MetaTOC stay on top of your field, easily

The Academy of Management Review

Impact factor: 7.895 5-Year impact factor: 11.578 Print ISSN: 0363-7425 Online ISSN: 1930-3807 Publisher: The Academy of Management

Subjects: Business, Management

Most recent papers:

  • When do Theories Become Self-fulfilling? Exploring The Boundary Conditions of Performativity.
    Emilio Marti, Jean-Pascal Gond.
    The Academy of Management Review. 13 days ago
    Management researchers increasingly realize that some theories do not merely describe, but also shape social reality; a phenomenon known as "performativity." However, when theories become performative or even self-fulfilling is still poorly understood. Taking this gap in the research as our starting point, we develop a process model to show that new theories will only become self-fulfilling (1) if they motivate experimentation, (2) if experimentation produces anomalies, and (3) if these anomalies lead to a practice shift. On that basis, we identify six boundary conditions that determine whether theories will shape social reality. To illustrate our argument, we explore the conditions under which theories that postulate a positive link between corporate social performance and corporate financial performance may become self-fulfilling.
    July 13, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2016.0071   open full text
  • An Affect Based Model Of Recipients' Responses To Organizational Change Events.
    Shaul Oreg, Jean Bartunek, Gayoung Lee, Boram Do.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 11, 2017
    Following a long period during which attention has been paid predominantly to the role of change agents in organizational change, change recipients and their experiences have finally begun to take center stage. Yet the typical view of recipients has been as passive reactors to change. In this paper we take steps towards highlighting the central, active roles change recipients play in organizational change events. We discuss and distinguish between dimensions of valence and activation and introduce a circumplex of recipients' affective and behavioral responses to change events. We describe the primary and secondary appraisal processes through which each response type emerges and discuss outcomes of each response type. We use our model to explain how change context and process variables affect recipients' responses to change. Finally, we discuss implications of our model for theory, research and practice.
    July 11, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0335   open full text
  • The Role Of Verbal And Visual Text In The Process Of Institutionalization.
    Renate Meyer, Dennis Jancsary, Markus Hollerer, Eva Boxenbaum.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 27, 2017
    In this article, we develop novel theory on the differentiated impact of verbal and visual texts on the emergence, rise, establishment, and consolidation of institutions. Integrating key insights from social semiotics into a discursive model of institutionalization, we identify distinct affordances of verbal and visual text based on the constitutive features of the respective semiotic modes. In an effort to extend scholarly inquiry into the relationship of text and institutions, we develop a set of propositions on how and under which conditions verbal and visual text, respectively, facilitate the institutionalization of novel ideas in each stage of the process. Our theory development has implications for research on institutions as communicative accomplishments, contributes to the nascent line of multimodal research, and provides novel insights into institutional emergence.
    June 27, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0301   open full text
  • The Shackles of CEO Celebrity: Sociocognitive and Behavioral Role Constraints on "Star" Leaders.
    Jeffrey Lovelace, Jonathan Bundy, Donald Hambrick, Timothy Pollock.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 23, 2017
    We set forth a new theory for understanding the consequences of CEO celebrity. The fulcrum of our theory is the reality that CEOs attain celebrity because they are cast into specific archetypes, rather than for their general achievements. We present a typology of common CEO celebrity archetypes (Creator, Transformer, Rebel, Savior), and then detail a model that highlights the consequences associated with attaining celebrity of a given type. These consequences include an array of sociocognitive outcomes, which in turn constrain celebrity CEOs to those behaviors associated with their particular celebrity archetypes. The sociocognitive outcomes' main effects are moderated by the role intensity of the specific archetype, the CEO's degree of narcissism, and the temporal arc (rate of ascent and duration) of celebrity. Finally, we argue that the effects of CEO celebrity on firm performance are contingent on the continuity of external and internal contextual conditions. If conditions change appreciably, the celebrity CEO's rigidities become severe liabilities, explaining the documented tendency for CEO celebrity to bring about, on average, unfavorable firm outcomes.
    June 23, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2016.0064   open full text
  • The "Make and/or Buy" Decisions of Corporate Political Lobbying: Integrating the Economic Efficiency and Legitimacy Perspectives.
    Nan Jia.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 23, 2017
    This paper examines political lobbying and investigates firms' decisions regarding whether to employ internal functionalities (i.e., to "make" or insource), to contract with external professionals (i.e., to "buy" or outsource), or to do both (i.e., to "make and buy" or plural source). I first develop an integrated framework based on the twin perspectives of economic efficiency and legitimacy. When the political audience faces little uncertainty about lobbying content, firms make sourcing decisions to maximize economic efficiency in producing such content in line with transaction cost economics and the capabilities view. However, when the political audience faces substantial uncertainty about lobbying content, it relies on the perceived legitimacy of the lobbying entity to draw inferences about the quality of the such content; therefore, the legitimacy of a potential lobbying entity matters to firms making sourcing decisions related to lobbying. Then, I connect firms' sourcing decisions with several concrete characteristics of lobbying entities that can affect political audiences' judgment regarding their legitimacy. Finally, I examine the tension that develops when legitimacy and economic efficiency considerations call for different forms of sourcing, and I examine how complementarities in plural sourcing help resolve this tension in certain situations.
    June 23, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2016.0148   open full text
  • Shooting from the Hip: A Habit Perspective of Voice.
    Chak Fu Lam, Laura Rees, Laurie Levesque, Suzyn Ornstein.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 16, 2017
    Research on voice has traditionally employed a deliberative perspective, whereby individuals engage in careful calculation of individual and situational factors to determine whether to speak up. In this article, we draw from psychological research on automaticity to propose an alternative, habit perspective, whereby individuals are relatively unaware of situational factors relevant for their voice decision, have difficulty controlling their impulse to voice, and are efficient in their voice decision-making process. We then propose a contingency framework identifying both functional and dysfunctional outcomes of voice habit, dependent on key boundary conditions, and address the unique consequences of strong situations that suppress habitual voicers from speaking up. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical implications and directions for future research.
    June 16, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0366   open full text
  • Is My Firm Specific Investment Protected? Overcoming The Stakeholder Investment Dilemma In The Resource Based View.
    Robert Hoskisson, Eni Gambeta, Colby Green, Toby Li.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 12, 2017
    The resource-based view posits that firms achieve competitive advantage from value creation through firm-specific investments held by key stakeholders—employees, suppliers, and customers. Shareholder-dominant (agency) theory holds that all residual income claimant rights belong to shareholders, circumscribing other key stakeholders' ability to appropriate value from their investment. However, recent enhancements to stakeholder theory grounded in property rights suggest that such stakeholders may need protection to receive implicit residual claims. A central purpose of this paper is to build a model of the protection devices used to ensure these implicit rights. Individual ex ante devices such as stakeholder ownership only partially incentivize stakeholders firm-specific investments because such devices are subject to two types of uncertainties, behavioral and environmental, and individual devices aimed at reducing one type of uncertainty may exacerbate the other. We therefore expand on efforts to establish a "stakeholder theory of strategic management" by proposing an integrated model of protection devices. The model seeks to overcome the incentive dilemma in reducing both uncertainties by reducing barriers to stakeholder firm-specific investment. Our model also explores the conflicts and complementarities associated with device implementation. Finally, we discuss theoretical and practical implications, as well as future research opportunities associated with our model.
    June 12, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0411   open full text
  • A Behavioral Theory Of Social Performance: Social Identity And Stakeholder Expectations.
    Robert Nason, Sophie Bacq, David Gras.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 02, 2017
    Firms utilize reference points to evaluate financial performance, frame gain or loss positions, and guide strategic behavior. However, there is little theoretical underpinning to explain how social performance is evaluated and integrated into strategic decision-making. We fill this void with new theory built upon the premise that inherently ambiguous social performance is evaluated and interpreted differently than largely clear financial performance. We propose that firms seek to negotiate a shared social performance reference point with stakeholders who identify with the organization and care about social performance. While incentivized to align with the firm, firm-identified stakeholders provide intense feedback when there are major discrepancies between their expectations and the firm's actual social performance. Firms frame and respond to feedback differently depending on the feedback valence: negative feedback will be framed as a legitimacy threat, and firm responses are likely to be substantive; positive feedback will be framed as an efficiency threat, and firm responses are likely to be symbolic. However, social enterprises face a double standard in evaluations and calibrate responses to social performance feedback differently than non-social enterprises. Our behavioral theory of social performance advances knowledge of organizational evaluations and responses to stakeholder feedback.
    June 02, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0081   open full text
  • Practice, Substance And History: Reframing Institutional Logics.
    Alistair Mutch.
    The Academy of Management Review. May 12, 2017
    The characterization by Roger Friedland of institutional logics as a combination of substance and practices opens the door to a more complex reading of their influence on organizational life. His focus suggests attention to feelings and belief as much as cognition and choice. This article uses history to develop these ideas by paying attention to the perennial features of our embodied relations with the world and other persons. Historical work draws our attention to neglected domains of social life, such as play, which can have profound impacts on organizations. The study of history suggests that such institutions have a long run conditioning influence that calls into question accounts that stress individual agential choice and action in bringing about change. Analytical narratives of the emergence of practices can provide the means to combine the conceptual apparatus of organization theory with the attention to temporality of history.
    May 12, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0303   open full text
  • Hidden in Plain Sight: The Importance of Scale on Organizational Attention to Issues.
    Pratima Bansal, Anna Kim, Michael Wood.
    The Academy of Management Review. May 03, 2017
    The organizational attention literature has an epistemological bias, in that it explains how and why organizations notice issues. The ontological or real attributes of the issues are largely ignored, subordinated or confounded with this epistemological orientation. In this paper, we argue that organizations sometimes miss issues, not only because of attentional failures, but also because of the temporal and spatial scale of the underlying processes related to the issue. Some issue processes are of such large or small scale that they escape organizational attention. We argue that large-scale processes, such as those related to climate change, require broad attentional extent, whereas small-scale processes, such as those related to local variations in poverty, require fine attentional grain. This work aims to shed light on the relatively underexplored question of why some issues are not noticed, with important implications for both theory and practice.
    May 03, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0238   open full text
  • Reasoning By Analogy And The Progress Of Theory.
    Mikko Ketokivi, Saku Mantere, Joep Cornelissen.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 14, 2017
    Many influential theories of organization rest on an analogical foundation: we think of the organization as if it were a governance structure, a nexus of contracts, a social network, or an information processing system. We may invoke an analogy simply to express an idea, but analogy use may also constitute a key part of a theoretical explanation and an argument. In this latter, explanatory use, we not only think but also reason by analogy. But if analogy use constitutes reasoning, it must also be critically evaluated as such. In this paper, we first combine ideas from the literature on argumentation and cognitive science to examine how analogies are used in organization theory. We then construct a framework to guide the evaluation of reasoning by analogy. Finally, we show that by understanding how analogies are used and evaluated we can also gain an understanding of how theories progress.
    April 14, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0322   open full text
  • Beyond Constraining and Enabling: Towards New Microfoundations for Institutional Theory.
