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International Migration

Impact factor: 0.865 5-Year impact factor: 1.123 Print ISSN: 0020-7985 Online ISSN: 1468-2435 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subject: Demography

Most recent papers:

  • From Brakeman to Booster: Policy change in Germany's EU Labour Migration Policy.
    Holger Kolb.
    International Migration. October 17, 2017
    More than 8 years ago the Council Directive 2009/50/EC of 25 May 2009, which is also (and much better) known as Blue Card‐directive, came into effect. Although in general the passing of the directive can be regarded as a milestone in the history of EU migration policy, the first proposals of the directive brought forward by the European Commission envisaged a much deeper and more binding framework including less room for maneuver for the member states. It is well known that particularly the German government at that time spoke out against a (more) extensive Europeanisation of labour migration policy. In sharp contrast to this rather reluctant stance towards ?more Europe? in this area recent developments indicate a significant policy change in the German way of dealing with the question of how much Europe is necessary in labour migration policy. This article seeks to retrace this rather sudden shift and to put it into a broader context of migration policy change in Germany.
    October 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12368   open full text
  • Skill Composition and Occupational Incorporation of Early and Recent Immigrants in Switzerland: the case of Italians and Spaniards.
    Elena Vidal‐Coso, Enrique Ortega‐Rivera.
    International Migration. October 17, 2017
    Using the 1980 Census and 2010‐2011 Structural Survey, we compare the socio‐demographic profile and the occupational incorporation of Italian and Spanish immigrants arriving in Switzerland between 1976 and 1980 with those arriving during the second half of the 2000s. We find evidence that the traditional over‐representation of Italian and Spanish immigrants among the lower strata of the occupational hierarchy at the end of the guest worker period is explained by their negative selection in terms of education and host language proficiency, corroborating the human capital hypothesis. However, the results also show the persistence of occupational disadvantages for these immigrants after controlling for human capital characteristics, indicating the existence of segmentation dynamics in the Swiss labour market. In contrast, recent cohorts of immigrants from Italy and Spain have definitively joined the collective of highly skilled foreign workers correctly matched in the Swiss labour market in accordance with their positive skill‐selectivity.
    October 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12320   open full text
  • Emotional Integration across Immigrant Generations in Baden‐Württemberg, Germany: the Role of Discrimination.
    Oshrat Hochman, Anna Stein, Noah Lewin‐Epstein, Thomas Wöhler.
    International Migration. October 17, 2017
    Immigrants’ integration is a multi‐faceted process, involving structural, cultural, social, and emotional dimensions. This study focuses on the emotional dimension of integration, investigating immigrants’ emotional attachments to their national origin and their host country. Specifically, we ask what role perceived discrimination plays in shaping identification preferences among immigrants and immigrant descendants in Germany. The contribution of this study is twofold: First, we present results for three generations of post‐WWII labour migrants of Turkish and Italian descent. Second, we estimate the consequences of perceived individual discrimination for national and ethnic identification separately. The findings indicate that while discrimination is not related to ethnic identification, it is negatively correlated with national identification. Regarding future challenges, we believe that our findings suggest that the German society can come closer to achieving integration of migrants by reducing perceptions of rejection by the immigrant population, or better yet, fighting off discrimination against immigrant minorities.
    October 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12377   open full text
  • Changing labour migration politics in Germany: an organizational perspective.
    Martina Maletzky.
    International Migration. October 17, 2017
    Migration research has mainly focused on micro and macro level actors. Less research has focused on the meso‐level of organizations as actors influencing migration related processes. However, since modern societies are organizational societies and organizations are omnipresent in all spheres of daily life, their importance for migration issues should not be underestimated. Addressing this gap within migration research, the purpose of the following article is to apply a perspective of organization sociology to changes in migration politics. Referring to the German case with recent fundamental changes in migration politics, this article traces which roles organizations played in that process. It is assumed that they do institutional work (Lawrence & Suddaby, ), which means that they disrupt and change existing (migration related) institutions and politics. First, it gives insights into how existing institutions and thought patterns have been disrupted and reconstructed by (economic) organizations. Several strategies are observable. These include creating coalitions, advocacy, and social persuasion by introducing narratives which are alarming, morally compelling and convincing.
    October 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12379   open full text
  • Negotiating class, femininity and career: Latin American migrant women entrepreneurs in Spain.
    María Villares‐Varela.
    International Migration. October 16, 2017
    This article analyses how the gendered and classed positions of migrant women explain the meanings of becoming an entrepreneur and the role of their spouses in their occupational trajectories. Using a translocational positionality approach, the article challenges the claim that women escape patriarchal domination by establishing their own businesses. The narratives of 35 Latin American women entrepreneurs in Spain reveal that becoming an entrepreneur is conditioned by class‐based ideas of masculinity and femininity. I argue that middle‐class Latin American immigrant women become entrepreneurs to promote their spouse's career advancement while conforming to class‐based norms of femininity. In contrast, lower class Latin American women view the business as a space of autonomy and occupational upward mobility that nevertheless also complies with working‐class definitions of femininity. The policy implications of these findings relate to making class aspirations central to the support of labour market integration and empowerment of migrant women.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12361   open full text
  • “It will help me in life, that my life will be better”: Future Challenges for Children of Migrant Families.
    Doly Eliyahu‐Levi, Michal Ganz‐Meishar.
    International Migration. October 16, 2017
    Not much attention has been paid to the children of migrant families in the receiving Israeli society. Our research focuses on how migrant children cope with future orientation and challenges how those children perceive their future course of life. This study speaks with the voices of the children, as represented in their personal stories and interviews, and reveals their interpretation of their futures, their integration in the receiving society, and the significance they accord to the events, activities and experiences they have undergone. Our findings reveal that in the area of future life course the children expressed a positive approach to school, to matriculation, to work and fulfilling future ambitions. In contrast in the area of existential life course children expressed a negative view and most of them reported that it is difficult for immigrant families live in Israel, and therefore they would prefer to migrate to another country.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12357   open full text
  • Party Positions on Economic Criteria for Naturalization in Austria.
    Jeremias Stadlmair.
    International Migration. October 16, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    October 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12337   open full text
  • “Now I am also Israeli”: From Illegality to Legality ‐ Life experiences and identities of migrant workers’ children after receiving civil status in Israel.
    Deby Babis, Anabel Lifszyc‐Friedlander, Galia Sabar.
    International Migration. October 15, 2017
    In 2006 and 2010, following demands from local and international civil society organizations, Israel granted civil status to approximately 1500 undocumented migrant workers’ children. This was considered a “one time humanitarian gesture,” not to be repeated. Thousands of other children, who did not fulfill the required criteria, were left without civil status. Within the context of Israel, the homeland of the Jewish people, this mixed‐methods study explored how the children's life experiences have been constructed and reconstructed since the inception of their new civil status. According to the findings, 80 per cent of migrant workers’ children reveal a high degree of belonging to Israeli society, defining themselves as Israelis. For them, receiving civil status has four practical implications: being able to serve in the Israeli army; the ability to travel abroad; better access to the job market; and freedom from fear of deportation. Our study also revealed difficulties due to their religious and ethnic identities, reflected in the children's understandings of what it means to be Israeli. The complex manifestations of their newly acquired civil status is embedded in the concept of “freedom,” i.e. to do and to be what they really want to be.
    October 15, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12367   open full text
  • Labour Migration Policy in Russia: Considerations on Governmentality.
    Vladimir S. Malakhov, Mark E. Simon.
    International Migration. October 13, 2017
    The authors argue that Russian migration policy reflects the functioning of contemporary Russia's entire bureaucratic machine. The bureaucracy's Soviet‐era governance techniques on the one hand and the material interests of particular pressure groups on the other, shape the manipulation of immigration regulation that has occurred since the early 2000s. Therefore, attempts to liberalize migration regulation, i.e., to simplify the legalization of foreign workers, have always been incoherent, accompanied by reservations and limitations. Additionally, Russian actions are riddled with conflict between ‘geopolitical’ and domestic policy rationales. The authorities’ occasional attempts to use immigration regulation as a foreign policy tool acquire primarily symbolic value in the ‘domestic political market’ rather than serving any instrumental purpose. The effort to enhance Russian influence in the post‐Soviet space through the ‘reintegration project’ (Eurasian Economic Union) collides with the goal of national labour market protection, since integration entails the removal of barriers to labour movement.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12402   open full text
  • Migration, masculinity and social class: Insights from Pikine, Senegal.
    Sebastian Prothmann.
    International Migration. October 13, 2017
    In the shattered economy of Dakar, many young men feel stuck in prolonged bachelorhood. Handed‐down role expectations can often not be met due to dire economic prospects. Drawing on fieldwork in Pikine, an urban area within the Dakar region of Senegal, between 2011 and 2013, this article reflects upon the relation between risk, migration, social class and masculinity. Through migration to unknown destinations and by enduring the many challenges and hardships associated with it, in the hope of eventually reaching a higher social class upon return, young men wish to fix and rewrite their masculine identities. To pursue this aim even the oddest job in Europe becomes acceptable. At home, however, many work opportunities are considered to be beneath their social class. Most male urbanites seek jobs that are rewarded with respect and authority, and often assemble their choices about pursuing certain income‐generating activities considering notions of class.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12385   open full text
  • Sense of Belonging and Life Satisfaction among Post‐1990 Immigrants in Israel.
    Rebeca Raijman, Rona Geffen.
    International Migration. October 13, 2017
    In this paper we contribute to the study of immigrants’ integration into the host society by focusing on two subjective indicators of integration: life satisfaction and sense of belonging. The analysis is performed on post‐1990 immigrants in Israel with data obtained from the ‘Immigrant Survey’ conducted by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. The findings show that while life satisfaction is affected by all forms of incorporation (structural, acculturation, identificational), immigrants’ sense of belonging to Israeli society seems mainly related to processes of identity re‐definition in the host society, and mostly determined by strength of Jewish identity, ideological motives for going to Israel, and the ways by which immigrants perceive they are defined by Israelis (as a member of the majority group or as a member of an ethnic group). The results also reveal that when utilizing SEM procedure for estimating simultaneous effects of both subjective measures of assimilation, sense of belonging to the new society strongly affects immigrants’ life satisfaction but not the other way around. We discuss the findings and their meaning in light of theory and within the context of Israeli society.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12386   open full text
  • Managing the National Status Group: Immigration Policy in Germany.
    Jennifer Elrick, Elke Winter.
    International Migration. October 13, 2017
    This article challenges the established convention in immigration policy scholarship of treating economic utility and identity maintenance as logically distinct concerns. Drawing on work by Weber, Wallerstein and Bourdieu, we argue that concerns about economic utility and identity maintenance interact in the immigration policies of Western liberal democratic states, leading to policies designed to build and maintain middle‐class national status groups. Using the example of contemporary immigration policy in Germany, we illustrate how this impulse to build the middle‐class status group affects immigrant inclusion/exclusion in nuanced ways at both the group and individual levels, along class/status, ethnic and gender lines. We conclude by considering the policy implications of growing and shaping populations according to middle‐class ideals, particularly for the statistical monitoring of immigrant populations for integration benchmarking purposes.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12400   open full text
  • Highly‐skilled Migration from China and India to Canada and the United States.
    Lucia Lo, Wei Li, Wan Yu.
    International Migration. October 13, 2017
    Using publicly available data, this article aims to understand how immigration policies in Canada and the United States have affected the flow and utilization of highly‐skilled migrants from China and India. Reviewing existing literature on the policies about, and utilization of, human capital among highly‐skilled migrants, and describing the policy contexts in both receiving countries, we present detailed empirical evidence to show that in spite of their higher education attainment than the general population and the total foreign‐born population, China‐ and India‐born migrants are not immune from the brain waste phenomenon. This is especially so among the India‐born. We end the article with policy implications for both countries.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12388   open full text
  • Free Movement in the European Union: National Institutions vs Common Policies?
    Martin Ruhs.
    International Migration. October 13, 2017
    The current rules for “free movement” in the European Union (EU) facilitate unrestricted intra‐EU labour mobility and equal access to national welfare states for EU workers. The sustainability of this policy has recently been threatened by divisive debates between EU countries about the need to restrict welfare benefits for EU workers. This article develops a theory for why the current free movement rules might present particular challenges for certain EU member states. It focuses on the potential roles of three types of national institutions and social norms in determining national policy positions on free movement in the EU15 states: labour markets (especially their “flexibility”); welfare states (especially their “contributory basis”); and citizenship norms (focusing on the “European‐ness” of national identities). I show that these institutions and norms vary across member states and explain why we can expect these differences to contribute to divergent national policy preferences for reforming free movement.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12398   open full text
  • Dimensions of life satisfaction: Immigrant and ethnic minorities.
    Nonna Kushnirovich, Arie Sherman.
    International Migration. October 13, 2017
    The article investigates the dimensions of life satisfaction of immigrant and ethnic minorities comparing them with the majority population. It constructs a theoretical framework, taking into account both pecuniary and non‐pecuniary dimensions of welfare. This study is based on the data of the Social Survey, administered by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Immigrants in this study are regarded as a migrant minority and Israeli‐born Arab citizens as an ethnic minority. The results reveal significant life satisfaction gaps between the groups, which can be partially explained by the value of work per se and the value of leisure activities. Applying the Blinder‐Oaxaca decomposition technique, the study revealed that the gap in life satisfaction could be attributed both to the differences in pecuniary and non‐pecuniary resources for each group, and to different returns on resources. Policy targeted on increasing the economic possibilities of minority groups would decrease the life satisfaction gaps.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12329   open full text
  • The Role of Argumentation and Institutions for Labour Migration in the European Union – Exemplified by Spanish labour migration to Germany.
    Christiane Heimann, Oliver Wieczorek.
    International Migration. October 13, 2017
    This contribution will show how institutions in Spain and Germany facilitated intra‐European labour mobility as a solution to a mismatch in the labour market. To this end, we have chosen the recruitment of Spanish job candidates for German employers as an example. Employing Bourdieu's field‐theoretical framework as well as expert interviews, we highlight the role of institutional agents encouraging labour migration. We analysed 30 expert interviews to gain insights from institutional agents that facilitate labour migration in the Spanish and the German labour market. Our findings show how these agents use their resources to legitimize policies and create sustainable structures steering labour migration and integration.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12338   open full text
  • So close but yet so far? Labour Migration Governance in Italy and Spain.
    Claudia Finotelli, Gabriel Echeverría.
    International Migration. October 13, 2017
    Southern European countries have traditionally been perceived as weak immigration countries with inefficient legal entry avenues for foreign workers, high irregular migration rates and poor integration policies. In recent years, however, the adoption of more efficient control policies, new recruitment strategies and embryonic integration plans throughout the region has led to a change of paradigm in the governance of migration. And yet policy reforms do not seem to have produced the same results everywhere. The aim of this article is to enquire into possible explanations for the divergent paths of labour migration governance in Southern Europe, using Italy and Spain as comparative cases. As it will emerge, policy efficacy in the field of labour migration relates not only to the quality and consistency of policy design and implementation but also to factors that escape direct political control.
    October 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12362   open full text
  • Dealing with Migrants in the Central Mediterranean Route: A Legal Analysis of Recent Bilateral Agreements Between Italy and Libya.
    Andrea Guttry, Francesca Capone, Emanuele Sommario.
    International Migration. September 26, 2017
    Dealing with the current flow of migrants flocking to the shores of southern European countries remains high on the international agenda. At the end of 2016, 276,957 migrants were waiting in Libya to cross the sea. Many of them were subject to human rights violations and abuses such as arbitrary detention, torture, unlawful killings, sexual exploitation and even slavery (IOM, 2017). The international response has been, so far, insufficient and new ideas and practices are urgently needed. After providing an overview of the legal framework and of the efforts carried out by the relevant international and regional organizations, this article focuses on recent treaties concluded between Italy and Libya, and argues that the new bilateral agreements represent an example of how States are responding to this challenge in an attempt to strike a balance between the need to strengthen the protection of migrants’ rights and the necessity to guarantee the security of national borders.
    September 26, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12401   open full text
  • Peaceful Returns: Reversing Ethnic Cleansing after the Bosnian War.
    Djordje Stefanovic, Neophytos Loizides.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    This article questions the conventional wisdom which claims forced migration is irreversible following massive ethnic cleansing campaigns, by investigating durable returns to pre‐conflict home communities in Bosnia‐Herzegovina. We formulate a set of novel hypotheses on the demographic determinants of return as well as on the role of social capital, nationalist ideology, integration, and war victimization. We use a 2013 Bosnian representative sample with 1,007 respondents to test our hypotheses. The findings support the expectation that gender and age have a major impact on return. Net of other factors, women and those experiencing wartime victimization are less likely to return. Older Bosnians with positive memories of pre‐conflict interethnic relations are more likely to return than younger persons or those with negative memories. Finally, ethnic Bosniacs are more likely to return than ethnic Croats or Serbs. More nationalistic internally displaced persons (IDPs) are less likely to return.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12382   open full text
  • Perceptions of Returnees in Somaliland Politics: The Grounds for Legitimacy.
    Anna Ida R. Rock.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12327   open full text
  • Daring ‘life‐return projects’ to post‐Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina.
    Selma Porobić.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    This article discusses the prospects for realization of rights‐based return against the backdrop of a twenty years‐long (inter)nationally managed return process to post‐Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina. It draws on 42 in‐depth interviews with two different waves of returnees: early assisted returns (1997‐2005), and later self‐organised returns (2005‐2013). Our findings show that realization of return implicates the courageous well‐planned and self‐orchestrated life return projects, closely inter‐linked with the construction of the complex micro‐social structures buffering against the unpredictable macro‐social context of post‐Dayton BiH. Instead of being propelled by formal and assisted return programmes, it is rather the intricate relational practices with space(s) and people – continuously investing in the multisite local and transnational social networks, and flexible mobility and settlement patterns ‐ shaped by social agency of the returnees that lead to realization of the return projects.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12366   open full text
  • Forced Displacement in Turkey: Pushing the Limits of the ECHR System.
    Darren S. Dinsmore.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    This article presents research findings on regional human rights tribunals and forced displacement. It assesses the response of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) system to “village destructions” and “village returns” complaints lodged against Turkey and originating from the conflict between State security forces and the PKK (Partiya Karkarȇn Kurdistan). Within academic literature the role of the ECHR in Turkey tends to be reduced to discussion of a handful of substantive decisions. This article argues that there is much to be gained from closer examination of the (changing) dynamics of the ECHR in Turkey and the regulation of displacement. Two innovations can be observed from this case‐study: a special level of ‘protective’ access and a proactive approach to fact‐finding. The Turkish cases indicate a need for further investigation of the role of fact‐finding in cases of displacement and the development of context‐specific rules on sustainable returns processes.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12276   open full text
  • The Turks of Bulgaria: An Outlier Case of Forced Migration and Voluntary Return.
    Muzaffer Kutlay.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    The Turks of Bulgaria have a particular place in displacement scholarship. As the largest minority group in the country, they were subjected to ethnic cleansing in the 1980s. Anti‐Turkish sentiments culminated in state‐led systematic exclusion and more than 340,000 Turks were forcefully migrated to Turkey in 1989. After the collapse of Communism and the transition to democracy, almost 40 per cent of them voluntarily returned to Bulgaria, making it an outlier case in displacement literature. Drawing on 46 semi‐structured interviews, this study contributes to the literature by offering a grounded conceptual framework which explains the macro‐dynamics of voluntary and sustainable return through an in‐depth study of the Bulgarian case. The findings suggest that three‐factors account for the voluntary return: (i) the peaceful transition to inclusive democracy and power‐sharing; (ii) the dual moderation between majority and minority representatives; and (iii) the enabling role of international actors, primarily the EU‐anchor.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12381   open full text
  • Turkey's Position on IDP Properties: Lessons (Not) Learned.
    Deniz Sert.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    Three issues: security, economics and justice, are the keys to comprehending the essence of problems of property and IDP return in conflict settings. The case of Turkey presents an interesting framework for analysing issues related to IDP property, both in the context of the Kurdish issue in the Southeast of the country, and in Cyprus. Comparing the position of Turkey in these two settings, the article argues that, while it utilizes domestic mechanisms to avoid international pressures very well, especially by exhausting the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights to reinforce legitimacy of its policies, Turkey's position on the return of and/or compensation for IDP properties lacks transparency, disregarding principles of justice without respect for human rights.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12290   open full text
  • Gendered Aspects of Conflict, Displacement and Peace Process in Turkey.
    Ayşe Betül Çelik.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    The peace process in Turkey, since its inception, has not paid any attention to internal displacement or its gendered aspects. This study analyses how displaced women remember the gendered aspects of displacement and perceive reconciliation and peace. The analysis, based on interviews with 42 internally displaced women, shows that changing domestic and international contexts have substantive impact on how displaced women remember their stories and the meaning they attach to their ethnic identities. Consequently, it suggests that if the peace process is re‐initiated, leaders need to take into consideration that each component of reconciliation (justice, peace, trust towards the state, intergroup relations and truth‐telling) has different difficulties to be overcome when the gendered aspect of displacement is taken into account and consider return not only as a realistic demand but also as a political wish.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12255   open full text
  • Ethnic Violence, Local Security and Return Migration: Enclave communities in Kosovo.
    Sandra F. Joireman.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    Forced migration has become commonplace in the international political landscape. In 2015, 60 million people were displaced by violence, more than ever before recorded (UNHCR, 2015). While we know that violence leads to displacement, we know little about return migration after conflict – who comes back and where they settle. This article seeks to engage and supplement the literature on return migration after conflict, advocating for a broader understanding of the security choices made by displaced people. Emphasized here is the importance of a local understanding of safety and the role played by enclave communities in providing a secure context in which people can enjoy the society of their co‐ethnics.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12316   open full text
  • The Important Role of Binational Studies for Migration and Health Research: A Review of US‐Mexico Binational Studies and Design Considerations for Addressing Critical Issues in Migrant Health.
    Margaret A. Handley, May Sudhinaraset.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    The impact of migration on health is an important and growing concern worldwide. We conducted a literature review of published health literature in PubMed, between January 1999 and February 2015, representing studies including US and Mexico samples and the title word “binational”. Fifty‐nine studies representing three types of study designs were identified. The health issues examined included chronic conditions, mental health, substance abuse, reproductive health, infectious diseases, environmental health, and use of health‐care services. Binational research between the US and Mexico contributes to our understanding of migrant health and offers critical insights into the processes affecting health outcomes in the US and Mexico. Future studies of all designs can pay closer attention to the social determinants of health.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12306   open full text
  • Latent Tuberculosis Infection Screening Acceptability among Migrant Farmworkers.
    Obiyo Osuchukwu, Maria Nuῆez, Samuel Packard, John Ehiri, Cecilia Rosales, Eric Hawkins, José Gabino Gerardo Avilés, Francisco Gonzalez‐Salazar, Eyal Oren.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection is routinely diagnosed using the tuberculin skin test (TST). New methods of detection more specific than TST such as QuantiFERON TB Gold In‐Tube (QFT‐GIT) have been developed but evidence remains limited on their acceptability among migrant farmworkers. This article examined the acceptability of screening tests among migrant farmworkers working on the Arizona‐Mexico border. We conducted a cross‐sectional survey of migrant farmworkers via questionnaire. Of 83 participants interviewed, 53 (63.9%) believed that TB was a serious disease that could result in death and 59 (71.1%) considered TB a health concern in their community. Sixty‐four participants (77.1%) rated QFT‐GIT test as performing better than TST. Our study demonstrates preference for QFT‐GIT results over TST, and highlights migrant farmworkers’ considering themselves at risk of TB and TB as a health concern. Policies that create easy access and culturally appropriate, affordable healthcare for this vulnerable population should be encouraged.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12275   open full text
  • “You Just Don't Understand Me!” Determinants of Second Generation Asian and Latino Youth Self‐Esteem.
    Emerald T. Nguyen, Jo Mhairi Hale.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    To understand the integration of second‐generation Asians and Latinos, we study the association between acculturation and self‐esteem, an aspect of psychological wellbeing and belongingness. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), we find that Asians have lower self‐esteem than Latinos. Females, youth who are from lower socioeconomic status families, have been in the US for less than five years, have lower grade point averages, experience discrimination, or experience more family conflict, are at risk for lower self‐esteem. For Asians, identifying as American is associated with higher self‐esteem than identifying by nationality or having a hyphenated identity, but it does not provide a similar benefit to Latinos. Both groups benefit from being fluently bilingual, whereas English‐language dominance is protective only for Asian youths’ self‐esteem. Our analysis nuances the role that acculturation factors play in adolescent self‐esteem, signalling that future research should consider interactions between acculturation and race/ethnicity.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12305   open full text
  • Health Insurance, from a Child Language Broker's Perspective.
    Krissia Martinez, Marjorie Faulstich Orellana, Marco A. Murillo, Michael A. Rodriguez.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    In the midst of dramatic changes to American health care law there is need to understand the challenges that vulnerable populations encounter in obtaining and managing health insurance. Research has found that child language brokers, children who mediate language and culture for their immigrant families, assist with health‐related matters. We report on focus groups with 17 language brokers living in Central Los Angeles. In this article we detail their experiences language brokering for health insurance and their knowledge of health insurance and policies that apply to their immigrant families. We illuminate some barriers immigrant families face as well as how they navigate them. We conclude with policy implications, particularly in relation to making health insurance more accessible to non‐English speaking and immigrant populations.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12380   open full text
  • What's the Difference? Access to Health Insurance and Care for Immigrant Children in the US.
    Ethan J. Evans, Caren A. Arbeit.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12307   open full text
  • Blessed be the Ties: Health and Healthcare for Migrants and Migrant Families in the United States.
    Daniel Ervin, Erin R. Hamilton, David López‐Carr.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12345   open full text
  • Does International Migration Affect Labor Supply, Non‐farm Diversification and Welfare of Households? Evidence from Egypt.
    Mohamed Arouri, Cuong Viet Nguyen.
    International Migration. September 14, 2017
    This study examines the effect of international migration in Egypt using fixed‐effect regressions and panel data from Egypt Labour Market Panel Surveys in 2006 and 2012. We find that men and people with higher education are more likely to migrate than women and people with lower education. Middle‐aged people are also more likely to migrate than young or old people. International migration does not seem to affect the overall employment of remaining members of migrant‐sending households. However, it tends to increase the self‐employed work of members of migrant‐sending households. Finally, international migration also helps migrant‐sending households increase their wealth index. Remittances are used to improve living conditions (housing) and purchase more assets and durables. This finding supports the theory as well as the policy to increase migration as a way to stabilize consumption and reduce poverty in low income countries.
    September 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12384   open full text
  • Different Contexts and Trends: Latina Immigrant Fertility in the US and Spain.
    G. Cristina Mora, Juan J. Fernández, Margarita Torre.
    International Migration. September 12, 2017
    This article provides the first cross‐national assessment of Latina immigrant fertility trends. Specifically, we compare Ecuadorian women in Spain (EiS) to Mexican women in the United States (MiUS). We focus on these two groups because they (1) have similar socio‐economic profiles and (2) are the largest Latina subgroups in their respective host countries. We show that since 2001, the fertility rate of EiS has declined substantially more than the fertility rate of MiUS has. Drawing on census and administrative data in both countries, we assess four factors that might explain this difference: economic cycles, linguistic affinity, labor market participation, and education. We argue that labor market and education factors can best help to explain Latina fertility patterns. We conclude by discussing the findings with regard to contemporary arguments about Latino culture and immigrant fertility, and by describing the study's policy implications.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12373   open full text
  • The Economic Effect of Refugee Crises on Neighbouring Host Countries: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan.
    Amdadullah Baloch, Said Zamin Shah, Zaleha Mohd Noor, Miloud Lacheheb.
    International Migration. September 12, 2017
    There is a considerable debate in terms of opportunities and challenges about the presence of refugees in the neighbouring host countries. Most of the existing discourse has focused only on their humanitarian and security implications. This article, on the other hand, seeks to uncover this issue through a purely economic lens, focusing on the economic impact of more than three million Afghan refugees in Pakistan. Utilizing data for the period 1979–2014 and the ARDL bounds testing approach, we arrive at few important conclusions. The empirical results indicate that Afghan refugees have a strong negative impact on economic growth in Pakistan. The effect holds in both the short run and the long run, suggesting that the influx of refugees lowers real economic activity in the country. Ultimately, the study implies that hosting refugees can never be a boon to Pakistan's economy.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12389   open full text
  • Governing agricultural migrant workers as an “emergency”: converging approaches in Northern and Southern Italian rural towns.
    Michela Semprebon, Roberta Marzorati, Anna Mary Garrapa.
    International Migration. September 08, 2017
    Rosarno and Sermide are two small towns in Southern and Northern Italy, which are both part of a manual‐labour circuit of agricultural work. The article presents an analysis of governance structures in these towns and, by bringing together the literature on migrants' agricultural labour and local policy‐making, explores how public actors address migrant seasonal agricultural workers' needs to investigate outcomes of inclusion and exclusion. The article builds on qualitative research, conducted between 2012 and 2015, to propose a North‐South intra‐country comparison of local policy‐making. The findings show the emergency nature of local administrations' approaches and the critical role of civil society. They highlight the extent to which responses diverge or converge in means and scale, while stressing their convergence in scope to limit migrants' visibility.
    September 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12390   open full text
  • Natural Disasters and Human Trafficking: Do Disasters Affect State Anti‐Trafficking Performance?
    Zack Bowersox.
    International Migration. September 06, 2017
    Despite the oft noted negative connection between natural disasters and human trafficking, no quantitative study has been performed. Natural disasters, like conflict, can destroy homes and the economic security of individuals forcing them to migrate and making them targets for traffickers. This article tests the link between a state's ability to address trafficking and natural disasters, testing the popular prediction that a state's capabilities will be strained as increased natural disasters occur thus producing a negative effect. The findings though demonstrate that states are actually more likely to perform better in their efforts to confront trafficking. I argue that this is because natural disasters actually strengthen and enhance the state, and particularly its security institutions, in responding to these events. I place these findings in the context of other recent quantitative studies of trafficking that have also produced contradictory results when compared with the field's qualitative studies.
    September 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12374   open full text
  • The Effect of Remittances on Economic Growth in Kyrgyzstan and Macedonia: Accounting for Financial Development.
    Ronald Ravinesh Kumar, Peter Josef Stauvermann, Arvind Patel, Selvin Prasad.
    International Migration. August 31, 2017
    Kyrgyzstan and Macedonia have experienced a reasonable increase in remittances over the last twenty‐five years. Subsequently, the extent to which remittances can be instrumental for economic development of the two countries has gained serious attention in recent development dialogues. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of remittances versus financial development on the economic growth of the two counties, complementing the burgeoning interest and focus on remittances for policy. The short‐run and the long‐run effects and the causality dynamics of remittances and financial development, are explored. The results show a long‐run positive impact of remittances on the economic growth of these countries. The impact of financial development is negative, significant only for Kyrgyzstan and not statistically significant for Macedonia. The causality results show that remittances support economic growth for Kyrgyzstan, whereas economic growth appears to propel remittances for Macedonia.
    August 31, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12372   open full text
  • A Study of Local Incorporation of Migrant Professionals in Wroclaw.
    Krzysztof Jaskulowski.
    International Migration. August 25, 2017
    The aim of this article is to explore the patterns of local incorporation of migrant professionals in an urban context. It focuses on Wrocław, a Polish city that is not a traditional migration destination. Drawing on qualitative research, the article analyses migrant trajectories of local incorporation in the context of their reasons for relocation, experiences and perspectives. The article shows the irrelevance of ethnic networks for local incorporation. It demonstrates the role played by the workplace and the Internet, which allows forming sociabilities based on commonalities and shared interests, irrespective of cultural differences. It also shows the inconsistency of the city's policies and calls for policy revision. The article concludes that Wroclaw's policy seems not to correspond with the specificity of professional migration. It is argued that the city's policy is based on sedimentary and assimilationist logic that does not take into account migrants’ reasons for relocation and perspectives.
    August 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12387   open full text
  • Interrogating the Relationship between Remigration and Sustainable Return.
    Katie Kuschminder.
    International Migration. August 22, 2017
    Assisted voluntary return is a central component of many countries managed migration policies. Within these programmes achieving a sustainable return is a common policy goal, which is often measured through remigration. In this paper, it is argued that remigration is not a valid indicator to measure sustainable return. A new definition and approach to defining and measuring sustainable return is presented based on a multidimensional return and reintegration index, which is tested with a sample of 118 returnees in six countries. Due to small sample size a chi‐square test is used to examine the correlation between the return and reintegration index and remigration intentions. The results demonstrate the relationship between having a concrete remigration plan and the return and reintegration index is insignificant. This relationship between remigration and sustainable return is further interrogated throughout the paper.
    August 22, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12378   open full text
  • Back pay for trafficked migrant workers: An Indonesian case study.
    Wayne Palmer.
    International Migration. August 14, 2017
    In 2015 the International Organization for Migration (IOM) identified almost 1,200 trafficked migrants working in slave‐like conditions on fishing boats in East Indonesia. The IOM helped the migrants and offered to cover the cost of repatriation to their countries of citizenship. The Indonesian government appreciated the financial support, not least because the victims’ embassies refused to pay. But most victims in one location refused to return to their home country without the wages owed to them by their trafficker‐cum‐employers. IOM policy states that migrants are eligible to use the Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration (AVRR) service if they are unable or unwilling to remain in the host country. But another condition is that migrants must use the services voluntarily. The IOM could not force the migrants to leave the country, and national law prevented the Indonesian government from deporting the migrants because the IOM had identified them as victims of trafficking.
    August 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12376   open full text
  • To stay or to return? Return migration intentions of Moroccans in Italy.
    Angela Paparusso, Elena Ambrosetti.
    International Migration. August 14, 2017
    Using data from the Statistics on Income and living conditions of families with migrants carried out by ISTAT in 2009, we empirically examine the effect of micro level determinants on Moroccans’ return migration intentions. Although Moroccans living in Italy do not have a clear aspiration to return, the socio‐economic and work conditions in Italy determine their migration intentions. Furthermore, our research led us to argue that macro‐level determinants should also be considered. In particular, emigration, immigration and integration policies represent key elements in the analysis of the dilemma between to stay or to return. Therefore, the promotion of long‐term immigration policies, which allow the achievement of a permanent residence in the host country, combined with institutional reforms, which make the origin country socially, economically and politically more attractive for migrants are essential to complete the debate about to stay or to return.
    August 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12375   open full text
  • Refugees and Shifted Risk: An International Study of Syrian Forced Migration and Smuggling.
    Danilo Mandić, Charles M. Simpson.
    International Migration. July 31, 2017
    The role of smuggling in forced migration has been a leading policy challenge of the Syrian refugee crisis in Europe and the Middle East. This study investigates how anti‐smuggling government policies have shaped migratory risks for Syrian refugees in five countries: Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia and Germany. Original evidence from in‐depth interviews (n=123), surveys (n=100), expert interviews (n=75) and ethnography reveal that government anti‐smuggler policies have: (a) endangered Syrian refugees by shifting risk from smugglers to their clients; (b) distorted refugees’ perceptions of risk, and; (c) decreased refugees’ confidence in government representatives while increasing dependence on smugglers. These data are unique in scope and topic, expanding the existing literature with an emphasis on understudied experiences during migration. The paper concludes with a policy recommendation that acknowledges the reality of smugglers’ role in forced migrants’ decisions, offering a pragmatic alternative of strategic pre‐emption of smugglers.
    July 31, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12371   open full text
  • A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Irregular Transmigrants’ Journeys and Mental Mapping Methodology.
    Amalia Campos‐Delgado.
    International Migration. July 31, 2017
    The development of border clusters and transit control regimes aiming to detain irregular migrants before they reach their destination countries is constructed upon a multidimensional geopolitical narrative driven by border security agreements. The Mexican Transit Control Regime illustrates that 16 years of trying to control migration in transit to the United States has not reduced it but has only succeeded in pushing migrants into dangerous routes and risky practices. Using mental maps as a technique to approach transmigrants’ voices, this article aims to contribute to the understanding of the ways irregular migrants in transit live and represent their journey.
    July 31, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12369   open full text
  • Are the consequences of experiencing discrimination the same for immigrants of differing socio‐economic status in Japan?
    Shun Gong.
    International Migration. July 20, 2017
    Scholars have identified the negative effects of discrimination on immigrants’ well‐being by focusing on the nature of discrimination. However, whether the social status of immigrants influences the effects of discrimination on well‐being remains unclear. To answer this question, this study extends current research by focusing on how immigrants’ occupational status moderates the effects of discrimination on well‐being. Based on two sets of survey data, the results show that skilled immigrants are more likely to be negatively affected by discrimination than are unskilled immigrants. This phenomenon might be explained by the immigrants’ comparisons of discrimination experiences prior to migration. The findings suggest that to explain the mechanism underlying discrimination's negative effect on immigrants’ psychological well‐being, researchers should pay more attention to immigrants’ characteristics and their experiences before migration. The results of this study have important implications for immigration policy in Japan and other ethnically homogeneous countries, such as South Korea.
