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Sociological Forum

Impact factor: 0.833 5-Year impact factor: 1.269 Print ISSN: 0884-8971 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subject: Sociology

Most recent papers:

  • Hijab Micropractices: The Strategic and Situational Use of Clothing by Qatari Women.
    Geoff Harkness.
    Sociological Forum. November 29, 2018
    --- - |2 The hijab, the headscarf and cloak worn by some Muslim women, is often viewed through a lens of constraint, but in this article I emphasize its flexible use by women in Qatar, a wealthy, conservative Arabian Gulf nation. As part of a neoliberal agenda, the Qatari government frequently depicts female citizens using an “empowered woman” narrative that touts increased college enrollment, workforce participation, and sports involvement as evidence of a progressive gender milieu. Yet Qatar continues to be steeped in patriarchy and institutional gender discrimination. This domination finds its most visible expression in the scrutiny and regulation of women's clothing. In this article, I describe how Qatari women strategically modify, adjust, reimagine, and remove their hijabs to suit changing circumstances. These hijab micropractices—women's strategic and situational use of traditional Muslim clothing—are at times so infinitesimal they are easy to overlook. Yet they are significant because they enable Qatari women to exercise agency within the confines of clothing that is believed to signify Islamic patriarchy and female oppression. I argue that hijab micropractices are a means by which Qatari women resist these conditions, while maintaining a religious identity and commitment to family. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    November 29, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12481   open full text
  • “Making Over” Poor Women: Gender, Race, Class, and Body Size in a Welfare‐to‐Work Nonprofit Organization.
    Kjerstin Gruys.
    Sociological Forum. November 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Drawing on 13 months of participant observation at a welfare‐to‐work nonprofit that provides unemployed poor women with used business attire, I assess the extent to which—and how—this “objectified cultural capital” is transmitted to clients. I advance prior theorizing in this area by considering whether clients’ “bodily capital” impacts the services they receive. I find that despite providing needed services to clients, the organization reifies many of the inequalities it seeks to remedy. When sorting clothing donations, staff and volunteers curate particularly classed embodiments by selecting garments that are work‐appropriate yet not luxurious. Also, well‐intentioned efforts to provide a luxurious shopping‐esque experience for clients ironically produces service scripts that facilitate control over clients’ behavior. Finally, service interactions reproduce inequities between different types of clients along the lines of race, class, and body size, such that clients with more privileged bodily capital fare better than those with stigmatized embodiments. I use these findings to caution against romanticized understandings of philanthropic efforts to remedy social inequality, while also underscoring the importance of taking embodiment—particularly the striking social disadvantages of larger body size—into account when examining the intersections of gender, race, and class. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    November 29, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12480   open full text
  • Feminist Institutional Activists: Venue Shifting, Strategic Adaptation, and Winning the Pregnancy Discrimination Act.
    Holly J. McCammon, Amanda J. Brockman.
    Sociological Forum. November 23, 2018
    --- - |2 We examine efforts of feminist institutional activists in the 1960s and 1970s as they worked to gain U.S. federal policy to combat workplace pregnancy discrimination. The success of these activists in winning policy change provides a case that allows us to develop a theoretical understanding of how feminist institutional activists can succeed in winning policy change. We find that when institutional activists strategically shifted governmental arenas and adapted their mobilization and discursive strategies to these arenas, they were able to dismantle policy‐specific barriers that impeded their goals. In taking these steps, feminist institutional activists were successful in opening up both contingent and structural opportunities, which ultimately allowed them to gain the policy change they sought. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    November 23, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12478   open full text
  • Movement‐Based Influence: Resource Mobilization, Intense Interaction, and the Rise of Modernist Architecture.
    Mauro F. Guillén, Randall Collins.
    Sociological Forum. November 14, 2018
    --- - |2 We argue that the long‐term influence of actors in fields of cultural production depends on the opportunities for resource mobilization offered by external conditions combined with intense interaction among actors. Using a unique data set of 1,143 architects active between 1890 and 1940, at a time of large‐scale socioeconomic transformations and political disruption, we find by multiple regression analysis that exposure to industrialization and political upheaval, and halo effects in an architect's network of collaborators predict greater ultimate impact, while urbanization and professional affiliations do not. Theory of social movements and theory of cultural production thus have important implications for each other. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    November 14, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12479   open full text
  • Retraction.

    Sociological Forum. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 The following article from Sociological Forum, “Middle‐Range Theories of Institutional Change,” by Victor Nee, published online August 28th, in Wiley Online Library http://wileyonlinelibrary.com, has been retracted by agreement between the author, the journal Editor‐in‐Chief Karen Cerulo, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The article is based on a talk prepared as a Presidential Address. The author agreed to the retraction because two of the figures and some text in the original version did not have the proper permissions. A new version of the article will be published. - Sociological Forum, EarlyView.
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12477   open full text
  • Middle‐Range Theories of Institutional Change.
    Victor Nee.
    Sociological Forum. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 This article is based on my presidential address delivered in Baltimore at the 2018 annual meeting of the Eastern Sociological Society. In it, I explore the ways in which theories of the middle‐range help us advance sociology as a social science at a time when many express concern about the fragmentation of the discipline. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12476   open full text
  • W. E. B. DuBois for the Twenty‐First Century: On Being a Scholar‐Activist in the Digital Era.
    Jessie Daniels.
    Sociological Forum. September 21, 2018
    --- - |2 W. E. B. DuBois began his work as a scholar‐activist at the dawn of the twentieth century, and this article argues that his example has much to teach contemporary scholar‐activists in the twenty‐first century. In order to publish The Crisis, the magazine of the activist organization he cofounded, DuBois purchased a printing press. This meant he could own the means of his own knowledge production and foretold both the promise of what it means to be a scholar‐activist in the twenty‐first century and the limitations built into the current systems of knowledge production. DuBois was also prophetic when he identified the problem of the twentieth century as “the problem of the color line” as the focus of both his scholarship and his activism. The forms of systemic white supremacy we face today are both a continuation of a centuries‐old dimension of racism in the United States and part of an emerging media ecosystem powered by algorithms. The article explores the challenges of being digital scholar‐activists within legacy institutions. It concludes with speculation about what DuBois might do now. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    September 21, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12464   open full text
  • Retracted: Middle‐Range Theories of Institutional Change.

    Sociological Forum. August 28, 2018
    --- - |2 This article is based on my presidential address delivered in Baltimore at the 2018 annual meetings of the Eastern Sociological Society. In it, I explore the ways in which theories of the middle range help us advance sociology as a social science at a time when many express concern about the fragmentation of the discipline. KEYWORDS: China; economic sociology; institutional change; institutions; market transition theory; stability; stable and punctuated equilibrium. RETRACTION The following article from Sociological Forum, “Middle‐Range Theories of Institutional Change,” by Victor Nee, published online August 28th, in Wiley Online Library http://wileyonlinelibrary.com, has been retracted by agreement between the author, the journal Editor‐in‐Chief Karen Cerulo, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The article is based on a talk prepared as a Presidential Address. The author agreed to the retraction because two of the figures and some text in the original version did not have the proper permissions. A new version of the article will be published. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    August 28, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12468   open full text
  • Using Sociology to Build and Organize Movement Networks.
    Andrea M. Catone.
    Sociological Forum. August 28, 2018
    --- - |2 In this essay, I describe how I utilize my sociological imagination and training while building and organizing movement networks. First, I highlight the importance of fostering flexible, cross‐level intergroup ties when building movement networks. Second, I illustrate the role of emotions in the emergence and sustainability of movement networks. Third, I detail a theoretical framework for how stories of past resilience can be used in movement organizing to mobilize for the future. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    August 28, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12463   open full text
  • Sociology's Response to the Trump Presidency: Views from the 108th ASA President.
    Michèle Lamont.
    Sociological Forum. August 28, 2018
    --- - |2 In this essay, I discuss the ways in which a national organization like the American Sociological Association can fight against government policies that threaten conditions essential for knowledge production. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    August 28, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12466   open full text
  • Structural Stratification in Higher Education and the University Origins of Political Leaders in Eight Countries.
    David Zarifa, Scott Davies.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Are political leaders “educationally representative” of their electorates? Because almost all national‐level political leaders are university graduates, this question increasingly centers on whether they attended a select number of highly ranked domestic institutions. This study examines international variations in the concentration of universities attended by political leaders by analyzing publicly available information on all 524 national party leaders from the past century in eight countries: Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, France, Germany, and Sweden. Our analyses reveal four major findings. First, the university origins of political elites are most concentrated in the UK and United States, whose higher education systems are highly stratified. Second, British and American leaders were most likely to attend world top‐ranked universities than leaders from any other countries. Third, our results uncover a realignment between elite universities and party ideology in recent decades, as leaders of left‐wing parties become more likely to attend elite universities than their right‐wing counterparts. In conclusion, we theorize connections between higher education and elite recruitment, and suggest directions for future research that can utilize a broader range of nations and societal sectors. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12467   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - - Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page i-iii,571-573, September 2018.
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12387   open full text
  • About the Authors.

    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - - Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 835-839, September 2018.
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12448   open full text
  • The Changing Nature of Multiculturalism: Death or Adaptation?
    Janina Selzer.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - - Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 830-834, September 2018.
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12447   open full text
  • The Three Axial Ages.
    Philip Gorski.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - - Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 828-830, September 2018.
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12446   open full text
  • The Other Side of Assimilation.
    Richard Alba.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - - Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 826-828, September 2018.
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12445   open full text
  • Focusing on Focusing Events: Event Selection, Media Coverage, and the Dynamics of Contentious Meaning‐Making.
    Eitan Y. Alimi, Gregory M. Maney.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Despite the prevalent assumption among scholars of social movements and contentious politics that transformative contentious events are also the focus of public attention and discussion, there has been little attempt to substantiate this. After making a case for why to focus on focusing events and suggesting that these events should be thought of as products of a dialogical contentious meaning‐making process, we develop a coverage attribute‐based method for identifying focusing events. For illustrative purposes, we apply our method to the coverage of contentious events during the “first” intifada by Israeli‐Jewish, Jewish settler, and Palestinian newspapers. Findings from analyses of 11,868 news items reveal that newspapers are likely to strategically quiet contentious events that are strategically amplified by newspapers affiliated with opposing or targeted parties, and vice versa, depending on their interpretation of these events as political opportunities or threats. Analyses of variations across and within contending parties reveal the role of structure and agency in the dialogical seesaw‐like dynamics of contentious meaning‐making. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 757-782, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12442   open full text
  • Exotic Place, White Space: Racialized Volunteer Spaces in Honduras.
    Matthew Jerome Schneider.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 In every year between 2004 and 2012, more than 800,000 Americans reported volunteering internationally (Lough ). These volunteers are overwhelmingly white (McBride and Lough ) and entering a largely nonwhite and developing world. This study starts by questioning how racial status informs volunteer/volunteer tourist interactions, both with locals and with other volunteers, in a global context. In‐depth interviews with 23 missionaries, teachers, and volunteers from the United States and Canada reveal that (1) international volunteering is largely motivated by romantic and exotic understandings of the Global South and (2) in spite of a stated interest in cultural immersion, participants’ notions of their whiteness guided their perceptions of Hondurans and their actions as they sought out and retreated to white spaces protected from Honduran influence. These findings further the work of those who have argued first world travelers have homogenized spaces on reserve, by demonstrating that whiteness can be the basis for the construction and maintenance of protected spaces in predominantly nonwhite countries. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 690-711, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12439   open full text
  • How Do Neoliberal Policies Affect Income Inequality? Exploring the Link Between Liberalization, Finance, and Inequality.
    Roy Kwon.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 It is commonly asserted that economic liberalization increases income inequality in advanced industrial societies. However, the empirical evidence is inconclusive. The current investigation thus attempts to shed light on this important topic by presenting the argument that economic liberalization indirectly augments income inequality given its tendency to expand financial activity. This contention is tested using a panel dataset of 20 developed economies for the years 1988 to 2009. According to the fixed effects two‐stage least squares models, economic liberalization is positively associated with financialization, while financial activity is positively connected to income inequality. These results are found to be consistent across a variety of regression parameters and robustness checks. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 643-665, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12438   open full text
  • Income Inequality, Globalization, and the Welfare State: Evidence from 23 Industrial Countries, 1990–2009.
    Daniel Auguste.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 The debate regarding the welfare state–weakening effect and the income inequality‐increasing effect of globalization remains a contentious issue among stratification scholars. For some, globalization increases income inequality, while for others, globalization has no, or a negligible, effect on income inequality. This study brings new evidence to bear on this debate by separately investigating effects of multiple indicators of globalization (international trade, foreign direct investment [FDI] and immigration), and of welfare state generosity (government social‐protection spending) on (1) income inequality before taxes and transfers and (2) income inequality after taxes and transfers, using data from 23 Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) countries over 1990–2009. First, results show a positive effect of international trade, a negative effect of immigration, but no effect of FDI and government social‐protection spending on income inequality before taxes and transfers. Second, results show no effect of the globalization indicators but a negative effect of government social‐protection spending on income inequality after taxes and transfers. These findings suggest that (1) globalization has inequality‐increasing effects depending on measures of income inequality; (2) the welfare state, in many OECD countries, continues to shape income distribution; and (3) in contrast with the popular narrative, immigration may decrease income inequality. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 666-689, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12437   open full text
  • Of Riots and Racism: Fifty Years Since the Best Laid Schemes of the Kerner Commission (1968–2018).
    Matthew W. Hughey.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 “What happened? Why did it happen? What can be done to prevent it from happening again and again?” Voiced less that one week after the July 1967 race riots in Detroit, Michigan, Lyndon B. Johnson spoke these words as he ordered the establishment of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Seven months later, on March 1, 1968, the Commission's account—known as the Kerner Commission Report—was a scathing appraisal of riots and racism in the United States. While it included bold language about the linkage between rioting and racism, it is rife with paradoxical assumptions and findings. Moreover, the report's failure to define sociological concepts, coupled with a reliance on individualism and cognitive attitudes via psycho‐analytic and pop‐psychological conjecture, together beckon scholars to wrestle with how this state‐issued report reflected and reproduced dominant assumptions about the “race” concept, violence, and human nature. Employing a critical content analysis of the report, I ask: How does the Kerner Commission Report define and use the concept of “riots” and “racism,” and what are the logics employed in the production of that knowledge? - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 619-642, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12436   open full text
  • Protest Movements and Citizen Discontent: Occupy Wall Street and the Tea Party.
    John Levi Martin, James P. Murphy, Rick Moore.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Why do citizens indicate support for protest movements such as the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street? There have been two general sets of explanations. One set emphasizes that support comes from those for whom the existing party system, and the ideological differentiation that corresponds to party divisions, are irrelevant. The second set takes the opposite tack, and emphasizes that the only thing that supporters of protests movements find lacking in the party system is extremity. Using some underexplored data, we present evidence that both accounts are incorrect for the case of these recent movements (Occupy and the Tea Party): what provokes support for protest movements is not ideology itself but a fundamental rejection of the current state of the party system, which we call disgruntlement. What ideology does for supporters is provide a sense of political friends and enemies (or near and far), which then can channel the direction that this disgruntlement takes. Further, ideologues with more education are more resistant to the appeal of the protest movement associated with the other political camp. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 575-595, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12435   open full text
  • Translating Spirituality: Universalism and Particularism in the Diffusion of Spiritual Care from the United States to Israel.
    Michal Pagis, Wendy Cadge, Orly Tal.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Research on the transnational diffusion of ideas and practices shows how cultural objects go through translation, adaptation, and vernacularization when implemented in new localities. Less attention is given to the translators themselves and their heterogeneous and often conflicting visions. Drawing on the notion of transnational social fields (TSFs), this article investigates how cultural objects get vernacularized differently in different parts of the TSF, demonstrating how processes of translation reflect larger social and political struggles over questions of identity. As a case study, we focus on the attempt of actors from Israel and the United States to institutionalize spiritual care in Israeli health‐care organizations. The analysis reveals how spiritual care functioned as a porous cultural object, open to a wide range of interpretations and debates. While actors in New York saw in spiritual care the opportunity to bridge to Israeli Jews and create a global Jewish identity, Israeli actors split between using spiritual care as a vehicle for creating a local Israeli Jewish identity and seeing in spiritual care the opportunity to establish universal identities, broader than the Jewish one. The disagreement and conflicts between the groups influenced the translation process, turning it into a contentious struggle that involved different positions on the continuum between particularism and universalism. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 596-618, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12434   open full text
  • Buying a Voice: Gendered Contribution Careers among Affluent Political Donors to Federal Elections, 1980–2008.
    Jennifer A. Heerwig, Katie M. Gordon.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Early work in feminist theory hypothesized that differences in women and men's social and institutional roles might be reflected in the ways they participate in the political sphere. However, past empirical research has found scant evidence of a gender gap in the participatory strategies or motivations of women and men who become active in politics. But significantly less is known about the gender gap among a more select and increasingly significant player in American politics—political donors. In this article, we utilize a novel big data set—called the Longitudinal Elite Contributor Database (LECD)—that contains the population of all itemized donations made in federal elections between 1980 and 2008. Using this novel big data set supplemented with Social Security Administration (SSA) data on the gender of first names, we provide original estimates of the long‐term evolution of gender representation in the donor pool, vis‐à‐vis when, how often, and to whom affluent men and women have made political contributions over nearly 30 years. We find that large and persistent gendered inequalities of political voice continue to characterize this significant form of political influence. We theorize the potential implications of these findings for the representation of women's interests in the political sphere. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 805-825, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12444   open full text
  • Irremedial Work and Act‐Person Merger: Constructing Irredeemable Selves in Death Penalty Trials.
    Paul Colomy, Scott Phillips.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Irremedial work is an interpretive practice aimed at establishing a vital connection between a person's untoward behavior and his true self. Fifteen death penalty trial transcripts are employed as strategic research materials to examine how an individual's transgressions and the thoughts and feelings purportedly associated with his misconduct are merged with his self. A qualitative content analysis of these data identifies four recurring themes in the prosecution's efforts to fuse defendants’ alleged crimes with their real selves: sacrilege, culpability, malevolence, and act‐person merger. The argument presented in this study can be extended by investigating bottom‐up irremedial work, the responses of those defined as irredeemable, and by considering cases where act‐person merger is experienced as an authentic expression of an individual's essential self. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 783-804, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12443   open full text
  • Emotions and Nationalism: Armenian Genocide as a Case Study.
    Sinem Adar.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Until recently, sociologists have paid surprisingly little attention to the relationship between emotions and nationalism. Existing accounts remain homogeneous, linear and nonrelational. To remedy this gap, this article compares public controversies in Turkey over the Armenian genocide at two historical moments: its semi‐centennial anniversary in 1965, and the publication of an article in 2004 by the Armenian‐Turkish journalist Hrant Dink that led to his assassination in 2007. It demonstrates that the genocide, and the conflicting epistemic structures that it incites, is a source of anxiety for Armenians due to their actual displacement within the nation. It is also a source of anxiety for Turks due to the perceived threat of displacement within the nation. These relational anxieties over the nation played an important role, during these two events, in reproducing hierarchical and exclusionary configurations, experiences, and representations of nationhood. During the 1965 semi‐centennial, Armenians reacted to the mainstream Turkish public's anxieties by pledging their loyalty to the state. Dink's assassination in 2007, on the other hand, showcases how an attempt by the excluded to redefine the what and who of the nation united otherwise separate social sections around a nationalist front. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 735-756, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12441   open full text
  • Misery Has Company: The Shared Emotional Consequences of Everwork Among Women and Men.
    Alison T. Wynn.
    Sociological Forum. August 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Everwork—defined as a combination of overwork, face time, constant availability, and unpredictability—is becoming an increasingly common form of work, especially among highly skilled service workers. While such an environment would seem to disadvantage mothers in particular, I find that employees of all genders and parental statuses suffer in such intensive work environments. Through 50 in‐depth interviews with management consultants, I examine how employees reconcile their personal lives with the realities of everwork. I characterize young childless men and women as “quit intenders,” mothers as “tightrope walkers,” and fathers as “reluctant sacrificers.” This article offers new insight into the tensions employees face between their parenthood ideals and everwork expectations, the strategies they engage in to manage those tensions, and the emotional impacts they experience as a result. Because employees use career–life strategies that accommodate rather than challenge the fundamental nature of everwork, everwork environments may persist despite the negative consequences. - 'Sociological Forum, Volume 33, Issue 3, Page 712-734, September 2018. '
    August 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12440   open full text
  • Broadening and Deepening the Presence of Environmental Sociology.
    Andrew K. Jorgenson.
    Sociological Forum. August 16, 2018
    --- - |2 In this essay, I describe a few ways in which I've ventured outside of my comfort zone and become more engaged with multidisciplinary communities, policy groups and governmental agencies, the media, and civil society. Through such efforts, I've tried to help broaden and deepen the presence of environmental sociology. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    August 16, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12465   open full text
  • Trump Has Committed a Crime Against Humanity.
    Judith Blau.
    Sociological Forum. August 16, 2018
    --- - |2 In this essay, I briefly trace the history of the scientific work that predicts rising temperatures, sea rise, and the effects of greenhouse gases on climate change. I then explain why Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement warrants charging him with committing a crime against humanity. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    August 16, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12462   open full text
  • Cultural Conflict: The Implications of Changing Dispositions Among the Upwardly Mobile.
    Heather Curl, Annette Lareau, Tina Wu.
    Sociological Forum. August 13, 2018
    --- - |2 The accounts of upwardly mobile professionals can shed light on conflict and cultural dispositions (what Bourdieu referred to as habitus). There are currently few empirical studies investigating the specific aspects of the habitus that might change or the implications of these changes on cross‐class relationships. Drawing on qualitative interviews with a total of 30 white and African American upwardly mobile individuals, we explore three ways in which upwardly mobile individuals experience a shift in their habitus and the implications of these changes on interactions with family members, friends, and colleagues. Specifically, upwardly mobile professionals report significant change in their dispositions toward new experiences and “horizons,” food and health, and language and communication. These changes foster “flashpoints” of conflict with non‐upwardly mobile family members. We find that whites and African Americans report very similar types of conflicts, but African Americans in our study downplay the conflict more than their white counterparts. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    August 13, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12461   open full text
  • Parents Who Left College and Children's Postsecondary Educational Attainment.
    Paula Fomby, Christina J. Cross.
    Sociological Forum. August 03, 2018
    --- - |2 More than one in five U.S. adolescents resides in a household where neither parent holds a postsecondary degree but at least one parent spent some time in college. We consider how a distinctive combination of cultural and economic resources in college leaver families enables or constrains young adults’ educational pathways. Greater resources in college leaver families explains about half of the advantage in any college enrollment and four‐year college enrollment for young adults in these families compared to those from families where neither parent attended college. But this resource advantage is relatively small compared to families where either parent holds at least a bachelor's degree, and given any enrollment, children from college leaver families are no more likely to finish college than are their peers whose parents never attended. Results are robust to various specifications of parents’ college leaver status. Data are from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Supplement (N = 2,334). - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    August 03, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12451   open full text
  • Beliefs About Evolution and Educational Attainment.