    Ivano Cardinale.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 13, 2017
    This paper argues that the quest to establish microfoundations for institutional theory is hindered by two assumptions on which it currently rests: that structure simply constrains and enables action, and that agency is mostly associated with reflexivity. The paper unpacks these two assumptions and proposes alternative microfoundations on which i) structure does more than merely constrain and enable, and also actively orients action toward some possibilities over others; and ii) the pre-reflective dimension of agency is explicitly theorized. It thus becomes possible to bridge long-standing divides within institutional theory, opening up avenues for further developing its microfoundations.
    April 13, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0020   open full text
  • Chronotype diversity in teams: Toward a theory of team energetic asynchrony.
    Stefan Volk, Matthew Pearsall, Michael Christian, William Becker.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 13, 2017
    We introduce the concept of chronotype diversity to the team diversity literature. Chronotype diversity is defined as the extent to which team members differ in their biological predispositions towards the optimal timing of daily periods of activity and rest. To explain the effects of chronotype diversity on team outcomes, we develop a theory of team energetic asynchrony. Team energetic asynchrony refers to temporal asymmetries among team members' daily peaks and troughs in physical and psychological energy. In our theoretical model we delineate how chronotype diversity affects team performance by specifying three specific team processes (coordination, information processing, and backing up behavior) that convey unique team diversity effects of energetic asynchrony. In doing so, we propose that chronotype diversity can have either positive or negative effects on team processes and outcomes, depending on whether teams recognize differences in members' chronotypes and structure team work accordingly. We also discuss the potential effects of chronotype subgroup formation and the benefits and pitfalls of low chronotype diversity.
    April 13, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0185   open full text
  • Authority or Community? A Relational Models Theory of Group-Level Leadership Emergence.
    Ned Wellman.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 07, 2017
    This article develops relational models leadership theory, which explains how shared cognition produces group-level leadership emergence effects. The theory proposes that contextual features present early in a group's life can cause members to quickly converge on one of two cognitive relational models for leadership. Some groups adopt an authority ranking model, in which leadership influence is consolidated in the hands of a few high-status members. Others adopt a communal sharing model, in which leadership is the collective responsibility of all members. A positive feedback loop develops between group members' relational model convergence and leadership emergence, such that members enact leadership in a manner consistent with their shared relational model and these interactions reinforce the model. The theory also identifies two types of "jolt" events that can radically shift group members' cognitions and actions related to leadership.
    April 07, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0375   open full text
  • Towards a "sunlit path": Stigma identity management as a source of localized social change through interaction.
    Brent Lyons, Simon Pek, Jennifer Wessel.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 02, 2017
    We articulate a process through which individuals with stigmatized identities can be agents of social change towards the acceptance and/or valuing of their identities in their work groups. We posit that whether and how individuals communicate to others about their stigmatized identity (i.e., stigma identity management) can enable them to overcome their power disadvantage by influencing the meanings that the stigmatized identity and comparative dominant identities take on in negotiations of identity meanings. Drawing on theories of negotiated order, identity threat, and stigma identity management we describe how changes in identity meanings emerge from an ongoing process of negotiations between stigma holders and their coworkers - negotiations that are influenced by and inform symbolic power relations and shared identity meanings in the group. We extend understandings of stigma identity management strategies by expanding beyond the current focus on outcomes for individual stigma holders towards how such strategies can change the local social context in which stigma holders and their coworkers interact.
    March 02, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0189   open full text
  • The Psychology of Middle Power: Vertical Code-Switching, Role Conflict, and Behavioral Inhibition.
    Eric Anicich, Jacob Hirsh.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 14, 2017
    Decades of research have demonstrated that having or lacking power can influence how people think and behave in organizations. By contrasting the experiences associated with high and low-power states, however, this research has neglected the psychological and behavioral correlates of middle power, defined as the subjective sense that one's power is neither consistently higher nor lower than the power of one's interaction partners. In this paper, we propose that middle power positions and mindsets lead to frequent vertical code-switching, the act of alternating between behavioral patterns that are directed toward higher-power and lower-power interaction partners. We draw from identity and role transition theories to develop propositions specifying when frequent vertical code-switching will, in turn, result in heightened role conflict. We further situate our theoretical analysis by updating and extending the approach/inhibition theory of power on the basis of insights from revised reinforcement sensitivity theory to introduce an integrative framework called the Approach-Inhibition-Avoidance (AIA) theory of power. Overall, we highlight the promise of conceptualizing power in terms of the stability of one's vertical orientation, offering novel predictions about the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral effects of power.
    February 14, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2016.0002   open full text
  • The Role of Executive Symbolism In Advancing New Strategic Themes in Organizations: A Social Influence Perspective.
    Donald Hambrick, Jeffrey Lovelace.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 09, 2017
    Contributing to the sensegiving and organizational change literatures, we set forth a theory for predicting the relative effectiveness, or ineffectiveness, of executive symbolism in advancing new strategic themes (specific new priorities) in organizations. Unpacking the concept of executive symbolism and describing why executive actions carry symbolic significance, we primarily assess the "theme-aligned symbolic action," an executive action undertaken with the intention of sending a message in support of some new theme. We draw from social influence theory to develop an integrated set of propositions for predicting members' reactions, or affective responses, to such actions. The predictive factors include: attributes of the action itself, the reputation of the executive, and predispositions of respective members to the theme. As an outgrowth of this analysis, we conclude that theme-aligned symbols, no matter how artful, will almost always be ineffective in eliciting positive reactions from members who are antagonistic toward the theme. In turn, we introduce the concept of the "theme-muting symbol," a symbolic action intended to minimize the prominence or apparent implications of a new theme, and we place this concept in the social influence framework as well. We discuss practical implications and present an agenda for future research.
    February 09, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0190   open full text
  • Leadership and the Logic of Absurdity.
    Daniel Newark.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 06, 2017
    Leaders are often thought to be instrumental to the performance of the organizations they lead. However, considerable research suggests that their influence over organizational performance might actually be minimal. These claims of leader irrelevance pose a puzzle: If leaders are relatively insignificant, why would someone commit to leading? Applying decision-making theory, this paper first considers justifying the decision to lead according to the Logics of Consequence and Appropriateness—the two principal decision-making logics underlying previous work on the motivation to lead. The paper then presents the Logic of Absurdity, a decision-making logic in which decision-makers knowingly choose to dedicate themselves to an irrational course of action. In terms of the decision to lead, a decision-maker employing the Logic of Absurdity acknowledges the likely futility of leading but decides to commit to leading, nonetheless. The paper concludes by considering when leaders are most likely to decide to lead according to the Logic of Absurdity and why doing so may result in leadership of exceptional originality, foolishness, intelligence, and madness.
    February 06, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0186   open full text
  • Where Is My Mind? Theorizing Mind Wandering And Its Performance Related Consequences In Organizations.
    Erik Dane.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 20, 2017
    Although it is widely recognized that the human mind is prone to wander, some lines of research suggest that this tendency is costly and unfortunate while others suggest that mind wandering is beneficial and adaptive. Accounting for these divergent perspectives and developing theory on mind wandering, I explore the nature and performance-related consequences of mind wandering in organizations. To this end, I argue that whether mind wandering contributes to or compromises task performance over time in work settings depends on its content - that is, the specific types of thoughts workers tend to generate as their minds wander. In making this case, I theorize relationships between various types of mind wandering content and task performance over time, specify mechanisms accounting for these relationships, and consider job-related boundary conditions. Together, the arguments presented here advance and reorient research on mind wandering and open new windows into cognition in organizations.
    January 20, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0196   open full text
  • Beyond Ethos: Outlining an Alternate Trajectory for Emotional Competence and Investment.
    Madeline Toubiana, Royston Greenwood, Charlene Zietsma.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 19, 2017
    n/a
    January 19, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amr.2016.0223   open full text
  • Celebrity And Infamy? The Consequences Of Media Narratives About Organizational Identity.
    Anastasiya Zavyalova, Mike Pfarrer, Rhonda Reger.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 21, 2016
    Research on organizational celebrity is in its nascence, and our understanding of the process through which this asset is gained, maintained, and lost remains incomplete. We extend this research by examining which information is the primary catalyst of the celebrity process, how and why this process unfolds, and the potential consequences for an organization. In doing so, we make three primary contributions. First, we propose that the availability of information about the salient and socially significant elements of an organization's identity makes the media more likely to cast the organization as a main character in their dramatic narratives. Second, we theorize that the salience of these elements attracts constituents' attention, and the social significance evokes their emotional responses. However, because some constituents may view the elements of an organization's identity as congruent and others as incongruent with their personal identities, an organization may simultaneously gain celebrity among some constituents and infamy among others. Third, we theorize that because of the different emotional responses that are generated from constituents' perceptions of identity (in)congruence, celebrity is more difficult to maintain and easier to lose than infamy.
    October 21, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0037   open full text
  • Corporate Governance Deviance.
    Ruth Aguilera, William Judge, Siri Terjesen.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 18, 2016
    We develop the concept of corporate governance deviance and seek to understand why, when, and how a firm adopts governance practices that do not conform to the dominant governance logic. Drawing on institutional theory, coupled with the entrepreneurship and corporate governance literatures, we advance a middle range theory of the antecedents of corporate governance deviance that considers both the institutional context and firm-level agency. Specifically, we highlight the centrality of a firm's entrepreneurial identity as it interacts with the national governance logic to jointly create corporate governance discretion (i.e., the latitude of accessible governance practices) within the firm. We argue that as a firm's governance discretion increases, it will be more likely to adopt over- or under-conforming governance practices that deviate from established norms and practices. Moreover, we propose that adopting a deviant corporate governance practice is contingent on the governance regulatory environment and a firm's corporate governance capacity. We conclude by advancing a new typology of corporate governance deviance based on a firm's over- or under-conformity with the dominant national logic, as well as its entrepreneurial identity motives. This globally-relevant study refines and extends comparative corporate governance research and enriches our current understanding of the institutional logics perspective.
    July 18, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0394   open full text
  • Respectful Inquiry: A motivational account of leading through asking open questions and listening.
    Niels Van Quaquebeke, Will Felps.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 12, 2016
    Practitioners repeatedly note that the everyday behavior of asking followers open questions and attentively listening to their responses is a powerful leadership technique. Yet, despite such popularity, these practices are currently under-theorized. Addressing this gap, we formally define the behavioral configuration of asking open questions combined with attentive listening as "Respectful Inquiry", and then draw on Self-Determination Theory to provide a motivational account of its antecedents, consequences, and moderators within a leader-follower relationship. Specifically, we argue that Respectful Inquiry principally satisfies followers' basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Against this background, we highlight ironic contexts where Respectful Inquiry is likely to be especially rare, but would also be especially valuable. These ironic contexts include situations where interpersonal power difference, time pressure, physical distance, cognitive load, follower dissatisfaction, or organizational control focus are high. We additionally outline how the effect of Respectful Inquiry behaviors critically hinges upon the interaction history a follower has with a leader. More generally, we make the suggestion that the leadership field would benefit from complementing its traditional focus on "gestalt" leadership styles with research on concrete and narrow communicative behaviors, such as Respectful Inquiry.