    July 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12370   open full text
  • Earning Gaps for Chinese Immigrants in Canada and the United States.
    Zheng Wu, Sharon M. Lee, Feng Hou, Barry Edmonston, Adam Carmichael.
    International Migration. July 18, 2017
    This study compares the US and Canada on the gap in earnings between Chinese immigrants and native‐born whites. Canada and the US are arguably more alike than most possible country pairings, yet they differ in significant ways in their approaches to immigration and integration. The primary difference between Canada and the US regarding immigration policy is that Canada selects a larger proportion of economic immigrants – that is, those admitted based on their ability to contribute to the economy – than the US's focus on family reunification. Canadian immigration and multicultural integration policy does not appear to improve Chinese immigrant earnings in the way that might be predicted from Canada's skilled‐based immigrant selection policy and welcoming social context. In spite of a more laissez‐faire approach to immigrant integration and a less skill‐selective immigration policy, we show that Chinese immigrants are earning relatively more in the US than in Canada.
    July 18, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12363   open full text
  • Trust and Hometown Associations in Haitian Post‐Earthquake Reconstruction.
    Sophonie Milande Joseph, Clara Irazábal, Alison M. Désir.
    International Migration. July 17, 2017
    The 7.0 magnitude earthquake on January 12, 2010 in Haiti reawakened in the diaspora a strong sense of purpose to focus efforts beyond family remittances towards regional and national development. Yet Haitian hometown associations (HHTAs) in the US struggled to establish a strong, organizational structure to respond systematically and effectively to the country's increased post‐earthquake needs. Based on historical analysis, participatory observations, interviews, and comparisons with other diaspora groups’ models for homeland development, we explore how trust within the transnational Haitian nation has been impacted in the post‐earthquake era by cultural conditionings of the past which constrain the scalability, durability, and viability of HHTAs’ developmental potential to systematically intervene in a coordinated manner regionally and nationally. We examine the ways in which trust – and resistances to it – operates as a mediating lens remobilized by the earthquake for the interpretation of the Haitian past, present, and future.
    July 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12353   open full text
  • Affecting Lives: How Winning the US Diversity Visa Lottery Impacts DV Migrants Pre‐ and Post‐Migration.
    Onoso Imoagene.
    International Migration. July 06, 2017
    Usual debates about the diversity visa (DV) programme revolve around the impact of DV initiated mass migration on African countries’ development, on whether the programme sufficiently diversifies U.S. immigrant streams, and on whether there is a tradeoff in immigrant quality for diversity. This article seeks to extend the focus of these debates by examining the impact of the diversity visa programme on DV migrants at the micro‐level pre‐ and post‐migration. Based on in‐depth interviews with sixty‐one diversity visa lottery winners from Ghana and Nigeria, the article examines how this immigration policy has become a contextual determinant of immigrant incorporation. It argues that an account of the impact of immigration policies on immigrants pre‐ and post‐migration must be added to theorization of state agency in shaping migration flows. It concludes with a discussion on ways the diversity visa programme can be modified to facilitate incorporation of DV migrants in the United States.
    July 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12359   open full text
  • Economic Reintegration of Ethiopian Women Returned from the Middle East.
    Beza L. Nisrane, Ann Morissens, Ariana Need, René Torenvlied.
    International Migration. July 03, 2017
    Current migration studies and policy reviews neglect the vital link between migration experiences of labour migrants and their return and reintegration process. The objective of this study is to highlight the phenomenon and bring the matter to policy makers’ attention. This study uses in‐depth interviews and a series of focus group discussions to explore the relationship between migration experiences and economic reintegration of unskilled Ethiopian women who are return migrants from Middle Eastern countries. Economic reintegration, which in its basic form is about securing a livelihood, is a challenge for most returnees. The reason relates to the migration settings, preparedness and reintegration assistance in the home county. Reintegration assistance for involuntary returnees is beneficial only for those who manage to obtain some savings out of their migration. The findings imply the need for policy improvements regarding the working conditions of female domestic workers in the host countries and reintegration programmes in the home countries.
    July 03, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12358   open full text
  • Exile to Poverty: Policies and Poverty Among Refugees in Poland.
    Karolina Lukasiewicz.
    International Migration. June 30, 2017
    Poverty is a well‐known short‐term outcome of migration in general and a long‐term outcome of forced migration in a global context. Surprisingly, this outcome appears among refugees in welfare states which provide various asylum and social policies facilitating integration. The article aims to explore the relationship between asylum and social policies and poverty among refugees. The research results are drawn from two studies conducted among refugees, NGOs, national and local administration representatives, and case workers in Poland between 2006 and 2014. The results show that asylum policy contributes to the material and symbolic hardship experienced by refugees, and social policy is ineffective in its prevention. If refugees are settled in regions with high levels of poverty, unemployment and ethnic‐based prejudices, then they experience and continue to live in poverty. In such a context, and due to its weaknesses in addressing discrimination, social policy cannot successfully integrate refugees.
    June 30, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12356   open full text
  • Racialized Labour Market Incorporation? African Immigrants and the Role of Education‐Occupation Mismatch in Earnings.
    Rebbeca Tesfai.
    International Migration. June 07, 2017
    U.S. immigration policy debates increasingly center on attracting highly‐skilled immigrants. African immigrants, in particular, exhibit high levels of over‐education. But questions remain about whether African immigrants’ skills are appropriately utilized in the U.S. labour market. This paper uses U.S. Census and American Community Survey data to determine whether Africans’ over‐education leads to a corresponding wage disadvantage. I also investigate whether search and match, imperfect transferability, or queuing theory describes African immigrants’ wage outcomes. I find that, while African and Asian immigrants have similarly high rates of college education and over‐education, Africans experience significantly larger wage disadvantages due to over‐education. African immigrants’ low wages are closer to that of U.S. and Caribbean‐born blacks indicating that queuing theory describes their wage disadvantage. These findings suggest the need for policy addressing racial disparities in the labour market rather than new immigration policy.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12352   open full text
  • “Not everything that counts can be counted”: Assessing ‘success’ of EU external migration policy.
    Natasja Reslow.
    International Migration. June 07, 2017
    In the context of the ongoing “migration crisis” the externalization of EU migration policy has continued. EU policy documents argue that cooperation with non‐EU countries is essential in order to manage migration flows. But how successful is this policy? The public policy literature teaches us that “policy success” can be defined in varying ways: as goal achievement; as political success; in terms of norms; in terms of the costs associated with the policy; temporally; and in the light of external factors. An application of this analytical framework to the EU Mobility Partnerships uncovers conceptual and methodological challenges, and above all highlights the need for evaluation of EU external migration policy to be taken more seriously.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12355   open full text
  • Academic “Centres,” Epistemic Differences and Brain Circulation.
    Yasmin Y. Ortiga, Meng‐Hsuan Chou, Gunjan Sondhi, Jue Wang.
    International Migration. June 07, 2017
    This article investigates the factors that shape how migrant academics engage with fellow scholars within their countries of origin. We focus specifically on the mobility of Asian‐born faculty between Singapore, a fast‐developing education hub in Southeast Asia, and their “home” countries within the region. Based on qualitative interviews with 45 migrant academics, this article argues that while education hubs like Singapore increase the possibility of brain circulation within Asia, epistemic differences between migrant academics and home country counterparts make it difficult to establish long‐term collaboration for research. Singapore institutions also look to the West in determining how research work is assessed for tenure and promotion, encouraging Singapore‐based academics to focus on networking with colleagues and peers based in the US and Europe rather than those based in origin countries. Such conditions undermine the positive impact of academic mobility between Singapore and surrounding countries within the region.
    June 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12354   open full text
  • Remittances and Calorie Consumption Nexus in Algeria.
    Selçuk Akçay, Alper Karasoy.
    International Migration. June 05, 2017
    This study investigates the cointegration and causal relationships between remittances and calorie consumption as an indicator of food security in Algeria. We estimate the calorie demand function for the period 1970‐2008, using two different cointegration tests Johansen and Juselius () and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach proposed by Pesaran et al. () and Granger causality test based on Vector Error Correction Model. We find that: (1) GDP per capita affects calorie consumption positively and significantly; (2) income elasticity of calorie consumption is 0.16 in the short run and 0.60 in the long run; (3) remittances positively and significantly influence calorie consumption in the long run; (4) remittance elasticity of calorie consumption is 0.05 in the long run; (5) based on the causality test remittances influence calorie consumption directly and indirectly via GDP per capita in the long run.
    June 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12348   open full text
  • Marriage Migration Policy in South Korea: Social Investment beyond the Nation State.
    Gyuchan Kim, Majella Kilkey.
    International Migration. May 29, 2017
    This article seeks to contribute to understandings of South Korea's approach to marriage migration. Situating our analysis of marriage migration policy specifically within the recent emergence of a social investment approach to welfare, we bring together two bodies of literature that due to the methodological nationalism of much welfare state scholarship are usually treated separately. Through an examination of the policy framework governing marriage migration ‐ so‐called ‘multicultural family policies’ ‐ we find that successive Korean governments have actively sought female marriage migrants to perform various social reproductive roles as a means to secure the reproductive capacity of the nation, just as feminist scholars have argued the care work of citizen‐mothers can be understood. Our analysis also suggests that marriage migration policy in Korea constitutes a distinctly transnational dimension to its overall social investment approach, which is strongly motivated by concerns to reproduce the next generation of human capital.
    May 29, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12350   open full text
  • Saving out of Remittances: Evidence from Ethiopia and Kenya.
    Seife Dendir.
    International Migration. May 23, 2017
    This article examines the saving behaviour of remittance recipients in Ethiopia and Kenya. The few existing estimates of savings from remittances, often obtained indirectly using expenditure analysis, vary widely. The analysis presented here relies on ordinal saving categories reported in response to a direct survey question. The results reveal that the savings rate is higher in Kenya than Ethiopia, in the raw data and the multivariate model, although in both countries it rises with receipt size. Interestingly, gender is a robust predictor of differential savings, albeit with a contrasting pattern: women save more than men in Ethiopia, while the reverse is true in Kenya. In other results, a pre‐migration agreement about remittances has a strong positive effect on savings. Savings rates are also positively associated with financial inclusion in Ethiopia and formal channel flows in Kenya. Many of these results are confirmed by analysis of broader forms of saving/investment.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12343   open full text
  • Father's Labour Migration and Children's School Discontinuation in Rural Mozambique.
    Scott T. Yabiku, Victor Agadjanian.
    International Migration. May 16, 2017
    We examine how the discontinuation of schooling among left‐behind children is related to multiple dimensions of male labour migration: the accumulation of migration experience, the timing of these migration experiences in the child's life course, and the economic success of the migration. Our setting is rural southern Mozambique, an impoverished area with massive male labour out‐migration. Results show that fathers’ economically successful labour migration is more beneficial for children's schooling than unsuccessful migration or non‐migration. There are large differences, however, by gender: compared with sons of non‐migrants, sons of migrant fathers (regardless of migration success) have lower rates of school discontinuation, while daughters of migrant fathers have rates of school discontinuation like those of daughters of non‐migrants. Furthermore, accumulated labour migration across the child's life course is beneficial for boys’ schooling, but not girls’. Remittances sent in the past year reduce the rate of discontinuation for sons, but not daughters.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12349   open full text
  • Rethinking Urban Refugee Resettlement: A Case Study of One Karen Community in Rural Georgia, USA.
    Daniel Gilhooly, Eunbae Lee.
    International Migration. May 12, 2017
    While refugee resettlements in urban areas have historically had negative outcomes, alternatives have not been adequately discussed. This study aims to shed light on refugee's rural resettlement via an ethnographic case study. The participatory action research team consisting of refugee youth and outside academics investigated two rural Karen communities in Georgia and three urban communities via semi‐structured interviews and participant observation. Interview transcripts, field notes, video recordings of observations, and dialogues among researchers served as rich data for thematic analysis. We found refugees like the Karen, who came from rural agricultural backgrounds, benefitted from the familiar lifestyle of rural living. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of rural resettlement for refugees regarding community support, insecurity, inter‐ethnic conflict, housing, employment, and cultural heritage and language maintenance. Community leaders and policymakers of refuge resettlement may use the findings in making decisions about the potential for rural resettlement.
    May 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12341   open full text
  • Italian Scientists Abroad in Europe's Scientific Research Scenario: High skill migration as a resource for development in Italy.
    Stefano Sbalchiero, Arjuna Tuzzi.
    International Migration. May 09, 2017
    In recent years, the brain drain issue has gained such momentum that it has become necessary to adopt tools and methods to take a picture of a phenomenon that is, by its very nature, dynamic and changeable (Portes, 1976; Meyer, 2001; Ackers, 2005; Scott, 2015). This particular study focuses on clarifying the reasons why Italian scientists choose to look elsewhere for the best place to conduct their scientific research, and in what way their scientific experience abroad shapes the image of the Italian scientific system. A first exploratory analysis involving 83 in‐depth interviews with Italian scientists (mathematicians, engineers and physicists) working in Europe was conducted based on qualitative and quantitative analytical methods, and the content emerging from these interviews was used for a systematic mapping of the situation that provided the foundations for our preparation of a second tool – a questionnaire – that was subsequently used to conduct a much more broad‐based survey that involved 602 respondents. While our findings add complexity to existing theories on the brain drain and brain circulation, they also confirm the potential of highly skilled migration to improve the national development of Italian academic system.
    May 09, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12340   open full text
  • What Drives Remittances from Saudi Arabia to Pakistan? Home Versus Host Country's Economic Conditions.
    Muhammad Umair, Abdul Waheed.
    International Migration. May 09, 2017
    Saudi Arabia is the largest source country of remittances to Pakistan since the 1970s. This study examined the impact of home versus host country's economic conditions on remittances from Saudi Arabia to Pakistan. The ARDL bounds testing is used on the annual data set from 1973 to 2014. The study concluded that economic growth in the host country and economic crises in the home country increase remittances. 1% decrease in domestic output increases remittances by 2.79% while 1% increase in sending country's output growth increases remittances by 5.2% in the long‐run. The bilateral trade has a positive while financial deepening has a negative impact on inflows. The impact of oil shock is insignificant. We suggest cautious foreign policy as remittances depend significantly on the host country's economic condition that is not directly under the control of the home country but remittances can be sustained with bilateral trade.
    May 09, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12344   open full text
  • Exit or Voice? The Recent Drivers of Kosovar Out‐migration.
    Judith Möllers, Arjola Arapi‐Gjini, Thomas Herzfeld, Sherif Xhema.
    International Migration. May 02, 2017
    A remarkable out‐migration from Kosovo occurred after the winter 2014/15, raising urgent questions about its underlying drivers and implications for both Kosovo and the destination countries. This article aims at providing a better understanding of key migration triggers and some particularities of the phenomenon. We link our empirically found migration drivers to Hirschman's () famous exit, voice or loyalty scheme by asking in how far the exit must be understood as the explicit alternative to voicing dissatisfaction with the current situation in the country. According to our results, the recent Kosovar out‐migration is a clear response to weak governance and thus goes beyond the widespread ‘migration‐cum‐remittances’ livelihood practice. In this sense it could be interpreted as a revolt against the political system. With view to policy implications for destination countries, we point at legal travel and migration opportunities as the better solution to channel both voice and exit.
    May 02, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12336   open full text
  • Decision to Emigrate amongst the Youth in Lebanon.
    Ghassan Dibeh, Ali Fakih, Walid Marrouch.
    International Migration. May 02, 2017
    This article studies the determinants of youth emigration decisions, which is considered one of the main causes of ‘Brain Drain’ in Arab Mediterranean Countries (AMCs). We focus on the case of Lebanon using a unique dataset covering young people aged 15 to 29 from the year 2016. The aim of the article is to identify the profile of youth's propensity to emigrate from Lebanon. The empirical results indicate that youth from non‐wealthy backgrounds living in smaller dwellings have a higher propensity to emigrate. It is also found that being male and unemployed has a positive effect on migration. Moreover, university education promotes the willingness to emigrate; while residents of poor regions are more likely to express such willingness. Finally, the article provides some insights for policymakers.
    May 02, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12347   open full text
  • The determinants of transnational entrepreneurship and transnational ties’ dynamics among immigrant entrepreneurs in ICT sector in Italy.
    Jan Brzozowski, Marco Cucculelli, Aleksander Surdej.
    International Migration. April 05, 2017
    This article contributes to the rapidly growing literature on transnational immigrant entrepreneurship by analyzing the determinants of transnational entrepreneurial engagement among immigrants in the ICT sector in Italy. We investigate which factors influence the rise or decline of transnational entrepreneurial involvement with a home country. Our results indicate that longer residence in Italy is associated with smaller propensity to become a transnational entrepreneur. Moreover, we find that the type of transnational ties and the network size have a substantial impact on the dynamics of transnational entrepreneurial engagement.
    April 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12335   open full text
  • Cultural mediation through vernacularization: framing rights claims through the day‐off campaign for migrant domestic workers in Singapore.
    Chiu Yee Koh, Kellynn Wee, Charmian Goh, Brenda S.A. Yeoh.
    International Migration. March 21, 2017
    Scholarship on civil society in Singapore has tended to emphasize the structural and institutional constraints on civil society space. Conversely, little attention is paid to the broader cultural and discursive realms in which civil society and state actors operate. This article seeks to address this gap by analysing the day‐off campaign for migrant domestic workers in Singapore. We demonstrate that by employing the cultural mediation strategy of vernacularization, civil society was able to frame migrant rights claims in a manner that resonated with the institutional logics and cultural repertoire of Singapore society. Civil society actors gained headway by adapting the discourse on migrant rights to Singapore's socio‐cultural and political context in three ways: by reframing rights claims into a moral appeal; by appealing to the cost‐benefit logics of Singaporean employers of migrant domestic workers; and by situating the provision of migrant labour protections as a relative market position.
    March 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12332   open full text
  • “He invited me and didn't ask anything in return” Migration and Mobility as Vulnerabilities for Sexual Exploitation among Female Adolescents in Mexico.
    Teresita Rocha‐Jimenez, Kimberly C. Brouwer, Marissa Salazar, Sabrina C. Boyce, Argentina E. Servin, Shira M. Goldenberg, Hugo Staines‐Orozco, Ricardo B. Vera‐Monroy, Jay G. Silverman.
    International Migration. March 16, 2017
    Although human trafficking is recognized as a major human rights violation, there is limited evidence regarding the vulnerabilities that contribute to female adolescents’ risk of being forced or coerced into the sex trade. Vulnerabilities such as gender‐based violence, economic and social inequalities have been shown to shape the risk of sexual exploitation among adolescents. In‐depth interviews (n=18) with current sex workers who reported being deceived or forced into the sex trade as adolescents (<17 years old) were analysed to explore their experiences of migration and mobility in Mexico. Driven by socio‐economic and vulnerabilities in home communities, adolescents often engaged in internal migration and mobility to other Mexican communities and states. Migration and mobility further predisposed them to social isolation, economic hardship and abuse, which were used as tools to trick them into the sex trade. Policies that support safer migration for adolescents in origin, transit, and destination communities are needed.
    March 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12333   open full text
  • Does The Legalization of Undocumented Immigrants in the US Encourage Unauthorized Immigration from Mexico? An Empirical Analysis of the Moral Hazard of Legalization.
    Tom K. Wong, Hillary Kosnac.
    International Migration. March 13, 2017
    Does the prospect of a legalization programme in the US increase unauthorized immigration from Mexico? The logic of the moral hazard of legalization suggests that providing lawful status to undocumented immigrants has the unintended effect of incentivizing further unauthorized immigration. However, we argue and show that concerns about the moral hazard of legalization may be overstated. We conceptualize our argument using two distinct temporal dimensions: a concurrent dimension and a prospective one. Our analysis of the 2007 Mexican Migration Field Research Program (MMFRP) survey provides evidence supporting our arguments. The data show that knowledge regarding a prospective legalization programme in the US does not increase the intent to migrate among prospective migrants. Our results hold when accounting for a range of potential confounding factors, across several multivariate model specifications, and also when analysing comparable respondents who are matched using propensity score matching (PSM) techniques.
    March 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12319   open full text
  • Despite the crisis: The resilience of intercultural nationalism in Catalonia.
    Daniele Conversi, Sanjay Jeram.
    International Migration. March 13, 2017
    Interculturalism provides the core framework for immigration‐related policies in Catalonia, while remaining deeply intertwined with Catalan nationalism. We first identify ‘intercultural nationalism’ as the core doctrine through which Catalan nationalist discourse has been articulated in relation to immigration. We trace interculturalism's origins to nationalism in Quebec and argue that, in Catalonia also, regional immigration policies have been constructed in opposition to those of the central state, while attempting to involve immigrants closely in subnational belonging and social cohesion. Second, we investigate whether interculturalism is durable during economic and political crises, arguing that intercultural policies did not change following the economic recession of the 2010s. This harmonises with broader interpretations that de‐emphasise the role of economic factors in ethnic conflicts. In conclusion we note how the continuing resilience of interculturalism in Catalan policies on immigration contrasts sharply with the rise of xenophobia elsewhere.
    March 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12323   open full text
  • Toward a multi‐ethnic public sphere? Media consumption in highly diverse districts in Spain.
    Josep Lobera, Víctor Arco, Carlos Giménez.
    International Migration. March 13, 2017
    This article examines media consumption in highly diverse districts in Spain as representative of recent changes in this field due to new immigration to countries in Southern Europe in times of crisis. Drawing on findings from two surveys, we observed a decrease in access to media specifically aimed at audiences of minority cultures between 2010 and 2012. It is suggested that this decline is not due to a modification in media consumption habits by minority groups, but rather the economic crisis of 2008. Furthermore, we study the consumption of minority media by natives: we observe that youth and more educated individuals consume other cultures’ minority media to a greater extent, particularly the press, radio, and Internet news sources. We suggest that elements are present that public administrations could utilize to further develop a multi‐ethnic public sphere. Finally, we explore the emergence of a new transnational dimension to the multi‐ethnic public sphere.
    March 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12278   open full text
  • Interculturalism as a New Framework to reduce Prejudice in Times of Crisis in European Countries.
    Valeria Bello.
    International Migration. March 13, 2017
    With the socio‐economic crisis that is affecting Europe particularly negatively, immigrants have been often reported as additional threats in the job market for established residents. Theories of prejudice, such as the Theory of Self‐interest or that of the Perceived Group Threats, have suggested economic factors to explain these kinds of attitudes towards immigrants. More recently, some scholars have advanced theories of intercultural values to account for individuals’ dispositions towards those perceived as newcomers. The aim of this work is to understand whether or not intercultural values are able to modify the effects that economic factors exert on prejudice in times of crisis. The main objective is to identify whether the kinds of values instilled within societies play a stronger role than other variables, particularly economic factors. The findings show that Interculturalism plays a much greater role than economic factors in influencing attitudes towards outsiders.
    March 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12262   open full text
  • Determinants of Attitudes towards Immigration: Testing the Influence of Interculturalism, Group Threat Theory and National Contexts in Time of Crisis.
    Livia García‐Faroldi.
    International Migration. March 13, 2017
    Since 2008 a profound crisis, not only economic but also political, has been affecting the EU. The Eurobarometers carried out by the European Commision show an increased percentage of people who see their country as not having benefitted from being an EU member. In addition, the presence of extreme‐right parties has grown recently in several democracies. These parties adopt not only an anti‐European but also an anti‐immigrant stance. It is precisely the growing strength and visibility of this link between anti‐Europeanism and anti‐immigration in ideological positions that has prompted our research. Using data from the Eurobarometer 71.3 (2009) for eleven countries, we confirm a correlation between intercultural dialogue – measured using a proxy variable: European identification – and tolerance. Results also corroborate group threat theory. However, the best model takes into account national contexts. These findings show the relevance of studying national historical and cultural traditions to understand how prejudices develop.
    March 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12261   open full text
  • Interculturalism in Times of Crisis.
    Valeria Bello, Tendayi Bloom.
    International Migration. March 13, 2017
    This article locates the discussion of this Special Section within the wider analysis of Interculturalism and intercultural dialogue as a new way of framing dynamic inter‐ethnic and broader community relations, and considering how perceived and real crisis affects both states’ and societys’ understandings of ethnicity, culture and diversity. Taking cases from Catalonia, Spain, the European Union, this Special Section's multi‐level approach illustrates how intercultural dialogue can be developed at the sub‐State, State, Region and international levels. By surveying the articles in the Special Section, this introduction critiques the Interculturalism framework and develops it. Crucially, drawing out insights from across these different types of groupings and from theorists offering a range of perspectives, this collection is able to offer new insights on Interculturalism, its relations with Multiculturalism, and forms of intercultural dialogue.
    March 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12260   open full text
  • Marketization, marketing and the production of international student migration.
    Allan M Findlay, David McCollum, Helen Packwood.
    International Migration. March 12, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    March 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12330   open full text
  • The emotional toll of out‐migration on mothers and fathers left behind in Mexico.
    Heather R. Fuller.
    International Migration. March 10, 2017
    A growing body of research examines how families are affected by international migration; yet, implications for family members who remain behind are less well understood. Recent studies highlight implications for wives and young children when Mexican men migrate to the US, but have not yet adequately addressed the unique perspectives across the intergenerational family system, including the impact on parents when their adult children migrate. The current qualitative study explores the perceptions of transnational family ties among five focus groups (N=28) consisting of mothers and fathers of migrants in Mexico. An inductive, comparative method was used to identify emerging themes related to the emotional toll that parents of migrants experience. Salient themes included sadness, longing, guilt, and worry. The perceptions and expression of these emotions varied between mothers and fathers. Findings highlight the unique impact and distinct policy implications of Mexican familial transnationalism on parents who remain behind.
    March 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12324   open full text
  • Cross‐Border Marriages in South Korea and the Challenges of Rising Multiculturalism.
    Keuntae Kim.
    International Migration. March 10, 2017
    This study explores trends in international marriage migration, determinants of international marriage, and factors that affect employment and poverty status of marriage migrant females in Korea. The results suggest that the number of cross‐border marriages increased rapidly in the early 2000s but has declined since the mid‐2000s, perhaps because of the Korean government's strict regulations and of saturation in the demand for foreign wives. The analysis also indicated that rural males with a graduate degree have a similar probability to urban males with a high‐school education. Employment opportunities vary substantially by the foreign wife's country of origin, implying that social policies for addressing the difficulties of multicultural families should be tailored toward specific ethnic groups. Those who participated in work training programmes were significantly more likely to be employed than non‐participants, and the size of social support network significantly reduced the odds of living in poverty.
    March 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12331   open full text
  • Education, Skills, and Wage Gaps in Canada and the United States.
    William C. Smith, Frank Fernandez.
    International Migration. March 02, 2017
    We analyse data from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies to reveal that immigrants in Canada and the United States make over $200 less per month than native‐born workers. In the United States, immigrants disproportionately work in low‐wage occupations, leading to large mean national differences between immigrants and native workers. The wage differential disappears after accounting for education and cognitive skills, indicating policies must focus on reducing education and skill gaps in the United States. In Canada, an immigrant wage gap persists in nearly all occupational fields, suggesting that the better skilled and educated immigrants in Canada are not receiving the same wage premium as native workers. We close with implications for policy and future research.
    March 02, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12328   open full text
  • Private Military and Security Labour Migration: the Case of Fiji.
    Yoko Kanemasu, Gyozo Molnar.
    International Migration. February 11, 2017
    Private military and security companies (PMSCs) are a fast‐growing global industry. While the rise of PMSCs and their activities have attracted much media coverage and growing scholarly attention, little is known about their sourcing of masses of military labour from the global South. This exploratory study examines the case of Fiji, whose thousands of ex/current disciplinary force personnel and unemployed men have been contracted by PMSCs to provide security work in Iraq and other high‐conflict areas. The article shows this to be an instance of unequal core‐periphery military labour trade, outlining its scale, processes and impacts on the migrants. It also illuminates how the migrants’ collective agency is demonstrated even under powerful structural constraints.
    February 11, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12321   open full text
  • Challenges in access to health care among involuntary migrants in Germany. A case study of migrants' experiences in Oldenburg, Lower Saxony.
    Anas Ansar, Frida Johansson, Laura Vásquez, Mario Schulze, Taylor Vaughn.
    International Migration. February 11, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    February 11, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12326   open full text
  • Migration, Productive Return and Human Capital: Lessons from the new Governmental Policy on Migration in Ecuador.
    Joan Lacomba, Alexis Cloquell.
    International Migration. February 09, 2017
    In 2008, the Government of Ecuador initiated a programme for productive return dubbed the Cucayo Fund, aimed at financing small businesses for migrants who were returning to the country. This programme has been a cornerstone in the new governmental policy on migration. In 2015, the IOM considered it an exemplary practice among the instruments enabling the economic and social reinsertion of returning migrants. In this article, based on the mining and analysis of the implementation data from the Cucayo Fund in the three provinces comprising Administrative Region No 7, we specifically examine the incidence of human capital accumulated by the migrants in the success of their ventures. Our results show that the experience and knowledge attained by the migrants abroad, and transfer of these to new activities, play a key and relevant role in the financed ventures and that, therefore, human capital must be incorporated with greater emphasis into debates on return.
    February 09, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12314   open full text
  • Foreign retirement income among new older immigrants in the United States.
    Alma Vega, Emma Aguila.
    International Migration. February 08, 2017
    Older adults make up an increasing share of new legal immigrants to the United States. These immigrants are often financially dependent on family since they are often barred from receiving several US support programmes and are less likely to receive US retirement benefits than natives. However, little information exists as to whether they receive retirement income from abroad. Using the New Immigrant Survey (N=2,150), we find that only 8.1 per cent of older recent immigrants report receiving foreign retirement income. In logistic modelling, older immigrants from Asia and Latin America were less likely to receive retirement income from abroad than those from Europe (Odds ratio = 0.50, p<0.05; Odds ratio = 0.22, p<0.001, respectively). Results suggest that newly admitted older immigrants from Asia and Latin America face an additional economic disadvantage compared with older Europeans that cannot be attributed to their demographic and migration characteristics.
    February 08, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12325   open full text
  • The Inclusion Paradox of Enfranchising Expats in Latin America.
    Ana Margheritis.
    International Migration. January 25, 2017
    Enfranchising emigrants implicitly involves inviting them to have a voice and increasing engagement in home politics, thus maintaining active membership of their nation of origin. However, in the Latin American Southern Cone (as well as in several other countries in the region), both state policies and expats’ responses have fallen short of making that invitation effective. What explains this inclusion paradox? Why, while franchise is expanding has effective political inclusion of citizens living abroad not materialized? This article addresses these questions for the cases of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Conclusions highlight relatively unexplored explanatory factors and enhance our understanding of the links between migration policy innovation and political inclusion beyond borders in some of the least studied cases in the literature.
    January 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12315   open full text
  • The Past is Ever Present: Transnationalism Old and New – Italian and Mexican Immigrants in the US.
    Carol L. Schmid.
    International Migration. January 25, 2017
    The paper focuses on what is old and what is new in transnationalism by analyzing extraterritorial attempts of the Italian and Mexican governments. During the large southern/ eastern European immigration to the US from 1890 to the 1920s, Italian immigrants reached 24 percent of the immigrant wave. Mexican documented and undocumented immigrants from the 1980s until 2010s made up 30 percent of the immigrant wave almost a century later. Transnational immigrants live in a country in which they do not claim citizenship rights and claim citizenship rights in a country they do not live in. Therefore migration and immigrant policies challenge both sending and receiving states. Foreign governments are limited in the policies and practices that they can enforce. A comparison of state policies from Italy and Mexico challenges the fact that transnationalism is significantly different and new.
    January 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12317   open full text
  • Migration as an Adaptation Strategy for Atoll Island States.
    Lilian Yamamoto, Miguel Esteban.
    International Migration. January 13, 2017
    Adopting a policy of migration can be one possible adaptation strategy against climate change. It has been forecasted that if the worst predictions regarding climate change and sea level rise become reality atolls around the world could become submerged in the future. This would render them uninhabitable and could lead to questions about whether Atoll Island States could still be considered as States. The international community has been avoiding any commitment to create a convention that would protect people displaced by climate change. In order to solve such potential problems, the authors will argue that a framework of bilateral agreements, initiatives, and national policies could constitute a viable solution for the various interested parties. The article will discuss the characteristics of Atoll Island States, touching on possible solutions for climate change displacement which have been discussed by the governments and civil society of the affected States.
    January 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12318   open full text
  • Physical and mental health inequalities between native and immigrant Swedes.
    Vania Ranjbar, Robin Fornazar, Henry Ascher, Ann Ekberg‐Jansson, Gunnel Hensing.
    International Migration. January 04, 2017
    To study health inequalities between native and immigrant Swedes, we investigated differences in self‐rated health (SRH), mental wellbeing (MW), common symptoms (CS), and persistent illness (PI), and if socioeconomic status (SES), negative status inconsistency, or social support could account for such differences. A secondary analysis was conducted on questionnaire data from a random adult population sample of 4,023 individuals and register data from Statistics Sweden. χ2 tests and binary logistic regressions were used to identify health differences and study these after accounting for explanatory variables. Compared with natives, immigrants more commonly reported negative status inconsistency, poorer SES, and poorer social support as well as poor SRH, very poor MW, and high level of CS but not PI. Significant differences were accounted for by work‐related factors and social support. We encourage future research to address how pre‐ and peri‐migration factors relate to immigrants’ post‐migration SES, social support, and health status. Policy Implications Given the relationship between work‐related factors (employment status, hours worked per week, and income) and all health outcomes in this study, labour market interventions that facilitate the integration of immigrants into the labour market, and into occupations that better correspond with their capacity, will arguably have public health benefits. Feelings of loneliness was, in our study, important in accounting for immigrants’ poorer self‐rated health compared with natives’. Therefore, we endorse interventions that facilitate immigrants’ social networking and integration and thereby reduce feelings of loneliness. Common physical and mental symptoms may be important indicators of health and we, thus, suggest these to be taken into account when developing ill‐health prevention programmes.
    January 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12312   open full text
  • Labour Market Limbo: The Uneven Integration of Co‐Ethnic Argentine Immigrants in Spain.
    Angela S. García.
    International Migration. January 04, 2017
    Immigration and citizenship laws that discriminate by race, ethnicity, and national origins are increasingly illegitimate in contemporary democracies, yet laws that grant privileged access and membership to immigrants who share natives' ethnicity persist. This enduring positive selection rests upon the assumption that co‐ethnicity fosters integration. Countering this logic, this article centers on co‐ethnics' insertion into local labour markets. It draws from a case study of Aguaviva, Spain, a depopulating village in which both co‐ethnic Argentines and Romanian immigrants reside. The analysis qualifies the trend of deracialization in immigration and citizenship policy and shows that positive preferences do not uniformly foster integration. In dual labour market systems, co‐ethnics struggle because they are not different enough for secondary sector jobs reserved for immigrant “others,” yet in the primary sector they enter into direct competition with natives.
    January 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/imig.12313   open full text
  • STEM Education and STEM Work: Nativity Inequalities in Occupations and Earnings.
    Monica Boyd, Siyue Tian.
    International Migration. December 29, 2016
    The recruitment of skilled workers with expertise in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is a core component of North American immigration policies. However, few studies examine the labour market integration of immigrant STEM educated workers. Multivariate analysis of the 2011 National Household Survey show that STEM educated immigrants who arrive as adults are less likely than the Canadian born to have STEM jobs and they earn less than their Canadian born counterparts. These patterns partly reflect their socio‐demographic characteristics, particularly their lower language proficiencies (measured as a combination of mother tongue and languages spoken at home) and the receipt of their degrees in institutions outside of Canada. These immigrant workers arrived primarily in the skilled worker programme that did not require pre‐arranged employment. Policy changes in recruitment and their implications for future STEM immigrant workers are discussed in the conclusion.
    December 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12302   open full text
  • Diaspora Philanthropy in the Context of Policy Coherence for Development: Implications for the post‐2015 Sustainable Development Agenda.
    Harlan Koff.
    International Migration. December 29, 2016
    Thus far, there has been a dearth of studies that systemically examine the relationship between diaspora philanthropy, the development community and securitised migration regimes. This article addresses this by responding to the research question, “How coherent are securitised migration policies with diaspora philanthropy and the transformative development objectives that characterise the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agenda?” The analysis is based on the concept of policy coherence for development (PCD). The article compares the simultaneous regionalization and securitization of European Union and United States migration policies and contends that these policy strategies undermine diaspora philanthropy, development partnerships and transformative development. Normative change must be introduced in order to establish coherence between globalized migration policies and diaspora philanthropy objectives. Normative coherence for development can be achieved by introducing principles from the SDG's and the Busan Development Partnership Agreement amongst other international development agendas, into migration policy‐making at the national and regional levels.
    December 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12277   open full text
  • The Socioeconomic Incorporation of Immigrant and Native‐born Day Labourers in Tshwane, South Africa.