    Kyle C. Longest, Jeremy E. Uecker.
    Sociological Forum. July 30, 2018
    --- - |2 Using panel data from the National Study of Youth and Religion, we examine the effect of beliefs about evolution in high school on several postsecondary educational outcomes. Results indicate that net of a host of background factors and potential alternative explanatory factors, there are significant associations between beliefs about evolution and pursuing or obtaining a bachelor's degree, such that pure creationists (i.e., creationists who do not allow for the possibility that God used evolution to create the world) are less likely than naturalists to be on this trajectory. Further, when they do attend college, pure creationists and flexible creationists (i.e., creationists who allow for the possibility that God used evolution) both attend less selective colleges than naturalists, and pure creationists are less likely than naturalists to major in biology. These results suggest that evolution is a morally salient issue for many that influences their educational trajectories, highlighting the role that cultural schemas can play in shaping socioeconomic status. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    July 30, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12450   open full text
  • Ambivalent Voting Behavior: Ideology, Efficacy, and the Socioeconomic Dynamic of Voter Turnout in Iran, 1997–2005.
    Aghil Daghagheleh.
    Sociological Forum. July 27, 2018
    --- - |2 This study investigates voting behavior in Iran as a case of electoral authoritarianism. In analyzing survey data from the Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture, and Research (ACECR), I examine the socioeconomic dynamic of voting as well as the effects of sociopolitical views on voting in Iran. In contrast to theories that predict a higher turnout rate among the poor in authoritarian regimes, I show that the socioeconomic dynamic of voting in Iran varies across years and elections. This inconsistency, I propose, may reflect the ambivalent feelings of a fraction of voters toward the election that depends on the context of elections, and electoral campaigning produces various patterns of voting across socioeconomic status and the religious or ethnic background. I found that there is a strong association between sociopolitical views and turnout. In all elections, dissatisfied voters were more likely to stay home on Election Day. Voting behavior also is shaped by respondents' source of income as well as their attitudes toward democratic elections, the state ideology, and the efficacy of voting. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    July 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12459   open full text
  • Architectures of Memory: When Growth Machines Embrace Preservationists.
    Kevin Loughran, Gary Alan Fine, Marcus Anthony Hunter.
    Sociological Forum. July 20, 2018
    --- - |2 Studies of urban redevelopment demonstrate how growth coalitions and city residents use ideas about local history and culture to facilitate or oppose interventions in the built environment. Building on this literature, we introduce the concept of architectures of memory to describe methods of remaking urban space, relying on historical representations. We argue that preservation, demolition, and reproduction are practices that are often conflated but that have different dynamics in the relationship between growth and preservation. Although each advances urban planners’ visions of a historicized cityscape, they recapture that past through different design processes. Using case studies of redevelopment in Philadelphia—Independence National Historical Park and the adjacent Society Hill neighborhood, both of which were transformed through urban planning interventions post–World War II—we examine how interpretations of the built environment's economic and symbolic value influence redevelopment projects. The multiple interpretations and collective memories about the built environment create frameworks that advance, as well as contest, strategies of redevelopment. We argue that growth machines and preservationists do not inevitably have contradictory goals and strategies, but on occasion preservation and reworking of public spaces through a historical imaginary can support both growth and memory, two components of an urban elite. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    July 20, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12449   open full text
  • When Family Replaced Friendship: Mobile Communication and Network Change in Kenya.
    Oliver Garretson, Jiabin Fan, Paul N. Mbatia, Paige Miller, Wesley Shrum.
    Sociological Forum. July 20, 2018
    --- - |2 Mobile devices have spread throughout the developing world at a rate unparalleled by other communications technologies. Yet surprisingly, little is known about their impact on social networks. This study analyzes three waves of pooled survey data in Nairobi (2002, 2007, 2013). We focus on the size, composition, and location of important personal relationships—that is, “core networks.” Networks of close ties have nearly doubled for urban Kenyans, as network composition shifted toward kin and away from friends. Indeed, friendship decreased from over one‐third to less than a fourth of close ties, while family ties grew from one‐third to nearly half. The geographic distribution of networks has become broader, moving away from local ties and toward national (but not international) relationships. Finally, the pace of change declined as mobile devices became embedded in daily life. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    July 20, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12452   open full text
  • Navigating Campus Hookup Culture: LGBTQ Students and College Hookups.
    Ellen Lamont, Teresa Roach, Sope Kahn.
    Sociological Forum. July 20, 2018
    --- - |2 Research on the college hookup scene consistently shows it to be heavily gendered and heteronormative. In spite of the extensive research on hookup culture, there are limited data on how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students navigate hookups on college campuses. Yet queer hookups potentially provide a space for students to challenge the dominant understandings of gender and sexuality that permeate the college hookup scene, creating alternative visions for how hookups and other sexual relationships may proceed. Drawing on interviews with 24 LGBTQ college students at a regional university in the southeastern United States, this research investigates how LGBTQ college students negotiate the hookup scene on college campuses. As we show, LGBTQ students are sharply critical of dominant hookup culture and aim to challenge heteronormative practices by deconstructing normative patterns of behavior, emphasizing communication and consent, and queering standards of pleasure. In spite of their stated aims, many respondents replicated gendered practices in their hookups, limiting the transformative potential of queer hookups. This study indicates that while LGBTQ students are actively working to remake hookup culture, and, in some ways, are succeeding, barriers to a more mindful hookup culture remain, even among those who explicitly seek new ways to pursue sexual relationships. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    July 20, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12458   open full text
  • “It's All About the Journey”: Skepticism and Spirituality in the BDSM Subculture.
    Julie Fennell.
    Sociological Forum. July 20, 2018
    --- - |2 Previous research on BDSM (bondage & discipline, dominance & submission, sadism & masochism) subcultures has largely ignored the spiritual aspects of BDSM for participants. Drawing primarily from my years of experience and participant observation as an insider in the DC/Baltimore BDSM pansexual community and 70 interviews conducted with self‐identified kinksters throughout the Mid‐Atlantic United States, as well as a convenience sample (n >1,100) survey of American and Canadian kinksters, I show that the BDSM subculture, as a noncriminal deviant subculture, provides a hospitable social environment for cultivating the “lived religious” (Wilcox ) experiences of this mostly agnostic/atheist and Pagan group. Nearly half of all American and Canadian kinksters who are heavily involved say they sometimes engage in BDSM for spiritual fulfillment. Many kinksters demonstrate discomfort with the more mystical aspects of this spirituality, and often adopt an epistemic stance I call post‐rational to reluctantly acknowledge mystical experiences within a preferred framework of scientific and rational knowledge. Nonetheless, interviewees described spiritually connective, transcendental, and cathartic experiences from their BDSM practices. Further research is recommended on the spiritual experiences of religious “nones,” the social construction of catharsis, and potential applicability of a post‐rational stance to contexts such as alternative medicine. - 'Sociological Forum, EarlyView. '
    July 20, 2018   doi: 10.1111/socf.12460   open full text
  • Moving Up and Down the Ladder: Perceived Social Mobility and Emotional Dispositions Among South Florida's Immigrants.
    Elizabeth Vaquera, Elizabeth Aranda.
    Sociological Forum. October 05, 2017
    Migrating to a new country is often associated with difficulties such as social isolation, financial strain, language barriers, and cultural differences. Less is known about how social mobility brought about by migration may be related to the emotional dispositions of immigrants (also referred to as subjective well‐being). To examine this relationship, we utilize data from a representative sample of 1,268 first‐generation immigrants from 80 different countries living in South Florida. Changes in perceived social mobility between the homeland and the United States—moving up and down the socioeconomic ladder—are indeed associated with differences in immigrants' negative dispositions. We draw from literature on expectations, social comparisons, and subjective class status to explain these findings. We do not find a statistically significant association between changes in socioeconomic status and positive dispositions, which may suggest that losses outweigh migration‐related gains. Additionally, findings reveal that nondominant groups fare worse than Cubans (the dominant group in the region) with regard to dispositions. Social comparisons to the dominant ethnic group may explain this, as well as perceptions of relative deprivation experienced by groups not favored by immigration policies and underrepresented in social and economic institutions. We conclude by discussing implications on how negative emotional dispositions represent risk factors that could affect immigrants' mental health.
    October 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12379   open full text
  • “Why I Can't Stand Out in Front of My House?”: Street‐Identified Black Youth and Young Adult's Negative Encounters With Police.
    Yasser Arafat Payne, Brooklynn K. Hitchens, Darryl L. Chambers.
    Sociological Forum. October 05, 2017
    This street participatory action research (Street PAR) study organized 15 residents to document street‐identified Black youth and adult's negative experiences with police in Wilmington, Delaware. Data were collected on mostly street‐identified Black men and women aged 18–35 in the forms of (1) 520 surveys, (2) 24 individual interviews, (3) four dual interviews, (4) three group interviews, and (5) extensive field observations. Forty‐two percent of survey participants reported being stopped by police in the last year. However, with the exception of being “stopped,” participants overall reported little negative contact with police at least within the past year. Chi‐square and ANOVA analyses suggest an interactional relationship exists between race, gender, and age on experiences with police. Younger Black men (18–21) were found to have the most negative contact with police. Analysis suggests a smaller, more hardened mostly male variant of the larger street community has had repeated contact with police. Qualitative analysis reveals at least two major themes: (1) disrespect and disdain for residents and (2) low motivation for working with police. Street PAR methodology was also found to be instrumental in working with local residents and the Wilmington Police Department to improve conditions between residents and police.
    October 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12380   open full text
  • Out of the Labs and into the Streets: Scientists Get Political.
    Norah MacKendrick.
    Sociological Forum. September 21, 2017
    Scientists are participating in more visible and vocal forms of political action. In this essay, I sketch key moments in this shift, with the hope of generating new research questions and lines of sociological inquiry. Specifically, I ponder whether this is a new wave of science activism, and if so, how is it different from past forms of science activism? I also ask whether and in what form we, as sociologists, should “stand up for science”?
    September 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12366   open full text
  • Financing Children's Futures: Economic Strategies for Postsecondary Education Among Middle‐Income Families.
    Patricia Tevington, Laura Napolitano, Frank F. Furstenberg.
    Sociological Forum. September 21, 2017
    This paper, based on three waves of qualitative data with middle‐income families outside of Philadelphia, explores how families deal with the challenge of financing postsecondary education over time. Because of economic setbacks, these families adopt a variety of financial maneuvers to support their young adult children's postsecondary educational plans. In particular, families are driven to sacrifice familial savings accounts and retirement funds, take on significant student loan burdens, and downgrade children's college plans to cheaper, often less prestigious, options. These results highlight the financial vulnerability of families in the middle of the income distribution and the complicated relationship between family economics and postsecondary educational plans for children.
    September 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12373   open full text
  • Investigating the Relationship Between Real Estate Agents, Segregation, and House Prices: Steering and Upselling in New York State.
    Max Besbris, Jacob William Faber.
    Sociological Forum. September 21, 2017
    This article leverages a unique data set, recently developed regression methods, and qualitative interviews to investigate the multiple ways real estate agents produce housing inequality. We find that the clustering of agents in and around certain neighborhoods correlates positively with house prices. Our results also show a significant relationship between agent concentration and racial segregation. Our qualitative data reveal how agents engage in steering and upselling. The findings enhance our understanding of mechanisms in the housing market, and provide more empirical clarity on the role real estate agents play in asset and place inequality.
    September 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12378   open full text
  • Volunteers' Power and Resistance in the Struggle for Shelter Animal Survival.
    Katja M. Guenther.
    Sociological Forum. September 21, 2017
    This article presents an analysis of how volunteers use different forms of capital to resist the practices and discourses of the organization for which they volunteer. Volunteers at a large public animal shelter do not share the shelter's institutionally held belief that shelter death is an inevitable result of homelessness among companion animals; to reduce shelter death, they craft challenges to the shelter practice of putting dogs down and work to construct shelter death as an avoidable and problematic outcome. Their repertoire of resistance includes educational, health‐based, relational, moral, reputational, and legal strategies. The findings illuminate that volunteers’ social location outside of the shelter provides them with capital to engage in resistance within the shelter.
    September 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12376   open full text
  • The End of the World as We Know It?: American Exceptionalism in an Age of Disruption.
    John Torpey.
    Sociological Forum. September 21, 2017
    This essay explores the recent election of President Donald J. Trump against the background of the idea of American exceptionalism. It posits that there have been a variety of versions of the notion of exceptionalism, one of which involves the question, “Why is there no fascism in the United States?” It argues that Trump may render invalid the assumption behind that question and that at best during his tenure we are likely to have a continuation of the “bad exceptionalism” associated with the question, “Why is there no socialism in the United States?”
    September 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12372   open full text
  • Building Bridges: Linking Old Heads to Collective Efficacy in Disadvantaged Communities,.
    TaLisa J. Carter, Karen F. Parker, Heather Zaykowski.
    Sociological Forum. September 20, 2017
    Recent reports of police shootings and urban unrest have increased public awareness of the nonwhite experience in communities long plagued by disadvantage and racial inequality. Given current times, there is little research that examines how community residents maintain social ties and trust. Race relations literature finds that support and trust come from “old heads,” community residents who have a reputation of respect and serve as mentors. Although traditionally old heads are defined as older, minority males with a history of employment, “redeemed” old heads exist. This research provides in‐depth interviews with old heads to better understand the residents who characterize this group but also to illustrate the roles they play in their communities. Our results suggest that old heads engage in, and build up, their communities through three themes: linking people to resources, solving problems, and establishing social ties. Attempts are made to link old heads to research on collective efficacy, which captures community level efforts to advance social cohesion and a willingness to engage in informal social control when combating crime and disorder. We conclude with a discussion of how future research can better incorporate old heads as an aspect of community life.
    September 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12368   open full text
  • Re(searching) the Truth About Our Criminal Justice System: Some Challenges.
    Janet M. Ruane.
    Sociological Forum. September 18, 2017
    This article considers the current face‐off between “facts vs. alternative facts” as it relates to research on lethal encounters between police and minority citizens. I begin by reviewing major measurement challenges for those studying lethal police shootings and potential improvements for how we document police shootings. I also consider the increasing reliance on use of body cams and surveillance videos for what they may (or may not) bring to improving documentation of police/citizen encounters. Next I address a larger issue that provides the context for the “facts vs. alternative facts” dilemma: science's loss of standing as the recognized superior way of knowing about the world. Growing distrust in science, special interest research, paradigm shifts, and science illiteracy are all considered as reasons for the slippage of science as a credible knowledge source. Additionally, key traits of science (i.e., its inherent skepticism and tentative stance) may actually support the all‐too‐popular view that science no longer has an edge in producing valid and reliable information. I make a case for the need to reform what some see as a broken culture of science and for social researchers to commit to a serious agenda of replication of studies and findings.
    September 18, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12370   open full text
  • Education, Perceived Control, and Volunteering.
    Joonmo Son, John Wilson.
    Sociological Forum. September 12, 2017
    The consistent effect of education on volunteering has been explained in a number of ways. In this study we test the hypothesis that perceived control beliefs are partly responsible. Using two waves of panel data from National Survey of Midlife in the United States we estimated cross‐lagged structural equation models in which education is positioned as the exogenous variable and perceived control and volunteering are allowed to be reciprocally related across the two waves. We find that perceived control predicts volunteering, but there is no reciprocal effect: volunteering has no effect on sense of control. One reason, therefore, that educated people are more likely to volunteer is that they have stronger control beliefs. The findings enrich the theory of volunteering by introducing the idea of agency, showing one way in which resources influence the decision to volunteer.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12377   open full text
  • Our Lives Matter: The Racialized Violence of Poverty among Homeless Mothers of Color,.
    Anne R. Roschelle.
    Sociological Forum. September 12, 2017
    Intimate partner and community violence are an unrelenting presence in the lives of homeless Latina and African American women and their children. Impoverished neighborhoods are inundated with public acts of violence that impact daily life in profound ways. Sexual violence, drug use, gang violence, child abuse, and hypermasculinity are enacted visibly for all to see. Based on a four‐year ethnography of homeless families in San Francisco, this research examines the gendered and racialized violence of poverty experienced by homeless mothers in San Francisco. Women in this research have endured physical and sexual violence as children and are typically victims of adult intimate partner violence. This research presents the excruciating narratives of violence and degradation suffered by homeless women of color. Their lived experiences illustrate that for many women of color, becoming homeless is a direct result of racialized poverty and chronic family violence. Framed within the intersectionality perspective, these women's stories advance our understanding of the interlocking nature of race, gender, and class oppression.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12365   open full text
  • Waiting on Others: Gender in the Medical Waiting Room.
    Margaret Waltz.
    Sociological Forum. September 12, 2017
    In this article, I describe how gendered interactions and power dynamics play out in medical waiting rooms. While people are spending time idle, waiting for the next thing to happen (i.e., to check in, to see the doctor, to pay), social processes continue to occur and reinforce these gendered interactions and dynamics. Using data collected from ethnographic observations of medical waiting rooms in the Midwestern United States, this article illustrates that waiting offers another opportunity to understand the subtle ways that gendered expectations and hierarchies are perpetuated. Patients, their friends, and families do gender in medical waiting rooms through the amount of auditory and physical space they take up and the ways in which they behave and respond to the actors and expectations in this space.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12375   open full text
  • More Black than Blue? Comparing the Racial Attitudes of Police to Citizens.
    Ryan Jerome LeCount.
    Sociological Forum. September 12, 2017
    How are the racial attitudes of police officers distinct from those of the public? How might the officer's own race shape those attitudes? Recent high‐profile cases of contested uses of lethal force by white police officers against citizens of color have reanimated a long‐established debate about the way(s) that race shapes police contact. While research has documented substantial racial disparities across a variety of criminal justice outcomes, little is known about how law enforcement officers might differ from citizens in the way that they think about citizens of color. Existing studies of such attitudes are often limited by the idiosyncrasies of small and unrepresentative samples. The present study overcomes these limitations by employing the first nationally representative survey comparing citizens and police a range of racial attitudes. Findings suggest that white police are, indeed, more racially resentful, more likely to see blacks as violent, and more likely to minimize anti‐black discrimination than are white nonpolice. Black police officers, however, are not significantly more racially conservative than black citizens on any of the measures examined, lending modest evidence to the “selection effect” theory of Police Personality.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12367   open full text
  • The Diffusion of Tolerance: Birth Cohort Changes in the Effects of Education and Income on Political Tolerance.
    Philip Schwadel, Christopher R. H. Garneau.
    Sociological Forum. September 12, 2017
    Political tolerance—the willingness to extend civil liberties to traditionally stigmatized groups—is pivotal to the functioning of democracy and the well‐being of members of stigmatized groups. Although political tolerance has traditionally been more common among American elites, we argue that as tolerance has increased, it has also diffused to less educated and less affluent segments of the population. The relative stability of political attitudes over the life course and the socialization of more recent birth cohorts in contexts of increased tolerance suggest that this diffusion of tolerance occurs across birth cohorts rather than time periods. Using age‐period‐cohort models and more than three and a half decades of repeated cross‐sectional survey data, we find persistent and robust across‐cohort declines in the importance of both income and higher education in determining levels of political tolerance. Declines in the effects of socioeconomic status are evident with tolerance toward all five out‐groups in the analysis—anti‐religionists, gays and lesbians, communists, militarists, and racists—but to varying degrees. These findings fit with a model of changes in public opinion, particularly views of civil and political rights, through processes of cultural diffusion and cohort replacement.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12374   open full text
  • “I Don't Want to Be With Those Guys!”: Speaking Up Against Bias and Injustice.
    Karen A. Cerulo.
    Sociological Forum. September 12, 2017
    Demonstrations, rallies, changes to the law, increased prosecutions—all of these things are vital to making sure that all lives—black, brown, or white; female or male; Christian, Jewish, or Muslim; gay or straight—are equally valued by the public and in the execution of the law. But just as important is the stand that ordinary people take in everyday situations… the raising of voice as situations arise in the forums of our lives. Giving voice is the driving force of this essay and the logic behind this special issue of Sociological Forum: Whose Lives Matter?: Violence, Social Control, and the Racial Divide.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12371   open full text
  • Trayvon Revisited: Race, Fear, and Affect in the Death of Trayvon Martin.
    Mauricio T. Torres, Mary Cannito‐Coville, Dalia Rodriguez.
    Sociological Forum. September 12, 2017
    This theoretical project intervenes in the debates surrounding the death of Trayvon Martin by starting with fear, the center of Martin's encounter with his killer, George Zimmerman. We deploy the work of Sara Ahmed in order to argue that fear, rather than residing positively in an individual, works as an affective economy that opens up past histories of association. Ahmed's work allows us to move beyond the question of whether or not Zimmerman was consciously racist and instead consider how fear is animated by racist histories of association. We argue that the affective charge of these racist histories accomplishes three interrelated things. First, it allows Zimmerman to frame Martin as dangerous as he calls 911 to report Martin's suspicious presence, an act that comes to constitute Zimmerman's fear. Second, it allows for Martin to be seized epistemologically and ontologically by Zimmerman and killed. Last, it makes Martin's death a functional necessity of Zimmerman's defense, making it challenging to leverage any claim for the injustice of Martin's death.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12369   open full text
  • Adolescent Racial Discrimination and Parental Perceptions of Safety in American Neighborhoods and Schools.
    Bryan L. Sykes, Alex R. Piquero, Jason P. Gioviano.
    Sociological Forum. August 29, 2017
    Recently, a number of violent interracial interactions—between community members and public safety officers—has ignited a national debate about race, inequality, environmental/situational context, and the use of force among police and school resource officers. We investigate how perceptions of neighborhood and school safety are associated with adolescent exposure to racial discrimination. Using data from the National Survey of Child Health (NSCH) 2011–2012, we find that nonwhite youth experience greater levels of racial discrimination than their white counterparts after accounting for difference in exposure to violence and perceptions of neighborhood and school safety. Estimates from propensity score matching models show that differences in ever experiencing discrimination between safe and unsafe schools decline as perceptions of neighborhood safety increase, except in residential areas that are usually safe. Yet, black and Hispanic adolescents attending safe schools in neighborhoods that are always safe experience similar rates of discrimination as other nonwhite youth living in residential areas that are never safe. The implications for social mobility are discussed.
    August 29, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12364   open full text
  • The Illness Associations of Police Violence: Differential Relationships by Ethnoracial Composition.
    Abigail A. Sewell.