    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0537   open full text
  • Master Of Puppets: How Narcissistic Ceos Construct Their Professional Worlds.
    Arijit Chatterjee, Timothy Pollock.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 24, 2016
    We explore how narcissistic CEOs address two powerful and conflicting needs: the need for acclaim, and the need to dominate others. We argue that narcissistic CEOs address their need for acclaim by pursuing celebrity in the media and affiliating with high-status board members, and address their need to dominate others by employing lower-status, younger and less experienced TMT members who will be more deferential to and dependent on the narcissistic CEO. They manage each group differently through the use of different rewards, punishments and influence tactics. Our paper extends prior theory on CEO narcissism by exploring the mediating constructs that can link CEO narcissism and firm performance, offers a greater understanding of corporate governance by exploring how CEO personality traits influence governance structures, and demonstrates how a CEO's personality characteristics can affect the acquisition of social approval assets.
    June 24, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0224   open full text
  • Hitting Rock Bottom after Job Loss: Bouncing Back to Create a New Positive Work Identity.
    Dean Shepherd, Trenton Williams.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 24, 2016
    Although individuals often value work identities, sometimes events threaten these identities, creating a situation in which people struggle to overcome the identity threat. Building on the theories of identity and escape from self, we develop a "rock bottom" model of generating a new positive work identity. Specifically, individuals who eventually hit rock bottom come to the realization that the identity has been lost, which can lead to a path to recovery or a path to dysfunction. The path to recovery involves escape through identity play and the oscillation between disciplined identity play and identity refinement / validation. The path to dysfunction involves escape though cognitive deconstruction. Regulatory focus is important in distinguishing between those who engage in identity play to generate possible new positive identities (i.e., promotion focus) from those who engage in cognitive dysfunction (i.e., prevention focus). A deeper understanding of why some recover and others languish provides an opportunity to develop interventions that facilitate recovery from work-identity loss.
    June 24, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0102   open full text
  • Pareyson's Estetica: Teoria della formativita and its implication for organization studies.
    Gherardi, S.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 22, 2016
    Jean told us that we do not need an abstract
    June 22, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2016.0165   open full text
  • Lay Theories of Networking: How Laypeople's Beliefs about Networks Affect Their Attitudes and Engagement toward Instrumental Networking.
    Ko Kuwabara, Claudius Hildebrand, Xi Zou.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 22, 2016
    Who builds effective networks remains an elusive question, particularly given mounting evidence that many people actually feel conflicted or ambivalent about the idea of instrumental networking. Here, we turn to an important piece of the puzzle that has been under-theorized: lay beliefs and attitudes that inhibit networking. Borrowing from the literature on implicit theories in motivational psychology, our theoretical model examines people's beliefs about three basic aspects of networking: the fixed versus malleable nature of social intelligence, social relations, and social capital. We explain how each lay belief affects people's attitudes toward both the utility and morality of networking, with consequences for their engagement in different forms of networking (i.e. searching for new ties, maintaining existing ties, and leveraging social capital). We also consider their downstream effects for the size, diversity, and cohesiveness of networks people build. Overall, by examining the role of domain-specific beliefs and attitudes that undermine people's motivation to network, our model departs from existing views of networking based on rationality, personality, and perception to shed new light on the motivational psychology of networking.
    June 22, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0076   open full text
  • Affective Events And The Development Of Leader Member Exchange.
    Russell Cropanzano, Marie Dasborough, Howard Weiss.
    The Academy of Management Review. May 10, 2016
    We propose that consideration of affective events theory (AET) can enrich our understanding of leader-member exchange (LMX) development. Drawing from previous research, we argue that high quality LMX relationships progress through three stages - role taking, role making, and role routinization. AET indicates that emotions are relevant at each of these three stages, though their influence is manifested in different ways and at different levels of analysis. During the initial role taking stage, leaders' affective expressions serve as affective events influencing member emotions through the processes of emotional contagion and affective empathy, which determine the progress of further relationship development. Next, during the role making stage, leaders and members are both sources of affective events, and they may gradually become affectively entrained such that their affective states tend to fluctuate in a common rhythm. This pattern of dyadic level affect helps to build high quality LMX relationships over time. Finally, during the role routinization stage, an LMX relationship has been formed but, we argue could subsequently change based upon member emotional responses to the distribution of LMX relationships within a work group (LMX differentiation).
    May 10, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0384   open full text
  • A semiotic theory of institutionalization.
    Yuan Li.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 31, 2016
    Management theory emphasizes that what actors do is often not what they say, but tends to assume that what actors do is what they mean or that what they mean is what they say. These assumptions are problematic when studying the institutionalization process in which doing, saying, and meaning move from the micro level to the macro level. I argue that the three are distinct correlates of social reality that correspond to the semiotic triangle comprised of referent, signifier, and signified, which is key to understanding institutionalization. I combine the semiotic triangle and the chain of signification to conceptualize the process of institutionalization as the coevolution of the three correlates of the sign. Specifically, I identify two kinds of institutionalization: denotational and connotational. Whereas denotational institutionalization entails the coupling of the referent, signifier, and signified, connotational institutionalization involves decoupling among the three. Furthermore, decoupling not only occurs between doing and saying, as existing management studies assume, but also between doing and meaning as well as between meaning and saying. Based on this conceptualization, both kinds of institutionalization processes increase the taken-for-grantedness of the sign, but what is taken for granted differs drastically, which explains the heterogeneity in the institutionalization process.
    March 31, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0274   open full text
  • Feeling Mixed, Ambivalent And In Flux: The Social Functions Of Emotional Complexity For Leaders.
    Naomi Rothman, Shimul Melwani.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 25, 2016
    We propose that the experience and expression of emotional complexity, including the simultaneous and sequential experience of emotional complexity, can be beneficial for leaders' ability to lead change. Utilizing the social functions of emotions perspective, we suggest that the primary function of emotional complexity is to increase cognitive flexibility. Specifically, we present a model that explains how, when, and why emotional complexity is functional for leaders at the individual and interpersonal levels of analysis. At the individual level, leaders who experience emotional complexity are more cognitively flexible and thus make more adaptive decisions. We further propose that not all leaders will experience such benefits from emotional complexity; individual differences of neuroticism and openness to experience will moderate the leader emotional complexity-cognitive flexibility relationship. Extending our analysis to the interpersonal level, we propose that on observing leaders express emotional complexity, followers make positive inferences of cognitive flexibility and are then empowered to act proactively. We explore a relational factor, the followers' shared vantage point with their leader and a situational factor, competing demands as moderators of this relationship. We draw attention to the broader implications of our theorizing for research on leadership and emotions, and its practical implications for management.
    March 25, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0355   open full text
  • Beyond (just) the workplace: A theory of leader development across multiple domains.
    Michelle Hammond, Rachel Clapp-Smith, Michael Palanski.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 16, 2016
    Most leaders develop through experiences across multiple domains of life (work, community, friends/family), yet an understanding of how this process occurs remains largely unexplored. We propose a theory to explain how leaders develop across multiple domains by explicating both the process and content of leader development. Using a sensemaking framework, we describe how leaders first notice and subsequently interpret cross-domain connections and disconnections, leading to changes in the leader's identity with respect to strength, integration, meaning and level. These changes then lead to increased depth and breadth of leader competence and an ongoing, interweaving process of sensemaking that explains cross-domain leader development. We conclude with discussion of the benefits of and future directions for studying leader development across domains for leaders, organizations, and leadership educators.
    March 16, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0431   open full text
  • Who is Deserving and Who Decides: Entitlement as a Work-Situated Phenomenon.
    Anne O'Leary-Kelly, Chris Rosen, Wayne Hochwarter.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 29, 2016
    Popular press accounts and an emerging research literature suggest that organizations increasingly face the prospect of managing employees who are highly entitled, yet relatively little research has explored entitlement in work settings. Moreover, the limited existing research has considered entitlement through a narrow lens, primarily viewing entitlement as a stable individual difference without consideration of the social context that surrounds the individual. The conceptualization presented here, which we label work-situated entitlement (WSE), depicts entitlement as a socially-determined work condition that reflects a misalignment between perceptions of the individual employee and the workgroup. Situating entitlement in the work context allows for explanation of the processes through which WSE develops, and for explanation of its emotional and behavioral effects. This model provides a broader conceptualization of entitlement and illustrates how organizations might intervene to limit its deleterious work-related consequences.
    February 29, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0128   open full text
  • Moving beyond fight and flight: A contingent model of how anger and fear spark proactivity.
    R. David Lebel.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 26, 2016
    Although the experience of negative emotions is generally associated with negative behaviors and outcomes, researchers have largely overlooked the possibility that negative emotions can lead to proactive behavior. For instance, emotions such as anger and fear can spark proactive behavior by signaling a need to change the status quo. Whereas theory and research on the topic have produced conflicting arguments and inconsistent results, I integrate a discrete emotions perspective with theories of proactivity to determine the conditions under which anger and fear prompt proactive behavior. Doing so, I provide a conceptual framework that enables understanding of specific factors that determine when anger is directed away from fight that harms others and towards fight that benefits others, and when fear is directed away from flight and towards increased proactive effort (fight). This article contributes to theory with a contingent model that specifies when and why anger and fear spark proactive behavior and generate functional outcomes. It also offers practical advice for organizations to effectively manage emotional experiences and thereby increase proactive behavior resulting from experienced anger or fear.
    February 26, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0368   open full text
  • The Grateful Workplace: A Multilevel Model of Gratitude in Organizations.
    Ryan Fehr, Ashley Fulmer, Eli Awtrey, Jared Miller.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 26, 2016
    Gratitude is a valuable emotion with an array of functional outcomes. Nonetheless, research on gratitude in organizations is limited. In this paper, we develop a multilevel model of gratitude comprised of episodic gratitude at the event level, persistent gratitude at the individual level, and collective gratitude at the organizational level. We then consider the types of human resource initiatives that organizations can develop to cultivate employee gratitude and the contingencies of gratitude's emergence at the individual and organizational levels of analysis. Finally, we elucidate the benefits of gratitude for organizations and their employees. The sum result is a deeper understanding of how gratitude unfolds in organizations and the role that organizations themselves can play in influencing emotions at multiple levels in the workplace.
    February 26, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0374   open full text
  • How Do Leader-Departures Affect Subordinates' Organizational Attachment?: A 360-Degree Relational Perspective.
    Shapiro, D., Hom, P., Shen, W., Agarwal, R.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 08, 2016
    Management scholars have noted that leader departures often foreshadow higher turnover intentions (or lower organizational attachment) by subordinates left behind, especially when relationships between the departing leader and the subordinates, or leader-member exchanges (LMX), had been of high quality. In this paper, we posit that the quality of subordinates' relationships with all members of their relational system, not only their leader, must be considered to better understand how leader departures affect subordinates' organizational attachment. Our proposed relationships are illustrated in a theoretical model that includes phenomena at the individual-level (i.e., a subordinate's identification with the departing leader and with his/her organization), at the group-level (i.e., turnover contagion), and at the organizational level (i.e., organization-wide developmental climate). As such, we propose that elucidating how leader-departures affect organizational attachment requires multi-level theorizing and constructs. Theoretical and practical implications of such a 360-degree relational perspective on leader-departure effects are discussed.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0233   open full text
  • The Role of Affect Climate in Organizational Effectiveness.