    Nik Theodore, Derick Blaauw, Anmar Pretorius, Catherina Schenck.
    International Migration. December 27, 2016
    It has been widely documented that unauthorized immigrants experience adverse economic incorporation in destination countries, particularly in the global North. Faced with restricted employment opportunities, many are drawn into informalizing segments of the labour market where earnings are low and unstable. Much less is known about how immigrant workers fare in the informal economy of cities of the South. Using surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2015, we examine the economic outcomes of immigrant and native‐born workers who participate in the day labour markets of Tshwane, South Africa. In 2004 there were signs that foreign‐born workers enjoyed modestly better outcomes than South Africa‐born workers. In the latter periods, however, these advantages have disappeared and there are indications of a downward convergence of employment outcomes. The article concludes with a call for creating worker centres to regulate informal job markets for the benefit of workers, regardless of immigration status.
    December 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12311   open full text
  • Why do immigrants have longer periods of unemployment? Swiss evidence.
    Daniel Auer, Giuliano Bonoli, Flavia Fossati.
    International Migration. December 18, 2016
    Immigrant groups, especially those originating from non‐European countries, tend to experience disadvantages in the labour market and to be overrepresented among the recipients of welfare benefits in many European countries. In the public debate, this outcome is sometimes explained with reference to migration‐related factors such as weaker work values than natives (i.e., acceptability of remaining on benefits), smaller and lower quality of informal networks and lower levels of psychological well‐being. Indeed, we find that these factors significantly influence unemployment duration in the expected direction. However, they explain only a small share of the overall disadvantage that some immigrant groups experience. We conclude that at least some of the large differences we observed in unemployment durations are likely to be due to other factors including discrimination by employers.
    December 18, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12309   open full text
  • Sanctuary Cities: Policies and Practices in International Perspective.
    Harald Bauder.
    International Migration. December 08, 2016
    Sanctuary cities in the USA, UK, and Canada aim to accommodate illegalized migrants and refugees in their communities. The concept of the “sanctuary city,” however, is highly ambiguous: it refers to a variety of different policies and practices, and focuses on variable populations in different national contexts. In this article, I examine the international literature to show how urban sanctuary policies and practices differ between national contexts and assess whether there are common features of sanctuary cities. I uncover legal, discursive, identity‐formative, and scalar aspects of urban sanctuary policies and practices. These aspects assemble in ways that differ between countries. The article concludes by raising important practical and theoretical questions about urban sanctuary.
    December 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12308   open full text
  • Shifts in Intergenerational Mobility of Indian Immigrant Entrepreneurs.
    Meena Chavan, Lucy Taksa.
    International Migration. November 17, 2016
    The objective of this article is to examine the shift in the intergenerational mobility of Indian immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia. Based on a qualitative methodology, this article reports on the differences in the entrepreneurial attitudes of push and pull and the aptitudes of social and human capital between pre 2000 and post 2000 immigrant entrepreneurs. The findings suggest that the post 2000 Indian migrant entrepreneurs in Australia are mostly pull motivated, have higher qualifications than the pre 2000 arrivals, speak better English, have professional educational qualifications relevant to their business, and operate predominantly in the service sector. They take fewer years to get into business and are less dependent on immigrant social capital resources than pre 2000 arrivals. The study proposes that, compared with social capital resources, human capital resource have a greater impact on entrepreneurial propensity in the case of second generation Indian migrant entrepreneurs in Australia. Policy Implications This research has implication for Australian immigration policy, labour laws and settlement services of migrants. It recommends successful implementation of policies and durable solutions for Indian immigrants in the labour market in Australia. The Australian Government will be assisted in examining and identifying future options for the intake of temporary and permanent migrants that improve the income, wealth and living standards of Australian citizens, improve the budgets and balance sheets of Australian governments, minimize administration and compliance costs associated with immigration, and provide pathways both for Australian citizens to be altruistic towards foreigners, and for Australia's international responsibilities and obligations to foreign residents to be met. Improvements in the labour laws would promote the effective integration of Indian immigrants into society. Further, Indians in the USA have contributed immensely to the entrepreneurial spirit due to the government support for migrant SMEs and the small business venture funds. The Australian government can replicate this policy, reduce restriction on employment opportunities and enhance entrepreneurship for all migrants.
    November 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12303   open full text
  • Migrants’ Intention to Move or Stay in their Initial Destination.
    Halina Sapeha.
    International Migration. November 13, 2016
    The objective of this article is to find out why immigrants intend to stay in or leave their initial destination. The insight into such factors could help develop policy measures to deal with potential out‐migration, especially from the regions that view international migration as a solution to their demographic and economic difficulties. The study uses multinomial logistic regression to estimate the strength of association between migrants' intention to move and immigration category, human capital, economic and social factors. The data come from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Australia. The findings show that different groups of migrants have different propensities to move or stay in their initial destination. Employer‐sponsored migrants are even less likely to intend to relocate than family class. Highly educated and skilled migrants tend to be more likely to express the intention to move or have doubts. Satisfactory employment has a positive impact on retention.
    November 13, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12304   open full text
  • Trapped in migrants’ sectors? Polish women in the Icelandic labour market.
    Joanna Napierała, Anna Wojtyńska.
    International Migration. November 10, 2016
    The employment‐driven migrations from Poland to Iceland have largely been pioneered by Polish women. They outnumbered men among Polish residents in this country until the economic boom since 2005 triggered large‐scale male immigration. This trend slowed down with the outbreak of the financial crisis, as the recession severely affected the male‐dominated construction industry. The analysis of Polish female migrants’ working experiences shows that recent inflows are mainly shaped by the nature of labour demand as well as the social policies and care services in Iceland. Although economically integrated, compared with native women Polish women tend to occupy rather disadvantaged positions. They seem concentrated in a few low‐skilled occupations that bring little prestige and low income. On the other hand, they were less affected by the financial crisis, in the sense that many of them maintained work, though some experienced lowering of salaries or reduction of working hours.
    November 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12295   open full text
  • Mental Health Conditions Among North Korean Female Refugee Victims of Sexual Violence.
    Jae Yop Kim, Hee Jin Kim, Kwonho Choi, Boyoung Nam.
    International Migration. November 09, 2016
    The study aims to examine the negative effects of sexual violence on North Korean (NK) female refugees in South Korea. Although the prevalence of sexual violence victimization is extremely high and mental health problems are serious among these refugees, little to no research has been done on the relationship between sexual violence and mental health among these women. The mental health conditions of two groups of women (sexual violence victims and those who have not experienced sexual violence) were compared using ANCOVA analyses. The results show that suicidal ideation and alcohol use are significantly more prevalent in the sexual violence group than in the non‐sexual violence group. The women who had experienced sexual violence in particular should be provided with more professional and sustained treatment and management services. The government must improve the effectiveness of existing policies related to suicide and the drinking culture in South Korea.
    November 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12300   open full text
  • International Students Pathways Between Open and Closed Borders: Towards a Multi‐scalar Approach to Educational Mobility and Labour Market Outcomes.
    Marta Moskal.
    International Migration. November 03, 2016
    This paper explores the complex and changing relationship between academic capitalism that encourages global mobility of highly‐skilled international students on the one hand and recent changes to immigration policy in the UK that prevent such mobility on the other. The paper is based on a longitudinal study that traces the experiences and aspirations of postgraduates from three Asian countries and their pathways from the UK universities to post study work and realities. Taking a multi‐scalar approach, the analysis of international students’ narratives unpacks the unevenness of career opportunities, barriers to settlement and various “assemblages of power” that shape students’ life trajectories. The paper illustrates how the individual‐scale projects intersect with states’ policies of both receiving and sending countries and other institutions and structures of power that operate within and beyond the nation‐states.
    November 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12301   open full text
  • Attitudes toward Asylum Seekers in Small Local Communities.
    Aslan Zorlu.
    International Migration. October 23, 2016
    The admission and geographic distribution of asylum seekers has a central place in public discourse in Western countries, amid mounting asylum applications and dire humanitarian crises. Receiving countries usually distribute the newly arriving asylum seekers across the entire country, in particular for small remote communities. Incidental opposition actions by local residents against the siting of Asylum Seeker Centres (ASC) has created the perception of strong and widespread resistance in the public sphere. This article aims to assess this alleged backlash by examining attitudes toward asylum seekers in small local communities. Using data from three representative surveys conducted among residents in the vicinity of four ASCs in the Netherlands, the regression analysis shows a strikingly high willingness to host an ASC, in opposition to popularly assumed public opinion.
    October 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12296   open full text
  • Immigrants, Cultural Differences, and Trade Costs.
    Bedassa Tadesse, Roger White.
    International Migration. October 17, 2016
    We examine the effects of immigrants and cross‐societal cultural differences on bilateral trade costs using two alternative measures of cultural differences (i.e. cultural distance and genetic distance). We find that bilateral trade costs generally increase with a rise in the cultural distance between trading partners but fall with a rise in the stock of immigrants. This implies that immigrants counter bilateral trade costs that are associated with greater cultural differences. Our observation is relevant from both migration and trade policy perspectives as it provides further evidence that immigrants serve as conduits for bridging cultural differences, facilitate international transactions, and enhance global economic integration.
    October 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12291   open full text
  • Unlocking the Talents‐in‐Waiting: Case Study Analysis of Chinese and Indian High‐Skilled Migrants in South Australia.
    Deepak Sardana, Ying Zhu, Robert Veen.
    International Migration. October 11, 2016
    Nations across the world and through time have used skilled migration mechanisms to boost economic growth and workforce competitiveness. However, effectively using these talents from abroad and transforming this collective human capital into valuable social capital is an on‐going challenge. This study applies a case study analysis of skilled migrants from China and India in South Australia and finds that there are multiple barriers to the successful integration of skilled migrants. These barriers tend to block the effective utilization of migrants’ skills and reduce the ability to advance social capital in the community. The study concludes by putting forward various policy recommendations to overcome these obstacles and outlines ideas for an effective application of a skilled migrant programme.
    October 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12294   open full text
  • The Citizenship Gap in European Societies: Conceptualizing, Measuring and Comparing ‘Migration Neutrality’ across the EU.
    Ettore Recchi.
    International Migration. October 06, 2016
    Equality in life‐chances of nationals and immigrants is a sensitive issue on which there is more debate than systematic evidence. To evaluate this condition across European societies, the concept of integration as “migration neutrality” is introduced. “Migration neutrality” is defined as the irrelevance of national citizenship as a predictor of key social attainments. Odds ratios are used to measure the relative risk of non‐national as compared with national citizens in the attainment of relevant resources. While this indicator cannot control for compositional differences in the populations at stake, it represents a straightforward benchmark that can be used in different domains to describe and compare foreign citizens’ position relative to nationals. In this article, we calculate it across EU member states through Eurostat data. In particular, the focus is on migration neutrality in the risk of social exclusion. Country variations are found to be hardly amenable to established classifications of integration types. Moreover, the relationship between “migration neutrality” levels and pro‐immigrant policies (as measured by the Mipex index) is found to be weak, suggesting that these policies do not consistently target the reduction of the gap between nationals and non nationals.
    October 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12292   open full text
  • Reintegration upon return: insights from Ecuadorian returnees from Spain.
    Marion Mercier, Anda David, Ramón Mahia, Rafael De Arce.
    International Migration. September 14, 2016
    Using the ECM2 survey data on Ecuadorian migrants returning from Spain, we investigate the determinants of reintegration upon return. We study how the migration experience, but also the before‐ and after‐migration characteristics, correlate with migrants’ outcomes upon return. We adopt a broad conception of reintegration, considering jointly labour market‐related outcomes that proxy for structural reintegration and subjective indicators that provide insights on sociocultural reintegration. The determinants of these two types of outcomes appear to be different: reintegration indeed encompasses multiple dimensions which cannot be captured by a single indicator. Our results suggest that return assistance programmes’ efficiency in helping reintegration could be improved by (I) targeting, ex‐ante, returnees who plan to launch their own business, and, ex‐post, the most vulnerable workers (women, older returnees, unemployed), and (ii) facilitating the labour market integration of foreign‐educated returnees. They also call for further research to better understand the consequences of these programmes.
    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12288   open full text
  • Regional Mobility Spaces? Visa Waiver Policies and Regional Integration.
    Fabian Gülzau, Steffen Mau, Natascha Zaun.
    International Migration. September 14, 2016
    Visa policies today are a central instrument for filtering wanted and unwanted types of travellers, leading to a hierarchy of mobility rights. While there is evidence of a “global mobility divide”, we still know little about the role of regional integration when it comes to the distribution of mobility rights and the (re)structuring of mobility spaces. Against this background, the article examines the structure of visa relations in different bodies of regional integration (EU, MERCOSUR, ASEAN, ECOWAS, EAC, NAFTA, SADC and SICA). The article compares visa policies in the member states of these institutions in 1969 and 2010 from a social network perspective. While one would generally expect each institution's member states to become more similar with regard to both internal and external mobility regulations, we find that not all regional clusters align their visa policies. Potential explanations for this state of affairs are investigated.
    September 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12286   open full text
  • Remittances as a Shield to Vulnerable Households in Macedonia: The Case When the Instrument is Not Strictly Exogenous.
    Marjan Petreski, Blagica Petreski, Despina Tumanoska.
    International Migration. September 08, 2016
    The objective of this article is to investigate whether remittances sent to Macedonia have a role to play for shielding vulnerable households, by highlighting the importance of a strictly exogenous instrument in an IV context. Results suggest that remittance‐receiving households have, on average, a 20.1 per cent lower vulnerability than non‐receiving ones. However, if one has a reasonable belief that vulnerability and the instrument are determined simultaneously, or are directly correlated due to the existence of a third unobservable factor, then the shielding effect of remittances for vulnerable households remains up to the ninth percentage of direct influence and with a reducing magnitude, and then disappears.
    September 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12279   open full text
  • International Migrant Remittances and Labour Supply in Nigeria.
    Nathaniel E. Urama, Emmanuel O. Nwosu, Denis N. Yuni, Stephen E. Aguegboh.
    International Migration. September 08, 2016
    The study analyses how remittances to Nigeria affect the labour supply of recipients using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and a Log‐Linear regression model, with data from the 2013 Nigerian General Household Survey. The PSM results show that for the entire sample, the difference between the average amount of labour supplied per week by those that receive remittances and the amount they would have supplied without remittances is insignificant. The marginal impact analysis also shows that, ceteris paribus, the average labour supply for all recipients is inelastic to remittances. The results from the sub‐group analysis, however, show that receiving remittances negatively affects the labour supply of the self‐employed in agriculture, teenagers and the elderly. These results led us to the recommendation that policies to increase the inflow of remittances should be encouraged but in tandem with programmes to educate farmers on the benefit of investing remittances received in their farming business.
    September 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12289   open full text
  • Portuguese Scientists’ Migration: a study on the 2008 crisis aftermath.
    Rafaela Ganga, José Pedro Silva, Rui Gomes, Henrique Vaz, João Teixeira Lopes, Sílvia Silva, Luísa Cerdeira, Belmiro Cabrito, Dulce Magalhães, Maria Lurdes Machado‐Taylor, Paulo Peixoto, Tomás Patrocínio, Rui Brites.
    International Migration. July 21, 2016
    In the economic and social aftermath of the 2008 crisis there has been an important and growing new wave of highly qualified Portuguese emigration comprising scientists. No or very few public policies have been designed to reverse this phenomenon, risking the consequences of brain drain. International literature argues that professional reasons are central to scientists’ decision to migrate, even after the 2008 crisis. Spending some time in a foreign country to study, research, or teach, is perceived as a common step in an individual academic trajectory and an advantage for a successful professional career in academia. It is also encouraged by European Union policies. Twelve individual portraits of Portuguese scientists living in central Europe reveal how important other factors are to the migration decision‐making process. These factors include the economic crisis, student mobility programmes, and the current Portuguese scientific system revision.
    July 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12271   open full text
  • Asylum Systems in the Western Balkan Countries: Current Issues.
    Neža Kogovšek Šalamon.
    International Migration. July 20, 2016
    Asylum systems in the Western Balkans are one of the many results of the externalization of European Union border controls. Regardless of the hopes that the EU might have for these systems to function as a “buffer zone”, there is a need to be realistic about the actual effect that these systems can have. There are a number of gaps showing that the countries in the region are neither willing nor able to process the number of asylum applications that could potentially be lodged by all the persons transiting the region today. These gaps include the lack of capacity to identify and register asylum seekers and to process asylum applications, the failure to conduct refugee status determination procedures in line with basic legal standards, the lack of return procedures and the inability to develop all the necessary systems (such as detention and return) in parallel.
    July 20, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12273   open full text
  • Asymmetric Information under the Kafala Sponsorship System: Impacts on Foreign Domestic Workers’ Income and Employment Status in the GCC Countries.
    Froilan T. Malit, George Naufal.
    International Migration. July 11, 2016
    This article examines the legal and policy implications of information asymmetry for foreign domestic workers employed under the Kafala sponsorship system in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Drawing from ethnographic and field‐based observations in large GCC migrant destinations – including Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) – we investigate the information flows and market uncertainties between five key stakeholders: labour‐receiving governments, labour‐sending governments, recruitment agencies (subagents), sponsors (employers), and social networks. Several factors contribute to asymmetric information: the lack of bilateral labour agreements and government policy coordination, programs between and among government entities, the absence of labour law for domestic workers, and the laissez faire approach of the labour‐receiving government. These sources of asymmetric information create serious market vulnerabilities for the domestic worker population, often resulting in loss of employment and early deportation. The concluding section further outlines policy implications and areas of methodological research on GCC migration.
    July 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12269   open full text
  • Income Inequality in Host Countries and Remittances: A Discussion of the Determinants of Portuguese Emigrants' Remittances.
    Paulo Reis Mourao.
    International Migration. June 21, 2016
    The evolution of income inequality in host countries affects the migrants working there. As a significant number of these migrants do not earn high incomes, this evolution tends to significantly affect migrants' abilities to send money back to their home countries. We test this hypothesis considering the evolution of income inequality in 59 countries with Portuguese emigrants through observations from 1996 to 2014. Using the system generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator, we found that an increase in income inequality leads to fewer remittances per emigrant. We also controlled income inequality with several determinants of remittances, including the real GDP per capita, unemployment rate, education skills, and the self‐employment rates of the host countries.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12270   open full text
  • Troubling the Fields: Choice, Consent, and Coercion of Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Workers.
    Stephanie J. Silverman, Amrita Hari.
    International Migration. June 09, 2016
    This article brings a new, theoretically minded approach to weighing the relative utilities and harms of Canada's Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP) without dismissing the agency of SAWP enrollees or arriving at an abolitionist argument to end Temporary Migrant Worker (TMW) programmes in Canada. Building on the anti‐trafficking debate within feminist migration studies, we evaluate the availability and exercise of consent, choice, and coercion among SAWP workers. We draw on extensive documentation by scholars across disciplines to contextualize the SAWP within a socio‐economic history that engendered and continues to legitimize the “success” of the programme in both Mexico (the largest sending state) and Ontario (the largest provincial recipient of workers). Our analysis suggests that, while grievous, the SAWP's structural injustice ought not to preclude individuals from migrating and earning wages. The article concludes with recommendations to create a fairer avenue for Mexican workers into, through, and out of the SAWP.
    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12266   open full text
  • Protecting the Welfare of Children and its Causal Effect on Limiting Mother's Labour Migration.
    Bilesha Weeraratne.
    International Migration. June 09, 2016
    In June 2013 Sri Lanka introduced a new policy, the Family Background Report (FBR), to restrict mothers migrating for domestic work. This article performs an impact evaluation of the FBR using monthly departure statistics of female migrant workers from January 2012 to December 2014 in a difference‐in‐difference methodology. The identification is based on the inter‐temporal variation between the treatment and control groups. As anticipated, the FBR has a negative causal effect on female departures for foreign employment in the range of 449–812 departures per month. The findings are robust to placebo and sensitivity tests. Although successful in restricting females migrating for domestic work, this policy promotes migration outside the institutional framework of Sri Lanka and thereby increases their vulnerability at destination. For the policy initiative to be effective, its myopic focus has to be transformed into a long‐term plan to support those deterred from migrating.
    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12263   open full text
  • Reversing the brain drain: evidence from a Romanian brain networking organization.
    Alisa Petroff.
    International Migration. June 09, 2016
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12268   open full text
  • Return Migration to India: Decision‐Making among Academic Engineers and Scientists.
    Meghna Sabharwal, Roli Varma.
    International Migration. June 08, 2016
    The decision‐making process among migrants, whether to leave their country of birth for a foreign country or deciding to return to their native country is complex and laden with challenges. This article seeks to understand the decision‐making process by which immigrant engineers and scientists select to return to India after study and work in the United States. It is based on in‐depth interviews conducted with 54 returned engineers and scientists. Results indicate that the decision to return is anything but a linear process as highlighted in rational choice theory. Prospect and planned behaviour theories are better positioned to explain the decision‐making process among returned migrant engineers and scientists.
    June 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12265   open full text
  • Turkey's Response to Sex Trafficking of Migrant Women: Is It Efficient Enough?
    Tatiana Zhidkova, Oguzhan Omer Demir.
    International Migration. June 08, 2016
    Human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a serious problem affecting especially women and children. Turkey has been particularly affected by sex trafficking because of the large numbers of female migrants that it receives. This article aims to critically assess the effectiveness of Turkey's current policies against sex trafficking using a feminist theoretical perspective with a particular focus on migrant women. To this end, the scope of the problem in Turkey, the supply and demand sides of sex trafficking, and the existing policies are discussed. Sex trafficking is examined at the intersection of Turkey's migration and prostitution regimes. It is argued that Turkey's response to sex trafficking has been inefficient because it currently focuses only on the economic supply side of the problem, ignoring the patriarchal demand side of it. The article concludes with a discussion of policy recommendations for Turkey that could help reduce sex trafficking in this country.
    June 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12264   open full text
  • When the State Becomes Part of the Exploitation: Migrants’ Agency within the Institutional Constraints in Australia.
    Yao‐Tai Li, Katherine Whitworth.
    International Migration. May 31, 2016
    Studies have shown the unequal treatments temporary migrants face in the processes of immigration. In Australia for a short period of time and not citizens, they face conditions that allow for employer exploitation. This article is interested in exploring how institutional structures shape and normalize the choices that migrants make to work in the cash economy or other exploitative conditions. To do this, we take PRC‐Chinese, Taiwanese, and Hong Kongese temporary migrants who hold either a student or Working Holiday visa in Australia as an example. Focusing on the policymaking process, we argue that the policy outcomes produced by visa restrictions placed on international students and Working Holiday Makers sometimes do not reach an ideal outcome and at times even exacerbate problems identified in the input stage of the policy process. Such institutional effects result in a more vulnerable and exploitable situation for temporary migrants in Australia's labour market.
    May 31, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12267   open full text
  • A New Chilean Migration Act: an Approach to International Standards.
    Regina Ingrid Díaz Tolosa.
    International Migration. May 31, 2016
    The current Chilean Migration Act is the oldest in South America. It was created under the paradigm of national security, not human rights, and today does not adequately serve a participating democratic state, active within the international community. The Chilean government will soon be moving to discuss in congress a new migration act. We want to emphasize that the government should not forget the importance of incorporating international standards of migration policy into the national sphere. Chile is part of the United Nations system and, as a participating member, ratifies all core human rights treaties. Given that the United Nations Human Rights Bodies have made recommendations about migration policy, it is essential that this discussion be brought to the attention of our governing officials. This article reviews the UN recommendations as a concrete approach to the implementation of international standards in Chilean migrant policy.
    May 31, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12259   open full text
  • Which Child Immigrants Face Earnings Disparity? Age‐at‐immigration, Ethnic Minority Status and Labour Market Attainment in Canada.
    Krishna Pendakur, Ravi Pendakur.
    International Migration. May 16, 2016
    Using Canadian Census microdata from 1990 to 2005, we investigate the earnings attainment of immigrants to Canada in 6 age‐at‐arrival cohorts. In comparison to past work we extend our understanding regarding three dimensions of the age at immigration debate: we explore heterogeneity across fine grained age‐at‐arrival cohorts, over a fifteen‐year period and across different ethnic groups. We find that white immigrants and female immigrants arriving in Canada prior to age 18 face little earnings disparity. In contrast, visible minority male immigrants face significant earnings disparity regardless of their age‐at‐migration, and additionally this disparity increases sharply with age‐at‐migration. We find a break in earnings attainment at an age‐of‐arrival of 17, with immigrants arriving after this age performing much worse than those arriving at this age or earlier. The patterns observed are found for visible minority immigrants as a whole, and for Chinese, South Asian and African/Black origin immigrants examined separately.
    May 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12256   open full text
  • The Determinants of Student Migration to Poland Based on the Opolskie Voivodeship Study.
    Sabina Kubiciel‐Lodzińska, Bogdan Ruszczak.
    International Migration. May 04, 2016
    Until recently Poland has been considered a country to emigrate from. However, the situation is now beginning to change, and Poland is becoming an immigration country. This also refers to student migration. Polish universities are becoming increasingly attractive to foreign students, who are mainly of Ukrainian origin. They only began to promote their services abroad in 2005 and their foreign student population growth dynamic is one of the highest in the world. The study was conducted in the Opolskie Voivodeship, the first region in Poland where systematic action was taken to address depopulation, and the steps to counteract population decline were included in its strategic policies. One of the objectives of such policies was to stimulate immigration. For this reason, it was decided that the Opolskie Voivodeship might serve as a lab to study migration processes, including the inflow of foreign students.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12257   open full text
  • Shocks and Spatial Regime Fades in Spain's International Migration Distribution.
    Juan C. Duque, María Hierro.
    International Migration. May 04, 2016
    Using an exploratory space‐time analysis called spMorph, this article explores how the spatial distribution of international migration across the Spanish provinces has evolved over the period 1998‐2010. The chief advantage of this approach is that it permits the unambiguous identification of two key components in a spatial redistribution process, namely the shocks to the spatial distribution and the duration of regime fades. The results of the analysis show that administrative regions do not provide a reliable picture of the real dynamics in Spain's international migration distribution. In addition, the identification of two spatial shocks reveals the existence of three spatial regimes that consistently characterize the various phases that international migration has been through since the late 1990s.
    May 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12254   open full text
  • Voices of Nigerian Women Survivors of Trafficking Held in Italian Centres for Identification and Expulsion.
    Francesca Esposito, Carla R. Quinto, Francesca De Masi, Oria Gargano, Pedro Alexandre Costa.
    International Migration. May 03, 2016
    This article examines the vicissitudes that affect the migration trajectories of many Nigerian women who experienced trafficking before arriving in Italy, and end up in Centers for Identification and Expulsion (CIE) for undocumented migrants. Their life stories, collected within the CIE of Ponte Galeria (Rome), revealed violence as “a rule of action” with which these women are obliged to cope with at different levels. Moreover, they highlighted the failure of traditional security approaches to human trafficking, and the necessity to rethink the measures adopted to ensure survivors' protection and rights. As it is conceived, the system of immigration control prevents the full guarantee of survivors' rights, often labelling them as “illegal migrants”. Finally, there is the need to extend protection to all survivors of human trafficking even if the crime against them has not happened in Italy.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12253   open full text
  • The Asylum‐Integration Paradox: Comparing Asylum Support Systems and Refugee Integration in The Netherlands and the UK.
    Linda Bakker, Sin Yi Cheung, Jenny Phillimore.
    International Migration. April 26, 2016
    This article explores the impact of asylum support systems on refugee integration focusing on the UK and the Netherlands. Both have adopted deterrent approaches to asylum support. The Dutch favour the use of asylum accommodation centres, segregating asylum seekers from the general population. The UK disperses asylum seekers to housing within deprived areas, embedding them within communities. Both countries have been criticized for these practices, which are viewed as potentially anti‐integrative: something of a paradox given that both promote the importance of refugee integration. We analyse national refugee integration surveys in both countries and provide original empirical evidence of negative associations between asylum support systems and refugees’ health, which differ in relation to mental and physical health. The integration and asylum policy implications of these findings are discussed.
    April 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12251   open full text
  • Motherhood Motivations: African Refugee Women Resettled in Australia and Return Visits to a Country of First Asylum.
    Georgina Ramsay.
    International Migration. April 25, 2016
    This article expands on conceptualizations of refugee “return” by examining why African women resettled as refugees in Australia return to visit the country of first asylum from which they were previously resettled. I show that their return visits do not relate to attachment to place, but are motivated by social obligations to practise “motherhood” to family members who, due to conflict‐induced displacement, remain in a country of first asylum. I argue that the phenomenon of refugee “return” cannot be conflated exclusively with return to country of origin but is, for African women in particular, centred on the reinvigoration of care relationships across diasporic settings of asylum in which family remain. Building on an emergent focus on feminization in migration studies, I show how these gendered dynamics of refugee “return” are an entry point from which to re‐consider how scholarship and policy take into account “family” in contexts of forced migration.
    April 25, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12249   open full text
  • Immigration Policies and the Factors of Migration from Developing Countries to South Korea: An Empirical Analysis.
    Ador R. Torneo.
    International Migration. April 13, 2016
    This study examines the impacts of immigration policies adopted by the Korean government, vis‐a‐vis other economic, social, demographic, and political factors, on labour migration from developing countries to South Korea using a modified gravity model. The model is extended to marriage‐related migrants to gain insights on marriage migration. The positive results in three out of the five immigration policies examined affirm that liberal policies are associated with increased migration, especially for preferred groups like ethnic Koreans, marriage migrants, and professionals. The positive effects of “push” factors such as population, unemployment, and inflation are generally similar to their effects on migration to the US, Canada, Germany, and the UK despite its more rapid transition from a migrant‐sending into a migrant‐receiving country. Political terror's non‐significance may be due to South Korea's limited asylum policy. Finally, the results of the extended model imply that marriage migration share plenty of similarities with labour migration.
    April 13, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12246   open full text
  • Does “buyer beware” work in migration? Contracting between brokers and migrants in Vietnam.
    Nguyen Quynh Phuong, Sundar Venkatesh.
    International Migration. April 13, 2016
    This article is an attempt to open the lid a little of the “black box of migration” i.e. brokers. Analysing contracts between brokers and labour migrants, we identify four different forms of exploitation of migrants by brokers: expropriation of skill premium, risk shifting, over‐charging, and non‐refund of deposits. Opportunistic behaviour by brokers, as evidenced by such exploitation, is seen as a market failure that is explained by human attributes and transactional characteristics. Given the rigidities in the human attributes of the contracting parties and the nature of migration as a risky multi‐period transaction, proposals are made for non‐market interventions, which can lead to more equitable contracting.
    April 13, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12252   open full text
  • DACA and the Surge in Unaccompanied Minors at the US‐Mexico Border.
    Catalina Amuedo‐Dorantes, Thitima Puttitanun.
    International Migration. April 06, 2016
    Apprehensions of unaccompanied minors from Central American countries have been on the rise since 2008, but news reports particularly caught up with the increase after 2012. Some politicians posited that the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) contributed to the surge by creating the expectation that children would be allowed to stay in the country. Immigration advocates, however, believe that the two are not related. Using data on apprehensions of unaccompanied minors by border patrol sector, nationality and year, we find that DACA did not significantly impact those apprehensions. Rather, the 2008 Williams Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act, along with violence in the originating countries and economic conditions in both the countries of origin and the United States, emerge as some of the key determinants of the recent surge in unaccompanied minors apprehended along the southwest US‐Mexico border.
    April 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12250   open full text
  • Contextualizing Migrants' Strategies of Seeking Medical Care in Russia*.
    Ekaterina Demintseva, Daniel Kashnitsky.
    International Migration. April 06, 2016
    Russia is an important destination for labour migrants from the former Soviet Union republics especially Central Asian low‐income countries: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The life of migrants from Central Asia is characterized in Russia by scarce resources and social exclusion. Limited access to healthcare is aggravated by the negative attitudes and discrimination that migrants face when visiting state hospitals and clinics. In our study, we aim to describe the medical infrastructure available to migrants in Moscow. We investigate how migrants use formal and informal strategies to overcome the barriers to their receiving medical care in the urban environment. The study is based on the analysis of qualitative interviews with 60 labour migrants from Central Asian countries and 23 caregivers working in Moscow‐based medical facilities such as state hospitals, outpatient clinics, ambulance stations, and private medical centres including the so‐called Kyrgyz clinics.
    April 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12247   open full text
  • Reintegration as an Emerging Vision of Justice for Victims of Human Trafficking.
    Luke S Bearup.
    International Migration. April 04, 2016
    This article examines the discoursal shift to “reintegration” within trafficking protection programmes and policy, with emphasis upon Cambodia. The evidence indicates that non‐governmental organizations (NGOs) are progressively making “reintegration” their primary protective objective. Yet a lack of conceptual clarity prevails and is being exacerbated by models and forms of guidance which position NGOs as directly undertaking or providing for the achievement of reintegration. This article argues that NGOs and their practitioners cannot “reintegrate” anyone – at least not in any substantive sense. Drawing upon the discourse within the field of protection practice, a dualist conception of reintegration is proposed as comprised of “procedural” and “substantive” elements. Accordingly, the procedural delivery of assistance may or may not support the substantive attainment of reintegration. It is argued that the emerging focus upon reintegration reflects a broadened vision of justice which warrants further research into the social and cultural foundations necessary for its achievement.
    April 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12248   open full text
  • Irregular Immigration, Labour Market and Enforcement at the US‐Mexico Border. Evidence from a Time‐Series Analysis (1963–2014).
    Fabrizio Costantino.
    International Migration. March 21, 2016
    This article provides evidence on irregular immigration to the US from Mexico in the years 1963–2014. It aims to answer to two questions. The first is: how much is irregular immigration responsive to changes in the US labour market? Compared with legal immigration, irregular immigration seems to be more sensitive to short‐run economic cycles as it is not directly regulated by the policies of the destination country. Second, what effect does border enforcement have on irregular immigration? One of the proposals of the recent bill is the construction of a double layer fence on the Southern border. We do not know, however, to what extent a further increase in border security will prevent irregular immigration and at which economic cost. The contribution of this article is dual: first, it provides empirical evidence on irregular immigration to the US Second, it provides evidence about the effect of US border policies on irregular immigration.
    March 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12243   open full text
  • Connecting Tenure Security with Durable Solutions to Internal Displacement: From Restitution of Property Rights to the Right to Adequate Housing.
    Patricia García Amado.
    International Migration. March 04, 2016
    The end of displacement is a main goal of international peacebuilding strategies, with increasing financial and human resources committed to it. Nevertheless, protracted internal displacement remains unabated, necessitating a review of the responses provided thus far. Durable solutions to internal displacement require a safe, permanent and secure place to settle, which puts security of tenure at the centre of any sustainable option. This article emphasizes the limited understanding of the factors that contribute to secure tenure as one of the main flaws in a predominantly legal approach to the right to restitution and the right to adequate housing in responses to internal displacement. It calls for the design of contextualized and inclusive strategies to align the de jure, de facto and perception dimensions of tenure security to support the sustainable settlement of internally displaced persons as well as the construction of peace.
    March 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12244   open full text
  • Growth Effects of Remittances in Bangladesh: Is there a U‐shaped Relationship?
    Gazi M. Hassan, Mamta Chowdhury, Mohammed Bhuyan.
    International Migration. February 23, 2016
    This article shows that the effect of remittances on economic growth involves a U‐shaped pattern, which is negative initially but later becomes positive. The analysis differs significantly from earlier studies in that it examines important methodological issues on the specification and estimation of the long‐run growth effects of remittances by estimating their impact on total factor productivity (TFP) rather than on the growth rate of GDP, using time series data from Bangladesh. The use of single‐equation cointegration methods shows that remittances’ effect on long‐run growth in Bangladesh is negative and falling until the remittances‐to‐GDP ratio is roughly eight per cent. The benefits of remittances receipts outweigh their costs and their net effects start to become positive when the ratio exceeds 14 per cent.
    February 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12242   open full text
  • Do asylum seekers and refugees choose destination countries? Evidence from large‐scale surveys in Australia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
    Marie McAuliffe, Dinuk Jayasuriya.
    International Migration. February 19, 2016
    Some literature depicts refugees as more passive than active when selecting a destination country. We draw on surveys of over 35,000 people in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Australia, to show that most potential asylum seekers and refugees of Hazara, Rohingya, Muslim and Tamil backgrounds prefer some destination countries over others and that many refugees from these groups surveyed in Australia specifically had Australia in mind as a destination country. We show how Australia's asylum seeker policy was a key reason why many refugees chose Australia in 2011 and 2012 and that subsequent restrictive asylum seeker policy changes appear to be reflected in potential asylum seeker considerations in 2014. We find that despite the restrictive asylum seeker policy changes, perceptions of Australia as a highly functioning civil society, relative to other potential destination countries, may explain why Australia remains a country of choice for asylum seekers from west and south Asia.