    Sociological Forum. August 29, 2017
    Previous research suggests police surveillance practices confer health risks to community members. This study examines whether the public health burden of excessive or ethnoracially inequitable police use of force are amplified or buffered by ethnoracial composition. Multilevel models are used to assess data from the 2009–2012 New York City Community Health Survey merged at the United Hospital Fund level with data from the 2009–2012 New York City Stop, Question, and Frisk Database. The illness associations of ethnoracial composition are amplified by the areal density of police use of force but buffered by the disproportionate police use of force against minorities. Specifically, living in minority communities with a high concentration of use of force by police against pedestrians is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and obesity. However, living in areas with a heavy presence of whites where there are large racial differences in police use of force is associated with an increased risk of poor/fair self‐rated health, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. The article concludes by considering the implications of the findings for better understanding the racialized nature of police violence and the consequences of place in distributing surveillance stress and structuring legal cynicism.
    August 29, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12361   open full text
  • Can Cameras Stop the Killings? Racial Differences in Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Body‐Worn Cameras in Police Encounters,.
    Rashawn Ray, Kris Marsh, Connor Powelson.
    Sociological Forum. July 31, 2017
    Recent killings of blacks by police have renewed a national discussion about crime, racism, unjust treatment, and implicit bias. Outfitting police officers with body‐worn cameras (BWC) is heralded by federal and state lawmakers as one solution to providing more transparency during police encounters. Missing from this discussion is what everyday citizens think about the potential effectiveness of BWC. Using data on residents of Prince George's County, Maryland, this study explores racial differences in views about police treatment and the effectiveness of BWC. We find that nonwhites report more fear of and mistreatment by the police than whites. Regarding BWC, we find that respondents are either supporters or skeptics. On one hand, respondents either believe that BWC will illuminate the difficulties of policing—police supporters—or create more transparency to hold officers more accountable for their actions—citizen supporters. On the other hand, skeptics fall into one of two types—respondents who think that BWC may put police officers more at risks—privacy skeptics—or those who do not see BWC as structurally changing the power dynamics between citizens and police officers—structural skeptics. We conclude by discussing how BWC may operate as a solution to improve interactions between citizens and the police but not necessarily alter power relations.
    July 31, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12359   open full text
  • Not One but Many: Monetary Punishment and the Fergusons of America,.
    Kasey Henricks, Daina Cheyenne Harvey.
    Sociological Forum. July 31, 2017
    How typical is Ferguson? That is, to what extent is monetary punishment driven by fiscal crisis and deficit spending? Do communities that increasingly rely less on property taxes generate higher rates of fines and fees? And how might increased spending on policing over time impact whether local governments turn to these sanctions for revenue? We compile city‐ and county‐level information from four national data sets to answer these questions through a series of least squares regression models. Our findings add to what sociologists, criminologists, and policymakers know about monetary punishment in at least three ways. First, we offer an analysis that focuses on monetary sanctions for not only criminal but civil courts. Second, our focus broadens the scope of local case studies that emphasize questions of process. And third, our study furthers the project of the New Fiscal Sociology. Throughout, we stress how public finance formalizes inequality in ways that define the symbolic relations between groups, their relation to the state, and the unspoken social contract. Our discussion concludes with some policy recommendations.
    July 31, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12360   open full text
  • Risk a Lot to Save a Lot: How Firefighters Decide Whose Life Matters,.
    Roscoe C. Scarborough.
    Sociological Forum. July 31, 2017
    Firefighters make life‐or‐death decisions based on shared understandings of whose lives matter. Drawing on three years of participant observation as a volunteer firefighter and 30 semistructured interviews, I examine tensions surrounding the value firefighters place on their own lives and the lives of the public they serve. There is a tension between firefighters and their officers over the value of a firefighter's life. Firefighters tend to be cavalier in their willingness to endanger their own lives in high‐risk situations, while fire officers feel responsible for protecting the lives of their crew. A second tension exists between prejudiced individuals and an institutional culture of public service. Some firefighters harbor individual prejudices, which are at odds with an institutional culture of egalitarian service. Fire service, state, county, department, crew, and peer cultures suppress individual prejudices. This case study suggests that deep integration into an institutional culture of public service mitigates discriminatory behavior. Instead of evaluating discrimination among first responders as an individual‐level trouble, bias and its associated dysfunctions can be reframed as a social issue to be ameliorated through cultural reform.
    July 31, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12363   open full text
  • Violence, the State, and the Poor: A View from the South,.
    Javier Auyero, Katherine Sobering.
    Sociological Forum. July 18, 2017
    What are the basic contours of a political sociology of violence at the urban margins? Drawing on past and current ethnographic research in a poor area of Buenos Aires, this article calls for systematic research of the points of contact (overt and covert) between agents of the state and the poor. We argue that as part and parcel of the illicit drug trade, clandestine interventions of the state intensify interpersonal violence.
    July 18, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12362   open full text
  • Verification of Self Using a Mathematical Theory of Identity, Feeling, and Behavior.
    Kaitlin M. Boyle.
    Sociological Forum. May 23, 2017
    The current study tests the affect control theory of self, a mathematical theory that demonstrates a core social psychological principle: individuals strive for a stable and coherent self through identity selection and behavior. In the affect control theory of self, the self is conceptualized as self‐sentiments, which are measured on three dimensions: evaluation (good/bad), potency (powerful/powerless), and activity (fast/slow). In a longitudinal sample of college men and women, I find the self‐sentiment predicts how individuals describe themselves on a range of terms, including primary emotions and both stigmatized and esteemed traits related to mental illness and self‐esteem. It also predicts various productive and deviant behaviors five months later. Thus, the current study demonstrates the theoretical precision of the theory, its ability for understanding human behavior, and its potential for identifying at‐risk individuals.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12353   open full text
  • Cooperative Membership and Community Engagement: Findings From a Latin American Survey.
    Sangdong Tak.
    Sociological Forum. May 23, 2017
    Cooperatives as organization have mainly been explored in the field of business and management due to their operation in the business sector, and studies of nonprofit organizations have given little attention to them. Consequently, cooperatives studies have tended to examine economic outcomes, such as productivity and job security, comparing them to conventional business firms. Nevertheless, cooperatives are membership associations and have organizational characteristics in common with other types of voluntary associations. Furthermore, one explicit organizational principle of cooperatives is concern for community, and their contributions to the community have been covered frequently by media. Therefore, it is imperative to examine cooperative members’ community engagement, and compare it to other types of association members. Using a national sample of Venezuelans, the relationships between association memberships and community involvement were compared across different types of associations. The results showed that cooperative members had a higher likelihood of being involved in community matters than those from other types of associations. Although the Venezuelan cooperatives have received vast support from the Chavez government for community development, this result can have an implication on the cooperatives’ organizational identity as those who provide members with resources necessary for civic engagement beyond the organizations.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12349   open full text
  • Racial/Ethnic Patterns of Kindergarten School Enrollment in the United States.
    Elizabeth Lawrence, Stefanie Mollborn.
    Sociological Forum. May 23, 2017
    Enrollment into unequal schools at the start of formal education is an important mechanism for the reproduction of racial/ethnic educational inequalities. We examine whether there are racial/ethnic differences in school enrollment options at kindergarten, the start of schooling. We use nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study‐Birth Cohort (ECLS‐B) to model whether parents seek information about their child's school before enrolling, whether parents move to a location so that a child can attend a certain school, or whether parents enroll their child in a school other than the assigned public school. Results indicate that enrollment patterns differ greatly across race/ethnicity. Whereas Black families are the most likely to seek information on a school's performance, White families are the most likely to use the elite option of choosing their residential location to access a particular school. These differences persist when controlling for socioeconomic status and sociogeographic location. Kindergarten enrollment patterns preserve the advantages of White families, perpetuating racial/ethnic disparities through multiple institutions and contributing to intergenerational processes of social stratification. Research should continue to examine specific educational consequences of housing inequities and residential segregation.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12352   open full text
  • Sexual Harassment and the Construction of Ethnographic Knowledge.
    Rebecca Hanson, Patricia Richards.
    Sociological Forum. May 23, 2017
    It is not uncommon for women researchers to experience sexualized interactions, sexual objectification, and harassment as they conduct fieldwork. Nevertheless, these experiences are often left out of ethnographers’ “tales from the field” and remain unaddressed within our discipline. In this article, we use women's experiences with harassment in the field to interrogate the epistemological foundations of ethnographic methodology within the discipline of sociology. Based on more than 50 qualitative interviews, we examine three “fixations” of contemporary ethnography that inform women ethnographers’ understandings of and reactions to harassment in the field. These fixations are solitude, danger, and intimacy. Our data show that these fixations not only put researchers in danger but also have implications for the construction of ethnographic knowledge. They contribute to silence surrounding sexual harassment, and are motivated by and reproduce androcentric norms that valorize certain types of fieldwork. We argue that acknowledging and analyzing experiences with harassment and other unwanted sexual attention in the field is part of a more fully developed understanding of ethnographic research itself.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12350   open full text
  • Considering Alternate Sources of Role Identity: Childless Parents and Their Animal “Kids”.
    Andrea Laurent‐Simpson.
    Sociological Forum. May 23, 2017
    Identity theory posits that role identity is negotiated between human social actors and is based in broader cultural expectations about how particular statuses should be performed. I argue that the formation of role identity in actors can also occur in relationship to nonhuman actors, if they are perceived as minded. Depending on context and human perception, identity can be formed as a result of interaction and developing “theory of mind” with nonhuman animals, directly implicating the animal. Using in‐depth interviews of childless and childfree companion animal owners, I demonstrate the existence of a parent identity in childless participants that would not otherwise be present were it not for interaction with the animal “child.” This identity is confirmed in participant narratives describing substantial behavioral output aligned with the U.S. cultural ideal of “parent.” Likewise, I find that significant others provide external support for the enactment of this role identity, allowing participants to verify self‐in‐situation. Overall, my analysis emphasizes the importance of considering nonhuman sources as occupying counterstatus positions in the formation of role identity while highlighting how these relationships affect interaction in the childfree and childless home, thus expanding scholarly understanding about both identity formation and emerging family types.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12351   open full text
  • Custodial Citizenship in the Omnibus Autism Proceeding.
    Kelly Underman, Paige L. Sweet, Claire Laurier Decoteau.
    Sociological Forum. May 17, 2017
    In contemporary processes of citizenship, parents and other caregivers often must make claims to the state on behalf of children with disabilities. In this article, we draw from data on the Omnibus Autism Proceedings (OAP), which were a series of hearings in 2007 and 2008 in which parents of children with autism attempted to receive compensation from a federal program for vaccine injury. During these hearings, parents and their attorneys obfuscated the children's subjectivity and instead showcased the children's physical suffering in order to claim that their children had suffered a legitimate injury from vaccines that warranted compensation. We develop the concept of custodial citizenship to account for the process by which a legible rights‐bearing subject appropriates the bodily suffering of the injured party in order to gain citizenship rights on behalf of that individual. In doing so, we trace the slippages of harm that occur in the lived experience of disability among family members and caregivers, in contrast to the individualizing rights‐granting framework of the court system.
    May 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12348   open full text
  • Labor Market Disparities Between African Americans and Afro Caribbeans: Reexamining the Role of Immigrant Selectivity.
    Mosi Adesina Ifatunji.
    Sociological Forum. May 17, 2017
    Black immigrants from the Caribbean have long attained greater labor market success than African Americans. The most recent studies show that Afro Caribbeans have earnings that are approximately 16% greater than African Americans and that Afro Caribbeans are as much as 21% more likely to be employed than African Americans. The most prominent explanation for greater Afro Caribbean success is that, because they have chosen to migrate, Afro Caribbeans are positively self‐selected on characteristics that are key for success in the U.S. labor market. Proponents of immigrant selectivity argue that migrants have greater levels of both hard and soft skills than nonmigrants. Using data from the National Survey of American Life—the first social survey to provide a nationally representative sample of both African Americans and Afro Caribbeans—this study finds that Afro Caribbeans have greater hard skills than African Americans but split the difference on two measures of soft skills: African Americans and Afro Caribbeans are matched on John Henryism, but African Americans have greater personal mastery than Afro Caribbeans. Contrary to expectations, controlling for differences in hard and soft skills does not provide for a meaningful reduction in labor market disparities between African Americans and Afro Caribbeans.
    May 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12347   open full text
  • For Refugees, the Road to Employment in the United States Is Paved With Workable Uncertainties and Controversies.
    Jill Koyama.
    Sociological Forum. April 24, 2017
    Drawing on data—including survey responses, interviews, documents, and participant observation—collected during a 26‐month ethnography of refugees in a northeastern U.S. city, I examine how recently arrived refugees create and access new employment opportunities. I utilize actor‐network theory (ANT) to examine refugees' linkages as emerging, temporal, and fluid. I empirically trace the drawing together of, and interaction among, individual refugees, formal organizations, new cultural ideas, and a myriad of material objects. I examine the connections between the uncertainties about actors, action, and agency that point to the need to understand society as sociomaterial networks. I analyze the controversies that are deployed in an emerging assemblage as the refugees entered the paid workforce in the United States. I am guided by a broad question: How are meaning, knowledge, and facts that come to make up a network actually made, maintained, remade, and, sometimes, undone? I demonstrate that putting assemblage to work offers insights into the ways in which heterogeneous elements come together in often unanticipated ways to create stable, even if temporary, employment networks for refugees in the United States.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12346   open full text
  • Tracing Protest Motives: The Link Between Newspaper Coverage, Movement Messages, and Demonstrators’ Reasons to Protest.
    Pauline Ketelaars.
    Sociological Forum. April 24, 2017
    Within the social movement literature, it is mostly assumed that the reasons why people join a protest demonstration are in line with the collective action frames of the organizations staging the protest. Some recent studies suggest, however, that protesters’ motives are only partly aligned with the messages that are broadcasted by social movements. This study argues that activists’ motives are for an important part shaped by mass media coverage on the protest issue. It investigates the link between people's reasons to protest, the campaign messages of the protest organizers, and newspaper coverage prior to the demonstration. Data cover 14 anti‐austerity demonstrations in Belgium, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Results show that social movements depend a lot on other political actors to gain media visibility for their messages. Furthermore, the relationship between social movement frames and protest participant motives is mediated by newspaper coverage. Protest organizers’ are able to reach demonstrators via their own communication channels to some extent, but for many of their messages, they also rely on journalists’ reporting about the protest issue.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12345   open full text
  • Popular Hazards and Policy Rhetoric.
    Joel Best.
    Sociological Forum. April 20, 2017
    Popular hazards are common activities that involve some risks of harm, such as driving a car, possessing or shooting a gun, drinking alcohol, or smoking marijuana. In each of these cases, many millions of Americans engage in the activity, but only a small fraction of them harm themselves or other people. Because the activity is so common, the number harmed may be substantial, although more serious harms tend to be much more infrequent than less serious harms. Social policy debates almost always focus on some particular popular hazard, yet we can see rhetorical similarities—parallel arguments—in how advocates frame what are understood to be very different social issues. Thus, discourse about legalizing recreational marijuana use tends to invoke claims that are quite similar to those opposing further gun control. The category of popular hazards allows us to recognize parallels in policy debates about seemingly unrelated social issues. Focusing on the underlying policy issue—balancing popularity and hazardousness—encourages considering alternative ways to construct social policies.
    April 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12344   open full text
  • Contextualizing Police Use of Force and Black Vulnerability: A Response to Whitesel.
    Brooklynn K. Hitchens.
    Sociological Forum. March 25, 2017
    Whitesel () argues that racialized stereotypes about black bodies were used as foundations for the killing and subsequent character assassinations of Eleanor Bumpurs and Eric Garner. In response to Whitesel, I offer several points to expand on the arguments raised, as well as some critiques that should enhance future research on policing and state‐sanctioned violence.
    March 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12338   open full text
  • “The Mommy Deployment”: Military Spouses and Surrogacy in the United States.
    Elizabeth Ziff.
    Sociological Forum. March 04, 2017
    This article examines narratives of women who are surrogates and are married to members of the military in the United States. I show how this group of women invoke and transpose their structured military experiences and institutional understandings of sacrifice, duty, and responsibility when constructing their surrogate experience. Using semistructured interviews with 33 military spouses who have been surrogates,​ I trace the parallels they narrate between their role as military spouse and their role as surrogate—with metaphors of deployment, relocation, and the “hurry up and wait” game, in addition to strict daily regimentation. Through this work, I highlight the often‐surprising transposition between militarized and surrogacy narratives invoked by surrogates and show how the practice of surrogacy allows them to tap into the narratives they have crafted through their experiences as a spouse to make a difference in the lives of others, contribute financially to their own families, and to gain a sense of importance outside of their everyday roles. The narratives provide for a better understanding of the commercially arranged surrogate experience in the United States and the state‐structured military spouse experience by exposing the skills, language, and habits utilized by this group of women.
    March 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12336   open full text
  • Sexual Assault on College Hookups: The Role of Alcohol and Acquaintances.
    Jessie V. Ford.
    Sociological Forum. March 04, 2017
    This article takes a new approach to the study of college sexual assault by conducting an analysis of female students’ most recent “hookup.” By isolating a particular hookup event and examining the features of that event, I am able to examine predictors of sexual assault during hookups. My analysis focuses on the implications of alcohol consumption and knowing a male partner before a hookup, while controlling for multiple individual, school, and situational characteristics, using data from the Online College Social Life Survey collected 2005–2011. In my sample, 2.4% of women experienced sexual assault during their most recent hookup. Results show women do not experience an increased risk of physically forced intercourse until they have consumed nine or more drinks. In addition, women were more likely to report sexual assault during a hookup with a man they did not know well. Together, these findings suggest that men are more likely to assault women who are drunk, possibly because the double standard has made them respect such women less, or because they target women who are likely unable to resist or recall what happened. It also appears that the “in‐network stranger” may be the individual most dangerous to women in college hookups.
    March 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12335   open full text
  • Are They Not Worthy? How Partisan Political Blogs Legitimize the Tea Party Movement and Occupy Wall Street.
    Eulalie Laschever.
    Sociological Forum. February 28, 2017
    Social movements struggle to gain acceptance as legitimate actors so that they can raise money, recruit members, and convince politicians to meet their demands. We know little, however, about how this legitimacy is granted by various political authorities, in part because legitimacy is often poorly operationalized. To operationalize legitimacy, I revise Charles Tilly's () classic concept of WUNC displays (i.e., public presentations of worthiness, unity, numbers, commitment) to assess how political authorities legitimize social movements. I analyze original data on the coverage the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street received from 20 elite political blogs during a critical event early in each movement's development. I find that liberal and conservative blogs both use the same aspects of worthiness (and not unity, numbers, or commitment) to endorse their preferred movement but different aspects of unworthiness to denounce the movement they opposed. Conservative outlets were more partisan on both accounts. This suggests that these blogs' shared status as distinctly partisan political outsiders produces a similar, but not identical, relationship with social movements. While both sets of blogs legitimize and delegitimize a movement based on its specific strengths and weaknesses, conservative blogs act more as a partisan bullhorn and liberal blogs act more as a forum for debate.
    February 28, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12334   open full text
  • Moral Schemas in Articulation and Intuition: How Religious People Evaluate Human Reproductive Genetic Technologies.
    Elaine Howard Ecklund, Jared L. Peifer, Virginia White, Esther Chan.
    Sociological Forum. February 27, 2017
    As new and more effective human reproductive genetic technologies (RGTs) rapidly develop, religious voices remain an important part of public discussion about the moral standing of such technologies. Here, we compare how individuals from different religious traditions evaluate disease RGTs (detecting genetic diseases in vitro) when compared to enhancement RGTs, allowing parents to select features of a child. Findings are gleaned from analysis of 270 interviews with individuals from 23 Christian, Muslim, and Jewish religious organizations, with supporting data from a national survey of more than 10,000 Americans. We find that respondents engage in clearly defined discursive moral reasoning to evaluate the propriety of disease RGTs while moral intuitions manifest themselves in responses to enhancement RGTs. We argue that schemas provide resources for moral discourses while also shaping moral intuitions expressed through emotions. Our results have implications for how religious people respond to new technologies when their institutional and denominational structures do not have readily discernable moral frameworks to guide responses.
    February 27, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12330   open full text
  • Cultural Schemas of Religion, Science, and Law in Talk About Social Controversies.
    Penny Edgell, Kathleen E. Hull.
    Sociological Forum. February 22, 2017
    We analyze cultural schemas of religion, science, and law reflected in the way ordinary citizens discuss contemporary social controversies and assess whether these schemas accord with a modernization narrative or whether people's experiences with each of these institutional arenas lead them to adopt realistic or critical schemas not predicted by modernization accounts. Focus group participants in three metropolitan areas were asked to talk about one of three vignettes on faith‐based prison ministries, parents’ refusal of medical treatment for a child on religious grounds, or preimplantation genetic diagnosis of human embryos. We find that people's everyday experiences, grounded in specific institutional contexts, produce perceptions of the domains of religion, science, and law that are not fully captured by the modernization account. Further, our findings illustrate that schemas of law, science, and religion are varied and evoked by social context and the specific issues under consideration. Schemas that do not fit the modernization framework provide a way for people to address concerns about power and effectively level the playing field between more and less rationalized social domains. Future research on a broader range of issues is needed to develop a theory of when different schemas of law, science, and religion are activated.
    February 22, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12331   open full text
  • Evolving Learning: The Changing Effect of Internet Access on Political Knowledge and Engagement (1998–2012).
    David S. Morris, Jonathan S. Morris.
    Sociological Forum. February 17, 2017
    This study addresses the changing role of Internet usage on the political knowledge and participation gap between individuals of low and high socioeconomic status (SES). Analysis of data collected by the Pew Research Center's Biennial Media Consumption Studies (1998–2012) shows that the percentage of the population that accidentally encounters political information online has risen dramatically. Results show that accidental exposure and SES are positively related to political knowledge, and that accidental exposure reduces the SES knowledge gap. Moreover, accidental exposure appears to be mitigating the SES voting gap at an increasing rate over time.
    February 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12333   open full text
  • Immigration Attitudes Before and After Tragedy in Copenhagen: The Importance of Political Affiliation and Safety Concerns.
    Kevin T. Smiley, Michael Oluf Emerson, Julie Werner Markussen.
    Sociological Forum. February 13, 2017
    This research analyzes attitudes on immigration before and after the February 14–15, 2015 Copenhagen shootings. Little research has been conducted on changes in immigration beliefs pre‐ and postcrisis events, and, further, this research has not closely considered how political views and safety concerns may operate within immigration beliefs in an additive, interactive, or mediating fashion. Using the 2014 and 2015 Copenhagen Area Surveys, the latter conducted shortly after the February shootings, our findings show that taking the survey either before or after the shootings did not shape immigration policy preferences. Instead, the findings reveal that right‐leaning political affiliation and a greater fear of crime are the strongest predictors of anti‐immigration attitudes. Implications center on new approaches to understanding societal responses to crisis events.
    February 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12332   open full text
  • Anchors, Habitus, and Practices Besieged by War: Women and Gender in the Blockade of Leningrad.
    Jeffrey K. Hass.