    Michael Parke, Myeong-Gu Seo.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 21, 2016
    Past research widely demonstrates the importance of employee emotional experiences and processes for individual and small group outcomes. However, theory for how organizations systematically differ in their affective processes and how these impact important organizational outcomes is lacking. To address this problem, we use organizational climate theory to advance the construct of affect climate and provide a conceptual foundation to understand its processes and effects in organizations. We propose that through various sources of climate, such as company practices, leaders, and routines, organizations can create environments that promote among employees (1) certain types of affective experiences or expressions, (2) specific uses of desirable affect for functional goals, and (3) particular ways to manage undesirable emotions and moods. We suggest that these three interrelated processes work together to form one of six unique affect climate types that we identify among organizations. Further, we develop theory to explain how each affect climate type differentially impacts four strategic outcomes of organizational units: relationship, productivity, creativity, and reliability performance. Ultimately, our theory positions affect climate as another key performance differentiator for organizations, and it provides knowledge of the specific affect climate types that enable or inhibit distinct strategic priorities.
    January 21, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0424   open full text
  • Good Citizen Interrupted: Calibrating a Temporal Theory of Citizenship Behavior.
    Jessica Methot, David Lepak, Abbie Shipp, Wendy Boswell.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 19, 2016
    Burgeoning theory and research signal the prominence of within-individual dynamics in OCB, with such work focusing primarily on short-term (i.e., minutes, days, weeks) fluctuations that result from a focus on immediate circumstances. But, longer-term variations in OCB also occur as people continuously craft identity narratives to tell evolving stories about themselves using selective appropriation of the past, present, and future. By focusing on individuals who have internalized a "good citizen identity" (a reflection of one's self-concept as a person who demonstrates OCB), we shift attention by presenting theory that speaks to modifications of OCB trends over the course of good citizens' tenure. We ground our framework in the time-dependent perspectives of sensemaking and dynamic behavior to specify precise temporal relationships between triggering cues and OCB modifications. Specifically, we define a baseline OCB trend, then develop propositions about how sensemaking cues linked to role transitions and work episodes can prompt differences in four trend effects—lag, rate of change, magnitude, and permanence. In doing so, we identify circumstances that interrupt good citizens' ongoing flow, and that could spark permanent modifications to OCB.
    January 19, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0415   open full text
  • Team entrepreneurial passion (TEP): Its emergence and influence in new venture teams.
    Melissa Cardon, Corinne Post, William Forster.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 11, 2016
    We introduce the concept of team entrepreneurial passion (TEP), a team-level construct representing the level of shared intense positive feelings for a collective and central team identity for new venture teams (NVTs). Additionally, we develop a dynamic theoretical model of (a) the processes by which TEP can emerge from different combinations of new venture team members' individual entrepreneurial passions; (b) the influence of TEP on team and individual member outcomes; and (c) the relative importance of TEP emergence and influence processes at different venture stages. Our model has theoretical and practical implications for scholarship concerning affective diversity, shared affect, collective identity, NVTs, and entrepreneurial passion.
    January 11, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0356   open full text
  • Where do I go from here? Sensemaking and the Construction of Growth-Based Stories in the Wake of Denied Promotions.
    Heather Vough, Brianna Caza.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 11, 2016
    Denied promotions occur when individuals go up for but do not receive promotions at work. The extant literature focuses on the negative implications of denied promotions. We argue, in contrast, that individuals can ultimately benefit from denied promotions and experience positive outcomes when they construct growth-based stories about their denied promotion. Drawing on a sensemaking perspective, we articulate when individuals are likely to construct growth-based denied promotion stories, highlighting the identity and social conditions that support such stories. We then link growth-based denied promotion stories to the positive behavioral outcomes of work engagement and career proactivity via increases in resilience in their career identities. Finally, we situate denied promotions in the broader context of the career and address how responses to denied promotions are influenced by past career setback responses, and may shape future career setback responses. Our model provides theoretical contributions to the literatures on denied promotions, careers, positive organizational scholarship, and sensemaking.
    January 11, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0177   open full text
  • Feigned versus Felt: Feigning Behaviors and the Dynamics of Institutional Logics.
    Lee Jarvis.
    The Academy of Management Review. December 26, 2015
    Responding to the paucity of institutional literature which meaningfully distinguishes between emotional displays and the experience of emotions, I describe the process by which display rules are codified into the logics governing an institutional regime. I then theorize the role of feigning behaviors, or emotional displays which are decoupled from the physiological experience of emotion either in intensity or valence (positive/negative), in the higher-order dynamics of institutional logics. Specifically, I suggest that the two categories of feigning behavior (valence congruous feigning and diametric feigning) can play different roles in catalyzing the coexistence, blending, and contestation of institutional logics. This research aids institutional theorists in understanding the local affairs and 'on-the-ground' lived experiences of institutional logics through highlighting the role of feigned emotional display as the ubiquitous mechanism through which persons navigate and cope with institutional mandates.
    December 26, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0363   open full text
  • Resources and Relationships in Entrepreneurship: An Exchange Theory of the Development and Effects of the Entrepreneur-Investor Relationship.
    Laura Huang, Andrew Knight.
    The Academy of Management Review. November 24, 2015
    We develop a theoretical model, grounded in exchange theory, about the process through which relationships between entrepreneurs and investors develop and influence the growth of new ventures. Our theory highlights the multifaceted relationships that entrepreneurs and investors share—comprising both affective and instrumental dimensions—and the bidirectional exchanges of social and financial resources that build these relationships over time. An exchange theory perspective sheds light on the emergence of different patterns of relationship development over time and how different kinds of resource exchange contribute to new venture growth, contingent on the core problems that a venture faces at a given stage of development. We discuss implications of an exchange perspective on resources and relationships in entrepreneurship for theory, research, and practice.
    November 24, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0397   open full text
  • Cities of Noise: A Brief Inquiry into Sensemaking, Sensemakers and Organized Worlds.
    Patriotta, G.
    The Academy of Management Review. November 17, 2015
    N/A
    November 17, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2015.0357   open full text
  • An Emotional Process Theory Of How Subordinates Appraise, Experience, And Respond To Abusive Supervision Over Time.
    Kyoungjo (Jo) Oh, Crystal Farh.
    The Academy of Management Review. November 13, 2015
    As empirical research on abusive supervision flourishes, there is an increasing need for an integrative framework that accounts for how and why individuals vary in their perceptions, experiences, and responses to abuse over time. To address this need, we integrate across theories of emotions to present a multiphase, episodic process model that explains how initial attributions and appraisals combine to give rise to three distinct emotions - anger, fear, and sadness - that in turn drive a range of behavioral responses. Upon this foundation, we offer new propositions on how various person and situational factors combine at each phase to produce different emotional and behavioral pathways, and further conceptualize how feedback loops linking the behavioral responses in one episode to the next can result in emotional modulations and increasing (or decreasing) trajectories of adaptation to abuse. We advance the abusive supervision literature by a) providing a dynamic framework that integrates and organizes existing research, b) offering new emotions-based explanations for why people exhibit a range of responses to abuse over time, and c) highlighting areas in need of future research that have the potential to provide a more complete understanding of abusive supervision and its implications for organizations.
    November 13, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0347   open full text
  • A Rolling Stone Gathers Momentum: Generational Units, Collective Memory, and Entrepreneurship.
    Lippmann, S., Aldrich, H.
    The Academy of Management Review. November 12, 2015
    We draw on the historiographical concepts of "generational units" and "collective memories" as a framework for understanding the emergence of entrepreneurially oriented cohesive groups within regions. Generational units are localized subgroups within generations that have a self-referential, reflexive quality, by virtue of the members' sense of their own connections to each other and the events that define them. Collective memories are shared accounts of the past shaped by historical events that mold individuals' perceptions. The two concepts provide a valuable point of departure for incorporating historical concepts into the study of entrepreneurial dynamics and offer a framework for understanding how entrepreneurs' historically situated experiences affect them. Our framework breaks new theoretical ground in several ways. First, we synthesize disparate literatures on generational units, collective memory, and organizational imprinting. Second, we specify mechanisms through which imprinting occurs and persists over time. We develop analytical arguments framed by sociological and historiographical theories, focusing on the conditions under which meaningful generational units of entrepreneurs may emerge and benefit from leadership and legacy building, technologies of memory, and institutional support that increases the likelihood of their persistence.
    November 12, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0139   open full text
  • Towards a More Comprehensive Model of Firms' Human Capital Rents.
    Clint Chadwick.
    The Academy of Management Review. November 12, 2015
    Strategic human capital research has recently expanded to encompass other types of labor market frictions in addition to those posed by firm specific human capital. Labor market frictions inhibit trade in human capital, allowing firms that are idiosyncratically advantaged with respect to a particular friction to appropriate human capital rents. Adding to this nascent conversation, this paper describes how idiosyncratic firm resources and capabilities enable firms to garner human capital rents. By explicitly distinguishing between value creation and value capture, which together drive firm level human capital rents, this paper's theoretic framework uncovers overlooked circumstances where firms' pursuit of human capital rents differ in important ways. Theoretic propositions and implications to guide future research are discussed.
    November 12, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0385   open full text
  • History, Society, and Institutions: The Role of Collective Memory in the Emergence and Evolution of Societal Logics.
    Ocasio, W., Mauskapf, M., Steele, C.
    The Academy of Management Review. November 12, 2015
    We examine the role of history in organization studies by theorizing how collective memory shapes societal institutions and the logics that govern them. Rather than ahistorical ideal types, we propose that societal logics are historically constituted cultural structures, generated through the collective memory of historical events. We then develop a theoretical model to explain how the representation, storage, and retrieval of collective memory lead to the emergence of societal logics. In turn, societal logics shape memory-making, and the reproduction and reconstruction of history itself. To illustrate our theory we discuss the rise of the corporate logic in the United States. In addition, we identify two sources of discontinuity that can disrupt this memory-making process and create notable disjunctures in the evolution of societal logics. We conclude by discussing how changes in collective memory and the historical trajectory of societal logics shape organizational forms and practices.
    November 12, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0183   open full text
  • The heart of institutions: Emotional competence and institutional actorhood.
    Voronov, M., Weber, K.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 28, 2015
    We develop the concept of emotional competence (EC), which refers to the ability to experience and display emotions that are deemed appropriate for an actor role in an institutional order. EC reveals a more expansive view of emotions in institutional theory, in which emotions constitute competent actors and lend reality and passionate identification to institutions. We distinguish two facets of EC—private, which is needed to engage in self-regulation, and public, which is needed to elicit other-authorization—and two criteria for assessing EC—the deemed naturalness and authenticity of emotions within an institutional order. These distinctions delineate four processes through which EC ties personal experience and social performance with fundamental institutional ideals, the institution's ethos. We discuss theoretical and methodological implications of this model for researching institutional processes.