    February 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12240   open full text
  • Missing the Boat: Australia and Asylum Seeker Deterrence Messaging.
    Caroline Fleay, John Cokley, Andrew Dodd, Linda Briskman, Larry Schwartz.
    International Migration. February 17, 2016
    Many of Australia's border protection policies have focused on attempts to deter the arrival of asylum seekers by boat. These include government ‘messaging’ in the hope this will influence the decision‐making of would‐be boat arrivals. This article outlines the findings of an exploratory study on the sources of information accessed by asylum seekers, prior to and during their boat journeys to Australia, about their destination country. The findings suggest that government media and Internet strategies focused on deterring asylum seekers are adopted without full regard to how information is sourced before and during these boat journeys.
    February 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12241   open full text
  • Native‐Migrant Wage Differential Across Occupations: Evidence from Australia.
    Asad Islam, Jaai Parasnis.
    International Migration. February 15, 2016
    We investigate wage differential by migrant status across white‐collar and blue‐collar occupations in Australia. Migrants are observed to have a higher wage; this difference, however, does not exist once we control for covariates. The unconditional wage differential varies over wage distribution as well as by occupation. Significant wage differentials are found above the median: positive for white‐collar workers and negative for blue‐collar workers. Using recently developed decomposition methods based on Firpo, Fortin, and Lemieux (2009) we decompose wage differentials across their distribution. Overall, the wage advantage of migrants reflects their superior labour market characteristics, and in particular, their levels of education. We find that English language proficiency plays an important role in wage differences among immigrants from non‐English speaking countries.
    February 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12236   open full text
  • New Patterns of Internal Migration in Emigrant‐Sending Communities: the Case of China.
    Qian Song, Zai Liang.
    International Migration. February 14, 2016
    Despite the large number of migrants at both international and internal scales in developing countries, literature on building the links between the two migration processes is still lacking. Using survey data from China's Fujian Province, we elaborate a novel link between international and internal migration processes by examining the response of internal migration to international migration in the migrant origins. Our findings suggest that emigration of one individual initially deterred the internal migration of other family members. Yet, over time individuals from emigrant‐related households had an increasing propensity to migrate internally. During the internal migration process, emigrants’ family members received greater financial returns and had reached farther destinations than other internal migrants. Those emigrant‐related internal migrants with enhanced economic profiles would benefit their domestic destinations in a variety of ways. These benefits support a more optimistic view on the impact of international migration on the development of migrant‐sending countries.
    February 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12238   open full text
  • The Formation of Transnational Identity among French Immigrants Employed in French‐Speaking Companies in Israel.
    Karin Amit, Shirly Bar‐Lev.
    International Migration. February 11, 2016
    This study focuses on the formation of a transnational identity among immigrants from France who are employed in French‐speaking companies in Israel (mostly call‐centres). The preliminary qualitative analysis shows that this unique employment pattern contributes to the formation of their transnational identity, which is a combination of their francophone, Jewish and Israeli identity. The findings obtained from a larger‐scale online survey indicated that French immigrants employed in French‐speaking companies are more ethnically, socially and culturally segregated, and less fluent in Hebrew than French immigrants who are not employed in such companies. However, no significant differences were found between these two groups in their Israeli identity and sense of belonging to Israeli society. In general, the French immigrants feel at home in Israel, are satisfied with their life in Israel and plan to remain there. The implications of these findings for policymakers are discussed.
    February 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12239   open full text
  • The Human Capital Model of Selection and Immigrant Economic Outcomes.
    Garnett Picot, Feng Hou, Hanqing Qiu.
    International Migration. February 08, 2016
    This article examines the trends in the economic advantage that highly educated immigrants hold over less educated immigrants in Canada, focusing on the differences between short‐run and longer‐run outcomes. Using data from the Longitudinal Immigration Database covering the period from the 1980s to the 2000s, this study finds that the relative entry earnings advantage that higher education provides to new immigrants has decreased dramatically over the last 30 years. However, university‐educated immigrants had a much steeper earnings trajectory than immigrants with trades or a high school education. The earnings advantage among highly educated immigrants increases significantly with time spent in Canada. This pattern is observed for virtually all immigrant classes and arrival cohorts. The results suggest that short‐run economic outcomes of immigrants are not good predictors of longer‐run results, at least by educational attainment. The implications of these findings for immigration selection policy are discussed in the conclusion.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12235   open full text
  • Understanding Transit Asylum Migration: Evidence from Serbia.
    Vesna Lukić.
    International Migration. February 08, 2016
    Due to its geographic location and borders along the European Union (EU), in recent years, the Republic of Serbia has faced an increased number of irregular migrants from third‐world countries claiming asylum on their way into a western EU member state. Some of these migrants stay for a while in asylum centres in Serbia to rest or renew contacts. In order to explore the main socio‐demographic features of the study population, their migration history and intentions, a questionnaire‐based research was conducted in Banja Koviljača asylum centre. The results also give insights into the underlying question “how” and the role of social networks in migration. Most of asylum seekers are unmarried males at peak working age, from countries affected by war and political turmoil. The results indicate this is a transit migration where, besides fleeing to safety, economic status and migration networks have a significant impact on migration flows.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12237   open full text
  • What Moves the Highly Skilled and Why? Comparing Turkish Nationals in Canada and Germany.
    Saime Ozcurumez, Deniz Yetkin Aker.
    International Migration. February 01, 2016
    Based on in‐depth interviews with highly skilled and business Turkish nationals (HSBTN) in Canada and Germany, this study aims to explore why HSBTN decide to move and whether migration policy differences among the countries of destination affect recent migration motivations of HSBTN. It mainly focuses on the reasons and rationale of HSBTN and their explanations. This study argues that the high skilled and business migrants in general and HSBTN in particular move internationally as a consequence of individual‐level gain beyond economic prospects.
    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12234   open full text
  • Foreign Language Skills and Willingness to Move: The Case of a Spanish Region.
    César Rodríguez‐Gutiérrez, Juan Francisco Canal‐Domínguez.
    International Migration. February 01, 2016
    This research is aimed at assessing the effect of foreign language skills on the geographical area selected by the Spanish unemployed when looking for a job. A Zero‐Inflated Ordered Probit (ZIOP) model has been estimated to analyse the impact of foreign language skills on the geographical scope of the search. The outcomes show that the job search area is broader in case of men, young unemployed, more educated people, and those who never received unemployment benefits. Likewise, foreign language skills (in English, German and French) are highlighted as one of the most influencing factors when widening the job search area.
    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12231   open full text
  • The Short Term Effects of Immigrant Students on the Educational Achievements of Native‐Born Students.
    Svetlana Chachashvili‐Bolotin, Sabina Lissitsa, Yossi Shavit, Hanna Ayalon.
    International Migration. February 01, 2016
    Since 1989 nearly one million immigrants from the FSU have arrived in Israel. Although well‐educated on average, most of these immigrants lacked economic means. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether the presence of immigrants in schools affected the educational achievements of their Israeli‐born peers. We analyzed data pertaining to 8,288 Israeli tenth graders who attended 208 schools in 1994. Respondents' records were obtained from the Ministry of Education and the Bureau of the Census. Using hierarchical models we examined the effects of the proportion of immigrant students in a school and of their parents' education on the probability that Israeli‐born students in the school would earn matriculation certificates. Results did not yield evidence of any negative spillover effects on the educational achievements of the native students. Moreover, the presence of many immigrant students with high educational backgrounds increased the likelihood of Israeli‐born students earning matriculation certificates.
    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12233   open full text
  • Contrasting Return Migrant Entrepreneurship Experiences in Javanese Villages.
    Ratih Pratiwi Anwar, Carol Chan.
    International Migration. February 01, 2016
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12232   open full text
  • Homeland (Dis)Integrations: Educational Experience, Children and Return Migration to Albania.
    Zana Vathi, Veronika Duci, Elona Dhembo.
    International Migration. January 19, 2016
    Based on empirical research conducted in Albania, this article reports that educational experience and performance, and hence, integration of the children of (returned) migrants in their parents' homeland is obstructed by structural factors linked to the educational system. A finding such as this challenges the centrality of an essentialized notion of ethnicity in models of “second generation” integration and evidences the centrality of the nation‐state, and the education system as one of its pillars, in the integration of migrants and their children. Comparative integration context theory appears to apply to the integration of children of returned migrants; yet it needs to take into account the mobile lives of migrants and their children, the transnational disjuncture between different educational systems, and the role of locality within the nation‐state. Moreover, including children in analyses of integration, in the context of education, calls for the inclusion of life‐course and scale in integration theories.
    January 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/imig.12230   open full text
  • The Implementation of Voting from Abroad: Evidence from the 2014 Turkish Presidential Election.
    Zeynep Şahin‐Mencütek, M. Murat Erdoğan.
    International Migration. December 28, 2015
    Voting from abroad (VFA) is a complex norm and practice due to the multilevel processes, structures and actors involved. This article explores the reasons behind the eventual adoption of this practice within the context of a long and well‐known history of emigration in Turkey. During the 2014 Turkish presidential election, emigrants from Turkey were finally allowed to participate from abroad even though legislation giving them this right has been in place since 1995. Based on archival research and fieldwork in Germany and the United States, this article discusses the varying relevance of three central explanatory factors to the implementation of VFA: emigrant lobbying, the electoral expectations of potential benefit by the governing party, and the presence of broader, state‐led diaspora engagement policies. The first of these is important but insufficient, whereas the second factor is necessary. Moreover, the presence of broader, state‐led diaspora engagement policies is a mediating factor. This article finds that specific actors like political parties may play the crucial role, highlighting the need for critical examination of their role in the implementation process.
    December 28, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imig.12229   open full text
  • Asylum Provision: A Review of Economic Theories.
    Anjali Suriyakumaran, Yuji Tamura.
    International Migration. December 28, 2015
    In recent years, economic theories have been used to examine asylum provision by non‐persecutor countries. Unfortunately, the nature of the analyses makes the results inaccessible to many who are interested in understanding the topic from multidisciplinary perspectives but are unfamiliar with mathematical methods in economics. We communicate the findings of those analyses in a non‐mathematical fashion, thereby contributing to a facilitation of interdisciplinary research on asylum policy.
    December 28, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imig.12228   open full text
  • How Successful are Highly Qualified Return Migrants in the Lithuanian Labour Market?
    Egidijus Barcevičius.
    International Migration. December 20, 2015
    This article analyses whether the human capital gained abroad helps returning migrants to integrate into the Lithuanian labour market. The analysis focuses on highly qualified migrants, defined narrowly as people with higher education who held qualified jobs when working abroad. The article found that for this group of returnees professional aims were important when taking a decision to return, together with other motives such as family reasons and home‐sickness. Most of the returnees were able to find employment and pursue their careers without major difficulties, although a significant minority signalled an intention to emigrate again. The article examines the key factors that sometimes helped and sometimes hindered integration of the returnees and discusses the role of the public policy.
    December 20, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imig.12224   open full text
  • Socio‐Cultural Incorporation of Skilled Migrants at Work: Employer and Migrant Perspectives.
    Micheline Riemsdijk, Scott Basford, Alana Burnham.
    International Migration. December 18, 2015
    Migration studies have predominantly investigated the socio‐cultural incorporation of low‐skilled migrants and refugees, fuelled by concerns that these migrants may pose a burden on the state and a threat to social cohesion. Few studies have investigated the socio‐cultural incorporation of skilled migrants, perhaps assuming that they will fare well in a country of destination. Using the petroleum industry in Norway as a case study, this article examines the workplace as a key site of transmission of norms and values of the host society. We investigate firm initiatives for the socio‐cultural incorporation of skilled migrants and analyse the challenges that these workers experience in the workplace. We then discuss the roles of non‐state actors in the incorporation process and offer suggestions that may enhance the socio‐cultural incorporation of skilled migrants into the host society.
    December 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imig.12221   open full text
  • The Effectiveness of Norway's Readmission Agreements with Iraq and Ethiopia.
    Maja Janmyr.
    International Migration. December 01, 2015
    This article offers an analysis of the effectiveness of Norway's readmission agreements with Iraq and Ethiopia. Through the use of readmission agreements, Norway aims to reduce irregular presence by increasing the number of both voluntary and forced returns, as well as discourage future irregular migration by sending a “clear signal” to individuals without protection needs that they will be returned when their asylum applications are rejected. The effectiveness of these agreements thus lies in the extent to which they fulfill these objectives. While Norway's agreements with Iraq and Ethiopia have been explicitly highlighted as effective by Norwegian authorities, this article argues that readmission agreements may be expected to limit, but not to eliminate, return problems. Readmission agreements, however streamlined, will have different effects on different groups. It finds that Norway's readmission agreements have been only partially successful with Iraq, and wholly unsuccessful with Ethiopia.
    December 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/imig.12220   open full text
  • The Democratic Potential of Enfranchising Resident Migrants.
    Luicy Pedroza.
    International Migration. May 20, 2014
    The right to vote has always been the central privilege of citizenship. Its extension to resident migrants holds a promise of democratizing citizenship by bringing it closer to principles with deep roots in liberal and republican traditions, and further away from particularistic understandings that reduce citizenship to nationality. This article's main contribution is a systematic and policy‐relevant discussion of the kind of enfranchisement that can realize that potential, approached in three steps: first, a demarcation of citizenship policy within migration policy substantiates the need to employ a normative perspective; second, a description of the trend of enfranchisement of non‐citizens provides the normative paper with a sound empirical base for a non‐ideal discussion; third, a discussion of different kinds of enfranchisement tackles the controversial issues related to it and delineates the specific requisites to realize its potential.
    May 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12162   open full text
  • Attracting High‐Skilled Immigrants: Policies in Comparative Perspective.
    Lucie Cerna.
    International Migration. May 15, 2014
    Labour market shortages, structural problems and unfavourable demographics have all prompted governments to act, often by focusing on high‐skilled immigration. However, policy responses have been very different. Some countries were able to adopt quite open high‐skilled immigration policies, while others did not. This article provides a political economy explanation for this. It argues that, despite similar pressures, high‐skilled immigration policy outputs vary due to shifting coalitions between disaggregated sectors of native high‐skilled, low‐skilled labour and capital. To probe this argument, the article examines coalitions in four countries (France, Germany, Sweden and the United Kingdom) from the late 1990s to present, and draws on original interviews with policy‐makers, unions and employers' associations; official documents and the literature on immigration, political economy and public policy. The varying labour market organization of actors informs differences in coalitions which in turn has resulted in different high‐skilled immigration policy outputs, cross‐nationally and over time.
    May 15, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12158   open full text
  • Effects of Workers' Remittances and its Volatility on Economic Growth in South Asia.
    Syed Tehseen Jawaid, Syed Ali Raza.
    International Migration. May 05, 2014
    This study investigates the effect of workers' remittances and its volatility on economic growth of five South Asian countries by employing long time series data from 1975 to 2009. Cointegration results confirm a significant positive long run relationship between remittances and economic growth in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, but a significant negative relationship in Pakistan. Conversely, the volatility of workers' remittances has a negative and significant effect on economic growth in Pakistan, Indian, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, but a negative but insignificant impact in Nepal. All sensitivity analyses confirm that the results are robust. A less volatile inflow of workers' remittances is growth‐enhancing for all countries. It is suggested that policy makers should make policies to reduce the transaction cost to welcome remittances into the region. Furthermore, countries like Pakistan should make the policies to discourage voluntary unemployment. Policy Implications This study show the positive effect of remittances on economic growth in India, Bangladesh, Sri‐Lanka and Nepal. These countries should create friendly policies to reduce the transaction cost to ensure the continuous inflows of workers' remittances. Results indicate a negative effect of remittances on economic growth in Pakistan. Remittances are considered an uninterrupted source of income, which may increase voluntary unemployment, leading to decreased economic growth. The government should make policies to discourage this voluntary unemployment. Policymakers should create effective systems to ensure this inflow comes through formal financial channels for better control.
    May 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12151   open full text
  • Population Exchange and its Impact on Literacy, Occupation and Gender – Evidence from the Partition of India.
    Prashant Bharadwaj, Asim I. Khwaja, Atif Mian.
    International Migration. May 05, 2014
    How do large scale, involuntary migrations and population exchanges affect sending and receiving communities? We examine the case of the partition of India in which approximately 17 million people moved within four years, resulting in one of the largest and most rapid population exchanges in human history. We find large effects due to the migration on a district's educational, occupational, and gender composition. Due to higher education levels amongst migrants, districts with 10 per cent greater inflows saw their literacy rates increase by 3 percentage points, while a 10 per cent increase in outflows reduced literacy by 1.2 percentage points. Due to disparities in the amount of land vacated by migrants, Indian districts with 10 per cent greater inflows saw a decline of 11 per centin agricultural occupations. Districts that experienced high inflows and outflows also experienced changes in gender composition. While the partition, driven along religious lines, increased religious homogenization within communities, our results suggest that this was accompanied by increased educational and occupational differences within religious groups. We conclude that these compositional effects, in addition to an aggregate population impact, are probably features of involuntary migrations and population exchanges and, as in the case of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, can have important long‐term consequences.
    May 05, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12039   open full text
  • Australian Employer Response to the Study‐Migration Pathway: The Quantitative Evidence 2007‐2011.
    Lesleyanne Hawthorne, Anna To.
    International Migration. April 11, 2014
    In recent years OECD countries have prioritized international students as a human capital resource. To assess their labour migration outcomes, this article defines Australian employment rates the year after graduation by two measures. Our first in‐depth case study (drawing on the Graduate Destination Survey) compares international students' work status to that of domestic students in 11 professions, from 2007 to 2011. Our second case study (based on the Immigration Department's Continuous Survey of Australia's Migrants) reports the employment rates achieved from 2009 to 2011 by international students who have secured skilled migrant status in Australia, compared with those of skilled category applicants selected off‐shore. Empirical analyses such as these are rare in the existing study‐migration literature, which is dominated by policy and qualitative perspectives. The findings are relevant to international students as well as policymakers, in a context where governments frame migration policy but employers maintain the power to offer/withhold work.
    April 11, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12154   open full text
  • Migration Policy and Development in Chile.
    Cristián Doña Reveco, Brendan Mullan.
    International Migration. March 14, 2014
    Current and prospective migration law and policy in Chile does not adequately incorporate the causes, content, and consequences of international migration to and from Chile. We describe and examine migration in‐flows, out‐flows, migration‐related policies, and how those policies drive, and are driven by, notions of development in Chile. We explore contradictions in Chilean nascent migration policy currently under legislative review. We argue that it is imperative that migration, migration policy, and their relationship to development be discussed inclusively and transparently and be explicitly incorporated into the Chilean government's nascent migration and development legal policies and frameworks.
    March 14, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12157   open full text
  • Split Return: Transnational Household Strategies in Afghan Repatriation.
    Kristian Berg Harpviken.
    International Migration. March 14, 2014
    Split return is a common strategy of repatriation among refugees and migrants. Facing great uncertainty, both economically and security‐wise, households disperse in two or more locations in order to minimize risk. The phenomenon is well‐known in migration studies and in studies of return from the distant diaspora, but is studied less among the overwhelming majority residing in countries neighbouring their own. This article draws on experiences from Afghanistan, comparing split return to similar strategies in migration generally and in refugee situations specifically. It suggests that while splits are conceived as a temporary measure, they often become a lasting form of life. Opportunities for split return are often crucial for the willingness to start repatriation, as well as for the sustainability of the household's economy upon return. The article develops the concept of split return in relation to contextual factors, intensity of networks (at origin and in exile) and household composition.
    March 14, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12155   open full text
  • Immigrants in Azerbaijan: Current Situation and Prospects of (Re)integration Policy.
    Sergey Rumyantsev.
    International Migration. March 13, 2014
    “Our identity is at once plural and partial.Sometimes we feel that we straddle two cultures;At other times, that we fall between two stools.” Salman Rushdie The integration problems of immigrants in the post‐Soviet Azerbaijan have not been the focus of researchers' attention. The present article fills this gap. I classify immigrants into three groups: 1) natives of Azerbaijan (re‐emigrants) and their family members; 2) ethnics from Georgia; 3) labour immigrants from different countries, who arrive to Azerbaijan to look for a job or to open their own business. I examine the social resources and practices used by immigrants to support their integration, in the absence of state integration policy. I conclude that the main resource is each immigrant's personal social capital, based on networks. These networks are transnational in their nature. Immigrants build up and integrate in this kind of transnational network, as well as in the transnational spaces of the capital of Azerbaijan (Baku), where the vast majority of them reside after they move to the country.
    March 13, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12156   open full text
  • The Emergence of Lifestyle Reasoning in return Considerations among British Pakistanis.
    Marta Bolognani.
    International Migration. February 26, 2014
    This article discusses the growing popularity of lifestyle reasoning in return considerations among Pakistani migrants and their children in Britain. Although lifestyle arguments are by no means new to scholarship on return migration, I argue that British Pakistanis' settlement history has led to return reasoning beyond purely economic considerations. Changes in status, power, and position, with respect to both countries of origin and settlement, have translated to a more confident capacity to aspire, and therefore to think along lifestyle considerations, whether the decision is to settle or to return. Lifestyle reasoning can therefore to be considered a sign of British Pakistanis' change in confidence about their position in the country of settlement. Policy Implications If the UK wants to engage with Pakistani returnees, it needs to recognize the variety of returns beyond the economic: political, lifestyle and relationship returns are all present in the array of typologies enacted by British Pakistanis Any UK policy about return should consider that both pull and push factors influence return decisions, and those are articulated around economic, political, lifestyle, and relationship considerations. Policy makers should consider lifestyle return reasoning a symptom of the maturation of British Pakistani citizenship in the country of settlement, rather than systematic evidence of their alienation.
    February 26, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12153   open full text
  • Second‐Generation “Return” to Greece: New Dynamics of Transnationalism and Integration.
    Russell King, Anastasia Christou.
    International Migration. February 24, 2014
    Based on in‐depth narrative interviews with 64 second‐generation Greek‐Germans and Greek‐Americans who have “returned” to Greece, this article explores intersections between return, transnationalism and integration. Having grown up with a strong Greek identity in the diaspora, second‐generation “returnees” move to Greece mainly for idealistic, lifestyle and life‐stage reasons. However, most find living in Greece long‐term a challenging experience: they remark on the corruption and chaos of Greek life, and are surprised at the high level of xenophobia in Greek society, not only towards foreign immigrants but also towards themselves as “hyphenated Greeks”. The “return” to Greece provokes new “reverse” transnational links back to their birth country, where they still need to keep in touch with relatives and friends, including caring obligations towards parents who remain abroad. Some contemplate another “return”, back to the US or Germany. Policy Implications Policymakers responsible for integration should not assume that the second generation has no connections with its parents' country of origin. In the diasporic home country (in this case Greece), more effort should be made to facilitate the reintegration of the second generation returning ‘home’ and to break down discrimination towards hyphenated Greeks. Greek policymakers should pay heed to homecoming second‐generation Greeks in order to benefit from their bicultural insights into how Greek society can be improved, especially as regards efficient public services, transparent employment opportunities, better environment management, gender equality, and the elimination of racism and discrimination.
    February 24, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12149   open full text
  • Flows of People and Knowledge between Italy and Australia.
    Massimiliano Tani.
    International Migration. February 24, 2014
    This article analyses 20 years of bilateral peoples' flows between Italy and Australia using a unique set of data collected by Australia's Department of Immigration and Citizenship. This period has witnessed substantial changes in the composition of migration between the two countries. Against a historical background where migration is mostly composed of unskilled Italians relocating to Australia, the past two decades have seen a progressive increase in the arrival of young and highly skilled/qualified Italians on a short‐term basis. Conversely, there has been an increase in older Australians moving to or visiting Italy for work. Such changes have affected the bilateral skill flows, whose relevance has increased as globalization forces have made international transport easier and cheaper. Australia remains a “magnet” for Italians, and, unlike the historical origin of Italy's early immigrants, it now enjoys a net inflow of highly skilled labour.
    February 24, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12150   open full text
  • The Rise and Fall of Diasporic Bonds in Japanese‐Peruvian “Return” Migration.
    Ayumi Takenaka.
    International Migration. February 20, 2014
    Two decades after Japanese‐Peruvians and other South Americans of Japanese descent began to migrate back to Japan, the return‐migration phenomenon has ended. Induced by the Japanese government in the name of shared ethnicity, Japanese policymakers now largely regard return migration as a failed policy. It failed because return‐migrants did not, in the view of policy‐makers, assimilate, integrate, or “make it” in Japan as expected. Thus, once‐imagined ethnic bonds ceased to exist in Japan. However, ethnic bonds sustained themselves well outside Japan. The Japanese‐Peruvian community in Peru has thrived and maintained continuous ties with Japan. What explains the rise and fall of diasporic ethnic bonds? Drawing on my ethnographic research in Japanese‐Peruvian communities in Peru and Japan, I found that diasporic ethnic bonds are cultivated or weakened depending upon where diasporic populations are located in relation to their ancestral homeland, and how such ties are utilized, for what, and by whom.
    February 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12147   open full text
  • Socio‐cultural Adaptation of Second‐generation Afghans in Iran.
    Mohammad Jalal Abbasi‐Shavazi, Rasoul Sadeghi.
    International Migration. January 10, 2014
    The long‐term settlement of Afghan immigrants in Iran, along with their high fertility, has produced an important shift in the composition of their population with the emergence of a “second generation”. This article aims to examine how second‐generation Afghans have adapted to the host society and to what extent their adaptation patterns have correlated with demographic and contextual factors. The data is drawn from the 2010 Afghans Adaptation Survey which covered 520 second‐generation Afghans. Results revealed that second‐generation Afghans have a variety of adaptation patterns. Integration is the most prevalent pattern of adaptation and acculturation (which is observed among 35.8 per cent of respondents) followed by separation (33.3%), assimilation (17.1%) and marginalization (13.8%). Our multivariate analysis showed that such socio‐demographic factors as gender, education, ethnicity, perceived discrimination, family context, neighbourhood characteristics, length and city of residence are associated with their adaptation patterns. Policy Implications Successful implementation of policies and durable solutions for Afghans in Iran rests on the diversity of the adaptation patterns of their second‐generation. Restriction on employment opportunities has led to downward assimilation and marginalization of some of the Afghans in Iran. Improvement in labour laws would promote the integration of Afghans in the society. Afghan females have relatively better access to a gender‐equitable environment in Iran than they do in Afghanistan, and are less willing to return to their homeland. The Government of Afghanistan should improve service and security provisions for women to ensure their voluntary repatriation.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/imig.12148   open full text
  • Stratification of Undocumented Migrant Journeys: Honduran Case.
    Jana Sladkova.
    International Migration. December 22, 2013
    This article examines stratification of journeys of undocumented Honduran migrants to the United States. The unequal distribution of wealth across the world forces many people to migrate to wealthier countries. Despite the narrative of free movement of goods and finances, migrants run into the ever strengthening security systems of nation states. Migrants' access to mobility (finances and networks) influences how migrants interact with these systems, which impacts their experiences on their journeys. I conducted in‐depth interviews with 21 Honduran migrants and subjected these to narrative analysis. I was able to identify several strata of journeys as well as the processes and specific actors that shape them. The degree to which migrants are subject to abuse, robbery, rape, and death on their journeys, and often their success in reaching their destinations, depend on their access to mobility.
    December 22, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12141   open full text
  • Selective Migration Policy Models and Changing Realities of Implementation.
    Rey Koslowski.
    International Migration. November 20, 2013
    Selective migration policies are proliferating worldwide as governments try to attract scientists, highly skilled engineers, medical professionals and information technology professionals. Selective migration policies can be grouped into three ideal‐typical models: the Canadian “human capital” model based on state selection of permanent immigrants using a point system; the Australian “neo‐corporatist” model based on state selection using a point system with extensive business and labour participation; and the market‐oriented, demand‐driven model based primarily on employer selection of migrants, as practised by the US. After providing an overview of each model, the article compares the three models in terms of policy outcomes as measured by various metrics and then explains how Canadian, Australian, and US governments have recently adopted policies from one another and deviated from their respective selective migration policy models. Policy Implications Canadian and Australian governments select immigrants using point systems but diverged in 1996 on human capital criteria of higher education and general experience U.S. employers select economic migrants and majority initially come on temporary visas More highly‐skilled foreigners go to the U.S. than to Canada, Australia and other countries using point systems combined. Canadian and Australian governments shifting policies toward the U.S. demand‐driven model, with increasing preference given to employer‐sponsored immigrants and those already working on temporary visas. Canadian government shifting point system criteria from human capital toward specific occupations and may abandon point system altogether.
    November 20, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12136   open full text
  • Post‐Return Transnationalism and the Iraqi Displacement in Syria and Jordan.
    Vanessa Iaria.
    International Migration. November 20, 2013
    The article explores the relationship between return and transnationalism in the case of the post‐2003 Iraqis' protracted displacement in Syria and Jordan. Based on field observations and interviews with Iraqi returnees, the article argues that transnational mobility and livelihoods constitute a precondition for their sustainable return. In this refugee context, return is rarely a one‐way physical movement followed by permanent integration back home. It is a complex process that takes time and entails various degrees and modalities of transnational mobility, social networks and livelihoods connecting host and home societies. The international refugee regime in contrast is predicated on the assumption that refugees will not re‐migrate after return. Stopping returnees' mobility may hamper the independent transnational livelihoods and development opportunities that the Iraqi people have pursued in the absence of permanent solutions to their predicament. Policy Implications International donors and regional states should harmonize their asylum and migration policy agendas and develop an integrated framework for durable solutions to the Iraqi protracted displacement. Relevant agencies should consider ways to incorporate legal transnational mobility opportunities into policy frameworks for the protection of refugee populations in the Middle East. Existing voluntary assisted return policies need to be revised to reflect the often non‐sedentary and non‐permanent nature of refugee returns to conflict‐affected societies. More research on returning refugees' transnational livelihoods is required to inform policy interventions facilitating the safe and sustainable return of refugees.
    November 20, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12143   open full text
  • How to Reverse the Italian Brain Drain: A Master Class from Australia.
    Vito Breda.
    International Migration. November 20, 2013
    This article discusses the limits of Italian immigration policies and their effects on the Italian market of highly skilled individuals. Italian statutory provisions aimed at regulating immigration focus on limiting immigration without a reasoned distinction being made between skilled and unskilled immigrants. The first part of the article argues that a combination of historical and sociological factors makes Italy uncompetitive in the global market of highly skilled individuals. The second part suggests two pilot schemes for policies that might help in addressing the issue. First, the introduction of a medium‐/long‐term visa for highly skilled individuals, and second, the establishment of private multinational universities modelled on the European Institute (EI) in Florence. These new institutions would open up the academic job market to overseas researchers and, at the same time, would provide a more solid base for the retrieval of Italian academics working abroad.
    November 20, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12142   open full text
  • Recruiting High Skill Labour in North America: Policies, Outcomes and Futures.
    Monica Boyd.
    International Migration. November 14, 2013
    This article compares Canadian and US recruitment of highly skilled workers, defined by educational, skill, and occupational criteria. Analysis shows that Canada disproportionally recruits skilled workers as legal permanent residents whereas family reunification dominates in the US. But such contrast ignores the large temporary skilled worker flows to the US and the on‐going reliance on them, or the growing use of temporary labour in Canada, including skilled workers. Data is presented on the admission of skilled migrants; recent and future policy developments are discussed. Comprehensive immigration reform is back on the US agenda with potential to increase the migration of skilled immigrants, to utilize a point system for some, and to continue the role of employers in the H1B visa programme. Canada has recently moved to a model of high skill labour recruitment that is characterized by decentralized selection mechanisms, and is demand driven and employer instigated. Policy Implications In studies of high skill international worker flows, it is insufficient to focus only on permanent resident policies; temporary worker programmes also offer entry to high skilled workers. Although skill can be defined by high education and professional or science based occupation, some countries seek skilled workers in the trades. New Canadian policy includes a Skilled Trades class. In the United States, the congressional system often produces incremental change on aspects of skilled worker policy. In Canada, the consolidation of power in the parliamentary executive is allowing substantial change in how skilled international workers will be recruited.
    November 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12139   open full text
  • Double return migration: failed returns to Poland leading to settlement abroad and new transnational strategies.
    Anne White.
    International Migration. November 11, 2013
    Many Poles who have arrived in the UK since EU accession show signs of settling. Often (especially for families with school‐age children) this is a gradual process. Other Poles have returned to Poland, but Poland currently seems to be having problems keeping its return migrants. Many go back only to depart again. This article focuses on why some returnees change their minds and decide to make a long‐term home abroad. It explores the implications of this decision for transnational practices and identities. It argues that often the key objective is stability. Choosing to settle abroad in the hope of a stable life, returnees attempt to live less split lives. While maintaining certain transnational practices, they scale down others, such as return visits to Poland and keeping well‐informed about Polish current events. Simultaneously, they make a decisive effort to integrate into the regular UK labour and housing markets.
    November 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12138   open full text
  • Is Preventing Coerced Repatriation Ethical and Possible? The Case of NGO Repatriation of South Sudanese in Israel.
    Mollie Gerver.
    International Migration. November 11, 2013
    “Voluntary repatriation” to a country of origin may be necessary to restore refugees' rights, when only a country of origin will provide rights associated with citizenship. Yet, if refugees are returning because they do not have access to basic rights in a host country, their return is not voluntary according to UNHCR guidelines (1996). There is a tension between facilitating repatriation to restore rights, and ensuring that repatriation is voluntary. This article will first draw on arguments from moral philosophy to suggest an alternative policy to current UNHCR guidelines. Following this normative analysis, the article hypothesizes that, on an empirical level, a repatriation policy that attempts to only facilitate repatriation that is not coerced, out of concern for voluntariness alone, may fail both to prevent coerced returns and to restore right through repatriation. This hypothesis was then tested in the case of South Sudanese repatriation from Israel between 2009‐2012.
    November 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12140   open full text
  • Intra‐diaspora Knowledge Transfer and ‘New’ Italian Migration.
    Loretta Baldassar, Joanne Pyke.
    International Migration. October 02, 2013
    The Italian Australia diaspora is a heterogeneous mix of regional, class and generational identities. This article identifies and considers the influence of four recent Italian‐Australian cohorts on the processes of Italian‐Australian cultural formation. Of particular interest is the most recent wave of migrants (post‐2000), whose arrival is prompted by the European economic crisis and facilitated by Australia's skilled migration programme. We argue that this cohort is a new form of “elite” skilled migration comprised of people who are independent of, yet reliant on, the community infrastructure and social standing that previous waves of Italian migrants have established. We consider the relationship between these cohorts as a process of “intra‐diaspora” knowledge transfer and show how diasporas play a fundamental role in the skilled migration project. These dynamics challenge assumptions that skilled migrant integration is “frictionless”. Rather, their arrival simultaneously generates diaspora renewal as well as tensions around identity and community resources.
    October 02, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12135   open full text
  • The Wages of Skilled Temporary Migrants: Effects of Visa Pathways and Job Portability.
    B. Lindsay Lowell, Johanna Avato.
    International Migration. September 16, 2013
    We examine the earnings of highly‐skilled foreign, temporary workers and how changes in visa system affect their earnings. We use the National Science Foundation's 2003 National Survey of College Graduates and find that foreign students and temporary workers earn less than natives and permanent immigrant workers on average. Changes in visa status increase earnings, but initial visa status conditions later earnings growth along visa pathways. This implies that migrant workers ability to achieve steady, rather than discontinuous, earnings growth requires policies that make their visa portable, that it permits them to readily change employers. An admission system that favours fully‐portable permanent visas may improve worker productivity. The findings also indicate that the selectivity of foreign S&E students is not as great as that of new workers admitted from abroad; another argument against ‘stapling’ permanent visa status to foreign graduate degrees. Policy Implications Visa requirements do not ensure that temporary students and workers earn the same as similar natives during their initial period of stay. Over time this may depress occupational earnings. There is a need to reform and enforce visa regulations. Visa portability that permits ready changes in employment should better migrant earnings. Permanent admission may be preferred. Temporary foreign students experience slow earnings growth, while temporary workers hired from abroad outperform foreign graduates. The assumption that foreign graduates are the best qualified appears incorrect and facilitating (“stapling”) a green card to their diploma a poor idea.
    September 16, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12133   open full text
  • Mothers and Grandmothers on the Move: Labour Mobility and the Household Strategies of Moldovan and Ukrainian Migrant Women in Italy.
    Sabrina Marchetti, Alessandra Venturini.
    International Migration. September 16, 2013
    This article contributes to the understanding of the westward migration of Eastern European women, by comparing Moldovan and Ukrainian women in Italy – the most popular destination for both groups – where they are mainly employed as domestic workers and home carers. Focusing on the differences in their trajectories in this labour sector, we discuss the significance of their age at emigration and their role within their families of origin. These have an impact not only on their mobility patterns, but also on their choices of employment and general socio‐cultural integration in the host country.