    Sociological Forum. January 20, 2017
    As war challenges survival and social relations, how do actors alter and adapt dispositions and practices? To explore this question, I investigate women's perceptions of normal relations, practices, status, and gendered self in an intense situation of wartime survival, the Blockade of Leningrad (1941–1944), an 872‐day ordeal that demographically feminized the city. Using Blockade diaries for data on everyday life, perceptions, and practices, I show how women's gendered skills and habits of breadseeking and caregiving (finding scarce resources and providing aid) were key to survival and helped elevate their sense of status. Yet this did not entice rethinking “gender.” To explore status elevation and gender entrenchment, I build on Bourdieu's theory of habitus and fields to develop anchors: field entities with valence around which actors orient identities and practices. Anchors provide support for preexisting habitus and practices, and filter perceptions from new positions vis‐à‐vis fields and concrete relations. Essentialist identities and practices were reinforced through two processes involving anchors. New status was linked to “women's work” that aided survival of anchors (close others, but also factories and the city), reinforcing acceptance of gender positions. Women perceived that challenging gender relations and statuses could risk well‐being of anchors, reconstructing gender essentialism.
    January 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/socf.12329   open full text
  • Temporalities of Victimhood: Time in the Study of Postconflict Societies.
    Natascha Mueller‐Hirth.
    Sociological Forum. November 04, 2016
    Researchers in peace and conflict studies have rarely explicitly engaged with time and temporality. This article develops a temporal analysis of victimhood in a mature posttransition society, drawing on qualitative research with victims/survivors of gross human rights violations in South Africa. Two decades after the democratic transition, there is a prevalent understanding that it is finally time for victims to “move on.” In contrast to the supposed linear temporality of peace processes, however, the consequences of past violence continue to impact on interviewees’ lives and are exacerbated by contemporary experiences of victimization. I identify several areas of temporal conflicts that characterize postconflict societies: victimhood as temporary/victimhood as continuous; the pace of national reconciliation/the time(s) of individual healing; and the speed of a neoliberal economy/the pace of social transformation. I examine temporal hierarchies that reflect broader socioeconomic marginalization, such as being made to wait for compensation and social pressures of overcoming the past. This temporal analysis of victimhood thus not only highlights the mismatch between victims’ needs and political and cultural expectations of closure, but it also draws attention to the temporality of transitional processes and programs at different social and institutional levels.
    November 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12323   open full text
  • Academic Undermatch: How General and Specific Cultural Capital Structure Inequality.
    Denise Deutschlander.
    Sociological Forum. November 04, 2016
    Recent literature has added another dimension to the well‐documented patterns of social class inequality in education: academic undermatch. Undermatch (which occurs when students attend institutions of lower selectivity than they are academically qualified to attend) is both widespread and unequal, with students from less advantaged families more likely to undermatch. Although proliferating, the research on undermatch has focused primarily on documenting the extent of, and less on exploring the mechanisms underlying, undermatch. Moreover, this literature has developed largely independent of the sociological research on cultural capital. Therefore, when scholars consider underlying mechanisms, they often focus narrowly on college‐specific information, without considering the broader cultural context in which students are embedded. Drawing on the literature on undermatch, as well as the sociological research on cultural capital, I differentiate between general and specific cultural capital. Moreover, instead of simply estimating whether students undermatch or not, I consider different types of undermatch. Results from the Educational Longitudinal Survey reveal that the effects of cultural capital are indeed heterogeneous, both with respect to its relationship to undermatch and its contribution to social class inequality. Findings have important implications for understanding undermatch and the role of cultural capital in reducing and reproducing social inequality.
    November 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12322   open full text
  • The World Bank, Organized Hypocrisy, and Women's Health: A Cross‐National Analysis of Maternal Mortality in Sub‐Saharan Africa.
    Carolyn Coburn, Holly E. Reed, Michael Restivo, John M. Shandra.
    Sociological Forum. October 20, 2016
    The theory of organized hypocrisy asserts that an organization depends upon its external environment for both financial support and conferred legitimacy, which can lead to conflicting policy agendas. We apply the theory of organized hypocrisy to World Bank structural adjustment and investment lending for reproductive health, hypothesizing these two lending policies should have differential effects on maternal mortality. We estimate a two‐way fixed effects regression model with robust standard errors clustered by country to examine the effect of World Bank reproductive health lending on maternal mortality within sub‐Saharan African nations over the period 1990–2010. We find that in every model the coefficients for World Bank structural adjustment lending in the health sector are positive and significant while the coefficients for World Bank investment lending in the reproductive health sector are negative and significant. The findings lend support to the theory that the World Bank is pursuing contradictory agendas, embodied by its lending policies, which can have differential effects on maternal mortality.
    October 20, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12320   open full text
  • The Othering of Muslims: Discourses of Radicalization in the New York Times, 1969–2014.
    Derek M. D. Silva.
    Sociological Forum. October 19, 2016
    In this article, I engage with Edward Said's Orientalism and various perspectives within the othering paradigm to analyze the emergence and transformation of radicalization discourses in the news media. Employing discourse analysis of 607 New York Times articles from 1969 to 2014, this article demonstrates that radicalization discourses are not new but are the result of complex sociolinguistic and historical developments that cannot be reduced to dominant contemporary understandings of the concept or to singular events or crises. The news articles were then compared to 850 government documents, speeches, and other official communications. The analysis of the data indicates that media conceptualizations of radicalization, which once denoted political and economic differences, have now shifted to overwhelmingly focus on Islam. As such, radicalization discourse now evokes the construct radicalization as symbolic marker of conflict between the West and the East. I also advanced the established notion that the news media employ strategic discursive strategies that contribute to conceptual distinctions that are used to construct Muslims as an “alien other” to the West.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12321   open full text
  • Narrating Genocide: Time, Memory, and Blame.
    Hollie Nyseth Brehm, Nicole Fox.
    Sociological Forum. October 19, 2016
    More than 20 years have passed since the Rwandan genocide, yet we know little about how Rwandans remember the violence. This article draws upon more than 100 interviews with genocide survivors to assess collective memories of the atrocity. We find that survivors organize their narratives by conceptualizing the genocide as a watershed event that divides time into two distinct eras. When discussing the pregenocide period, survivors focus on macrolevel events and structures, locating blame for the genocide in institutions rather than on Rwandan citizens. By contrast, narratives of life after the genocide focus on perceived progress since 1994. We interpret these findings in light of the state's memory projects, the potential functionality of the memories, and the time needed for collective memories to resonate.
    October 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12319   open full text
  • The Structure of Perception: How Networks Shape Ideas of Norms.
    Hana R. Shepherd.
    Sociological Forum. October 12, 2016
    Perceptions of the behavior of those around us provide important cues as to what our own behavior should be. However, we know relatively little about the source of these perceptions and how they develop in the course of interaction. This article provides a conceptual framework for the relationship between social network structure and perceptions of descriptive social norms—what other people in a group tend to do. Because networks represent (1) whom group members are exposed to, (2) the amount of exposure group members have to others, and (3) the type of exposure group members have to others, they shape individuals' perceptions of descriptive social norms. The article uses original data from a vegetarian co‐op on a university campus as an empirical example of how networks inform perceptions of norms in a group. The evidence demonstrates the utility of a network‐based approach to understanding the formation and change of social norms and the accuracy of perceptions of the behavior of others. I argue that the process by which individuals make inferences about group norms differs based on the type of behavior under consideration and the type of relationship between individuals.
    October 12, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12317   open full text
  • Demands and Devotion: Cultural Meanings of Work and Overload Among Women Researchers and Professionals in Science and Technology Industries.
    Mary Blair‐Loy, Erin A. Cech.
    Sociological Forum. October 06, 2016
    How do cultural meanings influence how people experience work‐life demands? Much research, especially quantitative research, on the effects of structural work and family conditions does not account for employees’ cultural beliefs about the meaning of work in their lives. This article uses unique survey data to investigate the effects of employee embrace of elements of the “work devotion schema”—a cultural model that valorizes intense career commitment and organizational dedication—on their sense of “overload,” an experience that includes feeling exhausted and overloaded by all one's roles, net of actual hours on the paid job and family responsibilities. We argue that by cognitively, morally, and emotionally framing work as a valued end, the work devotion schema reduces feelings of overload. Using a case of senior women researchers and professional service providers in science and technology industries, we find that those who embrace work devotion feel less overloaded than those who reject it, net of work and family conditions. However, this effect is curtailed for mothers of young and school‐aged children. We end by discussing implications for flexibility stigma and gender inequality.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12315   open full text
  • Behind the Myth of the Matriarch and the Flagbearer: How Korean and Chinese American Sons and Daughters Negotiate Gender, Family, and Emotions.
    Angie Y. Chung.
    Sociological Forum. October 06, 2016
    While more studies are exploring the ways in which gender structures the family experiences of American‐born children of immigrants, there is less attention to how gender shapes later views on ethnicity and culture. Based on interviews with Korean, Chinese, and Taiwanese Americans in the New York–New Jersey metropolitan area, this article examines the different ways second‐generation children learn, interpret, and pass on the cultural values and family traditions in their adulthood. Because their family roles center on their roles as leaders and carriers of the family name through male heirs, sons—especially oldest sons—can fulfill their filial obligations through relatively orthodox and nonengaging cultural practices that although restrictive, do not threaten their personal goals and privileged status. However, daughters must negotiate more emotionally burdensome expectations and responsibilities by preserving family honor, acting as family caretakers, and juggling multiple responsibilities; thus, they tend to re‐create more subtle, self‐empowering, and emotionally engaging ways of interpreting and preserving their parents’ expectations on family culture. I argue that the gendered ways daughters and sons are taught to practice cultural values and protect family honor has significant bearing on their later views on ethnicity and culture but in complex ways that transcend the generational divide.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12316   open full text
  • Civil Society in an Age of Environmental Accountability: How Local Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations Reduce U.S. Power Plants’ Carbon Dioxide Emissions.
    Don Grant, Ion Bogdan Vasi.
    Sociological Forum. October 06, 2016
    Institutional scholars have argued that in the absence of legislation on the issue of climate change, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can help reduce the amount of anthropogenic greenhouse gases being emitted to the environment by disseminating environmental norms. Consistent with this reasoning, they have shown that from the middle of the last century up through the mid‐1990s, nations with more memberships in NGOs have tended to have lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the aggregate. Doubts remain, however, about whether NGOs have reduced emissions in the time since and at the level of individual power plants where the lion's share of carbon pollution is emitted. Using plant‐specific information on CO2 emissions recently collected by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under its Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program, we investigate the effects of local environmental NGOs (ENGOs) on plants’ environmental performance. Consistent with our expectations, we find that local ENGOs not only directly reduce plants’ emissions but indirectly do so by enhancing the effectiveness of subnational climate policies that encourage energy efficiency. We discuss the implications of our findings for research on the decoupling of normative systems, social movements, environmental sociology, and the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12318   open full text
  • Credit at the Corner Store: An Analysis of Resource Exchange among Detroit‐Area Urban Poor.
    Vance Alan Puchalski.
    Sociological Forum. August 08, 2016
    This ethnographic study examines how and why Detroit‐area credit‐constrained members of the urban poor relied on owners/employees of corner convenience stores, known as “party stores,” for accessing short‐term, interest‐free informal credit services. Findings indicate that informal credit at party stores functioned as a low‐ or no‐cost alternative to formal credit and high‐cost fringe banking services such as payday loans, both of which were inaccessible and/or cost prohibitive for informants. These data contribute empirically to a growing body of research on “credit invisibility” by exploring these populations' use of informal credit mechanisms. Findings also make a theoretical contribution by highlighting the importance of resource exchange networks through which members of the urban poor build strong yet disposable social ties in order to respond to economic shocks, combat food insufficiency, and survive economic destitution.
    August 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12295   open full text
  • Fashioning Futures: Life Coaching and the Self‐Made Identity Paradox.
    Michal Pagis.
    Sociological Forum. August 05, 2016
    Contemporary processes of individualization push people to construct single‐handedly their own identities. This urge runs counter to a fundament of sociology, which proposes that identities are social products that must be validated through social relations. Based on participant observation and in‐depth interviews with life coaches and their clients, I investigate life coaching as a social institution that aims to resolve the paradoxical nature of the desire for self‐creation. Locating life coaching in the larger identity‐fashioning market, this article illustrates how the artificial nature of outsourced social relations reconciles two apparently contradictory desires: the “need for help” and “wanting to find it on my own.” Three mechanisms are involved: creating an independent social space where identities can be crafted away from significant others; deliberately deemphasizing the coach and intentionally underwriting personal authorship; and encouraging clients to root identities in the social world while promoting an instrumental view of sociality. The article discusses the blurring of boundaries between intimate social relations and utilitarian market logic, and the implications of the ongoing outsourcing of identity support that reinforces the privileged ideal of self‐made identities.
    August 05, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12297   open full text
  • Gender and the Mental–Physical Health Connection Among U.S. Adults.
    Jen'nan Ghazal Read, Jeremy R. Porter, Bridget K. Gorman.
    Sociological Forum. July 31, 2016
    Using data from the 1995, 1998, and 2001 panels of Aging, Status, and Sense of Control (ASOC) Survey, we examine gender differences in the relationship between self‐rated physical health and mental health over time (n = 2,543). Gender‐stratified path models highlight how the nature of the mental–physical health relationship changes when we use indicators of mental health that have traditionally been labeled as female sensitive (depression) or male sensitive (heavy drinking). Results show that women and men are similar in that mental health has a stronger effect on physical health than the reverse. However, this is only the case when we use gender‐sensitive measures of mental distress: Men who drink heavily and women who are depressed report poorer self‐rated physical health over time, while heavy drinking for women and depression for men have no significant effects on their self‐rated physical well‐being. These results provide evidence of a health process that is gendered in its expression but more universal in its outcome—the exact measure might vary, but men and women alike are physically harmed by mental health problems.
    July 31, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12298   open full text
  • Ontological Insecurity, Racial Tension, and Confidence in the Police in the Shadow of Urban Unrest.
    Kevin H. Wozniak.
    Sociological Forum. July 31, 2016
    According to the theory of “ontological insecurity,” people who worry that society is in a state of decline or upheaval will also support punitive social control of deviants. I test the relationship between several measures of people's anxiety about the state of society, their perception of racial tension, and their confidence in the police (as enforcers of social control) during the period of social unrest following the death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri. I use ordinary least squares regression to analyze data from a nationally representative public opinion poll gathered for the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press during August, 2014. I find that pessimism about the state of the economy, pessimism about race relations, and the experience of personal hardship are related to decreased confidence in the police, while pessimism about the state of morals in society is related to increased confidence. I conclude that public confidence in the police is intertwined with public confidence in the stability of the country, more generally. This study supports a “neo‐Durkheimian” model of policing. The opposite findings of economic versus moral insecurity also call for refinement of the ontological insecurity theory.
    July 31, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12296   open full text
  • Authenticity and Carrier Agents: The Social Construction of Political Gaffes.
    Ian Sheinheit, Cynthia J. Bogard.
    Sociological Forum. July 31, 2016
    Political campaigns require constant performance from politicians. This presents ample opportunity for the occurrence of political gaffes. While it is not surprising that political gaffes can have a major impact on political campaigns, the process by which a gaffe is transformed into a meaning‐laden defining campaign event is underanalyzed. To address this, we analyze and reconstruct the media trajectory of three instances, two involving Senate candidates (George Allen and Todd Akin) and one a presidential candidate (Mitt Romney), in which gaffes were constructed into meaning‐laden events. We find that constructing a political gaffe as a meaning‐laden event is a deeply social process. Our research highlights the impact of sousveillance (surveillance from below) and the difficulty that political performers have maintaining consistent “authentic” performances. Recounting the trajectories of these three gaffes allows for a detailing of the diverse methods by which the hybrid media system was effectively mobilized by “carrier agents” (actors with narrative capacity and media know‐how). Further, we find that these gaffes proved particularly salient because they were interpreted as embodying an authentic representation of the candidate while simultaneously violating emergent norms of inclusive democratic public discourse.
    July 31, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12292   open full text
  • Unpacking the Habitus: Meaning Making Across Lifestyles.
    Jens Ambrasat, Christian Scheve, Gesche Schauenburg, Markus Conrad, Tobias Schröder.
    Sociological Forum. July 26, 2016
    The concept of habitus refers to socially stratified patterns of perception, classification, and thinking that are supposed to bring about specific lifestyles. Until now, research on the links between stratification and lifestyles has accounted for the habitus mainly in conceptual and theoretical terms, and studies directly measuring habitus and its association with stratification and lifestyles are rare. The present study conceptualizes the habitus as an individual‐level pattern of meaning making and suggests an operationalization that is commonly used in identity research. Using survey data of 3,438 respondents, the study investigates associations between different lifestyles and patterns of meaning making. Results show, first, that self‐related meanings vary systematically across lifestyle categories and mirror respondents' stratification position. Second, the meanings of various social concepts also vary significantly across lifestyle categories and partly reflect descriptive lifestyle characteristics. In sum, the study presents a plausible operationalization of (parts of) the habitus and advances our understanding of its mediating position between stratification and lifestyles.
    July 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12293   open full text
  • Recipes for Attention: Policy Reforms, Crises, Organizational Characteristics, and the Newspaper Coverage of the LGBT Movement, 1969–2009.
    Thomas Alan Elliott, Edwin Amenta, Neal Caren.
    Sociological Forum. July 26, 2016
    Why do some organizations in a movement seeking social change gain extensive national newspaper coverage? To address the question, we innovate in theoretical and empirical ways. First, we elaborate a theoretical argument that builds from the political mediation theory of movement consequences and incorporates the social organization of newspaper practices. This media and political mediation model integrates political and media contexts and organizations' characteristics and actions. With this model, we hypothesize two main routes to coverage: one that includes changes in public policy and involves policy‐engaged, well‐resourced, and inclusive organizations and a second that combines social crises and protest organizations. Second, we appraise these arguments with the first analysis of the national coverage of all organizations in a social movement over its career: 84 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights and AIDS‐related organizations in the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, and Wall Street Journal from 1969 to 2010. These analyses go beyond previous research that provides either snapshots of many organizations at one point in time or overtime analyses of aggregated groups of organizations or individual organizations. The results of both historical and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analyses support our media and political mediation model.
    July 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12290   open full text
  • Our Day Jobs: Politics and Pedagogy in Academia.
    Barbara Katz Rothman.
    Sociological Forum. July 26, 2016
    This essay addresses the changing face of the university. It is based on my presidential address at the 2016 meetings of the Eastern Sociological Society.
    July 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12289   open full text
  • “I Stay by Myself”: Social Support, Distrust, and Selective Solidarity Among the Urban Poor.
    Danielle Raudenbush.
    Sociological Forum. July 22, 2016
    Significant debate exists about whether the black urban poor rely on each other for support. Currently, two perspectives dominate: the pervasive solidarity perspective, which asserts that support is widespread in poor, black communities, and the distrust‐individualism perspective, which claims that, in these communities, pervasive distrust undermines social cohesion and people use individualistic strategies for solving problems. Based on fieldwork in an African American public housing development, I present the concept of selective solidarity, which suggests that social life in these communities is neither as cohesive nor as individualistic as what past perspectives suggest. With selective solidarity, people rely on one another for support but selectively choose exchange partners, restricting exchange networks. Selective solidarity helps us understand how people manage sentiments of distrust while developing strategies for coping with material deprivation. Findings also have implications for the study of urban poverty. While my informants frequently stated that they “stay by themselves,” which implies individualism, they actually have meaningful exchange relationships. I argue that this contradiction suggests that they have multiple frames for approaching social life. We must consider such frames to avoid drawing misinformed conclusions, such as that the urban poor do not have supportive relationship when in fact they do.
    July 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12294   open full text
  • Cisgendered Organizations: Trans Women and Inequality in the Workplace.
    Jill E. Yavorsky.
    Sociological Forum. July 22, 2016
    This article responds to calls to better understand how intersecting “inequality regimes” operate in organizations. Through in‐depth interviews with 25 white trans women about their workplace experiences, my analyses highlight how trans women navigate relational practices that are simultaneously gendered and cisgendered—that is, practices that maintain cultural connections between sex and gender and maintain gender as immutable. Findings demarcate three distinct mechanisms by which cisgenderism, a system that devalues women and trans people, operates and strengthens hierarchical privileges at work: (1) double‐bind constraints; (2) fluid biases of cissexism and sexism; and (3) group practices of privilege and subordination. In the first regard, analyses reveal unique double binds that trans women face—binds that dictate contradictory feminine and masculine ideal worker expectations but also expectations of gender authenticity. Second, I find that trans women often hover between two subordinate statuses (i.e., gender and transgender status) in a given workday, a fact that prods a more fluid conception of cisgenderism. Finally, this study highlights how cis men collectively mobilize through group practices to repair cisgender system breaches. All three dimensions are critical for understanding the production of workplace inequality between not only trans women and cis men, but all feminine‐identified workers.
    July 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12291   open full text
  • Water Policy And Governance Networks: A Pathway To Enhance Resilience Toward Climate Change.
    Beth Caniglia, Beatrice Frank, Bridget Kerner, Tamara L. Mix.
    Sociological Forum. July 15, 2016
    Natural resources governance is key to enhancing resilience toward climate change and strengthening socioecological systems in light of future uncertainties. Overlapping jurisdictions and lack of clarity in the lines of authority reduce the efficiency of environmental policies and governance, jeopardizing the conservation and sustainable use of resources. With the forecast of longer droughts, extreme precipitation patterns, faster runoff, and slower water table recharge over the coming years, water governance becomes an impellent issue. To understand the risks posed by water scarcity and water regulations, a case study was conducted of Oklahoma state‐level water policies and governance. A content analysis of water policies and a network analysis of water governance was used to determine how Oklahoma experiences features of fragmented and adaptive governance within its natural resource governance structure. Data analysis reveals that Oklahoma water governance experiences multiple forms of fragmentation while also showing features of an adaptive network. Such adaptive features make Oklahoma's water governance network more resilient than forecasted. Identifying gaps and understanding how a governance system experiences fragmentation can help policy makers develop strategies to enhance the adaptive features of water governance, thus preparing for risk and disasters related to water scarcity and climate variability.
    July 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12275   open full text
  • Life after Hurricane Katrina: The Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) Project.
    Mary C. Waters.
    Sociological Forum. June 30, 2016
    This article presents an overview of the findings to date of the Resilience in Survivors of Katrina (RISK) Project, a longitudinal study of 1,019 young, predominantly female and African American community college students who were surveyed a year before Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and then two to three times afterward. This study combines a multidisciplinary, multimethod approach to understanding the immediate and long‐term effects of the Katrina disaster on physical and mental health, economic and social functioning, and neighborhood attainment. I discuss what we can learn from the rare inclusion of predisaster data and our unusual ability to follow participants for years after the disaster. I argue that it is important to follow the recovery of individuals and communities as well as the recovery of the city, as these are often not the same, especially in Katrina where a large proportion of the city never returned.