    October 28, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0458   open full text
  • Historic Corporate Social Responsibility.
    Schrempf-Stirling, J., Palazzo, G., Phillips, R.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 16, 2015
    Corporations are increasingly held responsible for activities up and down their value chains but outside of their traditional corporate boundaries. Recently, there has been a similar wave of criticism arising from corporate activities from the past, overseen by prior generations of managers. Yet there is little or no scholarly theorizing about the ways contemporary managers engage with these critiques nor how this corporate engagement with the past affects the legitimacy of current business. Extending theorizing about political corporate social responsibility and organizational legitimacy, we address this omission by asking: 1) What is the theoretical basis for holding a corporation responsible for decisions made by prior generations of managers? 2) What is the process by which such claims are raised and contested? 3) What are the relevant features that render a charge of historical harmdoing more or less legitimate in the current context? And 4) How will a corporation's response to such charges affect the intensity of the future narrative contests and the corporation's own legitimacy?
    October 16, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0137   open full text
  • A Realist Perspective Of Entrepreneurship: Opportunities As Propensities.
    Ramoglou, S., Tsang, E.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 16, 2015
    The idea that entrepreneurial opportunities exist "out there" is increasingly under attack by scholars who argue that opportunities do not pre-exist objectively but are actively created through subjective processes of social construction. In this article, we concede many of the criticisms pioneered by the creation approach but resist abandoning the pre-existing reality of opportunities. Instead, we use realist philosophy of science to ontologically rehabilitate the objectivity of entrepreneurial opportunities by elucidating their propensity mode of existence. Our realist perspective offers an intuitive and paradox-free understanding of what it means for opportunities to exist objectively. This renewed understanding enables us to (1) explain that the subjectivities of the process of opportunity actualization do not contradict the objective existence of opportunities; (2) develop the notion of "non-opportunity;" and (3) clarify the ways through which individuals might make cognitive contact with opportunities prior to their actualization. Our actualization approach serves as a refined meta-theory for guiding future entrepreneurship research, and facilitates the revisiting of subtle conceptual issues at the core of entrepreneurial theory, such as the nature of uncertainty and "non-entrepreneurs," as well as the role played by prediction in a scientific study of entrepreneurship.
    October 16, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0281   open full text
  • Understanding Word Responses In Competitive Dynamics.
    He Gao, Tieying Yu, Albert Cannella.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 14, 2015
    We explore the role of word responses in the competitive engagements of rival firms. Different from action responses, word responses are language issued by a firm in public forums and in response to a rival's attack. We challenge an implicit assumption in extant competitive dynamics research that firms do nothing if they do not respond to attacks with actions. Drawing from the three drivers of competitive response (awareness, motivation, and capability), we build a framework to theorize why firms sometimes use actions, sometimes use words and sometimes use both in response to a rival's attack. By placing two frequently studied characteristics of attacks (attack magnitude and attack complexity) in a 2 X 2 matrix, we predict that word responses are more likely to be observed when attacks are not of low magnitude and low complexity. By integrating word responses into the traditional action-response perspective, we hope to develop a more complete understanding of competitive engagement among rival firms.
    October 14, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0211   open full text
  • From Creativity To Innovation: The Social Network Drivers Of The Four Phases Of The Idea Journey.
    Jill Perry-Smith, Pier Vittorio Mannucci.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 14, 2015
    In recent years interest has burgeoned in how social networks influence individual creativity and innovation. This increased attention has generated many inconsistencies from both the theoretical and empirical points of view. In this article we propose that a conceptualization of the idea journey encompassing phases that the literature has so far overlooked can help solve existing tensions. We conceptualize four phases of the journey of an idea from conception to completion: idea generation, idea elaboration, idea championing, and idea implementation. We propose that a creator has distinct primary needs in each phase - cognitive flexibility, support, influence, and shared vision, respectively. Individual creators successfully move through a phase when the relational and structural elements of their networks match the distinct needs of the phase. The relational and structural elements that are beneficial for one phase, however, are detrimental for another. We propose that in order to solve this seeming contradiction and the associated paradoxes, individual creators have to change interpretations and frames throughout the different phases. This in turn allows them to activate different network characteristics at the appropriate moment and successfully complete the idea journey from novel concept to a tangible outcome that changes the field.
    October 14, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0462   open full text
  • Beyond Nonmarket Strategy: Market Actions as Corporate Political Activity.
    Russell Funk, Daniel Hirschman.
    The Academy of Management Review. September 18, 2015
    Many firms seek to manage their legal and regulatory environments by influencing policymakers. Typically, researchers have focused on how firms use nonmarket actions, including lobbying, campaign contributions, and related activities, to gain policy influence. We argue that firms may also seek to change the effects of policies through market actions. Market actions may lead to both formal policy change (i.e., transformations of codified rules) and interpretive policy change (i.e., transformations of the effects of rules without changes in their codified form). We identify two pathways by which firms' market actions may produce interpretive policy change: implementation and innovation. Implementation-driven change occurs when firms' interpretations of incomplete laws alter and clarify the meaning of those laws. Innovation-driven change occurs when firms engage in novel activities that are difficult to interpret within existing regulatory frameworks, and thus alter the effects of those regulations. We then theorize how firms' market actions may complement traditional, nonmarket political mobilization in an analysis of sequences of formal and interpretive policy change.
    September 18, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0178   open full text
  • An Identity Based Approach to Social Enterprise.
    Tyler Wry, Jeffrey York.
    The Academy of Management Review. September 08, 2015
    Social enterprise has gained widespread acclaim as a tool for addressing social and environmental problems. Yet, because these organizations integrate the social welfare and commercial logics, they face the challenge of pursuing goals that frequently conflict with each other. Studies have begun to address how established social enterprises can manage these tensions, but we know little about how, why, and with what consequences social entrepreneurs mix competing logics as they create new organizations. To address this gap, we develop a theoretical model based in identity theory that helps to explain: (1) how the commercial and social welfare logics become relevant to entrepreneurship, (2) how different types of entrepreneurs perceive the tension between these logics, and (3) the implications this has for how entrepreneurs go about recognizing and developing social enterprise opportunities. Our approach responds to calls from organizational and entrepreneurship scholars to extend existing frameworks of opportunity recognition and development to better account for social enterprise creation.
    September 08, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0506   open full text
  • On the Forgetting of Corporate Irresponsibility.
    Mena, S., Rintamaki, J., Fleming, P., Spicer, A.
    The Academy of Management Review. September 08, 2015
    Why are some serious cases of corporate irresponsibility collectively forgotten? Drawing on social memory studies, we examine how this collective forgetting process can occur. We propose that a major instance of corporate irresponsibility leads to the emergence of a stakeholder mnemonic community that shares a common recollection of the past incident. This community generates and then draws upon mnemonic traces to sustain a collective memory of the past event over time. In addition to the natural entropic tendencies toward forgetting, collective memory is also undermined by instrumental 'forgetting work', which we conceptualize in this paper. Forgetting work involves manipulating short-term conditions of the event, silencing vocal 'rememberers' and undermining collective mnemonic traces that sustain a version of the past. This process can result in a reconfigured collective memory and collective forgetting of corporate irresponsibility events. Collective forgetting can have positive and negative consequences for the firm, stakeholders and society.
    September 08, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0208   open full text
  • Taking historical embeddedness seriously: Three historical approaches to advance strategy process and practice research.
    Vaara, E., Lamberg, J.-A.
    The Academy of Management Review. August 04, 2015
    Despite the proliferation of strategy process and practice research, we lack understanding of the historical embeddedness of strategic processes and practices. In this paper, we present three historical approaches with the potential to remedy this deficiency. First, realist history can contribute to a better understanding of the historical embeddedness of strategic processes; in particular, comparative historical analysis can explicate the historical conditions, mechanisms, and causality in strategic processes. Second, interpretative history can add to our knowledge of the historical embeddedness of strategic practices, and microhistory can specifically help to understand the construction and enactment of these practices in historical contexts. Third, poststructuralist history can elucidate the historical embeddedness of strategic discourses, and genealogy can in particular increase our understanding of the evolution and transformation of strategic discourses and their power effects. Thus, this paper demonstrates how in their specific ways historical approaches and methods can add to our understanding of different forms and variations of strategic processes and practices, the historical construction of organizational strategies, and historically constituted strategic agency.
    August 04, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0172   open full text
  • Problematizing Fit And Survival: Transforming The Law Of Requisite Variety Through Complexity Misalignment.
    Poulis, K., Poulis, E.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 27, 2015
    The law of requisite variety is widely employed in management theorizing, and is linked with core strategy themes such as contingency and fit. We reflect upon requisite variety as an archetypal borrowed concept. We contrast its premises with insights from institutional and commitment literatures, draw propositions that set boundaries to its applicability, and review the ramifications of what we term "complexity misalignment." In this way, we contradict foundational assumptions of the law, problematize adaptation- and survival-centric views of strategizing, and theorize the role of human agency in variously complex regimes.
    July 27, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0073   open full text
  • Seeing You In Me And Me In You: Personal Identification In The Phases Of Mentoring Relationships.
    Humberd, B., Rouse, E.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 16, 2015
    Identification is integral to mentoring relationships, yet we know relatively little about the process through which mentors and protégés identify with each other, how this mutual identification shifts through the phases of the mentoring relationship, and how identification impacts the quality of the relationship over time. In this paper, we integrate theories of the self, relationships, and relational mentoring to consider the role of identification in informal mentoring. Specifically, we theorize how the process of personal identification occurs in mentoring from the perspective of both the mentor and protégé and offer a model that demonstrates how shifts in identification relate to the quality of the relationship that develops over time. We conclude with a discussion of implications for research and theory in mentoring.
    July 16, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0203   open full text
  • Changing With The Times: An Integrated View Of Identity, Legitimacy And New Venture Life Cycles.
    Fisher, G., Kotha, S., Lahiri, A.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 13, 2015
    In order to acquire resources, new ventures need to be perceived as legitimate. For this to occur, a venture must meet the expectations of various audiences with differing norms, standards, and values as the venture evolves and grows. We investigate how the organizational identity of a technology venture must adapt to meet the expectations of critical resource providers at each stage of its organizational life cycle. In so doing, we provide a temporal perspective on the interactions between identity, organizational legitimacy, institutional environments, and entrepreneurial resource acquisition for technology ventures. The core assertion from this conceptual analysis is that entrepreneurial ventures confront multiple legitimacy thresholds as they evolve and grow. We identify and discuss three key insights related to entrepreneurs' efforts to cross those thresholds at different organizational life cycle stages: institutional pluralism, venture-identity embeddedness and legitimacy buffering.
    July 13, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0496   open full text
  • Conceptualizing Historical Organization Studies.