    September 16, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12131   open full text
  • Models of representation, Mobilization and Turnout: The Election of the Foreign Citizens' Council of the Province of Bologna.
    Djordje Sredanovic.
    International Migration. September 11, 2013
    The Foreign Citizens' Council of the Province of Bologna is a consultative, elected body that the Province has implemented to give representation to the non‐EU population, given the absence of local voting rights for these migrants in Italy. This work analyses the models of political representation implicit in the electoral rules of the council and in the organization of the main competing lists in the election, and, through the analysis of electoral data and 32 in‐depth interviews with the candidates, the effect the different models had. While the vote seems to have been mostly intra‐national, cross‐national lists were the most successful. The different levels of turnout among the electorate suggest that the vote was based on mobilization rather than on trust in the political system, and that the analyses that link associational density with electoral participation pose some theoretical and methodological problems in this field. Policy Implications Migrants' participation policy is always based on implicit political models of participation that should always be made explicit and examined before implementation. There is always a plurality of political preferences for different models of participation in the migrant population, that should be explored and accommodated. The number of associations in existence should not be used as an indicator of a strong civil society as largely as it is presently.
    September 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12130   open full text
  • What Can Migration Policymakers Learn From Legal Frameworks on National Minorities? National Minorities and Migration in Armenia and Belarus.
    Iryna Ulasiuk.
    International Migration. September 11, 2013
    The dissolution of the USSR resulted in massive depopulation of the republics and unprecedented migration flows, including national minorities. Citizens of a once indivisible country were suddenly divided into “those of our kind” (natives) and “outsiders” (national minorities/ immigrants). The latter were often not guaranteed citizenship and were denied basic rights. Many national minorities became forced migrants and refugees, leaving neighbouring states because of discrimination or fearing violence. This article focuses primarily on the interconnection of minority and migration issues, two topics which are often discussed separately. It investigates the interrelation between migration and the minority regimes adopted by Armenia and Belarus, and the extent to which certain policies and rights for national minorities can be meaningfully extended to new migrant minorities. It also asks what lessons can be learnt from the treatment of national minorities as far as future migration legislation is concerned. Policy Implications Migrants' participation policy is always based on implicit political models of participation that should always be made explicit and examined before implementation. There is always a plurality of political preferences, for different models of participation in the migrant population, that should be explored and accommodated. The number of associations in existence should not be used as an indicator of a strong civil society as much as it is at present.
    September 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12129   open full text
  • Troubled by Law: The Subjectivizing Effects of Danish Marriage Reunification Laws.
    Garbi Schmidt.
    International Migration. September 10, 2013
    Between 2002 and 2003, Denmark introduced further limitations on its already restrictive regulations concerning family and marriage reunification. While several studies, both Danish and international, have discussed the effects of these and other family reunification laws on individual practice, we know very little about the their effects on people's self‐perceptions and norms. Based on a qualitative data set, including a total of 89 interviews with young people of immigrant background living in Denmark collected between 1999 and 2009, this article seeks to provide answers to this and related questions. As a social technology, do the regulations create changes in the practice field of the respondents which they gradually come to see as natural and reasonable, or do they leave them in a troubling subject position (Staunæs, 2005) based on a socially and legislatively regulated stigma?
    September 10, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12132   open full text
  • Doing the Business: Variegation, Opportunity and Intercultural Experience among Intra‐EU Highly‐Skilled Migrants.
    Jon Mulholland, Louise Ryan.
    International Migration. September 01, 2013
    Focusing on the working experiences of the French highly skilled in London's financial and business sectors, this paper examines the impact of ongoing pan‐European variegation on intra‐EU highly skilled migration in two key respects: firstly, in its role as a driver for mobility, through its association with divergent opportunity structures across different nations and regions; and secondly, as a potential obstacle to the successful realization of such opportunities, post migration, where mobility exposes the highly skilled migrant to new and embedded forms of difference. Such differences necessitate adaptations, and the acquisition of new inter‐cultural competencies, that go on to mediate the experience, evaluations and outcomes of such opportunity‐driven mobilities. In unpacking the particularities associated with the mobilities of specific populations (the French), to specific places (London) we seek to contribute to a people and place‐sensitive understanding of the relationship between spatial mobility and social mobility. Policy Implications EU policymakers need to consider the nature and impact of ongoing variegation on highly skilled mobility within Europe and the problems of non‐transferability of human capital that this may produce. Highly skilled migration is crucial to sustaining the global talent pool that defines the London economy. Regional interests need to work with businesses and national policymakers to support and develop the opportunities, currently associated with London, for talented migrants to enhance their human capital. Businesses need to enhance the inter‐cultural competencies of all staff to facilitate working practices for effectiveness, productivity and fairness.
    September 01, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12120   open full text
  • Physician Migration In The Global South Between Cuba and South Africa.
    Daniel Hammett.
    International Migration. August 13, 2013
    Transnational physician migration has concerned states' health and migration policies for many years. Recent developments have increased attention to the outcomes of these flows in the global south, where physician emigration is undermining public health policies. Cuba's exporting of medical professionals presents an alternative dynamic, based upon both an ideology of humanitarian solidarity and a need to secure hard currency earnings. The benefits and challenges arising from a bilateral agreement between Cuba and South Africa to supply Cuban doctors to South Africa and training at the Latin American Medical School (ELAM) for South African medical students are addressed. The benefits of skills enhancement and professional development are noted, as well as the economic benefits for both the Cuban government and individual doctors, while concerns with the appropriateness of the medical training provided at ELAM for the South African health context and the sustainability of the current policy are discussed.
    August 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12127   open full text
  • Sudanese and Somali Refugees in Canada: Social Support Needs and Preferences.
    Edward Makwarimba, Miriam Stewart, Laura Simich, Knox Makumbe, Edward Shizha, Sharon Anderson.
    International Migration. August 01, 2013
    The aim of the study was to identify the unique support needs and preferences of African refugees in Canada. In‐depth interviews were conducted with Sudanese and Somali refugees (n=68) living in two cities in central and western Canada. Refugees were interviewed individually to identify their support needs, current sources of support, available support programmes, barriers to access to support resources, and preferred support interventions. These refugees reported major support needs, depleted social networks, and barriers to accessing services and supports. They identified distinct preferences for support from peers from the same country of origin and professionals. Participants wanted group‐level support supplemented by one‐to‐one support. Transportation, child care, meals, and peers matched by language and gender were recommended to enhance accessibility to support programmes. These findings can inform the design of support intervention research and enhance the relevance and supportiveness of services and programmes for recent refugees.
    August 01, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12116   open full text
  • Exchanging Views: Knowledge Transfer Through Literary Translation.
    Rita Wilson.
    International Migration. July 31, 2013
    Translation supports cultural interaction by fostering mutual understanding and enabling people to access foreign cultures. Logically, translation also furthers knowledge transfer in a broad sense. Drawing on recent scholarship that focuses on the migration and mobility of literary products (Damrosch, 2003; Casanova, 2004), this article seeks to show that the knowledge generated by both the practice of translation and the interdisciplinary area of Translation Studies is a key factor in shaping the image of a national culture.
    July 31, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12125   open full text
  • The Economy of Seeking Asylum in the Global City.
    Francesco Vecchio.
    International Migration. July 31, 2013
    This article explores asylum seeker survival strategies and agency in relation to the structural, post‐industrial conditions that have emerged in Hong Kong. The focus is on the livelihoods of asylum seekers within spaces of illegality and social exclusion, how such spaces are formed, and how asylum seekers exploit local conditions to establish profitable networks across borders. The article considers asylum seekers' engagement in income‐generating activities and the importance of legal status in the sectors of the economy in which they most often work: recycling and trading. Far from being a burden to society or opportunistic deviants taking advantage of Hong Kong's economic prosperity, as they are normally depicted in public discourse, asylum seekers are economically productive. They act in economic spaces in which disadvantaged strata of the local resident population organize their means of survival, thereby improving the economic opportunities for locals.
    July 31, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12126   open full text
  • Immigrant Entrepreneurs: The Identification of Foreign Market Opportunities.
    Melanie Smans, Susan Freeman, Jill Thomas.
    International Migration. July 24, 2013
    Building on the very few studies that examine how immigrant entrepreneurs identify opportunities to conduct business in foreign markets, this article explores how Italian immigrant entrepreneurs in Australia identify such opportunities. Relying on social network theory (Patel and Conklin, 2009), international business research indicates that social ties, including kinship and ethnic ties, facilitate the flow of information that enables entrepreneurs to identify opportunities (Ellis, 2011; Hayton, Chandler and DeTienne, 2011). This study finds that the Italian immigrant entrepreneurs prefer to receive information about business opportunities from trusting, social ties, particularly country of origin (Italy) regional based ethnic ties, rather kinship ties for fear of damaging the relationship. However both first and second generation immigrants do use kinship ties to gain knowledge about Italian market conditions. Implications for policy and practice, limitations of the study and ideas for future research are also presented.
    July 24, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12124   open full text
  • Towards a Gendered Evaluation of (Highly) Skilled Immigration Policies in Europe.
    Eleonore Kofman.
    International Migration. July 24, 2013
    Immigration policies reflect to varying degrees the calibration and stratification of desirable knowledge. The criteria adopted have varied across countries and immigration systems. However, despite the evidence that skilled women migrate more than men, little attention has been paid to the extent to which immigration policies impact differently on women and men and result in gender inequalities, and how the valuation of skills is gendered in its criteria and outcomes. Several European states have developed policies to attract the (highly) skilled in an attempt to make themselves as competitive as possible within a knowledge economy. The key criteria are salaries and educational qualifications which, together with the differential evaluation of skills, produce gender outcomes. This article explores how European policies for the (highly) skilled produce and reinforce inequalities in gendered circulations, not just between women and men, but also in terms of intersectional differences, such as race/nationality and age. Policy Implications Publish more disaggregated data by gender, race/nationality and age to support analysis of the implications of immigration policies. Develop gender‐based and intersectional assessments of immigration policies. Encourage states and international organizations to take into account the (in)equality aspects in the development of immigration policies.
    July 24, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12121   open full text
  • From Permanent Settlement to Transnationalism – Contemporary Population Movement between Italy and Australia: Trends and Implications.
    Graeme Hugo.
    International Migration. July 14, 2013
    Australia has one of the largest communities of overseas Italians which has evolved from a number of waves of migration. The contemporary migration relationship between the two countries is complex involving movement in both directions, much of it temporary. This article demonstrates that although there has been little permanent migration from Italy to Australia for several decades there has been a substantial increase in non‐permanent movements in both directions. The article examines the characteristics of different types of movers and then addresses the implications of the mobility.
    July 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12122   open full text
  • How to Overcome Deadlock in EU Immigration Politics.
    Christof Roos.
    International Migration. July 14, 2013
    Immigration policy is a very unlikely case for EU integration. EU policy‐making is constrained by member states' sovereignty claims and interest heterogeneity. Still, tentative integration towards EU conditions of entry and residence for some immigrant categories can be observed. By using the example of the skilled labour migration directive, the article explains how deadlock in policy‐making was overcome. It explores the factors that led to agreement in the EU immigration policy area, from the Commission's first proposal on labour migration in 2001 to its adoption in 2009. Explanations for integration in the policy area are member states' venue shopping the EU level for changing domestic legislation, their interest in locking‐in national standards in EU law, and the EU Commission's agenda‐framing. Strategic partitioning of policy was also used by actors to overcome deadlock in policy‐making. The reframing of policies, by reducing their scope to a few narrowly defined immigrant categories, influenced their adoption. This mechanism was observed in studying the eight years of policy‐making leading to the labour migration directive. The longitudinal analysis helps to identify the key dynamics that define this nascent EU policy area.
    July 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12079   open full text
  • Emigration for Development? An Exploration of the State's role in the Development‐Migration Nexus: The Case of Romania.
    Romana Careja.
    International Migration. July 07, 2013
    This article explores the proposition that the developmental potential of emigration depends on the context of the sending countries. It builds on the insights from the institutional approach to development and adapts them to the migration‐development nexus. It argues that government involvement is necessary if resources from emigration are to become seeds for development. By analysing the case of Romania, one of the largest labour sending countries in Eastern Europe, it argues that its laissez‐faire approach is likely not enough to capitalize on emigrants' resources for development.
    July 07, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12115   open full text
  • The Power of Legal Norms in the EU's External Border Control.
    Peter Slominski.
    International Migration. June 27, 2013
    Despite an increased level of legalization of JHA, academic literature has paid little attention to the role of law in this field. It is the objective of this article to assess the EU's attempt to reconcile its current practices of extraterritorial border control coordinated by Frontex in the Mediterranean with international human rights law, notably the principle of non‐refoulement. By drawing on insights on both rationalist and constructivist accounts, we argue that international human rights principles such as non‐refoulement are usually broad enough for everyone to identify and agree with and to provide state actors sufficient leeway to interpret the rules according to their interest. However, thanks to the activities of numerous inter‐, supra‐, and transnational actors offering various and competing legal interpretations, EU member states feel compelled to react by triggering several rounds of rule‐specification that have the power to clarify pertinent law and strengthen fundamental rights standards.
    June 27, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12089   open full text
  • “The EU Should Talk to Germany” Transnational Legal Consciousness as a Rights Claiming Tool among Undocumented Migrants.
    Helen Schwenken.
    International Migration. June 24, 2013
    Migrants must often negotiate their rights while being hampered by their precarious resident status, within contexts where the overlap of migration, welfare, labour and gender regimes lead to incoherent and contradictory institutional set‐ups that hinder their claiming of rights. The analysis of the legal consciousness of undocumented migrants in Germany reveals a complex set of orientations. On some occasions they waive their rights, accepting lower working conditions in order not to lose their jobs – a finding that confirms existing research. At the same time, they also informally “enact” rights and access to institutions themselves. They appeal to the experiences of undocumented migrants with laws and access to social services in other countries. The finding of relatively widespread transnational legal consciousness adds a new dimension to the scholarship on migrant legal consciousness and claims‐making, which has hitherto portrayed undocumented migrants as living in a legal limbo between their countries of origin and destination.
    June 24, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12118   open full text
  • Immigrants in the Old‐Age Pension System: The Case of Sweden.
    Jan Ekberg, Thomas Lindh.
    International Migration. June 19, 2013
    The article investigates incomes and especially state pensions 2008 among elderly immigrants who arrived in Sweden before 1970. At age 70 and above, the level of state old‐age pension for immigrant men was nearly the same and for immigrant women somewhat higher than for natives with similar characteristics. At age 65–66 the state pension was lower for immigrants than for their native counterparts. The differences in pensions for immigrants of different ages are probably due to changed rules in the Swedish state old‐age pension system from 2003. The new rules have hit different age groups in different ways. The gaps are partially levelled out when other incomes are included. The extent to which levelling occurs varies greatly between different immigrant groups. For immigrants who have arrived during the last decades, the future state old‐age pension outcomes are expected to be worse. Policy Implications The Swedish Pensions Agency should set up a register of pensions from abroad. This will tell us to what extent old‐age pensions from the home country compensate for low old‐age pensions from the Swedish system. Better integration on the labour market is a powerful measure for reducing the risk of future low pensions among immigrants. This is a challenge for Swedish integration policy. To what extent can other parts of the Swedish welfare system in the future compensate individuals with low old‐age pensions?
    June 19, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12117   open full text
  • Linking Food Security, Migration and Development.
    Jonathan Crush.
    International Migration. June 16, 2013
    The issue of food security is strikingly absent from current debates about the relationship between migration and development. The current international food security agenda displays a similar disregard for migration. There thus appears to be a massive disconnect between these two global development agendas. The reasons are hard to understand since the connections between migration and food security seem obvious. This article addresses possible reasons for the disconnect and then presents and discusses the implications for linking migration and food security of a recent survey in 11 African cities. The results show a consistent pattern of difference between urban migrant and non‐migrant households in relation to levels of food insecurity, sources of income, food procurement strategies, and participation in urban agriculture. This article therefore seeks to initiate a conversation between the separate worlds of migration and development on the one side, and food security on the other.
    June 16, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12097   open full text
  • Culture, Intermarriage, and Immigrant Women's Labor Supply.
    Z. Eylem Gevrek, Deniz Gevrek, Sonam Gupta.
    International Migration. June 16, 2013
    We examine the impact of culture on the work behaviour of second‐generation immigrant women in Canada. We contribute to the literature by analysing the role of intermarriage in intergenerational transmission of culture and its effect on labour market outcomes. Using female labour force participation and total fertility rates in the country of ancestry as cultural proxies, we find that culture affects the female labour supply. Cultural proxies are significant in explaining number of hours worked by second‐generation women with immigrant parents. The impact of culture is significantly larger for women with immigrant parents who share the same ethnic background than for those with intermarried parents. The weaker effect of culture for women raised in intermarried families stresses the importance of intermarriage in assimilation process. Our findings imply that government policies targeting women's labour supply may have differential effects on the labour market behaviour of immigrant women of different ancestries.
    June 16, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12098   open full text
  • High Mobility of Polish Women: The Ethnographic Inquiry of Barcelona.
    Izabella Main.
    International Migration. June 16, 2013
    This article analyses migration narratives of a small group of Polish female “repeat migrants” currently residing in Barcelona. Before settling there they lived in at least three other countries. I argue that repeat migrants experience many challenges: learning multiple languages, integrating into multiple labour markets, building multiple social networks, and adapting to cultural contexts. I asked whether these challenges have resulted in increased integration in the host societies or integration into international expatriate communities. The main findings are that the two main subgroups were 1) women who adapted well to life in Barcelona because of their Catalan partners and 2) women with international partners who tended to live in clusters of internationals. Polish immigrant women in my fieldwork perceived themselves as outsiders unless they quickly learned Spanish and Catalan. I also argue that the availability of different kinds of Urry's mobilities might influence and facilitate decisions on becoming more mobile.
    June 16, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12119   open full text
  • “Right Here is the Gateway”: Mobility, Sex Work Entry and HIV Risk Along the Mexico–US Border.
    S.M. Goldenberg, J. G. Silverman, D. Engstrom, I. Bojorquez‐Chapela, S.A. Strathdee.
    International Migration. June 14, 2013
    Women comprise an increasing proportion of migrants. Many migrate voluntarily for sex work or practise survival sex; others are trafficked for sexual exploitation. To investigate how the context of mobility shapes sex work entry and HIV risk, during 2010 to 2011 we conducted in‐depth interviews with formerly trafficked women currently engaged in sex work (n = 31) in Tijuana and their service providers (n = 7) in Tijuana and San Diego. Women's experiences of coerced and deceptive migration, deportation as forced migration, voluntary mobility, and migration to a risk environment illustrate that circumstances resulting from migration shape vulnerability to sex trafficking, voluntary sex work entry, and HIV risk. Findings suggest an urgent need for public health and immigration policies providing integrated support for deported and/or recently arrived female migrants. Policies to prevent sex trafficking and assist trafficked females must consider the varying levels of personal agency involved in migration and sex work entry.
    June 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12104   open full text
  • Empowered Wives and Frustrated Husbands: Nursing, Gender and Migrant Nepali in the UK.
    Radha Adhikari.
    International Migration. June 14, 2013
    Since 2000, increasing numbers of Nepali nurses have crossed national borders to participate in the global healthcare market. The most common destination countries are the UK, US, Australia and New Zealand. In particular, educated middle‐class women are attracted to nursing with the full support of their families. There have been profound changes in women's position in Nepali society. As a female only profession in Nepal, nursing provides an excellent focus on how and why these changes have occurred. Based on a multi‐sited ethnography, including in‐depth interviews with nurses and their families, conducted in Nepal and the UK from 2006–2008, this article discusses the changing nursing profession within the broader context of gender dynamics. Between 2000 and 2008, around 1000 Nepali nurses migrated to the UK. International nurse migration hugely affects nurses' immediate family dynamics. This article illustrates how migrant nurses' husbands have to accept a compromised social position, from being family bread‐winners in Nepal to dependent husbands in the UK.
    June 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12107   open full text
  • Polish Immigration in Barcelona: The Sagrada Familia Neighbourhood as an Arena for Interaction.
    Dawid Wladyka, Ricard Morén‐Alegret.
    International Migration. June 14, 2013
    Big cities play a dominant role in European research and policies on immigration. However, in recent years the focus has shifted to smaller units. The research upon which this article is based assumes that neighbourhoods' spatial configuration and social tissue constitute an influencing context where interactions develop. Mainly using semi‐structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, this article examines the experiences of Polish immigrants who live and/or work in the Sagrada Familia neighbourhood in Barcelona. This article highlights some patterns emerging from the accounts of inter‐ethnic interactions there, namely that for a number of native interviewees, Polish immigrants are ‘invisible’ and, in contrast, among Polish immigrants, there are difficulties in understanding Catalan/Spanish cultures, but interactions with Latin‐American immigrants are highlighted as frequent. Additionally, the article concludes that urban fabrics (e.g. scarce public areas), local policies (e.g. commercial bias) and socio‐economic characteristics (e.g. over‐exposition to massive tourism) are factors influencing on inter‐ethnic interactions.
    June 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12101   open full text
  • “Wiping the Refugee Dust from My Feet”: Advantages and Burdens of Refugee Status and the Refugee Label.
    Bernadette Ludwig.
    International Migration. June 14, 2013
    There are two dominant contrasting images of refugees in scholarship and popular discourse: refugees as powerless victims or beneficiaries of generous welfare packages. While it is true that an individual who enters the United States with legal refugee status has – at least at first glance – many advantages over those arriving as immigrants. Unlike immigrants, refugees are entitled to numerous government benefits, thus putting her or him in a privileged position compared to those who lack the official status of refugee. On the other hand refugees' depiction as being need of services and protection can also perpetuate an image of them as victims without agency. This ethnographic study of Liberian refugees in Staten Island, New York shows how refugees themselves and their co‐ethnics who are in the US under a variety of other legal statues regard the term “refugee”. This paper establishes the advantages that are associated with the legal refugee status and the burdens with the informal label “refugee”. This analysis will clarify how the legal refugee status can be beneficial and the informal label refugee, burdensome not just for Liberian, but for refugees in general and as such have significant policy implications.
    June 14, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12111   open full text
  • The Formation of Morocco's Policy Towards Irregular Migration (2000–2007): Political Rationale and Policy Processes.
    Katharina Natter.
    International Migration. June 13, 2013
    The factors that influence the formation of transit states' policies towards irregular migration have been insufficiently analysed. The case study in this article therefore investigates why and how Morocco, at the interface of Euro‐African migration flows, created a policy towards irregular migration at the beginning of the twenty‐first century. This article shows that Morocco's policy, rather than being a by‐product of European migration policies, was the authorities' strategic response to the country's complex geopolitical environment that aimed at restoring Morocco's pivotal role in the region via irregular migration control. By retracing the three‐phase inverted agenda‐setting process that occurred between 2000 and 2007, this article shows why and how irregular (transit) migration was set on Morocco's political agenda, transformed into a new area of public intervention and progressively framed as a national public problem.
    June 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12114   open full text
  • Labour, Legality and shifts in the Public/Private divide.
    Sarah Walsum.
    International Migration. June 13, 2013
    This article discusses the changing role that work performed in private homes has played, and continues to play, in migration law in the Netherlands and at the EU level. It explores to what degree work performed in the home is defined as (exploitative) contractual labour or as inherent to family life, and what this means for claims to residence rights as a precursor to citizenship. It does this by reviewing case law of the European Court of Justice (CJEU) and of the European Court of Human Rights (EctHR) against the background of the Dutch case. It reveals tension between how citizenship is constructed and reproduced at the national level and how it is constructed and reproduced at the EU level. Following Adam McKeown, this article concludes that different perspectives on (reproductive) labour as a qualification for citizenship may reflect different perspectives on (reproductive) labour and the quality of citizenship.
    June 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12112   open full text
  • Immigrant Naturalization in the Context of Institutional Diversity: Policy Matters, but to Whom?
    Maarten Peter Vink, Tijana Prokic‐Breuer, Jaap Dronkers.
    International Migration. June 12, 2013
    Why do some immigrants naturalize and others not? While much of the literature emphasizes the importance of country of origin features and individual characteristics, there is surprisingly little systematic research on the relation between citizenship policies in destination countries and citizenship take‐up among immigrants. Most research in this field draws on data from single country cases and has limited comparative scope. In this paper we analyze citizenship take‐up among first generation immigrants in 16 European countries. We apply an explicit cross‐national perspective and argue that immigrant naturalization in Europe is determined not only by country of origin features and individual characteristics, but also by the opportunity structure set by the citizenship laws in the countries of origin and destination. We show that more accessible citizenship policies matter little for immigrants from highly developed countries, particularly those with fewer years of residence, but matter significantly for immigrants from less developed countries. As the composition of immigrant populations and citizenship policies across Europe vary significantly, this comparative design is ideally suited to testing the relative importance of factors related to country of origin, individual background and legal opportunity structure.
    June 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12106   open full text
  • The Occupational Integration of Male Migrants in Western European Countries: Assimilation or Persistent Disadvantage?
    Gabriele Ballarino, Nazareno Panichella.
    International Migration. June 12, 2013
    This paper looks at the migrants' occupational integration process. Two main theoretical perspectives are tested: the first one (assimilation view) claims that in the short‐run migrants are penalized, but as they settle in the receiving country they get integrated into the host society; the second one (segmented assimilation view) claims that disadvantages persist in the long‐run. EU‐LFS and ESS data are described and modelled, in order to compare the labour market performances of migrants in four European old‐receiving countries (Germany, France, Great Britain and Sweden) and in two new‐receiving countries (Spain and Italy) both in a short‐term and in a long‐run perspective. We find that a) in the short‐run, migrants' labour market condition is worst with respect to the natives; b) this gap decreases with older migrants; c) the ethnic penalty disappears with the second generation, when they achieve a level of education comparable to that of the natives.
    June 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12105   open full text
  • Working for Legality: Employment and Migrant Regularization in Europe.
    Sébastien Chauvin, Blanca Garcés‐Mascareñas, Albert Kraler.
    International Migration. June 12, 2013
    Recent programs to regularize undocumented migrants suggest the increasing role of employment as a requirement for foreigners to legally reside in Europe. Taking as illustrations the cases of Spain, France, Austria, Belgium and Germany, this article examines how regularization policies frame work. Employment provisions follow a civic‐performance frame that breaks with the criterion of vulnerability. While secure forms of employment paying standard wages are privileged, the crisis has made such jobs even less accessible to migrants seeking to regularize or maintain their status. Residence permits granted through legalization have become increasingly temporary and conditional, often involving repeated transitions in and out of illegality. A vicious circle of “disintegration” thus threatens to set in where employment precariousness becomes both the source and the consequence of legal precariousness.
    June 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12109   open full text
  • Indian Students and the Evolution of the Study‐Migration Pathway in Australia.
    Lesleyanne Hawthorne.
    International Migration. June 12, 2013
    In the past two years Australia's reputation as a safe high quality education destination has suffered devastating damage in India – a process exacerbated by 2010–12 changes to the study‐migration pathway. Within this context Indian enrolments dropped 27 per cent from 2010 to 2011 and 25 per cent from 2011 to 2012. This article examines the complex interplay of migration and education policies in relation to Indian students in the past decade. It assesses the quantitative evidence available concerning former Indian students’ study choices, engagement in two‐step migration, and employment outcomes relative to other international students and offshore Indian migrants to date. The likely impacts of the latest skilled migration policy trends are then explored, in a context where India remains Australia's second ranked export education market.
    June 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12110   open full text
  • Gendered Perspectives on Integration Discourses and Measures.
    Eleonore Kofman, Sawitri Saharso, Elena Vacchelli.
    International Migration. June 09, 2013
    This article focuses on gendered discourses in integration policy and the problems immigrants pose in the reproduction of inequalities in a number of European countries. There has been little consideration of how gender categories operate in relation to broader political discourses around the construction of ‘us’ and ‘them’ and the constitution of national social and political communities and identities. Yet gender issues have become significant in the backlash against multiculturalism and gender and sexual relations have moved to the centre of debates about the necessity to enforce integration, if not assimilation. The first section outlines recent developments in the immigration‐integration nexus in different European states. The second section draws out some of the reasons for the focus on family migration and spouses who are seen as the main importers of the ‘backward’ practices and with ‘doubtful’ parenting practices for future generations of citizens. The third section tackles the shift of current debates about integration of migrant women from the periphery, where they were largely invisible or mere appendages of men, to the centre, where they have acquired in the process a heightened, though not necessarily positive, visibility. Too often, representations of migrant women are based on a homogenised image of uneducated and backward migrants as victims of patriarchal cultures, legitimizing in this way the use of immigration controls to reduce the numbers entering and to tackle broader social issues, as has clearly been the case with forced marriages. Furthermore, the more discourses focus on Muslim women and Islam as inimical to European societies, the more the debate becomes culturalised and marginalises the socio‐economic dimension of integration and the structural inequalities migrants face. Thus pre‐entry tests may have less to do with integration than with a desire to reduce the flow of marriage migrants or to raise their human capital.
    June 09, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12102   open full text
  • Attracting and Retaining Globally Mobile Skilled Migrants: Policy Challenges based on Australian Research.
    Siew‐Ean Khoo.
    International Migration. May 20, 2013
    For people with managerial, professional or technical skills and work experience, the job market is global, if they so choose. Their skills and work experience are sought after in a number of countries and they have a choice of where they would prefer to work. This article1 examines globally mobile skilled migrants' reasons for migration and return migration, as indicated in Australian research, and the policy challenges some of these reasons may pose for source and destination countries that want to retain or attract these people. This is because while some reasons or factors motivating the migration or return migration of skilled workers can be influenced by government policy, others such as lifestyle or quality of life factors may pose more difficulties for policy influence.
    May 20, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12103   open full text
  • Exploring the Rural‐Agrarian Linkages of Human Trafficking: A Study of the Indian Punjab.
    Suneel Kumar.
    International Migration. May 20, 2013
    This article explores the rural‐agrarian linkages of human trafficking in the Indian Punjab. The study argues that ongoing agrarian crises, high risk‐taking ability of some agrarian castes and low level of education in rural areas are fuelling the illicit business of human trafficking of Punjabis to foreign green pastures. Rural‐agrarian communities are the main victims of the traffickers' exploitation. The study has wider policy implications as it suggests policy‐makers should formulate a comprehensive policy framework for rural areas of Punjab to ensure the “3P” paradigm – prevention, protection and prosecution – of human trafficking.
    May 20, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12096   open full text
  • Working for a Better Life: Longitudinal Evidence on the Predictors of Employment Among Recently Arrived Refugee Migrant Men Living in Australia.
    Ignacio Correa‐Velez, Adrian G. Barnett, Sandra Gifford.
    International Migration. May 08, 2013
    Although a number of studies have investigated the predictors of employment among refugee migrants, there is a dearth of evidence from longitudinal data. This study investigated the cross‐sectional and longitudinal predictors of employment among 233 adult refugee men living in South‐East Queensland, Australia. Participants were interviewed four times at six‐month intervals between 2008 and 2010. Using a conceptual model developed from the literature, Generalized Estimating Equations were used to model the predictors of employment. Over time, the employment rate increased from 44 per cent to 56 per cent. Region of birth, length of time in Australia, seeking employment through job service providers and informal networks, and owning a car were significant predictors of employment. Contrary to previous research, English language proficiency was not a significant predictor when other variables were controlled for. Recognition of overseas skills and qualifications decreased the chances of finding employment. The policy and programme implications are discussed.
    May 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12099   open full text
  • Incorporation of Migrant Students Returning From the United States to High Schools in Mexico.
    Aldo Bazán‐Ramírez, Gabriela Galván‐Zariñana.
    International Migration. May 08, 2013
    The purpose of this research was to identify the difficulties faced by the Mexican migrant students when incorporated into the Mexican education system after having studied in the United States of America. Thirty migrant middle school students, two principals, two social workers and one teacher participated in the study. The study (conducted in two phases) collected information regarding: school admission, adjustment to the school organization, adaptation to learning situations and the perception of school belonging. The main problems found during the admission and enrolment procedures in Mexican schools are: language use, diagnostic assessment, didactic processes that take place in the classroom, complementary support activities, grade repetition, very little family involvement and the separation of the students from their migrant parents.
    May 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12085   open full text
  • Towards Coherence of EU External Migration Policy? Implementing a Complex Policy.
    Daniel Wunderlich.
    International Migration. May 03, 2013
    The “Global Approach to Migration” represents the European Union's most advanced attempt to integrate non‐member states' interests into its policy agenda. Despite ambitions to achieve policy coherence, assessments of EU policy show that security measures, such as border control and readmission, dominate over “migration and development” and labour migration measures. The article addresses the questions why different components of migration policy differ in their implementation and how this impacts the effectiveness and coherence of the “Global Approach”. The main findings of EU interventions in Morocco and Ukraine show that implementation partners, logic of action and available resources shape policy components' implementation, with profound impact on coherence. Since preventive measures are more greatly affected by amibiguities than control measures, a more balanced EU policy requires EU practitioners to consider how feasible interventions are under each policy component and scale down migration control projects rather than undermine preventive measures and long‐term coherence.
    May 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12088   open full text
  • Depending on the Sky: Environmental Distress, Migration, and Coping in Rural Cambodia.
    Maryann Bylander.
    International Migration. May 03, 2013
    Increasingly, research seeks to understand how environmental distress motivates migration, often focusing on the importance of singular events such as flood, drought or crop loss. This article explores the case of a Cambodian community where environmental shocks have been frequent over the past decade and international migration has increased. It shows that as a result of recurring and varied environmental shocks, households increasingly perceive agriculture‐based livelihood strategies as unwise and risky. This perception is widespread even among households not directly experiencing income loss. As a result, households use migration as a replacement for local livelihood strategies. These findings support two arguments relevant for future research and policy. First, that environmental shocks have importance beyond their immediate, direct impact. Second, that recurring shocks can influence preferences for and risk perceptions of local investments. Thus for policies to effectively address environmental vulnerability and/or rural development in precarious environments, they must incorporate local understandings of risk and possibility.
    May 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12087   open full text
  • Segmented Assimilation, Transnationalism, and Educational Attainment of Brazilian Migrant Children in Japan.
    Hirohisa Takenoshita, Yoshimi Chitose, Shigehiro Ikegami, Eunice Akemi Ishikawa.
    International Migration. May 02, 2013
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    May 02, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12057   open full text
  • The Economic Contribution of Humanitarian Settlers in Australia.
    Graeme Hugo.
    International Migration. April 25, 2013
    This article assesses the economic role of refugee settlers in Australia. Refugee‐humanitarian labour force participation rates are lower than for other migrant groups or the Australia‐born. However, their labour market performance converges toward that of the Australia‐born over time. Moreover, the second generation performs at a higher level. There are a number of significant impediments to participation including language, education, structural disadvantage and discrimination. Indeed, there is evidence of a significant refugee gap which can only be explained by discrimination. It is shown that refugees represent a significant stock of human capital that is not being fully realized. They suffer more than other groups through non‐recognition and there is substantial “brain waste” with negative results for the economy and the migrants themselves. Finally, it is shown that refugee‐humanitarian settlers show greater propensity to form their own business than other migrants and that risk‐taking, entrepreneurialism and an ability to identify and take advantage of opportunities is a key characteristic of the group.
    April 25, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12092   open full text
  • Polish Contemporary Migration: From Co‐migrants to Project ME.
    Jakub Isański, Agata Mleczko, Renata Seredyńska‐Abou Eid.
    International Migration. April 19, 2013
    International migration mirrors contemporary society in all its complexity. What has not changed for centuries is the principal motif: people leave their country of origin hoping for a better life. Poland has a long history of emigration: Poles have been migrating for more than 200 years for political, economic and social reasons. In recent decades, Polish migration patterns have undergone dramatic changes. Using online survey data, this article explores new trends in Polish migration since the country's accession to the European Union in 2004. The survey was focused on Polish migrants who stayed abroad for some time, those who stayed abroad before the accession, those who returned to Poland or those who experienced multiple travels and have an ongoing migration project. We conclude that new trends have emerged among Polish migrants. Contemporary migrants are aware of the benefits related to migration and are capable of implementing their migration project quite skilfully. Their high susceptibility to the economic setting proves their flexibility. Polish migrants highly value their new lifestyle abroad and consider friends their most important source of support.
    April 19, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12076   open full text
  • Day Labourers' Work Related Injuries: An Assessment of Risks, Choices, and Policies.
    Edwin Meléndez, M. Anne Visser, Abel Valenzuela, Nik Theodore.