    June 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12271   open full text
  • Introduction to Special Issue: Risk, Climate, and the Environment.
    Daina Cheyenne Harvey.
    Sociological Forum. June 30, 2016
    This essay introduces articles in a special issue of Sociological Forum on “Risk, Climate, and the Environment.”
    June 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12270   open full text
  • The Discourse of the Ecological Precariat: Making Sense of Social Disruption in the Lower Ninth Ward in the Long‐Term Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
    Daina Cheyenne Harvey.
    Sociological Forum. June 26, 2016
    The Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans was ground zero for Hurricane Katrina. In the prolonged aftermath, residents were forced to deal with social abandonment, discriminatory rebuilding policies, the BP disaster, redistricting, and the everyday toxic assault that comes from living in Cancer Alley. A 14‐month ethnography of the neighborhood revealed residents’ understanding of Katrina was grounded in a larger pattern of discourse surrounding extreme environmental threats. While not everyone in the community talked about suffering in the same way, there was a common discourse stemming from a cultural coherence based on shared perceptions and understandings of social disruption from the environment. This coherence reveals a discourse of environmental suffering. I refer to residents who employed this discourse as the ecological precariat. In this article, I focus on the discursive responses to suffering that constitute this particular way of making sense of suffering. In doing so, I denote three dominant discourses, including distrust, uncertainty, and confusion.
    June 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12277   open full text
  • Knowledge and Concern for Sea‐Level Rise in an Urban Environmental Justice Community.
    Victor W. Perez, Jennifer Egan.
    Sociological Forum. June 26, 2016
    Perceptions of sea‐level rise in urban, environmental justice (EJ) communities are poorly understood. These communities’ long‐term vulnerability may increase as a result of the interaction of sea‐level rise and legacy pollution. This article presents research on experience and perceptions of sea‐level rise, flooding, legacy pollution/contamination, and health in an EJ community in northern Delaware. The community is in close proximity to documented brownfields and other hazardous sites, and is located where there are long‐term projections of water inundation due to sea‐level rise. Researchers administered quantitative surveys at local events that measured knowledge and concern for these issues; conducted focus groups that enabled a deeper understanding of survey results; and examined community perceptions relative to existing policy tools, including sea‐level rise inundation maps and documentation of contaminated sites. The mixed‐method approach created a baseline of perceptions on pollution, flooding, a health–environment connection, and sea‐level rise. Key findings include the value of experiential knowledge of local flooding to improve efficacy of future policy prescriptions, and how a lack of knowledge of sea‐level rise, coupled with great concern for it, might be explained by longtime familiarity with flooding issues in the community.
    June 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12278   open full text
  • Drought, Risk, and Institutional Politics in the American Southwest.
    David J. Hess, Christopher A. Wold, Elise Hunter, John Nay, Scott Worland, Jonathan Gilligan, George M. Hornberger.
    Sociological Forum. June 14, 2016
    Although there are multiple causes of the water scarcity crisis in the American Southwest, it can be used as a model of the long‐term problem of freshwater shortages that climate change will exacerbate. We examine the water‐supply crisis for 22 cities in the extended Southwest of the United States and develop a unique, new measure of water conservation policies and programs. Convergent qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest that political conflicts play an important role in the transition of water‐supply regimes toward higher levels of demand‐reduction policies and programs. Qualitative analysis using institutional theory identifies the interaction of four types of motivating logics—development, rural preservation, environmental, and urban consumer—and shows how demand‐reduction strategies can potentially satisfy all four. Quantitative analysis of the explanatory factors for the variation in the adoption of demand‐reduction policies points to the overwhelming importance of political preferences as defined by Cook's Partisan Voting Index. We suggest that approaches to water‐supply choices are influenced less by direct partisan disagreements than by broad preferences for a development logic based on supply‐increase strategies and discomfort with demand‐reduction strategies that clash with conservative beliefs.
    June 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12274   open full text
  • Domestic Inequality and Carbon Emissions in Comparative Perspective.
    Andrew K. Jorgenson, Juliet B. Schor, Kyle W. Knight, Xiaorui Huang.
    Sociological Forum. June 14, 2016
    Drawing from multiple bodies of literature, the authors investigate the relationship between consumption‐based carbon emissions and domestic income inequality for 67 nations from 1991 to 2008. Results of two‐way fixed‐effects longitudinal models indicate that the relationship between national‐level emissions and inequality changes through time and varies for nations in different macroeconomic contexts. For high‐income nations, the relationship shifts from negative to positive, suggesting that in recent years, income inequality in such nations increases carbon emissions. For middle‐income nations, the association is negative, and becomes increasingly negative in the later years of the study. For low‐income nations, the relationship between carbon emissions and domestic income inequality is null for the entire 1991 to 2008 period. These diverse results hold, net of the effects of other well‐established human drivers of emissions, including population size, level of economic development, and urbanization. The authors conclude by emphasizing the need for future research on greenhouse gas emissions and domestic inequality, and the central role that sociology should play in this emerging area of inquiry.
    June 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12272   open full text
  • Climate Change Mitigation and the Collective Action Problem: Exploring Country Differences in Greenhouse Gas Contributions.
    Steven R. Brechin.
    Sociological Forum. June 10, 2016
    Global climate change has become the collective action problem of our era. With the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 2015 COP21 Meetings in Paris as the context, the author draws upon critical mass theory (CMT) (Oliver and Marwell 1988; Oliver, Marwell, and Teixeria 1985) in an attempt to yield greater understanding of the international community's ability to achieve climate stability as a global public good. Using CMT key elements of collective action production functions, group heterogeneity, and interdependence, the author explores the world's collective ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the country level. Brief examples from Belize, Central America, and other small, vulnerable nations are used to focus attention on those countries that cannot make meaningful contribution to the collection action. The findings help illustrate why climate change is such a difficult collective action problem to address, what broad strategies might be required, and how to potentially achieve more targeted distribution of international resources.
    June 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12276   open full text
  • Coastal Restoration as Contested Terrain: Climate Change and the Political Economy of Risk Reduction in Louisiana.
    Kevin Fox Gotham.
    Sociological Forum. June 10, 2016
    Although many studies have examined the effects of structural factors and institutional interests on risk estimation practices, little is known about the political dynamics surrounding divergent responses to risk reduction measures. This article examines the political economy of risk reduction, using a case study of Louisiana's coastal restoration planning and decision‐making process. Specifically, the article draws on documentary evidence, long‐term ethnographic field observations, and semistructured interviews to investigate the proliferation of risk conflicts and disputes surrounding the 2012 Louisiana Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast, the latest long‐term risk‐reduction plan to slow coastal erosion and achieve a sustainable coast. As I point out, coastal restoration in Louisiana is contested terrain where a variety of contentious groups struggle to influence and control debates over climate change risk and coastal erosion risk reduction. By examining the proliferation of contested risk definitions and risk reduction strategies in Louisiana, I aim to provide new insight into the organizational and institutional forces that shape positions on risk, the political‐economic forces that create and allocate risk, and the social construction of community identity and culture through risk debates.
    June 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12273   open full text
  • “A Grain of Salt in a Pepper Shaker”: Interviewing Whites, Blacks, and Latinos about Their Neighborhood Preferences.
    Cassi A. Meyerhoffer.
    Sociological Forum. May 11, 2016
    Several perspectives dominate as explanations for neighborhood preferences: pure race, racial proxy, race‐based neighborhood stereotyping, and race‐associated neighborhood factors. This analysis extends and supports the pure race and race‐associated neighborhood factors arguments by showing that these theories are applied differently depending on respondents' social class, race and ethnicity, and whether they are talking about white, black, or Latino neighborhoods. Race‐associated factors are emphasized for white and black neighborhoods, but pure race serves as a better theoretical framework for understanding people's preferences for Latino neighborhoods. I analyze qualitative interview data, using maps of real neighborhoods and hypothetical neighborhood show cards, to examine the neighborhood preferences of 65 white, black, and Latino residents in Ogden, Utah, and Buffalo, New York.
    May 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12263   open full text
  • Mechanisms of Organizational Commitment: Adding Frames to Greedy Institution Theory.
    Amanda Barrett Cox.
    Sociological Forum. May 02, 2016
    How do organizations that make significant physical, emotional, and intellectual demands foster commitment and loyalty from voluntary participants? Greedy institution theory (Coser ) answers this question by identifying structural elements that foster participants' undivided commitment to “greedy” groups, those in which participants' involvement interferes with and takes precedence over their involvement in other social spheres. In this article, I argue for the expansion of greedy institution theory to include frames and framing processes as “greedy” organizational tools that work on the microinteractional level. Using data from an ethnographic study of an intensive program that prepares low‐income students of color to attend elite boarding high schools, I show how the organization's “family” frame mobilized participants and encouraged interpretations and interactions that helped students persist in the program and remain committed to the organization. I argue that turning our attention to frames and framing processes will increase our understanding of the tools organizations use on a microinteractional level to build and repair participants' loyalty and commitment.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12269   open full text
  • Bending but Not Breaking?: Foreign Investor Pressure and Dividend Payouts by Japanese Firms.
    Jiwook Jung, Eunmi Mun.
    Sociological Forum. April 28, 2016
    This article examines the global diffusion of shareholder‐oriented governance practices, using the case of dividend payouts by Japanese firms. While Japanese firms previously retained profits for rainy days or new ventures, their dividend payouts began to increase in the 1990s, rapidly catching up with the levels prevailing in the United States. Following prior research, we focus on the role of foreign investors in this process but provide a more nuanced account of their influence, using panel data on 2,036 publicly traded Japanese firms from 1990 to 2005. First, we show that pressure from foreign investors increased dividends by Japanese firms not only directly but also indirectly, by extending the cognitive boundaries of organizational fields of Japanese firms beyond their local peers and toward their global competitors. Second, we show that although Japanese firms that remained deeply embedded in the traditional, stakeholder‐oriented governance system resisted shareholder‐oriented governance practices, even such firms yielded under pressure from both foreign and domestic investors. We conclude with theoretical implications of our findings for the literature on the global diffusion of shareholder value and its broader political and social consequences.
    April 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12268   open full text
  • Moving Beyond the Sound Bite: Complicating the Relationship Between Negative Television News Framing and In‐Depth Reporting on Activism.
    Malaena Taylor, Kate Gunby.
    Sociological Forum. April 28, 2016
    Social movements often want their protests to gain media attention, yet most media coverage negatively portrays activists. Many assume that this negative coverage of protesters precludes substantive coverage of the movement, but our research is the first to test this assumption. Using content analysis of 754 television news reports about the Global Justice Movement and the Tea Party Movement, we find that frames that marginalize the protesters are often coupled with in‐depth, factual coverage of social movements. Contrary to common assumptions, the results show that the presence of negative framing is not necessarily bad publicity for social movements. Instead, we find that the news segments that provide unflattering descriptions of protesters are more likely to provide in‐depth information about the movement and the activists’ grievances and demands.
    April 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12264   open full text
  • Completing the Circuit: Routine, Reflection, and Ethical Consumption.
    Ethan D. Schoolman.
    Sociological Forum. April 21, 2016
    Efforts to explain why some people incorporate ethical concerns into everyday shopping for food and household goods, while many do not, have so far left significant variation in “ethical consumption” unexplained. Seeking to move beyond explanations that rely mainly on differences in consumers' social class, gender, and political engagement, I draw on concepts associated with “practice theory” to argue that ethical consumption is closely tied to people's willingness and ability to spend time, while shopping, on distinct activities associated with breaking old routines and establishing new ones. The central insight of practice theory is that most consumption is the product of unconscious routine. And it is precisely because consciously departing from routine is, according to my study, a fundamentally time‐consuming process, that lack of time emerges as a crucial obstacle to translating abstract ethical concerns into concrete action as a consumer.
    April 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12266   open full text
  • Contesting Racialized Discourses of Homophobia.
    Catherine Connell.
    Sociological Forum. April 21, 2016
    In the course of research concerning the experiences of gay and lesbian teachers in public schools, I discovered that teachers often construct racialized explanations of potential homophobia in their schools, including the expectation that black and Latino coworkers, parents, and students were more likely to be homophobic. By taking an intersectional approach to these narratives as a case study in the discursive construction of race and sexuality, this article shows how racism and homophobia are mutually sustained in everyday talk. This process of racializing homophobia not only further alienates gay and lesbian teachers of color, it also reinforces racial inequality more broadly. In addition to racializing homophobia discourse, many white research participants used racial discrimination as a comparative rhetorical strategy to make sense of the discrimination they experience as gays and lesbians. While this strategy was purportedly useful for combating discrimination, it is also troubling. First, it assumes a false dichotomy between race and sexual identity that further erases the experience of queer people of color, who must contend with both kinds of discrimination. Second, it posits a false equivalence, when in fact the unique histories and operations of each kind of marginality resist such facile comparisons.
    April 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12265   open full text
  • Beyond Being on Call: Time, Contingency, and Unpredictability Among Family Caregivers for the Elderly.
    Guillermina Altomonte.
    Sociological Forum. April 19, 2016
    This article explores contingency as a central yet underappreciated feature of care work. It does so by focusing on family elder care and the complex temporal interactions between caregiver, care receiver, and healthcare institutions in the U.S. context. Drawing on in‐depth interviews with 19 family caregivers for an elderly relative, I show that their experience of time is, paradoxically, systematically unpredictable. It is shaped by three dimensions: uncertain futures (not knowing how long, or how much, they will have to care), conflicting rhythms (mediating between the temporalities of institutions and that of the elderly relative), and flooded time (ongoing expectations of interruption). Focusing on caregivers’ experiences of unpredictability highlights their exclusion from broader social temporalities and the obstruction of their possibilities to craft their own futures. I therefore suggest that the experience and management of contingency may constitute its own form of inequality and is a fruitful site for exploring the temporal relations between paid and unpaid labor. Also, sociological theories of time and labor may benefit from foregrounding care work to advance understandings of the complex and hierarchical interactions between multiple temporal orders in post‐Fordist economies.
    April 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12267   open full text
  • Apathy and Antipathy: Media Coverage of Restrictive Immigration Legislation and the Maintenance of Symbolic Boundaries.
    Emily P. Estrada, Kim Ebert, Michelle Halla Lore.
    Sociological Forum. April 15, 2016
    Although the government no longer explicitly establishes boundaries of whiteness, it continues to play a central role in shaping symbolic boundaries between immigrants and nonimmigrants through immigration lawmaking. However, the salience of these boundaries may depend on how the media disseminate them to the public. In this study, we investigate media framing of immigration lawmaking using an original data set of news coverage of six of the most widely recognized exclusionary immigration bills and laws at different levels of government. Two patterns emerged from an iterative frame analysis. First, in their coverage of frames critical of these bills and laws, outlets devoted more attention to the effects of exclusionary legislation for nonimmigrants. Second, in their coverage of frames supportive of the restrictive legislation, outlets provided more space to those who openly associated immigrants with criminality and terrorism. Regardless of outlets’ seemingly neutral stance toward restrictive legislation, their disparate coverage of exclusionary lawmaking demonstrates apathy and antipathy toward immigrants, which has repercussions for the maintenance of inequality.
    April 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12262   open full text
  • From Social Capital to Inequality: Migrant Networks in Different Stages of Labor Incorporation.
    Maria Cristina Morales.
    Sociological Forum. April 08, 2016
    How does social capital vary in the distinct stages (prehiring, hiring, and posthiring) of labor incorporation? Based on interviews with 71 Latino migrant workers engaged in residential construction in Las Vegas, Nevada, and 30 transnational migrants who returned to Mexico after working in the United States, I examined two primary issues: first, the structural labor mechanisms that create hyperexploitation, and second, how, in turn, such processes shape social capital. I discovered, at the prehiring phase, social networks connected to subcontractors and those who attempt to form a labor crew function as social capital, despite what may appear to be bonded labor. At the hiring stage, social capital continues to play a role, yet posthiring labor structures create hyperexploitation and immigrants experience inequality in social capital. In such contexts, undocumented Latinos are unable to retain their social capital as U.S. labor structures such as subcontracting and piece‐rate compensation lead to the subjugation of workers, who can become “ghost workers” and bonded laborers. I conclude that in the posthiring stage, such labor structures create what Lin (2000, 2001) refers to as capital deficit and return deficit in social capital that greatly limit the economic incorporation of Latino immigrants.
    April 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12261   open full text
  • On the Elementary Neural Forms of Micro‐Interactional Rituals: Integrating Autonomic Nervous System Functioning Into Interaction Ritual Theory.
    Marie Bruvik Heinskou, Lasse Suonperä Liebst.
    Sociological Forum. March 23, 2016
    Randall Collins's interaction ritual (IR) theory suggests social solidarity as hardwired in the human neurological capacity for rhythmic entrainment. Yet, this article suggests that IR theory may benefit from being tied more firmly to recent neurobiological research, specifically Stephen W. Porges's polyvagal theory that proposes autonomic nervous system functioning as a basis for emotions and social behavior. In this perspective, IR theory does not sufficiently acknowledge the human nervous system as a system involving a phylogenetically ordered response hierarchy, of which only one subsystem supports prosocial behavior. The ritual ingredients of mutual attention and shared mood may, moreover, be specified as part of a social engagement system, neurally regulating attention and emotional arousal via a face–heart connection. The article suggests that this social engagement system provides part of the neural basis for rhythmic entrainment. The polyvagal theory furthermore challenges IR theory to reconsider the importance of individual biological differences—ritual success may not merely be ascribed to interactional effects, but also to reciprocal causality between situations and neurobiological properties of ritual participants.
    March 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12248   open full text
  • From Bad to Worse? Pornography Consumption, Spousal Religiosity, Gender, and Marital Quality.
    Samuel L. Perry.
    Sociological Forum. March 17, 2016
    Pornography consumption is consistently associated with lower marital quality. Scholars have theorized that embeddedness within a religious community may exacerbate the negative association between pornography use and marital quality because of greater social or psychic costs to porn viewing. As a test and extension of this theory, I examine how being married to a religiously devout spouse potentially moderates the link between respondents' reported pornography consumption and their marital satisfaction. Data are taken from the 2006 Portraits of American Life Study. In the main effects, porn consumption is negatively related to marital satisfaction, while spousal religiosity is positively related to marital satisfaction. Interaction effects reveal, however, that spousal religiosity intensifies the negative effect of porn viewing on marital satisfaction. These effects are robust whether marital satisfaction is operationalized as a scale or with individual measures and whether spousal religiosity is measured with respondents' evaluations their spouses' religiosity or spouses' self‐reported religiosity measures. The effects are also similar for both husbands and wives. I argue that for married Americans, having a religiously committed spouse increases the social and psychic costs of porn consumption such that marital satisfaction decreases more drastically as a result.
    March 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12252   open full text
  • The Protestant Reading Ethic and Variation in Its Effects.
    James S. Mosher.
    Sociological Forum. March 17, 2016
    Max Weber's thesis that a “Protestant ethic” in a subset of Protestant sects created a “spirit of capitalism” is often interpreted as an explanation for the increase in economic growth in the Protestant parts of the West before and during the industrial revolution. One alternative pathway through which Protestantism might have contributed to high economic performance is that it was Protestantism's promotion of literacy that led to higher economic growth and not behavioral changes due to a Protestant ethic as suggested by Weber. To evaluate the “Protestant reading ethic” thesis, this study examines historical events for the period from 1500 up to the 1800s in nine countries. The study also explores available cross‐national quantitative data on economic development and literacy for the same period. The qualitative and quantitative evidence supports the overall thesis that Protestantism promoted literacy and rises in literacy likely contributed to the economic development. The evidence also suggests that the impact of Protestantism on literacy varied depending on what actions were taken by Protestant states and Protestant national churches to promote literacy.
    March 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12250   open full text
  • Normlessness, Anomie, and the Emotions.
    Warren D. TenHouten.
    Sociological Forum. March 14, 2016
    In Suicide, Durkheim described two qualitatively different experiences of normative anomie, each with a distinct affective basis: an intentional, if not ruthless, disdain for society's normative order; and an unintentional disregard for, or confusion about, norms or rules of conduct. We generalize Durkheim's classification of the socioaffective aspects of anomic suicide, and present two theoretical models of normlessness‐anomie and the emotions. These models posit that intentional anomie involves the primary emotions anger, disgust, and joy‐happiness; these emotions can combine to form the secondary emotions contempt, pride, and derisiveness. Unintentional, passive anomie rather involves the emotions surprise, fear, and sadness; these can combine to form the secondary emotions disappointment, shame, and alarm. We additionally hypothesize that each kind of anomie has distinct potential behavioral consequences: intentional anomie can result in immorality, shamelessness, acquisitiveness, and premeditated homicidality; unintentional anomie, in depression, confusion, uncertainty, unpremeditated homicidality, and suicidality.
    March 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12253   open full text
  • Institutional Amnesia: Sustainability and Peacebuilding in Croatia.
    Laura J. Heideman.
    Sociological Forum. March 10, 2016
    This article studies the relationship between sustainability and institutional memory in postwar Croatia. Is institutional memory preserved after interventions end? Is so, how and by whom? What are the causes of loss of institutional memory? What are the consequences for sustainability and accountability? When international organizations pulled out of peacebuilding operations in Croatia in the mid to late 2000s, they quickly lost their institutional memory of their projects. Donors, international nongovernmental organizations, and intergovernmental organizations all lost their ability to recall the work they had done in the past. Using interview, ethnographic data, and archival documents gathered over five years (2008–2013), I define three types of memory—archival, human, and electronic—and show how each of these forms of memory eroded as international projects in Croatia ended. The loss of international memory has implications for international organizations' own stated goals of sustainability and their ability to achieve and assess sustainability, and for the downward accountability of donors to their beneficiaries and the countries they worked in.
    March 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12249   open full text
  • Language Use and Violence: Assessing the Relationship Between Linguistic Context and Macrolevel Violence.
    Ben Feldmeyer, Casey T. Harris, Daniel Lai.
    Sociological Forum. March 08, 2016
    Scholars have produced a sizable body of research assessing the macrolevel links between immigration and crime. However, researchers have given far less attention to related questions about the effects of language use on aggregate levels of violence. The current study addresses this gap in research by exploring the ways that patterns of language use—specifically, language heterogeneity and Spanish‐language concentration—are related to year 2010 serious violent crime rates for nearly 2,900 census places across the United States. Results of our analysis reveal that linguistic heterogeneity is associated with increased violence and that this relationship is stronger in disadvantaged contexts. In contrast, Spanish‐language concentration appears to be protective against violence and mitigates the violence‐generating effects of structural disadvantage, net of immigration and other macrostructural characteristics. Implications of these findings for research on immigration, communities and crime, and related theoretical perspectives on immigrant revitalization and macrostructural theories of crime are discussed.
    March 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12246   open full text
  • Dimensions of Job Quality, Mechanisms, and Subjective Well‐Being in the United States.