    Maclean, M., Harvey, C., Clegg, S.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 13, 2015
    The promise of a closer union between organizational and historical research has long been recognized. However its potential remains unfulfilled: the authenticity of theory development expected by organization studies and the authenticity of historical veracity required by historical research place exceptional conceptual and empirical demands on researchers. We elaborate the idea of historical organization studies, organizational research that draws extensively on historical data, methods and knowledge to promote historically informed theoretical narratives attentive to both disciplines. Building on prior research, we propose a typology of four differing conceptions of history in organizational research: history as evaluating, explicating, conceptualizing, and narrating. We identify five principles of historical organization studies - dual integrity, pluralistic understanding, representational truth, context sensitivity and theoretical fluency - and illustrate our typology holistically from the perspective of institutional entrepreneurship. We explore practical avenues for a creative synthesis, drawing examples from social movement research and micro-history. Historically informed theoretical narratives whose validity derives from both historical veracity and conceptual rigor, afford dual integrity that enhances scholarly legitimacy, enriching understanding of historical, contemporary and future-directed social realities.
    July 13, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amr.2014.0133   open full text
  • Developing a Conceptual Framework for Comparing Social Value Creation.
    Kroeger, A., Weber, C.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 22, 2014
    The soaring popularity of business practices in the social sector has elicited numerous calls from academics and practitioners to adopt appropriate methodologies to quantify and compare social value creation. However, "as yet, there are no standardized calculative mechanisms for social value creation, nor any comparative unit of measurement" (Nicholls, 2009: 758). We help bridge this research gap by developing a conceptual framework that allows us to compare the effectiveness of social interventions serving the different needs of different treatment groups in different socioeconomic and institutional contexts. We do so by bringing insights from both literatures on subjective well-being and organizational effectiveness theory into not-for-profit and social entrepreneurship research.
    April 22, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0344   open full text
  • The Directness And Oppositional Intensity Of Conflict Expression.
    Weingart, L., Behfar, K., Bendersky, C., Todorova, G., Jehn, K.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 22, 2014
    Conflicts in the workplace have been characterized by their type (task, process, relationship), but little attention has been paid to how conflicts are expressed. We present a conceptual framework of conflict expression and argue that understanding how conflicts are expressed can help us gain new insights about the effects of conflict. We propose that conflict expressions vary in their directness and oppositional intensity, and these differences directly influence how people experience and react to conflict, resulting in dynamic escalatory or de-escalatory conflict spirals. We argue that directness of conflict expression is a function of the ambiguity of expression and who is involved (antagonists vs. involving other people). Oppositional intensity of conflict expression is indicated by the communicated entrenchment in positions and subversiveness of actions. We argue that while oppositional intensity and directness are universal dimensions characterizing conflict expression, the cultural context and characteristics of the disputants will influence how conflict is expressed and perceived. We consider the implications of our conceptual framework for related literatures examining conflict.
    April 22, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0124   open full text
  • Toward A Model Of Work Team Altruism.
    Li, N., Kirkman, B., Porter, C.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 27, 2014
    Despite the acknowledged existence of egoism and altruism in human behavior, existing work teams research has primarily employed a descriptive approach to summarizing team behavior that does not distinguish between egoism and altruism. And, despite increasing interest in positive organizational behavior and psychology, much more attention has been paid to understanding team egoistic, compared to altruistic, behavior thus leaving theories of team motivation incomplete. Extending research on team processes and individual level citizenship behavior, we develop a multilevel, dynamic framework that comprehensively establishes the team altruism construct and identifies its key dimensions. We further discuss the unique motives and evolution of team altruism over time. As a result, our theoretical framework: offers a new taxonomy of team altruism, distinguishes team altruism from other related constructs, advances research on team processes by delineating those that are more altruistic from those that are more egoistic, argues that different types of team altruistic behaviors and processes have different antecedents, and generates a number of important directions for future research.
    March 27, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0160   open full text
  • Cognitive Frames in Corporate Sustainability: Managerial Sensemaking with Paradoxical and Business Case Frames.
    Hahn, T., Preuss, L., Pinkse, J., Figge, F.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 26, 2014
    Corporate sustainability confronts managers with complex issues and tensions between economic, environmental and social aspects. Drawing on the literature on managerial cognition, corporate sustainability, and strategic paradoxes, we develop a cognitive framing perspective on corporate sustainability. We propose two cognitive frames - a business case frame and a paradoxical frame - and explore how differences between them in cognitive content and structure influence the three stages of the sensemaking process, i.e. managerial scanning, interpreting and responding with regard to sustainability issues. We explain how the two frames lead to differences in the breadth and depth of scanning, to differences in issue interpretations in terms of sense of control and issue valence, as well as to different types of responses that managers consider with regard to sustainability issues. By considering alternative cognitive frames, our argument contributes to a better understanding of managerial decision-making regarding ambiguous sustainability issues and develops the underlying cognitive determinants of the stance that managers adopt on sustainability issues. This argument offers a cognitive explanation why managers rarely push for radical change when faced with complex and ambiguous issues, such as sustainability, that are characterized by conflicting yet interrelated aspects.
    March 26, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0341   open full text
  • Teams in pursuit of radical innovation: A Goal Orientation Perspective.
    Alexander, L., van Knippenberg, D.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 24, 2014
    Existing theoretical models of team innovation emphasize internal team processes and external conditions that facilitate or hinder innovation, but tend to be more suited for incremental than for radical innovation. Teams developing radical innovations face greater uncertainty and risk of failure, and often encounter unanticipated challenges that require concerted efforts of the team as a whole to move the project forward rather than face termination. Drawing on state goal orientation theory, we analyze the motivational drivers that position teams to effectively deal with such challenges. We propose a novel approach for managing team motivational states that involves adapting team goal preferences at key points in the innovation process in order to achieve radical innovation success. We advance a model that highlights teams' ability to dynamically shift shared goal orientations to meet acute 'shocks' that disrupt regular team activities and threaten the survival of the innovation project. The role of ambidextrous leadership and reflexive team processes in achieving goal orientation shifts are identified as important factors in radical innovation success. Although unanticipated challenges related to idea development and idea promotion may occur in both radical and incremental innovation projects, we argue that the effects are stronger the more radical the innovation.
    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0044   open full text
  • Interstitial Spaces: Micro-Interaction Settings and the Genesis of New Practices between Institutional Fields.
    Furnari, S.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 28, 2014
    This paper develops a model linking specific micro-interaction dynamics between members of different institutional fields and the genesis of new practices. The model centers on the concept of interstitial spaces -i.e. small-scale settings where individuals from different fields interact occasionally and informally around common activities to which they devote limited time (e.g. hobbyist clubs, hangouts, workshops, meet-ups). I argue that the features of interstitial spaces (e.g. their institutional diversity and their occasional and informal nature) facilitate the individuals interacting in these settings to temporarily break free from existing institutions and experiment collectively with new activities and ideas. However, these very same features hinder the constitution of such new activities and ideas into new practices. I identify two micro-level conditions that enable the new activities and ideas developed in interstitial spaces to be constituted into new practices: the emergence of successful interaction rituals, and the presence of catalysts sustaining others' interactions and assisting the construction of shared meanings.
    February 28, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0045   open full text
  • Creative Synthesis: Exploring the Process of Extraordinary Group Creativity.
    Harvey, S.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 14, 2014
    This paper provides insight into how some groups achieve extraordinary levels of creativity by reconsidering the collective process through which new ideas develop. Previous research is premised on a model in which idea generation stimulated by divergent input increases the variance in ideas a group generates and therefore the chance that one of the group's ideas will be a radical, breakthrough creative product. In contrast, I present a dialectic model in which the integration of group members' perspectives (which I label creative synthesis) is the foundation for new ideas. I propose that the process of creative synthesis improves the chance that each of a group's ideas is a breakthrough. I elaborate the process facilitators of creative synthesis and the implications of the dialectic model for understanding extraordinary group creativity. Creative synthesis provides an alternative way for groups to combine their cognitive, social, and environmental resources into extraordinary output.
    February 14, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0224   open full text
  • Transaction Cost Economics and the Cognitive Perspective: Investigating the Sources & Governance of Interpretive Uncertainty.
    Weber, L., Mayer, K.
    The Academy of Management Review. February 11, 2014
    We augment transaction cost economics (TCE) with a cognitive perspective to expand the conceptualization of uncertainty, an important but underexplored concept, to include interpretive uncertainty, which arises from conflicting cognitive frames. Interpretive uncertainty generates different views of the exchange and can lead to unexpected conflict, additional transaction costs, and potential early termination of the transaction. In contrast to traditional TCE hazards, which are derived from transaction characteristics, interpretive uncertainty is driven by relational characteristics (the attributes of the parties in relation to each other). Additionally, interpretive uncertainty is mitigated by aligning the frames of the exchange partners rather than traditional safeguards such as penalty clauses. As a result, effective governance must support the development of a common dominant frame that facilitates the completion of the transaction. In this paper, we develop propositions exploring relational characteristics that drive interpretive uncertainty, the moderating influence of asset specificity, and how attributes of traditional governance forms support distinct frame alignment processes to mitigate different levels of interpretive uncertainty.
    February 11, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0463   open full text
  • Titles Matter: Addressing The Normalization Of Othering.
    Vinkenburg, C.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 15, 2014
    Abstract not required for dialogue
    January 15, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0527   open full text
  • Swimming In A Sea Of Shame: Incorporating Emotion Into Explanations Of Institutional Reproduction And Change.
    Creed, D., Hudson, B., Okhuysen, G., Smith-Crowe, K.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 15, 2014
    We theorize the role in institutional processes of what we call the shame nexus, a set of shame-related constructs: felt shame, systemic shame, sense of shame, and episodic shaming. As a discrete emotion, felt shame signals to a person that a social bond is at risk and catalyzes a fundamental motivation to preserve valued bonds. We conceptualize systemic shame as a form of disciplinary power, animated by persons' sense of shame, a mechanism of ongoing intersubjective surveillance and self-regulation. We theorize how the duo of the sense of shame and systemic shame drives the self-regulation that underpins persons' conformity to institutional prescriptions and institutional reproduction. We conceptualize episodic shaming as a form of juridical power used by institutional guardians to elicit renewed conformity and reassert institutional prescriptions. We also explain how episodic shaming may have unintended effects, including institutional disruption and recreation, when it triggers sensemaking among targets and observers that can lead to the reassessment of the appropriateness of institutional prescriptions or the value of social bonds. We link the shame nexus to three broad categories of institutional work.
    January 15, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0074   open full text
  • Means versus Ends in Opaque Institutional Fields: Trading off Compliance and Achievement in Sustainability Standard Adoption.
    Wijen, F.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 06, 2014
    The long-standing discussion on decoupling has recently moved from adopters not implementing the agreed-upon policies towards compliant adopters not achieving the goals intended by institutional entrepreneurs. This 'means-ends decoupling' prevails especially in highly opaque fields, where practices, causality, and performance are hard to understand and chart. This paper conceptualizes the conditions under which the adoption of institutions in relatively opaque fields leads to the achievement of the envisaged goals. Voluntary sustainability standards governing socio-environmental issues illustrate these arguments. I argue that the lack of field transparency drives institutional entrepreneurs to create and maintain concrete and uniform rules, apply strong incentives, and disseminate 'best practices' to ensure substantive adopter compliance. However, such rigid institutions are ill-equipped to deal with the causal complexity and practice multiplicity underlying opacity while they smother adopter agency. The ensuing tension between substantive compliance and goal achievement leads to an inherent trade-off: institutional entrepreneurs who remedy the policy-practice decoupling may enhance the disparity between means and ends, and vice versa. While sustainability standards and other institutions in highly opaque fields can, therefore, not fully achieve the envisaged goals, the trade-off can be reduced through systemically designed institutions that promote goal internalization and contain niche institutions.
