rather than the modality of the experience, leaving key questions about impact unexplored. With a nationally representative sample of more than 3,000 cases, the present study explores the utility of expanding the classification scheme of bullying victimization to include limited victimization and persistent victimization experiences. By examining the differences in victimization, fear of victimization, and avoidance behaviors, the present study establishes that significant differences in fear of future victimization and adaptive avoidance behaviors do exist between the groups classified as limited and persistent. Furthermore, the present study explores the potential differences in the moderating influence of fear of future victimization on the relationship between limited/persistent bullying victimization and adaptive avoidance behavior. Ultimately, the evidence suggests that differentiating between limited and persistent bullying victimization is important for understanding the impact of bullying on students.

    April 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516641279   open full text
  • Fearfulness in the Community: Empirical Assessments of Influential Factors.
    Boateng, F. D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 06, 2016

    Fear of crime has been well studied; however, there has yet not been widespread consideration of the potential impact of both individual- and neighborhood-level factors on residents’ level of fear of crime. From a logistic-regression analytical standpoint, the present study empirically explores the contribution of several factors in explaining residents’ propensity for being fearful of crime. Precisely, the study tests the applicability and generalizability of three theoretical perspectives of fear of crime in the Ghanaian context and examines the effects of residents’ attitudes toward the police on their levels of fear of crime. Using large-scale cross-sectional data collected on more than 1,000 residents from 25 neighborhoods in Ghana, the results demonstrate significant predictive effects of both individual- and neighborhood-level factors on citizens’ rate of fearfulness. Findings from this study have both theoretical and practical implications, and provide important insights for the police to reduce levels of fear of crime in the community.

    April 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516642295   open full text
  • Deliberate Rumination and Positive Reappraisal as Serial Mediators Between Life Impact and Posttraumatic Growth in Victims of State Terrorism in Chile (1973-1990).
    Cardenas Castro, M., Arnoso Martinez, M., Faundez Abarca, X.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 06, 2016

    This study examines the role of coping strategies related to positive reappraisal versus other cognitive strategies (deliberate rumination) as mediators between life impact and posttraumatic growth in survivors of the military dictatorship in Chile between 1973 and 1990 (tortured political prisoners and family members of political prisoners executed and missing). Survey data from 251 political violence survivors were analyzed using the SPSS PROCESS macro for bootstrapping indirect effects (Hayes, 2013). Results indicated that positive reappraisal (or reframing) coping mediated the relationship between life impact and posttraumatic growth. A serial multiple mediation model indicates that in the life impact to growth moderation process, rumination must be followed by positive reappraisal to drive this growth. These findings suggest that positive reappraisal of the traumatic experience is essential to achieve growth reports. Implications of these more complex relations are discussed for both counseling interventions and further research.

    April 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516642294   open full text
  • Early Childhood Victimization and Physical Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy: A Developmental and Person-Oriented Approach.
    Narayan, A. J., Hagan, M. J., Cohodes, E., Rivera, L. M., Lieberman, A. F.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 04, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is a major public health concern, yet little is known about how risk factors for IPV during pregnancy may depend on whether women have histories of victimization dating back to early childhood (ages 0-5 years). This study examined whether risk factors for physical IPV victimization during pregnancy (a pregnancy that was not planned and prenatal substance use) differed for women with versus without early childhood victimization. Participants were 236 ethnically diverse, low-income biological mothers (M = 30.94 years; 50.0% Latina, 16.9% Caucasian, 13.1% African American, and 16.9% multiracial) of children aged 0 to 6 years. Mothers were classified into four groups based on whether they had experienced early childhood victimization and physical IPV victimization during pregnancy with the target child. Multinomial logistic regressions, controlling for demographic characteristics, examined whether a pregnancy not planned and prenatal substance use predicted group membership. Compared to mothers with early victimization only, mothers with both early childhood victimization and physical IPV during pregnancy were more than 3 times as likely to report that their pregnancy with the target child was not planned. In follow-up analyses, mothers with early victimization and physical IPV during pregnancy also reported higher lifetime parity than mothers with physical IPV during pregnancy but no early victimization. Early childhood victimization may place women on a risk pathway to physical IPV during pregnancy, particularly if the pregnancy is not planned. Prevention and policy efforts should screen women for early childhood victimization to understand risks for physical IPV during pregnancy.

    April 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639261   open full text
  • Coercive Sexual Environments: Development and Validation of a Scale.
    Popkin, S., Hailey, C., Zweig, J., Astone, N., Jordan, R., Gordon, L., Silverman, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 04, 2016

    In this article, we present the results of our efforts to develop and test a scale to operationalize and measure a neighborhood-level indicator of coercive sexual environments (CSEs), a construct emerging from our earlier work on safety and sexual threats among young girls living in chronically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Data for this study come from a survey of 124 adult and 79 youth respondents living in public housing in Washington, D.C., and participating in the Housing Opportunities and Services Together Demonstration, a multisite project testing the feasibility and effectiveness of place-based, dual-generation case management models to improve outcomes for vulnerable families. Our psychometric analysis indicates that the CSE scales we developed for adults and youth have high internal consistency. Together with our analyses of construct validity, the present findings suggest that CSE is a unitary construct that may be an important factor to include in models of neighborhood processes and risk.

    April 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639581   open full text
  • Examining the Role of Substance Abuse in Elder Mistreatment: Results From Mistreatment Investigations.
    Conrad, K. J., Liu, P.-J., Iris, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 04, 2016

    Substance abuse has long been identified as a risk factor for elder mistreatment, yet research on the topic remains sparse. This study tested hypotheses whether perpetrator and victim substance use problems were associated with financial exploitation, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect versus no abuse. Cross-sectional data were collected on 948 cases with yes/no substantiation decisions where 357 cases had no abuse in elder mistreatment investigations. Hypotheses were tested using odds ratios, bivariate, and multiple linear regression analyses including a control for victim vulnerability. Of 948 alleged victims, 42 (4.4%) exhibited signs of substance use problems. Among the 323 alleged perpetrators, 87 (26.9%) were reported to have substance use problems. Substance use problems by alleged perpetrators were associated (p < .01) with financial exploitation, physical abuse, and emotional abuse but not neglect. Substance use problems by alleged victims were associated with neglect, but not the other types. Alleged perpetrators with substance use problems tended to commit multiple forms of abuse, were male and not caregivers. Except for the findings on neglect, the associations with elder mistreatment were stronger for alleged perpetrators with substance use problems, than for alleged victims. Clarification of the role of perpetrator risk factors such as substance abuse should improve risk identification and subsequent intervention.

    April 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640782   open full text
  • The Geography of Child Maltreatment: A Spatiotemporal Analysis Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis With Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation.
    Barboza, G. E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 01, 2016

    This study quantifies the spatiotemporal risk of child abuse and neglect in Los Angeles at the census tract level over a recent 4-year period, identifies areas of increased risk, and evaluates the role of structural disadvantage in substantiated child maltreatment referrals. Child maltreatment data on 83,379 child maltreatment cases in 1,678 census tracts spanning 2006-2009 were obtained from the Los Angeles County Department of Children and Family Services. Substantiated referral counts were analyzed across census tracts with Bayesian hierarchical spatial models using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Results showed that the unadjusted yearly rate of child abuse and neglect held fairly steady over the study period decreasing by only 2.57%. However, the temporal term in the spatiotemporal model reflected a downward trend beginning in 2007. High rates of abuse and neglect were predicted by several neighborhood-level measures of structural burden. Every 1-unit decrease in the social vulnerability index reduced the risk of child abuse and neglect by 98.3% (95% CrI = 1.869-2.1042) while every 1-unit increase in the Black–White dissimilarity index decreased child abuse and neglect risk by 70.6%. The interaction of these variables demonstrated the protective effect of racial heterogeneity in socially vulnerable neighborhoods. No such effect was found in neighborhoods characterized by low levels of vulnerability. Population-based child abuse and neglect prevention and intervention efforts should be aided by the characteristics of neighborhoods that demonstrate strong spatial patterns even after accounting for the role of race and place.

    April 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639583   open full text
  • Adult Attachment Styles, Destructive Conflict Resolution, and the Experience of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Bonache, H., Gonzalez-Mendez, R., Krahe, B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 01, 2016

    Although there is ample evidence linking insecure attachment styles and intimate partner violence (IPV), little is known about the psychological processes underlying this association, especially from the victim’s perspective. The present study examined how attachment styles relate to the experience of sexual and psychological abuse, directly or indirectly through destructive conflict resolution strategies, both self-reported and attributed to their opposite-sex romantic partner. In an online survey, 216 Spanish undergraduates completed measures of adult attachment style, engagement and withdrawal conflict resolution styles shown by self and partner, and victimization by an intimate partner in the form of sexual coercion and psychological abuse. As predicted, anxious and avoidant attachment styles were directly related to both forms of victimization. Also, an indirect path from anxious attachment to IPV victimization was detected via destructive conflict resolution strategies. Specifically, anxiously attached participants reported a higher use of conflict engagement by themselves and by their partners. In addition, engagement reported by the self and perceived in the partner was linked to an increased probability of experiencing sexual coercion and psychological abuse. Avoidant attachment was linked to higher withdrawal in conflict situations, but the paths from withdrawal to perceived partner engagement, sexual coercion, and psychological abuse were non-significant. No gender differences in the associations were found. The discussion highlights the role of anxious attachment in understanding escalating patterns of destructive conflict resolution strategies, which may increase the vulnerability to IPV victimization.

    April 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640776   open full text
  • Child Abuse as a Predictor of Alcohol Consumption Among Brazilian University Students.
    Priolo-Filho, S. R., Williams, L. C. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 01, 2016

    Alcohol use among university students has received considerate attention in recent years due to its serious consequences. There is insufficient data in terms of the relationship between child abuse history and future use of alcohol in such a group. In addition, little is known about the effects of polyvictimization (lifetime multiple victimization experiences) on the consumption of these young adults. This study has examined whether a history of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and/or child abuse is related to alcohol consumption. Particular attention was given to different forms of victimization (physical, psychological, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) occurring over the life of the individual. A questionnaire that underwent a process of adaptation in two pilot studies, incorporating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and questions about child abuse history, was used. The questionnaire was applied to 1,452 students in Brazil. Child abuse and polyvictimization were related to higher alcohol intake and binge consumption in the last 3 months. Physical, psychological, and exposure to IPV were polyvictimization forms with the most impact on alcohol consumption. The study points out the need to initiate prevention strategies among Brazilian university students for a decrease of harmful alcohol consumption, as well as prevention of family violence.

    April 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640775   open full text
  • Longitudinal Changes in Self-Efficacy, Mental Health, Abuse, and Stages of Change, for Women Fearful of a Partner: Findings From a Primary Care Trial (WEAVE).
    Reisenhofer, S. A., Hegarty, K., Valpied, J., Watson, L. F., Davey, M.-A., Taft, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 01, 2016

    Women seeking healthcare while experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) often report a mismatch between healthcare received and desired. An increase in detection of women experiencing IPV through routine screening has not consistently shown a parallel increase in uptake of referrals or decreased abuse. This study investigates relationships between women’s stage of change (SOC), mental health, abuse, social support, and self-efficacy. This study used data from a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention to improve outcomes for women afraid of their partners (n = 225; WEAVE). Women’s progress toward change was categorized into pre-contemplation/contemplation (pre-change SOC) or preparation/action/maintenance of change (change-related SOC). Characteristics of women ending the 2-year study in pre-change SOC were compared with those always in change-related and those ending in change-related SOC. Variables were analyzed using multinomial logistic regressions at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Compared with women in pre-change SOC, women always in change-related SOC or ending in change-related SOC are significantly more likely to have higher levels of self-efficacy at 6 (AdjOR = 1.19, confidence interval [CI] = [1.08, 1.30]) and 24 months (AdjOR = 1.21, CI = [1.04, 1.40]). Women always in change-related SOC are always significantly less likely to live with an intimate partner. Women ending in change-related SOC are less likely to live with a partner at 12 (AdjOR = 0.30, CI = [0.12, 0.75]) and 24 (AdjOR = 0.22, CI = [0.06, 0.80]) months. Clinicians should focus on enhancing abused women’s self-efficacy, supporting them to create and maintain positive changes.

    April 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640781   open full text
  • Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults: Childhood Gender Nonconformity, Childhood Trauma, and Sexual Victimization.
    Bos, H., de Haas, S., Kuyper, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 01, 2016

    The present study examined whether the relationship between childhood gender nonconformity and sexual victimization in adulthood among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) same-sex attracted men and women is mediated by experiences with childhood trauma experiences by an adult family member. Data are based on a survey among same-sex attracted individuals (N = 2,352; 1,396 men and 956 women; Mage= 44.97) recruited from an online research panel. Participants completed an online questionnaire consisting of existing scales. Sixteen percent of the participants reported that they had experienced sexual victimization as an adult. There were gender differences: Men reported less childhood gender nonconformity and women more often reported experiences with childhood trauma by an adult family member and sexual victimization as an adult. Bootstrapped mediation analysis and follow-up moderated mediation analyses showed that childhood trauma significantly mediated the relation between childhood gender nonconformity and experiences of sexual victimization for men but not for women. In other words, for men higher levels of childhood gender nonconformity predicted experiences with childhood trauma by an adult family member, which in turn predicted the higher prevalence of sexual victimization. Implementations of these findings are that interventions aimed at increasing the social acceptance of gender nonconformity might also lower the levels of childhood trauma and sexual victimization among gay and bisexual men. Professionals working with children (and especially with boys) should be aware of the impact of gender nonconformity on childhood trauma and experiences of sexual victimization later in life.

    April 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516641285   open full text
  • Providing and Receiving Sexual Assault Disclosures: Findings From a Sexually Diverse Sample of Young Adults.
    Koon-Magnin, S., Schulze, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. April 01, 2016

    This study utilized a sample of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ)-identified young adults from across the United States to pilot test a new instrument, the Reactions Provided to Disclosures Questionnaire (RPDQ), and assess the disclosure experience for both those who provide and those who receive disclosures of sexual assault. Results indicate that the experience of sexual assault disclosure in the LGBQ community is similar to the heterosexual community in that most victims disclose their assaults, most often to a friend, and were most likely to receive the reaction Emotional Support. Victims were also likely to receive the reaction Victim Blaming, especially if they disclosed to formal sources, such as law enforcement, medical, or religious personnel. This study also examined the relationship between the types of assault experienced and disclosure reactions received. Experiencing an anal assault was significantly associated with Victim Blaming reactions. A central aim of this study was to examine how respondents who received (rather than provided) a disclosure reacted, a question not been adequately addressed in prior literature. The RPDQ (a modification of Ullman’s Social Reactions Questionnaire), which was piloted here, factored in to five types of reactions: Emotional Support, Affectionate Support, Empathetic Support, Tangible Aid and Information Support, and Egocentric Reactions. Sexual assault survivors were more likely to report that they provided Emotional Support and Affectionate Support after receiving a disclosure than were nonsurvivors.

    April 01, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516641280   open full text
  • Physical Fighting Among Male and Female Adolescents of Military Families: Results From a Representative Sample of High School Students.
    Reinhardt, J., Clements-Nolle, K., Yang, W.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 29, 2016

    The impact of family military involvement on adolescent mental health and substance abuse is well established, but little is known about other behavioral health outcomes such as physical fighting. We assessed the relationship between family military involvement and physical fighting in a representative sample of 3,928 high school students. Weighted logistic regression was used to determine whether adolescents from military families had higher odds of fighting and fighting on school property compared with adolescents of non-military families after controlling for demographics, substance use, depressive symptoms, and bullying victimization. We also assessed the cumulative impact of multiple risk factors on fighting outcomes. Overall, 23.5% of high school students reported physical fighting and 7.0% reported physical fighting at school. Youth from military families had higher odds of physical fighting (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.27, 2.25]) and physical fighting on school property (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI = [1.16, 3.39]). In models stratified by gender, family military involvement remained independently associated with physical fighting and physical fighting at school for males (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = [1.15, 2.65] and AOR = 2.21; 95% CI = [1.03, 4.74]) and females (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI = [1.11, 2.45] and AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = [1.01, 3.50]). The odds of engaging in each physical fighting outcome increased as the cumulative number of risk factors increased. School-based interventions aimed at addressing fighting should be tailored to fit the unique needs of adolescents in military families, particularly those with additional risk factors.

    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640546   open full text
  • Rape Perpetrators on Trial: The Effect of Sexual Assault-Related Schemas on Attributions of Blame.
    Stuart, S. M., McKimmie, B. M., Masser, B. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 28, 2016

    Research has consistently shown that jurors are influenced by multiple schemas in cases of alleged sexual assault, including offense stereotypes and victim stereotypes. These schemas appear to be organized in a hierarchy, as victim stereotypicality seems to matter most in acquaintance assaults (counter-stereotypical offense). However, despite numerous studies demonstrating the impact of defendant stereotypes on juror perceptions of guilt for other crimes, to date, the impact of stereotypes about defendants (perpetrators) in cases involving sexual violence have been overlooked. As such, the current research aimed to build on the existing hierarchical schema model by systematically examining the influence of perpetrator stereotypes. Following pilot work, mock jurors’ (N = 163) read a rape scenario that varied in terms of offense stereotypicality (stereotypical, counter-stereotypical), victim stereotypicality (stereotypical, counter-stereotypical), and perpetrator stereotypicality (stereotypical, counter-stereotypical). Broadly consistent effects of offense stereotypicality and victim stereotypicality were observed across the outcome measures, such that the victim was perceived more positively and the perpetrator more negatively when the victim was described as being stereotypical and when the offense was described as stereotypical. However, contrary to past findings, the effect of victim stereotypicality did not differ as a function of offense stereotypicality. Furthermore, perpetrator stereotypicality did not influence perceptions in the stereotypical offense scenario. These findings suggest that contrary to the assertions of previous research, there is not a series of specific, individual stereotypes that impact attributions of blame, rather, there may be one underlying schema about consent that influences perceptions. These findings have important implications for how we address the effect of juror-held schemas on attributions of blame in cases of sexual assault.

    March 28, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640777   open full text
  • The Role of Socio-Economic Status in Adoption of Coping Strategies Among Adolescents Against Domestic Violence.
    Ahmad, S., Ishtiaq, S. M., Mustafa, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 27, 2016

    In the current study, researchers explored different types of coping strategies such as problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and non-constructive coping of adolescents witnessing and experiencing domestic violence. Furthermore, they tried to find out the association of socio-economic status with coping strategies against domestic violence in family sphere. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 210 adolescents of both sexes, aged 13 to 18 years in Hafizabad city using multistage sampling technique. Multivariate analysis was used to find out the association between adolescents’ resistance and resilience strategies against domestic violence. The information was collected through a structured interview schedule. This study revealed that age, gender, parents’ education, and family income were major factors that influenced the adoption of coping strategy among adolescents. Overall, the study suggested that adolescents were being victimized of various forms of domestic violence frequently in Pakistan, which needs to be addressed on immediate basis through policies and programs by integrating the social institutions of family and education. Findings of the study can enable parents to nurture and support the developmental needs of children in their care. It can help youth in defending themselves from extreme violent behavior adopters and preventing them from becoming the perpetrators of the domestic violence.

    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516635321   open full text
  • Longitudinal Investigation of Depression, Intimate Partner Violence, and Supports Among Vulnerable Families.
    Ridings, L. E., Beasley, L. O., Bohora, S. B., Daer, J. L., Owora, A., Silovsky, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 27, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects nearly 12 million individuals and their families each year in the United States. Many negative outcomes are associated with IPV, with depression being one of the most prevalent mental health problems. Most previous studies on IPV have used cross-sectional designs to examine the potential protective effects of support on depression. The current study fills this gap by conducting a longitudinal investigation of the roles of social support and family resources on depression among caregivers of young children. The study sample consisted of 548 female caregivers. Findings suggest that among those with an IPV history, those with higher social support reported lower depressive symptoms than those with less social support. No significant interaction was found for family resources and IPV. Rather, family resources had a main effect on depressive symptoms with no differential impact based on IPV status. Findings suggest the importance of connecting vulnerable families to supports such as social support and family resources to help mitigate depressive symptoms. Future research should consider the underlying mechanisms of social support as a protective factor among IPV victims with depression.

    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639262   open full text
  • Impact of Violence and Relationship Abuse on Grades of American Indian/Alaska Native Undergraduate College Students.
    Patterson Silver Wolf, D. A., Perkins, J., Van Zile-Tamsen, C., Butler-Barnes, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 27, 2016

    Violence and relationship abuse are pervasive public health problems that have a range of negative effects, with exceptionally high prevalence among ethno–racial minority youth. This study assesses the prevalence of these types of violence among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students and examines the impact of victimization on academic performance of AI/AN and non-AI/AN student populations using self-reported college health survey data. Results show that students who identified fully or partially as AI/AN reported markedly higher rates of all types of violence/abuse than did other students, and students who had experienced violence/abuse had lower grade point averages (GPAs) compared with those who had not. Recommendations for future research and direct practice with AI/AN students are discussed.

    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639255   open full text
  • The Association of Domestic Violence and Social Resources With Functioning in an Adult Trauma-Affected Sample Living in Kurdistan, Northern Iraq.
    Kane, J. C., Hall, B. J., Bolton, P., Murray, L. K., Mohammed Amin Ahmed, A., Bass, J. K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 27, 2016

    Domestic violence (DV) and other experienced trauma types increase the risk for impaired functioning. Access to social resources may provide a buffer to existing risks and allow individuals to continue and build functioning. This cross-sectional study investigated the direct effects of DV and access to social resources (perceived social support, social integration, and frequency of social contact), as well as their potential interactive effects, on daily functioning among 894 male and female trauma survivors who attended primary care clinics in Kurdistan, Iraq in 2009 and 2010. Experiencing DV was not associated with functioning for males (p=.15) or females (p=.60), suggesting that in the context of a trauma-affected sample, the experience of DV may not significantly increase the risk for functional impairment. Greater amounts of social integration were associated with less functional impairment among males (p<.01) and females (p<.05); social integration was associated with less functional impairment among males only (p<.01); and frequency of social contact was associated with less functional impairment among females only (p<.05), indicating that the association between social resource type and functioning differed by gender. Social resources had a stronger effect on functioning among men compared to women. Among males who experienced DV, social integration was the only social resource associated with less functional impairment (p<.01); among male trauma survivors who did not experience DV, social support was the only resource associated with less functional impairment (p<.01). Further investigation into these associations is warranted to inform intervention strategies for survivors of DV and other traumas in post-conflict settings.

    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639582   open full text
  • Tested at Last: How DNA Evidence in Untested Rape Kits Can Identify Offenders and Serial Sexual Assaults.
    Campbell, R., Feeney, H., Pierce, S. J., Sharma, D. B., Fehler-Cabral, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 27, 2016

    An increasing number of U.S. law enforcement agencies have disclosed that they have large numbers of untested sexual assault kits (SAKs; also called "rape kits") in police property storage. Whether previously untested SAKs should be tested for DNA evidence has been the subject of considerable public debate. To inform policy and practice regarding rape kit testing, the current study tested a sample of 900 previously unsubmitted SAKs from Detroit, Michigan, and documented the DNA forensic testing outcomes associated with those kits. We assessed how many SAKs yielded DNA profiles eligible for upload into CODIS (Combined DNA Index System), the federal DNA criminal database; how many resulted in a DNA match (termed a "CODIS hit"); and how many of those hits were associated to other sexual assault crimes (i.e., serial sexual assault hits). Overall, there were 259 CODIS hits, 69 of which had DNA matches to another sexual assault case. The potential utility of a DNA profile and CODIS hit may vary depending on whether offender was known or unknown to the victim, so we examined these outcomes separately for SAKs associated with stranger- and non-stranger-perpetrated sexual assaults. We also present six case study examples of how DNA testing and CODIS hits helped identify serial sexual assaults in both stranger and non-stranger sexual assault cases. Implications for rape kit testing policies are discussed.

    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639585   open full text
  • Managing Conflicts in Urban Communities: Youth Attitudes Regarding Gun Violence.
    Milam, A. J., Furr-Holden, C. D., Leaf, P., Webster, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 27, 2016

    Gun violence remains a pressing public health concern, especially in high-risk urban environments. Community-level violence intervention efforts are being mounted in cities across the United States to prevent and reduce the most severe forms of violence. There is growing evidence to suggest the effectiveness of the Safe Streets Program/Cure Violence as a community-based intervention to reduce homicides and shootings. The mechanism underlying the reductions in community violence is theorized to be linked with changes in attitudes toward violence as well as shifts in social norms related to violence and retaliation, but there are few tools to assess these domains. This preliminary investigation sought to establish the metric properties of the Survey on Attitudes About Guns and Shootings (SAGAS) with the goal of providing an empirical measure of attitudes and community-level norms. Males aged 18 to 24 were surveyed using the SAGAS in two high-violence communities in Baltimore, Maryland, using street intercept methodology. We found acceptable reliability and validity metrics for the SAGAS. Reliability and validity of the SAGAS were assessed using internal consistency and a latent class analysis with violent behavior outcomes. The internal consistency of the total scale was in the extensive range (α = .70-.79) and the internal consistency of the factors was in the exemplary range (α ≥ .80). In addition, latent classes of attitudes were predictive of being arrested or being shot. Future studies will examine if rates of violence decrease in neighborhoods targeted by the Safe Streets Program and the mediating role of attitudes toward gun violence using the SAGAS.

    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639584   open full text
  • Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparison of Antisocial and Family-Only Perpetrators.
    Petersson, J., Strand, S., Selenius, H.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 27, 2016

    Subtyping male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) based on their generality of violence could facilitate the difficult task of matching perpetrator subtype with efficient risk management strategies. As such, the aim of the present study was to compare antisocial and family-only male perpetrators of interpersonal violence in terms of (a) demographic and legal characteristics, (b) risk factors for violence, and (c) assessed risk and the importance of specific risk factors for violence. A quantitative design was used in this retrospective register study on data obtained from the Swedish police. Risk assessments performed with the Swedish version of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) and police registers were used. A sample of 657 male alleged IPV perpetrators were classified as antisocial (n = 341) or family-only (n = 316) based on their generality of violence. The results showed that the antisocial perpetrators were significantly younger, as well as more psychologically abusive. Antisocial perpetrators also had significantly more present risk factors for IPV, and were assessed with a significantly higher risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV, compared with the family-only perpetrators. The subtypes also evidenced unique risk factors with a significant impact on elevated risk for acute and severe or deadly such violence. Key findings in the present study concerned the subtypes evidencing unique risk factors increasing the risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV. Major implications of this study include the findings of such unique "red flag" risk factors for each subtype. To prevent future IPV, it is vital for the risk assessor to be aware of these red flags when making decisions about risk, as well as risk management strategies.

    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640547   open full text
  • Environmental Unpredictability in Childhood Is Associated With Anxious Romantic Attachment and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.
    Barbaro, N., Shackelford, T. K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 27, 2016

    Human life history theory describes how resources are allocated among conflicting life tasks, including trade-offs concerning reproduction. The current research investigates the unique importance of environmental unpredictability in childhood in association with romantic attachment, and explores whether objective or subjective measures of environmental risk are more informative for testing life history hypotheses. We hypothesize that (1) unpredictability in childhood will be associated with greater anxious attachment, (2) anxious attachment will be associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (3) anxious attachment will mediate the relationship between unpredictability in childhood and IPV perpetration. In two studies (total n = 391), participants in a heterosexual, romantic relationship completed self-report measures of childhood experiences, romantic attachment, and IPV perpetration. Study 1 provides support for Hypothesis 1. Hypothesis 1 is replicated only for men, but not women, in Study 2. Results of Study 2 provide support for Hypothesis 2 for men and women, and Hypothesis 3 was supported for men but not women. The findings contribute to the literature addressing the association of environmental risk in childhood on adult romantic relationship outcomes.

    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640548   open full text
  • The Roles of Family Factors and Relationship Dynamics on Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Men and Women in Emerging Adulthood.
    Paat, Y.-F., Markham, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 27, 2016

    Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, this study examined the roles of early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics factors on physical aggression in dating among U.S. college students in emerging adulthood. The interaction effects between these three domains of interest (early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics) were explored to understand the underlying mechanisms that influenced victimization and perpetration in dating. In general, we found that family and relational variables associated with dating victimization and perpetration were fairly similar. Among the early socialization variables, experience of childhood neglect and having witnessed domestic violence were significantly related to victimization and perpetration. Living in a two-parent household appeared to exert a protective effect, although associations with parental education were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the participants were more likely to experience victimization or impose aggression in dating relationships which were characterized by conflicts, distress, dominance, or psychological aggression. Overall, for the participants who came from a two-parent household, dominance in dating was linked to less violence. When the participants faced higher levels of psychological aggression, adverse early socialization factors were associated with higher levels of dating violence victimization and perpetration. Research and practice implications were discussed.

    March 27, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516640544   open full text
  • Child Witnesses to Intimate Partner Violence: Their Descriptions of Talking to People About the Violence.
    Izaguirre, A., Cater, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 17, 2016

    Witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) may have damaging effects on children’s well-being and development. How children understand IPV affects the risk of their developing negative outcomes. Talking with children about the violent episodes they have experienced can change their beliefs regarding their parents’ IPV, and therefore may also be a way to help them deal with these adverse experiences. The purpose of the current study was to use the children’s narratives to explore the relationship between how IPV was perceived by the children and their experience of talking about it. Interviews with 31 children between 9 and 13 years of age were analyzed using a thematic method. Two main groups of children were identified: children who described the violence as a horrifying experience and children who preferred not to think about the violence. The findings showed that children who described the violence as a horrifying experience perceived talking about the violence as a positive, yet sometimes distressing, experience that made a real difference in their lives; whereas, children who preferred not to think about the violence did not see much need to talk about it and benefit from talking about it. The study confirms previous research indicating that talking about IPV experiences sometimes leads to feelings of relief in children. Thereby, professionals play an important role by providing an appropriate setting to help children reduce their distressing feelings.

    March 17, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516639256   open full text
  • An Evaluation of Two Dating Violence Prevention Programs on a College Campus.
    Peterson, K., Sharps, P., Banyard, V., Powers, R. A., Kaukinen, C., Gross, D., Decker, M. R., Baatz, C., Campbell, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 13, 2016

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students.

    March 13, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516636069   open full text
  • Mid-Treatment Reduction in Trauma-Related Guilt Predicts PTSD and Functioning Following Cognitive Trauma Therapy for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Allard, C. B., Norman, S. B., Thorp, S. R., Browne, K. C., Stein, M. B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 10, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) results in severe and chronic posttraumatic psychological symptoms, maladaptive trauma-related guilt (TRG) and functional impairment for many women. Cognitive Trauma Therapy (CTT) was developed to specifically address empirically identified contributors of distress and functioning difficulties specific to IPV and has been found to be efficacious in treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and reducing TRG. The primary aim of this study was to investigate to what extent reductions in TRG contribute to improvements in PTSD and functioning, given evidence of the important role that TRG plays in posttraumatic distress in IPV survivors and the emphasis placed on TRG in CTT. Twenty women with IPV-related chronic and functionally impairing posttraumatic distress were recruited from the community and completed CTT as part of a larger neurobiological study of PTSD. Women experienced statistically and clinically significant improvements in functioning as well as expected reductions in PTSD and TRG with large effect sizes at post-treatment, and improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up, with no participant meeting full PTSD criteria. Pre- to mid-treatment reductions in TRG predicted post-treatment PTSD and functioning outcomes. These findings support the efficacy of CTT and provide preliminary evidence for the importance of addressing TRG. Dismantling research is indicated to identify the active ingredient(s) of this multi-module treatment.

    March 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516636068   open full text
  • Raising a Red Flag on Dating Violence: Evaluation of a Low-Resource, College-Based Bystander Behavior Intervention Program.
    Borsky, A. E., McDonnell, K., Turner, M. M., Rimal, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 09, 2016

    Encouraging bystanders to intervene safely and effectively in situations that could escalate to violence—known as bystander behavior programs—is a growing yet largely untested strategy to prevent dating violence. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluate a low-resource, low-intensity intervention aimed at preventing dating violence among college students. The integrated behavioral model (IBM) was used to guide the evaluation. We also assess which IBM variables were most strongly associated with bystander behaviors. Participants were drawn from two Virginia colleges that predominantly train females in the health profession sciences. The intervention group (n = 329) participated in a university-wide bystander behavior intervention consisting of a 30-min presentation on dating violence at new-student orientation and a week-long "red flag" social marketing campaign on campus to raise awareness of dating violence. Controlling for changes at the comparison university, results showed an increase in bystander behaviors, such as encouraging a friend who may be in an abusive relationship to get help, after the intervention and adjusting for potential confounders (increase of 1.41 bystander behaviors, p = .04). However, no significant changes were found for bystander intentions, self-efficacy, social norms, or attitudes related to dating violence from pre- to post-intervention. Self-efficacy had a direct relationship with bystander behaviors. Results suggest that low-resource interventions have a modest effect on increasing bystander behaviors. However, higher resource interventions likely are needed for a larger impact, especially among students who already demonstrate strong baseline intentions to intervene and prevent dating violence.

    March 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516635322   open full text
  • Longitudinal Effects of Sexual Assault Victims Drinking and Self-Blame on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
    Peter-Hagene, L. C., Ullman, S. E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 07, 2016

    Alcohol plays a major role in sexual assaults, but few studies have examined its impact on recovery outcomes, particularly in longitudinal studies. In a longitudinal study of 1,013 adult sexual assault survivors, we investigated the effects of victim drinking on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as the mediating role of characterological and behavioral self-blame attributions. In line with some prior research, victims who were drinking before their assault experienced less PTSD, but more self-blame than those who were not. Characterological, but not behavioral self-blame was related to increased PTSD symptoms. Thus, although drinking was overall related to less PTSD, it was also associated with increased PTSD via self-blame attributions, highlighting the danger of blaming victims of alcohol-related rapes for their assaults. Implications for future research and clinical work with survivors of alcohol-related sexual assaults are drawn.

    March 07, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516636394   open full text
  • Pornography, Sexual Coercion and Abuse and Sexting in Young Peoples Intimate Relationships: A European Study.
    Stanley, N., Barter, C., Wood, M., Aghtaie, N., Larkins, C., Lanau, A., O&#x0308;verlien, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 06, 2016

    New technology has made pornography increasingly accessible to young people, and a growing evidence base has identified a relationship between viewing pornography and violent or abusive behavior in young men. This article reports findings from a large survey of 4,564 young people aged 14 to 17 in five European countries which illuminate the relationship between regular viewing of online pornography, sexual coercion and abuse and the sending and receiving of sexual images and messages, known as "sexting." In addition to the survey, which was completed in schools, 91 interviews were undertaken with young people who had direct experience of interpersonal violence and abuse in their own relationships. Rates for regularly viewing online pornography were very much higher among boys and most had chosen to watch pornography. Boys’ perpetration of sexual coercion and abuse was significantly associated with regular viewing of online pornography. Viewing online pornography was also associated with a significantly increased probability of having sent sexual images/messages for boys in nearly all countries. In addition, boys who regularly watched online pornography were significantly more likely to hold negative gender attitudes. The qualitative interviews illustrated that, although sexting is normalized and perceived positively by most young people, it has the potential to reproduce sexist features of pornography such as control and humiliation. Sex and relationships education should aim to promote a critical understanding of pornography among young people that recognizes its abusive and gendered values.

    March 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516633204   open full text
  • Solo and Multi-Offenders Who Commit Stranger Kidnapping: An Assessment of Factors That Correlate With Violent Events.
    Cunningham, S. N., Vandiver, D. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 06, 2016

    Research has demonstrated that co-offending dyads and groups often use more violence than individual offenders. Despite the attention given to co-offending by the research community, kidnapping remains understudied. Stranger kidnappings are more likely than non-stranger kidnappings to involve the use of a weapon. Public fear of stranger kidnapping warrants further examination of this specific crime, including differences between those committed by solo and multi-offender groups. The current study uses National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data to assess differences in use of violence among 4,912 stranger kidnappings by solo offenders and multi-offender groups using cross-tabulations, ordinal regression, and logistic regression. The results indicate that violent factors are significantly more common in multi-offender incidents, and that multi-offender groups have fewer arrests than solo offenders. The implications of these findings are discussed.

    March 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516635320   open full text
  • Measuring Attitudes About Hate: Development of the Hate Crime Beliefs Scale.
    Cabeldue, M. K., Cramer, R. J., Kehn, A., Crosby, J. W., Anastasi, J. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 06, 2016

    Employing the federal Hate Crimes Prevention Act (HCPA) of 2009 and other such legislation as a backdrop, the present study evaluated the nature of beliefs about hate-crime legislation, offenders, and victims. In addition, it investigated construct validity (i.e., political beliefs and prejudice) and predictive validity (i.e., blame attribution and sentencing recommendations). A total of 403 U.S. adults completed measures of prejudice and an initial pool of 50 items forming the proposed Hate Crime Beliefs Scale (HCBS). Participants were randomly assigned to read one of four hate-crime vignettes, which varied in regard to type of prejudice (racial-, sexual orientation-, transgender-, and religion-based prejudices) and then responded to blame and sentencing questions. Factor analyses of the HCBS resulted in four sub-scales: Negative Views (i.e., higher scores reflect negative views of legislation and minority group protection), Offender Punishment (i.e., higher scores suggest endorsement of greater punishment), Deterrence (i.e., greater scores denote support for hate-crime legislation as a deterrent of more violence), and Victim Harm (i.e., higher scores reflect pro-victim attitudes). Greater pro-legislation and pro-victim beliefs were related to liberal political beliefs and less prejudicial attitudes, with some exceptions. Controlling for a number of demographic, situational, and attitudinal covariates, the Negative Views sub-scale displayed predictive utility, such that more negative views of legislation/minority group protection were associated with elevated victim blame, as well as lower perpetrator blame and sentencing recommendations. Results are discussed in the context of hate-crime research and policy, with additional implications considered for trial strategy, modern prejudice, and blame attribution theory.