    Jonathan Horowitz.
    Sociological Forum. March 04, 2016
    How does job quality predict subjective well‐being in the United States? Prior research suggests that various job quality dimensions such as job security and individual task discretion affect subjective well‐being, but the theoretical mechanisms are implied rather than tested and aspects of job quality are rarely tested together. I use structural equation modeling and General Social Survey data to assess the impact of five job quality dimensions—individual task discretion, monetary compensation, job security, low work intensity, and safe work conditions—on subjective well‐being. Then, I show that job quality influences subjective well‐being by improving social life, altering class identification, affecting physical health, and increasing amounts of leisure time. Finally, while I find that job quality dimensions do have statistically significant effects on subjective well‐being, the way in which job quality affects subjective well‐being differs by job dimension. In other words, job quality has a statistically significant impact on subjective well‐being, but different job quality domains are connected to subjective well‐being in different ways.
    March 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12251   open full text
  • Gender, Field, and Habitus: How Gendered Dispositions Reproduce Fields of Cultural Production.
    Diana L. Miller.
    Sociological Forum. March 04, 2016
    Bourdieu argues that fields of action produce a specific habitus in participants, and views this specific habitus as a mechanism through which the field is reproduced. Although Bourdieu acknowledges the habitus as gendered, he does not theorize gender as part of the mutually constitutive relationship between field and habitus. Using evidence from two cultural fields, the Toronto heavy metal and folk music scenes, I show that gender is central to the process through which field and habitus sustain each other. The metal field produces a “metalhead habitus” that privileges gender performances centered on individual dominance and status competition. In contrast, the “folkie habitus” encourages gender performances centered on caring, emotional relations with others, and community‐building. These differently gendered habitus support different working conventions: music production occurs largely through volunteer‐based nonprofit organizations in the folk field, and individual entrepreneurship in the metal field. The gendered habitus also supports different stylistic conventions: guitar virtuosity in the metal field, and participatory music‐making in folk. Applying a gendered lens to the field–habitus relationship clarifies the mechanisms through which cultural fields shape individual action, and the mechanisms through which cultural fields are reproduced and maintained.
    March 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12247   open full text
  • “Taking Back a Little Bit of Control”: Managing the Contaminated Body Through Consumption.
    Norah MacKendrick, Lindsay M. Stevens.
    Sociological Forum. March 04, 2016
    In this article, we explore the lived experience of avoiding environmental chemicals through safer consumption, such as buying “eco‐friendly” products. Using focus groups and in‐depth interviews involving 50 subjects, we investigate how individuals become aware of environmental chemicals and how they adapt to this awareness. Our participants describe being surprised or alarmed to learn that chemicals are present in food and commodities that they believed were safe. They respond by developing a set of heuristics rendering the “dangerous” consumer landscape into a space that is amenable to personal control. They learn to read an ingredient label and look for organic certification seals on product packaging. We develop the idea of the “contingent boundary” to describe how participants perceive personal control as uneven: they believe they can activate a protective boundary in local and familiar contexts, but outside these contexts, they believe the boundary dissolves. They accept this contingency as normal and describe having to ignore some chemical exposures, for fear of becoming too “crazy.” We conclude that the individuals in our study accept that inverted quarantine (Szasz 2007) is out of reach, and instead try to impose order upon a ubiquitous risk.
    March 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12245   open full text
  • The Missing Organizational Dimension of Prisoner Reentry: An Ethnography of the Road to Reentry at a Nonprofit Service Provider.
    Jonathan J. B. Mijs.
    Sociological Forum. March 04, 2016
    Prisoner reentry has received great interest in political sociology, criminology, and beyond. Research documents the struggles of individuals trying to find their way back into society. Less attention has been given to the organizational aspects of reentry. This is unfortunate given the rapid growth of nonprofit reentry organizations in the United States, which introduces a new set of questions about the context and challenges to prisoner reentry. Drawing on an ethnography of Safe, a nonprofit reentry organization in the Northeast, I describe the organization's pivotal role in institutionalizing the pathway to prisoner reentry: a road to reentry, which takes former prisoners through a process that reconfigures their morality, identity, and social relationships. The road‐to‐reentry concept helps bring together scholars of the welfare state and criminology by highlighting how the challenges of prisoner reentry rely on how this process is organized. The way in which prison reentry is organized, in turn, affects former prisoners’ agency and shapes the relationship between these men and women and their respective families and communities.
    March 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/socf.12254   open full text
  • Expanding Boundaries of Whiteness? A Look at the Marital Patterns of Part‐White Multiracial Groups.
    Michael H. Miyawaki.
    Sociological Forum. October 05, 2015
    Using a boundary perspective (Alba and Nee ), I examine the marital behavior of three self‐identified multiracial groups: black/whites, American Indian/whites, Asian/whites. With a focus on marriage with whites, I assess whether the boundaries of whiteness are expanding to include these part‐white multiracial groups. Marrying whites at a large scale may signify that part‐white multiracial Americans are in the process of being accepted as “white.” At the same time, due to differences in the racial identity experiences of multiracial groups, marital patterns may differ by racial combination. Based on analysis of 2008–2012 American Community Survey data, I find that the majority of all three groups are married to whites, suggesting that most members in these groups are on the path to whiteness. On the other hand, multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrates that American Indian/whites and Asian/whites are more likely than black/whites to have a white spouse, relative to spouses of another race/ethnicity. Moreover, separate regression analyses by multiracial group reveal gender differences in their likelihood of marrying whites for black/whites and Asian/whites. These results indicate racial stratification in the marriage market among part‐white multiracial Americans, with further stratification by gender for some groups.
    October 05, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12205   open full text
  • Voluntary Associations' Impact on the Composition of Active Members' Social Networks: Not an Either/Or Matter.
    Gergei M. Farkas, Elisabet Lindberg.
    Sociological Forum. October 01, 2015
    Membership in voluntary associations is often assumed to have a homogenizing or diversifying impact on the social composition of members' personal relations. In this study, we examine these assertions empirically in a sample (n = 818) comprising active members of voluntary associations in a typical midsized Swedish community. We investigate whether people whom active members of voluntary associations have met through their voluntary activities are more or less likely to share their social characteristics than people whom they have met elsewhere. Our results show that acquaintances whom our respondents have acquired within voluntary associations are less likely to share several of their significant social characteristics than other members of their personal networks, but more likely to reside in their vicinity than others. Consequently, our results give fairly robust support to the “integrating hypothesis” according to which voluntary associations contribute to the social diversification of their members' personal networks. We do, however, emphasize the principally important aspects of our results, according to which relations acquired through involvement in voluntary associations may have simultaneously homogenizing and diversifying effects on individuals' personal networks. Furthermore, the effect may also depend on the specific dimension(s) of the networks under consideration.
    October 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12209   open full text
  • Changing Childrearing Beliefs Among Indigenous Rural‐to‐Urban Migrants in El Alto, Bolivia.
    Caitlin Daniel.
    Sociological Forum. September 29, 2015
    Sociologists have long noted that childrearing shapes young people's life chances. Worldwide, rural‐to‐urban migration is growing, yet we know little about whether or how migrants adopt new childrearing beliefs during this rapid social transformation. Using interviews with 63 parents and ethnographic observation at a public school, I examine how rural‐to‐urban migration affects the childrearing beliefs of indigenous peasants who move to the city of El Alto, Bolivia. Many migrants reject rural childrearing's reliance on corporal punishment and limited verbal communication, instead embracing more open communication, limited physical punishment, and parent–child trust. Urban organizations and social ties expose parents to a new childrearing model, and parents find this model credible when they observe that it buffers children from urban dangers that threaten young people's mobility chances. Adopting urban childrearing ultimately entails accepting an underlying model of children's agency, wherein children need internal motivation instead of external impulsion. This case shows that individuals’ childrearing beliefs are more malleable than previous sociological studies suggest. I close with policy implications for parental education and child well‐being initiatives.
    September 29, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12203   open full text
  • Jeopardy, Consciousness, and Multiple Discrimination: Intersecting Inequalities in Contemporary Western Europe.
    Catherine E. Harnois.
    Sociological Forum. September 28, 2015
    Theories of intersectionality argue that individuals with multiple minority statuses often face mistreatment that stems from multiple, interlocking systems of inequality. King (1988) refers to this phenomenon as “multiple jeopardy,” and argues that those who experience multiple jeopardy often develop a “multiple consciousness”—an awareness of multiple systems of inequality working with and through one another. This study analyzes recent survey data to assess perceived multiple jeopardy and its relationship to multiple consciousness in the context of contemporary Western Europe. Findings provide support for intersectionality, as individuals who hold multiple minority statuses are more likely than others to perceive having personally experienced multiple forms of discrimination, and are more likely to view multiple discrimination (discrimination based on multiple social statuses) as a widespread social phenomenon. Controlling for other factors, personal experiences with multiple forms of discrimination (“multiple jeopardy”) are associated with greater multiple consciousness. Personal experiences with discrimination based on a single dimension of inequality (“single jeopardy”) also facilitate multiple consciousness, however, though not to the same degree. The conclusion highlights the importance of intersectionality for future research and policy concerning discrimination.
    September 28, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12204   open full text
  • The Willingness to State an Opinion: Inequality, Don't Know Responses, and Political Participation.
    Daniel Laurison.
    Sociological Forum. September 25, 2015
    Most explanations of inequality in political participation focus on costs or other barriers for those with fewer economic, educational, and “cognitive” resources. I argue, drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's work on “political competence,” that social position in the form of income also structures political participation through differences in the sense that one is a legitimate producer of political opinions. I test whether income differences in participation persist net of costs by examining nonparticipation in a setting in which barriers to participation are low: answering political survey questions. Lower‐income people are more likely than others to withhold political opinions by saying “don't know” net of differences in education, “cognitive ability,” or engagement with the survey exercise. Further, political “don't know” rates predict voting rates, net of other predictors. Efforts to democratize participation in American politics must attend not only to the costs of involvement but also to class‐based differences in individuals' relationship to political expression itself.
    September 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12202   open full text
  • The 1990s Shift in the Media Portrayal of Working Mothers.
    Joanna Motro, Reeve Vanneman.
    Sociological Forum. September 25, 2015
    A cultural theme of distressed working mothers depicts working mothers as caught between the demands of work and family in an unforgiving institutional context. Susan Faludi first identified this theme as a conservative backlash against feminists' attempts “to have it all.” But a similar narrative helps support demands for more flexible work–family policies and more significant housework contributions from fathers. We explore the actual trends and prevalence of this distressed working mothers theme by coding 859 newspaper articles sampled from the 1981–2009 New York Times. Articles discussing problems for working mothers increased in the mid‐1990s and have continued increasing into the twenty‐first century. Other themes about problems and benefits for working mothers show quite different trends. There is also an unexpected mid‐1990s shift in attention from problems working mothers are having at home to problems at work. The increase in the distressed working mother theme coincides with the mid‐1990s stall in the gender revolution. The simultaneity of the cultural, economic, political, and attitude trends suggests that the rise of the distressed working mother theme and the stall in the gender revolution may have mutually reinforced each other over the last two decades.
    September 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12206   open full text
  • Investigating Differences in How the News Media Views Homosexuality Across Nations: An Analysis of the United States, South Africa, and Uganda.
    Amy Adamczyk, Chunrye Kim, Lauren Paradis.
    Sociological Forum. September 25, 2015
    While there is a wealth of information about the extent to which people across the world disapprove of homosexuality, we know a lot less about the lenses through which they view same‐sex relations. The aim of this study is to understand better how homosexuality is framed in the public press, and how religion and economic development may combine to shape this discourse. Through an analysis of almost 400 newspaper articles, this study compares how homosexuality is framed in Uganda, South Africa, and the United States. Because these nations have high levels of religious belief, but differ in their level of economic development and democracy, we can assess how these factors interact to shape portrayals. Drawing on work from cultural sociology and the sociology of religion, this study shows that the United States is much more likely than Uganda to frame homosexuality as a civil rights issue and use entertainers as claimsmakers. Conversely, articles from Uganda are more likely than those from the United States or South Africa to frame homosexuality as a religious issue and draw on religious claimsmakers. Likewise, Uganda is much more likely than South Africa to discuss homosexuality in the context of Western influences.
    September 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12207   open full text
  • “Should I Trust the Bank or the Social Movement?” Motivated Reasoning and Debtors' Work to Accept Misinformation.
    Sebastián G. Guzmán.
    Sociological Forum. September 25, 2015
    How can people believe corporate and state misinformation even if a social movement organization in their community has been countering this misinformation for years? Why do people knowingly accept misinformation without even being upset about it? I address these questions by analyzing ethnographic data and interviews with 84 Chilean low‐income housing debtors, whom, like many Chileans, are victims of financial misinformation. While the state and banks had significant agency in inducing the unproblematic acceptance of misinformation, debtors also played an active role in the processes. First, debtors had to decide whom to trust, which was not only a cognitive problem about evidence but also a behavioral and practical problem involving risks. Second, debtors engaged in “motivated reasoning”—affect‐driven biased information processing—to dismiss the possibility of being misinformed, to downplay the significance of misinformation, and to direct blame away from misinforming institutions. The latter two practices reduced debtors' anger about being misinformed. The findings have implications for studies of social movement framing and counterinformation, for the cognitive psychology of misinformation, and for the sociology and social psychology of acquiescence.
    September 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12201   open full text
  • Is Islam in Western Europe Like Race in the United States?
    Nancy Foner.
    Sociological Forum. September 23, 2015
    Asking whether Islam in Western Europe is like race in the United States is, to a large degree, to ask whether Muslims in Europe share the same fate and face the same barriers as blacks in the United States. The article considers (1) the nature of the hostility to Islam in Western Europe and why it is a greater barrier to inclusion for immigrants and their children than in the United States; (2) the dynamics of color‐coded race in the United States, comparing, on the one hand, the severe barriers confronting individuals and groups with African ancestry in the United States with the barriers facing Muslims (as well as black immigrants) in Western Europe and, on the other hand, considering certain advantages available to immigrants of color in the United States that Muslim and other immigrants lack in Europe; and (3) whether the boundary based on religion will prove more permeable for the descendants of Muslim immigrants in Western Europe than the racial boundary in the United States for those with visible African ancestry.
    September 23, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12199   open full text
  • The Psycho‐Social Processes Linking Income and Volunteering: Chronic Financial Strain and Well‐Being.
    Joonmo Son, John Wilson.
    Sociological Forum. September 21, 2015
    The positive effect of income on volunteering found in many studies is conventionally explained in utilitarian terms: volunteer work is “costly” or demands “resources.” This explanation overlooks important sociopsychological processes. By situating the income‐volunteering relationship within the stress process framework, we develop a theory that traces the influence of income on chronic financial strain which in turn affects subjective well‐being, which functions as a psychological resource for volunteers. Data taken from two waves of the National Survey of Midlife in the United States confirm this theory: household income has no direct effect on volunteering once chronic financial strain and two measures of subjective well‐being—social and eudaimonic—are taken into account.
    September 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12208   open full text
  • The Social Costs of Gender Nonconformity for Transgender Adults: Implications for Discrimination and Health.
    Lisa R. Miller, Eric Anthony Grollman.
    Sociological Forum. September 01, 2015
    Research suggests that transgender people face high levels of discrimination in society, which may contribute to their disproportionate risk for poor health. However, little is known about whether gender nonconformity, as a visible marker of one's stigmatized status as a transgender individual, heightens trans people's experiences with discrimination and, in turn, their health. Using data from the largest survey of transgender adults in the United States, the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (N = 4,115), we examine the associations among gender nonconformity, transphobic discrimination, and health‐harming behaviors (i.e., attempted suicide, drug/alcohol abuse, and smoking). The results suggest that gender nonconforming trans people face more discrimination and, in turn, are more likely to engage in health‐harming behaviors than trans people who are gender conforming. Our findings highlight the important role of gender nonconformity in the social experiences and well‐being of transgender people.
    September 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12193   open full text
  • From Bricolage to Collage: The Making of Decisions at a Weather Forecast Office.
    Phaedra Daipha.
    Sociological Forum. September 01, 2015
    This article elaborates the process of decision making in organizational environments characterized by disciplined improvisation. Building on an ethnography of forecasting operations at the National Weather Service, it introduces “collage” as a mediating concept between information bricolage and the forging of a decision. The concept of collage serves to (1) heuristically frame decision making as a process of assembling, appropriating, superimposing, juxtaposing, and blurring of information; and (2) externalize into digital practices of screenwork the cognitive labor of merging and distilling complex data into a provisionally coherent decision.
    September 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12192   open full text
  • Naming Regulations and Indigenous Rights in Argentina.
    Sarah D. Warren.
    Sociological Forum. September 01, 2015
    In Argentina, parents must register their children at the Civil Registry to receive a national identification card, choosing their child's name from a list maintained by provincial Civil Registry offices. This process regulates all citizens, but it is particularly onerous for indigenous parents who wish to give their child an indigenous name. In tracing the letter and practice of the law and responses to the law, I argue that the regulation of names is a political process with racial and gender assumptions built into it. These assumptions translate into exclusionary implications for membership in national identity. For indigenous people in Argentina, this is particularly problematic, as they are already largely invisible to the national body. Although indigenous people are challenging aspects of the law they are not challenging the very premise of the law—that the state has the right to control their access to citizenship through a law regulating children's names. Finally, the successes of indigenous parents in using an indigenous name has the unintended consequence of turning indigenous names into cultural commodities, thus diminishing the validity of indigenous political critiques of the law.
    September 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12191   open full text
  • Not to Be Hungry Is Not Enough: An Insight Into Contours of Inclusion and Exclusion in Affluent Western Societies.
    Sveta Roberman.
    Sociological Forum. September 01, 2015
    In its view of the contemporary world, social theory—and particularly its postmodern trends and proponents—attributes a dominant role to the realm of consumption and consumerism in shaping both individual lifeworlds and the system of social hierarchies as a whole. In this article, building on the case of middle‐aged to late‐middle‐aged post–Soviet Jewish immigrants in contemporary Germany and illuminating a particular condition that I call “condemned to consume,” I seek to reexamine this tendency to celebrate consumption and consumerism while downplaying and marginalizing realm of work and employment. I interconnect this examination with questions regarding the distribution of resources and the dynamics of inclusion and exclusion. Drawing on the “condemned to consume” condition, I seek to claim that in affluent Western societies, which are able to provide relative material well‐being or at least subsistence even to those at the margins, the main contours of inclusion and exclusion are not grounded primarily in one's ability to enter the realm of consumption but, rather, in one's ability to participate equally in the realm of work and employment. I underscore this idea by connecting lack of regular, meaningful employment with the concept of exclusive inclusion.
    September 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12190   open full text
  • The Efficacy of Regional Trade Agreements, 1958–2006: The Effect of Institution Creation on Market Expansion.
    Min Zhou.
    Sociological Forum. September 01, 2015
    This article examines the efficacy of regional trade agreements (RTAs) in promoting bilateral trade through a sociological lens that stresses institutional underpinnings of the market. Most RTAs are driven by economic neoliberalism and mainly focus on “negative integration” (direct removal of trade barriers such as tariffs and other regulations). Not all RTAs incorporate elements of “positive integration” (deliberate establishment of institutions supporting new markets). Using a large data set on international bilateral trade from 1958 through 2006, this study finds that incorporation of positive integration in an RTA increases its actual efficacy in promoting bilateral trade. It further distinguishes two major types of positive integration: (1) establishment of market institutions that directly regulate cross‐border markets and (2) establishment of social institutions that deal with social consequences of market expansion. Both types promote bilateral trade. The higher the level of positive integration, the more effective the RTA is in promoting bilateral trade. Overall, this study lends support to the sociological insight that creation of necessary institutions is essential for market expansion across borders. It also implies that positive integration has the potential to reconcile the seemingly contradictory goals of trade expansion and social protection.
    September 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12189   open full text
  • World Culture, Uncoupling, Institutional Logics, and Recoupling: Practices and Self‐Identification as Institutional Microfoundations of Political Violence.
    Ana Velitchkova.
    Sociological Forum. September 01, 2015
    This study proposes a micro‐institutional theory of political violence, according to which citizens' participation in political violence is partially an outcome of tight coupling of persons' practices and self‐identifications with institutional logics opposed to dominant logics associated with world culture, such as the nation‐state and gender equality. The study focuses on two types of institutional carriers through which persons adopt institutional logics: routine practices and self‐identifications associated with three institutional logics: the familial, the ethnic, and the religious logics. Using a 15‐country survey data from early twenty‐first‐century sub‐Saharan Africa, the study finds evidence in support of the theory. Reported participation in political violence is associated with practices and self‐identifications uncoupled from dominant world‐culture logics but tightly coupled with the patriarchal familial logic, with an oppositional ethnic logic, and with a politicized oppositional religious logic.
    September 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12188   open full text
  • Racial Formation Theory and Systemic Racism in Hip‐Hop Fans’ Perceptions.
    Ginger Jacobson.
    Sociological Forum. May 21, 2015
    This work contributes empirical research to racial formation theory (RFT) and systemic racism (SR), demonstrating how these theories complement each other. There are few practical applications of these theories. This research examines RFT and SR from the perspective of hip‐hop fans. I qualitatively examine how 23 nonblack women articulate the relationships of race, class, and gender through discussion of hip‐hop music and videos that accompany it. Findings suggest that hip‐hop is a site of racial formation. Participants spoke from a color‐blind perspective and white racial frame so that they perpetuated ideals of systemic racism theory.
    May 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12186   open full text
  • Neighborhood Sectarian Displacement and the Battle for Baghdad: A Self‐Fulfilling Prophecy of Fear and Crimes Against Humanity in Iraq.
    John Hagan, Joshua Kaiser, Anna Hanson, Patricia Parker.
    Sociological Forum. March 27, 2015
    We use two unique Iraq data sets to show how fear and uncertainty served to motivate the self‐fulfilling, neighborhood‐specific forces that followed the U.S.‐led invasion of Iraq. Sectarian criminal violence by armed Shia and Sunni organizations created a situation of ethnic/religious cleansing that reconfigured much of Baghdad. The article focuses on the case of how one particularly violent group, the Mahdi Army, mobilized through the coercive entrepreneurship of Muqtada al‐Sadr, used organized crime tactics of killing, torture, rape, kidnapping, harassment, threats, and forced displacement in a widespread and systematic attack against civilians that forced Sunni residents from their Baghdad neighborhoods. Ordinary Iraqis were victims of an amplified “self‐fulfilling prophecy of fear” that created the momentum for massive sectarian displacement in the battle for Baghdad. We demonstrate that there is a neighborhood specific effect of early postinvasion neighborhood fear net of intervening violence on displacement three years later, following the Al‐Qaeda Samara Shrine attack, confirming an effect of a self‐fulfilling prophecy of fear in the neighborhoods of Baghdad that compounded in a self‐reinforcing way. The changed demography of Baghdad was effectively consolidated by the later surge of U.S. forces that left in place the territorial gains made by the Shia‐led Mahdi Army at the expense of former Sunni residents. We conclude that this continues to matter because the resulting grievances have contributed to renewed violence.