    January 06, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0218   open full text
  • Strategies For Organizational History: A Dialogue Between Historical Theory And Organization Theory.
    Rowlinson, M., Hassard, J., Decker, S.
    The Academy of Management Review. December 13, 2013
    If history matters for organization theory then we need greater reflexivity regarding the epistemological problem of representing the past; otherwise, history might be seen as merely a repository of ready-made data. To facilitate this reflexivity, we set out three epistemological dualisms derived from historical theory to explain the relationship between history and organization theory: (1) in the dualism of explanation, historians are preoccupied with narrative construction whereas organization theorists subordinate narrative to analysis; (2) in the dualism of evidence historians use verifiable documentary sources whereas organization theorists prefer constructed data; and (3) in the dualism of temporality, historians construct their own periodization whereas organization theorists treat time as constant for chronology. These three dualisms underpin our explication of four alternative strategies for organizational history: corporate history, consisting of a holistic, objectivist narrative of a corporate entity; analytically structured history, narrating theoretically conceptualized structures and events; serial history, using replicable techniques to analyze repeatable facts; and ethnographic history, reading documentary sources "against the grain." Ultimately, we argue that our epistemological dualisms will enable organization theorists to justify their theoretical stance in relation to a range of strategies in organizational history, including narratives constructed from documentary sources found in organizational archives.
    December 13, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0203   open full text
  • Multiple Logics In Organizations: Explaining Their Varied Nature And Implications.
    Besharov, M., Smith, W.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 22, 2013
    Multiple institutional logics present a theoretical puzzle. While scholars recognize their increasing prevalence within organizations, research offers conflicting perspectives on their implications, causing confusion and inhibiting deeper understanding. In response, we propose a framework that delineates types of logic multiplicity within organizations, and we link these types with different outcomes. Our framework categorizes organizations in terms of the logics' compatibility and centrality and explains how field, organizational, and individual factors influence these two dimensions. We illustrate the value of our framework by showing how it helps explain the varied implications of logic multiplicity for internal conflict. By providing insight into the nature and implications of logic multiplicity within organizations, our framework and analysis synthesize the extant literature, offer conceptual clarity, and focus future research.
    October 22, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0431   open full text
  • What's "New" about New Forms of Organizing?
    Puranam, P., Alexy, O., Reitzig, M.
    The Academy of Management Review. June 27, 2013
    In order to assess if new theories are necessary to explain new forms of organizing, or whether existing theories suffice, we must first specify exactly what makes a form of organizing "new." We propose clear criteria for making such an assessment, and show how they are useful in assessing if and when new theories of organizing may truly be needed. We illustrate our arguments by contrasting forms of organizing often considered novel, such as Linux, Wikipedia, and Oticon against their traditional counterparts. We conclude that while there may be little that existing theory cannot explain about individual elements in these new forms of organizing, opportunities for new theorizing may lie in understanding the bundles of co-occurring elements that seem to underlie them, and why the same bundles occur in widely disparate organizations.
    June 27, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0436   open full text
  • Breaking The Silence About Exiting Fieldwork: A Relational Approach And Its Implications For Theorizing.
    Michailova, S., Piekkari, R., Plakoyiannaki, E., Ritvala, T., Mihailova, I., Salmi, A.
    The Academy of Management Review. May 15, 2013
    It is surprising that, to date, a discussion of exiting fieldwork is absent from the management and organization literature - an absence that we believe is unjustified. We argue that analyzing exit from fieldwork is important for theorizing. We combine two streams of research - ethnography in the broader social sciences, and business marketing on dissolving relationships - to propose a relational framework for conceptualizing and analyzing exit. The framework represents a first attempt to examine exiting in a systematic and nuanced manner, with the objective of understanding why and how breaking the silence about exiting fieldwork may advance theorizing. We develop a typology of four exit types that lead to four different approaches to theorizing. We suggest that exit may bring about a new beginning in theorizing rather than closure, and that it is not only high-quality relationships in the field but also those that are disruptive that may lead to interesting theorizing.
    May 15, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0403   open full text
  • Understanding Work And Knowledge Management From A Knowledge In Practice Perspective.
    McIver, D., Lengnick-Hall, C., Lengnick-Hall, M., Ramachandran, I.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 29, 2013
    This paper introduces a knowledge-in-practice framework for understanding the nature of work from a knowledge perspective and uses the framework to peer into the black box of knowledge management (KM) and explore the relation between KM activities and performance. The knowledge-in-practice framework describes knowledge characteristics of work practices along two dimensions: tacitness and learnability. We propose that adopting KM activities that match the tacitness and learnability of organizational work settings will have a positive effect on desirable performance targets for each work environment. We identify patterns of KM activity that are believed to be maximally effective within each work setting.
    April 29, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0266   open full text
  • Retelling Stories in Organizations: Understanding the Functions of Narrative Repetition.
    Dailey, S., Browning, L.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 24, 2013
    Narrative repetition—when a story is recalled and retold from another narrative—has yet to be explored for its rich conceptual depth. To build a case for this area, we analyze stories from scholarly research to identify the functions of narrative repetition. We distinguish three dualities produced through repetition, which are grounded in cultural issues of sameness and difference. These dualities—Control/Resistance, Differentiation/Integration, and Stability/Change—bring a more sophisticated understanding of the inherent complexity of narrative as a mode of interpretation and offer a transformative view of narrative that describes how the meaning of stories shifts over time. When stories are repeated, one individual may interpret a narrative of stability, whereas another may hear a hint of change. Furthermore, we offer narrative repetition as a new methodology for organizational research with the recommendation that scholars use the reoccurrence of a story as a starting point for inquiry into the cultural life of organizations.
    April 24, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0329   open full text
  • Letting Go and Moving On: Work-related Identity Loss and Recovery.
    Conroy, S., O'Leary-Kelly, A.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 16, 2013
    Transitions in work memberships, relationships, and roles can result in work-related identity loss. This paper contributes to a growing body of research that examines identity transitions by providing a dynamic model to explain these identity losses. Our model incorporates principles from identity research and grief research to predict how employees will react to the loss of a work-related identity. The transition period is conceptualized as a period of liminality, during which individuals engage in sensemaking and emotion regulation to determine who they were and who they are becoming. Specifically, the process involves cognitive and emotion processing in two domains—loss orientation and restoration orientation. We propose that emotions experienced (and their associated regulatory foci) are critical to determining whether individuals experience adaptive or maladaptive identity-related outcomes.
    April 16, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0396   open full text
  • Encountering Social Class Differences at Work: How "Class Work" Perpetuates Inequality.
    Gray, B., Kish-Gephart, J.
    The Academy of Management Review. April 10, 2013
    Using a micro-sociological lens, we develop a theoretical framework that explains how social class distinctions are sustained within organizations. In particular, we introduce the concept of "class work" and explicate the cognitions and practices that members of different classes engage in when they come in contact with each other in cross-class encounters. We also elucidate how class work perpetuates inequality, and the consequences of class work on organizations and those at the lower end of the organizational hierarchy. By examining micro-level interactions and how they become institutionalized within organizations as prevailing rules and practices, we contribute to both institution theory and the sociology of social class differences. We encourage future research on social class and discuss some of the challenges that inhere in conducting it.
    April 10, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0143   open full text
  • Agency And Monitoring Clarity On Venture Boards Of Directors.
    Krause, R., Bruton, G.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 22, 2013
    In this Dialogue, we respond to Garg's (2013) recently published paper on venture board monitoring. We argue that application of agency theory to entrepreneurial ventures requires greater clarity in developing the monitoring construct because the separation of ownership and control is not nearly as prevalent as in publicly traded firms. We offer a discussion of board leadership structure as an example of how greater clarity alters the theoretical insights from Garg's model.
    March 22, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0032   open full text
  • Organizational Decline and Innovation: Turnarounds and Downward Spirals.
    McKinley, W., Latham, S., Braun, M.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 19, 2013
    We consider four scenarios that can unfold when organizations either innovate or respond rigidly to organizational decline. Two of the scenarios are downward spirals that threaten an organization with possible death, and two of the scenarios are turnarounds. These scenarios are important because they can determine the fate of an organization - survival or death. We explore the conditions under which each of these scenarios is likely to emerge, developing original theory and specifying propositions about those conditions. In developing this theoretical framework, we distinguish between flexible and inflexible innovations as factors in turnaround success or failure. Our model extends current theory on organizational decline to highlight the feedback effects of the consequences of decline, and to explain the circumstances in which particular feedback effects are likely to occur.
    March 19, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0356   open full text
  • Abusive supervision through the lens of employee state paranoia.
    Chan, M. L. E., McAllister, D.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 15, 2013
    We use insights into the social dynamics of state paranoia to better understand and explain the evolution and effects of perceived abusive supervision. Within our framework, abusive supervision and employee state paranoia are reciprocally related. We explain how perceived abusive supervision can influence paranoid arousal (characterized by extreme distrust, a sense of threat, anxiety and fear of one's supervisor) and paranoid cognition (characterized by hypervigilance, rumination, and sinister attribution tendencies), and has attendant implications for employee behavior. We also identify an intra-personal mechanism of cognitive bias (e.g., sinister attribution tendencies, interpretive bias), and an inter-personal process of victim precipitation, whereby employee state paranoia can influence both experienced and subjective evaluations of abusive supervision. In addition, we identify personal, relational and contextual factors that moderate the relationship of abusive supervision and employee state paranoia. Our analysis brings into focus the psychological and emergent nature of abusive supervision, as well as the mechanisms by which abusive supervision influences employee psychological well-being and behavior.
    March 15, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0419   open full text
  • A Theory of Collective Empathy in Corporate Philanthropy Decisions.
    Muller, A., Pfarrer, M., Little, L.
    The Academy of Management Review. March 06, 2013
    Prevailing perspectives of corporate philanthropy are predominantly rational and limit decision making to the executive suite. Recently, however, recognition has grown that employees are also important drivers of corporate philanthropy efforts and that their motives may be more empathic in nature. Integrating arguments from affective events theory, intergroup emotions theory, and affect infusion theory, we develop a framework in which organization members' collective empathy in response to the needs of unknown others infuses executives' decisions, thereby affecting the likelihood, scale, and form of corporate philanthropy. Our theory has implications for research on emotions in organizations as well as for our understanding of the role of organizations in society.
    March 06, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2012.0031   open full text
  • Shattering the Myth of Separate Worlds: Negotiating Non-Work Identities at Work.