    March 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516636391   open full text
  • Childhood Sexual Abuse and Antisocial Traits and Behaviors: A Gendered Examination of the Factors Associated With Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Cubellis, M. A., Peterson, B. E., Henninger, A. M., Lee, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 03, 2016

    The current study addressed the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and perpetration of physical intimate partner violence, examining the possible mediating effect of antisocial traits and behaviors, as well as the differences in these relationships between men and women. Data came from the International Dating Violence Study. Hypotheses were tested on a sample of 13,659 university students from 68 sites and 32 countries using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that CSA was significantly associated with perpetration of physical intimate partner violence for both men and women. The slope of the relationships, however, varied across sites for women. Antisocial traits and behaviors fully mediated the relationship between CSA and perpetration of physical intimate partner violence for women but only partially mediated this relationship for men. Increased focus needs to be paid to gender differences on the effect of CSA on the development of antisocial traits and behaviors, the relationship between these factors and perpetration of intimate partner violence, and the variation of these relationships across nations.

    March 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516633692   open full text
  • Sexual Assault Supportive Attitudes: Rape Myth Acceptance and Token Resistance in Greek and Non-Greek College Students From Two University Samples in the United States.
    Canan, S. N., Jozkowski, K. N., Crawford, B. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 03, 2016

    Colleges are rape-prone cultures with high rates of sexual victimization. Fraternities’ and sororities’ relationships with sexual assault are consistent themes in literature focusing on sexual violence among college students. Previous research suggests that fraternity men are more likely to endorse rape-supportive attitudes compared with non-Greek men or sorority women. The present study examines rape-supportive attitudes as well as rape and sexual assault victimization in college students with a focus on gender and Greek-life (i.e., involvement in fraternities or sororities) status variables. College students (N = 1,002) completed a survey including the Token Resistance to Sex Scale (TRSS), Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale–Short Form (IRMA-S), and items related to past experiences of nonconsensual sex. Two regression models tested predictors of token resistance and rape myth acceptance. Chi-square analyses tested between-group differences of experiencing rape and sexual assault. Gender (p < .001), Greek status (p < .001), and race/ethnicity (p < .001) were predictors for TRSS scores. For IRMA scores, gender (p < .001), Greek status (p < .001), and race/ethnicity variables (p < .001) were also significant. Interaction terms revealed that Greek men had higher token resistance and rape myth acceptance than any other group. Chi-square analyses indicate women more frequently report experiences of rape (2 = 25.57, df = 1, p < .001) and sexual assault (2 = 31.75, df = 1, p < .001). Men report high rates (40.8%) of experiencing sexual assault "because refusing was useless." No differences of victimization rates were found between Greeks and non-Greeks. Gender and sexual scripting theory can help explain gender differences in attitudes and experiences. Greater endorsement of rape myth acceptance and token resistance by Greeks, who influence college party culture, could be contributing to a culture conducive to rape. Findings demonstrate a continued need for interventions focused on shifting sociocultural dynamics (e.g., traditional roles and sexual scripting) on college campuses.

    March 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516636064   open full text
  • An Assessment of the Prevalence, Perceived Significance, and Response to Dowry Solicitation and Domestic Violence in Bangladesh.
    Young, K. A., Hassan, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 02, 2016

    The current study focuses on the prevalence of two pervasive gender-related crimes in Bangladesh: dowry solicitation and domestic violence. We assess victim perceptions of how these two crimes rank in significance compared with other types of crimes experienced and the actions victim households took in response. Our research builds on prior qualitative studies by making use of nation-wide household survey data, collected by the World Bank, to examine dowry and domestic violence in the context of all legal conflicts experienced by households in every administrative region of the country. The analyses show that both dowry solicitation and domestic violence rank in the top five most common crimes, including violent and non-violent crimes. Women report more experiences of dowry solicitation and domestic violence, with urban females most frequently disclosing both. Among the households that experienced multiple types of violent and non-violent crimes, 55.9% of dowry and 70.8% of domestic violence victims reported another crime ranked higher in significance. Of the households that considered these two crimes the most serious they experienced, 56.1% of dowry and 32.5% of domestic violence households took no action at all in response. Among the households that took action, most eschewed both police and state judicial institutions. Choosing to act alone or with the help of family members was the most frequent response. The findings illustrate the need for governance reforms in Bangladesh and may inform state and non-state improvement initiatives.

    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516633217   open full text
  • Enhancing Risk Detection Among Homeless Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Promising Pilot Intervention.
    Bender, K. A., DePrince, A., Begun, S., Hathaway, J., Haffejee, B., Schau, N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 02, 2016

    Homeless youth frequently experience victimization, and youth with histories of trauma often fail to detect danger risks, making them vulnerable to subsequent victimization. The current study describes a pilot test of a skills-based intervention designed to improve risk detection among homeless youth through focusing attention to internal, interpersonal, and environmental cues. Youth aged 18 to 21 years (N = 74) were recruited from a shelter and randomly assigned to receive usual case management services or usual services plus a 3-day manualized risk detection intervention. Pretest and posttest interviews assessed youths’ risk detection abilities through vignettes describing risky situations and asking youth to identify risk cues present. Separate 2 (intervention vs. control) x 2 (pretest vs. posttest) mixed ANOVAs found significant interaction effects, as intervention youth significantly improved in overall risk detection compared with control youth. Post hoc subgroup analyses found the intervention had a greater effect for youth without previous experiences of indirect victimization than those with previous indirect victimization experiences.

    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516633208   open full text
  • The Extent and Risk of Violent Victimization Among International College Students Enrolled in the United States: A Gendered Analysis.
    Daigle, L. E., Hoffman, C. Y., Johnson, L. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 02, 2016

    Although the risk of being violently victimized in college has been established for college students in the United States in general, this risk has not been explored for international college students. Using data from the Fall 2012 National College Health Assessment Survey, the extent to which international college students experience violent victimization is assessed. In addition, the risk factors for violent victimization for international students are compared with those for domestic students. Finally, in multivariate analyses, whether being an international student influences risk of violent victimization is examined and whether this relationship is moderated by gender is considered. Findings indicate that international students in general have lower risk profiles, in that they reported lower rates of drug use, binge drinking, being a first-year undergraduate student, and having a disability. Multivariate analyses, however, revealed that being an international student reduces the odds of violent victimization among only females.

    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516633686   open full text
  • Racial Differences and the Role of Marital Status in the Association Between Intimate Partner Violence and Unintended Pregnancy.
    Masho, S. W., Rozario, S., Walker, D., Cha, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 02, 2016

    More than half of all pregnancies in the U.S. are unintended which may lead to poor health outcomes. Racial and ethnic differences underlying the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy are inconsistent. This study examines the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy across racial/ethnic and marital strata among U.S. women. Data from the national 2009/11 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System consisting of women who recently delivered a live birth baby were analyzed (n=108,220). A dichotomous variable was created to indicate whether women experienced IPV in the 12 months leading to their most recent pregnancy (yes; no). The outcome, pregnancy intention, was dichotomized as intended or unintended. Subpopulation analysis was conducted stratified by race/ethnicity and marital status. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were generated using multiple logistic regression models. The odds of unintended pregnancy were increased for married non-Hispanic White women who reported IPV compared to their non-abused counterparts even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, health care access, and reproductive history. Among unmarried non-Hispanic other women, abused women were significantly less likely to report unintended pregnancy than the non-abused. No significant differences were observed for Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black women. There are significant racial and ethnic differences in the association between IPV and unintended pregnancy. Additionally, the association differed by marital status. Public health professionals and health care providers should be aware of these differences.

    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516635317   open full text
  • Beyond the Situational Model: Bystander Action Consequences to Intervening in Situations Involving Sexual Violence.
    Moschella, E. A., Bennett, S., Banyard, V. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 02, 2016

    Sexual violence is a widely reported problem in college communities. To date, research has largely focused on bystander intervention as one way to help prevent this problem. Although perceived consequences of bystander intervention, such as the weighting of costs and benefits, have been examined, little research has explored what happens after a bystander intervenes. The current study investigated what bystanders report as perceived outcomes and actual consequences of their bystander actions in response to risk for sexual assault. Of the 545 surveyed, 150 reported having taking bystander action in the past month and qualitatively described their bystander behavior and the responses of those parties involved. A range of behavioral responses and intervention methods were identified. The most frequent responses reported by participants were victims conveying positive and perpetrators conveying negative responses. Different types of helping were associated with bystanders reporting different types of responses to their actions. Future research should incorporate additional measures of consequences of bystander intervention. Implications for policy and bystander intervention programs are discussed, stressing the need for bystander intervention programs to address a range of bystander behaviors and explain the potential consequences and risks of intervening.

    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516635319   open full text
  • Functions of Aggression and Delinquency: The Moderating Role of Parent Criminality and Friends Gang Membership.
    Ang, R. P., Huan, V. S., Li, X., Chan, W. T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. March 02, 2016

    This study examined the relationships between two functions of aggression (i.e., reactive and proactive) and delinquency, including the moderating effects of parent criminality and friends’ gang membership, in a sample of 1,027 Singaporean adolescents from Grade 7 to Grade 9, with age ranging from 12 to 19 years (M = 14.10, SD = 1.15). Findings suggested that both reactive aggression and proactive aggression significantly and positively predicted delinquency (after controlling for proactive aggression and reactive aggression, respectively), with proactive aggression being a stronger predictor. Friends’ gang membership was found to moderate the relationship between reactive aggression and delinquency, and proactive aggression and delinquency, with stronger moderator effects for the latter. Those who were aggressive proactively and who had friends in a gang appear to be impacted most negatively with respect to delinquency. Parent criminality did not moderate these relationships. These findings highlight the need to effectively address the issues of child and adolescent aggression. Also, developing positive peer relations early is crucial for delinquency prevention.

    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516636066   open full text
  • Racial Composition of Couples in Battered Spouse Syndrome Cases: A Look at Juror Perceptions and Decisions.
    Mossiere, A., Maeder, E. M., Pica, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 25, 2016

    This study manipulated the race of the defendant (wife) and the victim (husband)—White/White, White/Black, Black/Black, and Black/White—in a murder case involving a history of intimate partner violence (IPV) to examine the potential prejudicial impact of race on juror decision-making. A total of 244 jury-eligible American community members read a trial transcript of a murder case in which the defendant claimed self-defense using evidence of battered spouse syndrome. Participants provided a verdict, responsibility attributions, and their perceptions of the scenario. Findings revealed that the Black defendant (wife) was more likely to be found not guilty by reason of self-defense, and female jurors were overall more likely to acquit the defendant (wife) than were men. These results contribute to the scarce literature on the influence of race on perceptions of legal proceedings involving IPV.

    February 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516632355   open full text
  • Assessing the Latent Structure of Posttraumatic Growth and Its Relationship With Cognitive Processing of Trauma Among Filipino Women Victims of Intimate Partner Abuse.
    Arandia, A. M. H., Mordeno, I. G., Nalipay, M. J. N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 25, 2016

    The study intends to find out which model best represents posttraumatic growth’s (PTG) latent factor structure in a sample of Asian, particularly Filipino, women victims of intimate partner abuse (IPA) using Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). In addition, it also aims to find out the differential relationships of the components of the best-fitting PTG model with cognitive processing strategies. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with the one-factor, three-factor, and five-factor models of PTG in a sample of 217 Filipino women who have history of IPA within the last 6 months of a previous or current relationship. Results revealed that the five-factor model comprised of appreciation of life, new possibilities, personal strength, spiritual change, and relating to others best fits the sample. Furthermore, all the components of the five-factor model were found to be positively correlated with cognitive processing of trauma strategies, including positive cognitive restructuring, denial, downward comparison, regret, and resolution/acceptance, albeit in varying degrees. These findings confirmed the robustness of the five-factor model of PTG compared with other models in a sample of women victims of IPA. In addition, the findings demonstrated the relationship of PTG with cognitive processing of trauma. These findings would be useful in developing cognitive interventions for women who experienced IPA.

    February 25, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516632354   open full text
  • A History of Childhood Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence Victimization Among Native American Adults.
    Kong, J., Roh, S., Easton, S. D., Lee, Y.-S., Lawler, M. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 24, 2016

    This study examined the association between childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among Native American adults. Based on Riggs’s theoretical model of the long-term effects of childhood abuse, we also examined the mediating roles of insecure attachment patterns and depressive symptoms. The current study was a secondary data analysis using the 2013 General Well-Being Among Native Americans dataset (N = 479). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized relationships among key constructs. Consistent with existing literature of revictimization, our findings showed that the experience of childhood maltreatment was positively associated with IPV victimization. Mediation analyses indicated that depression was a significant mediator in the association between childhood maltreatment and IPV victimization. In addition, all the paths linking childhood maltreatment, fearful attachment, depressive symptoms, and IPV victimization were statistically significant, although the overall mediation effect was not significant. The results of this study suggest that Riggs’s model can serve as a useful theoretical framework for understanding the long-term effects of childhood maltreatment among Native American adults. Practitioners in the area of IPV should include maltreatment history and current attachment patterns in client assessments, which could help address conflict and violence within intimate relationships.

    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516632353   open full text
  • Crime Reporting Behavior: Do Attitudes Toward the Police Matter?
    Boateng, F. D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 24, 2016

    Police researchers have long argued that favorable evaluations of the police eventually lead to citizens’ willingness to cooperate with the police. However, this assumption has barely been studied empirically. The current study examines the association between attitudes toward the police and crime reporting behavior of victims. Furthermore, the study explores the influence of victims’ characteristics on their decisions to report crime to the police. Using field data originally collected in Ghana, the study found that victims’ levels of confidence in the police and satisfaction with police work positively predict their decisions to report sexual assault and robbery to the police. Moreover, findings revealed that age, marital status, and employment status are important predictors of victims’ reporting behavior. Several practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516632356   open full text
  • Profiles of Child-Welfare-Involved Caregivers Identified by Caseworkers as Having a Domestic Violence Problem: Then and Now.
    Nwabuzor Ogbonnaya, I., Kohl, P. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 24, 2016

    Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant decline in the rate of domestic violence (DV) experienced among caregivers involved with the child protective services (CPS) system. It is unclear whether this shift is related to changes in caregiver characteristics. Furthermore, despite evidence that suggests CPS caseworkers poorly identify DV and fail to link families to DV services, limited research exists on whether the current CPS interventions that are known to improve caseworkers’ DV identification will also improve chances for DV service receipt. The present study uses data from the first and second cohorts of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to compare differences in demographic characteristics and DV experiences between caregivers in NSCAW I (1999-2000; n = 2,758) and NSCAW II (2008-2009; n = 2,207). We also examine the effects of CPS interventions on NSCAW II caregivers’ receipt of DV services external to the CPS agency (i.e., external DV services). Caregivers with caseworker reports of active DV in NSCAW I and II were similar in their demographic characteristics and external DV service experiences. However, caregivers in NSCAW II generally reported lower rates of victimization for specific types of violence than NSCAW I caregivers. Finally, caregivers with active DV involved with an agency that used DV assessment tools were 7.03 times more likely to receive external DV services than those in agencies without DV tools (95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.33, 21.22]). Whereas caregivers in agencies that sometimes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16, 95% CI = [0.03, 0.99]) or always (OR = 0.15, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.98]) had a DV specialist available were less likely to receive external DV services than those in an agency that never/rarely had a DV specialist available. We recommend CPS agencies use specialized assessment tools to identify DV-affected families and link them to services. Additional research is needed to understand what types of services DV specialists offer within CPS agencies and whether these services meet caregivers’ needs.

    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516632352   open full text
  • An Exploratory Examination of College Students Likelihood of Reporting Sexual Assault to Police and University Officials: Results of a Self-Report Survey.
    Moore, B. M., Baker, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 24, 2016

    Despite the growing salience of sexual assault victimizations on college campuses, reporting of such events remains low. A better understanding of what affects students’ reporting behavior and to whom they are likely to report victimizations can aid in developing policies and programs that promote reporting. Using a sample of 336 college students, this study uses hypothetical scenarios to examine the factors that affect individuals’ likelihood to report sexual assaults to the police and to university officials. Results show that students are significantly more likely to report sexual assaults to the police than to university officials. In addition, wanting justice, trust in police and university officials, and a desire for services are among the most consistent factors that affect students’ likelihood to report to both the police and university officials.

    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516632357   open full text
  • I Am Not in Your Shoes: Low Perspective Taking Mediating the Relation Among Attachment Insecurities and Physical Intimate Partner Violence in Chilean University Students.
    Lafontaine, M.-F., Guzman-Gonzalez, M., Peloquin, K., Levesque, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 24, 2016

    Guided by the attachment theory, this study tested the degree to which perspective taking mediates the effects of romantic attachment on the use of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) toward the partner. Participants consisted of 608 Chilean university students involved in a romantic relationship, among whom 44.2% of women and 34.7% of men reported inflicting at least one act of violence toward their partner during the previous year. Results from a structural equation model showed that the association between avoidance of intimacy and physical IPV is mediated by perspective taking for both men and women. However, perspective taking mediated the link between attachment anxiety and physical IPV in women only. Our findings underline the importance of the individual’s sense of attachment security in relation to their ability to empathize with their partners, as well as prevent the perpetration of physical IPV against them.

    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516632812   open full text
  • Adapting Minority Group Threat to Examine the Social Control of Sexual Orientation Bias.
    Stacey, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 24, 2016

    Blalock proposed that the threat of a minority group toward a majority in sheer size, economic competition, or power will result in an increase in discrimination toward that group. His original formulation of this theory of minority group threat, and its subsequent extensions, has focused almost exclusively on racial minority–majority relationships; however, Blalock asserted that his theory would apply to any minority–majority group relationship. Extensions to religious groups have shown this is likely the case. The current analysis assesses a further extension of minority group threat by reframing the arguments of the theory and adding two additional sources of threat to examine sexual orientation bias. Data from the Uniform Crime Reports Hate Crime Statistics program are used to assess whether the minority group threat hypotheses explain the reporting of sexual orientation bias crimes. The findings indicate that the original formulation of Blalock’s theory does not suffice to explain the reporting of anti–Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual bias crime, but the proposed extensions may explain some of this variation.

    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516633687   open full text
  • Firearm Violence and Effects on Concealed Gun Carrying: Large Debate and Small Effects.
    Carter, J. G., Binder, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 24, 2016

    Research has yet to identify a predictive relationship between crime and the issuance of aggregated concealed gun permits. The present study examines if a macro-level relationship exists between both concealed carry firearm applications and permits and violent crime committed with a firearm. Florida county-level data for concealed carry applications and violent crime are combined with police employment, socioeconomic, political, and firearm subculture variables across two temporal periods using both county and year fixed effects models. Unstandardized negative binomial regressions are employed with multiple alternative model specifications and diagnostic tests. Findings indicate a positive association between crime, especially those committed with a firearm, and concealed carry applications and permits. The effect size of firearm violent crime on concealed carry applications and permits is minimal. There is a demonstrable link between firearm violence and concealed carry applications and permits issued, net all covariates. Findings should be tempered by the minimal effect sizes.

    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516633608   open full text
  • Social Workers Reflections on the Therapeutic Encounter With Elder Abuse and Neglect.
    Goldblatt, H., Band-Winterstein, T., Alon, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 24, 2016

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore social workers’ reflections on their experience of the therapeutic encounter with victims and perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect. The research questions were as follows: How do social workers tune themselves toward the therapeutic encounter with elder abuse? How do they position themselves vis-à-vis the clients? How do social workers describe the meaning of the intervention both for the clients and for themselves? What is the added value of the therapeutic encounter in this field for the social workers? Participants were 17 experienced women social workers, who worked with abusers and with abused and neglected older adults in Israel. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were later transcribed and content analyzed. Two main themes emerged from the findings, emphasizing two key aspects of the social workers’ reflective process experienced during the therapeutic encounter: (a) focus on the client: "This is the journey of their lives"—reflection on the therapeutic "journey"; (b) focus on the social worker’s inner and professional world: "‘There is nothing to be done’ is no longer in my vocabulary"—a personal and professional maturation process. The social workers expressed a positive attitude toward their elder clients. A unique dialogue developed in the therapeutic encounter, whereby the social workers considered any change as valuable if it allowed the elders a sense of control and self-worth, whereas the social workers were enriched by the elders’ life experience, and matured both personally and professionally. Thus, both sides benefited from this reciprocal relationship. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.

    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516633688   open full text
  • The Influence of Gender Ideology, Victim Resistance, and Spiking a Drink on Acquaintance Rape Attributions.
    Angelone, D. J., Mitchell, D., Smith, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 24, 2016

    The current study examined observer’s attributions about the victim and perpetrator of an alleged acquaintance rape. Participants included 504 college students from a public university in the northeastern United States who read a brief crime report and completed a series of questionnaires for course credit. While men tended to attribute more blame to the victim than women, gender ideology emerged as a stronger predictor of rape attributions, and some types of sexist beliefs were associated with greater victim blaming and others with less victim blaming. Endorsement of hostile sexism, rape myths, and heterosexual intimacy was generally associated with the attribution of greater victim culpability, as well as less perpetrator culpability, perpetrator criminality, and victim credibility. However, complementary gender differentiation was associated with greater perpetrator culpability and criminality, while protective paternalism was associated with greater victim credibility. Observers attributed lower victim culpability and greater perpetrator criminality when the victim’s drink was spiked, and attributed greater perpetrator culpability when the victim verbally resisted the perpetrator’s advances. Given the implications that observer attitudes can have on professional and personal support for survivors, as well as juror decision making, the ongoing examination of the complex interplay between the person and situational factors affecting attributions of rape is essential. Sexual assault prevention programs may also benefit from a psychoeducational component that targets reducing traditional gender ideology.

    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516635318   open full text
  • "Walking Between the Raindrops": Intimate Partner Violence in the Ultra-Orthodox Society in Israel From Social Workers Perspective.
    Band-Winterstein, T., Freund, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 19, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) in faith-based communities has unique characteristics that social workers should consider. This qualitative study examines how social workers describe their encounter with abused Jewish ultra-Orthodox women. In-depth interviews were conducted among 24 social workers (one man, 23 women: four were ultra-Orthodox, 19 were modern Orthodox, and one was secular); all respondents worked in the public sector, welfare offices, and non-profit organizations in ultra-Orthodox communities. Three major themes emerged: (a) "There is no guardian against unchastity": Is there no safe haven when it comes to domestic violence?; (b) "I’m not religious enough, not disciplined enough": describing the experience of violence in the therapeutic encounter; and (c) "walking between the raindrops": culturally sensitive social work in the context of IPV. Findings and implications are discussed in the context of cultural sensitivity.

    February 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516633218   open full text
  • The Prevalence and Correlates of Physical and Sexual Violence Affecting Female Sex Workers in Swaziland.
    Berger, B. O., Grosso, A., Adams, D., Ketende, S., Sithole, B., Mabuza, X. S., Mavimbela, M. J., Baral, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 12, 2016

    Female sex workers (FSW) have a heightened vulnerability to violence and negative sexual/reproductive health outcomes. Limited research has examined how experiencing physical and sexual violence (PSV) mediates risk for poor health outcomes among FSW in Swaziland. The present analyses aim to contribute to literature linking violence with poor health outcomes, high-risk behaviors, and reduced health service-seeking among FSW. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study conducted in Swaziland between July and September 2011 with 325 adult women who reported exchanging sex for money, goods, or favors in the last 12 months, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between PSV and ancillary violence/abuse exposures, risk behaviors, and sexual/reproductive and mental health outcomes. PSV was conceptualized as either ever having been beaten up as a result of selling sex or ever being forced to have sex since the age of 18, or both. Prevalence of PSV in this sample was 59.0% in crude estimation, and 48.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]:[39.2,57.6]) with RDS weighting. Separate RDS-weighted estimates of being beaten up as a result of sex work and ever being forced to have sex were 32.4% (95%CI=[24.4,40.4]) and 33.1% (95%CI =[25.0,41.2%]), respectively. Experiencing PSV was associated with being blackmailed (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 1.93, 95%CI= [1.07,3.52]), non-injection drug use in the last 12 months (aOR= 1.84, 95%CI= [1.02,3.33]), and feeling afraid to seek health services as a result of selling sex (aOR = 1.74, 95%CI= [1.01,2.99]). Given these findings, violence prevention strategies should be prioritized in programs that address Swazi FSW health, empowerment, and safety.

    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516629385   open full text
  • Development of an Innovative Treatment Paradigm for Intimate Partner Violence Victims With Depression and Pain Using Community-Based Participatory Research.
    Poleshuck, E., Mazzotta, C., Resch, K., Rogachefsky, A., Bellenger, K., Raimondi, C., Thompson Stone, J., Cerulli, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 12, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health issue with complex physical health, mental health and social consequences that can exacerbate survivors’ barriers to health care engagement and support. Furthermore, health care professionals are often unaware of or feel ill-equipped to address survivors’ complex needs. Depression and chronic pain are particularly prevalent co-occurring problems for survivors and can impede engagement and outcomes in traditional health care. This study’s purpose was to understand what interventions might be more responsive to survivors’ myriad needs, particularlly those with depression and pain. Survivors were involved with the design, execution, analysis, and interpretation of results, based on community-based participatory research principles. Intervention development happened in two phases: the first consisted of focus groups with survivors to inform the intervention and the second included intervention design, informed by a community advisory board (CAB). Thirty-one survivors participated in Phase 1, and they reported preferring a range of support including formal help-seeking, informal coping strategies, and spirituality. In Phase 2, the CAB (comprised of survivors, health care professionals, and researchers) identified three distinct aspects of a comprehensive IPV intervention: (a) education regarding both the complex health issues and available local resources; (b) an integrated consultation service for providers to seek recommendations for responding to the full spectrum of survivors’ needs; and (c) a trauma-informed, accessible clinic. Academic medical centers could not have designed this intervention in isolation; survivors and providers played an integral part of this process, and continue to inform our current work.

    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628810   open full text
  • Parental and Peer Attachment Characteristics: Differentiating Between Youth Sexual and Non-Sexual Offenders and Associations With Sexual Offense Profiles.
    Yoder, J. R., Leibowitz, G. S., Peterson, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 12, 2016

    Attachment deficits have been suggested as an etiological explanation underlying the development of sexually abusive behaviors and general delinquency among youth. Yet, few researchers have explored the discriminating functions of attachment characteristics or investigated attachments as a stand-alone risk/protective factor explaining offending profiles among youth sexual offenders. This article explored the differences in characteristics of parental and peer attachments between youth sexual (n = 355) and non-sexual offenders (n = 150). Furthermore, associations between family and peer attachments and criminal profiles of sexual offenders were tested. The t-test results revealed that the groups of youth differed on various mother and father attachment characteristics, with youth sexual offenders exhibiting greater deficits. Regression models revealed lower levels of mother and peer trust and communication were associated with more severe sexual offenses; low levels of mother trust were associated with more victims; and low levels of mother trust and high father alienation were associated with more non-sexual criminality. Practice implications suggest the need to amalgamate families more consistently into treatment and addressing peer dynamics within groups and community contexts.

    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628805   open full text
  • Predicting Parent-Child Aggression Risk: Cognitive Factors and Their Interaction With Anger.
    Rodriguez, C. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 12, 2016

    Several cognitive elements have previously been proposed to elevate risk for physical child abuse. To predict parent–child aggression risk, the current study evaluated the role of approval of parent–child aggression, perceptions of children as poorly behaved, and discipline attributions. Several dimensions of attributions specifically tied to parents’ discipline practices were targeted. In addition, anger experienced during discipline episodes was considered a potential moderator of these cognitive processes. Using a largely multiple-indicator approach, a sample of 110 mothers reported on these cognitive and affective aspects that may occur when disciplining their children as well as responding to measures of parent–child aggression risk. Findings suggest that greater approval of parent–child aggression, negative perceptions of their child’s behavior, and discipline attributions independently predicted parent–child aggression risk, with anger significantly interacting with mothers’ perception of their child as more poorly behaved to exacerbate their parent–child aggression risk. Of the discipline attribution dimensions evaluated, mothers’ sense of external locus of control and believing their child deserved their discipline were related to increase parent–child aggression risk. Future work is encouraged to comprehensively evaluate how cognitive and affective components contribute and interact to increase risk for parent–child aggression.

    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516629386   open full text
  • A Longitudinal Examination of Mothers Depression and PTSD Symptoms as Impacted by Partner-Abusive Mens Harm to Their Children.
    Rivera, E. A., Sullivan, C. M., Zeoli, A. M., Bybee, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 12, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious and widespread form of gender-based violence that disproportionately affects women. It is well established that IPV victimization contributes to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and that many partner-abusive men continue to perpetuate abuse even after their relationship with the victim ends. In addition, when men harm their partners, they are more likely to harm their children, and evidence suggests that this harm continues post-separation. However, scant research has been conducted on men’s harm to their children as an extension of IPV perpetration, with even less known about the mental health impact this form of abuse has on mothers. For this longitudinal cohort study, 40 partner-abused mothers who had separated, or were planning to separate, from an abusive partner with whom they shared children were recruited. Women were interviewed 4 times over 1 year. Results confirmed that, in addition to men’s physical abuse perpetration relating to subsequent increases in mothers’ depression and PTSD symptoms over time, their harm to the children predicted both mothers’ depression and PTSD symptoms as well.

    February 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516629391   open full text
  • Retrospective Cyberbullying and Suicide Ideation: The Mediating Roles of Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Thwarted Belongingness.
    Mitchell, S. M., Seegan, P. L., Roush, J. F., Brown, S. L., Sustaita, M. A., Cukrowicz, K. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 09, 2016

    Research suggests that being cyberbullied is associated with increased risk for suicide ideation; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanisms of this relation, and fewer have examined this relation within a theory of suicide. Specifically, the interpersonal theory of suicide posits that thwarted belongingness (indicated by loneliness and a lack of reciprocal caring relationships) and perceived burdensomeness (indicated by feelings of liability and self-hatred) increase risk for suicide ideation. The current study aimed to examine depressive symptoms, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness as mediators between intensity of being cyberbullied and suicide ideation. Participants were college students (N = 348) who completed assessments of retrospective peer victimization, thwarted interpersonal needs (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness), and suicide ideation. The results indicated that after adjusting for sexual orientation, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the relation between intensity of being cyberbullied and suicide ideation. Furthermore, depressive symptoms and perceived burdensomeness serially mediated the relation between intensity of being cyberbullied and suicide ideation; however, thwarted belongingness was not a significant mediator. Clinical and research implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

    February 09, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628291   open full text
  • Does Who You Know Affect How You Act? The Impact of Relationships on Bystander Intervention in Interpersonal Violence Situations.
    Palmer, J. E., Nicksa, S. C., McMahon, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 08, 2016

    This study utilized an experimental design to determine how bystanders would intervene in campus sexual assault (SA) or intimate partner violence (IPV) situations. Specifically, it examines whether the type of intervention (direct, indirect, or delegation) is associated with relational distance, the nature of the crime, or the sex of the bystander. A random sample of college students completed a web-based survey at a private university in the Midwest. Survey participants were randomly assigned two vignettes—an SA scenario (n = 371) and an IPV scenario (n = 350)—with one of three conditions: knew the victim, knew the perpetrator, or knew neither. Chi-square tests, binary logistic regressions, and predicted probabilities were conducted to test three hypotheses. Results indicate that relational distance affects how a bystander will intervene. In the SA vignette, students who knew the victim or perpetrator chose direct intervention. In the IPV vignette, students who knew the victim or perpetrator chose direct or indirect interventions. Students who knew neither the victim nor the perpetrator tended to choose to delegate the intervention to someone else for both crime types. Although there were differences by sex, the larger differences were between whether they knew someone or not. Still, men had the highest probability of directly intervening in the SA scenario, whereas women had the highest probability of indirectly intervening in the IPV scenario. The results of this study suggest that campus violence prevention programs should consider context-specific issues in their trainings such as relational distance and type of crime.

    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628292   open full text
  • Characteristics of Sexual Abuse Among Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses.
    Kmett, J. A., Eack, S. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 08, 2016

    The deleterious effects of sexual abuse (SA) are well documented, as many studies have found that SA can increase the risk for psychiatric disorders. While SA has been examined in multiple samples, no studies have examined the characteristics of SA in individuals with severe mental illnesses (SMI). This study examined the prevalence rate and characterized the nature of SA among individuals with SMI who were under psychiatric care in three different inpatient facilities. Utilizing data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, 1,136 individuals with SMI were assessed for SA histories, psychiatric diagnoses, and other demographics. Nearly half of this sample (n = 511) identified SA histories, with almost half indicating that the person was a stranger or someone outside of the family unit. One third reported SA occurred "too many times to count," and approximately a third indicated the abuse consisted of intercourse, occurring at a mean age of 11.22 years. Results found that individuals with SA histories were often never married, Caucasian, female, had children, described themselves as psychologically unwell, and were commonly voluntary psychiatric admissions. Those with SA histories had significantly higher psychopathology and lower functioning, and were more likely to be diagnosed with depression but less likely to be substance dependent. Identifying SA characteristics in individuals with SMI is a critical component to successful treatment. Thorough screening and assessment of this common problem can help clinicians identify accompanying issues that may exacerbate SMI symptomology, and improve the prognosis for long-term outcomes.

    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628811   open full text
  • Is the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Associated With College Sexual Assault Victimization? A Prospective Examination.
    Gilmore, A. K., Maples-Keller, J. L., Pinsky, H. T., Shepard, M. E., Lewis, M. A., George, W. H.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 08, 2016

    Sexual assault protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be negatively associated with sexual assault victimization. However, no studies to date have prospectively examined whether the use of sexual assault PBS is negatively associated with subsequent sexual assault experiences. The current study examined the association between the use of sexual assault PBS and subsequent sexual assault victimization severity. College women who reported engaging in heavy episodic drinking (n = 77) were assessed online for their use of sexual assault PBS and history of sexual assault victimization. In addition, a 3-month follow-up survey was given assessing sexual assault victimization severity in the past 3 months. The use of sexual assault PBS was negatively associated with sexual assault severity in the 3-month follow-up period. Future research should further examine these PBS to create more college-specific PBS and to determine whether they are useful as risk-reduction strategies.

    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628808   open full text
  • From Resistance to Invitations: How Men Voluntarily in Therapy for Intimate Partner Violence May Contribute to the Development of a Working Alliance.
    Lomo, B., Haavind, H., Tjersland, O. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 05, 2016

    The high drop-out rate and modest outcome for men in treatment for intimate partner violence (IPV) have highlighted the question of how therapists can establish an effective working alliance with these clients. The aim of this study was to conceptualize the variety of ways in which male clients using violence against a female partner might present themselves to form a working alliance that might appeal to them. We studied how 20 men voluntarily in individual IPV treatment contributed at the beginning of therapy to forming an alliance with therapists skilled in such treatment. The first therapy session in 10 drop-out and 10 completed cases was transcribed verbatim and analyzed qualitatively, following guidelines drawn from the constructionist grounded theory. The analysis resulted in a conceptual model of gateways and invitations to an alliance. Gateways are themes that have the potential to open a path toward collaboration on personal change. Each of the three gateways identified, comprised solide and weak invitations to an alliance: (a) presenting reasons for seeking treatment—as their own choice, as avoidance, or as a mistake; (b) presenting notions of change—as their own need to change their violent behavior, as ambivalence toward the project, or as a need to change the partner; and (c) disclosing and describing violence—as a personal narrative, as a scene, as a fragment of their life, or as something else. Implications for therapists’ understanding of clients’ motivational goals, negotiation of alliance, and disclosure of violence early in therapy are discussed.

    February 05, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628290   open full text
  • The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on the Psychosocial Development of Toddlers.
    Harper, B., Nwabuzor Ogbonnaya, I., McCullough, K. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 04, 2016

    This study used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to examine the effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on child-welfare-involved toddlers’ psychosocial development. The sample was limited to toddlers aged 12 to 18 months with mothers who did (n = 102) and did not (n = 163) report IPV physical victimization. Multiple linear regression analyses showed, when compared with mothers who did not report IPV physical victimization, mothers who reported IPV physical victimization were more likely to have toddlers with higher levels of socioemotional and behavioral problems (B = 5.06, p < .001). Conversely, delayed social competence was not associated with IPV (B = –1.33, p > .05). Further analyses examining only toddlers with mothers who reported IPV physical victimization revealed, when compared with IPV-exposed toddlers who had a child welfare report of physical abuse as the primary maltreatment type, those with IPV as the primary maltreatment type were at lower risk of having socioemotional and behavioral problems (B = –12.90, p < .05) and delayed social competence (B = 3.27, p < .05). These findings indicate a significant concern regarding toddler psychosocial development when a mother has experienced IPV. This concern is even greater among IPV-exposed toddlers who experience physical abuse. We recommend child welfare workers assess for IPV. Once identified, early prevention and intervention services should be offered and tailored to the specific needs of IPV-affected families.

    February 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628286   open full text
  • Structural, Organizational, and Interpersonal Factors Influencing Interprofessional Collaboration on Sexual Assault Response Teams.
    Cole, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 04, 2016

    Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are multidisciplinary teams that coordinate multiple systems (e.g., medical, law enforcement, prosecutors, and rape crisis center advocates) to provide comprehensive care to victims and to collect high-quality forensic evidence to facilitate investigation and prosecution. Relatively little guidance is provided about effective teamwork strategies in resources on forming SARTs. Using in-depth surveys with the SART coordinators and telephone surveys (including close-ended and open-ended questions) with 79 professionals involved in three active, formal SARTs in one state, this study examined structural, organizational, and interpersonal factors that influence interprofessional collaboration on SART. Study findings indicate that perceived structural factors and interpersonal factors were significantly associated with SART members’/responders’ perceptions of the quality of interprofessional collaboration on their SART. Findings suggest that individuals’ perceptions of professionalization and power disparities between professions pose challenges to perceived interprofessional collaboration on SART. Compared with criminal justice and medical professionals, victim advocacy rated the level of collaboration on their SART significantly lower. The overall picture from the data was that SART professionals perceived mutual respect, trust, and commitment to collaboration to be pervasive on their SARTs, even though recognition of professional conflicts was also prevalent, suggesting that professionals understood that interpersonal conflict was distinct from professional conflict. Initial SART trainings should address the benefits of the team response, professional roles, and communication and conflict resolution skills, and ongoing training should provide professionals the opportunity to raise positive and negative examples of their collaborative efforts to explore existing tensions and constraints on the team for conflict resolution.