    March 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/socf.12184   open full text
  • Consumer Racial Profiling in U.S. Restaurants: Exploring Subtle Forms of Service Discrimination against Black Diners.
    Zachary W. Brewster, Michael Lynn, Shelytia Cocroft.
    Sociological Forum. June 02, 2014
    In this article we advance scholarship on consumer racial profiling (CRP), in general, and the practice as it occurs in restaurant establishments, in particular, by presenting findings from a survey of restaurant consumers that was designed to ascertain the degree to which discriminate service is evident in black and white customers' perceptions and evaluations of their servers' behaviors. We found no evidence of interracial differences in subjects' perceptions of being the recipients of subtle server behaviors that are discretionally conveyed (e.g., recommend entrée, compliment food choice, joke with, etc.) or those that constitute standard markers of service quality (e.g., eye contact, smiling, expressing appreciation, etc.). We did, however, find some evidence of CRP in customers' perceptions of their servers' attentiveness/promptness. Additionally, we found that African Americans tend to subjectively appraise their servers' performance less favorably than their white counterparts and this is the case even when other indicators of service discrimination are held constant. Findings taken as a whole suggest that servers' extend similar cues of hospitality but do so in qualitatively different ways (e.g., less sincere) across racial groups. We discuss the implications of these findings and conclude by encouraging additional scholarship on the subtle nature of racial discrimination in consumer settings.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12093   open full text
  • Culture Shock Revisited: The Social and Cultural Contingencies to Class Marginality.
    Anthony Abraham Jack.
    Sociological Forum. June 02, 2014
    Existing explanations of class marginality predict similar social experiences for all lower‐income undergraduates. This article extends this literature by presenting data highlighting the cultural and social contingencies that account for differences in experiences of class marginality. The degree of cultural and social dissimilarity between one's life before and during college helps explain variation in experiences. I contrast the experiences of two groups of lower‐income, black undergraduates—the Doubly Disadvantaged and Privileged Poor. Although from comparable disadvantaged households and neighborhoods, they travel along divergent paths to college. Unlike the Doubly Disadvantaged, whose precollege experiences are localized, the Privileged Poor cross social boundaries for school. In college, the Doubly Disadvantaged report negative interactions with peers and professors and adopt isolationist strategies, while the Privileged Poor generally report positive interactions and adopt integrationist strategies. In addition to extending present conceptualizations of class marginality, this study advances our understanding of how and when class and culture matter in stratification processes in college.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12092   open full text
  • Social Heterogeneity and Volunteering in U.S. Cities.
    Thomas Rotolo, John Wilson.
    Sociological Forum. June 02, 2014
    In this research we explore the relationship between social heterogeneity and volunteering across U.S. metropolitan areas testing a theory that race heterogeneity, racial segregation, and income inequality are negatively associated with the rate of volunteering. Theorizing that social heterogeneity will have different effects for religious and secular volunteering rates, we analyze them separately. We use nonlinear multilevel models to analyze nearly 200,000 individuals across 248 cities, controlling for nonprofits per capita, religious congregations per capita, proportion of the population with college degrees, and the family poverty rate. While much of the intercity variation in volunteering is due to the composition of the population living in each city, we find general support for the predicted negative effect of social heterogeneity on volunteering. However, the effects vary by volunteering type. Race heterogeneity is negatively related only to secular volunteering, racial segregation is negatively related to both general volunteering and secular volunteering, and income inequality is negatively related to all types of volunteering.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12091   open full text
  • Checkbooks in the Heartland: Change over Time in Voluntary Association Membership.
    Matthew A. Painter, Pamela Paxton.
    Sociological Forum. June 02, 2014
    Numerous scholars documented declines in America's social capital through the mid‐1990s but we do not know whether the trend has continued. Further, despite warnings by Robert Putnam and Theda Skocpol that the quality of Americans' voluntary association memberships has also deteriorated—moving from active, “face‐to‐face” memberships to passive, “checkbook” memberships—data have not been available to test this claim. In this article, we use both the Iowa Community Survey and the General Social Survey to explore the changing nature of voluntary association membership between 1994 and 2004. We demonstrate that not only are declines in voluntary association memberships continuing in the new century but there has been a shift in the intensity of voluntary association participation over time. We observe a decline in active membership over time and an increase in checkbook membership over time. These findings provide support for Putnam's claim that checkbook membership is increasing at the expense of more active types of memberships.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12090   open full text
  • The Whitening Hypothesis Challenged: Biculturalism in Latino and Non‐Hispanic White Intermarriage.
    Jessica M. Vasquez.
    Sociological Forum. June 02, 2014
    Assimilation theory holds that intermarriage between minorities and non‐Hispanic whites is a gauge of integration and assumes that minorities jettison their ethnic identification in favor of whiteness. Drawing on race relations theory to argue that intermarriage is potentially transformative for non‐Hispanic whites as well as Latinos, this article challenges assimilation theory's bias that minorities (should) undergo cultural change and that non‐Hispanic whites remain unmoved. This article uses in‐depth interviews with Latino and non‐Hispanic white married couples to assess the consequences of ethnic intermarriage from the perspectives of both partners. Interethnic partners engaged in four “ideal types” of biculturalism, running largely contrary to assimilation theory's social whitening hypothesis. Due to boundary blurring, exemplified by affiliative ethnic identity, non‐Hispanic whites can migrate into Latino culture.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12089   open full text
  • Romantic Relationships and Criminal Desistance: Pathways and Processes.
    Jessica J. B. Wyse, David J. Harding, Jeffrey D. Morenoff.
    Sociological Forum. June 02, 2014
    In dominant theories of criminal desistance, marital relationship formation is understood to be a key “turning point” away from deviant behavior. Empirical studies supporting this claim have largely focused on the positive role of marriage in men's desistance from crime, and relatively few studies have examined the role that nonmarital relationships may play in desistance. Drawing on 138 longitudinal in‐depth interviews with 22 men and women reentering society from prison, this article extends the scope of desistance research by additionally considering the significance of more fleeting and fluid relationships, and the diverse processes through which romantic relationships of all sorts are linked with criminal behaviors. We present an empirically based typology detailing six processes, grouped within three conceptual categories, through which romantic relationships had their effects. These pathways include material circumstances, social bonds and interactions, and emotional supports and stressors. We also consider gender differences in these processes. While more tenuous bonds to marginally conventional partners would seem to exert little effect, as one of the few relationships and social roles available to many former prisoners, we found that they wielded important influence, if not always in a positive direction.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12088   open full text
  • Constructing Victims: The Erasure of Women's Resistance to Sexual Assault.
    Jocelyn A. Hollander, Katie Rodgers.
    Sociological Forum. June 02, 2014
    How do the news media portray women's resistance to sexual assault? We analyze articles from a systematic sample of 16 U.S. newspapers across 1 full calendar year to assess whether and how newspapers describe women's resistance. We find that in most cases, newspaper reports reinforce the belief that women are incapable of effectively defending themselves. Most articles fail to mention women's resistance or do so only to note its failure; the longer the article, the more likely it is to follow these patterns. Headlines exaggerate these patterns, presenting virtually no evidence that the articles that follow, or that assaults themselves, contain any female resistance or agency. In only a very small minority of cases are women described as strong, competent actors with the ability to defend themselves against violence. We conclude with a discussion of the potential individual and societal consequences of these patterns.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12087   open full text
  • Why Did the Communists Win or Lose? A Comparative Analysis of the Revolutionary Civil Wars in Russia, Finland, Spain, and China.
    Pavel Osinsky, Jari Eloranta.
    Sociological Forum. June 02, 2014
    According to classic interpretations of the communist revolutions, political mobilization of peasantry was critical for the success of the revolutionary forces. This article, which reexamines the experience of civil wars in Russia, Finland, Spain, and China, argues that peasants’ contribution to the revolutions in Russia and later in China became possible under two historical conditions: breakdown of state authorities during the mass mobilization wars and existence of an unresolved agrarian problem in the countryside. Neither of these conditions alone, as the experience of other countries has shown, was sufficient for a success of the revolutionaries. The Spanish civil war of 1936–1939, for instance, was not preceded by a major international war. Because institutions of the traditional social order had not been undermined by war, Franco was able to defeat the Popular Front government, despite the peasants’ support of the revolution. In the Finnish civil war of 1918, which broke out in the wake of World War I and the Russian Revolution, state institutions did not collapse completely and the peasantry was divided in their responses to the revolution; the rural smallholders, for example, aligned with the Mannerheim's White army, not with the urban revolutionaries.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12086   open full text
  • Quality Controlled: An Ethnographic Account of Tea Party Messaging and Action.
    Francis B. Prior.
    Sociological Forum. June 02, 2014
    What strategies do Tea Party movement organizers use to achieve frame alignment, that is, uniformity of grievance, purpose, and action, with their participants? Evidence to answer this question is gathered from a year‐length participant‐observation case study of one city‐based Tea Party organization, primarily through the meetings of its localized grassroots chapters. Principal findings are that Tea Party organizers employ quality control of off‐message grievances, for example, abortion, as well as any action or communication that would or could be perceived as racially prejudicial, or otherwise inflammatory. Formally, these findings demonstrate the influence of organizational hierarchy on grassroots practice. Substantively, they demonstrate the complex relationship between a broader conservative ideological repertoire as empirically deployed by participants, and the more focused frame alignment attempts of a particular social movement organization. In short, the findings elucidate the importance of interaction and organizational structure as they influence social movement messaging and action.
    June 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12085   open full text
  • From Coalition to Constraint: Modes of Thought in Contemporary American Conservatism.
    Andrew J. Perrin, J. Micah Roos, Gordon W. Gauchat.
    Sociological Forum. March 10, 2014
    We advocate a relational approach to understanding contemporary conservatism in the United States. Our approach suggests that conservatism provides a cultural repertoire for adherents to use in adapting to new or changed political situations. We provide evidence based on public opinion data that conservatism is neither a single, monolithic ideology nor a mere coalition of convenience among disparate interest groups. Instead, conservatism should be understood as an amalgam of overlapping but distinct styles of thought, held together through a cultural identification with conservative identity.
    March 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12084   open full text
  • Gendered Dimensions of the HIV Pandemic: A Cross‐National Investigation of Women's International Nongovernmental Organizations, Contraceptive Use, and HIV Prevalence in Less‐Developed Nations.
    Mark D. Noble, Kelly F. Austin.
    Sociological Forum. March 05, 2014
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has a profound impact on women as a result of social and biological vulnerabilities to the infection. In this article, we explore the influence of democracy, women's international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), and contraceptive use on female HIV rates, using indirect‐effect modeling techniques to properly test the interrelationships among key variables. Structural equation models reveal that democracy and women's INGOs work to reduce female HIV rates indirectly, by promoting the use of contraceptives among women in less‐developed nations. Despite these promising findings, the analyses also reveal that INGOs are negatively associated with sociohealth dimensions of female empowerment, which thus serves to promote HIV rates. The results suggest that interventions undertaken by INGOs may not be as successful as government programs in addressing inequalities in health and social resources for women in poor nations.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12076   open full text
  • Opting Out, Scaling Back, or Business‐as‐Usual? An Occupational Assessment of Women's Employment.
    Liana Christin Landivar.
    Sociological Forum. March 05, 2014
    After decades of growth, women's labor force participation stagnated in the 2000s, prompting widespread interest in work–family balance and opting out. However, much of the research and media attention is limited to small samples of women in managerial and professional occupations. Using data from the 2009 American Community Survey, this article examines mothers' labor force participation and work hours across 92 occupations to assess whether mothers in nonmanagerial and nonprofessional occupations exhibit similar work patterns. I find that mothers in managerial and professional occupations are the least likely to remain out of the labor force but most likely to work reduced hours. The results indicate that there is significant occupational variation in women's work–family strategies, and these comparisons provide insight into the differential structures of disadvantage that encourage different work–family outcomes.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12075   open full text
  • Transnational Traders: El Salvador's Women Couriers in Historical Perspective.
    Alisa Garni.
    Sociological Forum. March 05, 2014
    An estimated one‐third to one‐half of Salvadorans who carry remittances and goods between El Salvador and the United States are women. Scholars studying these viajeras argue that their work simultaneously represents a break from traditional gender relations confining women to the home and an extension of gender traits that favor women in developing social ties. Although social ties are crucial to the courier trade, this argument ignores antecedents to viajeras' work in El Salvador and suggests that transnationalism pushes women into realms of labor and physical mobility that have been gendered masculine. Using ethnographic methods, I examine the relationship between women's historical work in El Salvador and their current work as viajeras, as well the relationship between viajeras' experiences and those of women transnational traders in other parts of the world. My findings contribute to a small but growing body of research suggesting that instead of merely being excluded from or manipulated by global processes, many women in the Global South have expanded the realm of their activities to help shape variable forms of global capitalism. Studying how they do so sheds light on local mechanisms for combating gender inequality and promoting development.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12074   open full text
  • Social Closure and Educational Attainment.
    Anette Eva Fasang, William Mangino, Hannah Brückner.
    Sociological Forum. March 05, 2014
    This article examines how network closure among parents affects adolescents’ educational attainment. First, we introduce a distinction between informal closure and school‐based closure. Second, we investigate whether and how the effect of informal and school‐based parental network closure varies across social contexts. Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and multilevel models show that parental network closure modestly impacts educational outcomes. Moreover, educational benefits of informal closure in parent networks are contingent on social context. Closure only benefits educational attainment in low‐poverty schools. In high‐poverty schools, informal closure in parent networks lowers educational attainment. The social closure generated in informal connections among parents thereby contributes to the encapsulation of disadvantage in areas of concentrated poverty, which is not the case for school‐based closure.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12073   open full text
  • Schema via Structure? Personal Network Density and the Moral Evaluation of Infidelity.
    Markus H. Schafer.
    Sociological Forum. March 05, 2014
    This article considers whether the density of a person's social network is related to his/her moral attitudes toward infidelity. Integrating recent sociological thinking on moral schemas with network theory's insights about deviance and structural independence, I employ data from a representative sample of American men aged 57–85. Findings indicate that men with the densest personal networks are least likely to condone infidelity. This association, moreover, was independent of men's education, their beliefs about religion and sex, and attitudes about their partners, among other factors. The findings imply an affinity between micro‐social structure and moral judgment, suggesting that network density can help constrain even the expression of moral attitudes.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12072   open full text
  • Memories of War: Sources of Vietnam Veteran Pro‐ and Antiwar Political Attitudes.
    David Flores.
    Sociological Forum. March 05, 2014
    The sources of political attitudes are among the most studied phenomena of modern politics. Moving away from the traditional focus on party systems, the demographic characteristics of voters, or political socialization, I consider instead how memory and narrative shape political consciousness. Specifically, I focus on how culturally sanctioned memories of warfare influence the political attitudes of 24 Vietnam veterans. I compare two groups of Vietnam veterans who went to Vietnam in support of the war and political status quo, but who returned with opposing attitudes toward war. How can we understand these contrasting outcomes? Specifically, how do memories of war shape political attitudes? Antiwar veterans relate similar narratives of having their idealistic views of war challenged and experiencing a major rethinking of their support when they learn the true nature of warfare. On the other hand, pro‐war veterans share a patterned narrative of indifference rather than idealism when describing their continued support of the war and political status quo after they return from Vietnam. I conclude by arguing that memory and narrative are an important mechanism for shaping political attitudes.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12071   open full text
  • Framing Symbols and Space: Counterrecruitment and Resistance to the U.S. Military in Public Education.
    Matthew C. Friesen.
    Sociological Forum. March 05, 2014
    Despite recent federal laws providing military recruiters unprecedented access to public schools and student information, sociologists have given scant attention to the militarization of education or the military counterrecruitment movement in the United States. Semistructured in‐depth interviews with counterrecruiters reveal five framing campaigns used to resist the armed forces' efforts to dominate the symbolic discourse in public schools: 1) the rendition of information, 2) educational space, 3) heroic military narrative, 4) educational mission, and 5) vocational vision. Analysis examining the interaction of space and social movement framing reveals how counterrecruiters compete with military recruiters over the U.S. public education's foundational values and symbols. This article advances our understanding of the counterrecruitment movement in U.S. public schools and how space influences social movement framing through the concepts of spatial legitimacy, spatial authorities, and spatial protocols.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12070   open full text
  • Textuality and the Social Organization of Denial: Abu Ghraib, Guantánamo, and the Meanings of U.S. Interrogation Policies.
    Jared Del Rosso.
    Sociological Forum. March 05, 2014
    Recent studies suggest that denial is a socially organized and culturally mediated process. This article furthers the study of socially organized denial by theorizing and empirically examining the role of texts in official denial. I examine the ways that institutional documents serve as resources for state officials to interpret and typify instances of state violence. To do so, I draw on a qualitative content analysis of 10 U.S. Congressional hearings that focus on the violence against detainees in U.S. custody at Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo. Though comparable acts of violence were committed at both facilities, I show that military officials employed different variants of interpretive denial to account for the two cases. Underlying these variants of denial were different descriptions of the connection between the violence and institutional texts that established authorized interrogation practices. Specifically, military officials causally isolated Abu Ghraib, denying the link between Interrogation Rules of Engagement in Iraq and the violence at the prison. Officials, on the other hand, interpreted the instances of violence at Guantánamo as expressions of lawful, institutionally available interrogation techniques. I conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for the study of denial, interpretive work in organizational contexts, and human rights.
    March 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12069   open full text
  • NGOs, IOs, and the ICC: Diagnosing and Framing Darfur.
    Meghan Zacher, Hollie Nyseth Brehm, Joachim J. Savelsberg.
    Sociological Forum. January 08, 2014
    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have become influential forces in global society. They exert their influence in part by framing issues and thereby suggesting particular courses of action. This article examines how NGOs with distinct missions represent mass violence for the case of Darfur. Content analysis of reports, speeches, and other documents from Amnesty International, Doctors Without Borders, and Save Darfur reveals distinct patterns across organizations. In addition to the organizations' specialized fields, interventions by external actors such as the United Nations and the International Criminal Court affect NGO framing, but they do so in organization‐specific ways. Against presumptions of a uniform Western position on Darfur, this analysis documents that depictions of violence by Western NGOs show field‐specific patterns and distinct responses to international political and judicial interventions.
    January 08, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12068   open full text
  • The Moral Obligations of Some Debts.
    Francesca Polletta, Zaibu Tufail.
    Sociological Forum. January 08, 2014
    If given the opportunity to reduce your debt, albeit at some financial risk, would you take it? Interviews and observations in two debt settlement firms show that debt settlement clients tend not to calculate financial risks in deciding which debts to try to settle. Rather, they treat their relationship with their creditor as a reciprocal and ongoing one. If the service provided by their creditor was inadequate, clients feel justified in trying to settle their debt. Otherwise, they believe that they must pay back the debt in full. In line with recent work in economic sociology, we show that economic transactors are bound by the moral requirements of the relationship they are in. But debt settlement clients invent those relationships in at least two ways: turning a debt to an impersonal agency into a relationship with a person, and turning a relationship of inequality into one of equality. Clients may preserve some sense of autonomy in a disempowering relationship by conceptualizing their relationship with their creditor as one between equals. But there is a cost: As a result of the relational schemas on which they operate, they often refuse to try to settle debts that might be settled without lasting financial repercussions.
    January 08, 2014   doi: 10.1111/socf.12067   open full text
  • Social Movements and Patronage Politics: Processes of Demobilization and Dual Pressure.
    Pablo Lapegna.
    Sociological Forum. November 21, 2013
    Why might social movements be highly contentious at one point in time and demobilize shortly after? Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this article examines the dynamics of demobilization of popular movements in a context of patronage politics. I argue that demobilization in these contexts results from relational processes creating a “dual pressure” stemming “from below” and “from above.” In social environments where patronage is pervasive, poor people develop survival strategies relying on clientelistic arrangements. They participate in a social movement organization (SMO) to voice their rights, but also to address pressing survival needs by gaining access to resources. These expectations of constituents create a pressure “from below” on leaders of an SMO, which respond by securing resources obtained through alliances with national political actors. In turn, these alliances create a pressure “from above,” because local leaders reciprocate this national support by eschewing the organization of collective actions. Drawing on data culled from 12 months of fieldwork on an Argentine peasant movement, this article inspects the interconnections between popular movements and patronage politics to refine our understanding of demobilization processes; contribute to discussions regarding the role of culture on contentious politics; and shed light on current demobilization trends in Latin America.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12059   open full text
  • Racial/Ethnic Composition and Violence: Size‐of‐Place Variations in Percent Black and Percent Latino Effects on Violence Rates.
    Ben Feldmeyer, Darrell Steffensmeier, Jeffery T. Ulmer.
    Sociological Forum. November 21, 2013
    According to racial invariance positions and mainstream sociological perspectives on race and crime, race differences in structural conditions should account for most if not all of the racial composition (or percent black) effect on aggregate‐level violence rates. However, prior research (mostly conducted prior to 1990) generally provides mixed or contrary evidence for this position, showing instead that greater concentrations of blacks are linked to increased violence even after accounting for racial differences in socioeconomic conditions. The current study uses recent data and a novel unit of analysis to go beyond extant research in two ways. First, we include percent Latino in our examination of the extent to which both racial and ethnic composition effects on violent crime rates are mediated by racial/ethnic disparities in socioeconomic disadvantage. Second, we test whether racial/ethnic composition effects are conditioned by size of place, through the use of census places as a uniquely varying unit of analysis. We find that both black and Latino composition effects are partly explained by controlling for structural conditions (especially structural disadvantage), but this characterizes smaller places much more than the largest, most urbanized places.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12058   open full text
  • Downshifting: An Exploration of Motivations, Quality of Life, and Environmental Practices.
    Emily Huddart Kennedy, Harvey Krahn, Naomi T. Krogman.
    Sociological Forum. November 21, 2013
    “Downshifting,” reducing work hours, thereby income, to increase leisure time, offers a possible individual‐level solution to the stress many experience from long working hours and work intensification. Recently, some have argued that an increase in leisure time with a reduction in income might also foster pro‐environmental lifestyles as has been demonstrated for the “voluntary simplicity” movement. Quantitative research on the relationship between downshifting and quality of life is scant, with equivocal results, and studies of the relationship between downshifting and environmental lifestyles are even more rare. Survey data from a western Canadian city reveal nonsignificant impacts of downshifting on two measures of quality of life (subjective well‐being and satisfaction with time use) as well as on sustainable transportation practices. However, downshifting is significantly associated with sustainable household practices. In order for downshifting to have more widespread positive effects, further structural changes in broader domains such as work culture, urban design, and support for families will be required.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12057   open full text
  • Trans Men: Embodiments, Identities, and Sexualities.