    International Migration. April 18, 2013
    Literature and theory surrounding the informal economy in international contexts suggest that informal work arrangements may entail assuming various levels of risk, and that the higher the level of risk in an employment arrangement, the higher the premium paid to the worker. This study is designed to assess if a wage compensation for risk exists within the United States' day labour job market ‐ the most visible sector of the United States' informal economy. Using data from the 2005 National Day Labour Survey we find a statistically significant wage premium indicating that a risk‐wage tradeoff within the day labour informal economy exists. Ultimately, we argue that current policy interventions facilitated through day labour centres into the day labour market appear to be effective in mitigating the risks associated with this type of employment. Evidence of a risk‐wage premium in the day labour market suggests there is an incentive to assume higher levels of risk in work arrangements which presents significant concerns for worker safety. Higher levels of work related risks assumed by day labourers, may be minimized if they receive proper safety training through a formal venue such as a worker centre. Worker centres only serve 20 per cent of all day labourers in the United States, suggesting a need for the establishment of additional worker centres in other connected or industry based work sites, to help mitigate potential work related risks and injuries in the day labour market.
    April 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12042   open full text
  • Migration and Family Happiness in Bolivia: Does Social Disintegration Negate Economic Well‐being?
    Richard C. Jones.
    International Migration. April 18, 2013
    Various authors have begun to address the social impacts of international migration on families left behind. Family disintegration results from two separate factors: family separation and the loss of traditional values. Findings from this research (based on a random survey of over 400 households in three municipios of the central part of the state of Cochabamba, Bolivia, in the autumn of 2007) indicate that economic well‐being made possible by migration increases levels of professed family happiness. However, family disintegration resulting from migration decreases family happiness even more, with the net result that migrant households are considerably less happy than non‐migrant households. It is suggested that this result can be traced to the dynamic conflict between the traditional, group‐focused image of change prior to migration (engendering feelings of togetherness and security) and the modern, ego‐focused image of change that is a major social remittance of migration (generating competition and role insecurity).
    April 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12007   open full text
  • A Needs‐centred Educational Support Model for the Career Transitions of North Korean Defectors: Implications for South Korea's Support Policy.
    Kyungran Roh, Romee Lee.
    International Migration. April 18, 2013
    North Korean defectors have faced significant challenges in finding and keeping jobs in the South Korean labour market due to their many differences from South Korean workers. As the number of defectors has increased, South Korea has experienced an increased need for employment support to assist defectors in overcoming challenges in their employment and leading them to stable economic status. This study aims to develop a needs‐centred educational support model for defectors' career transitions, compare the content of suggested support programmes with the content of currently provided support programmes, and suggest relevant policy implications. Based on this study's findings, the authors argue that defectors' employment needs differ from those of other groups of job seekers in Korea; thus, this population should be served differently with consistent educational support. Each stage of the developed model provides appropriate support programmes that reflect the unique employment needs of defectors.
    April 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12086   open full text
  • Promoting ‘Healthy Childhoods’ and Keeping Children ‘At Home’: Beninese Anti‐Trafficking Policy in Times of Neoliberalism.
    Neil Howard.
    International Migration. April 18, 2013
    This article offers the first examination of its kind of the content and nature of anti‐trafficking policy as it is pursued in Benin. The article draws on data gathered from policy and project documents and from interviews and participant observation with actors integral to the constitution of policy in (and with influence over) the Beninese anti‐trafficking community. It attempts to bridge the oft‐lamented gap between page and practice by conducting analysis not only of the representation of policy in text, but also of its lived manifestations in processes, interactions and structures. It argues that the various different actors that comprise Benin's anti‐trafficking pantheon seek to accomplish one fundamental goal – to protect children from trafficking – through two overarching strategies – the promotion of ‘healthy’ childhoods and the pre‐emptive prevention of child movement. The article examines each of the main strands of policy and concludes by offering a Foucauldian analysis of their operation. It thus fills a major gap in the academic understanding of anti‐trafficking policy in the Beninese context.
    April 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12043   open full text
  • Explaining Urban Migration from Mexico City to the USA: Social Networks and Territorial Attachments.
    Cristóbal Mendoza.
    International Migration. April 15, 2013
    Using a representative survey on a municipality in Mexico City, the article explores the relevance of both social networks and place attachments for US migration. By comparing households with and without migrants, the logistic regression models show that social networks make emigration more selective with respect “education”, but less selective regarding “sex” and “marital status”. These results shed new light on the mechanism through which social networks operate in urban settings. Even if a municipality that is very homogeneous in terms of poverty and employment opportunities, variations on the socio‐demographic profile of the would‐be emigrants to the USA are found depending on the household′s social networks. As for territorial variables, the general impression is one of placelessness, apart from attachment to the municipality, but here again social networks act as an intervening variable.
    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12050   open full text
  • Whither and Whence Hong Kong Migration Studies?
    Adrian J. Bailey, K. L. Alex Lau.
    International Migration. April 15, 2013
    On 1 July 2012, Hong Kong (HK) celebrated the 15th Anniversary of its change of sovereignty to the People's Republic of China (PRC). During this period, migration has diversified greatly. Various new visa categories have been created. People from Mainland China and the rest of the world come to HK for work and settlement and HK people have gone to Mainland and overseas to study and work. To appreciate and better plan the growing diversity of migration to, from, and through HK, this article benchmarks the current legal categorizations of migration and calls for the development of a coherent theoretical approach that can better harmonize research and policy. We believe a transdisciplinary view can help generate the range of evidence needed to plan for diversity, and that this is best coordinated through a new HK Migration Observatory.
    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12082   open full text
  • “Infiltrators” or Refugees? An Analysis of Israel's Policy Towards African Asylum‐Seekers.
    Hadas Yaron, Nurit Hashimshony‐Yaffe, John Campbell.
    International Migration. April 15, 2013
    This article adopts a genealogical approach in examining Israeli immigration policy by focusing on the situation confronting African asylum seekers who have been forced back into Egypt, detained and deported but who have not had their asylum claims properly assessed. Based on immigration policies formulated at the time of Israeli independence, whose principle objective was to secure a Jewish majority state, we argue that Israel's treatment of African asylum seekers as ‘infiltrators’/economic migrants stems from an insistence on maintaining immigration as a sovereign issue formally isolated from other policy domains. Such an approach is not only in violation of Israel's commitment to the Refugee Convention, it directly contributes to policies which are ineffective and unduly harsh.
    April 15, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12070   open full text
  • Returning “Home”: East European Migrants' Discourses of Return.
    Violetta Parutis.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12037   open full text
  • Does Economic Crisis Always Harm International Migrants? Longitudinal Evidence from Ecuadorians in Barcelona.
    C. O. N. Moser, Philipp Horn.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    Current research on the impacts of the 2007 global economic crisis on international migration takes two different positions. Some studies emphasize the negative impacts while others are more positive. This article argues that these two positions offer simplistic interpretations which fail to take account of the complex micro‐level realities that determine migrant experiences. The article discusses how a small group of migrants from Guayaquil, Ecuador, accumulate and consolidate a complex portfolio of assets both before and during the economic crisis in Spain. Conceptualized in terms of an asset accumulation framework, and based on micro‐level longitudinal trend data, rather than the more generally used macro‐level snapshots or anecdotal evidence, the study highlights the fact that the formalization of legal status or citizenship is a crucial pre‐condition, which sets in motion a ‘virtuous’ cycle of consolidation of an interrelated portfolio of assets, regardless of the wider macro‐economic environment. Even if this turns into a ‘vicious’ cycle, for those losing jobs, to date Spanish welfare benefits have acted as a social protection mechanism.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12047   open full text
  • Immigration and Transnationalism: Rethinking the Role of the State in Latin America.
    Gregory Weeks, John Weeks.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    As more Latin American migrants make their way to the United States, the issue of transnationalism has received increased scholarly attention. Transnationalism refers to the delinking of the individual from his or her government and an increase in international ties as a result of the economic globalization that promotes the movement of people, goods, money, and ideas. Prevailing consensus is that the state, particularly in Latin America, is weakened by transnationalism because individuals are freer than ever from state control. This article argues that examining Latin American emigrant policies yields a different conclusion, namely that the state's response to transnational pressures has made governments more active and relevant in certain ways than in the past. Studies of transnationalism must therefore incorporate state strategies for a better understanding of its impact on Latin American governments.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12054   open full text
  • Ethnic Return Migration and Public Debate: The Case of Kazakhstan.
    Işık Kuşçu.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    Ethnic return migrations tend to become a controversial issue and create public debates within the receiving homeland states because of two major factors. The first concerns the economic and social problems brought on by the migrants′ integration process as well as the socio‐economic burden that such migrations place on homeland institutions. The second involves the inherently discriminatory and exclusionary character of such migrations because they privilege the state‐bearing ethnic group over others. As we will see, this dynamic has important implications for domestic nation‐building. To better understand these influences within Kazakhstan, this article will attempt to analyse the public debate surrounding the government's ethnic return migration policy. It traces the discourse concerning the return of Kazakh oralmans (return migrants) by examining both Kazakh and Russian language publications. Interviews with experts, informal discussions with return migrants and the testimonies of long‐term residents in the country are also used to this end.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12055   open full text
  • Latin American Migration to Spain: Main Reasons and Future Perspectives.
    María Hierro.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    Over the last two decades, Spain has evolved rapidly from a classic labour exporter to a labour importer. Until the 1930s Spain's migration history was predominantly marked by emigration to the Americas, and from the end of World War II until the early 1970s by emigration to some industrialized countries in Western Europe. For the first time in modern times, Spain is now the second country in the world with large‐scale immigration. Its strategic location, a relatively permissive immigration policy and economic opportunities derived from Spain's entry into the European Community have positioned this country as a major destination for immigrants. Additionally, since the mid‐1990s international migration in Spain has dramatically changed in origin composition. Despite the common perception of Africa as the most important source of immigration, some Latin American countries, in a very short time, have become some of the major sources of immigration to Spain; indeed, the term “Latin‐Americanization” has been coined to describe this process. This being so, the aim of this article is twofold. First, we examine the main reasons behind the extremely rapid increase of Latin American migration to Spain during the last decade. Then we briefly discuss some future perspectives.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12056   open full text
  • Embedding or Uprooting? The Effects of International Labour Migration on Rural Households in Armenia.
    Victor Agadjanian, Arusyak Sevoyan.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    The impact of international labour migration on human wellbeing and socioeconomic development in communities of origin is an important yet understudied issue in contemporary migration research. This study examines whether men's labour migration from rural Armenia to Russia and other international destinations enhances the economic and social connections of the left‐behind households to their communities or, on the contrary, undermines those connections and encourages household members' own migration. Using survey data, it compares families of migrants and non‐migrants with respect to ownership of productive and major non‐productive assets in the community and women's non‐farm labour force participation, their social engagement in the village, and their desires to migrate abroad. The results of statistical tests indicate that men's migration is negatively associated with households' asset ownership and with women's non‐farm employment. The results for women's social engagement in their villages are less consistent. Finally, regardless of economic attachment, social engagement, and a host of other factors, wives of migrants were significantly more likely to wish to move abroad than women married to non‐migrants, and the difference in propensity to emigrate between migrants' and non‐migrants' wives increases with duration of husband's migration. We situate these findings in the context of Central Eurasia's international labour migration system and discuss their implications for future migration trends and for socioeconomic development of Armenia and similar settings.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12058   open full text
  • Future Plans of Iraqi Physicians in Jordan: Predictors of Migration.
    Sana Malik, Shannon Doocy, Gilbert Burnham.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    The continuing violence in Iraq has led to further damage to the health sector in a country already affected by sanctions, war and harsh rule. As a consequence some doctors have been killed and others have migrated, both within Iraq and from Iraq to neighbouring countries. In this article we report patterns of migration of Iraqi physicians, identify perceived future plans, and assess factors behind physicians' decisions. Respondent driven sampling in 2007 was used to interview 401 Iraqi medical doctors who migrated to Jordan after the 2003 invasion of Iraq The main outcome measure for this study was the future plans of physicians, which included permanently residing outside Iraq or returning to Iraq. Physicians who planned to return to Iraq differed from those who planned to reside permanently outside Iraq in the following factors: age categories (relative odds comparing age 50 plus to those under 30 = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21–0.97), years spent outside of Iraq (RO = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.28–3.21), no difficulties in Jordan (RO = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.31–0.93), and household members residing in Iraq (RO = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05 – 1.31). Many doctors who fled Iraq after the 2003 invasion do not plan to return, which must be considered in future training strategies for the Iraqi health sector.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12059   open full text
  • Knowledge Transfer and Capacity Building Through the Temporary Return of Qualified Nationals to Afghanistan.
    Katie Kuschminder.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    Increasing research has illustrated the positive effects of the diaspora on the country of origin. The majority of this research, however, has focused on the effects of diaspora remittances and investments. This article examines the effects of the diaspora on knowledge transfer and capacity building in a post‐conflict environment. The article is based on a case study of the International Organization for Migration the Netherlands, Temporary Return of Qualified Nationals to Afghanistan project, in which 59 highly skilled Dutch‐Afghans returned to work with a host institution (public or private) in Afghanistan for three months to transfer knowledge and build capacity. In‐depth interviews were conducted with project participants, host institutions, participants' colleagues, and key informants to gather an understanding of how participants contributed. The article finds that diaspora temporary returnees were most effective in forms of tacit knowledge transfer and that the knowledge transfer process effectively led to capacity building in Afghanistan.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12065   open full text
  • Managing International Student Migration: the Practices of Institutional Actors in Denmark.
    Ana Mosneaga.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12071   open full text
  • Immigration Policy and Entrepreneurship.
    Stéphane Mahuteau, Matloob Piracha, Massimilano Tani, Matias Vaira Lucero.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    This article analyses the impact of a change in Australia's immigration policy, introduced in the mid‐1990s, on migrants' probability of becoming entrepreneurs. The policy change consists of stricter entry requirements and restrictions to welfare entitlements. The results indicate that those who entered under more stringent conditions – the second cohort – have a higher probability of becoming self‐employed, than those in the first cohort. We also find significant time and region effects. Contrary to some existing evidence, time spent in Australia positively affects the probability to become self‐employed. We discuss the intuitions for the results and their policy implications.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12072   open full text
  • Understanding the Socioeconomic Status of International Immigrants in Chile Through Hierarchical Cluster Analysis: a Population‐Based Study.
    Baltica Cabieses, Helena Tunstall, Kate Pickett.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    Immigration to Chile is not large (just under 2% of the total population) but has increased in recent years. This study aimed to analyse the socioeconomic status (SES) of immigrants in Chile and compare it with the Chilean‐born, by secondary data analysis of an anonymous nationally representative survey (CASEN, 2006). Immigrants are categorized into Low, Medium and High SES through hierarchical cluster analysis. Around 1 per cent of the total sample are international immigrants; an additional 0.7 per cent did not report their migration status. Self‐reported immigrants show great variability in their SES. Immigrants in the Low SES cluster appeared to be significantly younger than those in Medium and High SES, also more likely to be children, women and belong to an ethnic minority. Immigrants in the Low SES cluster appeared similar to the unemployed, poorest Chilean‐born but are more than eight years younger on average and more likely to be female. Immigrants to Chile are a unique group, with socio‐demographic characteristics that differ significantly from the Chilean‐born population, but there is great heterogeneity and complexity within this group. Cluster analysis provided a meaningful interpretation of the multidimensional concept of SES and allowed the identification of a vulnerable group of Low SES immigrants to Chile.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12077   open full text
  • Migrant Indebtedness: Bangladeshis in the GCC Countries.
    Md Mizanur Rahman.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    Labour migration affects family economics in at least two ways: one is the outflow of indispensable family resources to meet the expenses incurred in the migration process and the other is the transfer in cash or kind from migrants to their non‐migrating families. This study primarily addresses the former flow, that is sources of funds for migration and resulting migrant indebtedness. Drawing on the experiences of Bangladeshi migrants in the GCC countries, this study explores the economic cost of migration, the extent of migrant indebtedness, and the implications of remittances on migrant families. This research exposes the complexity and multiplicity of the economic costs of migration to the GCC countries and reports that Bangladeshi migration to the Gulf states runs on debt, with migrants and their families indebting themselves in the migration process.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12084   open full text
  • Dependence and Human Trafficking in the Context of Transnational Marriage.
    Guri Tyldum.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    Human trafficking is often associated with exploitation in prostitution. However, the UN Trafficking Protocol lists several other forms of exploitation as forms of human trafficking, including domestic and sexual servitude. These are forms of exploitation that can take place within the context of a marriage. In this article I discuss issues of vulnerability, power and exploitation in the context of transnational marriage. It is based on a study of Thai and Russian women married to Norwegian men conducted in 2006–2008. Based on an analysis of the experiences, priorities and challenges these women face, I argue that systematic exploitation of the dependence created in transnational marriage in some instances can and should be conceptualized and prosecuted as cases of human trafficking.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12060   open full text
  • The Impact of EU Migration Policies on African Countries: the Case of Mali.
    Florian Trauner, Stephanie Deimel.
    International Migration. March 18, 2013
    This article elaborates on the impact of EU migration policies on African countries, taking Mali as a case study. Building upon fieldwork in the country, it argues that enhanced European involvement (EU and individual member states) has caused Mali to develop a more control‐oriented dimension to its migration policy and to strengthen its links with European development actors and the Malian diaspora. While these reverberations of EU policies can be likened to what scholars have established for other African countries, Mali is unusual because of its large exposure to altered regional patterns of migration cooperation. Many of the regional refoulements and deportations end in Mali despite the fact (or, perhaps, because of the fact) that the official Malian state does little to regulate these operations. In the absence of official policy responses, civil society organizations have stepped in to provide returned migrants with basic care and reception.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12081   open full text
  • Returnees' Perspectives on Their Re‐migration Processes.
    Ine Lietaert, Ilse Derluyn, Eric Broekaert.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    The return of refugees and migrants back to their country of origin is an important topic on the agenda of Western European governments, as return is considered as the most “durable solution” for the “refugee problem”, and as an instrument with which to tackle “illegal” migration. However, these migration policies generally lack a clear evidence base, as little studies have focused on returnees' current living situations and on their perspectives on the re‐migration process. In this paper we therefore try to listen to returnees' voices, through in‐depth interviews with four Nepalese migrants both before (in Belgium) and after (in Nepal) their return, and with 16 returnees after their return to Nepal. The interviews show how most returnees start with a disadvantageous “point of departure” to realize a “successful” return: mostly, they do not really depart “voluntarily”, and they only have limited possibilities for preparing their return and setting realistic expectations. But also, back in the “home country”, most returnees judge their current economic, social and political living situation as bad, meeting little of the expectations that they set before they returned. The participants consider the support they received through the NGOs' return programmes as minimal, because they are mostly limited to a small amount of financial support, and thus of little significance in these returnees' efforts to rebuild their lives in their “home” country. If return programmes want to make a difference in returnees' lives, they should have two extensive components in the “home” and the “host” country, incorporating in both components an integral approach, including economic, political, social and psychological aspects. Viewing these findings, it is not surprising that most interviewees eventually evaluate their return as unsuccessful, and many returnees consider re‐emigration, all of which clearly questions the current basis of worldwide migration policies.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12052   open full text
  • International Student Mobility and Tertiary Education Capacity in Africa.
    Mary M. Kritz.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    In Africa, 5.8 per cent of enrolled tertiary students go outside their homelands for tertiary study. No other world region has this high a share of outbound student mobility. In this study, I examined why African countries have larger student outflows than other regions and, in particular, I considered the importance of tertiary education capacity in the region for student mobility. I evaluated the determinants of student outflows from African countries for three different measures: the total number of tertiary students abroad, the percentage of the tertiary age cohort studying abroad and the percentage of total enrolled students abroad. In addition to showing that country rankings differ on these mobility measures, the findings indicate that their determinants also differ. The study premise was that student outflows should be lower from countries that have a greater supply of tertiary training capacity and that thesis received strong support in models that estimated the percentage of total enrolled students abroad. In models for that outcome, student outflows were also larger if countries had high tertiary demand and populations under 2 million. The findings for models that estimated total numbers abroad and share of the tertiary cohort abroad were similar after controlling for interactions between tertiary education supply and GDP per capita. In addition, population size and per capita GDP were stronger correlates of student mobility in those models, which suggests that it is more difficult for education supply and demand measures to account for student outflows when crude outflow measures are used. I concluded that strengthening tertiary education supply at home would be a cost‐effective way for African governments to increase their human capital and reduce brain drain losses.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12053   open full text
  • HIV and “People on the Move”: Six Strategies to Reduce Risk and Vulnerability During the Migration Process.
    Mary Haour‐Knipe, Barbara Zalduondo, Fiona Samuels, Kate Molesworth, Sarita Sehgal.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    Mobile, migrant and displaced people require specific attention with regard to HIV vulnerability, including information and services tailored to their social, cultural and economic backgrounds and to the phase of mobility. Too few studies have systematically documented the needs of people on the move in this regard or evaluated the existing responses to meeting these needs. Most studies and programme descriptions focus on specific populations at country or community levels. Few compare and contrast different population groups, and few are regional or cross‐continental in scope. Most are purely descriptive, and lack a theoretical framework. The aim of this article is to precipitate more structured international comparisons – and questions – that will fill some of the evidence and programming gaps defined.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12063   open full text
  • Framing an EU Level Regularization Mechanism: Mission Impossible?
    Ali Bilgic.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    European Union Member States have so far tackled the problem of irregular migration in Europe by adopting common policies which aim to prevent irregular arrivals on the EU borders. In their EU‐level policies, they have neglected regularization as an alternative EU‐level policy addressing irregular migration. This represents a contrast to regularizations which are performed by many EU Member States. However, the EU Commission has gradually adopted a more positive stance about regularization. This article will discuss the principles of an EU‐level regularization scheme through the analysis of the Commission's ideas on the issue. It will be argued that, rather than adopting a common policy, the flexible set of measures, which guide Member States in formulating regularization mechanism for protection/humanitarian reasons, can be formulated at the EU level.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12064   open full text
  • Preserving Cultural Heritage in the Context of Migratory Livelihoods.
    Luann Good Gingrich.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12066   open full text
  • The UK Migrant Cap, Migrant Mobility and Employer Implications.
    Lisa Scullion, Simon Pemberton.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    Advocates of the “borderless world” thesis suggest that migrant workers can benefit from employment opportunities available everywhere, with workers simply migrating towards these opportunities. However, as global inequalities widen and potential global mobilities develop, states are “managing” migration. Individual migrant “agency”, its structuration, and the subsequent experiences of migrants and employers, can restrict such mobility. Consequently, there is a need to describe and problematize the new strategies. This article considers these issues with reference to the emerging impact of the migrant cap on non‐European Economic Area (EEA) migrants to the United Kingdom (UK). It explores the links between immigration and employment rights and the implications for migrant mobility. Policies of “managed migration” frequently do not take into account issues of geography and intra and inter regional competition for migrants by employers operating in sectors with skill shortages, or differential migrant “agency” in the form of their skills and attributes. This may impinge on the effectiveness of such approaches and on economic prosperity at a national, regional and local scale.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12068   open full text
  • Policy Implications for Addressing Roma Precarious Migration Through Employment at Home.
    Maria‐Carmen Pantea.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    Roma migration from Romania is often precarious and takes place in circumstances that increase pre‐existent levels of vulnerability. For many, migration is a last resort solution for navigating an insecure economic environment. For others, it has become a source of profit they draw upon, sometimes at the expense of the most vulnerable members of Roma communities. The major challenge this article addresses is how to create the enabling circumstances at home in order to provide alternatives to precarious migration for Roma. Informed by interviews with Roma migrants and with local authorities, this article examines the policy options at local level, addressing Roma precarious migration. It examines the limitations of the current employment policies in relation to Roma in order to identify what seem to work, what sounds promising and what does not work. It advises that job fairs and counselling campaigns are likely to fail, as they do not tackle the structural constraints keeping Roma outside the labour market. Unless linked with realistic employment opportunities, training courses also remain precarious strategies for labour market integration. The article also argues that individualized interventions (including repatriation schemes) are likely to increase community divides. The article supports structural, community‐level measures for tackling unemployment and argues that future policies need to have Roma communities as the ‘unit of intervention’, because the social preconditions for migration are likely to be generated at this level. This policy proposal is grounded in the research finding that an apparently consistent group of Roma migrants, prone to deceitful recruitment and precarious migration, would endorse reasonable and stable economic solutions at home. Yet accepting that circular migration may be inevitable for a number of Roma is an important ingredient when designing policy interventions.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12069   open full text
  • Why Refugees Rebel: Towards a Comprehensive Theory of Refugee Militarization.
    Mike Lebson.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    Militarization by refugees can have problematic outcomes. It can undermine the sovereignty and stability of the host state, perpetuate a transnational conflict and obstruct international efforts to resolve it, and present difficulties in the provision of humanitarian assistance to needy populations. Existing literature privileges structural explanations for militarization while neglecting the agency, interests and internal politics of refugee groups. In this paper, I offer a comprehensive theory of refugee militarization that emphasizes the importance of endogenous factors, including political and economic motivations, in the context of broader structural factors, including political opportunities and resource mobilization, mediated by the presence of militancy entrepreneurs. This theory helps integrate the motivation of refugees, and the discursive framing used by militancy entrepreneurs to mobilize them, with capacity for militant activity. The need for case studies and specific policy recommendations for host states, non‐governmental organizations and international stakeholders are discussed.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00780.x   open full text
  • Fatherhood and Transmission in the Context of Migration: An Irish and a Polish Case.
    Julia Brannen, Ann Mooney, Valerie Wigfall, Violetta Parutis.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    The article compares men's biographies and fatherhood across two generations among the Irish and the Polish, who represent different waves of migration to Britain, focusing on two chains of fathers and sons. It examines different aspects of transmission between fathers and sons and, in the context of migration, the part that generational experience played in how men identify (or not) with their own fathers and repeated or changed their fatherhood practices. A comparative approach suggests the importance of taking account of the life course, the historical moment of migration, and the ways in which migration complicates intergenerational family relations by creating structural and relational ambivalences as the younger generation seeks to make its own mark. However ambivalences are managed and often coexist with solidaristic relations in terms of providing reciprocal support across the generations and in the fathers' identification with their fathers' strong work ethic and provider role. As fathers they are more involved in their children's lives than their fathers were but their employment conditions typically continue to constrain this.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12067   open full text
  • “Smuggled Refugees”: The Social Construction of North Korean Migration.
    Jiyoung Song.
    International Migration. March 08, 2013
    In this paper, I demonstrate the identity transformation of North Korean women in interaction with state and non‐state actors and domestic and regional structures, which I formulate for the purposes of this paper. From a state‐centric social constructivist perspective in politics and international relations, I examine how the identities and interests of North Korean women are constituted and reconstituted in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the People's Republic of China and five South‐East Asian countries along their migration routes before they reach the Republic of Korea – the so‐called “Seoul Train in the Underground Railway”. Back in their country of origin, North Korean women are socially constructed as Confucian communist mothers. In China, the most frequently depicted images of North Korean women are trafficked wives. By paying for smugglers to cross borders to neighbouring South‐East Asian countries, North Korean women finally become the agents of their own destiny, refugees in waiting to be transferred to South Korea.
    March 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12033   open full text
  • Migrant Men's Fathering Narratives, Practices and Projects in National and Transnational Spaces: Recent Polish Male Migrants to London.
    Majella Kilkey, Ania Plomien, Diane Perrons.
    International Migration. January 28, 2013
    Historically migrants have been constructed as units of labour and their social reproductive needs have received scant attention in policy and in academic literature. The growth in ‘feminist‐inflected’ migration research in recent decades, has provoked a body of work on transnational care‐giving that poses a challenge to such a construction, at least as it relates to female migrants in general and mothers in particular. Researchers, however, have demonstrated less interest in how migrant men give meaning to and perform their fathering roles. Such neglect is increasingly problematic in the context of rising social, political and academic interest in the significance of fathering in European (and other) societies. With the purpose of making a preliminary contribution to knowledge on migrant men's fathering narratives, practices and projects, this article draws on findings from interviews conducted with recent migrants from Poland to the UK. By focusing on migrant fatherhood, we add to the understanding of transnational care‐giving by illuminating the many parallels between migrant mothering and fathering. Our findings are consistent with much of the literature on transnational mothering, highlighting tensions between breadwinning and parenting and the various strategies fathers deploy to reconcile these tensions. Nevertheless, we find that migrant men's fathering narratives, practices, and projects, while challenging the construction of male migrants as independent and non‐relational, remain embedded within the dominant framework of the gendered division of labour. More uniquely, the article also demonstrates the importance of situated transnational analyses, in this case the institutional arrangements between the UK and European Union new Member States, which gave the Polish migrants privileged labour market access and social rights within the UK's highly differentiated migration regime. This access allowed mobility, settlement and or family reunion according to the migrant's specific circumstances and preferences with respect to the labour market and parenting.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12046   open full text
  • Business and Social Profiles of Immigrant‐Owned Small Firms: The Case of Pakistani Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Greece.
    Daphne Halkias.
    International Migration. January 28, 2013
    This study examines Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs in Greece in order to identify patterns of ethnic entrepreneurship and socio‐economic challenges faced by ethnic entrepreneurs. The research aims to enhance understanding of the characteristics and business profiles of Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs in Greece's capital, Athens, and make recommendations for the development of a follow‐up three‐year longitudinal study of Pakistani immigrant businesses in Athens. A survey administered to 13 Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs recorded a wide range of data from which frequency distributions were processed as well as cross‐tabulations and Chi‐square tests, to reveal strong associations. Findings of note reveal that Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs set up enterprises with their own capital rather than turning to the private financial sector, are mostly well‐educated despite earlier research noting the opposite, Greece is the terminal migration destination of choice for Pakistani immigrant entrepreneurs, their market‐share of work permits is proportionately larger than their residence permit share, they differ from other ethnic groups by substantial preference for operation of call centers, and they are very much bound to their ethnic enclaves. This body of research offers a unique contribution to an area which has until now been largely ignored.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12008   open full text
  • The Industry of Illegal Migration: Social Network Analysis of the Brazil‐US Migration System.
    Dimitri Fazito, Weber Soares.
    International Migration. January 28, 2013
    In this article, we analyse the process of migration by applying a social network methodology. Using the personal network approach, we focus on a case study of the Brazil‐US migration system to analyse the formation of the so‐called “industry of illegal migration”. We suggest that in migration systems, brokerage evolves not only because of historical and cultural changes, but also because the changes emerge within a structured environment in which brokerage can thrive, and this, in turn, causes the social networks to support and produce specialized actors (individuals and organizations) embedded in the “right positions” of the social structure in the migration process. In this particular case study, we suggest that brokerage seems to take place through gender‐oriented networks and the personal experience and structural power of returned migrants. These returned migrants usually have more varied social contacts and types of relationships from which they can obtain richer information about the migration system.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12034   open full text
  • Homo Sovieticus Revisited – Anti‐Institutionalism, Alcohol and Resistance Among Polish Homeless Men in London.
    Michal P. Garapich.
    International Migration. January 28, 2013
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12041   open full text
  • Well‐Being of Refugees from Burma: A Salutogenic Perspective.
    Summer Borwick, Robert D Schweitzer, Mark Brough, Lyn Vromans, Jane Shakespeare‐Finch.
    International Migration. January 28, 2013
    A salutogenic approach explored themes of strength and well‐being in life stories of Burmese refugees (N = 18) in Australia. Previous refugee studies have tended to focus on negative responses to traumatic events (e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). To widen the scope of refugee related research the focus of the current study was informed by a salutogenic perspective, exploring sources of strength that may facilitate well‐being. Semi‐structured narrative interviews explored: the participant's life before fleeing Burma, the journey of exile, and post‐migration in Australia. Eight women and 10 men (Mage = 39 years) were interviewed and transcriptions analysis of narratives was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with major themes being explicated. Super‐ordinate themes pertaining to strength during times of hardship were identified and explicated as: support from interpersonal relationships, the pivotal role of values, a sense of future and agency, and reliance on spiritual or religious beliefs. Results indicate the existence of sources of strength that may contribute to human responses in times of hardship. Recognition and reflection of strengths may be incorporated into therapeutic and resettlement approaches for people from refugee backgrounds.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12051   open full text
  • The Ethnic Composition of Science and Engineering Research Laboratories in the United States.
    Zeynep Esra Tanyildiz.
    International Migration. January 28, 2013
    The United States has been a top destination country for science and engineering (S&E) graduate education for foreign talent for many years. Despite the clear existence of foreign students in the USA, relatively little is known about the factors influencing the flow of foreign students. In this study, we examine foreign doctoral students in science and engineering, and test whether “ethnic affinity” plays a role in the ethnic composition of research laboratories (in what follows, “labs”) in US universities. In order to test this hypothesis, we conduct a web search, and select 164 science and engineering laboratory web pages for analysis. Among these 164 labs, 82 are directed by foreign‐born faculty (Korean, Chinese, Indian or Turkish). These 82 are matched with labs that are in the same department of the same university, but directed by a native (US origin) faculty member. We find strong evidence that labs directed by foreign‐born faculty are more likely to be populated by students from the same country of origin than are labs directed by native faculty. The percentage of students working in a lab from a nationality (foreign or native) is higher when they share nativity with the director. We seek to draw attention to the effect of affinity on the ethnic composition of research labs at the micro level that translates into the ethnic composition of the scientific community at the macro level. Further, these results emphasize the role of lab directors in future enrolments, creating scientific human capital, and contributing to the “brain circulation” phenomenon in the global context.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12035   open full text
  • Attitudes to Employment of Professionally Qualified Refugees in the United Kingdom.
    John Willott, Jacqueline Stevenson.
    International Migration. January 28, 2013
    This paper explores the attitudes to work and experiences seeking employment of professionally qualified refugees enrolled on a course to enhance their employability skills in Leeds, United Kingdom (UK). We analyse the results within the framework of conceptual models describing the transition of refugees into employment (which are essentially linear) and those that categorize refugees according to their resettlement styles based on their social features and the host society's response. Our data reinforce that these people are (initially at least) highly motivated to work, strongly identify with their profession and suffer considerable loss of self‐esteem as they are unable to secure appropriate employment. Attitudes to securing employment were often related to their length of time in the UK. Recent arrivals were more positive about returning to their profession, even if this meant retraining, developing skills and time spent in alternative employment. Many of those here for longer were resigned to retraining, and the worst cases felt despair and feelings of betrayal. Our work showed that many had poor job search strategies and a lack of knowledge of the culture and norms of their chosen profession. We argue that the generic support of statutory employment services or the voluntary sector is inappropriate and that there is a role for professional bodies to be more active in their engagement with these groups of people. The results suggest that conceptual models need to be more nuanced to capture the experiences of these refugees: attitudes to work can cycle from optimism to disillusionment, so a linear model will not capture the full complexity, and we also found evidence of shifting among categories of resettlement styles.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12038   open full text
  • International Married and Unmarried Unions in Italy: Criteria of Mate Selection.
    Dionisia Maffioli, Anna Paterno, Giuseppe Gabrielli.
    International Migration. January 28, 2013
    As a result of the growing presence of foreign immigrants settling in Italy, recent years have seen a significant increase in the number of mixed unions. However, little research has been carried out on the subject in this country, in part due to insufficient availability of suitable data. The aim of this study is to investigate the “market” of formal and informal mixed unions and to understand whether ethnic origin contributes a new element to the marriage/union market, and to verify the applicability of the “exchange theory” to the Italian context. We analyzed a particular segment of the marriage market ‐ mixed parental couples included in the 2005 Sample Surveys of Births. The results showed a clear gender divide in the ethnic preferences of Italian spouses, a high rate of previous marital experience for both Italian and foreign people in mixed pairings, and a high frequency of unmarried and casual mixed relationships. Compared with endogamous couples, the foreign male or female spouse/partner in mixed couples is young and more educated relative to the Italian partner, but is less present in the work market and, when employed, often occupies a less well‐qualified position. The “informal union market” works in very similar ways to the “marriage market”; the slight attenuation of relationships observed in the former being attributable to the lesser degree of security guaranteed by an unofficial union. Therefore, the mechanism of mate selection implies that foreigners' appreciated qualities such as youth and high education may be offered in exchange for economic security, upward socio‐economic mobility and access to the social network of the native partner: this is a variant of the exchange theory that was found to apply well to transnational marriages/unions in Italy.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12049   open full text
  • Anti‐Sex Trafficking Institutions.
    Michael Karlsson.
    International Migration. January 28, 2013
    Many anti‐sex trafficking analyses use the term institution in a narrow meaning, comprising mainly formal‐legal political structures (public laws and governmental organizations). However, by bringing in the new institutionalism approach, it is argued that an anti‐sex trafficking institution should refer to a relatively enduring collection of rules – including also informal rules such as norms and routines – and organized practices that prescribe appropriate behaviour for any actor, public or private, combating sex trafficking. Based on a review of current research it is concluded that anti‐sex trafficking institutions in the early 21st century tend to focus on behaviour that aims at detection, prevention, protection, crisis management, consequence management, and response. Finally, reflecting different strands of the new institutionalism approach, it is argued that the design of anti‐sex trafficking institutions depends on path‐dependencies, social constructions, international institutions, and domestic politics.
    January 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/imig.12040   open full text
  • Here or There? Shifting Meanings and Practices in Mother–Child Relationships across Time and Space.
    Paola Bonizzoni.