    February 04, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628809   open full text
  • Sibling Violence and Children Hospitalized for Serious Mental and Behavioral Health Problems.
    Phillips, D. A., Bowie, B. H., Wan, D. C., Yukevich, K. W.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 03, 2016

    Violence between siblings is prevalent, can have long-lasting negative effects, and yet it is often dismissed as normal. This study explores sibling violence (SV) documented in medical records of children hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital. Retrospective chart review was conducted of all medical records of children ages 5 years to 12 years, living with a sibling in the home, admitted during the 2007 calendar year to a northwestern psychiatric hospital that serves a five state area (N = 135). Using a data collection tool, quantitative and qualitative data were extracted from the charts, and descriptive statistical analysis was used to identify patterns and trends. The records showed that 103 (76%) of the 135 patients perpetrated SV and 30 (22%) were victims of SV. Many of the patients perpetrating SV were also violent toward themselves and toward peers, mothers, and teachers. The majority of patients did not have a psychiatric diagnosis that included violent behavior as a criterion and most of the patients had one or more past adverse experiences. Findings suggest that children hospitalized with psychiatric problems should be screened for SV perpetration and victimization, that health care staff and parents should be educated about SV, and that further research is needed to better understand what constitutes SV, the context within which it occurs, and effects of non-protection by parents.

    February 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516628289   open full text
  • The Role of Interpersonal Conflict as a Determinant of Firearm-Related Homicide-Suicides at Different Ages.
    Kalesan, B., Mobily, M. E., Vasan, S., Siegel, M., Galea, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. February 03, 2016

    Although firearm-related homicide–suicides and firearm-related suicides are tragic and catastrophic events, there is increasing evidence that the two events have different precipitants and that understanding these precipitants may help prevention efforts. We aimed to assess the role of interpersonal conflict (IPC) and recent crises in firearm-related homicide–suicides as compared with firearm-related suicides alone. We also assessed whether these differences were consistent across young and old perpetrators. Using an unmatched case-control study, we compared firearm-related homicide–suicides andsuicides alone from 2003 to 2011 in the National Violent Death Registry data to assess the risk associated with IPC and crisis. Survival analysis was performed to compare time-to-incident of homicide–suicide versus suicide only. We derived odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) due to IPC and recent crisis from mixed logistic regression models. Stratified analysis by age on the effect of IPC and recent crisis, and type of incident was also performed. After adjusting for relevant covariates, homicide–suicides were more likely than suicide alone following IPC (OR = 20.6, 95%CI = [16.6, 25.7]) and recent crisis (OR = 14.5, 95%CI = [12.4, 16.9]). The risk of firearm homicide–suicide compared with suicide associated with IPC was twice greater among those >30 years compared with those ≤30 years (p-interaction = .033), and no differential by age associated with recent crisis (p-interaction = .64). IPC and recent crisis are risk factors for committing homicide–suicides compared with suicides alone, with the risk doubly greater among older than younger perpetrators.

    February 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260516629387   open full text
  • We Are Family: Specifying the Unique Contribution of Abuse and Neglect of Siblings on the Prevalence, Severity, and Chronicity of Maltreatment in the Household.
    Spano, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 31, 2016

    Prior research typically focuses on a single child ("index" victim) when measuring child abuse and neglect (CAN) using Child Protective Services (CPS) records. However, excluding siblings has the potential to underestimate estimates of the prevalence, severity, and chronicity of CAN in the household, which includes all children in the family. CPS maltreatment records were searched in 2005 for 366 "index" victims who were surveyed for 5 consecutive years (from 1998 to 2002) for the Mobile Youth Survey (MYS) as well as other siblings in the household. The estimate of prevalence of CAN in the household increased by 10% when sibling(s) in the household were included in the CPS search. In addition, prevalence of sexual abuse in the household increased by 38% when siblings were included in the broader search of CPS records. More importantly, including sibling victims of CAN uncovered incidents of maltreatment that occurred before the birth of the targeted MYS "index" victim. In short, the inclusion of abuse and neglect of siblings is a straightforward and intuitive way to improve estimates of abuse and neglect in the household. More importantly, the age of onset of CAN of sibling victims provides a wider window of opportunity to identify at-risk families for targeted interventions and may represent a critical stepping stone toward the primary prevention of CAN in the household.

    January 31, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515625908   open full text
  • Maltreatment and Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Chinese Children With and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Mediating Role of the Parent-Child Relationship.
    Li, L., Lin, X., Chi, P., Heath, M. A., Fang, X., Du, H., Wang, Z.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 24, 2016

    Maltreatment has negative effects on the parent–child relationship and the emotional and behavioral development of children. The current study aimed to examine the associations among maltreatment, parent–child relationship, and emotional and behavioral problems in Chinese children with or without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Participants in the study included 259 children with ODD and their 269 non-ODD counterparts from northern, eastern, and southwestern China. We also collected data from their teachers and fathers or mothers. The results showed that ODD children suffered more maltreatment and had more emotional and behavioral problems than their non-ODD peers. For all children (both ODD and non-ODD children), emotional abuse predicted emotional problems but not behavioral problems. Physical abuse predicted behavioral problems but not emotional problems. Parent–child relationship mediated the effects of emotional abuse and physical abuse on emotional problems among ODD children but not among non-ODD children. Implications for prevention of emotional and physical abuse and ODD in the Chinese cultural context are discussed.

    January 24, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515624234   open full text
  • Rejection Sensitivity, Jealousy, and the Relationship to Interpersonal Aggression.
    Murphy, A. M., Russell, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 21, 2016

    The development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships lead individuals to risk rejection in the pursuit of acceptance. Some individuals are predisposed to experience a hypersensitivity to rejection that is hypothesized to be related to jealous and aggressive reactions within interpersonal relationships. The current study used convenience sampling to recruit 247 young adults to evaluate the relationship between rejection sensitivity, jealousy, and aggression. A mediation model was used to test three hypotheses: Higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of aggression (Hypothesis 1); higher scores of rejection sensitivity would be positively correlated to higher scores of jealousy (Hypothesis 2); jealousy would mediate the relationship between rejection sensitivity and aggression (Hypothesis 3). Study results suggest a tendency for individuals with high rejection sensitivity to experience higher levels of jealousy, and subsequently have a greater propensity for aggression, than individuals with low rejection sensitivity. Future research that substantiates a link between hypersensitivity to rejection, jealousy, and aggression may provide an avenue for prevention, education, or intervention in reducing aggression within interpersonal relationships.

    January 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515622572   open full text
  • Husbands Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Family Maltreatment of Low-Income Postpartum Women in Mumbai, India.
    Wagman, J. A., Donta, B., Ritter, J., Naik, D. D., Nair, S., Saggurti, N., Raj, A., Silverman, J. G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 21, 2016

    Husbands’ alcohol use has been associated with family-level stress and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in India. Joint family systems are common in India and IPV often co-occurs with non-violent family maltreatment of wives (e.g., nutritional deprivation, deprivation of sleep, blocking access to health care). Alcohol use increases for some parents following the birth of a child. This study examined 1,038 postpartum women’s reports of their husbands’ alcohol use and their own experiences of IPV (by husband) and non-violent maltreatment from husbands and/or in-laws. We analyzed cross-sectional, quantitative data collected in 2008, from women (ages 15-35) seeking immunizations for their infants <6 months at three large urban health centers in Mumbai, India. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models estimated associations between the independent variable (husbands’ past month use of alcohol) and two dependent variables (postpartum IPV and maltreatment). Overall, 15% of husbands used alcohol, ranging from daily drinkers (10%) to those who drank one to two times per week (54%). Prevalence of postpartum IPV and family maltreatment was 18% and 42%, respectively. Prevalence of IPV among women married to alcohol users was 27%. Most abused women’s husbands always (27%) or sometimes (37%) drank during violent episodes. Risk for IPV increased with a man’s increasing frequency of consumption. Women who lived with a husband who drank alcohol, relative to non-drinkers, were more likely to report postpartum IPV, aOR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [1.3, 3.1]. Husbands’ drinking was marginally associated with increased risk for family maltreatment, aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.0, 2.1]. Our findings suggest that men’s alcohol use is an important risk factor for postpartum IPV and maltreatment. Targeted services for Indian women contending with these issues are implicated. Postpartum care offers an ideal opportunity to screen for IPV, household maltreatment, and other health risks, such as husband’s use of alcohol. There is need to scale up proven successful interventions for reducing men’s alcohol use and design strategies that provide at-risk women protection from alcohol-related IPV.

    January 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515624235   open full text
  • Factors Associated With Womens Reporting of Intimate Partner Violence in Spain.
    Sanz-Barbero, B., Otero-Garcia, L., Vives-Cases, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 21, 2016

    In Spain, in 2013, the 20% of women who were murdered by their partner had reported him previously. We analyze the 2011 Spanish-Macrosurvey on Gender Violence to identify and analyze the prevalence of and the principal factors associated with reporting a situation of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the main reasons women cite for not filing such reports, or for subsequently deciding to withdraw their complaint. Overall, 72.8% of women exposed to IPV did not report their aggressor. The most frequent reasons for not reporting were not giving importance to the situation (33.9%), and fear and lack of trust in the reporting process (21.3%). The main reasons for withdrawing the complaint were cessation of the violence (20.0%), and fear and threats (18.2%). The probability of reporting increased among women with young children who were abused, prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]): 2.14 [1.54, 2.98], and those whose mother was abused, prevalence ratio (95% CI): 2.25 [1.42, 3.57]. Always focusing on the need to protect women who report abuse, it is necessary to promote the availability of and access to legal resources especially among women who use them less: women who do not have children and women who do not have previous family exposure to violence.

    January 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515625512   open full text
  • Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young Men and Women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mulawa, M., Kajula, L. J., Yamanis, T. J., Balvanz, P., Kilonzo, M. N., Maman, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 21, 2016

    We describe and compare the baseline rates of victimization and perpetration of three forms of intimate partner violence (IPV)—psychological, physical, and sexual—among sexually active men (n = 1,113) and women (n = 226) enrolled in an ongoing cluster-randomized HIV and gender-based violence prevention trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. IPV was measured using a modified version of the World Health Organization Violence Against Women instrument. We assess the degree to which men and women report overlapping forms of IPV victimization and perpetration. Sociodemographic and other factors associated with increased risk of victimization and perpetration of IPV are examined. Within the last 12 months, 34.8% of men and 35.8% of women reported any form of IPV victimization. Men were more likely than women to report perpetrating IPV (27.6% vs. 14.6%, respectively). We also found high rates of co-occurrence of IPV victimization and perpetration with 69.7% of male perpetrators and 81.8% of female perpetrators also reporting victimization during the last year. Among men, having ever consumed alcohol and experiencing childhood violence were associated with increased risk of most forms of IPV. Younger women were more likely to report perpetrating IPV than older women. We found evidence of gender symmetry with regard to most forms of IPV victimization, but men reported higher rates of IPV perpetration than women. Given the substantial overlap between victimization and perpetration reported, our findings suggest that IPV may be bidirectional within relationships in this setting and warrant further investigation. Implications for interventions are discussed.

    January 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515625910   open full text
  • The Association Between Military Sexual Trauma and Use of VA and Non-VA Health Care Services Among Female Veterans With Military Service in Iraq or Afghanistan.
    Calhoun, P. S., Schry, A. R., Dennis, P. A., Wagner, H. R., Kimbrel, N. A., Bastian, L. A., Beckham, J. C., Kudler, H., Straits-Tro&#x0308;ster, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 21, 2016

    Military sexual trauma (MST) has been linked with increased rates of mental health disorders among veterans. Few studies have addressed how MST is related to use of VA and non-VA health care. The purpose of the current study was to (a) examine the association between MST, combat experiences, and mental health outcomes (i.e., posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and depression) and (b) examine the association of MST and use of VA and non-VA health care services among female veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. Female respondents to a survey assessing Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans’ needs and health (N = 185) completed measures of demographic variables, military history, combat exposure, MST, PTSD, and depression symptoms, and use of VA and non-VA health care. Overall, 70% of the sample experienced one or more combat-related experiences and 15.7% endorsed MST during deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. MST and combat exposure were both positively associated with PTSD and depression symptoms even after controlling for the effects of demographic and military history variables. MST was associated with increased use of VA mental health services in bivariate results but was not independently related to VA service utilization after accounting for PTSD and depression symptoms. Approximately half of the women who reported MST had not used VA health care. Continued outreach and education initiatives may be needed to ensure veterans understand the resources available to address MST-related mental and physical health problems through the VA.

    January 21, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515625909   open full text
  • Relationships Among Intimate Partner Violence, Work, and Health.
    Wathen, C. N., MacGregor, J. C. D., MacQuarrie, B. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 19, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, and recent attention has focused on its impact on workers and workplaces. We provide findings from a pan-Canadian online survey on the relationships among IPV, work, and health. In total, 8,429 people completed the survey, 95.5% of them in English and 78.4% female. Reflecting the recruitment strategy, most (95.4%) were currently working, and unionized (81.4%). People with any lifetime IPV experience reported significantly poorer general health, mental health, and quality of life; those with both recent IPV and IPV experience over 12 months ago had the poorest health. Among those who had experienced IPV, about half reported that violence occurred at or near the workplace, and these people generally had poorer health outcomes. Employment status moderated the relationship between IPV exposure and health status, with those who were currently working and had experienced IPV having similar health status to those without IPV experience who were not employed. While there were gender differences in IPV experience, in the impacts of IPV at work, and in health status, gender did not moderate any associations. In this very large data set, we found robust relationships among different kinds of IPV exposure (current, recent, and lifetime), health and quality of life, and employment status, including the potentially protective effect of current employment on health for both women and men. Our findings may have implications for strategies to address IPV in workplaces, and should reinforce emerging evidence that IPV is also an occupational health issue.

    January 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515624236   open full text
  • Mobbing in Schools and Hospitals in Uruguay: Prevalence and Relation to Loss of Status.
    Buunk, A. P., Franco, S., Dijkstra, P., Zurriaga, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 19, 2016

    In the present study in secondary schools and hospitals in Uruguay (N = 187), we examined the relationship between feeling the victim of mobbing and a perceived loss of status. Nearly all forms of mobbing were more prevalent among hospital employees than among school employees. Among hospital employees, 40.4%, and among school employees, 23.9% reported being the victim of mobbing at least once a week. Being the victim of mobbing was, in both hospitals and schools, more prevalent among older employees, and in hospitals, among employees who were more highly educated and who had been employed for a longer time. Men and women did not differ in reporting that one was a victim of mobbing, but men reported more perceived loss of status than women. However, among women, being the victim of mobbing was much more strongly related to experiencing a loss of status than among men. Several explanations for this gender difference and the practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

    January 19, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515625903   open full text
  • Victimization After Meeting With Online Acquaintances: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Adolescents in Malaysia.
    Marret, M. J., Choo, W.-Y.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 18, 2016

    This study aimed to determine contact and privacy risks encountered by Malaysian adolescents with access to the Internet and mobile phones and factors associated with face-to-face meetings with online acquaintances as well as to estimate the prevalence of subsequent victimization. Secondary school students from randomly selected public schools in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur responded to an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (78% response rate). Out of 3,349 Internet or mobile phone users, 51% had been invited to meet offline with an online-meeting acquaintance and 30% complied. Of the 1,005 respondents who went to offline meetings, 55% had meetings with more than six people. Male gender, Malay ethnicity, online access at an Internet café, viewing pornography on the Internet, the absence of parental restrictions on visiting certain website and chat rooms, not being explicitly forbidden to meet strangers encountered online, and disclosure of personal information were significantly associated with increased odds of face-to-face meetings with online acquaintances. Verbal, physical, or sexual assaults were reported by 5.5% of the 1,005 including 13 males and five females who reported forced sexual intercourse. Similarities as well as differences in factors associated with risk-taking behavior compared with adolescents in Western countries have important implications on policy and intervention.

    January 18, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515625502   open full text
  • Preventing Online Victimization: College Students Views on Intervention and Prevention.
    White, W. E., Carmody, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 14, 2016

    Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites have changed the way we interact online. Technological advances have also facilitated the emergence of cyberstalking and online harassment, a growing issue on college campuses. This study utilizes focus group data to examine college students’ experiences with online harassment and cyberstalking. Students voiced concerns with online tracking, falsifying identities, and harassment. They also noted that incoming first-year students and those negotiating some of their first romantic relationships are especially vulnerable. In addition, students were asked to propose appropriate prevention, education, and intervention strategies at the college level. Surprisingly, many students recommended offline programs to battle this online problem.

    January 14, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515625501   open full text
  • Control, Norms, and Attitudes: Differences Between Students Who Do and Do Not Intervene as Bystanders to Sexual Assault.
    Hoxmeier, J. C., Flay, B. R., Acock, A. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 14, 2016

    Sexual assault is a major concern on the U.S. college campus. Engaging students as pro-social bystanders has become more common as a potentially effective mechanism for reducing the incidence of sexual assault and mitigating the harm of assaults that have already occurred. Understanding the influences of pro-social bystander behavior is imperative to developing effective programs, and the use of an evidence-based theoretical framework can help identify the differences between students who intervene and those who do not when presented with the opportunity. A sample of 815 undergraduate university students completed the Sexual Assault Bystander Behavior Questionnaire, a survey based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) that investigates students’ perceived behavioral control to intervene, subjective norms that support intervening, attitudes toward intervening, and intent to intervene in the future. Two-tailed t tests revealed interveners reported significantly greater perceived behavioral control than non-interveners for eight of the 12 intervention behaviors, more supportive subjective norms than non-interveners for seven of the 12 intervention behaviors, more positive attitudes than non-interveners for only one of the 12 intervention behaviors, and greater intent to intervene in the future for six of the 12 intervention behaviors. Differences in the four TPB variables were not consistent for the 12 intervention behaviors. The use of a theoretical framework found to be effective in explaining—and changing—other health-related behaviors, and the inquiry into students’ opportunities to intervene to compare against their reported intervention behaviors, is new to this body of literature and contributes to the understanding of the influences of pro-social bystander behavior.

    January 14, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515625503   open full text
  • How Do Men Construct and Explain Mens Violence?
    Dagirmanjian, F. B., Mahalik, J. R., Boland, J., Colbow, A., Dunn, J., Pomarico, A., Rappaport, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 14, 2016

    In this study, we examine men’s constructions of violence and their explanations of their own violent behavior. Interviews were conducted with 12 adult men, employed in industrial and manual labor, regarding their associations with violence, their reasons for engaging in violent behavior, and their reasons for not engaging in violent behavior. Utilizing consensual qualitative research methodology, our findings indicated that men’s constructions of violence and their justifications for engaging in violence were linked to their constructions of masculinity and what it meant to them to be a man. Results are discussed through the lenses of multiple gender-based theories and ultimately, deemed to demonstrate the most support for the notion of precarious manhood. Specifically, violence was viewed as necessary in particular situations to assert or maintain one’s social status and sense of self as masculine when faced with threats to manhood status. Implications for psychological intervention and practice with men are discussed, including identifying positive alternatives to violence that preserve one’s sense of self as masculine.

    January 14, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515625511   open full text
  • Experiences of Discrimination, Harassment, and Violence in a Sample of Italian Transsexuals Who Have Undergone Sex-Reassignment Surgery.
    Prunas, A., Bandini, E., Fisher, A. D., Maggi, M., Pace, V., Quagliarella, L., Todarello, O., Bini, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 12, 2016

    The present study aims to provide an overview of experiences of discrimination, harassment, and violence in a sample of Italian transsexuals who have undergone sex-reassignment surgery (SRS). Lack of support for gender transition from family members was also assessed, before and after SRS. Data were collected in the context of a multicentric study (Milan, Florence, and Bari) on SRS outcome. Patients who underwent SRS were contacted and asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning experiences of discrimination, harassment, violence, and crime they might have experienced in previous years. Seventy-two participants took part in the research: 46 were male-to-female (MtF; 64%) and 26 were female-to-male (FtM; 36%). Thirty-six percent of the total sample (with no differences between MtF and FtM) experienced at least one episode of harassment, violence, or discrimination. The workplace was reported to be the social area with the highest risk of discrimination and harassment (22% of participants). Reports of more than one incident of discrimination, harassment, and violence characterized the majority of participants in the MtF sample. Compared with previous studies carried out in other countries, a much larger proportion of participants could count on a supportive family environment before and after transition. Our results show that Italian society at large is prejudiced against transsexuals, but at a more "micro" level, having a trans person as a family member might result in a protective and tolerant attitude.

    January 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515624233   open full text
  • The Role of Forensic Factors and Potential Harm to the Child in the Decision Not to Act Among Men Sexually Attracted to Children.
    Mitchell, R. C., Galupo, M. P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 12, 2016

    To date, sexual abuse prevention efforts have largely focused on tertiary prevention strategies designed to prevent recidivism among forensic samples of men with a history of sex offending behavior. The present study used mixed methodology to investigate the role of several forensic and related factors on the decision not to commit a sex offense among two groups of community men who self-reported a sexual attraction to children: those who reported a history of acting on their attractions (Acted, n = 29) and those who reported never acting on their attractions (Not Acted, n = 71). Participants from both groups described in their own words the factors that contributed to their decision not to act on their attractions. They also responded to quantitative and qualitative questions regarding the influence and role of the following factors on their decision not to act: (a) the possibility of jail or punishment, (b) mental health treatment, and (c) not wanting to hurt the child. Results were compared across groups, and across prompted and unprompted responses. Analyses highlighted harm to the child as a particularly salient factor in the decision not to act among men in the community at risk for sexually offending. The present study suggests that investigating potential protective factors may be an important direction for future research among samples of community men at risk for both first-time and repeat offenses against children.

    January 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515624211   open full text
  • Male Peer Support to Hostile Sexist Attitudes Influences Rape Proclivity.
    Duran, M., Megias, J. L., Moya, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 12, 2016

    Sexual assault affects a large proportion of women in the world. Although most rapes are committed by one man, the act itself may be influenced by many (e.g., the peer group). Hostile sexism (HS) has repeatedly been associated with men’s rape proclivity, but the influence exerted by the HS of the peer group on rape proclivity has not been investigated. In this study, we explored the impact of perceived male peer support to HS on participants’ rape proclivity. A sample of Spanish undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain (N = 134) completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Immediately afterwards, they received feedback on the supposed sexist responses of a peer group (high vs. low in HS); we kept the benevolent sexism (BS) of the peer group at medium levels. Next, we assessed participants’ rape proclivity using acquaintance rape scenarios. Results showed an interaction between participants’ own levels of HS and information about the HS of the peer group. Men high in HS reported higher rape proclivity in the high-HS peer-group condition than in the low-HS peer-group condition. By contrast, information on the peer group did not affect self-reported rape proclivity of men low in HS. Results also corroborated the relationship between participants’ levels of HS and rape proclivity, and expanded the literature by revealing an unexpected influence of participants’ BS on rape proclivity.

    January 12, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515624212   open full text
  • Kinship and Intimate Partner Violence Against Married Women in Ghana: A Qualitative Exploration.
    Sedziafa, A. P., Tenkorang, E. Y., Owusu, A. Y.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 10, 2016

    In African societies, kinship ties determine how women are socialized, their access to power and wealth, as well as custody of children, often considered important factors in married women’s experience of intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet studies that examine how kinship norms influence IPV are scant. Using in-depth interviews collected from women identifying with both matrilineal and patrilineal descent systems, we explored differences in Ghanaian women’s experiences of IPV in both kin groups. Results show that while IPV occurs across matrilineal and patrilineal societies, all women in patrilineal societies narrated continuous pattern of emotional, physical, and sexual assault, and their retaliation to any type of violence almost always culminated in more experience of violent attacks and abandonment. In matrilineal societies, however, more than half of the women recounted frequent experiences of emotional violence, and physical violence occurred as isolated events resulting from common couple disagreements. Sexual violence against matrilineal women occurred as consented but unwanted sexual acts, but patrilineal women narrated experiencing violent emotional and physical attack with aggressive unconsented sexual intercourse. Contextualizing these findings within existing literature on IPV against women suggests that policies aimed at addressing widespread IPV in Ghanaian communities should appreciate the dynamics of kinship norms.

    January 10, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515624213   open full text
  • Beyond Sex: Likelihood and Predictors of Effective and Ineffective Intervention in Intimate Partner Violence in Bystanders Perceiving an Emergency.
    Chabot, H. F., Gray, M. L., Makande, T. B., Hoyt, R. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 06, 2016

    Within the framework of the bystander model of intervention, we examined specific correlates and the likelihood of effective and ineffective intervention strategies of bystanders to an instance of intimate partner violence (IPV) identified as an emergency. We measured psychological variables associated with general prosocial behavior (including sex, instrumentality, expressiveness, empathy, personal distress, dispositional anger, and perceived barriers) as influential predictors in four IPV intervention behaviors (i.e., calling 911, talking to the victim, talking to the perpetrator, and physically interacting with the perpetrator). One hundred seventeen college community members completed preintervention measures, watched a film clip of IPV which they identified as an emergency, reported their likelihood of becoming involved and utilizing intervention behaviors, and identified perceived barriers to intervention. Participants were more likely to indicate using effective over ineffective intervention tactics. Lower perceived barriers to intervention predicted greater intervention likelihood. Hierarchical regression indicated that men and individuals higher in anger and instrumental traits were more likely to report that they would engage in riskier ineffective forms of intervention. Implications regarding bystander training and associations to intervention in related forms of violence including sexual assault are discussed.

    January 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515621064   open full text
  • Correlates of Domestic Violence Victimization Among North Korean Refugee Women in South Korea.
    Um, M. Y., Kim, H. J., Palinkas, L. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 06, 2016

    Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea.

    January 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515622297   open full text
  • Definitions of Violence: Narratives of Survivors From the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Basic, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 06, 2016

    Previous research on violence during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has resulted in a one-sided presentation of the phenomenon of "war violence." Researchers have emphasized the importance of narratives in general but have not analyzed stories on war violence that were the product of interpersonal interaction and meaning-making activity. The aim of this article is to fill this knowledge gap by analyzing survivor narratives of the 1990s war in northwestern Bosnia. The focus is on analyzing interviewees’ descriptions of wartime violence and the discursive patterns that contribute to constructing the phenomenon of "war violence." My analysis reveals an intimate relationship between how an interviewee interprets the biographical consequences of war violence and the individual’s own war experiences. All interviewees described war violence as something that is morally reprehensible. These narratives, from both perpetrators of violence and those subjected to violence, recount violent situations that not only exist as mental constructions but also live on even after the war; thus, they have real consequences for the individuals and their society.

    January 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515622300   open full text
  • Exploring Kenyan Womens Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Gillum, T. L., Doucette, M., Mwanza, M., Munala, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 06, 2016

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem and global human rights violation. Effective interventions can only be created upon conducting qualitative studies that explore the cultural context of an affected population and how they interpret the phenomenon. This qualitative study investigated Kenyan women’s perceptions of IPV. Two community-based focus groups (n = 19) were conducted with Kenyan women in Nairobi. Conventional content analysis identified seven primary themes that emerged from focus group data: snapshot of violence; poverty; cultural context; masculinity; women taking action; resources; and, prevention strategies. Themes are described and implications for further research and intervention are presented.

    January 06, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515622842   open full text
  • Help-Seeking Behaviors of Abused Women in an Abortion Clinic Population.
    TePoel, M. R. W., Saftlas, A. F., Wallis, A. B., Harland, K., Peek-Asa, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 03, 2016

    Women who seek induced abortion procedures experience high rates of intimate partner violence, yet little is known about their help-seeking behaviors. Using data collected from patients attending a large Midwestern clinic who screened positive for intimate partner violence, we analyzed how help-seeking women differed from women not seeking help and those not disclosing their help-seeking behavior. We measured current and planned resource use and evaluated self-perceived helpfulness of resources. Severe battering, physical and/or sexual abuse, frequent sexual abuse, increased relationship length, and employment were positively associated with help-seeking. Nearly half of women who screened positive for abuse in the past year had already sought or planned to seek help, indicating this population is receptive to intervention.

    January 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619168   open full text
  • Gene-Environment Correlation Between the Dopamine Transporter Gene (DAT1) Polymorphism and Childhood Experiences of Abuse.
    Rehan, W., Antfolk, J., Johansson, A., Aminoff, M., Sandnabba, N. K., Westberg, L., Santtila, P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 03, 2016

    In the present study, we investigated the possible gene–environment correlation between the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) polymorphism and childhood experiences of abuse and neglect. Genetic information was obtained from 1,442 male and 2,178 female twins and their siblings drawn from a Finnish population-based sample. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to measure the childhood experiences of abuse and neglect. In men, the DAT1 polymorphism was associated with having experienced sexual abuse in childhood, such that men with the 9R9R genotype reported less sexual abuse experiences than men with the 9R10R or the 10R10R genotypes. In women, there was an association between the DAT1 polymorphism and childhood experiences of emotional abuse, such that women with the 9R9R genotype reported less emotional abuse experiences than women with the 9R10R or 10R10R genotypes. No other associations between the DAT1 polymorphism and childhood experiences of abuse and neglect were found. In sum, the results suggested that some genetic components might predispose children to experience childhood abuse and neglect. Possible reasons for this association were discussed.

    January 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515622299   open full text
  • Anxious and Hostile: Consequences of Anxious Adult Attachment in Predicting Male-Perpetrated Sexual Assault.
    Barbaro, N., Parkhill, M. R., Nguyen, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. January 03, 2016

    Attachment theory has increasingly been utilized to understand the etiology of sexual violence, and anxious attachment appears to be especially informative in this domain. We investigate the influence of general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment on hostile masculine attitudes to predict male-perpetrated sexual assault. We hypothesize that hostile masculinity will mediate the relationship between general anxious attachment style and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 1) and the relationship between specific anxious attachment to the assaulted woman and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 2). Men (N = 193) completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) to determine sexual assault history and completed measures of general attachment style, specific attachment to the woman involved in the sexual activity, and measures of hostile masculine attitudes. Results support the hypothesized mediation models, such that general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment are significantly associated with hostile masculinity, which in turn, predicts the likelihood of male-perpetrated sexual assault. The findings suggest that the unique characteristics of anxious attachment may escalate into hostile masculinity, which then increases the likelihood of sexual assault perpetration. This research is the first to investigate attachment bonds to the woman involved in the sexual activity and likelihood of sexual assault perpetration against the same woman.

    January 03, 2016   doi: 10.1177/0886260515622301   open full text
  • Measurement Invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory in Survivors of Torture and Trauma.
    Raghavan, S. S., Rosenfeld, B., Rasmussen, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 27, 2015

    The United States accepts more refugees than any other industrialized nation. As refugee populations grow, mental health professionals must implement culturally and ethnically appropriate strategies to assess and treat individuals from diverse backgrounds. Culture can exert a powerful and often misunderstood influence on psychological assessment, and few structured measures have been demonstrated to have adequate cross-cultural validity for use with diverse and vulnerable populations such as survivors of torture. This study examined the factor structure and equivalency of underlying construct(s) of psychological distress as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in three samples who had survived torture and other severe trauma from Tibet, West Africa and the Punjab region of India. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for configural invariance of a two-factor model across the three samples, suggesting that the two latent factors of Complex Dysphoria and Somatic Distress were present in each subgroup. The data provide additional support for the strict invariance model in the West African–Tibetan dyad suggesting that scores are comparable across those two groups. Implications for research and treatment are discussed.

    December 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619750   open full text
  • Bullying Victimization Among Chinese Middle School Students: The Role of Family Violence.
    Zhu, Y., Chan, K. L., Chen, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 27, 2015

    This study used the data from a representative sample to investigate the association between family violence (FV) and child bullying victimization (BV) in Xi’an city, China. Data on social demographic information and the prevalence of BV and FV were collected from a randomly selected sample with 3,175 middle school students aged 15 to 17 by self-administrated questionnaires. Results show that 55.9% and 30.3% of the participants have witnessed intimate partner violence (IPV), 37.7% and 30.8% have been victims of child abuse, and 54.9% and 44.6% have been bullied in a lifetime and in the preceding year, respectively. The lifetime and preceding-year co-occurrence rate of FV and BV are 45% and 30.4%, respectively. Multiple logistic regressions confirm FV as a unique risk factor in predicting both direct and relational BV after controlling for a number of confounding factors. This study suggests that FV experiences should be included in the screening and assessment of risk for child BV.

    December 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515621082   open full text
  • The Role of Present Time Perspective in Predicting Early Adolescent Violence.
    Kruger, D. J., Carrothers, J., Franzen, S. P., Miller, A. L., Reischl, T. M., Stoddard, S. A., Zimmerman, M. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 23, 2015

    This study investigated the role of present and future time perspectives, and their relationships with subjective norms and beliefs regarding violence, in predicting violent behaviors among urban middle school students in the Midwestern United States. Although present time perspective covaried with subjective norms and beliefs, each made a unique prediction of self-reported violent behaviors. Future time perspective was not a significant predictor when accounting for these relationships. In addition, present orientation moderated the relationship between subjective norms and beliefs and rates of violent behaviors; those with higher present orientations exhibited stronger associations. We replicated this pattern of results in data from new participants in a subsequent wave of the study. Interventions that explicitly address issues related to time perspective may be effective in reducing early adolescent violence.

    December 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619752   open full text
  • Workplace Incivility as Modern Sexual Prejudice.
    Di Marco, D., Hoel, H., Arenas, A., Munduate, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 23, 2015

    Although discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation is prohibited by law in many countries, negative prejudices against Lesbian and Gay (LG) people, as a stigmatized minority, might be internalized by co-workers, being a source of a modern and subtle form of discrimination. Results from 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with LG employees show that they are victims of workplace incivility which is manifested through jokes, use of language, stereotypes, and intrusive behaviors. Such acts are barely recognizable as a form of discrimination, due to the absence of any reference to sexual orientation, and for this reason it is more difficult to act against them at an organizational level. This is the first study that demonstrates how workplace incivility toward LG employees can be an expression of a subtle form of discrimination. It shows that discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation has not disappeared; it has simply changed its manifestations. Contributions and implications of the study are discussed from a theoretical and a practical perspective.

    December 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515621083   open full text
  • Health-Sector Responses to Intimate Partner Violence: Fitting the Response Into the Biomedical Health System or Adapting the System to Meet the Response?
    Briones-Vozmediano, E., Maquibar, A., Vives-Cases, C., O&#x0308;hman, A., Hurtig, A.-K., Goicolea, I.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 20, 2015

    This study aims to analyze how middle-level health systems’ managers understand the integration of a health care response to intimate partner violence (IPV) within the Spanish health system. Data were obtained through 26 individual interviews with professionals in charge of coordinating the health care response to IPV within the 17 regional health systems in Spain. The transcripts were analyzed following grounded theory in accordance with the constructivist approach described by Charmaz. Three categories emerged, showing the efforts and challenges to integrate a health care response to IPV within the Spanish health system: "IPV is a complex issue that generates activism and/or resistance," "The mandate to integrate a health sector response to IPV: a priority not always prioritized," and "The Spanish health system: respectful with professionals’ autonomy and firmly biomedical." The core category, "Developing diverse responses to IPV integration," crosscut the three categories and encompassed the range of different responses that emerge when a strong mandate to integrate a health care response to IPV is enacted. Such responses ranged from refraining to deal with the issue to offering a women-centered response. Attempting to integrate a response to nonbiomedical health problems as IPV into health systems that remain strongly biomedicalized is challenging and strongly dependent both on the motivation of professionals and on organizational factors. Implementing and sustaining changes in the structure and culture of the health care system are needed if a health care response to IPV that fulfills the World Health Organization guidelines is to be ensured.

    December 20, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619170   open full text
  • Hazing Violence: Practices of Domination and Coercion in Hazing in Portugal.
    Favero, M., Pinto, S., Ferreira, F., Machado, F., Del Campo, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 20, 2015

    The moment of entry into university marks an important transition for students in Portugal. Their new situation requires an update and a new personal, academic, and social contextualization and, in this new universe, hazing plays a significant role. This study aimed to understand the phenomenon of hazing in Portugal, analyzing, specifically, the violent behaviors that can occur in this context. To this effect, we have developed the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Experience in Hazing (QAVPA)—a questionnaire that allows the analysis of Portuguese students’ hazing experiences and situations of violence. This questionnaire was applied to a sample consisting of 586 university students and ex-students who participated in hazing, 393 (67.1%) women and 193 (32.9%) men, with ages between 18 and 47 years (M = 23.27, SD = 4.24). From the gathered data, 77.8% were victims of violence in hazing rituals, 86.9% witnessed violent practices, and 39.8% admitted having had violent behaviors toward new students. It was also found that variables such as having been a victim of this type of violence, sex, type of education, and hierarchy level are associated with the perpetration of violence in this context.