    Colin J. Williams, Martin S. Weinberg, Joshua G. Rosenberger.
    Sociological Forum. November 21, 2013
    This article examines the experiences of 25 persons who were assigned female status at birth but do not wish to live as women and take on a masculine or queer gender identity. We employ the concept of “gendered embodiment” and introduce the concept of “sexualized embodiment” to highlight what is involved in this process. We ask how experiencing a masculine gender identity is reflexively tied to a trans man's sexuality and the ways in which these two embodiments are tightly, moderately, or loosely coupled. For example, a tight coupling appeared when trans men began to use testosterone and obtained surgery such as breast removal; a moderate coupling was found where gender validation was sought from a sexual partner (with this being related to sexual preference identities as well as the interpretation of vaginal penetration); the loosest coupling of the gender‐sexuality embodiments was linked to the liberality of the locale and whether “queer” identities could be easily adopted. In sum, our research demonstrates the link between gender and sexuality as a result of the body work trans men do and the historical and geographical situations in which they find themselves.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12056   open full text
  • The Effect of Daughters on Partisanship and Social Attitudes Toward Women.
    Dalton Conley, Emily Rauscher.
    Sociological Forum. November 21, 2013
    Washington () finds that daughters promote liberal voting (at least with respect to women's issues) among U.S. Congress members and attributes this finding to socialization. However, daughters’ influence could manifest differently for elite politicians and the general citizenry either due to self‐selection or the Trivers‐Willard hypothesis, which suggests that parents invest differently in male and female children depending on their social status. Using nationally representative data from the General Social Survey, this study asks whether biological daughters affect political party identification, traditional views of women, or opinions about abortion and teen sex. We find that female offspring promote identification with the more conservative Republican Party, but this effect depends on social status. There is no evidence that daughters promote liberal views of women and less consistent evidence that they influence views of abortion or teen sex. Overall, evidence supports the Trivers‐Willard hypothesis, but with a more complex interaction by social status.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12055   open full text
  • Sustaining Democracy: Localization, Globalization, and Feminist Praxis.
    Nancy A. Naples.
    Sociological Forum. November 21, 2013
    Following contemporary discussions of environmental sustainability, I view sustainable democracy as an approach that remains open to diversity, promotes well‐being for all social actors, and advances social justice. The notion of sustaining democracy that I adopt foregrounds everyday practical and participatory strategies that are self‐consciously tied to a vision of the future which will be more economically equitable, peaceful, inclusive, and socially just. However, I argue, a political vision cannot be enacted without an epistemological articulation that informs political practice. Feminist praxis contains, in its epistemological formulation, a reflexive process by which lessons from past activist engagements are incorporated into contemporary efforts, which, in turn, are further reflected upon in changing political and cultural contexts. Feminist praxis is further deepened by incorporating epistemological insights from feminist theories of intersectionality to inform its political methodology. I illustrate the possibilities of intersectional feminist praxis for sustaining democratic practice with attention to five different dimensions: strategies for inclusion, methods of empowerment, countering power imbalances, organizing across differences, and processes of reflexivity.
    November 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12054   open full text
  • Underground Markets as Fields in Transition: Sex Work in New York City.
    Sudhir Venkatesh.
    Sociological Forum. September 12, 2013
    Most ethnographers visualize their fieldwork study vis‐à‐vis their long‐term commitment to a bounded sociospatial context—an “ecology.” In this manner, the majority of ethnographic studies are presented as studies not only of practices but also of recognizable physical ecologies that breathe life into the practices—for example, homes, ghettos, firms, schools, and so on. In the pages that follow, I consider the ways in which the status of place has shifted in urban sex work. The shifting commerce of sexual services in New York enables me to open up a set of methodological issues about the role of space in ethnographic work. One in particular is at the core of this paper: namely, because so many ethnographic labors begin with the selection of a field site, what conceptual issues arise that fieldworkers must pay attention to vis‐à‐vis that decision? For example, the field site may change, the field site may itself be shaped by wider societal forces, and it may be simply dissolve over time. How does any of this impact a technique that is premised on the dependability of “sitting” so that others may be dependably followed? I draw on the notion of “strategic action fields” to present an alternative analytic framework, one more useful for the challenges ethnographers face.
    September 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12053   open full text
  • Social Policy, “Deservingness,” and Sociotemporal Marginalization: Katrina Survivors and FEMA.
    Megan Reid.
    Sociological Forum. August 28, 2013
    Limiting assistance in the context of the neoliberal U.S. welfare state relies on a distinction between the deserving and undeserving poor. Hurricane Katrina survivors were caught between two opposing cultural characterizations—”deserving” disaster victims and “undeserving” welfare cheats. In this article, I examine Hurricane Katrina survivors' experiences with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)'s rental assistance policies and practices, as their experiences reveal important aspects of how aid is allocated in the context of the contemporary U.S. welfare state, and what consequences this has for marginalized populations. I analyze in‐depth interviews and field observations with displaced Katrina survivors and find that FEMA policies and practices assumed a “middle class” model of family structure and economic standing. Those who did not fit into this model were made to wait while their cases were investigated, which had negative psychological and material consequences. I argue that being made to wait, or temporal domination, is a central component of the larger sociotemporal marginalization of the poor, or the way in which time structures social stratification. Temporal domination is a feature of neoliberal social policy, neither maliciously intended nor entirely unintended, that has the consequence of punishing the “undeserving.”
    August 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12051   open full text
  • “This Should Not Be Happening in This Country”: Private‐Life Violence and Immigration Intersections in a U.S. Gateway City.
    Susan C. Pearce, Natalie J. Sokoloff.
    Sociological Forum. August 28, 2013
    In the United States, the rise in ethnic diversity due to immigration in recent decades has been most visible in new “gateway” cities and towns, such as the Baltimore–Washington, D.C. corridor, now the fourth‐largest gateway for new immigration. Among the more grave issues that immigrant women face in these gateways and elsewhere is the experience of intimate partner violence. This article reports on a study using qualitative methods to document the problem, approaches, and challenges in the rapidly diversifying city of Baltimore, Maryland. We report on individual and focus‐group interviews with professionals in 10 agencies who work directly with the Baltimore populations. Drawing on intersectionality theory, we propose a conceptual framework that disaggregates the location of “immigration” into four components: contexts of exit, contexts of reception, racial and class hierarchies, and culture. The study's results problematize cultural essentialist models and raise questions about current U.S. legal systems regarding immigration.
    August 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12052   open full text
  • The National Social Distance Study: Ten Years Later.
    Vincent N. Parrillo, Christopher Donoghue.
    Sociological Forum. August 23, 2013
    The Bogardus social distance scale, which measures the level of acceptance that Americans feel toward members of the most common ethnic and racial groups in the United States, was administered six times nationally between 1920 and 2001. Replicating the most recent study with its revised list of ethnic and racial groups, the authors of this study analyzed a stratified random sample of 3,166 college students, making it the largest national social distance study ever conducted. The findings indicate an increase since 2001 in the mean level of social distance toward all ethnic groups, as well as in the spread between the groups with the highest and lowest levels of social distance. Further, a consistency between studies in group preferences reaffirms the relevance of the similarity‐attraction bond in accepting those who are racially and culturally different. Mean comparisons and analysis of variance tests also showed that gender, birthplace of respondents and/or their parents, race, and year in college are all significant indicators of the level of social distance toward groups.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12039   open full text
  • An Analysis of Labor Union Participation in U.S. Congressional Hearings.
    Kyle W. Albert.
    Sociological Forum. August 23, 2013
    Using both a new data set of labor union appearances in congressional hearings and archival data on union organizational resources, this article analyzes factors that determine whether a labor union will be represented in congressional hearing testimony in a given year. Consistent with the expectations of resource mobilization theory, organizational resources are important predictors of participation in congressional hearings. For example, membership is an important predictor of testimony in hearings, as is the number of lobbyists on staff and the character of a union's primary industry. However, membership in the AFL‐CIO federation is negatively related to hearing participation, and some of the benefits of having a large membership base may be diminishing over time. Implications for the study of interest group politics and organizational political strategies are discussed.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12038   open full text
  • “I Was Always This Way…”: Rhetorics of Continuity in Narratives of Conversion.
    Erin F. Johnston.
    Sociological Forum. August 23, 2013
    This article is concerned with identifying, comparing, and accounting for the principal rhetorical conventions within Pagan practitioners’ narratives of conversion. Applying key insights from studies on narrative identity and drawing on 15 months of fieldwork and 25 in‐depth interviews with Pagan practitioners, I first outline formal similarities in the content of participants’ narratives, arguing that these narrative conventions together constitute an ideal typical conversion narrative: what I call the rhetoric of continuity. This narrative form depicts the process of conversion as a rediscovery or uncovering of a temporally continuous and essentialized Pagan self. I suggest that while all conversions involve both change and continuity, adherents of different faith traditions vary in the degree to which they stress self‐transformation and/or self‐continuity. I then argue that the rhetoric of continuity reflects and reinforces practitioners’: (1) perspective on the locus and nature of the authentic self; (2) claims to legitimacy and social acceptance; and (3) understanding of the nature of religious truth.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12037   open full text
  • Public Support for International Human Rights Institutions: A Cross‐National and Multilevel Analysis.
    Min Zhou.
    Sociological Forum. August 23, 2013
    The expansion of international human rights institutions has drawn much attention. Bringing together theories from sociology, political science, and international law, this article examines what factors promote public support for international human rights institutions, using the recent wave of the World Values Survey data (2005–2008). The level of public support displays both cross‐national and cross‐individual variations, so I conceptualize it as a two‐level process and employ the multilevel modeling. At the individual level, it is found that men, younger people, and individuals with more education and income show a higher level of support. At the country level, national affluence, political change (de‐democratization), and linkage to the world society are associated with more support. I further integrate individual‐level characteristics and country‐level social contexts, and pay special attention to education. Education is the institutional link between macro‐level social influences and micro‐level individual attitudes. I find that the support‐promoting effect of education is contingent on social contexts. It is more salient in wealthy countries and countries with strong ties to the world society.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12036   open full text
  • Cultures of Denial: Avoiding Knowledge of State Violations of Human Rights in Argentina and the United States.
    Barbara Sutton, Kari Marie Norgaard.
    Sociological Forum. August 23, 2013
    Why and how do individuals distance themselves from information about their government's participation in torture and other human rights violations? Such citizen (non)response implicitly legitimates and thus facilitates the continuation of abusive state actions. Drawing on a model of socially organized denial, we explore how sociocultural contexts and practices mediate individuals’ avoidance, justification, normalization, silencing, and outright denial of human rights abuses in two sites: Argentina during the last military dictatorship (1976–1983) and the United States during the “war on terror” post September 11, 2001. The study is based on 40 in‐depth interviews with members of diverse civic, religious, community, and political organizations in both countries (20 in each site). Comparing the political circumstances of a dictatorship and an electoral democracy, the analysis shows the roles of patriotic and national security ideologies and practices of silence and talk as organizers of cultures of denial.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12035   open full text
  • Moments of Uncertainty: Ethical Considerations and Emerging Contaminants.
    Alissa Cordner, Phil Brown.
    Sociological Forum. August 23, 2013
    Science on emerging environmental health threats involves numerous ethical concerns related to scientific uncertainty about conducting, interpreting, communicating, and acting upon research findings, but the connections between ethical decision making and scientific uncertainty are under‐studied in sociology. Under conditions of scientific uncertainty, researcher conduct is not fully prescribed by formal ethical codes of conduct, increasing the importance of ethical reflection by researchers, conflicts over research conduct, and reliance on informal ethical standards. This article draws on in‐depth interviews with scientists, regulators, activists, industry representatives, and fire safety experts to explore ethical considerations of moments of uncertainty using a case study of flame retardants, chemicals widely used in consumer products with potential negative health and environmental impacts. We focus on the uncertainty that arises in measuring people's exposure to these chemicals through testing of their personal environments or bodies. We identify four sources of ethical concerns relevant to scientific uncertainty: 1) choosing research questions or methods, 2) interpreting scientific results, 3) communicating results to multiple publics, and 4) applying results for policy making. This research offers lessons about professional conduct under conditions of uncertainty, ethical research practice, democratization of scientific knowledge, and science's impact on policy.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12034   open full text
  • Sociology, Psychoanalysis, and Marginalization: Unconscious Defenses and Disciplinary Interests.
    Lynn S. Chancer.
    Sociological Forum. August 23, 2013
    American sociology as a field tends to marginalize psychoanalytic perspectives despite scholars Cavalletto and Silver showing that this was not the case during Talcott Parson's intellectual heyday in the 1940s. From the 1970s on, though, constructionists emphasized the conservative rather than liberatory side of the Freudian tradition and symbolic interactionism took the place of psychoanalysis as the legitimized framework for understanding individuals. Marginalization has occurred for at least three reasons: (1) the legacies of positivism created a bias toward empirically observable rather than relatively unmeasurable concepts like the Freudian unconscious; (2) psychoanalysis uses internal data whereas sociologists look externally rather than inward; (3) because psychoanalysis focuses on individuals and sociology on groups, it is argued that the two are incommensurate. Nevertheless, even in the face of marginalization, some scholars have combined psychoanalytic and sociological perspectives in myriad ways conceiving of multi dimensional rather than rationalistic individuals within social and cultural settings; exploring interactional dynamics that are at once psychic‐and‐social; and, as in the work of Wilfred Bion, studying the psychoanalytic mechanisms of groups themselves. I posit that the ongoing marginalization of psychoanalysis deprives the discipline of an innovative tool of analysis, an especially salient one at times when the emotional and psychological dimensions of social life are glaringly evident.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12033   open full text
  • “Is This Something You Want?”: Genetic Counselors’ Accounts of Their Role in Prenatal Decision Making.
    Susan Markens.
    Sociological Forum. August 23, 2013
    With the widespread availability of prenatal genetic diagnosis, bioethical concerns have emerged about why women make use of these technologies, and the potential eugenic implications. Research on women's experience with genetic screening often suggests that genetic counselors encourage women to undergo prenatal testing and to terminate pregnancies with abnormalities. Yet, this key professional remains relatively understudied. To fill this lacuna, this article examines genetic counselors’ accounts of their role in the decision‐making process, drawing on 26 qualitative interviews with master's‐trained genetic counselors and illustrative observations of a prenatal counselor. In the context of debates about reproductive politics and genomic medicine, I identify the ways in which genetic counselors view their work and position themselves. I find that contrary to assumptions, genetic counselors provide accounts of being just as likely to discourage as to encourage invasive testing, and persuade against instead of promote termination of affected pregnancies. These findings suggest that genetic counselors may play a more nuanced and less coercive role than their critics contend, challenge assumptions about genetic counselors’ roles in prenatal genetic testing uptake and abortion, and shed light on how this specific professional may curb rather than promote eugenic tendencies feared with the normalization of prenatal screening.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12032   open full text
  • Transformative Events and Generational Memory: A Case Study Over Time in Lithuania.
    Amy Corning, Vladas Gaidys, Howard Schuman.
    Sociological Forum. June 03, 2013
    Research on the distribution of collective memories in national populations has often been conducted in relatively stable societies, where most individuals have experienced a limited range of event types. We examine collective memories in Lithuania, a society that has seen substantial change, using three surveys conducted during the two decades since Lithuanian protests against Soviet rule began in the late 1980s. We identify two types of events that individuals may recall, drawing on Sewell's () distinction between structure‐transforming events and other events that are significant but less momentous, and we find that the two types of events exhibit different patterns of change over time: in particular, transformative events may absorb other events through assimiliation and are likely to be the focus of commemoration. Recall of transformative events also shows a distinctive relation to birth cohort. Our results support the need to take into account the nature of events in order to understand which events are remembered as important and by whom.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12023   open full text
  • Who Can Tell? Network Diversity, Within‐Industry Networks, and Opportunities to Share Job Information.
    Alexandra Marin.
    Sociological Forum. June 03, 2013
    This article examines opportunities to share job information. It adds to the growing body of research on information holders and complements existing research that explains what kinds of networks and network positions provide the greatest benefit to job seekers. Data from an exploratory study of entry‐level, white‐collar workers are used to relate opportunities to share information—defined to consist of both knowledge of a job opening and awareness of a potential applicant among one's network members—with information holders’ network composition. The data show that information holders with strong within‐industry networks have more opportunities to share information and do share more information. Information holders with diverse networks more often identify potential applicants for jobs and thus have more opportunities to share information. However, despite having more opportunities to do so, they do not share information more often than those with less diverse networks. These findings, combined with the growing literature on information holders, suggest that different aspects of network composition affect the flow of job information at different stages and thus by different mechanisms.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12022   open full text
  • Production Teams and Producing Racial Diversity in Workplace Relationships.
    Julianne Payne, Steve McDonald, Lindsay Hamm.
    Sociological Forum. June 03, 2013
    Production teams have become a dominant form of work organization as labor markets have become increasingly diverse. This transition likely affects coworker networks—possibly undermining entrenched patterns of workplace segregation. Contact theory suggests that teams can foster network diversity when workers cooperate and share values emphasizing mutual respect. Yet variants of conflict theory, including the critical teams literature, contend that the benefits of teamwork may be eroded by associated factors, including peer discipline, work intensification, and job insecurity. This study uses 2006 General Social Survey data to assess whether and how teamwork affects the racial diversity of worker acquaintance networks, contrasting worker‐ and manager‐directed teams. We find a positive relationship between teams and diversity, but only when teams are worker directed. Despite countervailing tendencies highlighted in the literature, teams foster greater cooperation between workers, which in turn promotes cross‐racial friendships. African Americans tend to receive the greatest diversity payoffs from teams. These findings suggest that teamwork can undermine segregation, though only with certain implementations and with variation across groups.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12021   open full text
  • The Role of Job Insecurity in Explanations of Racial Health Inequalities.
    Andrew S. Fullerton, Kathryn Freeman Anderson.
    Sociological Forum. June 03, 2013
    The literature documenting substantial health differences for racial minorities in the United States is well developed and has considered a multitude of explanations for such disparities. However, the literature seldom addresses the health effects for racial minorities produced in the workplace. This study bridges these two literatures in order to understand the mediating role of job insecurity in explanations of racial health disparities. Our central argument is that racial differences in job insecurity resulting from the marginalized labor market positions of racial minorities are partially responsible for racial disparities in health. This study utilizes adjacent category and partial adjacent category logit models of general health using data from the 2000 to 2010 General Social Survey in order to test this claim. Overall, the results from this study indicate that there are substantial racial differences in job insecurity, and both race and job insecurity are important predictors of general self‐rated health. Additionally, racial differences in job insecurity help explain a portion of the racial disparities in health. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for the study of health disparities in the United States.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12020   open full text
  • Work, Performance, and the Social Ethic of Global Capitalism: Understanding Religious Practice in Contemporary India.
    Vikash Singh.
    Sociological Forum. June 03, 2013
    This ethnographic essay focuses on the relationship between religious performances and the “strong discourse” of contemporary global capitalism. It explores the subjective meaning and social significance of religious practice in the context of a rapidly expanding mass religious phenomenon in India. The narrative draws on Weber's insights on the intersections between religion and economy, phenomenological theory, performance studies, and Indian philosophy and popular culture. It shows that religion here is primarily a means of performing to and preparing for an informal economy. It gives the chance to live meaningful social lives while challenging the inequities and symbolic violence of an imposing global capitalist social ethic. Unlike exclusive formal institutions that are increasingly governed by neoliberal rationalities, the religious event provides an open and freely accessible yet challenging stage for participants to practice and prove their resolve, gifts, and sincerity. In contrast to the focus on social anomie and the reactionary characterization of contemporary religion in identity‐based arguments, this essay demonstrates that religious practice here is simultaneously a way of performing to and performing against a totalizing capitalist social order.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12019   open full text
  • Changes in Americans’ Views of Prayer and Reading the Bible in Public Schools: Time Periods, Birth Cohorts, and Religious Traditions.
    Philip Schwadel.
    Sociological Forum. June 03, 2013
    I use repeated cross‐sectional survey data spanning the years 1974 to 2010 to examine changes in Americans’ views of prayer and reading the Bible in public schools. Results from logistic regression models show that support for prayer and reading the Bible in public schools was relatively high in the 1970s and that differences between evangelical Protestants and both Catholics and mainline Protestants grew from the 1970s to the first decade of the twenty‐first century. Hierarchical age‐period‐cohort models demonstrate that changes in support for school prayer are due to both period and birth cohort changes, that baby boom cohorts are relatively likely to oppose prayer and reading the Bible in school, and that growing differences in support for prayer and reading the Bible in school between evangelical Protestants and both Catholics and mainline Protestants are predominantly due to changes across birth cohorts. Although religious liberals and conservatives have become more alike in many ways, evangelical Protestants have diverged from affiliates of other major religious traditions in their support for prayer in public schools. These results are relevant to debates regarding the social impact of religious affiliation, generational differences, and Americans’ views of the role of religion in the public sphere.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12018   open full text
  • Further Beyond the Durkheimian Problematic: Environmental Sociology and the Co‐construction of the Social and the Natural.
    James Rice.
    Sociological Forum. June 03, 2013
    The biophysical environment is not tangential to the social; it is only tangential to conventional sociological thought. Environmental sociology arose in the 1970s based on this presupposition, but over time theory and empirical research have generally adopted a social constructionist or natural realist approach. Despite rejection of the Durkheimian dictum of explaining social facts through the invocation of other social facts, and thus refusal to presuppose human exemptionalism from ecological constraints, scholarship continues to reflect this nature/culture divide. When environmental sociologists focus on one side or the other of the nature/culture divide, the intertwining and conjoint constitution of the social and the biophysical–material is obscured. The intent of the present essay is to articulate a co‐constructionist ontological position sensitive to the temporal emergence of hybridity between the social and the natural and amenable to recognition of salient dynamics not readily envisioned from either side of the nature/culture divide. In doing so, the argument builds upon prior metatheoretical scholarship in environmental sociology and science and technology studies and highlights ontological conundrums that must be confronted in order to further the move toward a viable co‐constructionist posture.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12017   open full text
  • Kids Talking About Race: Tween‐agers in a Post‐Civil Rights Era.
    Barbara J. Risman, Pallavi Banerjee.
    Sociological Forum. June 03, 2013
    Our research examines how American children understand and talk about how race matters in their everyday lives. We draw on interviews with 44 middle school children who attend schools in an integrated county‐wide system and find that while some use color‐blind rhetoric, most children in our study know that race matters, while they offer alternative accounts for why and how. Some explain race as social inequality, while others offer cultural accounts of racial differences. Our analysis suggests that for white children, gender matters; more girls describe racial inequality than boys. For children of color, class seems to be key, with middle‐class children giving cultural explanations, including negative evaluations of others in their own racial group. We use an intersectionality framework to analyze the alternative and complex narratives children give for their own experiences of race and race relations between peers.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/socf.12016   open full text