    International Migration. December 23, 2012
    In this paper, I analyse the changes that mothers and children experience in their relationship due to the physical separations and reunions entailed by the international migration process. I argue that the different geographical configurations that migrant families take over time are the outcome of a negotiation of care responsibility and desired geographies of family life, and are accompanied by changing meanings and practices in intimate relationships: the location of care relationships is influenced by the relatives' capacity both to take part in family negotiations as well as to overcome the constraints imposed by policies. Time is relevant because it leads to shifting meanings and practices of transnational family life, as well as to the changing role of children in the family.
    December 23, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12028   open full text
  • Migration Motives of University Students: An Empirical Research.
    Djula Borozan, Ivana Barkovic Bojanic.
    International Migration. December 23, 2012
    The main aim of this paper is to analyse the motives affecting the migration decisions of young people, particularly university students. Two scales were developed for measuring the perception of the importance of these motives. The data used in the research were collected via a survey of the opinions and attitudes of university students in Osijek, in June 2010. The paper also analyses psychometric properties of the scales – their dimensionality and reliability. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis undoubtedly indicate that both scales are multidimensional constructs. A combination of the results of t‐tests for an independent sample, factor analysis (exploratory and confirmatory) and reliability analysis suggest that emigration and stay motives are two sides of the same migration decision, and that they can be classified into several factors: the economic situation, social networks, insider advantages (that can be divided into inherited amenities and public‐safety conditions) and the wealth of opportunities. Depending on the power of the initial and target destination, the factors can function as ‘push’ or ‘pull’ factors. The results of the study show social networks as being the only ‘pull’ factor for the city of Osijek, whereas the other factors, especially the economic ones, proved to demonstrate the ‘push’ effect. However, the effects of all factors were very mild.
    December 23, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12016   open full text
  • The Impact of Migration on Children's Psychological and Academic Functioning in the Republic of Moldova.
    Mihaela Robila.
    International Migration. December 23, 2012
    After the fall of communism, many Eastern Europeans sought work abroad, leaving their children with relatives. Eastern European migrants represent a target group with unstudied immigration patterns. The goal of this study was to examine how parental migration and economic pressure impact children outcomes in the Republic of Moldova. I examined a model of the impact of parental migration on children (13–15 years old), using a survey with 388 children who have migrant and non‐migrant parents. The conceptual model of migration, economic pressure, family relations and child outcomes integrated within the family stress perspective allows these pathways to be incorporated within a broader Moldovan context. I conducted quantitative data analysis using structural equation modelling. The results indicated that higher economic pressure was associated with children's lower psychological functioning, academic achievement and satisfaction with life. Parenting behaviours, especially parental support and monitoring, mediated the impact of satisfaction with migration and economic pressure on children's outcomes. I underline the importance of using a family perspective in the migration policymaking process, and provide specific recommendations for migration policies and programmes.
    December 23, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12029   open full text
  • Fiscal Sustainability and Immigration in the Madrid Region.
    Luis Miguel Doncel, Pedro Durá, Pilar Grau, Jorge Sainz.
    International Migration. December 12, 2012
    The growing number of immigrants in the Madrid region raises several questions concerning the welfare of future native generations. The debates shift from increasing concern about the congestion of public services like education or healthcare, to how immigration helps to ease tension in relation to financing those services and other benefits to the region's general welfare. In order to evaluate the global effect, our analysis uses a generational accounting method which is applied to different productivity, interest rate and growth scenarios. The results show that the impact of immigrants is positive, with intergenerational distribution towards the currently most active taxpayers.
    December 12, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12004   open full text
  • Framing Immigration News in the Spanish Regional Press.
    Lifen Cheng, Juan José Iguarta, Elena Palacios, Tania Acosta, Socorro Palito.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    In this paper, an exploratory content analysis was developed for a case study. It dealt with the topic of immigration reported in the regional newspapers of Castilla y León in Spain, the largest Spanish autonomous community. This study based its research conceptualization on Framing Theory in Mass Communication. In addition to the usual issue frames and issue images, two framing devices were established as analytic variables: the index of importance and the index of affective attribution. Together, they formed a frame package capable of making latent frames evident by their linkage to manifest frames. Against the general assumption on relevant‐bad‐news production, results obtained in this study proved that, occasionally, negative news stories could be reported as less relevant than the positive ones. This study aimed to show how concept mapping of frames was applicable to immigration issues and immigrants' visual aspects that have been systematically articulated and disseminated by the press in this regional society of Spain in recent years. The results of this study constitute a significant inquiry to develop research on the effects of immigration news on social cognition processing as well as on immigrants' social integration.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12012   open full text
  • Mexican Immigrants, Labour Market Assimilation and the Current Population: The Sensitivity of Results Across Seemingly Equivalent Surveys.
    Fernando A. Lozano, Todd Sorensen.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    In this paper we compare estimates of immigrants' labour supply assimilation profiles using the Current Population Survey Annual Demographic Files (March ADS) and the Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Groups (ORGs). We use a measure that is seemingly consistent across both surveys: usual weekly hours of work in the main job. This measure is not only important as it measures the intensive margin of labour supply, but it is also used to estimate hourly earnings in both surveys. Our results indicate that the two surveys produce dramatically different estimates of the change in average hours of work as immigrants' years in the United States increase: estimates from the March ADS predict much steeper hour's assimilation profiles than do estimates obtained from the ORGs. These differences persist if we include controls for demographic characteristics, and only disappear once we control for occupation heterogeneity. We argue that these differences stem from two separate factors that differentiate the data. First, the ADS and ORG frame the usual “hours worked” question differently. Also, differences in the timing of the surveys may produce seasonality effects that differentially affect the composition of recent and earlier migrants, thereby changing assimilation profiles.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12002   open full text
  • “Oh, you've got such a strong accent”: Language Identity Intersecting with Professional Identity in the Human Services in Australia.
    Gai Harrison.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    Language operates as a form of differentially valued cultural capital that is an influential factor in educational and employment outcomes. English in particular represents a valuable form of linguistic capital in both the broader world market and many regional and local contexts. This article, focusing on one group of professionals, draws on an exploratory study carried out with overseas‐born bilingual social workers residing in Australia, who reflect on how their language identities intersect with their professional identities in the human services workplace. Although most informants identified tangible benefits associated with being bilingual, especially in terms of working with a diverse clientele, they were equally aware of how being categorized as a ‘non‐native’ speaker of English could diminish their professional credibility and thwart their chances of upward mobility in the workplace. In this regard, this article highlights inconsistencies in how difference is valued in the human services workplace, implicating a more covert process of linguistic othering.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12005   open full text
  • Brain Drain from Turkey: Return Intentions of Skilled Migrants.
    Nil Demet Güngör, Aysıt Tansel.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    The study estimates an empirical model of return intentions using a dataset compiled from an internet survey of Turkish professionals residing abroad. In the migration literature, wage differentials are often cited as an important factor explaining skilled migration. The findings of our study suggest, however, that non‐pecuniary factors, such as the importance of family and social considerations, are also influential in the return or non‐return decision of the highly educated. In addition, economic instability in Turkey, prior intentions to stay abroad, and work experience in Turkey also increase non‐return. Female respondents also appear less likely to return indicating a more selective migration process for females.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12013   open full text
  • Internal Migration of Ethno‐national Minorities: The Case of Arabs in Israel.
    Nir Cohen, Daniel Czamanski, Amir Hefetz.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    Recent scholarship emphasizes differences among ethnic groups’ internal migration patterns. Yet, with few exceptions, research has focused on the Anglo‐American world, neglecting experiences from other regions. This paper is part of a larger research project that studies mobility among the Arab minority in Israel and its driving forces. In this paper we examine patterns of internal migration by analysing the propensity to migrate as well as migrants’ individual and social characteristics. First, we survey the theoretical backdrop that is suggested by recent geographic literature on internal migration among ethnic and racial minorities, including native groups. Second, we contextualize the group studied, providing necessary background information on the political, socio‐economic and demographic conditions of Arabs in Israel. We briefly discuss attributes that are – or have been – potential hindering factors to Arab mobility in the Jewish state. Finally, we analyse 1995 national census data at the micro scale and provide a basis for future explanations of the phenomenon. We conclude by outlying some future directions in the study of internal migration of minorities in Israel.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12014   open full text
  • Ethnic Labor Market Contexts and the Earnings of Asian Immigrants.
    Hyoung‐jin Shin, Zai Liang.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    Our paper examines how group specific metropolitan level factors affect the earnings of six major Asian immigrant groups in the United States: Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese. Drawing upon the theoretical perspectives of structural assimilation and ethnic economies, we develop several testable research hypotheses which are examined for the six Asian groups utilizing group specific multilevel regressions models. What is novel in this analysis is the comparison of the six Asian groups in different metropolitan areas in order to examine how variation in metropolitan context interacts with individual characteristics to influence individual earnings in wage or salaried occupations. The results show that the impact of metropolitan context is not uniform, but varied across and within the groups according to their different group and individual characteristics. We argue that future research strategy to establish the relationship between assimilation factors and immigrant earnings should put high priority on considering the distinctiveness of each immigrant group and the recent geographic diversification of immigrant destinations.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12015   open full text
  • How Contexts of Reception Matter: Comparing Peruvian Migrants' Economic Trajectories in Japan and the US.
    Ayumi Takenaka, Karsten Paerregaard.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    This paper examines how Peruvian migrants fare economically in two historically and culturally distinct host countries, Japan and the US, drawing upon a survey and interviews conducted in both countries. Peruvian migrants surveyed share similar socio‐economic backgrounds and migrated to both countries for similar reasons roughly around the same time. Yet, over time, they achieved more occupational upward mobility in the US than in Japan. Japan has not done quite as well as the US in providing immigrants with occupational opportunities due to its less diversified immigrant labor market, limited entrepreneurship opportunities, and restricted modes of immigrant incorporation. Does it mean, however, that Peruvian migrants are less successful in Japan than the US? Although occupational mobility is a commonly used measure of social mobility, the definitions and meanings of “success” are context‐dependent. Peruvians in the US do experience more occupational mobility, but diverge more greatly in economic achievement amongst themselves. In Japan, on the other hand, while they experience little occupational mobility, they have had more economic equality with relatively stable and high wages. The paper examines Peruvian migrants' distinct economic trajectories over time, focusing on their occupational mobility. We conclude that occupational mobility matters, not necessarily because it accompanies higher income, but because it shapes migrants' aspirations. In the context where immigrants' destinations have become more diverse in the world, the paper provides insights into how immigrants “make it” and what it means to “make it” in recent destinations, such as Japan, in comparison to more traditional immigrant countries, such as the US.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12001   open full text
  • Towards a Socio‐Economics of the Brain Drain and Distributed Human Capital.
    Carolina Cañibano, Richard Woolley.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    This paper derives from our joint interest in understanding how scientific mobility affects developing countries. Many authors have addressed the topic previously, both from an economic and from a sociological perspective. However, recent literature evinces dissatisfaction with both analytical frameworks and the framing of public policies addressing the brain drain problematic. This paper is a contribution to understanding the historical and theoretical foundations of the “brain drain” debate. We aim to improve conceptual clarity regarding the itinerancy of human beings and the mobilization of human capital. We develop a critical review of the economics of the brain drain, highlighting the work of some key early thinkers and pointing out the way in which subsequent work has taken up selected aspects of their approaches leaving other challenges aside. We then consider the diaspora networks literature, which is characterized as taking a “connectionist” approach to the brain drain. We identify two fundamental problems: the sidelining of complementarity and context dependency as basic properties of human capital; and a failure to adequately disentangle the concepts of human resources for science and technology (HRST) and human capital in academic and policy discourse about the brain drain.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12020   open full text
  • Crossing Borders, Crossing Seas: The Philippines, Gender and the Bounding of Cumulative Causation.
    Peter Loebach, Kim Korinek.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    In this study, we assess how the composition of migrant workers varies with migration prevalence within Filipino communities. Specifically, we test the hypothesis of past cumulative causation scholars that increased migration prevalence results in a decline in migrant selectivity. The Philippines has a social, political and geographical context that differs from that of many other countries characterized by high migration. In this study, we consider whether these different contexts and contingencies might alter the process by which the social phenomenon of cumulative causation occurs. Multiple fixed‐effects models were estimated at the municipality level, with the dependent variable in each model being a demographic characteristic related to the propensity to migrate: marital status, age, sex and years of education. We find, consistent with cumulative causation theory as posited by Douglas S. Massey, that increased migration prevalence did yield a decline in selectivity for education and marital status. However, migration prevalence had no effect on the gender composition of migrants, while time did impact the gender composition, suggesting sustained selectivity by gender attributable to global demand for specifically gendered, migrant labour.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12022   open full text
  • Migration at a Time of Global Economic Crisis: The Situation in Spain.
    Josefina Domínguez‐Mujica, Raquel Guerra‐Talavera, Juan Manuel Parreño‐Castellano.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    In this paper, we offer an initial assessment of the impact of the economic crisis on Spain's migration flows. After a period of intensive economic growth and the ensuing immigratory appeal (1995–2007), Spain has been hit hard by the recession. This has modified the trends that had so far characterized foreign immigration in Spain. The impact of the economic recession has been particularly severe in the case of immigrant workers and, consequently, from an institutional point of view, the Spanish government has adopted various measures to restrict the arrival of new immigrants: it has reduced work permit quotas and it has modified the Foreign Residents Law, toughening residence permit requirements. It has also tried to encourage voluntary returns with a programme devised to provide assistance to immigrants originating from countries with which Spain has social security agreements. The response to this programme has, however, been very limited. Immigration flows have continued and rates of return have stayed low, although new trends are also detectable, such as a decrease in the number of irregular arrivals and a rise in informal employment, as well as differences in the impact of unemployment according to nationality and gender. This reveals the complexity of migration processes beyond the supply and demand of labour and the political will to regulate human mobility. Consequently, immigration patterns in Spain reveal the degree of complexity reached by human mobility, which has increased beyond the logic of the labour market and the government's attempts at regulating migration flows by means of institutional measures. The immigrants' hope of raising their standard of living and the socio‐economic differences between source and receiving countries, even at a time of severe economic crisis, do still serve as explanations for current migration networks, one of the key points in the current debate on international migration.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12023   open full text
  • Salvadoran Migrants in Australia: An Analysis of Transnational Families’ Capability to Care across Borders.
    Laura Merla.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    In this paper, I focus on the transnational care practices of Salvadoran refugees living in Perth (Western Australia) and who care for their ageing parents who have remained in their home country. The analysis is based on a conceptualization of transnational care as a set of capabilities that include, but are not limited to, mobility, social relations, time allocation, education and knowledge, paid work and communication (Merla and Baldassar, 2011). I focus in particular on the impact of Salvadoran refugees’ difficult access to, and use of, these capabilities on their capacity to fulfil their culturally defined sense of obligation to care for their ageing parents. Results show that extended transnational kinship networks play a major role in helping migrants overcome obstacles to transnational caregiving.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12024   open full text
  • EMIG 1.2: A Global Time Series of Annual Emigration Flows.
    Jonathon W. Moses.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    EMIG 1.2 is a new, open‐source emigration database, based on over 6,500 observations covering 155 countries between 1850 and 2008, which can be used in both aggregate and TSCS analyses. Using comparisons, I show that EMIG 1.2 complements and extends alternative databases. Still, I need to solicit help from area specialists to broaden and deepen its coverage. In its aggregate form, I observe two important trends: (1) the level of emigration today is lower than it was prior to the First World War (when weighted by the number of countries or people); and (2) global emigration rates have been falling since 1994.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12026   open full text
  • Reconstructing Moral Identities in Memories of Childhood Language Brokering Experiences.
    Elaine Bauer.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    Language brokering is a common phenomenon, whereby children of immigrant parents mediate both verbally and with written documents between their parents and other different language speakers or writers, converting meanings in one language into meanings in another. This paper explores some of the moral identities – the interplay between moral ideals and individuals' personal identities – adults construct from their memories of their activities as child language brokers. Qualitative research on adults who were, and to a large extent still are, language brokers for their parents, found that in the context of parent‐teacher meetings, some individuals recast their behaviours in a manner that rendered themselves as good, honest, ethical and well‐behaved students. This paper argues that the moral identities individuals construct from memories of their childhood experiences have social and cultural dimensions, and are contingent upon the context and the situation. The paper also has policy implications with regards to the status of the child, and the relationship of that status to cultural context and expectation, given that the circumstances of their lives cannot be removed. Regarding policy, this research could inform practitioners, schools, and the general public about the impact of language brokering experiences on children, and may help in some way to alleviate the stress/burdens associated with language brokering. Additionally, it could bring about increasing understanding of how people establish identities based on their lived experiences.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12030   open full text
  • Polish Young Peoples' Narratives: Impacts of Living and Studying in the UK.
    Jacqui Akhurst, Michal Janik, Margaret Szewczyk, Magdalena Mucha, Helen Westmancoat, Viv Lever, Andreas Walmsley.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    Migration plays an important role in shaping contemporary society in the European Union (EU), with constituent countries being affected differently. As a result of the most recent expansion of the EU in 2004, the United Kingdom (UK) has experienced an influx of economic migrants from former “Eastern Bloc” countries, including many young people from Poland. In this study, we explore the experiences of a group of nine young Polish adults living, studying and working in the UK. Three of the nine participants were co‐researchers in this participatory action research, equipping them with the tools to undertake a narrative enquiry. The resultant narratives outline emergent themes and subthemes: including reasons for coming to and staying in the UK; first impressions of and changing opinions about life in the UK; the impact of visits to Poland; and plans for the future. The data add to the literature by providing a unique developmental perspective of the changing experiences of living in the UK; and give some insight into the life impacts of migration in contemporary Europe, amongst young people in their twenties.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12025   open full text
  • Internal Migration and Spanish Regional Convergence (1972–1998).
    Gemma Larramona, Marcos Sanso.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between internal migration and Spanish regional convergence between 1972 and 1998, a period between the mass emigration prior to the 1970s and the mass immigration of the end of the twentieth century. The main results indicate that internal migration led to a fall in Spanish regional development gaps. However, internal migration did not lead to the disappearance of these gaps in the long term. Some regions will always receive workers, others will send them out and a third group will experience a sequence of migration reversals. The econometric methodology used allows us to identify structural breaks and to differentiate between long‐ and short‐term effects. This approach enables predictions to be made for internal migration flows in the long term in the absence of shocks.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12027   open full text
  • Children's First Names, Religiosity and Immigration Background in France.
    Mahmood Araï, Damien Besancenot, Kim Huynh, Ali Skalli.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    Using an index measuring the relative probability of names in different populations, our results indicate that immigrants and especially those from the Maghreb/Middle‐East give first names to their children that are different from those given by the French majority population. Though we find a correlation between religiosity and our name index for European immigrants, the differences in naming practices cannot generally be attributed to religiosity as we find no correlation between our name index and the religious practices of immigrants from the Maghreb/Middle‐East. These differences in the naming patterns are, as one would expect, related to general cultural references, language, citizenship and educational attainment.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12010   open full text
  • Take Me “Home”: Return Migration among Germany's Older Immigrants.
    Jenjira J. Yahirun.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    This paper examines the determinants of return migration as foreign‐born men approach old age in Germany. Return migration in later life engages a different set of conditions from return migration earlier on, including the framing of return as a possible retirement strategy. Using 23 years of longitudinal data from the German Socioeconomic Panel, this paper investigates how social and economic resources of immigrant men influence decisions to return “home.” Results suggest that immigrants from former guest worker recruitment countries within the European Union are more likely to return than non‐EU immigrants. In addition, return migrants are “negatively selected” so that those with the least education and weakest attachments to the labor force are more likely to emigrate. However, findings vary greatly depending on the immigrant's age and country of origin. Results from this paper highlight the heterogeneity of older immigrants and the factors that motivate their return “home”.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12009   open full text
  • Measuring the Integration of Immigrants: Critical notes from an Italian experience.
    Marco Caselli.
    International Migration. November 29, 2012
    This paper describes an instrument developed in Italy by the ISMU Foundation to measure the level of integration of immigrants present in the country. The instrument consists of an index based on data collected by means of a structured questionnaire. The paper first describes the technical characteristics of this instrument and the main results obtained from its first, experimental use with the administration of over 12,000 interviews in Italy. There follow some critical notes on the limits and potential of the application of synthetic indexes in the analysis of migratory processes, and particularly in study of the integration of immigrants.
    November 29, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12011   open full text
  • The Wage Gap between Foreign and Spanish Nationals in Spain: an Analysis Using Matched Employer–Employee Data.
    J. Ignacio García‐Pérez, Fernando Muñoz‐Bullón, Manuela Prieto‐Rodríguez.
    International Migration. November 21, 2012
    In this paper, we analyse wage differences between foreign and Spanish nationals in Spain. This analysis is relevant because Spain has witnessed a sharp increase in the proportion of foreign workers over the past decade. In our analysis, we explicitly account for unobserved heterogeneity at firm level, a situation which occurs when relevant covariates (for example, those connected to a specific firm's production process) are not included in the model because they are unmeasurable, unobservable or unavailable for the researcher. When accounting for such heterogeneity, our results show that wage gaps between foreign nationals from developing countries and Spanish nationals range between −6.35 per cent and −11.30 per cent. We also find that wage differences, between Spanish nationals and others in the same firm and job, are substantially greater for almost every group of low‐tenured foreign workers and also for those holding open‐ended contracts.
    November 21, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12000   open full text
  • Between Control and Assistance: The Problem of European Accommodation Centres for Asylum Seekers.
    Alice Szczepanikova.
    International Migration. November 21, 2012
    Accommodation centres are much more than means of securing asylum seekers’ housing needs. They are an embodiment of asylum and immigration policies. To understand these policies and their effects on asylum seekers, we need to ask what interests different institutional actors have in keeping asylum seekers in the centres. Based on the study of accommodation centres in the Czech Republic, in this paper I argue that the centres serve as tools of migration control. The prolonged confinement of a highly diverse group of people produced by the interconnectedness between asylum and immigration policies leads to asylum seekers’ disillusionment about the asylum procedure and nourishes various illicit activities. The centres enable state institutions to determine the nature of assistance available to asylum seekers, including legal aid provided by non‐governmental organizations. By actively promoting the image of accommodation centres as benign places, the state also controls the dominant representation of refugee reception. In everyday practices in the centres, control and assistance are closely intertwined and produce an oppressive environment that engenders asylum seekers’ dependency.
    November 21, 2012   doi: 10.1111/imig.12031   open full text
  • Beyond 3×1: Linking Sending and Receiving Societies in the Development Process.
    Miryam Hazán.
    International Migration. October 01, 2012
    In this paper, I explore the possibilities of linking and expanding existing sending and receiving countries' initiatives that mobilize immigrants to participate in the development process of their countries of origin in such a way as to advance two main goals of such initiatives: (1) to multiply their developmental impact in sending regions; and (2) to help increase the social and political capital of immigrants and immigrant associations, so as to facilitate both their role in the development of their countries of origin and also their integration in their host societies. In the paper, I will study the Mexican 3×1 programme and Spain's co‐development model and explore the ways in which programmes such as these could be ideally linked and implemented, in diverse contexts, in a way that is advantageous to both sending and receiving societies. The paper is based on research conducted over the past 9 years with Mexican immigrant associations in the United States; on interviews with Mexican government officials in Mexico and the United States; and on interviews conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Spain.
    October 01, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00784.x   open full text
  • Chinese Migrants' Class Mobility in Hong Kong.
    Chau‐kiu Cheung, Kwan‐kwok Leung.
    International Migration. September 11, 2012
    Resources such as education and social networks are likely to contribute to migrants' upward mobility in the class hierarchy. Moreover, according to structural fit theory, the contribution tends to be contingent on age and social network size. The contingency is the major concern of the present study of mainland Chinese migrants in Hong Kong, which is somewhat different from the Chinese mainland economically, politically and even culturally. In this study, we show that the conditions for upward mobility are some human and social resources and their various combinations. Notably, schooling after arrival in Hong Kong contributed more to the upward mobility of the migrant who was younger or had a larger social network at the time of arrival in Hong Kong. Purportedly, promoting the migrant's integration with the school and local social network would prepare the migrant for upward mobility.
    September 11, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00778.x   open full text
  • Mobilities and Knowledge Transfer: Understanding the Contribution of Volunteer Stays to North–South Healthcare Partnerships.
    Helen Louise Ackers.
    International Migration. September 05, 2012
    In this paper, I review recent literature on the relationship between human mobility and knowledge transfer processes, and apply some of the more theoretical ideas to an evaluation of the kinds of mobility in which UK participants engage in the context of North–South healthcare partnerships (HCPs). Much of the contemporary research on highly skilled mobility highlights the role that short stays and circular mobility play in knowledge transfer processes. I consider the value of short stays in the travel–mobility–migration continuum and the contribution they make to the transfer, translation and effectiveness of knowledge. Healthcare partnerships are best conceptualized as knowledge networks, with various forms of mobility (both physical and virtual) playing a critical role in network‐generation, evolution and impact. I outline the findings of two studies. The first is an evaluation of HCPs (Ackers and Porter, 2011) and the second an in‐depth ongoing evaluation of one HCP known as the Liverpool–Mulago Partnership or LMP1 (Porter et al., 2011). The results raise questions about the relationship between the different types of mobility that participants in HCPs (predominantly professional volunteers) engage in, particularly the duration and repeated quality of stays, and knowledge transfer processes. Williams argues that “there are still major gaps in our understanding of the specific contribution of international migration to knowledge transfer, of the processes involved, and of the conditions that facilitate this” (2006 588). In this paper, I begin to close some of these gaps and advance our understanding of the relationship between different forms of mobility and knowledge transfer processes, in the hopes that this will build the evidence base supporting the contribution of North–South HCPs to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals 2 .
    September 05, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00773.x   open full text
  • Decreasing the Recent Immigrant Earnings Gap: The Impact of Canadian Credential Attainment.
    Rupa Banerjee, Byron Y. Lee.
    International Migration. September 05, 2012
    It is well documented that newly arrived immigrants face a significant earnings gap relative to native‐born workers. One way for new immigrants to improve their relative labour market position upon arrival in a host country is to improve their educational credentials. According to signalling theory, a host‐country credential should provide employers with a proxy for true productivity on the job, leading to higher earnings. Using data from a Canadian longitudinal survey, we employ longitudinal growth‐curve techniques to estimate the effect of receiving a Canadian educational credential on the income growth of racial‐minority recent immigrants compared to native‐born Canadians. The results indicate that the earnings gap between recent immigrants and native‐born Canadians is significantly reduced with the attainment of a Canadian educational credential.
    September 05, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00775.x   open full text
  • “I Wouldn't Stay Here”: Economic Crisis and Youth Mobility in Ireland.
    David Cairns.
    International Migration. August 21, 2012
    In this paper, I explore an important aspect of Irish youth migration, in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, namely the mobility intentions of tertiary‐educated youth during the recent economic crisis. Building on prior work that I completed in 2007, I conducted quantitative and qualitative research with a total of 400 university students in Dublin, Belfast and Cork during 2010. Analysis of the data reveals that the majority of these young people (62%) intend to leave Ireland in the future, moving predominantly to other English‐language speaking countries, with such plans being more prevalent in the Republic of Ireland (72%) compared to Northern Ireland (52%). Further quantitative analysis and a series of qualitative interviews help explain what has influenced the mobility decision‐making of these young people. The results emphasize the importance of factors such as parental occupational background and locality, as well as the role of family relationships in encouraging and discouraging mobility. The impact of the economic crisis is, however, less clear, with the mobility intentions of young people planning to migrate tending to be influenced more by personal than economic considerations.
    August 21, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00776.x   open full text
  • The International Mobility of Academics: A Labour Market Perspective.
    Harald Bauder.
    International Migration. August 21, 2012
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    August 21, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00783.x   open full text
  • The Experience of Labour Emigration in the Life of Married Women: The Case of Podlasie, Poland.
    Barbara Cieślińska.
    International Migration. July 30, 2012
    In this paper, I focus on the experiences of female labour migrants, looking particularly at the emigration of married women from a region with a long‐established culture of emigration, in the context of the accession of Poland to the European Union. The paper is empirical in its content and is based mainly on emigration stories and narratives recorded in the form of biography or autobiography. I discuss different stages of the migration process – the decision to migrate; the experience of migration (in particular, with reference to its impact on families, both abroad and at home), and also the consequences of migration for Polish society, particularly with reference to family cohesion and changing gender roles.
    July 30, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00772.x   open full text
  • Homelessness abroad: “Place utility” in the narratives of the Polish homeless in Brussels.
    Magdalena Mostowska.
    International Migration. July 30, 2012
    Among different groups of Poles in Brussels there are an estimated twenty thousand Polish migrants performing undocumented work. The presence of homeless Poles in Brussels indicates the vulnerability of some of the European labour migrants. The article is based on fieldwork conducted amongst Polish people sleeping rough in Brussels in 2008 and 2009. Most of the homeless informants were construction workers, who lost their living quarters due to seasonal unemployment, alcohol problems, illness or other incidents. In the article I analyse their narratives using Julian Wolpert's concept of “place utility” to confront the way they talk about their adaptation to the environment with the risks and opportunities they attach to staying in Brussels and their possible return migration to Poland. I present four types of homeless migrants and their different situations and survival strategies. The analysis includes their perception of life in Brussels and Poland. The narratives of most of them seem to share the perception of Poland's lower “anticipated place utility” in comparison with Brussels. The decision not to return to Poland minimizes the perceived risks and uncertainty. It avoids psychological strains, such as feelings of shame, frustration and confronting their families and friends. Living on the streets of Brussels seems “optimal” to them, under the circumstances. This example shows that economically unsuccessful migrations cannot be easily terminated; that the risks and profits are not equally distributed across family members; and that the different rationalities of all the actors and their self‐limitations should also be taken into account. Further studies of homelessness among working immigrants may contribute to a better understanding of some of the migration phenomena.
    July 30, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00782.x   open full text
  • Trends in International and Internal Teacher Mobility in Three Pacific Island Countries.
    Robyn R. Iredale, Carmen Voigt‐Graf, Siew‐Ean Khoo.
    International Migration. July 23, 2012
    High‐skilled migration has increasingly been the subject of migration research over the past decade, but the focus has tended to be on health and IT professionals. In this paper, we address the mobility of schoolteachers in a region that has so far received little attention, the Pacific Islands. It is timely to examine trends in teacher mobility in the Pacific, given the shortages that are occurring elsewhere. In particular, the tailoring of immigration policies to attract highly skilled workers in areas of shortage could impact on the Pacific. The focus of the paper is on emigration and we argue that of three countries studied, only Fiji is negatively affected by teacher mobility. The Cook Islands and Vanuatu are currently experiencing low levels of international teacher emigration. Levels of internal mobility are also investigated in an attempt to see if remote areas and outer islands are experiencing teacher shortages. The preference for working near one’s land or on one’s home island is a strong drawcard in bringing people back home to teach. A problem arises, however, when not enough people are trained from a region/island and the incentives to encourage others to go and work there are less than effective.
    July 23, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00769.x   open full text
  • Interests Aren’t Everything: An Exploration of Economic Explanations of Immigration Policy in a New Destination.
    Julie Stewart, Kenneth P. Jameson.
    International Migration. July 08, 2012
    Current debates around US immigration policy are playing out against a backdrop that has changed significantly in the past 20 years: immigrants have increasingly gravitated towards “new destinations”; a large and growing portion of immigrants are undocumented; and the federal vacuum in responding to the promise and problems of these new immigration trends has devolved policy to the states. As a result, we have seen innovation on the state level as policymakers seek to accommodate, welcome or resist immigration, with varying degrees of success. In this paper, we explore the case of Utah as a new immigration destination, seeking to understand its transformation from a state with very inclusive immigrant policies as late as 1999 to one currently adopting highly restrictive immigrant policies. To explain this trajectory, we test three prominent materialist theories of public policy: instrumentalism, structuralism and strategic‐relational approaches. We draw on a decade’s worth of primary data – including data on state‐level legislation, key economic indicators, public statements concerning immigration from the private business sector and the LDS Church, and the editorial content of the state’s two major newspapers regarding immigration – to examine the policy explanations that grow out of interest‐based theories of the state. Whereas these theories provide robust explanations for a large and diverse array of public policies, we find that they fall short in explaining immigration policy. While conventional wisdom – and extensive scholarly research – suggests that economic interests drive policy, we find that the policies around immigrants challenge this economic reductionism, suggesting the need for more complex and ideational accounts of this important phenomenon.
    July 08, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00765.x   open full text
  • Examining the Interplay of Career, Migration and National Cultural Identity: The Case of Indian Scientists.
    Laurie Cohen, Joanne Duberley, M.N. Ravishankar.
    International Migration. July 08, 2012
    In this paper, we examine individuals’ career migration across international borders. It is widely recognized that globalization has fundamental implications for the careers of people across geographical and cultural boundaries. However, our understanding of the interplay of migration, career development and national/cultural identities remains undeveloped within the extant literature. In this paper, we seek to offer insights into this relationship. Focusing on Indian scientists, an occupational group whose careers have long been associated with movement around the world, in this paper we examine these issues. Empirically, we examine three themes: why Indian scientists see international mobility as important in the development of their careers; continued links with India; and the interplay of national/cultural affiliation and respondents’ career experiences. In light of our findings, in the discussion section we argue that considering Indian scientists as a career diaspora highlights three important features that in the main have received only limited attention in the extant literature: career as a social form and process; the notion of the scientific career as a cultural product; and the interrelationship of career and national/cultural affiliation as ongoing facets of individuals’ identities as they develop diasporic careers.
    July 08, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00768.x   open full text
  • Crossing Boundaries: Internal, Regional and International Migration in Cameroon.
    Blessing Uchenna Mberu, Roland Pongou.
    International Migration. May 23, 2012
    Internal and international migration increasingly continues to be of global importance for development policies and programmes, but the dearth of data on migration for African countries and the limited focus on the structural conditions that motivate migration from specific localities within the region remain glaring. In this study, we examine the patterns and drivers of migration in Cameroon, focusing on the dynamics of rural–urban migration, migrant circulation, regional economic migrants and refugees, international migration, brain drain and returns from emigration. Consequent upon regional conflicts and instability, we highlight the refugee problem in Cameroon and significant challenges in addressing it. Finally, we underscore the policy and research challenges necessary to harness the potentials of internal and international migration for national development.
    May 23, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00766.x   open full text
  • Discovering Immigration into Turkey: The Emergence of a Dynamic Field.
    Juliette Tolay.
    International Migration. May 23, 2012
    In the last couple of decades, Turkey has become an important country of immigration. In parallel, a new scholarly field has developed to study this largely unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper, I take stock of this new literature. I first show how students of immigration into Turkey had to define the field in relation to the powerful existing fields studying emigration from Turkey and internal migration in Turkey, as well as how they distinguished between “old” and “new” immigration. I then study the emergence of this field under the lead of Ahmet İçduygu and Kemal Kirişci. Later, with the establishment of two central research centres (CARIM and MiReKoç), the field gained important institutional anchors and attracted many new scholars. Today, the field is characterized by a strong dynamism, a plurality of talented scholars and a diversity of concerns and approaches. Even though the field is still at an early stage, it is bound to grow rapidly, as the phenomenon of migration into Turkey remains a highly strategic and lasting phenomenon. It is therefore crucial for the field to become self‐aware of its strength and weaknesses. Consequently, in the final section, I identify important future directions for the field, especially the need for scholars to better understand the diverse political ramifications (foreign and domestic politics) associated with immigration into Turkey.
    May 23, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00741.x   open full text
  • Forced Migration, Climate Change, Mitigation and Adaptive Policies in Mexico: Some Functional Relationships.
    Ignacio Sánchez Cohen, Úrsula Oswald Spring, Gabriel Díaz Padilla, Julian Cerano Paredes, Marco A. Inzunza Ibarra, Rutilo López López, José Villanueva Díaz.
    International Migration. April 27, 2012
    Natural disasters related to hydro‐meteorological events have increased during the last few decades, both in frequency and severity. Mexico is heavily exposed to climate change, but has also suffered in the past from climate variability (Blümel, 2009). The new risks oblige the government to develop mitigation processes, while the affected people are implementing strategies of adaptation and resilience‐building, mostly at the family and community level. This includes forced migration due to climate change into the slums of megacities or illegal immigration to the United States. The arid, semi‐arid and subhumid condition of 49.2 per cent of the territory of Mexico is seriously affected by climate change. In addition, poverty and the lack of jobs have created complex livelihood situations, in which young people leave rural areas, partly due to socio‐economic pull factors. In this paper, we address the functional relationships between climate patterns and migration processes in Mexico, highlighting the linkages between the origin of migrants, their economic activity and their vulnerability to extreme events and we discuss long‐term climate patterns. Agriculture still uses 78 per cent of the available water in Mexico. In the drylands the competition for water use requires an integrated policy to deal with the new threats from climate change, including mitigation from the top down and adaptation processes from the bottom up to reduce the social vulnerability of the rural population in the highly affected drylands of the central and northern parts of Mexico. The new policy for administering water resources, which promotes the efficient use of an increasingly scarce and polluted resource, still suffers from a lack of participation by the affected rural population. In this paper, we propose an integrated management system from the watershed onwards, involving socio‐economic, political, cultural and hydrological variables, to deal with the rising scarcity of water, and the uncertainty and complexity of climate change.