    December 20, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619748   open full text
  • Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Burn-Out, and Compassion Satisfaction Among Body Handlers: The Mediating Role of Sense of Coherence and Spirituality at Workplace.
    Zerach, G., Levin, Y.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 17, 2015

    This study assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), burn-out (BO), and compassion satisfaction (CS) among Israeli body handlers. We aimed to explore differences between two groups of Orthodox Jewish male volunteers: the "ZAKA" body handlers (ZAs: n = 102), and a comparison group of charity workers (CWs: n = 101). Furthermore, we assessed the contribution of two potential resilience buffers—sense of coherence (SOC) and spirituality at the workplace (SAW)—to PTSS, BO, and CS among these volunteers via self-report measures. Surprisingly, results show that ZAs reported significantly lower levels of PTSS and BO as compared with CWs. ZAs also reported significantly higher levels of CS as compared with CWs. Importantly, SOC mediated the link between groups and PTSS and BO. Both SOC and SAW mediated the link between groups and CS. These findings suggest that "ZAKA" body handlers demonstrate substantial resilience following repeated exposure to death and atrocities. To reduce work-related psychological distress and improve CS, SOC and SAW should be taken into account in the process of recruitment and training of body handlers.

    December 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515621065   open full text
  • Screening for Partner Violence Among Family Mediation Clients: Differentiating Types of Abuse.
    Cleak, H., Schofield, M. J., Axelsen, L., Bickerdike, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 16, 2015

    Family mediation is mandated in Australia for couples in dispute over separation and parenting as a first step in dispute resolution, except where there is a history of intimate partner violence. However, validation of effective well-differentiated partner violence screening instruments suitable for mediation settings is at an early phase of development. This study contributes to calls for better violence screening instruments in the mediation context to detect a differentiated range of abusive behaviors by examining the reliability and validity of both established scales, and newly developed scales that measured intimate partner violence by partner and by self. The study also aimed to examine relationships between types of abuse, and between gender and types of abuse. A third aim was to examine associations between types of abuse and other relationship indicators such as acrimony and parenting alliance. The data reported here are part of a larger mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal study of clients attending nine family mediation centers in Victoria, Australia. The current analyses on baseline cross-sectional screening data confirmed the reliability of three subscales of the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the reliability and validity of three new scales measuring intimidation, controlling and jealous behavior, and financial control. Most clients disclosed a history of at least one type of violence by partner: 95% reported psychological aggression, 72% controlling and jealous behavior, 50% financial control, and 35% physical assault. Higher rates of abuse perpetration were reported by partner versus by self, and gender differences were identified. There were strong associations between certain patterns of psychologically abusive behavior and both acrimony and parenting alliance. The implications for family mediation services and future research are discussed.

    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614559   open full text
  • Inclusive Branding Strategies for Domestic Violence Agencies: Embracing Opportunities to Reach and Better Serve Male-Identified Survivors.
    Dewey, M., Heiss, S. N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 16, 2015

    Successful strategies for branding that are inclusive of male-identified survivors were identified in this qualitative study through semi-structured interviews with leaders from six domestic violence agencies across the United States: four represented traditional domestic violence agencies and two represented specialized agencies with expertise in providing services to nontraditional survivors. The strategic implementation of (a) inclusive language, (b) visual diversity, (c) community outreach, and (d) communication channels emerged as successful strategies in branding in an inclusive way for male-identified survivors. The implementation of these successful strategies provides the opportunity for domestic violence agencies to create an inclusive environment for male-identified survivors and would contribute to a paradigm shift in how domestic violence is viewed.

    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515618213   open full text
  • "Correcting an Erring Wife Is Normal": Moral Discourses of Spousal Violence in Ghana.
    Adjei, S. B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 16, 2015

    This study draws insights from discursive psychology to explore moral discourses of spousal violence in Ghana. In particular, it investigates how sociocultural norms and practices are invoked in talk of perpetrators and victims as moral warrants for husband-to-wife abuse in Ghana. Semi-structured focus group and personal interviews were conducted with a total of 40 participants: 16 victims, 16 perpetrators, and eight key informants from rural and urban Ghana. Participants’ discursive accounts suggest that husbands have implicit moral right and obligation to punish their wives for disobedience and other infractions against male authority in marriage. Both perpetrators and victims build their talk around familiar normative discourses and practices that provide tacit support for spousal violence in Ghana. While perpetrators mobilize culturally resonant and normative repertoires to justify abuse, blame their victims, and manage their moral accountability; victims position husband-to-wife abuse as normal, legitimate, disciplinary, and corrective. These moral discourses of spousal violence apparently serve to relieve perpetrators of moral agency; prime battered women to accept abuse; and devastate their agency to leave abusive marital relationships. The findings contribute to our understanding of how cultural and social norms of spousal violence are morally constituted, reproduced, and sustained in talk of perpetrators, victims, and other key members of society.

    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619751   open full text
  • Exposure to Genocide as a Risk Factor for Homicide Perpetration in Rwanda: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.
    Rubanzana, W., Hedt-Gauthier, B. L., Ntaganira, J., Freeman, M. D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 16, 2015

    A population-based case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between genocide exposure and homicide perpetration in Rwanda. A sample of 150 homicide perpetrators who were charged with and confessed to having committed homicide between 1 May 2011 and 31 May 2013 and 450 controls were enrolled. Cases were matched to controls by neighborhood, age and sex. Socio-demographic, background and genocide-related information was collected from study subjects’ next of kin. Four characteristics of genocide exposure were: genocide survivor, genocide perpetrator, having lost a first-degree relative to genocide and having a first-degree relative convicted of genocide. We assessed the impact of each genocide-exposure variable using conditional logistic regression. Of the 150 cases, 124 (82.7%) were male and 26 (17.3%) were female. The mean age of the alleged homicide perpetrators was 33 years, with a peak in the age group 20-29 years (39.3%). After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics and past common criminal records, having a first-degree relative who had been convicted of genocide crimes was a significant predictor for homicide perpetration (odds ratio [OR] = 14.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-129.4). Being a genocide perpetrator, a genocide survivor and having lost a first-degree family member to genocide were not identified as risk factors for homicide perpetration. In Rwanda, young people who experienced early exposure to trauma by witnessing their first-degree relatives’ active participation in the genocide, are more likely to commit homicide. Socio-economic and psychotherapeutic programs targeting this population group are needed to rehabilitate these young people for violent behavior change.

    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619749   open full text
  • Self-Compassion and Responses to Trauma: The Role of Emotion Regulation.
    Scoglio, A. A. J., Rudat, D. A., Garvert, D., Jarmolowski, M., Jackson, C., Herman, J. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 16, 2015

    Emerging literature suggests that self-compassion may be an important concept for understanding recovery from the impact of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study explored the interconnection among self-compassion, resilience, emotion dysregulation, and PTSD symptom severity in a sample of treatment-seeking women with PTSD. We predicted that self-compassion would be negatively related to PTSD symptom severity and to emotion dysregulation, and positively related to resilience. The results supported our main hypotheses. In addition, emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between PTSD symptom severity and self-compassion and affected the relationship between self-compassion and resilience. These findings corroborate previous research that points to the important role of self-compassion in mental health and in the aftermath of stressful life events. The present study expands this research by demonstrating that PTSD symptom severity is negatively related to self-compassion in a clinical population of women with experiences of severe and repeated interpersonal trauma.

    December 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515622296   open full text
  • Incidence and Outcomes of Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Youth: The Role of Gender and Sexual Orientation.
    Edwards, K. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 13, 2015

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of dating violence (DV) victimization and DV victimization outcomes as a function of sex and sexual orientation. Participants were 25,122 high school students who participated in the 2013 New Hampshire Youth Risk Behavior Survey study. Heterosexual youth, especially heterosexual male youth, were less likely to report experiencing physical and sexual DV victimization than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) girls and boys. Among LGBQ girls and boys, there was little variability in rates of DV victimization with the exception of questioning boys being significantly more likely to experience physical and sexual DV victimization than several other LGBQ sub-groups. Furthermore, LGBQ DV victims reported worse outcomes than heterosexual DV victims on measures of depression, binge drinking, and poor academic performance. At the sub-group level, bisexual and questioning female victims were most at risk for depression; bisexual and questioning male victims were most at risk for binge drinking; bisexual male victims were most at risk for poor academic performance. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding variability in DV incidence and outcomes within the LGBQ population and using this information to inform clinical intervention and prevention efforts.

    December 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515618943   open full text
  • The Productivity of Wh- Prompts in Child Forensic Interviews.
    Ahern, E. C., Andrews, S. J., Stolzenberg, S. N., Lyon, T. D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 13, 2015

    Child witnesses are often asked wh- prompts (what, how, why, who, when, where) in forensic interviews. However, little research has examined the ways in which children respond to different wh- prompts, and no previous research has investigated productivity differences among wh- prompts in investigative interviews. This study examined the use and productivity of wh- prompts in 95 transcripts of 4- to 13-year-olds alleging sexual abuse in child investigative interviews. What–how questions about actions elicited the most productive responses during both the rapport building and substantive phases. Future research and practitioner training should consider distinguishing among different wh- prompts.

    December 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515621084   open full text
  • The Effects of Obesity Myths on Perceptions of Sexual Assault Victims and Perpetrators Credibility.
    Yamawaki, N., Riley, C., Rasmussen, C., Cook, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 10, 2015

    This study investigated the effects of obesity myths on blame attribution and the perceived credibility of both an alleged sexual assault victim and her perpetrator. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three sexual assault scenarios (in which either the victim or the perpetrator was described as obese and one in which both were described as obese) and responded to questions measuring the blame attribution and perceived the credibility of both individuals. A main effect of scenario was found on the perpetrator’s credibility, indicating that participants rated the obese perpetrator as more credible when the victim was obese in comparison with when the victim was nonobese. However, no main effect of scenario was found on the victim’s credibility and blame attribution, denoting that the victim’s or perpetrator’s weight did not influence participants’ perceptions of the victim’s credibility or blame attribution. The belief in obesity myths was the most significant predictor of victim blaming. However, differing patterns of the effects of obesity myths were found on the victim’s credibility and the perpetrator’s credibility. The belief in obesity myths was a significant predictor only when the victim was obese, whereas it was not a significant predictor in the scenarios where both the victim and the perpetrator were obese or the perpetrator was obese and the victim was nonobese. As for the perpetrator’s credibility, the belief of obesity myths was not a significant predictor. Instead, the scenario was a significant predictor. Implications of obesity-myth endorsement in relation to sexual assault are discussed.

    December 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515613343   open full text
  • Beyond "Witnessing": Childrens Experiences of Coercive Control in Domestic Violence and Abuse.
    Callaghan, J. E. M., Alexander, J. H., Sixsmith, J., Fellin, L. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 10, 2015

    Children’s experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children’s experiences of abusive control," which explores children’s awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children’s strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children’s experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children’s agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence.

    December 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515618946   open full text
  • "Im Sure as Hell Not Putting Any Man on a Pedestal": Male Privilege and Accountability in Domestic and Sexual Violence Work.
    Macomber, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 10, 2015

    Efforts to involve men as allies in domestic and sexual violence work are expanding, marking a shift for these historically women-led movements. Although this shift is beneficial, it also generates new challenges. From a multi-method qualitative study, this article presents descriptive findings about the internal tensions accompanying the "men as allies" development, namely the gender inequality and male privilege reproduced within movement organizations. I draw on sociological theorizing about men in female-dominated professions to explain the reproduction of gender inequality within movement spaces. I also examine how people are dealing with these tensions by developing a discourse around "men’s accountability." My findings suggest that, although discourse about accountability has been successfully integrated into the culture of domestic and sexual violence work, there are key challenges that hinder effective accountability practices. I end by offering suggestions for implementing accountability practices at the organizational level. This study contributes important empirical and theoretical insights currently missing from the literature on male allies, which can be used to inform men’s growing involvement in anti-violence work.

    December 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515618944   open full text
  • Its (Not) Over: Relationship Instability and Recovery Between Victims and Detained Domestic Abusers.
    Carotta, C. L., Bonomi, A. E., Lee, M. A., Terrell, L. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 10, 2015

    We used an innovative data set involving audio-recorded conversations between abusers and victims to explore the interactional patterns that occur within violent relationships, following severe violence and the abuser’s detainment. Using micro-level conversational data, our analysis sequenced the hopes/desires that victims and abusers expressed around their expectations for continuing or discontinuing a connection with each other. Conversations commonly included an expressed statement to end the relationship. Although it was common for both victims and abusers to express hope of ending the relationship, victims were most likely to initiate this desire. In response, abusers used multiple strategies to regain connection, including 1) challenging the victim, 2) declaring love or a desire to continue the relationship, 3) appealing for sympathy or help from the victim, and 4) mirroring or accepting the victim’s desire to end the relationship (when other strategies were unsuccessful). Abusers’ responses served to cultivate additional conflict in the relationship while at the same time maintained communication and facilitated relationship recovery following threats of dissolution. These findings contribute to an increased theoretical understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence in the sensitive period involving the couple’s physical separation.

    December 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619171   open full text
  • Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability in Parents at Risk for Child Physical Abuse.
    Crouch, J. L., Hiraoka, R., McCanne, T. R., Reo, G., Wagner, M. F., Krauss, A., Milner, J. S., Skowronski, J. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 10, 2015

    The present study examined heart rate and heart rate variability (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) in a sample of 48 general population parents (41.7% fathers), who were either at high risk (n = 24) or low risk (n = 24) for child physical abuse. During baseline assessments of heart rate and RSA, parents sat quietly for 3 min. Afterward, parents were presented with a series of anagrams (either easy or difficult) and were instructed to solve as many anagrams as possible in 3 min. As expected, high-risk (compared with low-risk) parents evinced significantly higher resting heart rate and significantly lower resting RSA. During the anagram task, high-risk parents did not evince significant changes in heart rate or RSA relative to baseline levels. In contrast, low-risk parents evinced significant increases in heart rate and significant decreases in RSA during the anagram task. Contrary to expectations, the anagram task difficulty did not moderate the study findings. Collectively, this pattern of results is consistent with the notion that high-risk parents have chronically higher levels of physiological arousal relative to low-risk parents and exhibit less physiological flexibility in response to environmental demands. High-risk parents may benefit from interventions that include components that reduce physiological arousal and increase the capacity to regulate arousal effectively.

    December 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619169   open full text
  • Teachers Intentions in Punishing Self-Defenders and Aggressors Among Schoolchildren: The Importance of Proving the Students Role in a Violent Altercation.
    Fleischmann, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 09, 2015

    Israeli regulations require teachers to subject pupils who participate in violent altercations to severe punishment. How teachers actually apply this policy, however, has not yet been researched. The current study investigates teachers’ intentions in disciplining students who brawl. Two hundred ninety-nine teachers read fictional vignettes about students who took part in fighting and are asked to describe the disciplinary measures that they would invoke. The teachers’ responses are quantified on the basis of a specially developed key that determines the severity of the steps that the teachers propose to take. Multi-level regression is utilized. The results reveal that students who explain their use of violence as a response to a violent provocation await only mild discipline if they can prove their claim; those who cannot prove it face severe punishment. Students who turn out to be the aggressors are punished even more severely. The research participants are inclined to punish students more harshly for involvement in retaliation than in involvement in self-defense. The differences in inclination to discipline students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are inconsequential. The discussion examines the importance of the need to prove guilt in weighing disciplinary action and the compromise between two needs—to discipline violent students and to treat self-defenders fairly—that teachers make when administering punishment.

    December 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515618947   open full text
  • Is Womens Empowerment Associated With Help-Seeking for Spousal Violence in India?
    Rowan, K., Mumford, E., Clark, C. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 09, 2015

    Violence against women by their husbands is a problem for women worldwide. However, the majority of women do not seek help. This article presents findings from a national survey in India on empowerment-related correlates of help-seeking behaviors for currently married women who experienced spousal violence. We examined individual-, relationship-, and state-level measures of empowerment on help-seeking from informal and formal sources. Findings indicate that help-seeking is largely not associated with typical measures of empowerment or socio-economic development, whereas state-level indicators of empowerment may influence help-seeking. Although not a target of this study, we also note that injury from violence and the severity of the violence were among the strongest factors related to seeking help. Taken together, the low prevalence of help-seeking and lack of strong individual-level correlates, apart from severe harm, suggests widespread barriers to seeking help. Interventions that affect social norms and reach women and men across social classes in society are needed in addition to any individual-level efforts to promote seeking help for spousal violence.

    December 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515618945   open full text
  • Characteristics of Homicide-Suicide in Australia: A Comparison With Homicide-Only and Suicide-Only Cases.
    McPhedran, S., Eriksson, L., Mazerolle, P., De Leo, D., Johnson, H., Wortley, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 08, 2015

    Homicide-suicide represents one of the rarest forms of lethal violence but often precipitates calls to revise social, health, and justice policies. However, there is little empirical information about this type of violence. The current study uses two unique data sets to examine a wide range of individual and situational characteristics of homicide-suicide, with particular emphasis on establishing whether and how homicide-suicide differs from homicide-only and suicide-only. Findings suggest homicide-suicide may have unique characteristics that set it apart from both homicide-only and suicide-only, as well as sharing certain other characteristics with those two types of events.

    December 08, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515619172   open full text
  • "I Dont Care About What You Want!" The Relation Between Juvenile Delinquents Responses to Social Problem Situations and Empathy in Secure Juvenile Institutions.
    Heynen, E. J. E., van der Helm, G. H. P., Wissink, I. B., Stams, G. J. J. M., Moonen, X. M. H.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 04, 2015

    The present study examined the relation between juvenile delinquents’ responses to social problem situations and empathy in secure juvenile institutions. The sample consisted of 79 delinquent boys (62%) and 49 delinquent girls (38%), aged 12 to 19 years. Results showed problems with accepting authority to be negatively related to both affective and cognitive empathy. Inadequate coping with competition was negatively related to cognitive empathy, whereas problems with receiving or giving help were negatively related to affective empathy. The central role of authority problems suggests that group workers could influence adolescents’ empathy development by helping them to learn to cope with social problem situations.

    December 04, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515618212   open full text
  • Facets of Male Violence Against Women With Substance Abuse Problems: Women With a Residence and Homeless Women.
    Beijer, U., Scheffel Birath, C., DeMartinis, V., af Klinteberg, B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 04, 2015

    The aims of this study were to investigate the type and extent to which women with substance abuse problems have been exposed to male violence during their lifetime, and to examine possible differences between women with a residence (WR) and homeless women (HW). The total sample included 79 women (WR, n = 35; HW, n = 44; M age = 47.8 years). Of the total sample, 72 women (91%) had experienced different kinds of male violence, 88% from former partners, and 26% from male friends or acquaintances. Of the 72 women, 71% further reported "Countless occasions of violent events," and 36% had been forced to commit criminal acts. Abused women who had been forced to commit criminal acts were significantly more frequently found to be homeless, have reported parental alcohol and/or drug problems, have witnessed domestic violence in childhood, have been victims of sexual violence, have used illicit drugs as a dominant preparation, and have injected illicit drugs. Almost half of the abused women (46%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where HW showed an almost 4-time higher risk (RR 3.78) than WR. In conclusion there is a particular vulnerability in women with substance abuse to male violence, which has an important impact on their health status. Thus, from a public health perspective, it is suggested that for those women who have experienced male violence, treatment protocols need to include both assessing and addressing the impact of such experience in relation to substance abuse as well as concomitant health concerns.

    December 04, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515618211   open full text
  • The Association Between Social Support and Stages of Change in Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Zapor, H., Wolford-Clevenger, C., Johnson, D. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 02, 2015

    For survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), it is often difficult to take steps to establish safety and obtain a violence free life. Researchers have applied stage of change theory to aid in understanding the experience of survivors, as well as, the factors that can help women who desire to make changes in or break free from a violent relationship. Social support is one factor that can be helpful to IPV survivors who are attempting to make changes in their relationship. The purpose of the current study was to examine the differences in social support experienced by women who are at varying points in the process of change. Shelter residents (N = 191) participated in this cross-sectional non-experimental study. Analyses demonstrated five distinct clusters or profiles of change among study participants and were labeled by the authors as follows: preparticipation, decision making, engagement, ambivalent, and action. All forms of social support (i.e., structural, functional, and satisfaction) were generally higher for individuals more engaged in the process of change. More specifically, differences were noted between the action and decision-making clusters and the engagement and decision-making clusters. These findings suggest that it is vital that clinicians working with survivors of IPV not only assess but also tailor interventions to meet survivors where they are in the process of change. Further, interventions that foster survivors’ abilities to develop reliable and satisfying social support networks will be beneficial for survivors of IPV.

    December 02, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614282   open full text
  • "My Partner Will Change": Cognitive Distortion in Battered Women in Bolivia.
    Heim, E. M., Trujillo Tapia, L., Quintanilla Gonzales, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. December 02, 2015

    This study examines the role of cognitive distortion in women’s decision to stay with or leave their violent partner in a sample of Bolivian women. Our study is based on a consistency model: Cognitive distortion is assumed to play an important role in maintaining cognitive consistency under threatening conditions. Eighty victims of partner violence aged 18 to 62 years who sought help in a legal institution were longitudinally assessed three times over a time period of 6 months. Measures were taken from previous studies and culturally adapted through qualitative interviews. Nearly half of the participants decreased their intention to leave the violent partner in the time span of 1 month between the first and second interview. Women who had decreased their leaving intention had concurrently increased their cognitive distortion: They blamed their partner less, were more convinced that they could stop the violence themselves, and were more likely to believe that their partner would change. Cognitive distortion was not observed among women who remained stable in their intention to leave. Women whose intention of leaving decreased and who displayed more cognitive distortion after 1 month were more likely to live with the violent partner 6 months later than women whose leaving intention remained stable or increased. Socio-demographic variables were not related to cognitive distortion or stay–leave decisions in this study. We conclude that cognitive distortion plays a role for women’s decision to stay, enhancing their risk of re-victimization.

    December 02, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515615145   open full text
  • Mental Health Pathways Linking Childhood Maltreatment to Interpersonal Revictimization During Adolescence for Girls in the Child Welfare System.
    Auslander, W., Tlapek, S. M., Threlfall, J., Edmond, T., Dunn, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 29, 2015

    This study compares the association of histories of childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and physical neglect with revictimization among adolescent girls, and investigates the role of posttraumatic stress and symptoms of depression as mediators. Participants were 234 girls aged 12 to 19 years, who have been involved with the child welfare system in a Midwestern urban area. Data were collected from baseline surveys of a trauma-focused group program to which the participants were referred. The majority of participants were youths of color (75%) who were primarily African American (70%), and the remaining participants were White, non-Hispanic (25%). Data were collected through surveys that assessed histories of child abuse and neglect, symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression, and experiences of physical, verbal, and relational revictimization in the last 3 months. All types of abuse and neglect were significantly associated with higher frequencies of revictimization and higher levels of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Parallel mediation analyses demonstrated that both posttraumatic stress and depression fully mediated the relationships between emotional abuse and revictimization, and sexual abuse and revictimization. Physical abuse was fully mediated by posttraumatic stress, but not by depression. Results also indicated that neither posttraumatic stress nor depression were mediators for the relationship between neglect and revictimization. There were similar pathways to revictimization in adolescents from emotional and sexual abuse through posttraumatic stress and depression. Evidence is mounting for the deleterious effects of emotional abuse. There is evidence that treatment of both posttraumatic stress and depression in emotionally and sexually abused adolescents involved in child welfare is warranted to prevent future revictimization.

    November 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614561   open full text
  • Effects of Violence Prevention Behavior on Exposure to Workplace Violence and Threats: A Follow-Up Study.
    Gadegaard, C. A., Andersen, L. P., Hogh, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 29, 2015

    This longitudinal study investigates the relationship between prevention behaviors, that is, enacted violence prevention policies, and exposure to workplace violence and threats across four different high risk work sectors: psychiatry, special schools, eldercare, and the prison and probation services. Logistic regression analysis of a 1-year follow-up sample of 3.016 employees from these four sectors shows that prevention behaviors are significantly and negatively associated with self-reported exposure to workplace violence and threats—in the prison and probation services, eldercare, and in psychiatry, while no significant associations are found for special schools. The results therefore show clear sector differences with regard to the preventive effect of violence prevention behaviors. Furthermore, this multisector comparison suggests that prevention behaviors are more effective in relation to a moderate frequency of violence and threats, and that only top management prevention behavior can prevent very frequent incidents (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58). This study contributes to the literature by use of a longitudinal design and acceptable response rates, while also simultaneously investigating several high risk sectors. The results imply that when managing workplace violence in high risk areas of human service work, there should be emphasis on the use of violence prevention behaviors from top management, supervisor, and among coworkers. However, type of sector and the frequency of workplace violence should be analyzed to evaluate the potential impact of prevention behaviors.

    November 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614558   open full text
  • Emotionally Abusive Behavior in Italian Middle School Teachers as Identified by Students.
    Longobardi, C., Settanni, M., Prino, L. E., Gastaldi, F. G. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 29, 2015

    The aim of this article was to estimate the prevalence of psychological maltreatment in Italian middle school students by their teachers, and to test the applicability of surveying instruments for this phenomenon in Italian educational settings. The sample consisted of 105 teachers and 128 middle school students, who were asked about their experiences with emotionally abusive behaviors (i.e., demeaning, discriminating, dominating, destabilizing, distancing, and diverse) in the Italian school system. Teachers did not tend to perceive their behavior as abusive, while the students showed a very high perception of abuse (98%). Males were more likely to be victims of abuse, and they also reported lower scores in the Achievement scale. Emotional child abuse is highly present in Italian educational settings, and there is a strong need for interventions aimed at supporting teacher education, in the hopes of increasing the general well-being in schools.

    November 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515615144   open full text
  • Who Is the Rotten Apple? Mock Jurors Views of Teacher-Student Sexual Contact.
    Anderson, A., Wingrove, T., Fox, P., McLean, K., Styer, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 29, 2015

    The present study investigated mock jurors’ (N = 541) perceptions of a hypothetical case of teacher–student sexual contact. Mock jurors read a brief vignette describing an alleged sexual encounter where the gender and age of both the teacher and student were manipulated. Participants rendered legal decisions (i.e., verdict, degree of guilt, and sentence length), as well as culpability judgments pertaining to both the teacher and the student (i.e., blame, cause, and desire for the sexual contact). In addition, the effects of mock juror gender and attitudes regarding both rape myth acceptance and homophobia were investigated. Teacher gender and both teacher and student age predicted mock jurors’ recommended sentences, with male teachers, older teachers, and younger students leading to greater sentences. Overall, student age was most consistently related to multiple culpability judgments, and the culpability judgments regarding the victim were the most consistently predicted by the independent variables. We did not find any evidence of homosexist attitudes, meaning that same-gender teacher–student contact was not judged any differently than opposite-gender contact. Worth noting, we found an interaction such that male students victimized by female teachers were judged to have wanted the contact more than any other gender combination, especially by male participants. The authors discuss these findings in the context of the child sexual abuse (CSA) literature concluding that many of the findings of more prototypical CSA cases extend to the teacher–student context. We also discuss the implications of these findings in terms of gendered judgments of adolescents who are victimized by teachers, possibly decided by legal professionals, school administrators, and jurors themselves. In particular, the three-way gender interaction can be interpreted in the context of stereotypes regarding sexual development marking sexual contact between adolescent males and older females as a "rite of passage" into adulthood.

    November 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515618214   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence Victimization in the Cyber and Real World: Examining the Extent of Cyber Aggression Experiences and Its Association With In-Person Dating Violence.
    Marganski, A., Melander, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 25, 2015

    This study explores the extent of cyber aggression victimization in intimate relationships and its co-occurrence with in-person experiences of psychological, physical, and sexual partner violence. Data were collected from 540 college students who reported being in a dating relationship in the past 12 months. Participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire that included measures assessing intimate partner victimization experiences in differing social contexts (through socially interactive technology and in face-to-face encounters). Findings indicated that intimate partner cyber aggression victimization is not uncommon, as nearly three quarters of respondents reported having experienced some form of it in the past year. Multivariate analyses also indicate that such aggression may be part of a larger violence nexus given its relation to in-person psychological, physical, and sexual partner violence victimization experiences. In light of these findings, it is recommended that longitudinal research encompassing multiple violence victimization experiences in varying social contexts is completed to determine whether online experiences foreshadow offline ones and, if so, consider interaction effects on outcomes as well as potential intervention strategies to reduce harm associated with such negative experiences.

    November 25, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614283   open full text
  • Measuring the Tangible Fear of Heterosexist Violence.
    Fox, C., Asquith, N. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 25, 2015

    Fear of crime (FoC) has dominated the political landscape over the last 20 years, with many crime policy developments during this period linked not to actual experiences of violence but to the fear of victimization. Fear of crime studies, in most cases, are conducted with populations that have only a passing, mediated knowledge of crime victimization. The research discussed in this article, in contrast, considers the impact of FoC with a highly victimized community, and establishes psychometric testing to validate an instrument to measure the impact of that fear (Fear of Heterosexism Scale [FoHS]). If FoC is related to experiences of crime as the existing research suggests, then victims of heterosexist prejudice, discrimination, and/or violence would be more likely to fear such incidents in the future. It was also predicted that participants who concealed their sexual and/or gender identity and had lower levels of social connectedness would experience higher levels of fear. The findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in FoH, and identify the critical roles that disclosure and social connectedness play in ameliorating the damaging effects of heterosexist victimization.

    November 25, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614279   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Animal Abuse in an Immigrant-Rich Sample of Mother-Child Dyads Recruited From Domestic Violence Programs.
    Hartman, C. A., Hageman, T., Williams, J. H., Ascione, F. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 25, 2015

    We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother–child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners (n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners’ IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.

    November 25, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614281   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence in the First 2 Years of Life: Implications for Toddlers' Behavior Regulation.
    Easterbrooks, M. A., Katz, R. C., Kotake, C., Stelmach, N. P., Chaudhuri, J. H.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 23, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent in families with young children and challenges their healthy development. This study examined characteristics of IPV (e.g., mother- vs. partner-perpetrated, types and severity) and investigated potential effects of IPV on toddlers’ behavioral regulation in a sample of families at risk for IPV. We also examined whether maternal depression and child-rearing attitudes and behavior would moderate IPV–child behavior links. These questions were addressed in a sample (N = 400) of first-time adolescent mothers and their toddlers (1-2 years of age). Families were visited in their homes; data were collected via maternal report and observations. Partner- and self-perpetrated IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale questionnaire; child behavior regulation was measured using the Brief Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment questionnaire. Approximately 80% of families experienced psychological aggression; almost one third reported physical assault in the past year. Both physical and psychological IPV were associated with greater toddler behavior problems. Neither maternal depression, mothers’ attitudes about corporal punishment, nor nonhostile interaction moderated IPV–behavior problem links, though mothers’ reports of maltreating behavior did. Among children whose mothers did not use corporal punishment/physical violence, IPV did not differentially affect behavior problems. Children whose mothers used corporal punishment/physical violence with them showed behavior problems in the context of IPV (severe psychological aggression). Results underscore the importance of exposure to IPV during the first year of life, and the prevalence of IPV perpetrated by both mothers and their partners in families with adolescent mothers.

    November 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614562   open full text
  • "You Blame Me, Therefore I Blame Me": The Importance of First Disclosure Partner Responses on Trauma-Related Cognitions and Distress.
    Bonnan-White, J., Hetzel-Riggin, M. D., Diamond-Welch, B. K., Tollini, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 23, 2015

    Trauma recovery processes may be understood within a socioecological model. Individual factors (such as sex of the survivor) and microsystem factors (including trauma characteristics) have been studied extensively. However, there is a paucity of research examining the effects of macrosystem factors on the impact of trauma—especially examining how the response of the first person to whom the survivor disclosed affects trauma-related cognitions and distress. Sixty-three college student participants reported a history of disclosing at least one traumatic event in an online, anonymous survey. Participants also provided information on the first person they told about the trauma, the social reactions of that person, general social reactions to trauma disclosure, the participants’ trauma-related cognitions and psychological distress (PTSD, other mental health issues), details about the traumatic event, and basic demographic information. Paired sample t tests showed that participants experienced the responses of the first person they told about their trauma as more favorable than the responses of the all of the people to whom they told about the event. Women and survivors of non-interpersonal trauma reported more supportive responses than men and survivors of interpersonal trauma. Hierarchical linear regressions showed that interpersonal trauma and victim blame on the part of the first person the survivor told were associated with more negative trauma-related cognitions. Interpersonal trauma, emotional support, and victim blame were associated with a greater degree of trauma-related distress. The results suggest that participants perceived the response of the first person they told as more beneficial than the response of the rest of their exosystem. However, the reactions of the first person the survivor told differed based on the sex of the survivor and the type of trauma they experienced. Consistent with previous research, interpersonal trauma and victim blame by the first person the survivor told about the trauma were associated with more trauma-related distress and negative cognitions. Trauma-related distress was also associated with greater emotional support by the disclosure partner. The results support the use of the socioeological model to better understand the complex nature of trauma recovery and have implications for prevention.

    November 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515615141   open full text
  • Strain and Opportunity: A Theory of Repeat Victimization.
    Iratzoqui, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 23, 2015

    General strain theory is often applied to explain the origin of deviant behavior, while the risky lifestyles and opportunities perspective is often used to examine the ongoing risk for victimization. However, given evidence that the delinquent coping mechanisms operationalized by the general strain tests and the risky behaviors measured in the risky lifestyles models are often the same behaviors, the current study argues that these two models can be constructed as a uniform framework to explain the onset and continuity of victimization, including involvement in delinquency, from childhood through adolescence. Experiences of child maltreatment are posited to trigger feelings of negative emotions more likely managed with forms of coping that can foster opportunities for suffering further victimization. Using data from the first three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), the results show that youth who adopt maladaptive forms of coping with childhood abuse and neglect, including engaging in substance abuse, running away from home, and drug selling, are at further risk for subsequent experiences of victimization in adolescence. However, the model provides only one pathway linking child maltreatment to adolescent victimization, and the strength of support varies based on the measures of negative emotions and coping strategies.

    November 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515615146   open full text
  • Managing the Threat of Violence: Coping Strategies Among Juvenile Inmates.
    Reid, S. E., Listwan, S. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 23, 2015

    This article reports findings on violence, safety, and coping strategies from interviews conducted with 281 male youth incarcerated in California’s Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). Descriptive analyses revealed that youth report that violence is a common occurrence and that some locations, such as school or housing units, were particularly dangerous. Analysis of how youth avoid violence revealed three distinct precautionary or coping strategies. These three categories highlight a range of conflict management techniques from avoidance to aggression. Those youth who were younger, sex offenders, or newer to the facility used more passive avoidance techniques while gang members and those more active in violent misconduct used more aggressive techniques. A third group, those youth proactively navigating their interactions, had spent more time in their current institution and were marginally more likely to be adult court commitments. Intervention and policy implications of this study are also discussed.

    November 23, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515615143   open full text
  • How Childhood Maltreatment Profiles of Male Victims Predict Adult Perpetration and Psychosocial Functioning.
    Davis, K. C., Masters, N. T., Casey, E., Kajumulo, K. F., Norris, J., George, W. H.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 20, 2015

    This study used latent class analysis to empirically identify subgroups of men based on their exposure to childhood maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect and abuse, physical neglect and abuse, and sexual abuse). It then examined subgroups’ differential perpetration of adult intimate partner violence (IPV; both psychological and physical), violence against peers, and sexual assault. Finally, we compared sociodemographic variables and psychosocial functioning across profiles to characterize the adult experiences of men in different maltreatment groups. The community sample consisted of 626 heterosexually active 21- to 30-year-old men. We identified four subgroups: Low Maltreatment (80% of the sample), Emotional and Physical Maltreatment (12%), Emotional and Sexual Maltreatment (4%), and Poly-Victimized (4%). The Low Maltreatment group had significantly lower IPV perpetration rates than the Emotional and Physical Maltreatment group, but groups did not significantly differ on peer violence or sexual assault perpetration rates. Overall, Poly-Victimized men were significantly worse off than the Low Maltreatment group regarding income, education level, and incarceration history. Their rates of recent anxiety and depression symptoms were also higher than those of Low Maltreatment men. Findings support the use of person-oriented techniques for deriving patterns of childhood maltreatment and how these patterns relate to psychological, behavioral, and social factors in adulthood.

    November 20, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515613345   open full text
  • Understanding Support Providers' Views of "Helpful" Responses to Sexual Assault Disclosures: The Impacts of Self-Blame and Physical Resistance.
    Sit, V., Schuller, R. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 20, 2015

    Prior research on the factors associated with various disclosure responses has often been conducted on sexual assault victims and formal support providers, while informal helpers, who are the most common recipients of disclosures, have received far less attention. This experimental study examined potential informal helpers’ views of disclosure reactions and their influence on the self-reported likelihoods of engaging in those responses. Undergraduate students at a large Canadian university (N = 239) received vignettes describing a hypothetical sexual assault disclosure that varied on victim’s self-blame and physical resistance, and then rated common disclosure reactions. The results revealed that participants’ perceptions of various responses were at odds with victims’ experiences, with many negative responses, such as victim blame and egocentrism, viewed as equally or more helpful than positive responses, such as emotional support. Moreover, when the victim blamed herself and did not physically resist, positive responses were seen as less helpful whereas negative responses were seen as more helpful, with some notable gender differences. Regression analyses indicated that the perceived helpfulness of each response was the strongest predictor of the likelihood of providing that response. Practical implications of these findings are discussed.

    November 20, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614563   open full text
  • Sexual Assault Characteristics and Perceptions of Event-Related Distress.
    Blayney, J. A., Read, J. P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 20, 2015

    Sexual assault (SA) is a potent psychological stressor, linked to harmful mental health outcomes in both the short- and long-term. Specific assault characteristics can add to the toxicity of SA events. Although research has assessed characteristics of the assault itself (e.g., force, penetration), few studies have examined the larger socioenvironmental context in which SA takes place. This was the purpose of the present study. Young adults (N = 220; 80% female; 54% current students) reported on their most recent SA during college. Cross-sectional associations were tested via structural equation modeling to determine the contributions of socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics in predicting event-related distress. Socioenvironmental context from the most recent assault included assault setting, intoxication at the time of the assault, perpetrator relationship, and prior consensual sexual experiences with the perpetrator. We also examined assault characteristics, including physical force and penetration. Participants reported how upsetting the most recent assault was (a) at the time it occurred and (b) currently. Results revealed differential patterns for socioenvironmental context and assault characteristics based on the timing of distress (past or present). Notably, many of the socioenvironmental factors showed associations with distress above and beyond the powerful effects of physical force and penetration. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the unique factors that contribute to and maintain psychological distress in sexually victimized young adults.