    Ramarajan, L., Reid, E.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 15, 2013
    How much of our self is defined by our work? Fundamental changes in the social organization of work are destabilizing the relationship between work and the self. As a result, parts of the self traditionally considered outside the domain of work, i.e., "non-work" identities, are increasingly affected by organizations and occupations. Based on an interdisciplinary review of literature on identity and work we develop a model of how people negotiate non-work identities (e.g., national, gender, family) in the context of organizational/ occupational pressures and personal preferences regarding this identity. We propose that the dual forces of pressures and preferences vary from inclusion (e.g., incorporating the non-work identity within the work identity) to exclusion (e.g., keeping the identities separate). We suggest that the alignment or misalignment of these pressures and preferences shapes peoples' experience of the power relationship between themselves and their organization/occupation, and affects how they manage their non-work identities. We describe how people enact different non-work identity management strategies—namely assenting to, complying with, resisting, or inverting the pressures—and delineate the consequences of these strategies for people and their organizations/occupations.
    January 15, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0314   open full text
  • Multicultural Employees: A framework for understanding how they contribute to organizations.
    Fitzsimmons, S.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 11, 2013
    Organizations are experiencing a rise in a new demographic of employees - multicultural individuals, who identify with two or more cultures, and have internalized associated cultural schemas. This paper creates a map of possible ways to organize more than one cultural identity, based on identity integration, which ranges from separated to integrated, and identity plurality, which ranges from single to multiple. Cognitive and motivational mechanisms drawn from social identity theory explain how identity patterns then influence both benefits and challenges for multicultural employees, categorized into personal, social and task outcomes. Organizational identification and organizational culture each moderate relationships between multicultural identity patterns and outcomes. The framework presented in this paper offers a theoretical basis for understanding how multicultural employees may contribute to their organizations.
    January 11, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0234   open full text
  • When worlds collide in cyberspace: How boundary work in online social networks impacts professional relationships.
    Ollier-Malaterre, A., Rothbard, N., Berg, J.
    The Academy of Management Review. January 02, 2013
    As employees increasingly interact with their professional contacts on online social networks that are personal in nature, such as Facebook or Twitter, they are likely to experience a collision of their professional and personal identities that is unique to this new and expanding social space. In particular, online social networks present employees with boundary management and identity negotiation opportunities and challenges, because they invite non-tailored self-disclosure to broad audiences, while offering few of the physical and social cues that normally guide social interactions. How and why do employees manage the boundaries between their professional and personal identities in online social networks, and how do these behaviors impact the way they are regarded by professional contacts? We build a framework to theorize about how work-nonwork boundary preferences and self-evaluation motives drive the adoption of four archetypical sets of online boundary management behaviors (open, audience, content, and hybrid), and the consequences of these behaviors for respect and liking in professional relationships.
    January 02, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0235   open full text
  • The Theory of Purposeful Work Behavior: The Role of Personality, Higher-Order Goals, and Job Characteristics.
    Barrick, M., Mount, M., Li, N.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 10, 2012
    The Theory of Purposeful Work Behavior integrates higher-order, implicit goals with principles derived from the Five-factor Model (FFM) of personality and the expanded job characteristics model to explain how traits and job characteristics jointly and interactively influence work outcomes. The core principle of the theory is that personality traits initiate purposeful goal strivings and when the motivational forces associated with job characteristics act in concert with these purposeful motivational strivings, individuals experience the psychological state of experienced meaningfulness. In turn, experienced meaningfulness triggers task-specific motivation processes that influence the attainment of work outcomes. Testable propositions derived from the theory are described and directions for future research are discussed.
    October 10, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amr.10.0479   open full text
  • The Social Negotiation of Group Prototype Ambiguity in Dynamic Organizational Contexts.
    Bartel, C., Wiesenfeld, B.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 03, 2012
    This conceptual paper focuses on how the changing nature of work and working today elicits prototype ambiguity in groups—a shared perception among group members that the attributes, attitudes, and actions that define and describe the typical group member are unclear. We offer a functionalist account of prototype ambiguity that identifies social contexts that reliably trigger ambiguity in group prototypes , group-level consequences of prototype ambiguity that motivate corrective action, and social negotiation processes by which group members adaptively resolve prototype ambiguity. We outline how group members' social negotiation efforts unfold in different but predictable ways (in response to specific triggers of prototype ambiguity) to yield emergent prototypes based on either central tendencies (as exemplified by the average group member) or ideals (as exemplified by the extraordinary group member). Implications for research on social identity processes, group prototypes, and social hierarchies in organizations are discussed.
    October 03, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0300   open full text
  • Variations in Practice Adoption: The Roles of Conscious Reflection and Discourse.
    Gondo, M., Amis, J.
    The Academy of Management Review. October 02, 2012
    We argue that our understanding of practice adoption has been limited by the prevailing view that variations in adoption stem from consciously made decisions. We counter this position by arguing that a key, and neglected, aspect of the adoption process concerns understanding the level of conscious engagement of those involved. In so doing, we theorize that there are two distinct institutional dimensions necessary for understanding how practice adoption takes place: acceptance and implementation. We develop these dimensions to provide a framework showing that different within-organization responses will be associated with differing levels of acceptance of the need to adopt a practice, the acceptance dimension, and differing levels of conscious reflection during implementation of the practice, the implementation dimension. We then unpack this framework to explain how variations in discourse play a determining role in how practice adoption unfolds. This reveals an interesting institutional paradox: the discursive characteristics that make a practice more easily accepted also reduce the conscious engagement needed for its implementation. The balance of the paper is spent developing the implications of our theorizing for understanding the process of practice adoption.
    October 02, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amr.10.0312   open full text
  • The Glass Slipper: 'Incorporating' Occupational Identity in Management Studies.
    Ashcraft, K.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 31, 2012
    Management scholars have long separated the study of work and diversity, based on the assumption that the nature of work itself is not affected by race or gender. Research on occupational segregation invalidates this assumption, confirming that we judge the nature of work by the social identities aligned with it. Management theory has yet to digest this evidence due to our unilateral view of the work-practitioner relation (i.e., people derive identity from work), which suppresses a reciprocal relation (i.e., work derives identity from associated people). This paper builds a bilateral view by theorizing a new glass metaphor -- the glass slipper -- to capture occupational identity by association as it yields systematic forms of advantage and disadvantage. The glass slipper elucidates how occupations come to appear 'naturally' possessed of features that fit certain people yet are improbable for others. The paper thus contributes to management knowledge by (a) redefining the current division of scholarly labor as a theoretical problem and (b) developing the requisite theoretical tools to redress that problem. Through the glass slipper, the paper theorizes collective occupational identity and its relation to other social identities in a way that fosters the integration of work and diversity studies.
    July 31, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amr.10.0219   open full text
  • What makes a resource valuable? Identifying the drivers of firm-idiosyncratic resource value.
    Schmidt, J., Keil, T.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 26, 2012
    We fill a gap in the literature of the resource-based view (RBV) by identifying conditions and mechanisms that make a resource valuable to a firm ex ante, i.e., before a decision on acquiring or building it is made. These conditions are: (1) the firm's ex ante market position; (2) its ex ante resource base, which allows for complementarities; (3) its position in inter-organizational networks, which gives it access to privileged information, and (4) the prior knowledge and experience of its managers, which allow superior judgment concerning the value-creating potential of a resource. These factors help explain why firms initially differ in how much value they attribute to a resource and subsequently why firms differ in their resource endowments. We further contribute to resource management theories by highlighting the role of managerial judgment in acquiring and accumulating resources and thus shaping firms' paths towards superior competitive positions. Furthermore, identifying firms' market positions and managerial judgment about demand-side value creation opportunities as resource value drivers highlights the importance of demand-side factors to strategic outcomes. We also discuss how our findings may open avenues for further studies, as well as providing a basis for empirical tests of the resource-based view of strategic management.
    July 26, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amr.10.0404   open full text
  • Classifying Work in the New Economy.
    Cappelli, P., Keller, J.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 24, 2012
    Alternatives to the archetypal model of full-time, regular employment are now both prevalent and wide-ranging. Over a fifth of US workers, and even more globally, now perform economic work under arrangements that differ from full-time, regular employment. Yet most of our management and social science notions about economic work are based on the full-time employment model. We know relatively little about the operation and consequences of alternatives arrangements in part because while these arrangements vary considerably, they are commonly grouped together for research purposes using existing classification systems. We outline an inclusive classification system that distinguishes clearly between employment and its alternatives. It also distinguishes among the alternatives themselves by grouping work arrangements into categories that share common properties and that are distinct from each other in ways that matter for practice and for research. The classification system is based on distinctions about the sources and extent of control over the work process, the contractual nature of the work relationship, and the parties involved in the work relationship. Our classification system is both informed by and reflects the legal distinctions among these categories. We explore implications of our system for research and theory development.
    July 24, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0302   open full text
  • Against the Rules: Synthesizing Types and Processes of Bureaucratic Rulebreaking.
    Martin, A., Lopez, S., Roscigno, V., Hodson, R.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 20, 2012
    Organizational scandals have become all too commonplace; from investment firms' financial impropriates to sexual abuse cover-ups, rulebreaking has become a "normal" feature in organizational life. Although there is considerable scholarly work on rulebreaking, efforts to explain it remain theoretically fragmented. Here we identify two fundamental dimensions of bureaucratic rulebreaking and develop a coherent theoretical conception of it as a structurally patterned and interactionally mediated sociological fact. First, rulebreaking may be permitted or contested by those charged with rule enforcement. Manifestations of rulebreaking take on a routine character only where it is unofficially allowed; where it is not, conflict ensues. Second, the hierarchical structure of bureaucracy is mirrored by an organizational hierarchy of rulebreaking. Rulebreaking can be undertaken by individuals acting alone; it can be coordinated by work groups; or it can be organized by top management as a matter of unofficial policy. Considering how these two dimensions of rulebreaking interact provides significant insight into how such action varies with respect to the full range of organizational cross-pressures. Finally, the framework we develop offers an important corrective to the over-reliance on the formal aspects of Weber's theorizing and has considerable utility for generating hypotheses across an array of institutional arenas.
    July 20, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amr.2011.0223   open full text
  • Venture Boards: Differences With Public Firm Boards, And Implications For Monitoring And Firm Performance.
    Garg, S.
    The Academy of Management Review. July 20, 2012
    Several unique characteristics of ventures distinguish them from public firms, and lead to distinctive monitoring issues in ventures. In this paper, I develop a theoretical framework that links the attributes of the venture and the board composition with venture board monitoring and its implications for firm performance. Contributing to the strategy literature on corporate governance, the framework offers counter-intuitive deviations from how agency theory is typically conceptualized, highlights that unexpected "principal problem" could emerge as the separation of ownership and control is reduced, and presents novel insights about interdependence between agency and resource dependence theories. This framework also adds to the research on entrepreneurial firms by complementing the extant emphasis in the literature on resource provisioning and by offering a richer view of key actors by opening the black box of strategic action in ventures. More broadly, by focusing on an under-examined but important context beyond public firms, this paper highlights rich opportunities for developing a contingency theory of governance.
    July 20, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amr.10.0193   open full text