    November 20, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614560   open full text
  • A Cumulative Risk Model of Child Physical Maltreatment Potential: Findings From a Community-Based Study.
    Lamela, D., Figueiredo, B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 20, 2015

    Previous studies have identified the predictive risk factors of child physical maltreatment (CPM). However, a significant number of these studies assessed risk factors in isolation. The cumulative risk hypothesis postulates that health problems are caused by the accumulation of risk factors, independently of the presence or absence of specific risk indicators. Few studies examined the effect of cumulative risk on CPM potential. This study aimed to test two concurrent models of cumulative risk of CPM potential by investigating whether CPM potential was better predicted by a threshold cumulative risk model or a linear cumulative risk model. Data from the National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect in Portugal were used. Parents of school-age children (N = 796) answered to self-report measures regarding sociodemographic variables, history of child maltreatment, psychological distress, and CPM potential. A cumulative risk index was computed, comprising 10 dichotomized risk factors. Evidence for a threshold cumulative effect was found. Additional bivariate logistic regressions revealed that the odds for high-potential CPM were dramatically higher for those parents with six or more risk factors when compared with parents with any one risk factor. By testing and confirming a threshold cumulative effect on CPM potential, it was possible to find a "trigger point" from which a dramatic increase in child physical maltreatment potential occurs.

    November 20, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515615142   open full text
  • Experiences of Intimate Partner and Neighborhood Violence and Their Association With Mental Health in Pregnant Women.
    Barcelona de Mendoza, V., Harville, E. W., Savage, J., Giarratano, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 17, 2015

    Both intimate partner violence and neighborhood crime have been associated with worse mental health outcomes, but less is known about cumulative effects. This association was studied in a sample of pregnant women who were enrolled in a study of disaster exposure, prenatal care, and mental and physical health outcomes between 2010 and 2012. Women were interviewed about their exposure to intimate partner violence and perceptions of neighborhood safety, crime, and disorder. Main study outcomes included symptoms of poor mental health; including depression, pregnancy-specific anxiety (PA), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Logistic regression was used to examine predictors of mental health with adjustment for confounders. Women who experienced high levels of intimate partner violence and perceived neighborhood violence had increased odds of probable depression in individual models. Weighted high cumulative (intimate partner and neighborhood) experiences of violence were also associated with increased odds of having probable depression when compared with those with low violence. Weighed high cumulative violence was also associated with increased odds of PTSD. This study provides additional evidence that cumulative exposure to violence is associated with poorer mental health in pregnant women.

    November 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515613346   open full text
  • Domestic Property Violence: A Distinct and Damaging Form of Parent Abuse.
    Murphy-Edwards, L., van Heugten, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 17, 2015

    This article reports on the qualitative phase of mixed method research conducted in a medium-size city in New Zealand, which examined 14 parents’ experiences of child- and youth-perpetrated domestic property violence (DPV). The research used semi-structured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis, enabling parents’ perceptions of the causes and impacts of this form of family violence to be explored in depth. Three superordinate themes were identified in the analysis: damage done, the various impacts of DPV; staying safe and sane; and making sense of DPV, parents’ perspectives. An ecological meaning-making theory emerged from the data and provided an overarching interpretative framework for considering the themes both separately and together. The findings showed that DPV is a distinct form of parent abuse and one that can have serious impacts of a financial, emotional, and relational nature. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed along with ideas for further research into this problem.

    November 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515613341   open full text
  • Family Conflict and Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy Among High-Risk Mothers.
    Casse, J. F. H., Finkenauer, C., Oosterman, M., van der Geest, V. R., Schuengel, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 17, 2015

    Mothers with a history of institutional care in adolescence are often involved in high-conflict partner relationships, which may undermine relationships with children and confidence in oneself as a parent. Not all mothers think of themselves as bad parents under these circumstances. We turned to psychological resources as an explanation, focusing on mothers’ trait self-control. The negative association between family conflict and parenting self-efficacy was tested for moderation by self-control among 104 mothers with a history of institutionalization for behavioral problems and delinquency during adolescence. We found a negative association between current family conflict and parenting self-efficacy among mothers with low self-control, and no significant association among mothers with high self-control. This study draws attention to the needs of high-risk mothers in their parenting role and demonstrates that self-control is a potential resource for mothers to balance the load presented by conflict in their families. The findings suggest new avenues for intervention.

    November 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614280   open full text
  • "You Better Say Your Prayers and Get Ready": Guns Within the Context of Partner Abuse.
    Lynch, K. R., Logan, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 05, 2015

    The present study used focus groups to collect qualitative data to better understand the complexity of how women with domestic violence experiences feel about gun violence and protections from gun violence within the context of partner violence. Participants consisted of 42 women who were recruited through domestic violence shelters and programs in a single U.S. state. Three main themes were examined in the focus group discussions: (a) guns used within the context of partner abuse, (b) victims using guns as protection from an abuser, and (c) mandated gun restrictions as protection in partner abuse. A total of nine subthemes were organized under the three general themes. Within the first main theme, participants discussed that although abuse occurs with and without guns, guns are uniquely dangerous. In the second main theme, participants expressed concern regarding the dangers of using a gun for self-defense as well as the individual right to own a gun for self-defense. In the third main theme, participants expressed their frustrations that victims are not taken seriously by the justice system and the difficulties of enforcing mandated gun restrictions. The findings have implications for developing protective strategies against gun violence for victims of partner violence.

    November 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515613344   open full text
  • The Situational Context of Adolescent Homicide Victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Swart, L.-A., Seedat, M., Nel, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 05, 2015

    Although studies have described the incidence and epidemiology of adolescent homicide victimization in South Africa, little is known about the situational contexts in which they occur. This study aimed to describe the victim, offender, and event characteristics of adolescent homicide and to generate a typology based on the particular types of situational contexts associated with adolescent homicide in South Africa. Data on homicides among adolescents (15-19 years) that occurred in Johannesburg (South Africa) during the period 2001-2007 were obtained from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS) and police case records. Of the 195 cases available for analysis, 81% of the victims were male. Most of the offenders were male (90%), comprising of strangers (42%) and friends/acquaintances (37%). Arguments (33%) were the most common precipitating circumstances, followed by revenge (11%), robbery (11%), and acts of vigilantism/retribution for a crime (8%). Through the use of cluster analysis, the study identified three categories of adolescent homicide: (a) male victims killed by strangers during a crime-related event, (b) male victims killed by a friend/acquaintance during an argument, and (c) female victims killed by male offenders. The results can serve to inform the development of tailored and focused strategies for the prevention of adolescent homicide.

    November 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515613342   open full text
  • The Potential for Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Community Pharmacies: An Exploratory Study of Female Consumers' Perspectives.
    Barnard, M., West-Strum, D., Holmes, E., Yang, Y., Fisher, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. November 05, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a substantial public health problem. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recently updated guidelines to recommend IPV screening for all women of childbearing age. Expansion of screening efforts to the community pharmacy setting could provide an opportunity to substantially impact the health of consumers. To date, no research has explored consumers’ perspective on IPV screening in the community pharmacy environment. To address this gap, a descriptive survey research study was conducted to examine female consumers’ attitudes and preferences for IPV screening in community pharmacies. Female pharmacy customers (N = 60) completed an online survey assessing knowledge of and attitudes about community pharmacies as sources of health care advice, beliefs about IPV and IPV screening, and perspectives on IPV screening in the community pharmacy environment. Consumers who utilized pharmacies with more patient care services were more likely to report interest in IPV screening in the pharmacy environment. The majority of respondents thought IPV screening is an important thing to do (85.0%), and 33.3% agreed that it should happen in a pharmacy. A statistically significant relationship between the belief that the pharmacy is a good place for health education and preference for IPV screening in the community pharmacy environment was found, r(58) = .43, p < .001. Concern regarding the time required to conduct screenings and about the availability of appropriate space were identified as potential barriers to screening in the pharmacy environment.

    November 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515614272   open full text
  • Sources and Components of Stigma Experienced by Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Murray, C. E., Crowe, A., Overstreet, N. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 14, 2015

    Previous research suggests that survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) experience stigma, which may affect their willingness to seek help and their recovery process following the end of the abusive relationship. This article presents the Integrated IPV Stigmatization Model, which integrates previous research on the components and sources of the stigma surrounding IPV. Content analysis procedures were used to examine the applicability of the model to qualitative data from an electronic survey with 279 survivors of past abusive relationships. The results demonstrated the most common components and sources of stigma experienced by the participants, as well as the patterns of which components were most common among the various sources of stigma. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

    October 14, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515609565   open full text
  • Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration Among Female and Male University Students in Poland.
    Tomaszewska, P., Krahe, B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 14, 2015

    This study examined the prevalence of victimization and perpetration of sexual aggression since age 15 in a convenience sample of 565 Polish university students (356 females). The prevalence of sexual aggression was investigated for both males and females from the perspectives of both victims and perpetrators in relation to three coercive strategies, three different victim–perpetrator relationships, and four types of sexual acts. We also examined the extent to which alcohol was consumed in the context of sexually aggressive incidents. The overall self-reported victimization rate was 34.3% for females and 28.4% for males. The overall perpetration rate was 11.7% for males and 6.5% for females. The gender difference was significant only for perpetration. Prevalence rates of both victimization and perpetration were higher for people known to each other than for strangers. In the majority of victimization and perpetration incidents, alcohol was consumed by one or both parties involved. The findings are discussed in relation to the international evidence and the need for tailored risk prevention and reduction programs.

    October 14, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515609583   open full text
  • Mediators of the Association Between Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Young Adult Men's Life Satisfaction.
    Pierce, J., Abbey, A., Wegner, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 14, 2015

    Childhood emotional maltreatment has been linked to a wide range of deleterious physical and psychological adult health outcomes. The present study extends past research by examining the effects of childhood emotional maltreatment on young adult men’s life satisfaction through its effects on hostility and perceptions of social relationships. Participants were 423 single men who completed two interviews 1 year apart. As hypothesized, the association between self-reported childhood emotional maltreatment and adult life satisfaction was mediated through general hostility, rejection sensitivity in romantic relationships, and perceptions of male friends’ social support. These findings suggest that interventions which address distorted perceptions of romantic partners and friends might reduce the negative impact of childhood emotional maltreatment.

    October 14, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515609584   open full text
  • Stigma Among Survivors of Sexual Violence in Congo: Scale Development and Psychometrics.
    Murray, S. M., Robinette, K. L., Bolton, P., Cetinoglu, T., Murray, L. K., Annan, J., Bass, J. K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 12, 2015

    Stigma related to sexual violence (SV) is associated with many negative physical and social outcomes. We sought to create a contextually relevant measure of SV-related stigma for women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and assess itspsychometrics and validity. Using baseline screening data from two randomized controlled trials of services for female SV survivors in Eastern DRC (n = 1,184), we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test the measurement model. Cronbach’s alphas and Kuder–Richardson 20 (KR-20) statistics were used to evaluate internal consistency. Logistic and linear regressions of the stigma measures with related constructs were used to assess construct validity. Two distinct but related scales were developed based on factor analyses: a four-item scale of discrimination-related stigma (i.e., enacted stigma) and an eight-item scale of combined perceived and internalized stigma (i.e., felt stigma). Both scales showed good internal consistency (KR-20 = .68; α = .86). A higher felt stigma score was associated with significant increases in combined depression and anxiety and trauma symptoms, as well as functional impairment (p < .001). Having a child as a result of SV was associated with both significantly higher enacted and felt stigma (p < .001). Neither SV stigma scale was associated with medical care seeking. To address harmful ramifications of stigma among SV survivors, locally relevant quantitative measures are necessary to understand the nature and severity of stigma they experience. Our process of scale creation and evaluation can serve as an example for developing locally relevant SV-related stigma measures.

    October 12, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515608805   open full text
  • Long-Term Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse on Physical Health, Emotional Well-Being, and Problem Behaviors.
    Simmons, S. B., Knight, K. E., Menard, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 12, 2015

    This study examines the physical health, emotional well-being, and problem behavior outcomes associated with intimate partner abuse (IPA) victimization and perpetration experiences by analyzing a nationally representative, prospective, and longitudinal sample of 879 men and women collected from the National Youth Survey Family Study (NYSFS) and assessed across a period of 9 years from 1993 to 2003. Using multivariate regression techniques, it was found that both men and women experience numerous negative outcomes associated with their IPA victimization and perpetration experiences. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are the study’s limitations, and future research directions.

    October 12, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515609582   open full text
  • The Co-Occurrence and Unique Mental Health Effects of Political Violence and Intimate Partner Violence.
    Sousa, C. A., Yacoubian, K., Flaherty Fischette, P., Haj-Yahia, M. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 07, 2015

    The global mental health ramifications of political violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) are well established. There also exists a growing body of evidence about the increased risks for IPV within situations of political violence. Yet, except for a few studies, there is little literature that simultaneously examines how political violence and IPV might result in unique risks for particular types of mental health sequela. Delineating possible divergent patterns between specific mental health conditions resulting from political violence and IPV takes on an increased urgency given that, although they are related, the two most commonly reported outcomes of these two types of violence—post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression—not only require different types of treatment, but may in fact be generated or maintained by disparate paths. Using survey data from adult women in Palestine (n = 122), this study explores the relationships between IPV and political violence (both lifetime and past-month exposure) and tests their independent relationships to PTSD and depressive symptomology. After controlling for the other form of violence exposure, political violence was correlated with PTSD and not with depressive symptomology, while IPV was correlated with depressive symptomology and not with PTSD. Findings demonstrate that distinct forms of violence exposure might indeed be associated with specific mental health outcomes. Results illustrate the need to assess for both political violence and IPV when researching and designing interventions related to violence.

    October 07, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515605120   open full text
  • Sexual Assault Prevention Efforts in the U.S. Air Force: A Systematic Review and Content Analysis.
    Gedney, C. R., Wood, D. S., Lundahl, B., Butters, R. P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 07, 2015

    The issue of sexual assault in the U.S. military is problematic and prevalent. All military branches have undertaken an effort to develop and implement sexual assault prevention programs (SAPPs), yet these programs lack a rigorous and independent evaluation process, limiting an understanding of effectiveness. We examined the four official SAPPs that have been used within the U.S. Air Force (USAF) over the past decade by comparing their content and process with best practice suggestions for SAPPs. Content of the four USAF SAPPs was evaluated on 47 different criteria grouped into the following program elements: content, process, and outcome. Independent ratings of the criteria were reliable, and results indicated strengths and opportunities for improvement. Most notably, evidence of an objective program evaluation system is lacking. Recommendations for improving SAPPs are offered.

    October 07, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515608801   open full text
  • It's Not My Place: Formative Evaluation Research to Design a Bystander Intervention Campaign.
    DeMaria, A. L., Sundstrom, B., Grzejdziak, M., Booth, K., Adams, H., Gabel, C., Cabot, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 07, 2015

    Sexual misconduct remains a problem on college campuses despite years of documentation and research, and program development and implementation. The purpose of this study was to conduct systematic theory-based formative audience research to understand how college women and men make meaning of sexual assault and bystander intervention. A total of 69 men and women aged 18 to 24 years participated in eight gender-specific focus group discussions. A grounded theory approach was used to identify patterns and themes across the data. Themes emerging from the data included the following: (a) female participants’ experiences of sexism and misogyny, (b) the myth that rape is falsely reported, (c) complex understandings of consent and entitlement, (d) the reluctance to stop someone from having a "good time," (e) the role of alcohol as a moderating factor in sexual misconduct and bystander intervention, and (f) preference for direct and impactful messaging. This study informs researchers and practitioners about college students’ perceptions of, and experiences with, bystander intervention and sexual assault. Practitioners can use this information to develop effective mixed media, campus-wide social marketing campaigns.

    October 07, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515608804   open full text
  • Beliefs of Palestinian Women From Israel About the Responsibility and Punishment of Violent Husbands and About Helping Battered Women.
    Haj-Yahia, M. M., Zaatut, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 06, 2015

    This article presents a study that examined beliefs about violent husbands and about helping battered women among Palestinian women living in Israel from the perspective of patriarchal ideology. A convenience sample of 701 married women was obtained, and a self-report questionnaire was administered. The findings reveal that the majority of participants held violent husbands accountable for their behavior; however, the majority of them did not support punishing violent husbands through formal agencies (i.e., the police) or through informal social institutions (i.e., the family). In addition, contrary to expectations, the majority of women perceived wife beating as a social problem rather than as a private one that should be dealt with within the family. Regression and multiple regression analysis revealed that women’s endorsement of patriarchal ideology was found to influence all three above-mentioned beliefs about violent husbands and battered women, over and above the amount of variance in each of these beliefs that could be attributed to the women’s sociodemographic characteristics. The limitations of the study and its implications for future research are discussed.

    October 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515608802   open full text
  • Elder Abuse in a Developing Area in Bolivia.
    Carmona-Torres, J. M., Lopez-Soto, P. J., Coimbra-Roca, A. I., Galvez-Rioja, R. M., Goergen, T., Rodriguez-Borrego, M. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. October 06, 2015

    In many parts of the world, elder abuse happens almost unnoticed. Until recently, this serious social problem was hidden from public view and was regarded as an essentially private matter. However, there is growing evidence that elder abuse is an important problem of public health and in the society. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of abuse of elder and vulnerable people in the families and communities of Eastern Bolivia. With this end in mind, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample size of 210 60-year-old people coming from different health care areas. Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and Yaffe’s Evaluation Form of Social Work were used. An abuse rate of 39% of the older adults was identified. The most common type of abuse observed was psychological abuse (32.4% of cases), followed by neglect (21.9%). Children were identified as triggers of the abuse in 66.7% of cases of abuse. The prevalence of elder abuse was similar to the prevalence of other types of abuse that exist in Bolivia, such as the gender-based abuse. Also, this prevalence is comparable to other developing countries and European countries. The profile of abused older adult is as follows: woman, widow, 70 years old, incomplete primary education, without an occupation, and an average of 4.59 children. The information obtained shows that dysfunctional families have a higher percentage of elder abuse.

    October 06, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515608803   open full text
  • Relation Between Sexual Assault and Negative Affective Conditions in Female College Students: Does Loss of Hope Account for the Association?
    Chang, E. C., Jilani, Z., Yu, T., Lin, J., Muyan, M., Hirsch, J. K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 28, 2015

    The present study examined dispositional hope as a potential mediator of the association between sexual assault and negative affective conditions, namely, depressive and anxious symptoms in a sample of 223 female college students. Results from conducting bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that hope agency, but not hope pathways, mediated the link between sexual assault victimization and negative affective conditions in females. Importantly, the associations of sexual assault with both depressive and anxious symptoms remained highly significant independent of hope. Some implications of the present findings are discussed.

    September 28, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515588534   open full text
  • Coach Expectations About Off-Field Conduct and Bystander Intervention by U.S. College Football Players to Prevent Inappropriate Sexual Behavior.
    Kroshus, E., Paskus, T., Bell, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 21, 2015

    The objective of the present study was to assess whether there is a positive association between expectations about off-field conduct set by the team coach and the likelihood that college football players intend to engage as prosocial bystanders in the prevention of what they consider to be inappropriate sexual behavior. In a sample of U.S. collegiate football players (N = 3,281), a path analysis model tested the association between coach expectations, perceived likelihood of discipline for off-field transgressions, and likelihood of intending to intervene to prevent inappropriate sexual behavior. Mediation of these relationships by the athlete’s sense of exploitative entitlement and their attitudes about intervening were also assessed. Findings supported the hypothesized relationships, with expectations and discipline associated with bystander intentions both directly and indirectly through the mediating pathways of entitlement and attitudes about intervening. These findings provide evidence about the important role that sports team coaches can play in encouraging bystander intervention by clarifying expectations and consequences for conduct off the field of play. Athletic departments can provide a framework within which coaches are informed about the importance of setting and enforcing standards for off-field behavior, and are appropriately incentivized to do so.

    September 21, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515605122   open full text
  • Sex, Parental Incarceration, and Violence Perpetration Among a Sample of Young Adults.
    Muftic, L. R., Smith, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 21, 2015

    Limited attention has been directed at adult children with a history of parental incarceration. The goal of the current study is to expand our understanding of the gendered effects of imprisonment on the adult offspring of incarcerated parents through the exploration of violence perpetration among a sample of young adults. Congruent with problem behavior theory, it is hypothesized that young adults who have been affected by parental incarceration will report greater aversive outcomes (i.e., more risk factors and violence perpetration) than their peers without a history of parental incarceration. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that parental incarceration predicts violent perpetration even after controlling for individual and familial risk factors and demographic characteristics. A series of bivariate and multivariate statistical models utilizing self-report data from 534 college students were generated to test said hypotheses. In addition, the moderating effects of students’ sex and exposure to parental incarceration on the relationship between violence perpetration and risk factors were explored through the utilization of split logistic regression models. Roughly 1 in 10 (13.3%) students surveyed had experienced parental incarceration. As expected, students affected by parental incarceration were significantly more likely to perpetrate violence than their peers not affected by parental incarceration, net individual and familial risk. Although only a small percentage of students had experienced the imprisonment of a parent, parental incarceration predicted violence perpetration in young adulthood. These findings highlight the need to explore the long-lasting effects of parental incarceration on prisoners’ offspring across the life course.

    September 21, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515605123   open full text
  • Altered Trust Learning Mechanisms Among Female Adolescent Victims of Interpersonal Violence.
    Lenow, J., Cisler, J., Bush, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 17, 2015

    Early-life interpersonal violence (IV) is a significant risk factor for a broad range of mental health disorders, increased rates of re-victimization, and psychosocial dysfunction. However, the cognitive mechanisms by which these risks are conferred are largely unknown. The current study attempted to address this empirical gap. Thirty-two adolescent girls, aged 12 to 16 (15 victims of IV), completed a social learning task. A computational learning model was fit to the behavioral data (ratings of trustworthiness during the learning task) to test for group differences in the cognitive mechanisms by which adolescent girls learn to differentially trust others. Specifically, we tested for differences in task performance and subject-level learning parameters: learning rate (the extent to which preferences are updated with new information) and preference stochasticity (the extent to which preferences seem random). Adolescent girls who were victims of IV demonstrated significantly worse performance than their control counterparts. Among IV victims, we observed a relationship between higher learning rates and greater preference stochasticity. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

    September 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515604411   open full text
  • Circumstances Preceding Homicide-Suicides Involving Child Victims: A Qualitative Analysis.
    Holland, K. M., Brown, S. V., Hall, J. E., Logan, J. E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 17, 2015

    Homicide-suicide incidents involving child victims can have a detrimental impact on survivors of the violence, family members and friends of the decedents, and other community members, but the rare occurrence of these acts makes using quantitative data to examine their associated antecedents challenging. Therefore, using qualitative data from the 2003-2011 National Violent Death Reporting System, we examined 175 cases of homicide-suicide involving child victims in an effort to better understand the complex situational factors of these events. Our findings indicate that 98% of homicide-suicides with child victims are perpetrated by adults (mostly parents) and propelled by the perpetrators’ intimate partner problems, mental health problems, and criminal/legal problems. These events are often premeditated, and plans for the violence are sometimes disclosed prior to its occurrence. Findings provide support for several theoretical perspectives, and implications for prevention are discussed.

    September 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515605124   open full text
  • Frequency, Nature, and Correlates of Hate Crime Victimization Experiences in an Urban Sample of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community Members.
    Burks, A. C., Cramer, R. J., Henderson, C. E., Stroud, C. H., Crosby, J. W., Graham, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 17, 2015

    The present study examines two central research questions. First, we sought to add to current knowledge on the frequency and types of hate crime experiences in an urban sample. Also, drawing on existing frameworks for sexual minority specific (SMS) stress, we examined internalized SMS stress (defined by internalized homophobia and acceptance concerns regarding one’s minority status) as a mediator of the association between hate crime victimization (i.e., objective or social SMS stress) and mental health symptoms (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety, and general stress). Participants were 336 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) community members who elected to participate in research at a community health agency in an urban southwestern United States jurisdiction. Results suggested (a) approximately one third of the sample reported lifetime hate crime victimization, with the most common types characterized by interpersonal, as opposed to property, crimes; (b) approximately half of participants reported their most recent victimization to law enforcement; and (c) internalized SMS stress mediated the relation between hate crime victimization and overall mental health symptoms. Findings are discussed with respect to implications of the unique nature of hate crimes in an urban setting, as well as theoretical and practical implications of SMS stress findings.

    September 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515605298   open full text
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Violence: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Men.
    Murshid, N. S., Murshid, N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 16, 2015

    The present study assesses the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and perpetration of marital violence as adults among a representative sample of 3,396 men in Bangladesh. We used secondary analysis of survey data from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 to examine factors associated with perpetration of martial violence among 3,396 ever-married men between the ages of 16 and 50 years. Outcome measure, marital violence perpetration, was measured using a modified Conflict Tactics Scale, and predictor variables included childhood exposure to parental violence, justification of marital violence, marital duration, religion, and demographic variables. Results indicate that marital violence perpetration is significantly associated with childhood exposure to marital violence, suggesting a cycle of violence that is maintained across generations. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

    September 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515604413   open full text
  • Deaf Victims' Experiences With Intimate Partner Violence: The Need for Integration and Innovation.
    Mastrocinque, J. M., Thew, D., Cerulli, C., Raimondi, C., Pollard, R. Q., Chin, N. P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 13, 2015

    While in recent years, intimate partner violence (IPV) has attracted considerable research attention, the experiences of IPV affecting the Deaf community have been understudied. As a linguistic and cultural minority, Deaf victims of IPV encounter significant barriers in accessing information and services designed to address the medical and legal consequences of victimization. The number of Deaf Americans who communicate via American Sign Language (ASL) may well exceed a half-million, yet little is known about Deaf IPV victims’ experiences and the characteristics of persons who perpetrate IPV with ASL users. This study addressed both topics.

    The current study is based on interviews in ASL with 14 Deaf IPV victims (participants). We explored: the types of abuse participants experienced; characteristics of victims and perpetrators; participants’ help-seeking behaviors; and the availability, use, and helpfulness of various resources. These findings were compared to what is known about IPV in the hearing community.

    Our findings include that lack of information regarding IPV and lack of access to specialized IPV services were pervasive problems affecting Deaf victims. For some victims, the close-knit nature of the Deaf community was a barrier for discussing IPV and accessing information and support. It was common for Deaf victims to receive services or information about IPV from providers who were not IPV specialists. Communication abuse was prevalent in our study. The nature of communication abuse is unique for Deaf victims compared to hearing victims.

    September 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515602896   open full text
  • Sexual Attitudes Moderate the Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Women's Risk Judgments.
    Yeater, E. A., Treat, T. A., Viken, R. J., Lenberg, K. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 13, 2015

    This study evaluated the effects of alcohol intoxication, sexual attitudes, and sexual victimization history on the cognitive processes underlying undergraduate women’s risk judgments. Participants were 116 unmarried, undergraduate women between the ages of 21 and 29. The sample was diverse ethnically and composed primarily of heterosexual women. Stimuli were written vignettes describing social situations that varied on dimensions of sexual victimization risk and potential impact on women’s popularity. Participants were assigned randomly to an alcohol or a no-alcohol condition, and completed an explicit classification task in which they rated how risky each situation was in terms of their having an unwanted sexual experience. They then completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) and the Sociosexuality Scale (SS); SES responses were used to quantify the severity of victimization experiences, and SS responses were used to measure endorsement of positive attitudes toward casual, impersonal sex. Although there was no main effect for condition, higher sociosexuality predicted use of higher thresholds for judging situations as risky. Importantly, sociosexuality interacted with condition such that higher sociosexuality predicted lower sensitivity to risk information in the alcohol condition but not in the no-alcohol condition. More severe victimization history predicted increased use of popularity impactwhen judging risk. This study emphasizes the importance of identifying specific cognitive processes affected by alcohol that may explain why women have difficulty processing contextual cues signaling risk in social situations. It demonstrates also the relevance of examining individual difference factors that may exacerbate the relationship between intoxication and cognitive processing of risk-relevant information.

    September 13, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515604414   open full text
  • Female Sex Offenders: An Analysis of Crime Scene Behaviors.
    Almond, L., McManus, M. A., Giles, S., Houston, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 09, 2015

    The concept of the female sex offender (FSO) is a relatively new phenomenon within the social research literature. Studies of female rape, male rape, pedophilia, and juvenile sex offenders have suggested that different styles of offending are reflected in the different types of behaviors committed by offenders at the crime scene. These studies suggest that there are three distinct themes of behavior: Hostility, Impersonal, and Involvement. Multidimensional analysis is carried out on 35 crime scene behaviors of 73 FSOs from U.K. and U.S. law reports. The proposed framework was found to be a useful way of classifying FSOs with 84% displaying a dominant theme. These resulted in 52% classified as displaying Involvement, 17% as Control, and 15% as Hostility. Finally, the implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515603976   open full text
  • Justification and Indifference: Diverse Permissive Attitudes Toward Witnessed Violence Against the Elderly and Disabled.
    Radkiewicz, P., Korzeniowski, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 09, 2015

    The violence against the elderly and disabled is widespread. This means that many people who witness acts of violence against elders and the disabled do not react. Instead, they are rather inclined to develop permissive attitudes. The presented article distinguishes two permissive attitudes toward witnessed violence against the elderly and disabled: justification and indifference. The rationale for such differentiation is justified with reference to differences concerning (a) the strength of their relationship, (b) their frequency distribution in the population, and (c) the disparate influence of the underlying predictors. A survey study carried out on a nationwide representative sample of 1,000 adult Poles was the empirical basis for answering research questions. The study showed that domestic violence against elders and the disabled is a noticeable phenomenon in the population of Poland. Around 50% of respondents claimed that they came in touch with physical, economic, or psychological violence against the elderly. More than 30% reported the same in the case of disabled persons. Based on this study, it was found that justification of and indifference to violence were actually unrelated phenomena. Moreover, justification was much less widespread in the population than indifference. It seems easier to accept excuses for passivity in the face of violence than to find justifications for violence. Both permissive attitudes turned out to have a disparate pattern of predictors: Justification turned out to be mainly a function of environmental exposure to violence, whereas indifference was mainly a matter of worldview based on materialism and the imperative of self-interest.

    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515603974   open full text
  • Ambivalent Sexism, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.
    Renzetti, C. M., Lynch, K. R., DeWall, C. N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 09, 2015

    Research on risk factors for men’s perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) has shown a high correlation with problem alcohol use. Additional studies, however, indicate that the alcohol–IPV link is neither simple nor necessarily direct and that a range of factors may moderate this relationship. Using a national, community-based sample of 255 men, the present study examined the moderating effects of ambivalent sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between alcohol use and IPV perpetration. The findings show that both greater alcohol consumption and high hostile sexism are positively associated with IPV perpetration, and that hostile sexism moderates the alcohol–IPV relationship for perpetration of physical IPV, but not for psychological IPV. Moreover, high levels of alcohol consumption have a greater impact on physical IPV perpetration for men low in hostile sexism than for men high in hostile sexism, lending support to the multiple threshold model of the alcohol–IPV link. Implications of the findings for prevention, intervention, and future research are discussed.

    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515604412   open full text
  • Dispositional Mindfulness as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Perceived Partner Infidelity and Women's Dating Violence Perpetration.
    Brem, M. J., Wolford-Clevenger, C., Zapor, H., Elmquist, J., Shorey, R. C., Stuart, G. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 08, 2015

    Mindfulness gained increased attention as it relates to aggressive behavior, including dating violence. However, no known studies examined how the combined influences of dispositional mindfulness and perceived partner infidelity, a well-documented correlate of dating violence, relate to women’s dating violence perpetration. Using a sample of college women (N = 203), we examined the relationship between perceived partner infidelity and physical dating violence perpetration at varying levels of dispositional mindfulness, controlling for the influence of alcohol use. Results indicated perceived partner infidelity and dating violence perpetration were positively related for women with low and mean dispositional mindfulness, but not for women with high dispositional mindfulness. These results further support the applicability of mindfulness theory in the context of dating violence. Implications of the present findings provide preliminary support for mindfulness intervention in relationships characterized by infidelity concerns.

    September 08, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515604415   open full text
  • Attitudes Toward Partner Violence and Gender Roles in Uruguayan Women.
    Bucheli, M., Rossi, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 07, 2015

    The incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the Latin America and Caribbean region is relatively high compared with other high-income and middle-income countries. This problem is particularly relevant in Uruguay. The empirical literature provides evidence that violence toward partners is more likely among individuals who justify, approve, or favor this type of violence. This article analyzes women’s attitudes to IPV using the survey Encuesta de Situaciones Familiares carried out in 2007 by Universidad de la República, Innovation National Agency in Uruguay (ANII), and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The data show that most women disagree with IPV; the indifference and justification of IPV have a very low prevalence. The analysis highlights that women’s attitudes to IPV against men and against women are highly correlated and are explained by the same factors. A multivariate estimation indicates that the experience of violence in childhood, the strong identification of the woman as a mother, and the low confidence on women’s abilities in political and business activities increase tolerance toward IPV.

    September 07, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515602897   open full text
  • Intimate Partner Violence, Childhood Abuse, and In-Law Abuse Among Women Utilizing Community Health Services in Gujarat, India.
    Kamimura, A., Ganta, V., Myers, K., Thomas, T.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 07, 2015

    Previous studies in India suggest high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws. Yet few studies examined IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws together. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws, and types of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) among women utilizing community health services for the economically disadvantaged in India. This study contributes to expanding the literature on abuse experience and providing knowledge for developing intervention programs and research projects to improve health and safety of economically disadvantaged women. The data were collected from women aged 18 years old or older at 18 community health centers that are primarily for the economically disadvantaged in Gujarat, India, in October and November 2013. Of the 219 women who completed a self-administered survey, 167 participants, who had ever been married and indicated whether they had been abused by their spouse or not, were included in analysis. More than 60% of the participants experienced IPV, childhood abuse, and/or abuse from in-laws, often with multiple types of abuse. Physical abuse is a major issue for IPV, childhood abuse, and in-law abuse. Emotional abuse potentially happens along with physical and/or sexual abuse. Abuse from in-laws requires greater attention because all types of abuse from in-laws were associated with IPV. Community health centers should provide abuse prevention and intervention programs that have involvement of family members as well as women who are at risk of being abused.

    September 07, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515603973   open full text
  • The Use of Drinking and Sexual Assault Protective Behavioral Strategies: Associations With Sexual Victimization and Revictimization Among College Women.
    Neilson, E. C., Gilmore, A. K., Pinsky, H. T., Shepard, M. E., Lewis, M. A., George, W. H.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 07, 2015

    Despite consistent high rates of campus sexual assault, little research has examined effective strategies to decrease sexual assault victimization. Sexual assault and drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) may be important means of reducing sexual assault victimization risk on college campuses but need further examination. The current study examined the relationship among sexual assault in childhood, before college, and since college to evaluate the mitigating roles of both sexual assault PBS and drinking PBS on sexual assault victimization. Participants (n = 620) were undergraduate women, 18 to 20 years old. The current study was a cross-sectional online survey assessing participants’ sexual assault PBS and sexual assault history. Sexual assault history was positively associated with future sexual assault experiences. Pre-college sexual assault was associated with increased since-college sexual assault and increased drinks per week. Since-college adolescent/adult sexual assault was associated with less use of sexual assault PBS. These findings suggest that PBS may have an important role in sexual assault victimization and future research should examine their usefulness in risk reduction programs for college women.

    September 07, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515603977   open full text
  • Effects of Intimate Partner Physical Violence on Newborns' Birth Outcomes Among Jordanian Birthing Women.
    Abujilban, S., Mrayan, L., Al-Modallal, H., Isaa, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 07, 2015

    Intimate partner physical violence against women (VAW) during pregnancy is a common experience all over the world. In Jordan, the number is double the reported international average. Data on effect of violence on birth outcomes are important for planning, implementing, and evaluating maternal health programs. The research question was, "Does intimate partner physical VAW during pregnancy increase the risk of negative birth outcomes for newborns among birthing women in Jordan?" Natural experiment design was used for this study. A consecutive sampling technique was used for selecting the victims of physical violence (n = 79) and a simple random sampling for selecting non-victims (n = 79). Intimate partner physical violence was measured by using the Arabic version of World Health Organization’s (WHO) domestic violence questionnaire, which has an accepted interrater validity. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and chi-square were used to detect the differences in birth outcomes between the victims and non-victims of physical violence. The results showed that there is a significant difference in newborn’s birth weight between the victims of violence and non-victims with a small effect size. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in preterm birth and assisted newborn ventilation. The non-significant effect of violence on the incidence of preterm birth contradicts the published literature. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is rooted in Jordanian culture and widely accepted among married Jordanian women. Midwives, doctors, educators, and policy makers should work together to eradicate violence and detect victims of it, to improve birth outcomes and decrease newborn morbidity and mortality rates.

    September 07, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515603975   open full text
  • Alcohol Intoxicated Witnesses: Perception of Aggression and Guilt in Intimate Partner Violence.
    Hildebrand Karlen, M., Roos af Hjelmsater, E., Fahlke, C., Granhag, P. A., Soderpalm Gordh, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. September 03, 2015

    Many witnesses to violent crimes are alcohol intoxicated, but research is lacking regarding how alcohol affects their perception of aggression and guilt. This study investigated to what extent alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses differed from sober witnesses regarding how aggressive and guilty they perceived the involved parts in an intimate partner violence (IPV) situation. Eighty-seven healthy men (n = 44) and women (n = 43) were randomized to an alcohol group (0.7 g/kg) or a non-alcohol group. In a laboratory setting, alcoholic/non-alcoholic drinks were consumed before viewing a film depicting IPV between a man and a woman. Ten min after viewing, in an interview, the participants rated how aggressive and guilty they perceived the involved parts to be. Alcohol intoxicated participants perceived both parts’ physically aggressive behavior as comparatively less severe, but their neutral behavior as more hostile. Sober witnesses perceived the man to be the most guilty part, whereas intoxicated witnesses distributed guilt more evenly. Alcohol had a strong but complex impact on the perception of aggression in IPV (i.e., heightened during the neutral interaction and lowered during physical aggression). These results may be explained by the cognitive consequences of alcohol’s anxiety-dampening effects. Regarding the asymmetric difference in perceived guilt, stereotypical expectations of gender-appropriate behavior in an IPV situation may need to be considered.

    September 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515599656   open full text
  • Comparing Sex Buyers With Men Who Do Not Buy Sex: New Data on Prostitution and Trafficking.
    Farley, M., Golding, J. M., Matthews, E. S., Malamuth, N. M., Jarrett, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 31, 2015

    We investigated attitudes and behaviors associated with prostitution and sexual aggression among 101 men who buy sex and 101 age-, education-, and ethnicity-matched men who did not buy sex. Both groups tended to accept rape myths, be aware of harms of prostitution and trafficking, express ambivalence about the nature of prostitution, and believe that jail time and public exposure are the most effective deterrents to buying sex. Sex buyers were more likely than men who did not buy sex to report sexual aggression and likelihood to rape. Men who bought sex scored higher on measures of impersonal sex and hostile masculinity and had less empathy for prostituted women, viewing them as intrinsically different from other women. When compared with non-sex-buyers, these findings indicate that men who buy sex share certain key characteristics with men at risk of committing sexual aggression as documented by research based on the leading scientific model of the characteristics of non-criminal sexually aggressive men, the Confluence Model of sexual aggression.

    August 31, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600874   open full text
  • From My Own Brother in My Own Home: Children's Experiences and Perceptions Following Alleged Sibling Incest.
    Katz, C., Hamama, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 30, 2015

    Sibling incest is an understudied field despite its high prevalence rates. The current study was designed to characterize the way children describe their experiences and perceptions following alleged sibling incest. The sample consisted of 20 forensic investigations with children who were referred to forensic investigation following suspected sibling incest. The age range of the children was between 6 and 12 years old, including 17 girls and three boys. Thematic analysis was conducted on all the interviews and the children’s perceptions greatly echoed the ecological framework while they elaborated on three levels: family level, in which children discussed the context of the abuse and the disclosure; sibling level, in which children discussed their siblings’ behaviors and the grooming process; and the child level, in which the children discussed their own behavior during the abuse. The discussion highlights the relevance of the ecological framework to the study’s results and stresses the complexity of this phenomenon and the challenges it raises for practitioners in various contexts—child protective, forensic, and clinical.

    August 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600876   open full text
  • Out in the Open: The Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence for Victims in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Relationships.
    Gehring, K. S., Vaske, J. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 27, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the United States. While our understanding of this form of violence has grown substantially over the past several decades, the majority of research involving victims of IPV has focused almost exclusively on female heterosexual victims. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to how this form of violence affects specific populations, such as gay and lesbian victims. It is possible that gay and lesbian victims may experience more maladaptive outcomes as a result of unique components of same-sex IPV, their sexual minority status in American society, and the lack of appropriate services tailored to victims of this violence. Using data from the second wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, this study contributes to the research on gay and lesbian victims of IPV by investigating same-sex and opposite-sex adolescent victims’ experiences with depression, alcohol-related problems, marijuana use, violent delinquency, and property delinquency. Results indicate that opposite-sex victims experienced more depressive symptoms, alcohol problems, and marijuana use than non-victims and engaged in higher levels of violent and property delinquency than non-victims. IPV within the context of same-sex relationships led to more depressive symptoms and greater involvement in violent delinquency, with the impact of IPV on violent delinquency being greater for victims of same-sex IPV compared with opposite-sex IPV. The implications of this study could inform interventions for victims of same-sex IPV and lead to more comprehensive services to address the needs of gay and lesbian victims of this violence.

    August 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600877   open full text
  • Risk of Intimate Partner Violence and Relationship Conflict Following Couple-Based HIV Prevention Counseling: Results From the Harlem River Couples Project.
    McMahon, J. M., Chimenti, R., Trabold, N., Fedor, T., Mittal, M., Tortu, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 27, 2015

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV often occurs in the context of intimate sexual partnerships. There is mounting evidence that couple-based HIV prevention interventions may be more effective than individual-based interventions for promoting risk reduction within such relationships. Yet, concerns have been raised about the safety of couple-based prevention approaches, especially with regard to the risk of intimate partner violence against women. Although several international studies have examined the potential for adverse consequences associated with couple-based interventions, with inconsistent results, there is little data from U.S. studies to shed light on this issue. The current study analyzed data from a randomized trial conducted in New York City with 330 heterosexual couples to examine whether participation in couple-based or relationship-focused HIV counseling and testing (HIV-CT) interventions resulted in an increased likelihood of post-intervention breakups, relationship conflicts, or emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, compared with standard individual HIV-CT. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the odds of experiencing change in partner violence from baseline to follow-up by treatment condition. A high prevalence of partner-perpetrated violence was reported by both male and female partners across treatment conditions, but there was no conclusive evidence of an increase in relationship dissolution or partner violence subsequent to participation in either the couple-based HIV-CT intervention or relationship-focused HIV-CT intervention compared with controls. Qualitative data collected from the same participants support this interpretation. HIV prevention interventions involving persons in primary sexual partnerships should be sensitive to relationship dynamics and the potential for conflict, and take precautions to protect the safety of both male and female participants.

    August 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600878   open full text
  • Strategizing Safety: Theoretical Frameworks to Understand Women's Decision Making in the Face of Partner Violence and Social Inequities.
    Velonis, A. J., Daoud, N., Matheson, F., Woodhall-Melnik, J., Hamilton-Wright, S., O'Campo, P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 24, 2015

    Women in physically and psychologically abusive relationships face numerous decisions related to their safety: decisions that historically have been viewed by researchers and human service practitioners as related to individual or interpersonal factors, such as how they feel about their partner, what they (or those they are close to) think is best for their children, or whether they have a safe place to go to. Social and structural factors, such as poverty, sexism, and barriers related to disability, are either left out or viewed at their individual-level consequence, such as a woman’s employment status. Using interview data and case studies from a larger study on housing instability, partner violence, and health, the authors apply ecological and macro-level theoretical models that go beyond the individual level to the stories of women who struggled with partner violence, arguing that it is critical to examine the large social and structural forces that impact women’s lives if we are to understand the decisions women make when facing a violent partner.

    August 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515598953   open full text
  • College Students' Reactions to Participating in Relational Trauma Research: A Mixed Methodological Study.
    Edwards, K. M., Neal, A. M., Dardis, C. M., Kelley, E. L., Gidycz, C. A., Ellis, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 24, 2015

    Using a mixed methodology, the present study compared men’s and women’s perceived benefits and emotional reactions with participating in research that inquired about child maltreatment and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration. Participants consisted of 703 college students (357 women, 346 men), ages 18 to 25 who reported on their childhood maltreatment, adolescent and adult IPV victimization and perpetration, and their reactions (perceived benefits and emotional effects) to participating. Participants’ reactions to participating were assessed using quantitative scales, as well as open-ended written responses that were content coded by researchers. Women reported more personal benefits from research, whereas men and women reported similar levels of emotional reactions to research participation. Furthermore, greater frequencies of child maltreatment and IPV victimization were related to higher levels of emotional reactions. Common self-identified reasons for emotional reactions (e.g., not liking to think about abuse in general, personal victimization experiences) and benefits (e.g., reflection and awareness about oneself, learning about IPV) were also presented and analyzed. These data underscore the importance of future research that examines the behavioral impact of research participation utilizing longitudinal and in-depth qualitative methodologies. Findings also highlight the potential psychoeducational value of research on understanding the reasons underlying participants’ benefits and emotional effects.

    August 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515599158   open full text
  • The Roles of Traditional Gender Myths and Beliefs About Beating on Self-Reported Partner Violence.
    Husnu, S., Mertan, B. E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 24, 2015

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the roles of beliefs about beating, traditional gender myth endorsement, ambivalent sexism, and perceived partner violence in determining an individual’s own reported violence toward his or her partner. The sample consisted of 205 (117 women; 88 men) Turkish and Turkish Cypriot undergraduate students, aged between 16 and 29 years. Participants completed measures of beliefs about beating, traditional gender myth endorsement, and ambivalent sexism and rated the extent to which they experienced abusive behaviors from their partner as well as the extent to which they were themselves abusive to their partners. Results showed that positive beliefs about beating, endorsing traditional gender myths, and experiencing partner abuse were all predictive of self-reported abuse to one’s partner. Furthermore, the relationship between myth endorsement and self-abusive behavior was mediated by beliefs toward beating—only in men. Results are discussed in light of the traditional gender system evident in Turkish societal makeup.

    August 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600879   open full text
  • Childhood Physical Maltreatment and Young Adult Dating Violence: A Propensity Matching Approach.
    Tomsich, E., Jennings, W. G., Richards, T. N., Gover, A. R., Powers, R. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 19, 2015

    Intimate partner violence disproportionately occurs among young adults and relates to a range of health and behavioral problems throughout the life course. Although numerous studies substantiate the prevailing cycle of violence perspective, methodological limitations in prior research prohibit the conclusion of a causal relationship between childhood physical maltreatment and dating violence perpetration and victimization in young adulthood. The current research applies a quasi-experimental propensity score matching approach to a large sample of young adults (n = 4,168) to isolate the causal effect of childhood physical maltreatment on dating violence perpetration and victimization. Results suggest selection bias accounts for the correlation between childhood physical maltreatment and young adult physical dating violence perpetration and victimization, indicating a spurious relationship—before matching: odds ratio (OR) = 1.38, p < .001; OR = 1.35, p < .001; after matching: OR = 1.08; p = .379; OR = 1.09; p = .297. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

    August 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515599657   open full text
  • Psychometric Properties of the Cyberbullying Test, a Screening Instrument to Measure Cybervictimization, Cyberaggression, and Cyberobservation.
    Garaigordobil, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 19, 2015

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Cyberbullying Test. The sample included 3,026 participants from the Basque Country (northern Spain), aged 12 to 18 years. Results confirmed high internal consistency and moderate temporal stability. Exploratory factor analysis yielded three moderately correlated factors (cyberobserver, cyberaggressor, and cybervictim). Confirmatory factor analysis ratified adequate model fit of the three factors. Convergent and discriminant validity were confirmed: (a) cybervictims use a variety of conflict resolution strategies, scoring high in neuroticism, openness, antisocial behavior, emotional attention, school-academic problems, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological disorders, anxiety, and psychosomatic complaints, and low in agreeableness, responsibility, self-esteem, and social adjustment and (b) cyberaggressors use many aggressive conflict resolution strategies, scoring high in neuroticism, antisocial behavior, school-academic problems, psychopathological and psychosomatic disorders, and low in empathy, agreeableness, responsibility, emotion regulation, and social adjustment. The study confirms the test’s reliability and validity.

    August 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600165   open full text
  • Exposure to Violence of Secondary School Children with Visual Impairment.
    Gur, K., Albayrak, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 19, 2015

    Although violence is a serious issue that children face all over the world, there is little known about the extent of the violence children with disabilities experience. This study was conducted to identify the frequency of exposure to violence that students with visual impairment experience in any environment, directly or as a witness, and the factors associated with this exposure. The study was conducted as descriptive research at a Secondary School for the Visually Impaired in 2011-2012 with 84 individuals. A questionnaire on demographics, a Violence Exposure Scale, and face-to-face interviews were used as data collection tools. It was found that the large majority of the children with visual impairment in the study had encountered violence on one occasion or more, recently or in the past. The number of students recently exposed to violence was higher than the number of children encountering violence in the past. The mean scores of the students who had recently experienced violence were higher than the scores for exposure to violence in the past. A large majority of the students with visual impairment in the study, all of the boarding students, and most of the day students had been exposed to violence once or more both recently and in the past. It was found that being male, having a congenital visual impairment, and living as a boarding student were risk factors in terms of violence. It may be recommended that school nurses more closely monitor this group of students for signs of violence.

    August 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600162   open full text
  • Feminist Identity Styles, Sexual and Non-Sexual Traumatic Events, and Psychological Well-Being in a Sample of Polish Women.
    Kucharska, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 19, 2015

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relations between the development of a feminist identity and effects of traumatic stress in a sample of Polish women. The distinction between non-sexual and sexual traumatic events was made. It was hypothesized that individuals scoring high on the Synthesis and Active Commitment scales of the Feminist Identity Development Model would present a higher self-esteem and lower level of depression as compared with individuals having low scores on those scales and high scores on the Passive Acceptance scale. It was also assumed that the relation between the feminist identity styles and self-esteem and depression would be stronger in women who had experienced sexual traumatic events as compared with those who had experienced other kinds of trauma. A total of 273 women participated in the questionnaire research. Regression analyses were performed to test the interaction model, and the obtained results support all of the hypotheses.

    August 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600163   open full text
  • One Size Doesn't Fit All: Dating Abuse Against Women From the Perspective of South Asian Muslim Youth in Canada.
    Couture-Carron, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 19, 2015

    Despite the growing recognition of intersectionality in the field of domestic abuse, scholarship on dating abuse is still limited by its lack of attention to cultural context. To begin to address this gap, this article presents findings from an exploratory qualitative study of 11 South Asian Muslims’ perceptions of behaviors/actions in dating relationships that they identify as being potentially experienced and/or understood differently by South Asian Muslim women. In particular, the participants identify (a) exposure to parents/community, (b) behaviors of a sexual nature, (c) controlling behaviors, and (d) psychological, emotional, and/or verbal behaviors/abuse as being experienced and understood in unique ways by South Asian Muslim women. By connecting these perceptions to the cultural context of South Asian Muslims, these findings support an intersectionality perspective by suggesting sociocultural variations in the meanings assigned to behaviors and/or actions.

    August 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600875   open full text
  • Anger Problems Predict Long-Term Criminal Recidivism in Partner Violent Men.
    Farzan-Kashani, J., Murphy, C. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 18, 2015

    The current study investigated the influence of anger problems on partner violent men’s long-term response to treatment, as indicated by criminal recidivism during an 8-year period after treatment initiation. Participants were 132 men who presented for treatment services at a community-based domestic violence agency. Results indicated that individuals with extensive anger problems had more charges for general violence (GV) offenses and more ongoing problems with protection orders than did those with Normal Anger (NA) profiles. Examinations of specific anger scales indicated that low Anger Control (LAC) and high Anger Expression predict GV recidivism. These findings indicate that a standard cognitive-behavioral treatment program may not adequately reduce the recidivism risk of partner violent men with pronounced anger problems, stress the importance of further research to understand the role of anger problems in partner violence treatment, and highlight the need to develop and evaluate new intervention approaches for partner violent men with serious anger dysregulation.

    August 18, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600164   open full text
  • The Subjective Court Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence Victims: Does Motherhood Matter?
    Calton, J. M., Grossmann, J. L., Cattaneo, L. B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 17, 2015

    Many women with children experience intimate partner violence (IPV). These survivors are particularly important to assist, because countless have complex safety concerns related to their children. Mothers’ concerns about their children have been shown to impact their decision making related to abuse, but researchers have not closely explored what happens during mothers’ interactions with help sources. This study examined whether women with (n = 98) and without (n = 44) children differ in a) their court experiences through their perceptions of procedural and distributive justice, and b) the context of their lives surrounding the court experience. We also explored the relationship between contextual factors and procedural and distributive justice. Results indicate participants were relatively satisfied with their court experiences, despite experiencing reabuse, danger, and fear throughout court processes. Mothers reported significantly higher levels of distributive justice and contact with the abusive partner than non-mothers. However, mothers did not differ significantly from non-mothers with regard to procedural justice, fear, danger, reabuse or reliance on the abusive partner. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated the interaction between fear and motherhood significantly predicted participants’ perceptions of distributive justice, as did the interaction between danger and motherhood. In these interactions, mothers’ fear and perceptions of danger were not related to their perception of distributive justice. However, non-mothers who reported higher levels of fear and danger perceived less distributive justice. Results suggest mothers and non-mothers enter the system with similar life contexts, and that these contextual factors impact their perceptions of court outcomes differently.

    August 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515600166   open full text
  • Pacific Peoples, Violence, and the Power and Control Wheel.
    Rankine, J., Percival, T., Finau, E., Hope, L.-T., Kingi, P., Peteru, M. C., Powell, E., Robati-Mani, R., Selu, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2015

    This qualitative project was the first to study values and practices about sexual assault among migrant communities from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Niue, Samoa, Tokelau, Tonga, and Tuvalu in New Zealand. It aimed to identify customs, beliefs, and practices among these ethnic groups that were protective and preventive factors against sexual violence. Researchers were ethnically matched with 78 participants from the seven ethnic communities, and conducted individual interviews and one female focus group using protocols that were culturally appropriate for each ethnic group. Interviews were thematically analyzed. The study identified the brother–sister covenant and the sanctity of women as strong protective and preventive factors against sexual violence, expressed differently in each culture. Most participants viewed sexual violence as involving their extended families, village, and church communities, rather than solely the individuals concerned. However, the communal values and practices of these seven Pacific cultures raise questions about the individualistic assumptions and the meaning of violence underlying the Power and Control Wheel and the Duluth Model of domestic violence. It also raises questions about how such an individualized model can help services effectively support women in these collective societies who are experiencing violence, and how it can contribute to Pacific community prevention of violence. This study is therefore relevant to countries with significant populations of Pacific peoples and other collective cultures.

    August 12, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596148   open full text
  • The Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Women's Physical Health: Findings From the Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
    Bosch, J., Weaver, T. L., Arnold, L. D., Clark, E. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem. It has far reaching consequences such as social and economic costs, as well as a negative impact on women’s health outcomes. This study assessed the relationship between IPV and health risk factors, health behaviors, and poor mental health in Missouri women utilizing 2005 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data (n = 3,110). Moderators (demographic indicators) of the relationship between IPV and health risk factors (high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and obesity) and health behaviors (physical inactivity, smoking, and binge drinking) were also examined. Women with a history of IPV were more likely to engage in health-compromising behaviors such as smoking and binge drinking, be obese, and report more poor mental health days compared with women without a history of IPV. Demographic variables moderated the relationship between IPV, obesity, smoking, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. These findings underscore the importance that clinics, community, or other health care settings can play in identifying women who are victims of or have a history of IPV and provide them with appropriate resources as well as targeted interventions to reduce morbidity in this population.

    August 12, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515599162   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Sexual History, Bullying Victimization, and Poor Mental Health Outcomes Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority High School Students: A Feminist Perspective.
    Dunn, H. K., Clark, M. A., Pearlman, D. N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2015

    This study uses a feminist theoretical framework to extend the literature on the relationship between sexual history, bullying victimization, and poor mental health outcomes. First, we examined whether an association between the sexual double standard and bullying victimization would apply to sexual minority youth the same way it applies to heterosexual youth. A second aim was to assess whether sexual minority boys, typically stereotyped as effeminate, would report the highest odds of bullying victimization. A third and final aim of our study was to look at the joint effect of sex and sexual intercourse on depression and suicidal ideation. Our analytic sample (N = 9,300) was from the 2009, 2011, and 2013 Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Findings demonstrated that heterosexual girls who engaged in sexual intercourse had significantly higher adjusted odds of bullying victimization than heterosexual boys who engaged in the same behavior. Similar results were not found for sexual minority adolescents, suggesting the sexual double standard may not apply to sexual minority adolescents in the same way it applies to heterosexual adolescents. Consistent with our second hypothesis, sexual minority boys reported the highest odds of being recently bullied compared with heterosexual boys. Among students who were recently bullied, sexual minority girls displayed the highest adjusted odds of recent depression and suicidal ideation. Our study demonstrated that using a feminist theoretical framework broadens our understanding of why girls and sexual minority boys are particularly vulnerable to bullying victimization and the sequel of depression and suicidal ideation.

    August 12, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515599658   open full text
  • The Child PTSD Symptom Scale: An Investigation of Its Psychometric Properties.
    Stewart, R. W., Ebesutani, C., Drescher, C. F., Young, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2015

    The current study addresses the need for accurate measurement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in youth by investigating the psychometric properties of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS). The factor structure, reliability, and concurrent and discriminant validity of the CPSS were investigated in a sample of 206 6th- to 12th-grade adolescents. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a single-factor structure, which was contrary to the hypothesized three-factor structure. Scores comprising this one-factor structure were also associated with high reliability (α = .93), and tests of concurrent and discriminant validity were also strong. The implications of these findings are discussed, with particular emphasis on future directions for research on self-report measures for adolescent PTSD symptoms.

    August 12, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596536   open full text
  • The Impact of Childhood Abuse and Current Mental Health on Young Adult Intimate Relationship Functioning.
    Tardif-Williams, C. Y., Tanaka, M., Boyle, M. H., MacMillan, H. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2015

    This study examines the association between childhood abuse and intimate relationship quality and attachment security in young adults. Data were drawn from the Ontario Child Health Study, a province-wide community-based survey that collected baseline data in 1983 from 3,294 children (aged 4 to 16 years) and follow-up data in 2000/2001 (then aged 21 to 35 years). The sample comprised 1,885 men and women who had completed questionnaires regarding retrospective accounts of childhood abuse and current relationship status in 2000/2001. Childhood physical and sexual abuse was assessed using the short form of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire. It was hypothesized that childhood physical and sexual abuse would be associated with adult intimate relationship functioning, adjusting for childhood family and individual factors, and that these associations would be mediated by participants’ current mental health. The analysis for intimate relationship quality showed that current mental health reduced the association between physical abuse and poor relationship quality (beta 0.09 (se 0.02) to 0.08 (0.02)) and between sexual abuse and this outcome to a non-significant level ((beta 0.07 (se 0.03) to 0.05 (0.03)). The analysis for adult attachment security showed that current mental health reduced the association between physical abuse and insecure attachment to a non-significant level (OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.02-1.76) to OR 1.31 (0.98-1.76)) and between sexual abuse and this outcome (OR 1.89 (1.36-2.65) to OR 1.74 (1.19-2.52)). The importance of current mental health functioning in accounting for continuity in intimate relationship functioning from childhood to young adulthood is discussed.

    August 12, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515599655   open full text
  • College Women's Attributions of Blame for Experiences of Sexual Assault.
    Donde, S. D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 12, 2015

    Little research has examined the factors that help to explain or predict different attributions of blame that rape survivors assign to their assault experiences. The current study sought to examine (a) rape survivors’ attributions of blame to themselves and to external sources, specifically the perpetrator, the circumstances surrounding the assault (i.e., the situation), and society; (b) whether or not rape survivors attribute more blame to certain sources than others; and (c) which individual and situational factors that have been discussed in the sexual assault research literature help to explain self-blame, perpetrator blame, situational blame, and societal blame within a college sample (N = 129). Results indicated that rape survivors attributed the most blame to themselves and to society, some blame to the situation, and the least blame to the male involved. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, for the most part, variables specific to the rape survivor (e.g., history of childhood sexual abuse, clarity of refusing sex, and perceived level of intoxication) significantly related to self-blame, whereas variables specific to assault severity significantly related to perpetrator blame (e.g., level of physical harm, type of rape, and recency of the assault), although in some unexpected ways. Age and recency of the assault were significantly related to situational blame. Clarity of refusing sex was the only variable that was significantly related to societal blame. Implications are discussed for prevention, education, and practice.

    August 12, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515599659   open full text
  • Gendered Pathways From Child Abuse to Adult Crime Through Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescence.
    Jung, H., Herrenkohl, T. I., Lee, J. O., Hemphill, S. A., Heerde, J. A., Skinner, M. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 11, 2015

    Gender differences in externalizing and internalizing pathways from child abuse to adult crime were examined across four waves of an extended longitudinal study (N = 186 males and 170 females) using multiple-group structural equation modeling. Results show that child abuse was associated with both internalizing and externalizing behaviors in the elementary school years for both males and females. However, gender differences were found such that internalizing behaviors increased the risk of adult crime for females only, and externalizing behaviors increased the risk of adult crime for males only. Internalizing behaviors among males actually lessened the risk of adult crime, and externalizing behaviors were unrelated to adult crime among females. Findings confirm distinct pathways leading from child abuse to later crime for males and females, which is important for prevention and intervention strategies.

    August 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596146   open full text
  • Blame Attributions of Victims and Perpetrators: Effects of Victim Gender, Perpetrator Gender, and Relationship.
    Ayala, E. E., Kotary, B., Hetz, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 11, 2015

    Although research has been conducted on rape myth acceptance (RMA) and other factors associated with attribution formation, researchers have not yet determined how the combination of such factors simultaneously affects levels of victim blame and perpetrator blame. The current investigation recruited 221 students from an all-women’s college to examine differences in blame attributions across RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender, and the relationship between the two parties (i.e., stranger vs. acquaintance). Results suggested that RMA, victim gender, and perpetrator gender account for a significant amount of variance in blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators. In sum, victim blame with female perpetrators was relatively consistent across levels of RMA, but increased substantially for male perpetrators as individuals endorsed higher levels of RMA. Perpetrator blame, however, was highest with male perpetrators when individuals endorsed low levels of RMA and lowest for male perpetrators when individuals endorsed relatively higher levels of RMA. Findings demonstrate the continued influence of RMA on blame attributions for both victims and perpetrators, and the stigma faced by male victims. More research is needed on the differing attributions of male and female victims and perpetrators, as well as differing attributions based on type of relationship. Such research will lead to a better and more thorough understanding of sexual assault and rape.

    August 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515599160   open full text
  • A Path Model of School Violence Perpetration: Introducing Online Game Addiction as a New Risk Factor.
    Kim, J. Y., Lee, J. S., Oh, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 10, 2015

    Drawing on the cognitive information–processing model of aggression and the general aggression model, we explored why adolescents become addicted to online games and how their immersion in online games affects school violence perpetration (SVP). For this purpose, we conducted statistical analyses on 1,775 elementary and middle school students who resided in northern districts of Seoul, South Korea. The results validated the proposed structural equation model and confirmed the statistical significance of the structural paths from the variables; that is, the paths from child abuse and self-esteem to SVP were significant. The levels of self-esteem and child abuse victimization affected SVP, and this effect was mediated by online game addiction (OGA). Furthermore, a multigroup path analysis showed significant gender differences in the path coefficients of the proposed model, indicating that gender exerted differential effects on adolescents’ OGA and SVP. Based on these results, prevention and intervention methods to curb violence in schools have been proposed.

    August 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515597435   open full text
  • Overcoming Abuse: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Journey to Recovery From Past Intimate Partner Violence.
    Flasch, P., Murray, C. E., Crowe, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 10, 2015

    To date, minimal research has focused on the recovery process for survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study utilized a phenomenological methodology to understand the lived experiences of survivors of IPV (N = 123) who had overcome abusive relationships and created violence-free and meaningful lives. The researchers aimed to understand key factors involved in their recovery processes. Results indicated two main processes in the IPV recovery process: intrapersonal processes and interpersonal processes. Intrapersonal processes included (a) regaining and recreating one’s identity, (b) embracing the freedom and power to direct one’s own life, (c) healing from the mental and physical health symptoms of the abuse, (d) fostering acceptance and forgiveness with self and abuser, (e) education and examination of abusive relationships, (f) determining whether and how to enter new intimate relationships, and (g) acknowledging the long-term process of overcoming abuse. Interpersonal processes included themes of (a) building positive social support and relationships and (b) using ones’ experiences with abuse to help others. Results of the present study are presented, and implications for practitioners are discussed.

    August 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515599161   open full text
  • Influence of Parental Conflict Resolution Strategies on Hispanic College Women's Experiences With Verbal Aggression.
    Oramas, L. A., Stephens, D. P., Whiddon, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 05, 2015

    The study investigates the relation between interparental verbal aggression, parent–daughter verbal aggression, and verbal aggression in female Hispanic college student’s dating relationships (N = 599). Results showed that mothers’ high levels of verbal conflict with fathers were predictive of having high levels of verbal conflicts with their daughters. This in turn, predicted daughters’ use of verbal conflict with their intimate partner. Similarly, fathers’ high levels of verbal conflict with mothers were predictive of having high levels of verbal conflicts with their daughters. However, this was not found to be predictive of daughters’ use of verbal conflict with their intimate partner.

    August 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596333   open full text
  • Desistance From Sexual Offending: Behavioral Change Without Cognitive Transformation.
    Harris, D. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 05, 2015

    The treatment and management of sexual offenders has long been focused on risk and recidivism. As a consequence, the phenomenon of desistance from sexual offending has only recently gained research attention. Unsurprisingly, the area of theory building to account for this empirical reality has been slow. Although a number of psychological theories of behavioral change and criminological theories of desistance exist, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of desistance from sexual offending is lacking. A theme common across a number of theories of internal desistance is cognitive transformation and specifically, one’s readiness for and willingness to change. This study tested the relevance of that particular theme for a sample of 45 men convicted of sexual offenses who are living offense-free lives in the community. In contrast to this theme, long-term desistance was observed in most cases in the absence of any initial desire for intervention. The impact of current approaches such as mandatory treatment is discussed and implications for future research and practice are presented.

    August 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596537   open full text
  • Perceptions of Dating Violence and Associated Correlates: A Study of College Young Adults.
    Dardis, C. M., Edwards, K. M., Kelley, E. L., Gidycz, C. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 05, 2015

    The purpose of this study was to better understand young adults’ perceptions of what behaviors constitute intimate partner violence (IPV) and the correlates of these perceptions using a comprehensive measure of IPV perceptions and behaviors. Participants were undergraduates (aged 18-25), including 357 women and 346 men (N = 703) from the midwestern region of the United States, who completed surveys for course credit. Results demonstrated that young women and men on average reported that acts of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV were abusive. However, young women generally rated these behaviors as more abusive than young men, male-to-female (M-to-F) IPV was viewed as more abusive than female-to-male (F-to-M) IPV, and physical IPV was considered the most abusive form of IPV, followed by sexual IPV, which was rated as more abusive than psychological IPV. Furthermore, among men, a history of IPV perpetration and victimization generally predicted decreased perceptions that acts were abusive; however, among women, histories of IPV perpetration and victimization were generally unrelated to abuse perceptions. These data underscore the importance of the inclusion of psychoeducation about the seriousness of all forms of IPV in IPV prevention programming and the importance of situation-specific and targeted IPV prevention messages. Moreover, future research is needed to replicate and better understand the explanatory mechanisms underlying the relationships among a history of IPV, abuse perceptions, and gender.

    August 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515597439   open full text
  • Reproductive Coercion by Male Sexual Partners: Associations With Partner Violence and College Women's Sexual Health.
    Katz, J., Poleshuck, E. L., Beach, B., Olin, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 05, 2015

    Reproductive coercion (RC) involves indirect and direct partner behaviors that interfere with effective contraceptive use. RC has been identified as a correlate of intimate partner violence (IPV) among ethnically diverse women sampled from urban health clinics or shelters. Research is needed to determine whether RC is experienced more generally by young women and, if so, whether RC is associated with IPV, multiple indicators of sexual health, or both. In the present study, sexually active undergraduate women (N = 223, 80% Caucasian/White) provided self-report data on their sexual health and behaviorally specific lifetime experiences of both RC and partner physical violence. About 30% reported experiencing RC from a male sexual partner. Most commonly, RC involved condom manipulation or refusal within an adolescent dating relationship. Experiences of RC and partner violence were not independent; half of the women who reported RC also reported experiencing partner physical violence. Women with a history of RC reported a significantly reduced rate of contraceptive use during last vaginal sex and lower contraceptive and sexual self-efficacy. Additional research on the sociocultural and relational contexts of RC is needed.

    August 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515597441   open full text
  • Social Determinants of Married Women's Attitudinal Acceptance of Intimate Partner Violence.
    Jesmin, S. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 05, 2015

    Informed by the social determinants of health (SDH) framework, this study examined whether women’s attitudinal acceptance of intimate partner violence (IPV) varies according to material circumstances, such as characteristics of their communities. Data were obtained from the sixth Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) of 2011, a cross-sectional and secondary population-based study that covers the entire population residing in noninstitutional dwelling units in Bangladesh. The sample included 16,480 married women living in 600 communities who were 15 to 49 years old. Results showed that community characteristics were significantly associated with married women’s attitudes toward IPV. The associations, however, were considerably more complicated than previously thought. Community poverty and wife beating justification were inversely related, such that regardless of their socioeconomic status (SES), living in poorer communities increased women’s likelihood of condemning IPV (p < .001). Also, unexpectedly, as illiteracy increased in the community, women’s likelihood of viewing IPV as justified decreased (p < .01). Living in communities with strong patriarchal norms was associated with greater tolerance for IPV (p < .001). Use of the SDH framework in this study provided empirical evidence of the importance of social determinants in determining risk for attitudinal acceptance of IPV among women, which can be targeted for future research and intervention.

    August 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515597436   open full text
  • Sexual Violence in the Context of Drug Use Among Young Adult Opioid Users in New York City.
    Jessell, L., Mateu-Gelabert, P., Guarino, H., Vakharia, S. P., Syckes, C., Goodbody, E., Ruggles, K. V., Friedman, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. August 03, 2015

    Drug and alcohol use have been associated with increased risk for sexual violence, but there is little research on sexual violence within the context of drug use among young adult opioid users. The current mixed-methods study explores young adult opioid users’ sexual experiences in the context of their drug use. Forty-six New York City young adults (ages 18-32) who reported lifetime nonmedical use of prescription opioids (POs) completed in-depth, semistructured interviews, and 164 (ages 18-29) who reported heroin and/or nonmedical PO use in the past 30 days completed structured assessments that inquired about their drug use and sexual behavior and included questions specific to sexual violence. Participants reported frequent incidents of sexual violence experienced both personally and by their opioid using peers. Participants described sexual violence, including sexual assault, as occurring within a context characterized by victimization of users who were unconscious as a result of substance use, implicit and explicit exchanges of sex for drugs and/or money that increased risk for sexual violence, negative sexual perceptions ascribed to drug users, and participants’ own internalized stigma. Recommendations to reduce sexual violence among young adult opioid users include education for users and service providers on the risk of involvement in sexual violence within drug using contexts and efforts to challenge perceptions of acceptability regarding sexual violence.

    August 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596334   open full text
  • The Interface Between Violence, Disability, and Poverty: Stories From a Developing Country.
    Neille, J., Penn, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 30, 2015

    People with disabilities are vulnerable to multiple forms of violence in their everyday lives, including structural violence, deprivation, and physical, emotional, and sexual exploitation. Despite increasing reports of violence against people with disabilities, little is known about this phenomenon, especially in the context of poverty. Furthermore, the various types of violence have traditionally been studied in isolation, which has led to a limited understanding of the nature and persistence of violence in society, and has affected our understanding of the relationship between different forms of violence. In this article, we explore the relationship between violence, disability, and poverty among people living in a rural area of South Africa. Thirty adults with a variety of disabilities living in 12 rural villages in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa participated in the study. Each of the participants was provided with an opportunity to tell their life story. Narrative inquiry and participant observation were used to explore the ways in which violence pervades the participants’ everyday experiences. Results were analyzed using thematic analysis and suggest that in the context of poverty, it is impossible to separate the experience of disability from the experience of violence. Structural violence was shown to underpin all other forms of interpersonal violence, making persons with disabilities vulnerable to additional forms of exploitation, and serve to further isolate people with disabilities from society, compromising both health and human rights. The findings suggest that an understanding of contextual factors is fundamental to understanding the relationship between violence and disability.

    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596332   open full text
  • The Dark Figure of Stalking: Examining Law Enforcement Response.
    Brady, P. Q., Nobles, M. R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 30, 2015

    Despite the growing body of scholarship on stalking victimization, the criminal justice system’s response has been substantially understudied. Although scholars consider stalking to be a significant issue, its prevalence is not echoed in official data representing stalking arrests and convictions. The disparity between prevalence estimates and official data reinforces a "dark figure" of stalking that warrants further examination. To develop a better understanding of underreporting and/or underrecording, this exploratory study used official data from the Houston Police Department to examine police response to stalking. Findings indicated that, compared with other interpersonal crimes, incidents of stalking are dramatically underrecorded. Over an 8-year period, there were a total of 3,756 stalking calls for service, 66 stalking-related incident reports, and only 12 arrests for stalking. However, not one of the stalking calls for service generated a stalking-related incident report nor an arrest for stalking. Of the stalking calls for service that did generate an incident report, the large majority of the reports were classified as either harassment or a violation of a protective order. Furthermore, incident reports and arrests for stalking generally emerged from calls for service for harassment or terroristic threats. Implications for research and policy are discussed.

    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596979   open full text
  • The Association Between Weapon Carrying and Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent Students in Bangkok, Thailand.
    Saiphoklang, O.-a., Wongboonsin, K., Wongboonsin, P., Perngparn, U., Cottler, L. B.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 30, 2015

    Carrying weapons is a significant social and public health problem worldwide, especially among adolescents. The present study examined the association between weapon carrying and related risk behaviors among Thai adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 2,588 high school and vocational school students aged 11 to 19 years from 26 schools in Bangkok, Thailand, was conducted in 2014. This study found that 7.8% of youth reported having carried a weapon in the past 12 months. The high prevalence of weapon carrying was reported by male students, and males were more likely to have reported carrying a weapon than females. The association between weapon carrying and the health risk behaviors like drinking, smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting were significant with higher odds of weapon carrying in all models. Among males, weapon carrying was related to drinking and smoking, any drug use, physical fighting, and school type. Among females, suicidal thoughts were significantly related along with drinking and smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting. Having a mother who used substances was significant only among females. These data could be used for further interventions about weapon carrying to reduce violence.

    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596977   open full text
  • Main and Moderating Influence of Temperament Traits on the Association Between Intimate Partner Violence and Trauma Symptoms.
    Yalch, M. M., Levendosky, A. A., Bernard, N. K., Bogat, G. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 30, 2015

    Trauma symptoms are common among survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV), although not all women who experience IPV develop trauma symptoms. One of the factors that may influence whether women develop trauma symptoms upon exposure to IPV is temperament. In this study, we examined the main and moderating effects of temperament traits (constraint, negative emotionality, and positive emotionality) on the association between IPV and trauma symptoms in a sample of young adult women (N = 654) using a Bayesian approach to multiple linear regression to address significant non-normality in the data. Our results indicated that each temperament trait incrementally predicted trauma symptoms over and above the effects of IPV and other negative life events. Results further indicated that both negative emotionality and constraint moderated the influence of IPV on trauma symptoms such that IPV was positively associated with trauma symptoms at high levels of these traits but not at low levels. However, these effects differed depending on the type of violence experienced (physical, sexual, or psychological). These results extend previous research on the influence of temperament traits to the context of IPV; this underscores the importance of incorporating temperament in the study of IPV, as well as in the study of traumatic stress more generally.

    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596978   open full text
  • Rates of Victimization of Violence Committed by Relatives With Psychiatric Disorders.
    Labrum, T., Solomon, P. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 30, 2015

    Persons with psychiatric disorders are at an increased risk of committing violence, with approximately half of all violence being perpetrated against family members. However, family violence perpetrated by persons with psychiatric disorders is a highly under-researched area, so much so that it is impossible to even approximately estimate the extent of the problem. This article presents the results of a national online survey of 573 adults with an adult relative with psychiatric disorders. Nearly half (47%) of all respondents reported being the victim of violence committed by their relative with psychiatric disorders since the onset of their relative’s illness, and 22% reported being the victim of such violence in the past 6 months. Being the victim of minor versus serious violence was examined. The results of this study, in combination with sparse research previously conducted, suggest that 20% to 35% of persons with high levels of contact with a relative with psychiatric disorders have been the victim of violence committed by their relative with psychiatric disorders in the past 6 to 12 months, and that at least 40% have been the victim of said violence since the onset of their relative’s illness. In the present study, no statistically significant differences were detected in rates of victimization based on the relationship type of the respondent to their relative with psychiatric disorders. It is imperative that further research be conducted that may inform the development of policies and interventions aiming to prevent family violence perpetrated by persons with psychiatric disorders.

    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596335   open full text
  • Non-Violent Empowerment: Self-Help Group for Male Batterers on Recovery.
    Gold, D., Sutton, A., Ronel, N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 30, 2015

    This research focused on a new and unique therapy group for male batterers who were violent toward their intimate partners. The group is based on a small self-help group model, where a professional accompanies the group and serves as the facilitator of the process undergone by the group without interfering with the management of the group and its meetings. A total of seven group members were interviewed in a qualitative and phenomenological-interpretive research, which combined an outside observation by two authors with an inside observation by a professional who facilitated the group. The study focused on the method of empowerment of the group members, and it found three central themes: self-efficacy, group efficacy, and social efficacy. The research findings are explained from the new perspective of positive criminology.

    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596980   open full text
  • Victimization and Polyvictimization of Spanish Youth Involved in Juvenile Justice.
    Pereda, N., Abad, J., Guilera, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 30, 2015

    Multiple victimization, or polyvictimization, is closely related to delinquency and crime, although few studies have studied these experiences in juvenile offenders. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present victimization rates in young offenders from a Southwestern European country. The sample consisted of 101 youth aged between 14 and 17 years, who were mainly recruited from detention centers (77.2%). From a lifetime perspective, the majority had suffered a criminal offense against the person (93.1%), exposure to community violence (95.0%), and peer victimization (86.1%). Prevalence rates for direct and indirect family violence were also high (63.4% and 43.6%). Electronic victimization reached a rate of 40.6% and sexual victimization of 15.8%. Past year experiences showed lower but similar patterns. Based on a community population criterion to define polyvictimization, 65.3% of the sample were considered lifetime polyvictims, while 41.6% were defined as past year polyvictims. Interventions to address multiple, concurrent forms of exposure to violence should be implemented in the justice system as polyvictimization has been revealed as a frequent reality in young offenders, which may result in antisocial behavior.

    July 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515597440   open full text
  • Longitudinal Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse in a Large Community-Based Sample of South African Youth.
    Meinck, F., Cluver, L. D., Boyes, M. E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 29, 2015

    Sexual abuse has severe negative impacts on children’s lives, but little is known about risk factors for sexual abuse victimization in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined prospective predictors of contact sexual abuse in a random community-based sample of children aged 10 to 17 years (N = 3,515, 56.6% female) in South Africa. Self-report questionnaires using validated scales were completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (96.8% retention rate). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hypothesized factors and sexual abuse were examined. For girls, previous sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 3.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [2.03, 5.60]), baseline school dropout (OR = 2.76, 95% CI = [1.00, 6.19]), and physical assault in the community (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = [1.29, 3.48]) predicted sexual abuse at follow-up. Peer social support (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = [0.74, 0.98]) acted as a protective factor. Previous contact sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of subsequent sexual abuse victimization. In addition, peer support moderated the relationship between baseline assault and subsequent sexual abuse. For boys, no longitudinal predictors for sexual abuse victimization were identified. These results indicate that the most vulnerable girls—those not in school and with a history of victimization—are at higher risk for sexual abuse victimization. High levels of peer support reduced the risk of sexual abuse victimization and acted as a moderator for those who had experienced physical assault within the community. Interventions to reduce school drop-out rates and revictimization may help prevent contact sexual abuse of girls in South Africa.

    July 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596331   open full text
  • Performance Evaluations and Victim Satisfaction With State Compensation for Violent Crime: A Prospective Study.
    Kunst, M. J. J., Koster, N. N., Van Heugten, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 29, 2015

    Satisfaction with a particular good or service represents an affective state in response to an individual’s evaluation of the performance of that good or service. This evaluation involves a comparison between perceived actual performance and prior expectations. The current study used this theoretical idea to study violent crime victims’ levels of satisfaction with services provided by a Dutch state compensation scheme. One hundred and seventy-seven victims of violent crime who had applied for compensation from the Dutch Violent Offences Compensation Fund (DVOCF) participated in two brief telephone interviews: one before receipt of the fund’s decision upon their request for compensation and one after receipt of that decision. Based on the theories of distributive and procedural justice, measurement of prior expectations was differentiated in expectations about receipt of compensation, treatment by fund workers, and information provision. Results suggested that satisfaction with the DVOCF depended on fulfillment of expectations about treatment by fund workers and information provision, but not on fulfillment of expectations about receipt of compensation. Other predictors of victim satisfaction were as follows: duration of the application procedure, approval upon request for compensation, and satisfaction assessed during the first interview. Results were discussed in light of theory, policy implications, study limitations, and future research.

    July 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596535   open full text
  • A Case of Culture: Defendant Gender and Juror Decision-Making.
    Yamamoto, S., Maeder, E. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 29, 2015

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of cultural evidence toward an automatism defense, and whether such evidence would be detrimental or beneficial to a male versus a female defendant. U.S. participants (N = 208), recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, read a fictional spousal homicide case in which the defendant claimed to have blacked out during the crime. We manipulated the gender of the defendant and whether a culture-specific issue was claimed to have precipitated the defendant’s blackout. ANOVAs revealed that cultural evidence positively affected perceived credibility for the female defendant, whereas there were no differences for the male defendant. Results also demonstrated that when cultural evidence was presented, the female defendant was seen as less in control of her actions than was the male defendant. Furthermore, lower credibility and higher perceived defendant control predicted harsher verdict decisions. This investigation may aid scholars in discussing concerns regarding a clash between multicultural and feminist objectives in the courtroom.

    July 29, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596976   open full text
  • Indirect Abuse Involving Children During the Separation Process.
    Hayes, B. E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 27, 2015

    Separation is believed to be an antidote to risk abusers pose to their partners and children and underlines many interventions in family, juvenile, and criminal court proceedings. Countering this belief is the claim that many abusers respond to the felt loss of power and control occasioned by separation by changing or escalating abusive tactics. This study complements research on post-separation by asking whether separation is associated with an increase in threats of indirect abuse, which relies on third parties to manipulate the victim. Children, and threats made against them, can be used as a proxy to control or intimidate the victim. Using data from the Chicago Women Health Risk Study (N = 339), the current study examined whether mothers who were separated were at greater risk of abuse through threats against the children when compared with mothers who were still in a relationship with their abuser. Results indicated that separated mothers were four times more likely to report threats to take and threats to harm the children, Exp(B) = 4.05, p < .05; Exp(B) = 3.93, p < .05, than non-separated mothers. Findings can be used to inform child custody procedures and the design of Family Justice Centers.

    July 27, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596533   open full text
  • The Impact of Polyvictimization on Delinquency Among Latino Adolescents: A General Strain Theory Perspective.
    Cudmore, R. M., Cuevas, C. A., Sabina, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 24, 2015

    Although criminological research has provided support for general strain theory (GST), there is still little known about the relationship between victimization and delinquency among Latino adolescents. This study seeks to fill the gap in the literature by examining the association between a broader measure of victimization (i.e., polyvictimization) and delinquent behavior using data from the Dating Violence Among Latino Adolescents (DAVILA) Study, a national sample of Latino youth. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine two issues: (a) whether polyvictimization is associated with self-reported delinquent behavior and (b) whether anger mediates the relationship between polyvictimization and delinquency. Our findings provided partial support for GST among Latino youth. Specifically, the effect of polyvictimization on delinquency was explained in part by its effect on anger. Contrary to the theory’s hypothesis, the effect of polyvictimization was not conditional on the effect of social support. Overall, findings suggested that GST is a promising framework for understanding the relationship between polyvictimization and delinquency among Latino youth.

    July 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593544   open full text
  • Socioemotional Problems in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence: Mediating Effects of Attachment and Family Supports.
    Fusco, R. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 24, 2015

    Given the high likelihood of women remaining with their partner when intimate partner violence (IPV) is present, it is important to work with existing family strengths and social supports to minimize emotional harm to the children of these couples. The current study involved interviews with mothers of young children in the child welfare system across a state in the northeast (n = 336). Roughly one third of these women reported IPV in the past year. The relationship between IPV and child socioemotional problems was explored, along with supports that might mediate this relationship. Study results showed that child exposure to IPV was directly related to socioemotional problems. This was mediated by three family and social factors: strength of mother–child attachment, overall family functioning, and level of mothers’ emotional support. Findings revealed the heterogeneity among families with IPV and highlight the need for interventions focused on the ecological context in which women are parenting.

    July 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593545   open full text
  • Domestic and Marital Violence Among Three Ethnic Groups in Nigeria.
    Nwabunike, C., Tenkorang, E. Y.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 24, 2015

    There is evidence that between half and two thirds of Nigerian women have experienced domestic violence, and that this is higher in some ethnic groups than others. Yet, studies that examine the ethnic dimensions of domestic and marital violence are conspicuously missing in the literature. We fill this void using data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Results indicate significant ethnic differences with Igbo women more likely to have experienced sexual and emotional violence compared with Yoruba women. Hausa women were however significantly less likely to experience physical and sexual violence but not emotional violence, compared with Yoruba women. Women with domineering husbands were significantly more likely to experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence. Similarly, those who thought wife-beating was justified were more likely to experience all three types of violence. The independent effects of ethnicity on domestic violence suggests that specific interventions may be needed for women belonging to different ethnic groups if the problem of domestic violence is to be dealt with effectively in Nigeria.

    July 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596147   open full text
  • Research With Children Exposed to Partner Violence: Perspectives of Service-Mandated, CPS- and Court-Involved Survivors on Research With Their Children.
    Rizo, C. F., Macy, R. J., Ermentrout, D. M., O'Brien, J., Pollock, M. D., Dababnah, S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 24, 2015

    Rapidly growing numbers of female survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV) who are the primary caregivers for their children are being mandated to services by child protective services (CPS) and/or the court system. Research is needed to better understand the experiences of these children; however, such research is hindered by the dearth of empirical evidence to guide researchers in how best to recruit and collect data about and from IPV-exposed children whose families are mandated to services. From a qualitative study with 21 CPS- and/or court-involved mothers, this article reports findings about participants’ perspectives regarding research with their IPV-exposed children. Our analyses determined three key findings: (a) mothers’ reasons or motivations for allowing their children to participate in research, (b) mothers’ reasons for refusing consent for their children to participate, and (c) strategies for increasing research participation among this population. Based on these findings, we offer recommendations for enhancing research participation among IPV-exposed children from CPS- and/or court-involved families mandated to services, including specific recruitment and data collection strategies. These recommendations and strategies also hold value for research with other vulnerable families and children struggling with violence.

    July 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596534   open full text
  • What Is the Attraction? Pornography Use Motives in Relation to Bystander Intervention.
    Foubert, J. D., Bridges, A. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 24, 2015

    Use of pornography is common among adolescents and young adults, with most men and a growing number of women viewing regularly. A vast body of research suggests pornography use is associated with multiple attitudinal and behavioral variables. One of those associations, for both men and women, is higher pornography use is correlated with a lower likelihood of intervening to prevent sexual assault. The present study explored how motives for viewing pornography related to male (n = 139) and female (n = 290) college students’ willingness and efficacy to intervene to help prevent a sexual assault from occurring. We found that several motivations to view pornography were associated with suppression of willingness to intervene as a bystander, even after controlling for frequency of pornography use. This study joins others in suggesting an association between pornography use and callousness toward sexual violence.

    July 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596538   open full text
  • Borderline Personality Disorder and Military Sexual Trauma: Analysis of Previous Traumatization and Current Psychiatric Presentation.
    Williams, R., Holliday, R., Clem, M., Anderson, E., Morris, E. E., Suris, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 21, 2015

    Military sexual trauma (MST) increases vulnerability for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sexual trauma is also associated with increased risk for developing borderline personality disorder (BPD). Research has also documented a significant link between PTSD and BPD; however, there is a paucity of information examining this relationship among veterans with MST-related PTSD. In particular, we sought to examine whether comorbid BPD-PTSD compared with veterans with PTSD and no BPD resulted in increased PTSD and depression symptomatology. We also examined psychiatric, previous sexual trauma, and demographic factors to determine what—if any—factors were associated with comorbid BPD diagnosis. Using data from a recently conducted randomized clinical trial, we examined electronic medical records of the local Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Data from 90 veterans with MST-related PTSD were obtained. More than 22% (n = 20) of the sample had a historical diagnosis of BPD. Participants were administered measures to assess psychiatric symptomatology (PTSD and depression), trauma-related negative cognitions (NCs), and previous sexual traumatization (e.g., childhood and civilian sexual exposure). An analysis of variance was conducted, which found that veterans with comorbid MST-related PTSD and BPD had significantly greater PTSD criterion B (avoidance) symptoms, depressive symptomatology, and NC scores than participants without comorbid BPD. In addition, a binary stepwise logistic regression found that veterans’ BPD was also positively associated with NCs about self and the world; however, self-blame, depression, PTSD, sociodemographic variables (e.g., gender, age), and previous sexual traumatizations were not significant predictors. Implications are discussed with regard to clinical care and future research directions.

    July 21, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596149   open full text
  • The Relationship Between a Person's Criminal History, Immediate Situational Factors, and Lethal Versus Non-Lethal Events.
    Ganpat, S. M., van der Leun, J., Nieuwbeerta, P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 20, 2015

    When investigating serious violence, studies tend to look primarily at offenders and their background. This study investigates the influence of offenders’ and victims’ criminal history and immediate situational factors on the likelihood that violent events will end lethally. For this purpose, we compare lethal with non-lethal events, and combine Dutch criminal records with data from court files of those involved in lethal (i.e., homicide, n = 126) versus non-lethal events (i.e., attempted homicide, n = 141). Results reveal that both criminal history and immediate situational factors clearly matter for the outcome of violent events; however, immediate situational factors have the strongest effect on violent outcomes.

    July 20, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593297   open full text
  • Open-Source Data and the Study of Homicide.
    Parkin, W. S., Gruenewald, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 20, 2015

    To date, no discussion has taken place in the social sciences as to the appropriateness of using open-source data to augment, or replace, official data sources in homicide research. The purpose of this article is to examine whether open-source data have the potential to be used as a valid and reliable data source in testing theory and studying homicide. Official and open-source homicide data were collected as a case study in a single jurisdiction over a 1-year period. The data sets were compared to determine whether open-sources could recreate the population of homicides and variable responses collected in official data. Open-source data were able to replicate the population of homicides identified in the official data. Also, for every variable measured, the open-sources captured as much, or more, of the information presented in the official data. Also, variables not available in official data, but potentially useful for testing theory, were identified in open-sources. The results of the case study show that open-source data are potentially as effective as official data in identifying individual- and situational-level characteristics, provide access to variables not found in official homicide data, and offer geographic data that can be used to link macro-level characteristics to homicide events.

    July 20, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515596145   open full text
  • Are Future Doctors Taught to Respond to Intimate Partner Violence? A Study of Australian Medical Schools.
    Valpied, J., Aprico, K., Clewett, J., Hegarty, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 16, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women of childbearing age. This study aimed to describe delivery of IPV education in Australian pre-vocational medical degrees, and barriers and facilitators influencing this delivery. Eighteen Australian medical schools offering pre-vocational medical degrees were identified. Two were excluded as they had not finalized new curricula. One declined to participate. At least one staff member from each of the remaining 15 schools completed a telephone survey. Main outcome measures included whether IPV education was delivered within the degree, at what stage, and whether it was compulsory; mode and number of hours of delivery; and barriers and facilitators to delivery. Twelve of the medical schools delivered IPV education (median time spent per course = 2 hr). IPV content was typically included as part of Obstetrics and Gynecology or General Practice curriculum. Barriers included time constraints and lack of faculty commitment, resources, and funding. The two schools that successfully implemented a comprehensive IPV curriculum used an integrated, advocacy-based approach, with careful forward planning. Most Australian pre-vocational medical students receive little or no IPV education. The need remains for a more consistent, comprehensive approach to IPV education in medical degrees.

    July 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515592616   open full text
  • Bidirectional Intimate Partner Violence and Drug Use Among Homeless Youth.
    Petering, R., Rhoades, H., Rice, E., Yoshioka-Maxwell, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 10, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) among homeless youth (HY) is common, yet it has continuously been understudied, especially in relation to substance use. As part of a longitudinal study of Los Angeles area HY, drop-in service seeking youth completed a self-administered questionnaire. The presented results are from the third panel of data collection (N = 238), and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) was used to assess IPV behavior regarding the participant’s most recent intimate relationship. Approximately 38% of participants reported IPV behavior in their most recent relationship, and the majority of this behavior was bidirectional. It was unlikely that a HY was only a victim or only a perpetrator. Multivariable models revealed that bidirectional IPV was related to increased odds of recent methamphetamine; whereas sole perpetration was associated with an increased likelihood of ecstasy use. Specific substance use and IPV are closely related to risk behaviors for HY. Comprehensive interventions should be developed to address both these risk behaviors.

    July 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593298   open full text
  • Development of a Dating Violence Assessment Tool for Late Adolescence Across Three Countries: The Violence in Adolescents' Dating Relationships Inventory (VADRI).
    Aizpitarte, A., Alonso-Arbiol, I., Van de Vijver, F. J. R., Perdomo, M. C., Galvez-Sobral, J. A., Garcia-Lopez, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 09, 2015

    Accurate assessment of dating violence (DV) is crucial for evaluation and intervention planning. However, extant self-report measurement tools of DV do not adequately consider age-, generation-, and culture-specific issues, which are essential for its accurate conceptualization. To address these gaps, we developed the Violence in Adolescents’ Dating Relationships Inventory (VADRI) and evaluated its psychometric properties. The VADRI was developed based on a qualitative approach for item development through adolescents’ individual interviews, focus groups, and experts’ judgments, followed by a quantitative approach for tool assessment. Two aspects of DV were addressed: victimization and perpetration. After the necessary cultural and linguistic adaptation of items, the instrument was administered to 466 adolescents from three Spanish-speaking countries: Guatemala, Mexico, and Spain. The items were best represented by a one-factor solution in each country, which suggests that DV is a unidimensional construct combining victimization and perpetration. Analyses of item-level factor weights and differential item functioning were conducted aimed at obtaining information about items that best represented the construct, resulting in a 26-item final version that was cross-culturally equivalent. Convergent validity was supported by positive correlations with the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory, and reliability analyses yielded favorable results (with all Cronbach’s α values above .90). We conclude that the VADRI is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of DV in various cultural contexts.

    July 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593543   open full text
  • Survival of the Fittest and the Sexiest: Evolutionary Origins of Adolescent Bullying.
    Koh, J.-B., Wong, J. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 09, 2015

    The central idea of evolutionary psychology theory (EPT) is that species evolve to carry or exhibit certain traits/behaviors because these characteristics increase their ability to survive and reproduce. Proponents of EPT propose that bullying emerges from evolutionary development, providing an adaptive edge for gaining better sexual opportunities and physical protection, and promoting mental health. This study examines adolescent bullying behaviors via the lens of EPT. Questionnaires were administered to 135 adolescents, ages 13 to 16, from one secondary school in metro Vancouver, British Columbia. Participants were categorized into one of four groups (bullies, victims, bully/victims, or bystanders) according to their involvement in bullying interactions as measured by the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Four dependent variables were examined: depression, self-esteem, social status, and social anxiety. Results indicate that bullies had the most positive scores on mental health measures and held the highest social rank in the school environment, with significant differences limited to comparisons between bullies and bully/victims. These results lend support to the hypothesis that youth bullying is derived from evolutionary development. Implications for approaching anti-bullying strategies in schools and directions for future studies are discussed.

    July 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593546   open full text
  • Impact of Meditation on Mental Health Outcomes of Female Trauma Survivors of Interpersonal Violence With Co-Occurring Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Lee, M. Y., Zaharlick, A., Akers, D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 05, 2015

    This study was a randomized controlled trial that examined the impact of meditation practice on the mental health outcomes of female trauma survivors of interpersonal violence who have co-occurring disorders. Sixty-three female trauma survivors were randomly assigned to the meditation condition and the control condition. Treatment conditions consisted of a 6-week meditation curriculum that was influenced by Tibetan meditation tradition and focused on breathing, loving kindness, and compassion meditation. Clients in the meditation condition made significant changes in mental health symptoms (t = 5.252, df = 31, p = .000) and trauma symptoms (t = 6.009, df = 31, p = .000) from pre-treatment to post-treatment, whereas non-significant changes were observed among the control condition clients. There were significant group differences between clients in the meditation condition and in the control condition on their mental health symptoms, F(1, 54) = 13.438, p = .001, and trauma symptoms, F(1, 54) = 13.395, p = .001, with a generally large effect size of eta squared .127 and .146, respectively. In addition, significantly more clients in the meditation condition achieved reliable change in mental health symptoms (35.5% vs. 8.3%) and trauma symptoms (42.3% vs. 4.8%) than clients in the control condition. Significance of the study is discussed with respect to the empirical evidence of meditation practice as a complementary behavioral intervention for treating female trauma survivors of interpersonal violence who have co-occurring disorders.

    July 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591277   open full text
  • Measuring Bystander Behavior in the Context of Sexual Violence Prevention: Lessons Learned and New Directions.
    McMahon, S., Palmer, J. E., Banyard, V., Murphy, M., Gidycz, C. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 05, 2015

    Bystander intervention is receiving increased attention as a potential sexual violence prevention strategy, especially to address campus sexual assault. Rather than focusing on potential perpetrators or victims, the bystander approach engages all members of a community to take action. A growing body of evaluative work demonstrates that bystander intervention education programs yield increased positive attitudes and behaviors related to sexual violence and greater willingness to intervene in pro-social ways. Future program outcome studies, however, would benefit from more refined measures of bystander action as it is a key variable that prevention education programs attempt to influence. The purpose of the current article is to present key issues, identified by four different research teams, on the measurement of bystander behavior related to sexual violence in the context of college campuses. Comparisons among the methods are made to suggest both lessons learned and new directions for bystander behavior measurement using self-report surveys in program evaluation.

    July 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591979   open full text
  • Sleep Disturbance Partially Mediates the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence and Physical/Mental Health in Women and Men.
    Lalley-Chareczko, L., Segal, A., Perlis, M. L., Nowakowski, S., Tal, J. Z., Grandner, M. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 05, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a worldwide health concern and an important risk factor for poor mental/physical health in both women and men. Little is known about whether IPV leads to sleep disturbance. However, sleep problems may be common in the context of IPV and may mediate relationships with mental/physical health. Data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used (N = 34,975). IPV was assessed in female and male participants for any history of being threatened by, physically hurt by, or forced to have sex with an intimate partner (THREAT, HURT, and SEX, respectively), and, further, as being forced to have sex with or physically injured by an intimate partner within the past year (SEXyr and HURTyr, respectively). These survey items were coded yes/no. Sleep disturbance was assessed as difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or sleeping too much at least 6 of the last 14 days. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, race, income, education, and physical/mental health, assessed whether IPV predicted sleep disturbance. Sobel–Goodman tests assessed whether relationships between IPV and physical/mental health were partially mediated by sleep disturbance. All IPV variables were associated with sleep disturbance, even after adjusting for the effects of age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, education, employment, marital status, physical health and mental health. THREAT was associated with sleep disturbance (odds ratio [OR] = 2.798, p < .0001), as was HURT (OR = 2.683, p < .0001), SEX (OR = 3.237, p < .0001), SEXyr (OR = 7.741, p < .0001), and HURTyr (OR = 7.497, p < .0001). In mediation analyses, all IPV variables were associated with mental health (p < .0001), and all were associated with physical health (p < .007) except SEXyr. Sleep disturbance partially mediated all relationships (Sobel p < .0005 for all tests). Mediation was around 30%, ranging from 18% (HURTyr and mental health) to 41% (HURT and physical health). IPV was strongly associated with current sleep disturbance above the effect of demographics and overall mental/physical health, even if the IPV happened in the past. Furthermore, sleep disturbance partially mediates the relationship between IPV and mental/physical health. Sleep interventions may potentially mitigate negative effects of IPV.

    July 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515592651   open full text
  • Health Care Professionals as Victims of Stalking: Characteristics of the Stalking Campaign, Consequences, and Motivation in Italy.
    Acquadro Maran, D., Varetto, A., Zedda, M., Franscini, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 05, 2015

    Stalking is a phenomenon characterized by a set of repetitive behaviors, intrusive surveillance, control, communication, and search of contact with a victim who is afraid and/or worried and/or annoyed by such unwanted attention. Literature analysis shows that Health Care Professionals (HCPs) are at greater risk of being stalked than the general population. As described by Mullen, Pathé, Purcell, and Stuart, stalkers may have different motives: relational rejection, an infatuation, an inability to express their own emotions and recognize those of others, or a desire for revenge. The aim of this study was to explore stalkers’ motivation as perceived by their victims, characteristics of stalking campaigns, and consequences. A copy of the Italian modified version of The Network for Surviving Stalking (NSS) Questionnaire on Stalking, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State Trait Inventory (STAI) Y1-Y2 scales were distributed in six Italian state hospitals. Participants included 1,842 HCPs, 256 (13.9%) of which had been victims. The majority of victims reported that stalkers were Rejected (96, 37.5%), Intimacy seekers (41, 16%), Incompetent suitors (60, 23.4%), and/or Resentful (43, 16.8%; 2 = 163.3, p = .001). Stalking campaigns were characterized by several behaviors, principally contact (by telephone calls, text message) and following. The stalking campaign caused in victims both physical and emotional consequences, the most frequent being weight changes, sleep disorders, weakness, apprehension, anger, and fear. The most used coping strategies were moving away and moving toward, the less used was moving inward. Intervention programs and preventive measures (both individual and organizational) for HCP victims and those who could be considered at risk are also discussed.

    July 05, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593542   open full text
  • Developing an Understanding of Victims and Violent Offenders: The Impact of Fostering Empathy.
    Peterson, J. K., Silver, R. C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 03, 2015

    This study explores the consequences of fostering empathy—for both victims and perpetrators—after large-scale violent events. Participants (N = 834) read a description of a school shooting and were randomly assigned to one of six conditions revealing varying amounts of background information about the victim and the perpetrator of violence. The impact of empathy on reactions toward the victim and perpetrator were then assessed. Empathy for the perpetrator could be fostered with increased information about his background, resulting in recommendations of increased leniency. Fostering empathy for the victim promoted positive community responses, including increased intentions to engage in helping behavior and make charitable donations. The degree to which participants could make sense of the violent event was also associated with decreases in blame and anger toward the perpetrator. Potential implications of the findings for news media and community coping strategies are explored.

    July 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515586361   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Violence and Psychological Distress Among Men and Women: Do Sense of Mastery and Social Support Matter?
    Bebanic, V., Clench-Aas, J., Raanaas, R. K., Bang Nes, R.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 03, 2015

    The aims of this study were to examine associations between reported exposure to psychological and physical violence and psychological distress (PD) among men and women, and to explore the possible mediating or moderating roles of sense of mastery and social support. We used data from the nationally representative Norwegian Health and Level of Living Survey in 2005 and 2012 (Weighted N = 19,386). PD was measured with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist–25, using the subscales for anxiety and depression separately and in combination. Analyses were conducted using hierarchical logistic regression with complex sample adjustment. Altogether, 3.8% of men and 5.4% of women reported psychological violence during the last 12 months, while 2.3% and 1.6% reported physical violence, respectively. Both forms of violence were associated with excess risk of comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms above clinical cut-point (CAD) in men and women alike, and CAD occurred more frequently than anxiety or depressive problems separately. Sense of mastery, but not social support, partly mediated the association between both forms of violence and CAD in men, whereas both partly mediated the association between psychological violence and CAD in women. No moderator role was indicated. Overall, the results provide evidence for excess risk of PD, particularly CAD, in men and women reporting exposure to violence. Sense of mastery and to a lesser degree social support were shown to constitute significant mediators, underscoring the importance of systems for strengthening coping strategies and social support among violence victims, such as psychological and practical support by the health services.

    July 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591978   open full text
  • Rape and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Examining the Mediating Role of Explicit Sex-Power Beliefs for Men Versus Women.
    Snipes, D. J., Calton, J. M., Green, B. A., Perrin, P. B., Benotsch, E. G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 03, 2015

    Many rape survivors exhibit symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and recent literature suggests survivors’ beliefs about sex and control may affect PTSD symptoms. The present study examined beliefs about sex and power as potential mediators of the relationship between rape and PTSD symptoms for men versus women. Participants (N = 782) reported lifetime history of rape, current PTSD symptoms, and beliefs about sex and power. Women reported higher levels of lifetime history of rape than men (19.7% for women; 9.7% for men). While rape history predicted PTSD symptoms for both genders, beliefs about sex and power were shown to be a significant partial mediator of this relationship for men, but not for women. Results extend the literature on rape and PTSD by suggesting that survivors’ beliefs about sex and power are connected and can affect their PTSD symptoms. Additionally, results illustrate how sexual violence against men may reaffirm male gender roles that entail power and aggression, and ultimately affect trauma recovery.

    July 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515592618   open full text
  • Military Versus Civilian Murder-Suicide.
    Patton, C. L., McNally, M. R., Fremouw, W. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 03, 2015

    Previous studies have implicated significant differences between military members and civilians with regard to violent behavior, including suicide, domestic violence, and harm to others, but none have examined military murder-suicide. This study sought to determine whether there were meaningful differences between military and civilian murder-suicide perpetrators. Using data from the Center for Disease Control’s (CDC) National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), military (n = 259) and civilian (n = 259) murder-suicide perpetrators were compared on a number of demographic, psychological, and contextual factors using chi-square analyses. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables predicted membership to the military or civilian perpetrator groups. Military murder-suicide perpetrators were more likely to be older, have physical health problems, be currently or formerly married, less likely to abuse substances, and to exhibit significantly different motives than civilian perpetrators. Logistic regression revealed that membership to the military, rather than the civilian, perpetrator group was predicted by age, physical health problems, and declining heath motive—reflecting the significance of a more than 15-year difference in mean age between the two groups. Findings point to the need to tailor suicide risk assessments to include questions specific to murder-suicide, to assess attitudes toward murder-suicide, and to the importance of assessing suicide and violence risk in older adult military populations.

    July 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593299   open full text
  • Cognitive and Affective Empathy, Personal Belief in a Just World, and Bullying Among Offenders.
    Lopez-Perez, B., Hanoch, Y., Holt, K., Gummerum, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. July 03, 2015

    Bullying extracts a heavy toll on offenders and prison staff alike. Studying what factors may affect bullying is extremely important as this may help to minimize bullying in prison. Although there is research on the relationship between lack of empathy and positive attitude toward bullying, previous research has overlooked that age may influence this relationship. In fact, previous research has shown that there are changes in empathy across the life span. Therefore, we examined whether having a positive attitude toward bullying in offenders was predicted by age, mediated by cognitive/affective empathy. Another important factor in the prediction of positive attitudes toward bullying may be the belief in a just world, as having a weak belief is related to more aggressive outbursts. Given that there is scarce research in the topic, we examined the relationship between having a positive attitude toward bullying and personal belief in a just world. To that aim, 123 sentenced adult male prisoners, selected from a Category C prison in the United Kingdom completed different questionnaires to assess their levels of cognitive and affective empathy, positive attitude toward bullying, and personal belief in a just world. As expected, age predicted a positive attitude toward bullying, mediated by affective empathy. However, we did not find a positive relationship between a positive attitude toward bullying and a personal belief in a just world. The results are discussed in terms of their application in possible intervention programs.

    July 03, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593300   open full text
  • Unwanted Behaviors and Nuisance Behaviors Among Neighbors in a Belgian Community Sample.
    Michaux, E., Groenen, A., Uzieblo, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 30, 2015

    Unwanted behaviors between (ex-)intimates have been extensively studied, while those behaviors within other contexts such as neighbors have received much less scientific consideration. Research indicates that residents are likely to encounter problem behaviors from their neighbors. Besides the lack of clarity in the conceptualization of problem behaviors among neighbors, little is known on which types of behaviors characterize neighbor problems. In this study, the occurrence of two types of problem behaviors encountered by neighbors was explored within a Belgian community sample: unwanted behaviors such as threats and neighbor nuisance issues such as noise nuisance. By clearly distinguishing those two types of behaviors, this study aimed at contributing to the conceptualization of neighbor problems. Next, the coping strategies used to deal with the neighbor problems were investigated. Our results indicated that unwanted behaviors were more frequently encountered by residents compared with nuisance problems. Four out of 10 respondents reported both unwanted pursuit behavior and nuisance problems. It was especially unlikely to encounter nuisance problems in isolation of unwanted pursuit behaviors. While different coping styles (avoiding the neighbor, confronting the neighbor, and enlisting help from others) were equally used by the stalked participants, none of them was perceived as being more effective in reducing the stalking behaviors. Strikingly, despite being aware of specialized help services such as community mediation services, only a very small subgroup enlisted this kind of professional help.

    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515590783   open full text
  • Childhood Sexual Abuse and Later Alcohol-Related Problems: Investigating the Roles of Revictimization, PTSD, and Drinking Motivations Among College Women.
    Hannan, S. M., Orcutt, H. K., Miron, L. R., Thompson, K. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 30, 2015

    The current study sought to examine whether symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), adolescent sexual assault (ASA), and drinking motivations (e.g., drinking to regulate emotional experiences) mediate the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and subsequent alcohol-related problems among college women. Participants were 579 female students at a Midwestern university. Participants were recruited as part of a larger longitudinal study that investigated risk and resiliency factors related to sexual revictimization. Using a serial mediation model, the current study found that the proposed constructs mediated the relationship between CSA and subsequent alcohol-related problems via two separate paths. In one path, CSA was associated with PTSD, which in turn predicted drinking to regulate emotional experiences, which then was related to alcohol-related problems in adulthood. In the second path, CSA was related to ASA, which in turn predicted drinking to regulate emotional experiences, which then was related to alcohol-related problems in adulthood. These results suggest that individuals with a history of CSA are more likely to experience both revictimization in adolescence and PTSD symptoms in adulthood, which may lead to alcohol-related problems via drinking to regulate emotional experiences. These findings suggest the importance of incorporating skills training in adaptive emotion regulation strategies into treatment for individuals with a history of CSA and ASA.

    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591276   open full text
  • Alcohol Expectancy, Drinking Behavior, and Sexual Victimization Among Female and Male College Students.
    Tyler, K. A., Schmitz, R. M., Adams, S. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 30, 2015

    College students have high rates of heavy drinking, and this dangerous behavior is strongly linked to sexual victimization. Although research has examined risk factors for sexual assault, few studies have simultaneously studied the various pathways through which risks may affect sexual assault and how these pathways may be uniquely different among females and males. As such, the current study uses path analyses to examine whether alcohol expectancies mediate the relationship between social factors (e.g., hooking up, amount friends drink) and drinking behavior and experiencing sexual victimization, and whether drinking behavior mediates the relationship between alcohol expectancies and sexual victimization among a college sample of 704 males and females from a large Midwestern university. For both females and males, sexual victimization was positively associated with child sexual abuse, hooking up more often, and heavier drinking, whereas greater alcohol expectancies were associated with sexual victimization only for females. Several mediating pathways were found for both females and males. Gender comparisons revealed that some of the pathways to sexual victimization such as hooking up, amount friends drink, and housing type operated differently for females and males.

    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591280   open full text
  • Looking for Blame: Rape Myth Acceptance and Attention to Victim and Perpetrator.
    Sussenbach, P., Eyssel, F., Rees, J., Bohner, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 30, 2015

    In two studies, the authors examined the influence of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on participants’ attention toward the potential victim versus perpetrator in a rape case. In Study 1 (N = 90), participants selected information that focused on either the male defendant or the female victim. With increasing RMA, participants preferred information that focused on the victim rather than the defendant. In Study 2 (N = 41), participants viewed photographs depicting both victim and defendant while their eye movements were recorded. With increasing RMA, participants spent less time inspecting the defendant relative to the victim. In both studies, higher RMA predicted stronger anti-victim and pro-defendant judgments, replicating previous research. Taken together, these results support the assumption that RMA guides participants’ attention, leading to a focus on the alleged rape victim and away from the alleged perpetrator. Implications of the current research and future directions are discussed.

    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591975   open full text
  • Therapeutic Progression in Abused Women Following a Drug-Addiction Treatment Program.
    Fernandez-Montalvo, J., Lopez-Goni, J. J., Arteaga, A., Cacho, R., Azanza, P.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 30, 2015

    This study explored the prevalence of victims of abuse and the therapeutic progression among women who sought treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 180 addicted Spanish women was assessed. Information was collected on the patients’ lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual), socio-demographic factors, consumption variables, and psychological symptoms. Of the total sample, 74.4% (n = 134) of the addicted women had been victims of abuse. Psychological abuse affected 66.1% (n = 119) of the patients, followed by physical abuse (51.7%; n = 93) and sexual abuse (31.7%; n = 57). Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted women with histories of victimization scored significantly higher on several European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) and psychological variables. Specifically, physical abuse and sexual abuse were related to higher levels of severity of addiction. Regarding therapeutic progression, the highest rate of dropout was observed among victims of sexual abuse (63.5%; n = 33), followed by victims of physical abuse (48.9%; n = 23). Multivariate analysis showed that medical and family areas of the EuropASI, as well as violence problems and suicide ideation, were the main variables related to physical and/or sexual abuse. Moreover, women without abuse and with fewer family problems presented the higher probability of treatment completion. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591980   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Emotion Regulation, Executive Functioning, and Aggressive Behaviors.
    Holley, S. R., Ewing, S. T., Stiver, J. T., Bloch, L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 30, 2015

    Emotion regulation deficits and executive functioning deficits have independently been shown to increase vulnerability toward engaging in aggressive behaviors. The effects of these risk factors, however, have not been evaluated in relation to one another. This study evaluated the degree to which each was associated with aggressive behaviors in a sample of 168 undergraduate students. Executive functioning (cognitive inhibition and mental flexibility) was assessed with a Stroop-like neuropsychological task. Emotion regulation and aggressive behaviors were assessed via self-report inventories. Results showed main effects for both emotion regulation and executive functioning, as well as a significant interaction, indicating that those who scored lowest in both domains reported engaging in aggressive behaviors the most frequently. When different types of aggression were examined, this interaction was only significant for acts of physical aggression, not for acts of verbal aggression. Therefore, for physical aggression, emotion regulation and executive functioning exerted a moderating effect on one another. The implications are that, at least for acts of physical aggression, relatively strong capabilities in either domain may buffer against tendencies to engage in aggressive behaviors. Thus, both emotion regulation skills and executive functioning abilities may be valuable targets for interventions aiming to reduce aggressive behaviors.

    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515592619   open full text
  • Family Polyvictimization and Elevated Levels of Addiction and Psychopathology Among Parents in a Chinese Household Sample.
    Chan, K. L.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 30, 2015

    When studying the co-occurring victimization within a family, current literature often focuses on individual violence and fails to cover more than two forms of violence. This study fills the research gap by using families, instead of individuals, as units and investigating the prevalence of family polyvictimization. Family polyvictimization is defined as the co-occurrence of child victimization, intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents, and elder abuse within a family. This study analyzed a set of data from 7,466 households, with at least a child under 18 years of age, in six regions in China collected during 2009 and 2010. Descriptive analyses and ordinal logistic regressions were performed to explore the prevalence of family polyvictimization, as well as its associations with parents’ addictive behaviors and negative health factors. The lifetime prevalence and the past-year prevalence of family polyvictimization was 2.53% and 1.09%, respectively. Parents from a polyvictimized family were more likely to report addictive behaviors, and to show poorer mental health and more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms than those who were less exposed to violence. Findings show the importance of the whole-family approach to screening multiple types of violence within a family when one type is detected, as well as the potential usefulness of identifying at-risk families among parents with addictive behaviors and poor mental health.

    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515592617   open full text
  • Torn: Social Expectations Concerning Forgiveness Among Women Who Have Experienced Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.
    Tener, D., Eisikovits, Z.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 30, 2015

    The authors examine how women who experienced intrafamilial child sexual abuse (IFCSA) perceive social expectations of society toward forgiveness, how they incorporate IFCSA and reconstruct their life stories in relation to these expectations, and the costs and gains from such reconstructions. This is part of a larger study on the phenomenology of forgiveness for IFCSA among grown women. Twenty Jewish Israeli women who had experienced IFCSA were interviewed in depth. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analyses lead to four types of social expectations: forgiveness by forgetting, avenging, family preservation through forgiveness, and satisfying the voyeuristic needs of society, which has limited interest in forgiveness. These contradictory expectations are discussed in light of the cultural context and the experience of the women interviewed. Implications for practice are suggested.

    June 30, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515593296   open full text
  • Workplace Violence in the Health Sector in Turkey: A National Study.
    Pinar, T., Acikel, C., Pinar, G., Karabulut, E., Saygun, M., Bariskin, E., Guidotti, T. L., Akdur, R., Sabuncu, H., Bodur, S., Egri, M., Bakir, B., Acikgoz, E. M., Atceken, I., Cengiz, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 28, 2015

    Violence in the workplace is an increasing occupational health concern worldwide. Health care workers are at high risk of assault. To develop, monitor, and manage prevention policies, baseline data should be available. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the current extent of workplace violence nationwide in Turkey. The study population of 12.944 health care workers was a stratified sample of all health care workers (612,639) in the country. A probabilistic sampling was made on the basis of the "multistage stratified random cluster sampling method." This study was conducted by a structured questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The questionnaire items were adapted and translated into Turkish based on questionnaires of International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. The percentage of health care workers who experienced workplace violence in Turkey in the previous 12 months was 44.7%. The types of violence included physical 6.8%, verbal 43.2%, mobbing (bullying) 2.4%, and sexual harassment 1%. Multivariate analysis showed that level of health care system, type of institution, gender, occupation, age, working hours, and shift work were independent risk factors for experiencing workplace violence (p < .05). Our study indicates that the workplace violence among health care workers is a significant problem. The results of the study can serve as the basis for future analytical studies and for development of appropriate prevention efforts.

    June 28, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591976   open full text
  • The Value of Incorporating Measures of Relationship Concordance When Constructing Profiles of Intimate Partner Homicides: A Descriptive Study of IPH Committed Within London, 1998-2009.
    Sebire, J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 24, 2015

    This article presents a profile of intimate partner homicides (IPH) committed within London incorporating a gendered comparison of the perpetrators’ relationships. Data was sourced from the original police files for offenses committed in the capital between 1998 and 2009 (N = 207; 173 male and 34 female perpetrators). In common with other international descriptive studies, the results indicate comparative differences between partners according to perpetrator gender in terms of age profiles, employment status, experience of mental health issues, intoxication at time of killing, and possession of criminal convictions. Gender-based IPH descriptive studies have tended to focus on a collation of either victim or perpetrator or relationship characteristics, often in isolation from one another. Assessments of how parties interact within fatal relationships are invariably absent, and yet, it is the relationship that forms the backdrop against which the fatal acts are perpetrated. This study, therefore, not only provides an insight into the profile of IPH committed within London where none had previously existed but also demonstrates the advantages of incorporating relationship concordance measures. The inclusion of such measures when researching IPH assists homicide investigators in understanding the dynamics taking place within the cohort of fatal relationships they police. It also provides researchers a useful platform to enhance understanding of this crucial aspect, for it is the relationship itself which is what defines IPH and distinguishes as a unique subset of homicide.

    June 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515589565   open full text
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Immigrants to the United States.
    Vaughn, M. G., Salas-Wright, C. P., Huang, J., Qian, Z., Terzis, L. D., Helton, J. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 24, 2015

    A growing number of studies have examined the "immigrant paradox" with respect to health behaviors in the United States. However, little research attention has been afforded to the study of adverse childhood experiences (ACE; neglect, physical and sexual abuse, and witnessing violence) among immigrants in the United States. The present study, using Waves I and II data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), aims to address these gaps by comparing forms of ACE of first- and second-generation immigrants with native-born American adults in the United States. We also examined the latent structure of ACE among immigrants and conducted analyses to assess the psychiatric correlates of identified latent classes. With the exception of neglect, the prevalence of ACE was markedly higher among native-born Americans and second-generation immigrants compared with first-generation immigrants. Four latent classes were identified—limited adverse experience (n = 3,497), emotional and physical abuse (n = 1,262), family violence (n = 358), and global adversity (n = 246). The latter three classes evinced greater likelihood of being diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorder, and to report violent and non-violent antisocial behavior. Consistent with prior research examining the associations between the immigrant paradox and health outcomes, results suggest that first-generation immigrants to the United States are less likely to have experienced physical and sexual abuse and witness domestic violence. However, likely due to cultural circumstances, first-generation immigrants were more likely to report experiences that are deemed neglectful by Western standards.

    June 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515589568   open full text
  • Sexual Violence Among Middle School Students: The Effects of Gender and Dating Experience.
    Levine, E.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 24, 2015

    Sexual violence has been increasingly recognized as a social, rather than strictly individual or family, problem. Unfortunately, providers and policymakers remain divided on the scope and causes of sexual violence, which limits their capacity to develop theory- and evidence-based responses. Such limitations are particularly pronounced in regards to children and adolescents. These youth are rarely addressed in the literature, and when they are, scholars tend to focus on adult victimization of children rather than children’s victimization of their peers. This study investigates the prevalence of unwanted sexual contact among middle students. Data are from a sample of 1,371 students attending New York City public middle schools. Drawing from current antiviolence curricula and scholarly literature on sexual violence, gender and dating experience are used as predictors of victimization and perpetration; race, age, and prior exposure to antiviolence programming are included as controls. Data reveal that, while boys’ violence towards girls comprises a substantial proportion of sexual violence in this population, same-sex violence and girls’ violence towards boys are also prevalent. Analyses conclude with recommendations for future antiviolence programming based on these patterns.

    June 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515590786   open full text
  • The Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Validation Among a Portuguese Sample of Incarcerated Juvenile Delinquents.
    Pechorro, P., Ray, J. V., Raine, A., Maroco, J., Goncalves, R. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 24, 2015

    The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) among a forensic sample of incarcerated male juvenile offenders (N = 221). The Portuguese version of the RPQ demonstrated promising psychometric properties, namely, in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity that generally justifies its use among this population. Statistically significant associations were found with conduct disorder, age of criminal onset, age of first problem with the law, crime seriousness, physical violence use in committing crimes, alcohol use, cannabis use, cocaine/heroin use, and having unprotected sex. The findings provide additional support for the extension of the RPQ across different cultures, ethnic groups, and samples.

    June 24, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515590784   open full text
  • Forgiveness Reduces Anger in a School Bullying Context.
    Watson, H., Rapee, R., Todorov, N.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 22, 2015

    Forgiveness has been shown to be a helpful strategy for victims of many different forms of abuse and trauma. It has also been theoretically linked to positive outcomes for victims of bullying. However, it has never been experimentally manipulated in a school bullying context. This research investigates an experimental manipulation providing children with response advice following a bullying incident. Children read hypothetical physical and verbal bullying scenarios, followed by advice from a friend to either respond with forgiveness, avoidance, or revenge, in a within-subjects repeated measures design. One hundred eighty-four children aged 11 to 15 from private schools in Sydney participated in this study. Results indicated that advice to forgive the perpetrator led to significantly less anger than advice to either avoid or exact revenge. Avoidance was the most likely advice to be followed by students and the most likely to result in ignoring the bullying and developing empathy for their abuser. However, it also resulted in interpretations of the bullying as being more serious. Forgiveness is suggested as an effective coping response for ameliorating the affective aggressive states of victimized youth, with further exploration needed regarding the interplay between the avoidance and forgiveness processes.

    June 22, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515589931   open full text
  • The Relationship Between Sociodemographic Characteristics, Work Conditions, and Level of "Mobbing" of Health Workers in Primary Health Care.
    Picakciefe, M., Acar, G., Colak, Z., Kilic, I.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 19, 2015

    Mobbing is a type of violence which occurs in workplaces and is classified under the community violence subgroup of interpersonal violence. The aim of this study is to examine health care workers who work in primary health care in the city of Mugla and to determine whether there is a relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, work conditions, and their level of mobbing. A cross-sectional analysis has been conducted in which 130 primary health care workers were selected. Of the 130, 119 health workers participated, yielding a response rate of 91.5%; 83.2% of health workers are female, 42.9% are midwives, 27.7% are nurses, and 14.3% are doctors. In all, 31.1% of health workers have faced with "mobbing" in the last 1 year, and the frequency of experiencing "mobbing" of those 48.6% of them is 1 to 3 times per year. A total of 70.3% of those who apply "mobbing" are senior health workers, and 91.9% are female. The frequency of encountering with "mobbing" was found significantly in married health workers, in those 16 years and above according to examined total working time, in those who have psychosocial reactions, and in those who have counterproductive behaviors. It has been discovered that primary health care workers have high prevalence of "mobbing" exposure. To avoid "mobbing" at workplace, authorities and responsibilities of all employees have to be clearly determined.

    June 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515586360   open full text
  • How Nurses in Johannesburg Address Intimate Partner Violence in Female Patients: Understanding IPV Responses in Low- and Middle-Income Country Health Systems.
    Sprague, C., Hatcher, A. M., Woollett, N., Black, V.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 19, 2015

    One in three women, globally, experiences intimate partner violence (IPV). Although 80% of the world’s population resides in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), health system responses to IPV are poorly understood. In 2013, the World Health Organization released new guidelines for IPV but universal screening was not recommended in LMICs due to perceived lack of capacity and insufficient evidence. South Africa, with IPV prevalence estimated at 31% to 55%, offers a window into LMIC health systems. South African women seek health care for partner abuse, yet no guidelines exist to direct providers. This research aimed to understand how and why nurses respond to IPV. Using a descriptive design, 25 nurses from five health facilities were interviewed, generating rich narratives of provider actions. Themes were coded and analyzed. An iterative process of constant comparison of emergent data was undertaken to verify and confirm final themes. In the absence of IPV guidelines, nurses employed interventions characterized as counseling, ascertaining abuse, and referral. Nurses’ actions were motivated by fear for patients’ survival, perceived professional obligations, patients’ expectations of receiving treatment, personal experiences of IPV, and weak police responses to IPV. Findings indicated nurses were responding to IPV in a routine manner, yet comprehensive guidelines remain essential to govern and locate their actions within the framework of a public health response. South Africa yields lessons for enhancing understanding of IPV responses in LMICs, while contributing to a slim evidence base of the "how" and "why" of provider actions toward IPV in patients.

    June 19, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515589929   open full text
  • The Likelihood of Injury Among Bias Crimes: An Analysis of General and Specific Bias Types.
    Pezzella, F. S., Fetzer, M. D.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 18, 2015

    In 2009, President Barack Obama signed the Mathew Sheppard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Protection act and thereby extended the list of previously protected classes of victims from actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, disability and sex orientation to gender and gender identity. Over 45 states, the District of Columbia and the federal government now include hate crime statutes that increase penalties when offenders perpetrate hate crimes against protected classes of victims. Penalty enhancement statutes sanction unlawful bias conduct arguably because they result in more severe injuries relative to non-bias conduct. We contend that physical injuries vary by bias type and are not equally injurious. Data on bias crimes was analyzed from the National Incident Based Reporting System. Descriptive patterns of bias crimes were identified by offense type, bias motivation and major and minor injuries. Using Multivariate analyses, we found an escalating trend of violence against racial minorities. Moreover, relative to non-bias crimes, only anti-White and anti-lesbian bias crimes experienced our two prong "animus" criteria of disproportionate prevalence and severity of injury. However, when compared to anti-White bias, anti-Black bias crimes were more prevalent and likely to suffer serious injuries. Implications for hate crime jurisprudence are discussed.

    June 18, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515586374   open full text
  • Associations Between Specific Negative Emotions and DSM-5 PTSD Among a National Sample of Interpersonal Trauma Survivors.
    Badour, C. L., Resnick, H. S., Kilpatrick, D. G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 18, 2015

    The diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has undergone several significant changes corresponding with the recent implementation of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Many of these changes reflect a growing recognition that PTSD is characterized by a wide range of negative affective experiences that were underrepresented in prior conceptualizations of the disorder. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of a new Criterion D symptom (D4-Negative Affect), which is aimed at assessing subjective problems with persistent negative emotion states (e.g., fear, anger, shame, guilt, horror) among a sample of 1,522 U.S. adults with a history of interpersonal trauma recruited from a national online panel. The prevalence of D4-Negative Affect was very high among individuals with assault-related PTSD (AR-PTSD) and in particular, was significantly higher than among PTSD negative individuals. Moreover, specific problems with anger, shame, and fear were significantly and uniquely associated with AR-PTSD. Important differences also emerged as a function of gender and interpersonal trauma history. These findings provide initial empirical support for the expanded emphasis on assessing a wide range of negative affective experiences that may be associated with PTSD in DSM-5.

    June 18, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515589930   open full text
  • Sense of Coherence as a Determinant of Psychological Well-Being Across Professional Groups of Aid Workers Exposed to War Trauma.
    Veronese, G., Pepe, A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 18, 2015

    The present study aims to test whether sense of coherence (SOC) acts as a determinant of positive psychological functioning in aid workers directly exposed to warfare. Specifically, we performed multiple regression analyses to compare different groups of aid workers in terms of the effects of SOC and cumulative trauma on their psychological distress. Palestinian helpers, both professional and non-professional (N = 159) completed three self-reported measures: the General Health questionnaire, Sense of Coherence Scale, and Impact of Events Scale. The findings bear out the predictive power of SOC and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to mental health across different professional groups. In particular, volunteers without a specific professional profile, psychiatrists, medical doctors, and less markedly counselors seemed to protect their mental health through a SOC. Clinical implications and recommendations for training and supervision are discussed.

    June 18, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515590125   open full text
  • Prosecutors and Use of Restorative Justice in Courts: Greek Case.
    Wasileski, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 18, 2015

    The purpose of this research study was to examine the experiences of prosecutors in Athens, Greece, as they implement a restorative justice (RJ; mediation) model in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV). Greece recently enacted a new legislation related to domestic violence, part of the requirement is mediation. This study used semi-structured interviews with 15 public prosecutors at the courts of first instance and three interviews with facilitators of mediation process. The findings indicate widespread role confusion. Prosecutors’ experiences, professional positions, and views of RJ in adult cases of gendered violence were shaped by their legal training. That is, their perceptions reflected their work in an adversarial system. Their views were complex yet ultimately unreceptive and their practices failed the victims of IPV. The study report concluded with recommendations for the legislators and for better preparation of court actors.

    June 18, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515590127   open full text
  • Parents' Perceptions of Answering a Survey on Violence Against Children.
    Ellonen, N., Fagerlund, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 18, 2015

    The effects of participation in research is an important ethical question in studies involving human participants. In research concerning violence, the common presumption is that participation is especially harmful for those who have personally experienced violence. In this article, parents’ perceptions of answering a violence-related survey are analyzed based on free-text comments. A total of 3,170 parents responded to the survey about their violent behavior toward their child (ages 0-12), and 45% (2,047) of those reflected on their perceptions of answering the survey. These answers are analyzed using a thematic analysis. In addition to describing the perceptions, the associations between perceptions and experiences of violence are analyzed. The vast majority of the participants perceived participating in answering as being positive. Negative perceptions, such as distress, were also reported, but these perceptions were mostly reported together with positive perceptions, especially among those who personally had experienced violence.

    June 18, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591279   open full text
  • "I Was Naive in Thinking, 'I Divorced This Man, He Is Out of My Life'": A Qualitative Exploration of Post-Separation Power and Control Tactics Experienced by Women.
    Toews, M. L., Bermea, A. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 18, 2015

    The purpose of this study was to explore women’s perceptions of the power and control tactics used by their former husbands post-separation. A total of 22 in-depth interviews with divorced mothers who reported male-initiated partner abuse (psychological and/or physical) during and/or after their marriages were analyzed. The most common themes to emerge from the narratives were, in order of prevalence, as follows: Using the Children; Using Threats, Harassment, and Intimidation; Emotional Abuse; Economic Abuse; "Stuff to Try to Hurt Me"; Disrupting Her Relationships With the Children; Using the System; and Physical Violence. We also found that the violent and coercive behaviors men used during the marriage continued to influence the women’s perceptions of the power and control their former husbands had over them post-separation. As a result, many of the women described how they gave up everything just to get out of their abusive marriages.

    June 18, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515591278   open full text
  • Spousal Assaulters in Outpatient Mental Health Care: The Relevance of Structured Risk Assessment.
    Serie, C. M. B., van Tilburg, C. A., van Dam, A., de Ruiter, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 17, 2015

    This study examined whether a typology of perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) could be replicated in a Dutch sample (N = 154) of self-referred IPV perpetrators using a structured risk assessment tool for relational violence (Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk [B-SAFER]). Our findings support the previous IPV perpetrator subtypes: low-level antisocial (LLA), family only (FO), psychopathology (PP), and generally violent/antisocial (GVA). The subtypes differed on the descriptive dimensions general criminality, substance use, and mental health problems. The prevalence rates for each subtype were roughly comparable with those in previous studies. Contrary to expectation, the prevalence of the GVA subtype was relatively high in our self-referred sample compared with court-referred samples. Our findings suggest that structured risk assessment should be an integral part of the intake procedure for IPV perpetrators entering treatment, to assess their level of risk and to arrive at a tailored risk management strategy, regardless of setting or referral source.

    June 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515589932   open full text
  • Domestic Violence Protective Orders: A Qualitative Examination of Judges' Decision-Making Processes.
    Agnew-Brune, C., (Beth) Moracco, K. E., Person, C. J., Bowling, J. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 17, 2015

    Approximately one in three women in the United States experience intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV is associated with long-term negative health consequences; therefore, there is a need to examine potential prevention strategies. Evidence suggests that domestic violence protective orders (DVPOs), a legal intervention that prevents contact between two parties for up to 12 months, are an effective secondary prevention tool. However, because judges have relative autonomy in granting or denying DVPOs, research is needed to examine the processes they use to guide their decisions. The aim of the study was to investigate how District Court judges decide whether to issue a DVPO. Using in-depth interviews with 20 North Carolina District Court judges, the present study addressed three research questions: (a) what factors influence judges’ decisions to grant or deny a DVPO, (b) what heuristics or cognitive shortcuts potentially guide their decisions, and (c) what judges worry about when making decisions. Three themes emerged from the data analyses: (a) violent incidents must reach a certain threshold, (b) the presence of children creates competing concerns, and (c) judges worry about the negative impact their decisions may have on the lives of those involved. Recommendations for improving the DVPO issuance process are also discussed.

    June 17, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515590126   open full text
  • Cyber-Defense: A Taxonomy of Tactics for Managing Cyberstalking.
    Tokunaga, R. S., Aune, K. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 16, 2015

    Cyberstalking research has revealed information about who is perpetrating what offense to whom. This study adds to research on cyberstalking by exploring how victims respond to the unwanted pursuit. The reflections of cyberstalking victims were content analyzed to answer research questions about different risk management behaviors, their effectiveness, and their relationship with specific cyberstalking behaviors. Findings indicated that victims used seven general management tactics of which ignore/avoidance, active technological disassociation, and help seeking were the most common. Using technology to move away from pursuers was reported as the most effective tactic for managing the unwanted relational pursuit. The results also suggested that victims’ management responses were associated with the type of behaviors experienced.

    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515589564   open full text
  • Attitude to Non-Violence Scale: Validity and Practical Use.
    Craven, R. G., Seaton, M., Yeung, A. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 16, 2015

    This study used recent advances in attitude and self-perception research to develop an Attitude to Non-Violence Scale (ANVS). Participants were students from six high schools in Australia (N = 727). Confirmatory factor analysis using within-construct and between-construct validation approaches found two positive attitude sub-scales: Cognitive (proactive understanding) and Affective (do not endorse violence), both showing convergent and discriminant validity. Scale equivalence tests found that the sub-scales were applicable to boys and girls and to junior and senior grades. Structural equation modeling found that boys had less supportive attitudes to non-violence cognitively, whereas female students in senior secondary classes had less positive attitudes to non-violence affectively. The ANVS can be easily administered to assess youth’s non-violence attitudes, which may direct interventions focusing on boys’ cognitive aspects while maintaining girls’ positive affective attitudes toward non-violence as they mature. The positively framed instrument is suitable for education settings especially in high-risk locations where violence is prevalent.

    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515590785   open full text
  • Clouding the Judgment of Domestic Violence Law: Victim Blaming by Institutional Stakeholders in Cambodia.
    Brickell, K.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 15, 2015

    This article examines victims’ purported complicity in the judicial failures of domestic violence law to protect them in Cambodia. It is based on 3 years (2012-2014) of research in Siem Reap and Pursat Provinces on the everyday politics of the 2005 "Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection of the Victims" (DV Law). The project questioned why investments in DV Law are faltering and took a multi-stakeholder approach to do so. In addition to 40 interviews with female domestic violence victims, the research included 50 interviews with legal and health professionals, NGO workers, low- and high-ranking police officers, religious figures, and local government authority leaders who each have an occupational investment in the implementation and enforcement of DV Law. Forming the backbone of the article, the findings from this latter sample reveal how women are construed not only as barriers "clouding the judgment of law" but also as actors denying the agency of institutional stakeholders (and law itself) to bring perpetrators to account. The findings suggest that DV Law has the potential to entrench, rather than diminish, an environment of victim blaming. In turn, the article signals the importance of research on, and better professional support of, intermediaries who (discursively) administrate the relationship between DV Law and the victims/citizens it seeks to protect.

    June 15, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515588919   open full text
  • Understanding the Role of School Connectedness and Its Association With Violent Attitudes and Behaviors Among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Youth.
    Chung-Do, J. J., Goebert, D. A., Hamagani, F., Chang, J. Y., Hishinuma, E. S.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 11, 2015

    Interpersonal youth violence is a growing public health concern in the United States. Having a high sense of school connectedness has been found to be a protective factor for youth violence. A high school course that aims to enhance school connectedness was developed and evaluated to investigate the students’ sense of school connectedness and its association with violent attitudes and behaviors. Survey data from 598 students from a predominately Asian and Pacific Islander student body were analyzed to assess their level of school connectedness and violent attitudes and behaviors. Analysis of Variance was used to identify differences in the school connectedness and violence scores related to students’ demographic characteristics. The role of school connectedness in the relationship between student demographic characteristics and violent attitudes and behaviors was examined with structural equation modeling. Overall, students reported a moderately high sense of school connectedness. School connectedness was found to be negatively associated with violent attitudes but not self-reported violent behaviors. Multiple-group analyses were conducted across the ethnic groups, which found differential associations between the school connectedness and violence variables. These results highlight the value of disaggregating the Asian and Pacific Islander category and the need for future research to further contextualize and clarify the relationship between school connectedness and interpersonal youth violence. This will help inform the development of evidence-based strategies and prevention programming that focus on school connectedness to address disparities in interpersonal youth violence outcomes.

    June 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515588923   open full text
  • "They'll Always Find a Way to Get to You": Technology Use in Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Its Role in Dating Violence and Abuse.
    Stonard, K. E., Bowen, E., Walker, K., Price, S. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 11, 2015

    Electronic communication technology (ECT), such as mobile phones and online communication tools, is widely used by adolescents; however, the availability of such tools may have both positive and negative impacts within the context of romantic relationships. While an established literature has documented the nature, prevalence, and impact of traditional forms of adolescent dating violence and abuse (ADVA), limited empirical investigation has focused on the role of ECT in ADVA or what shall be termed technology-assisted adolescent dating violence and abuse (TAADVA) and how adolescents perceive the impact of TAADVA relative to ADVA. In this article, the authors explore the role ECT plays in adolescent romantic relationships and psychologically abusive and controlling ADVA behaviors and its perceived impact. An opportunity sample of 52 adolescents (22 males and 30 females) between the ages of 12 and 18 years participated in the study. One all-female and seven mixed-gendered semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to identify three superordinate themes, including (a) perceived healthy versus unhealthy communication, (b) perceived monitoring and controlling communication, and (c) perceived impact of technology-assisted abuse compared with that in person. While ECTs had a positive impact on the development and maintenance of adolescent romantic relationships, such tools also provided a new avenue for unhealthy, harassment, monitoring, and controlling behaviors within these relationships. ECT was also perceived to provide unique impacts in terms of making TAADVA seem both less harmful and more harmful than ADVA experienced in person. Adolescents’ perceptions and experiences of ECT in romantic relationships and TAADVA may also vary be gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, and recommendations are made for future research.

    June 11, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515590787   open full text
  • A 6-Week School Curriculum Improves Boys' Attitudes and Behaviors Related to Gender-Based Violence in Kenya.
    Keller, J., Mboya, B. O., Sinclair, J., Githua, O. W., Mulinge, M., Bergholz, L., Paiva, L., Golden, N. H., Kapphahn, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 10, 2015

    This study investigated the effects of a gender-based violence (GBV) educational curriculum on improving male attitudes toward women and increasing the likelihood of intervention if witnessing GBV, among adolescent boys in Nairobi, Kenya. In total, 1,543 adolescents participated in this comparison intervention study: 1,250 boys received six 2-hr sessions of the "Your Moment of Truth" (YMOT) intervention, and 293 boys comprised the standard of care (SOC) group. Data on attitudes toward women were collected anonymously at baseline and 9 months after intervention. At follow-up, boys were also asked whether they encountered situations involving GBV and whether they successfully intervened. Compared with baseline, YMOT participants had significantly higher positive attitudes toward women at follow-up, whereas scores for SOC participants declined. At follow-up, the percentage of boys who witnessed GBV was similar for the two groups, except for physical threats, where the intervention group reported witnessing more episodes. The percentage of boys in the intervention group who successfully intervened when witnessing violence was 78% for verbal harassment, 75% for physical threat, and 74% for physical or sexual assault. The percentage of boys in the SOC group who successfully intervened was 38% for verbal harassment, 33% for physical threat, and 26% for physical or sexual assault. Results from the logistic regression demonstrate that more positive attitudes toward women predicted whether boys in the intervention group would intervene successfully when witnessing violence. This standardized 6-week GBV training program is highly effective in improving attitudes toward women and increasing the likelihood of successful intervention when witnessing GBV.

    June 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515586367   open full text
  • Does Polyvictimization Affect Incarcerated and Non-Incarcerated Adult Women Differently? An Exploration Into Internalizing Problems.
    Radatz, D. L., Wright, E. M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 10, 2015

    In this study, we used data from life histories of 424 non-incarcerated (n = 266) and incarcerated (n = 158) women to examine the extent to which women are exposed to multiple forms of victimization, including child abuse, intimate partner violence, sexual assault, and traumatic life events. We assessed the effects of polyvictimization (e.g., multiple victimizations) on women’s health-related outcomes (e.g., attempted suicide, drug and alcohol problems) as well as whether the prevalence rates and effects of victimization were significantly different between the subsamples of women. Results indicate that incarcerated women experience significantly more victimization than non-incarcerated women, and while polyvictimization was associated with a higher likelihood of alcohol problems, drug problems, and attempted suicide among non-incarcerated women, it was only marginally associated with an increased likelihood of alcohol problems among incarcerated women. Finally, low levels of polyvictimization affected alcohol and drug problems among incarcerated and non-incarcerated women differently.

    June 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515588921   open full text
  • Characterizing Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Subtypes and Treatment Engagement of Victims at a Hospital-Based Rape Treatment Center.
    Richer, L. A., Fields, L., Bell, S., Heppner, J., Dodge, J., Boccellari, A., Shumway, M.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 10, 2015

    Variation among existing studies in labeling, defining, identifying, and subtyping cases of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) poses challenges to integrating research findings for public health purposes. This descriptive study addressed methodological issues of nomenclature and DFSA operational definitions to improve case identification and was designed to distinguish assault subtypes. We studied a 2-year ethnically diverse cohort of 390 patients who presented acutely to an urban rape treatment center (RTC). We abstracted data from RTC medical and mental health records via chart review. Assault incidence rates; engagement into medical, forensic, and mental health services; injury sustained; and weapon use were calculated separately for assault subtypes and compared. DFSA accounted for over half of the total sexual assault (SA) cases. Involuntary DFSA (in which an incapacitating substance was administered to victims without their knowledge or against their will) increased from 25% to 33% of cases over the 2-year period. DFSA victims presented sooner, and more often attended medical follow-up and psychotherapy than non-DFSA victims. Incidence rates indicated increasing risk for young males. These findings indicate that DFSA continues to be a growing and complex phenomenon and suggest that DFSA victims have greater service needs. The field would benefit from innovations to address symptomatology arising from this novel type of trauma and the unique risks and needs of male victims, as well as underscoring the ongoing need for DFSA-specific prevention efforts for both victims and perpetrators.

    June 10, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515589567   open full text
  • Treating Substance Abuse and Trauma Symptoms in Incarcerated Women: An Effectiveness Study.
    Swopes, R. M., Davis, J. L., Scholl, J. A.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 09, 2015

    Incarcerated women report high rates of trauma exposure and substance use. The present study evaluated an integrated treatment program, Helping Women Recover/Beyond Trauma (HWR/BT), supplemented with additional modules on domestic violence, relapse prevention, and a 12-step program. The HWR/BT combined treatment program was compared with a matched comparison sample that did not receive the target treatment. Self-report measures were collected from 95 incarcerated women, with 56 women in the completer sample. Women in the treatment condition attended a 4-month group treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between-group differences, favoring the treatment condition, for negative posttraumatic cognitions. Pre–post, but not between-group, differences were also observed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and substance-related self-efficacy, whereas no differences were observed for depression, dissociation, tension reduction, or anxious arousal. The present study indicates some promise for specific aspects of the treatment, although results question the overall benefit of the program over standard prison services.

    June 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515587668   open full text
  • Social Desirability in Intimate Partner Violence and Relationship Satisfaction Reports: An Exploratory Analysis.
    Visschers, J., Jaspaert, E., Vervaeke, G.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 09, 2015

    The social desirability bias can be considered a two-dimensional construct, consisting of impression management and self-deception. Although social desirability is often considered a threat to the validity of intimate partner violence (IPV) reports, little is known about which dimension is most responsible for this distortion. Furthermore, it is unclear whether social desirability distorts the report of relationship satisfaction. In this study, two instruments that claim to measure social desirability are investigated on their ability to measure impression management and self-deception. Afterward, which dimension (if any) is responsible for a distortion in IPV and relationship satisfaction reports is examined. The survey consisted of the following measures: the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales for IPV, the Couples Satisfaction Index for relationship satisfaction and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, the Limited Disclosure Scale, and the Idealistic Distortion Scale for social desirability. The Limited Disclosure Scale was found to predominantly measure impression management. The Idealistic Distortion Scale did not measure social desirability well and appeared to be a bad measure for relationship satisfaction. Both the reports of IPV and relationship satisfaction were influenced by impression management, but not by self-deception. However, impression management and self-deception only accounted for a small portion of the variance in IPV and relationship satisfaction reports. These results indicate that the social desirability bias, when reporting IPV and relationship satisfaction, is a conscious process, but that its influence on IPV and relationship satisfaction reports might be overrated.

    June 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515588922   open full text
  • Secure Attachment Moderates the Relation of Sexual Trauma With Trauma Symptoms Among Adolescents From an Inpatient Psychiatric Facility.
    Jardin, C., Venta, A., Newlin, E., Ibarra, S., Sharp, C.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 09, 2015

    Experiencing sexual trauma has been linked to internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies. Insecure attachment has been shown to moderate the relation between sexual trauma and trauma symptoms among adults. However, few studies have explored relations among sexual trauma, attachment insecurity, and trauma symptoms in adolescence, and none have used developmentally appropriate measures. The present study sought to examine attachment security as a potential moderator of the relation between having a history of sexual trauma (HST) and trauma symptoms among adolescents at an inpatient psychiatric facility. Attachment to caregivers was measured by the Child Attachment Interview (CAI) and trauma symptoms by the Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children (TSCC). HST was assessed with responses to two separate interviews that asked about traumatic experiences: the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (C-DISC) and the CAI. Moderation analyses were conducted using univariate General Linear Modeling (GLM). Of the 229 study participants, 50 (21.8%) had a HST. The relation between HST and trauma symptoms was significantly moderated by insecure attachment with both mother, F(1, 228) = 4.818, p = .029, and father, F(1, 228) = 6.370, p = .012. Specifically, insecurely attached adolescents with a HST exhibited trauma symptoms at levels significantly greater than securely attached adolescents with a HST and adolescents with no HST. Results are consistent with previous research that suggests secure attachment may protect against the development of trauma symptoms among those who have experienced a sexual trauma.

    June 09, 2015   doi: 10.1177/0886260515589928   open full text
  • Physical Health Conditions and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Offenders With Alcohol Use Diagnoses.
    Crane, C. A., Easton, C. J.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence. June 09, 2015

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent among samples with diagnosed alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but few studies have evaluated the factors that a