    April 27, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00743.x   open full text
  • Estimation of International Migration in Post‐Soviet Republics.
    Shushanik Makaryan.
    International Migration. March 22, 2012
    When annual migration data lack reliability, scholars apply alternative methods for estimating international migration. Yet, researchers note that alternative approaches have primarily been tested on developed countries, rather than developing countries that usually have dramatic migration shifts. I close this research gap. I use the example of 15 former Soviet republics to demonstrate several conclusions. First, I show that such alternative approaches as immigration‐by‐origin data of receiving countries do not result in reliable and valid estimates of post‐Soviet migration, given the large variation that exists in how former Soviet republics define “migrant”. Second, I demonstrate that population censuses, while a more superior alternative, fail to capture temporary migrants. In developing countries, the international emigration is mainly due to temporary (undocumented labour) migration. Third, I suggest that scholars and policy‐makers should apply household surveys as a possible alternative. However, while this method seems promising, given the limited use of household surveys in migration measurement in the post‐Soviet republics, future research by both scholars and applied researchers should explore the advantages and limitations of household surveys as an alternative source for estimation of migration. Finally, I outline methodological guidelines that researchers and scholars can advance on migration issues in the post‐Soviet region.
    March 22, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2012.00740.x   open full text
  • Kosovo – Winning its Independence but Losing its People? Recent Evidence on Emigration Intentions and Preparedness to Migrate.
    Artjoms Ivlevs, Roswitha M. King.
    International Migration. March 20, 2012
    Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia in February 2008, but substantial proportions of its population are expressing their lack of confidence by preparing to emigrate. In this paper, we present evidence from a customized post‐independence survey (1,367 face‐to face interviews) on emigration intentions in Kosovo, carried out in June 2008. Thirty per cent of the respondents from the Albanian‐speaking majority have taken concrete steps to move abroad, and emigration intentions have again risen to their pre‐independence peak. Strikingly, it is the better educated and those with higher incomes that are more likely to exit. Ethnic Serbs (the largest minority group) are less likely to emigrate than Kosovo’s ethnic majority.
    March 20, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00716.x   open full text
  • Over‐Education in Multilingual Economies: Evidence from Catalonia.
    Maite Blázquez, Silvio Rendón.
    International Migration. February 24, 2012
    Catalonia’s economy is characterized by linguistic diversity and provides a unique opportunity to measure the incidence of language proficiency on over‐education, that is, whether individuals with deficient language skills, as non‐natives, tend to accept jobs for which they have excessive formal skills. Descriptive evidence suggests the contrary, that individuals with better language knowledge are more likely to be over‐educated. However, estimating a model that controls for individuals’ socio‐demographic characteristics reveals the opposite: better language knowledge decreases over‐education. This effect, although robust to accounting for endogeneity of language knowledge and significant at the individual level, is mostly non‐significant on average.
    February 24, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00725.x   open full text
  • Diversity in Return Migration and its Impact on Old Age: The Expectations and Experiences of Returnees in Huelva (Spain).
    Estrella Gualda, Angeles Escriva.
    International Migration. February 24, 2012
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    February 24, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00728.x   open full text
  • Contextualizing Vocabularies of Motive in International Migration: The Case of Taiwanese in the United States.
    Chien‐Juh Gu.
    International Migration. February 24, 2012
    Immigrants’ motives are central to understanding immigration, yet they remain an under‐researched subject in immigration studies. To fill this gap, this article examines Taiwanese immigrants’ motives for relocating to the United States. Following Mills’ concept of vocabularies of motive, this article treats immigration as situated actions and explores how cumulative causation and structural positions shape immigrants’ interpretations of their immigration decisions. Based on 75 in‐depth interviews, this study discovers important differences in motive during two migration phases, initial migration and permanent settlement, as well as differences according to gender, ethnicity, and social class. Migration through education comprises the major pattern of Taiwanese immigration, as most Taiwanese move to the United States to study and then settle there for job opportunities. While men settle for careers, women stay for family wellbeing. One ethnic group, benshengren, tends to settle for job opportunities, while the other, waishengren, migrates to unite their families. Moreover, professionals always consider return as an option, while labourers are determined to stay permanently. Findings of the study suggest the importance of examining the influences of immigration contexts and individual structural positions in shaping personal motives.
    February 24, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00729.x   open full text
  • Argentine Migrants to Spain and Returnees: A Case for Accumulation of Civic Assets.
    Jorge Ginieniewicz.
    International Migration. February 14, 2012
    Conceptually, this paper relies on the asset accumulation framework and identifies its relevance to work on Argentine migrants to Spain and returnees. The asset accumulation framework represents an innovative approach to understanding the complexities of migratory flows in a transnational context. In order to comprehend and tackle migration, this framework pays particular attention to investment and savings in various domains, including the financial, social, human, civic and political fields. Responding to gaps in current studies, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, it expands the asset accumulation framework by differentiating between civic and political assets. Second, using data drawn from interviews conducted among Argentine migrants and returnees in the cities of Barcelona and Buenos Aires, this paper fleshes out the definition of civic assets. The findings indicate that, for interviewees, moving to Spain implied the accumulation of civic assets that enhanced the development of a more equitable and democratic society. Respondents incorporated new civic capabilities in several areas, including increased environmental awareness and tolerance for minority groups, as well as the acquisition of knowledge about equity and labour rights. In addition, results suggest that, as a result of the migratory experience, many interviewees went through reflective processes that made them question their old presumptions about both the receiving and sending societies.
    February 14, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00720.x   open full text
  • Identifying Gaps in Health Research among Refugees Resettled in Canada.
    Crystal L. Patil, Tiina Maripuu, Craig Hadley, Daniel W. Sellen.
    International Migration. February 14, 2012
    While the global number of resettled refugees rises annually, the summaries of research on refugee health needs in countries of asylum remain sparse. We conducted a systematic review of published research on refugee health in Canada in order to: (i) identify studies addressing health outcomes among refugees recently resettled in Canada; (ii) identify general trends in health research conducted in Canada among refugee populations; (iii) identify significant gaps in current knowledge of health‐related issues among refugees recently resettled in Canada; (iv) evaluate the quality and consistency of available information; (v) develop a summary of available research results; and (vi) identify priorities for future research. A search of several major citation indices resulted in the analysis of 196 research reports after reviewing more than 5,000 articles. This review is timely, systematic and inclusive; furthermore, potential biases in methodology are clearly assessed. The results indicate an immediate need to address specific gaps in health knowledge for refugee populations and lead us to draw five primary conclusions. First, mental health outcomes dominate the research landscape. Second, cross‐sectional studies are most commonly the study design of choice. Third, studies examining some aspect of health among refugees from Asia dominate the literature. Fourth, there is a notable lack of information on cardiovascular diseases and its antecedents. Fifth, indications show that screenings for pre‐existing conditions are biased towards communicable diseases. These findings have implications for health monitoring, evaluation and policy affecting the health of refugees resettled in Canada and elsewhere.
    February 14, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00722.x   open full text
  • Coming Home? Patterns and Characteristics of Return Migration in Kyrgyzstan.
    Susan Thieme.
    International Migration. February 14, 2012
    Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Kazakhstan are all major destinations for labour migrants from rural areas of southern Kyrgyzstan. Along with searching for better income, younger men and women also migrate for educational purposes; children and elderly people stay behind. While older migrants often regard this separation from their families as temporary, younger people start to put down roots in places other than their homes and this has long‐term consequences for development in rural areas. The paper therefore looks into families’ multi‐local settings and why young migrants fail to return home. It also considers the potential impact on rural development including remittance dependency, an increasing shortage of qualified labour and new conditions of social care. The paper concludes with an assessment of the policy implications.
    February 14, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00724.x   open full text
  • Beyond Guilt and Stigma: Changing Attitudes among Israeli Migrants in Canada.
    Brent David Harris.
    International Migration. February 14, 2012
    Over 60 years ago, the Jewish nationalist movement known as Zionism culminated in the creation of the State of Israel. Millions of Jews immigrated to Israel over the twentieth century, a process known as aliya (literally, “going up”). Yet over the years, thousands of Israelis have also chosen to leave Israel in a movement termed yerida (“going down”). As the term suggests, this reverse migration has been highly stigmatized. During the 1960s and 1970s, emigrants were publicly disparaged in the Israeli media for having abandoned a struggling state. Consequently, Israeli migrants suffered strong feelings of guilt that often, hampered their integration process abroad, a phenomenon observed as late as the 1990s. This paper, however, reveals that feelings of stigmatization have greatly decreased among Israeli migrants in recent years. The study is based on research that I conducted in 2008–2009, involving nine months of participant observation in Vancouver’s Israeli community and 34 in‐depth interviews. Unlike in previous studies, most of my informants expressed no feelings of guilt over having left Israel. Of those who did, most framed their guilt as a longing for family and friends rather than the patriotic longing for the land as expressed by previous generations. Previous studies have also found that Israelis harbour a “myth of return”– a continuously expressed desire to return to Israel and a reluctance to accept their stay abroad as permanent. However, I have not found that the myth of return is still strong today, despite the continued prevalence of a strong sense of Israeli identity among Israelis abroad. I suggest that these changing attitudes are the product of shifting ideals in Israeli society that have developed as the state of Israel has matured. This paper thus serves to update the outdated image of Israeli migrants as it exists in the prevailing literature.
    February 14, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00732.x   open full text
  • Ethnic Enclaves, Networks and Self‐Employment among Middle Eastern Immigrants in Sweden.
    Lina Andersson, Mats Hammarstedt.
    International Migration. January 25, 2012
    The proportion of immigrants from countries in the Middle East living in Sweden has increased since the 1970s, and it is a well‐known fact that immigrants from the Middle East suffer from low earnings and high rates of unemployment on the Swedish labour market. There are often great hopes that self‐employment will enable immigrants to improve their labour market situation. Further, in Sweden as in many other countries, the question of whether the existence of ethnic enclaves are good or bad for immigrants’ earnings and employment opportunities has also been widely debated. This paper presents a study of the extent to which Middle Eastern ethnic enclaves and networks in Sweden enhance or hinder immigrants’ self‐employment. The results show that the presence of ethnic enclaves increases the propensity for self‐employment. Thus, immigrants in ethnic enclaves provide their co‐ethnics with goods and services that Swedish natives are not able to provide. The results also show that ethnic networks seem to be an obstacle to immigrant self‐employment. One explanation is that an increase in network size implies increased competition for customers among self‐employed immigrants. The question of whether ethnic enclaves are good or bad for the integration of immigrants into the labour market has been widely debated. The results of this paper provide us with information about the integration puzzle. Ethnic enclaves seem to enhance self‐employment propensities among Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden.
    January 25, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00714.x   open full text
  • A Capture–Recapture Approach to Estimation of Refugee Populations.
    Steven J. Gold, Wilma Novales Wibert, Vera Bondartsova, Brian J. Biroscak, Lori A. Post.
    International Migration. January 25, 2012
    The debate over immigration continues to be one of the most politically charged policy issues in the United States (US). Given the charged nature of this topic, it is vitally important to have reliable data on not only the number of US foreign nationals but also the characteristics of this extremely heterogeneous group – a population comprised not only of immigrants but also of refugees. There exist a small number of data sources for informing policy and practice at the national level. However, such data are often lacking for smaller geographical areas. This paper describes a recent effort to generate serviceable data on the immigrant and refugee population for a medium‐sized metropolitan area in the US.The objectives of this research were twofold. Our first goal was to provide local stakeholders with information to assist them with resettling and obtaining funding for immigrants and refugees. The second aim was to develop better techniques for tabulating diverse refugees and immigrants in a medium‐sized community. By comparing and contrasting three data sources – that is, refugee services, public schools and a local health plan – we are able to generate estimates of the local refugee and immigrant population.During the period from 2005 to 2007, we estimate the total number of immigrants and refugees in the community to be somewhere between 10,938 and 13,282. Although perhaps a bit on the high end due to methodological assumptions, these estimates seem plausible, based on previously cited figures for the region. While such estimates are valuable, a number of shortcomings related to the data prevent us from painting a more complete picture of these populations. We conclude this paper with a number of recommendations that will assist others in planning research designed to inform migration policy and practice in medium‐sized metropolitan areas.
    January 25, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00715.x   open full text
  • Governing Migrant Workers at a Distance: Managing the Temporary Status of Guestworkers in Taiwan.
    Yen‐fen Tseng, Hong‐zen Wang.
    International Migration. October 09, 2011
    This paper explores how a liberal democratic state keeps migrant workers in temporary status by preventing their permanent settlement. Using Taiwan’s guestworker policy as an example, we argue that through expertise discourses and strategies of “governance at a distance” involving private sector, the Taiwan government has formulated policies and implemented measures that effectively kept guestworkers in temporary status. Analyzing Taiwan’s guestworker policy helps us to understand how the state and its collaborators work together to enhance the control capacity over migrants, while at the same time, enabling the state to keep its liberal pretense.
    October 09, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00639.x   open full text
  • Remittances, Transnational Dahiras and Governance in Senegal.
    Alpha Diedhiou.
    International Migration. June 16, 2011
    The potential role of transnational organisations in fostering effective governance goes unexplored despite the increasing positive role that these organisations are playing today. In Senegal, a whole range of non‐state actors have always played a substantial socio‐economic role, even before the rise of the post‐colonial state. The Murid brotherhood can be regarded as part of this category of customary non‐state actors. In the 1980s, young Murids started to organize themselves in what can be viewed as self‐help community‐based organisations whose functions included the provision of social safety nets to their adherents. By the late 1980s, the scope of these youth organisations, or dahiras, expanded beyond the national boundaries. Mention of these dahiras in the vast development literature has so far been confined to the socio‐economic importance of the money they remit.This paper offers to transcend this focus on financial remittances, to explore the potential political role of international dahiras in their home country. By playing the role of alternative providers of social services, dahiras have propelled themselves to a position of legitimate non‐state actors with political clout. Today, some of them are starting to hold government to account for their actions. Their political power is not only derived from their affiliation with customary centres of authority, but it is also the resultant of their increased financial autonomy.Because transnational dahira interventions in Senegal are mostly associated with the role of remittances, their relations with the state are analysed through the lens of revenue generation and other processes of state formation such as internal bargaining between the state and societal forces. The paper is an examination of the potential role of transnational dahiras in demands for responsive governance. Its analytical orientation is placed within the theoretical premises of the “drivers of change” approach, fiscal sociology of state making and governance.
    June 16, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00669.x   open full text
  • Pre‐ and Post‐Migration Determinants of Socio‐Cultural Integration of African Immigrants in Italy and Spain.
    Tineke Fokkema, Hein de Haas.
    International Migration. May 03, 2011
    Using a unique dataset (N=2,014), we examine the pre‐ and post‐migration determinants of socio‐cultural integration among first‐generation immigrant groups in southern Europe: Moroccan and Senegalese migrants in Spain, and Egyptian and Ghanaian migrants in Italy. The results of the pooled and immigrant‐group specific regression analyses partly highlight the dominance of pre‐migration factors. Immigrants who were well‐educated and well‐informed prior to migrating and who migrate at a young age, achieve higher levels of socio‐cultural integration. Going against some hypotheses found in the literature, female gender and North African origin have a positive effect on socio‐cultural integration as opposed to male gender and sub‐Saharan origin. With regard to post‐migration factors, occupational status is the main economic determinant of socio‐cultural integration. Interestingly, being employed as such has no significant effect on socio‐cultural integration. This suggests that labour market segmentation and discrimination negatively impact upon socio‐cultural integration. The results also suggest that policies allowing immigrants to benefit from the human capital they carry across borders and achieve upward socio‐economic mobility are likely to enhance their socio‐cultural integration.
    May 03, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00687.x   open full text
  • Re‐conceptualising the Clan Structure and Migration Pattern of the Tarok People.
    Elias Nankap Lamle.
    International Migration. April 14, 2011
    This study analyses the migration pattern of the Tarok people to their contemporary homeland, Langtang, in the Middle Belt of Nigeria. The framework is that the Tarok people are part of the Benue‐Congo ethno‐linguistic phylum. This conclusion is based on the assertion that the contemporary language that the Tarok people speak is of the Benue‐Congo phylum. However, others of the Chadic ethno‐linguistic phyla such as the Ngas, Boghom, Tel (Montol) and Yiwom joined the Benue‐Congo Phylum and are given the full status of Tarokness. Also, Jukun, which are of the Benue Congo group, joined the Tarok and are given the same status as that of the Chadic. The study concludes that what is called the Tarok people are actually a consortium of many ethno‐linguistic groups that mongrelized and gave birth to the Tarok people. This is because even though the cognate of the Tarok language is of the Benue‐Congo phylum, their morphemes are a combination of the Benue Congo and Chadic ethno linguistic phylum.
    April 14, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00684.x   open full text
  • Strategic Migrant Network Building and Information Sharing: Understanding ‘Migrant Pioneers’ in Canada.
    Kara Somerville.
    International Migration. March 17, 2011
    This article explores the migrant networks that develop between migrants, non‐migrants and the larger Indian diaspora. Specifically, it examines the decision to migrate to Toronto, Canada and how this decision is shaped by, and in turn shapes the migrant network. Based on 35 interviews with migrants from Karnataka, South India, two main findings are presented. First, migrants are deliberately choosing settlement countries in which their families are not yet located, thereby becoming “migrant pioneers” in their country of settlement, which is an attempt to expand their migrant networks globally. Second, the narratives these migrants receive and subsequently impart to others are often inaccurate, which can lead to miscommunication flows among these migrant networks. These findings are considered in light of the large body of research on migrant networks and the ways they develop and transmit information. This paper argues that existing understanding of migrant networks is somewhat static. Findings indicate that these “migrant pioneers” may be engaging in global risk‐diversification strategies for subsequent generations, but may themselves suffer from the more immediate consequences of misinformed networks.
    March 17, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00671.x   open full text
  • Families Across Borders: The Emotional Impacts of Migration on Origin Families*.
    Alexis Silver.
    International Migration. March 17, 2011
    Migration is experienced not only by individuals who migrate, but also by their family members that remain at home. While previous research on origin communities has focused primarily on the economic impacts of remittances, this study emphasizes the emotional repercussions of family member migration. I use the Mexican Family Life Survey, a nationally representative data set, to empirically assess the effects of migration on the emotional well‐being of migrants’ family members in Mexican communities of origin. Results indicate that migration of close family members to the United States, especially spouses and children, significantly increases depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness reported by family members remaining in Mexico. Women, particularly mothers and wives, are more adversely affected by family member migration than men. On a practical level, findings from this study illustrate a need for support programmes in origin communities to help families cope with the migration of their family members. The results of the study also highlight the adverse and unintended consequences of border restriction policy that severely restrains migrants from visiting their families and origin communities. From a research perspective, the results indicate the importance of non‐economic measures in analyses of migration. There are significant psychological and emotional repercussions of family member migration and these should not be downplayed or overlooked in migration research.
    March 17, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00672.x   open full text
  • Teenage Marriage, and the Socioeconomic Status of Hmong Women.
    Pa Der Vang, Matthew Bogenschutz.
    International Migration. March 17, 2011
    The Hmong, who began migration to the United States of America in the latter half of the 1970s, represent a largely unstudied segment of the Asian‐American population. Traditional practices such as teenage marriage were widely reported in the early years after migration began, but have been left relatively unexamined more recently. Explicit focus on Hmong women has been largely absent in recent research. This paper examines the relationships between marriage patterns, education and earnings among Hmong women in the United States. Using results from a survey of 186 Hmong women, the results of this study indicate high rates of teenage marriage, as well as associations between early marriage, marital abuse, and both low earnings and lower levels of educational attainment among women married as teenagers compared to Hmong women who waited until adult age to marry. There were signs of encouragement, including higher than anticipated rates of educational attainment among the sample overall. Marital stressors such as spousal abuse remain prevalent, especially among Hmong women who married in their teenage years. Implications of this research are discussed for both practitioners and for future directions in research within the Hmong‐American community.
    March 17, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00674.x   open full text
  • “Economic Migrants” or “Middling Transnationals”? East European Migrants’ Experiences of Work in the UK.
    Violetta Parutis.
    International Migration. March 17, 2011
    This article is devoted to the exploration of Polish and Lithuanian migrants’ work experiences in the United Kingdom. It argues that it is hard to categorize these individuals as highly skilled or low‐skilled because, in spite of their relatively high qualifications, they often occupy low‐skilled positions in the United Kingdom. Therefore, the article suggests that these migrants are “middling transnationals” (Conradson and Latham, 2005a). Although they are classified as economic migrants, many of them have migrated to the United Kingdom not only in order to earn money but also to try life abroad, see the world, or learn English. Following Bourdieu’s terminology, the article suggests ways in which migrants use different cultural capital (skills, qualifications, social environment) to enhance their economic capital in the United Kingdom, but also ways in which these different forms of migrants’ capital are interrelated. The findings suggest that Eastern Europeans are highly mobile in the British labour market. Provided they possess necessary linguistic skills, migrants progress from “any job” to a “better job” in search of a “dream job”. The article emphasises that this transition in the British labour market became easier after Poles and Lithuanians became EU citizens, whereby they were granted the right to work and improved access to education services in the United Kingdom. The article also argues that viewing migrants’ work experiences in the context of their future plans helps to understand better why working below qualifications is acceptable to many East Europeans in the United Kingdom. This is either because it helps them maximise their income and return to their home country as soon as possible, or because a low‐skilled position helps them to improve other skills (e.g., English) and serves as a stepping stone to better career opportunities in the future.
    March 17, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00677.x   open full text
  • Exploring Social and Geographical Trajectories of Latin Americans in Sweden.
    Roger Andersson.
    International Migration. March 17, 2011
    Close to 20 percent of the Swedish population are of immigrant origin; one in eight is foreign‐born. About 45 percent of all immigrants originate from outside Europe and most of these have entered the country as refugees or relatives of refugees. Issues connected to immigration, including the number of immigrants, settlement patterns and level of social integration of ethnic minorities, have been much discussed in Sweden in recent decades.This paper focuses on the integration of Latin American immigrants in Sweden. It compares the level of integration – measured as educational achievement, labour market participation, income and housing – experienced by first and second generation migrants. I use register information allowing me to include all 1st and 2nd generation Latin Americans that have lived in Sweden between 1990 and 2006 (in total 127,000 individuals). Data are longitudinal, which means that individuals can be followed over time. I make use of the longitudinal material in order to study changes in residential patterns and in attempts to explain educational and employment outcomes for second generation Latin Americans.The general conclusion of the paper is that in terms of integration, LAC immigrants have an intermediate position compared to other immigrant categories; they are often better off than people from Africa and the Middle East but clearly below the level experienced by some other migrants, especially those from Western Europe. This cannot be explained by level of education. The average level of education is high for first generation immigrants from LA countries. For many people, the level of labour market participation and income increase over time but one important result of this analysis is that second generation Latin Americans seem to do less well in Sweden compared to many other second generation migrants.
    March 17, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00679.x   open full text
  • From Workers to Entrepreneurs: Development of Bangladeshi Migrant Businesses in The Republic of Korea.
    Lian Kwen Fee, Md Mizanur Rahman.
    International Migration. March 17, 2011
    The emergence of migrant businesses has been a part of the urban landscape in some metropolitan cities of relatively developed countries of East Asia and South‐East Asia in recent decades. These businesses are owned and operated by migrant entrepreneurs who were mostly temporary migrant workers in their early phase of migration. Drawing on the experiences of Bangladeshi migrant entrepreneurs in the Republic of Korea (referred to as South Korea throughout), this paper investigates how the migrants reposition themselves from the rank of workers to that of entrepreneurs under circumstances of temporary migration. We argue that opportunity structure and market conditions are central to understanding the development of entrepreneurship in Bangladeshi migrants. The study highlights the ingenuity of migrants in entrepreneurship. We suggest that Bangladeshi entrepreneurs will continue to maintain a dual orientation in cultivating both the ethnic and local markets, and even develop transnational operations to grow their businesses.
    March 17, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00680.x   open full text
  • International Economic Assistance and Migration: The Case of Sub‐Saharan Countries.
    Filippo Belloc.
    International Migration. March 17, 2011
    Development aid is commonly advocated as one of the most effective instruments to reduce international migration. Nevertheless, empirical evidence shows that push factors do not automatically result in massive migrations and that aid policies systematically fail to meet their stated objectives. Recently, several contributions have argued that an increase in sending countries’ wealth may lead to a rise in migration, rather than to a reduction, because it enables people to assume the costs and risks of migrating. However, despite the growing number of studies on this phenomenon, the role played by Official Development Assistance (ODA) has not received attention yet. This paper aims at providing empirical evidence on this specific issue. In particular, we investigate the relation between ODA and international migration rates of sub‐Saharan countries. We argue that ODA may have a positive effect on migration decisions for two reasons. First, ODA improves workers’ ability to cover the costs of migration, by providing new job opportunities and in turn increasing incomes in the recipient country. Second, ODA, which is often associated with development programs in education, communication services, and business opportunities, may also stimulate mobility aspirations of potential migrants. We develop an econometric analysis in order to investigate this hypothesis. Specifically, we perform a three‐stage least square estimation on a sample of 48 sub‐Saharan countries. We build a two‐equation model, so as to allow for endogeneity of ODA, and find that ODA has a positive and statistically significant effect on migration outflows. Thus, as our main contribution, we argue that development aids are not substitute for migration and that the traditional aid policies (such as those of the European Union), aimed at curbing migration by providing international financial aids, might need to be reconsidered.
    March 17, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00686.x   open full text
  • Immigration and Entry into the Cultural Mainstream.
    Rachel Sharaby.
    International Migration. March 15, 2011
    This research focuses on the absorbing society, and examines a process by which immigrants entered and changed the cultural core of the absorbing society. It analyzes the development of an ethnic holiday, the traditional ethnic Mimouna holiday of North African immigrants in Israel, into a national holiday and into part of the dominant culture. The research concludes that this process evolved mainly as a result of the political activism of immigrants from North Africa and a weakening of the hegemony. It may also illuminate the sometimes crucial role of immigrants in moving the boundaries between the center and the periphery.
    March 15, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00676.x   open full text
  • Impugning the Humanitarian Defence.
    Scott D Watson.
    International Migration. January 31, 2011
    This article examines the claim that democratic states are justified in restricting access to asylum seekers on the grounds that failing to do so reduces public support for humanitarian refugee policies – referred to here as the humanitarian defence. Drawing on detailed historical, comparative and interpretive analysis of migration policy in Canada and Australia, the author builds on Matthew Gibney’s development of practically guided normative theory to assess cases in which political elites may legitimately enact restrictive policies in response to strong public opposition. Challenging the normative basis of the humanitarian defence, the article engages in a detailed discourse analysis of asylum crises in Canada (1987, 1999) and Australia (1979, 2001). The findings suggest that political elites do not respond to an independently arrived at, and objectively established, public opinion as implied in the humanitarian defence. Rather, political elites play a crucial role in shaping the discourse on asylum seekers and consequently, influence the very “public opinion” to which they claim to be responding. The author concludes that political elites should attempt to foster an environment in which the public accepts international obligations to refugees but accepts that in some cases political elites may be justified in implementing restrictive measures.
    January 31, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00657.x   open full text
  • Generational Shifts in Language Use Among US Latinos: Mobility, Education and Occupation.
    Jeremiah Spence, Viviana Rojas, Joseph Straubhaar.
    International Migration. January 31, 2011
    The role of language and linguistic assimilation among Latinos has a direct impact on both education and occupation in terms of social mobility. The relationship can be examined with a generational context as language usage changes from first generation immigrants to third generation immigrants. The specific question being addressed herein is whether language or ethnicity had more impact on Latinos’ mobility in terms of educational achievement and occupational prestige. Results presented in this paper imply the importance and impact of the maximization of the accumulation of linguistic capital in order to accelerate the acquisition of educational attainment.
    January 31, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00660.x   open full text
  • Why do Europeans Migrate to Berlin? Social‐Structural Differences for Italian, British, French and Polish Nationals in the Period Between 1980 and 2002*.
    Roland Verwiebe.
    International Migration. January 31, 2011
    One of the main issues in migration research concerns the reasons migrants have for crossing borders. It is assumed in the research that migration is primarily economically driven. In recent studies, however, the importance of social and cultural reasons for migration has become apparent. In this context, the present contribution discusses the reasons for the migration of Europeans from Italy, France, the United Kingdom, and Poland who moved to Germany (Berlin) between 1980 and 2002. In this case, it can be shown empirically that purely economic reasons play a lesser role in migration than is generally assumed, whereas social and cultural motives actually have a much greater influence. Primary data gathered in Berlin early in 2002 form the empirical foundation of the study. Multinomial logistic regressions are used to discuss the function of social‐structural differences (e.g., nationality, age, gender, education, social origin) in the formation of individual reasons for migration.
    January 31, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00663.x   open full text
  • Making the Most of Technology: Indian Women Migrants in Australia.
    Selena Costa‐Pinto.
    International Migration. September 07, 2010
    Technology has impacted on all aspects of living across the globe by introducing a “virtual” dimension into “real” lives. As internet sociologist Sherry Turkle asserts, “we will (sic) have both. The more important question is ‘How can we get the best of both?’” (Turkle, 1997: 238).For Indian women migrants in Melbourne, Australia, the technology at their fingertips includes the worldwide web that provides instant access to information and people. Also available are satellite dishes, cheap phone connections, and convenient travel routes that sustain contact with friends and relatives around the world. Undoubtedly, technology has introduced a contemporary update bringing together the “real” and the “virtual” in these women’s migration experiences.This paper draws on my study of the migration experiences of three groups of married women migrants from India now living in Melbourne. These are the Sikhs, the Tamils, and the Anglo‐Indians, who are Eurasians of primarily British and Indian ancestry born in India. Due to Australia’s immigration selection criteria, these women are typically middle‐class, English‐language educated, Western‐oriented, and comfortable with technology. Focussing on their narratives and using survey data, I will show that they are well‐positioned to take advantage of twenty‐first century technology, and investigate how they do this.In this paper and from my subject position as a member of the same cohort group, I will argue that making the best of their virtual connections is dependent on intervening issues of availability, ability and agency that affect users at both source and destination. Through technology, the “virtual” dimension can soothe or stir, cheer or challenge, affirm or agitate. Indeed it has transformed the contemporary migration experience, but only to the extent permitted by the intervening issues.
    September 07, 2010   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00640.x   open full text
  • Framing Immigration News in Spanish Regional Press.
    Lifen Cheng, Juan José Igartua, Elena Palacios, Tania Acosta, Socorro Palito.
    International Migration. September 07, 2010
    In this paper, an exploratory content analysis has been developed for a case study on the topic of immigration reported in the regional newspapers of the largest Spanish autonomous community, Castilla and Leon. This study based its research conceptualization on the framing theory in mass communication. In addition to usual issue frames and issue images, two framing devices were established for analytic variables ‐‐ the index of importance and the index of affective attribute. They formed a frame package capable of making latent frames evident by their linkage to manifest frames. Comparing to the general assumption of relevant‐bad‐news production, results obtained in this study proved that, on occasion, negative news stories could be reported as less relevant than the positive ones. The outcomes also show how concept mapping of frames was applicable to immigration issues and immigrants’ visual aspects of immigrant communities that were systematically articulated and disseminated by the press in this regional society of Spain.
    September 07, 2010   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00647.x   open full text
  • Internal Displacement: Return, Property, Economy.
    Deniz S. Sert.
    International Migration. September 06, 2010
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    September 06, 2010   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00629.x   open full text
  • Permanently Provisional. History, Facts & Figures of Portuguese Immigration in Switzerland.
    Alexandre Afonso.
    International Migration. September 06, 2010
    This article provides an overview of the main demographic, social, and economic characteristics of Portuguese immigration in Switzerland. Firstly, it outlines the political and economic underpinnings of Portuguese migration flows to Switzerland. Then, it analyzes the demographic and sociological composition of these flows, the composition of the Portuguese population in Switzerland, as well as processes of economic and cultural integration. It is notably argued that the enduring Portuguese “ideology of return migration” has played a central role in the patterns of integration of Portuguese immigrants in Switzerland.
    September 06, 2010   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00636.x   open full text
  • Making Movements Possible: Transportation Workers and Mobility in West Africa.
    Timothy Mechlinski.
    International Migration. September 06, 2010
    This article concerns the social process of mobility control in four West African countries: Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Ghana. Migration has long been an important aspect of West African social, cultural, and political life. This study explores everyday enforcement of international and internal mobility control, and the ways in which Africans respond to and resist the actions of security agents. I accomplish this using ethnographic evidence gathered when travelling over 10,000 miles in Burkina Faso, Mali, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire over a period of nine months. In addition, data were gathered through participant observation while crossing international borders 23 times in a sub‐region of West Africa, and participating in 169 security control checkpoints in total. This evidence is supplemented by 29 interviews with transportation workers across the four countries studied. Augmenting the traditional social science literature on migrant networks with an approach proposed by development economists, this article shows that transportation workers play an essential role in mobility control in West Africa. The theoretical insights derived here contribute to a larger project of bringing borders and transportation into the same frame of reference as migration in academic study. This project sees movement through interaction, rather than simply through the systems approach so commonly applied in the literature and shows that in the countries under study there exist unstated, implicit social norms among transportation workers, their clients, and security agents, which constitute a key mechanism for migration. These actors operate in a series of structured relationships, which can be described as institutionalised, and which create a series of important exchanges governing movement in the sub‐ region.
    September 06, 2010   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00633.x   open full text
  • Assimilation of Foreigners in Former West Germany.
    Peter V. Schaeffer, James O. Bukenya.
    International Migration. April 15, 2010
    Migration movements to industrialized countries have grown in number and size, and the presence of large numbers of immigrants has raised concerns about their integration and assimilation into host societies. This article is an empirical study of assimilation of foreign nationals in Germany. Their experience may hold lessons for other relatively recent immigration destinations. As expected, language is one of the most critical factors for determining integration and assimilation at the workplace and in society. Our results indicate uneven success in these two areas, and suggest that greater language skills may be required for social assimilation, compared to economic assimilation. Among the most important findings of our study are the strong and statistically significant effects of the attitudes by Germans toward immigrants, the significant influence of the region of residence, and the ambivalence of German‐born foreign residents toward naturalization and continued stay. This signals the failure of past integration and assimilation policies. The results show that negative attitudes by ethnic Germans against others at work or in society, in general, reduce interest in integration and assimilation. This is neither new nor surprising and this research does not contribute new theoretical insights, but it demonstrates the magnitude and significance of the effects. The question of why different locations seemed to have different impacts on citizenship aspirations is beyond the scope of this article. The data do not provide information to pursue this question and we suspect that the causes are too complex for a short answer. As expected, non‐EU citizens showed greater interest in acquiring German citizenship than EU citizens. Finally, the results also indicate that the immediate post‐World War II notion of “guest workers” was not completely false. There has been significant return migration and a significant number of respondents to the survey say that they intend to return.
    April 15, 2010   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00617.x   open full text
  • Exploring the Contextual Determinants of Individual Attitudes toward Immigrants and Criminal Activity and their Spillover Policy Implications.
    Garrick L. Percival, Mary Currin‐Percival.
    International Migration. February 26, 2010
    Immigrants are routinely tied to a range of social problems in the policy making process in the US political system. Little is known however about the extent to which citizens hold attitudes that connect immigrants to particular social problems and whether these attitudes spill over to influence citizens’ preferences toward specific public policy alternatives that might appear to be largely independent of immigrants and immigration. Investigating the nexus between immigration and crime, we ask how Anglo whites’ contextual environments influence their propensity to link immigrants to a salient social pathology like crime. Results show that whites living in states where immigrant populations have increased most dramatically and in states with lower socioeconomic characteristics are more likely to associate immigration with increased criminal activity. Whites’ attitudes toward immigration‐induced crime has important spillover implications to the larger public policy making process as whites who view immigrants as a cause of criminal activity are more likely to support tougher criminal sentencing and the death penalty.
    February 26, 2010   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2010.00601.x   open full text
  • Adult vocational training for migrants in North‐East Italy.
    Natalia Magnani.
    International Migration. December 15, 2009
    This article contributes to the study of policies for the integration of immigrants into the labour markets of European immigration countries by focusing on the specific issue of vocational training for immigrant workers in Italy. Vocational training has a central role in the European employment strategy. Moreover, with regard to migrants, it is also relevant to the topical issue of the governance of international labour migration.The article analyses both the demand and the supply of vocational training in north‐east Italy, generally regarded as the rich and industrialised heart of the country. It draws on 30 interviews conducted with key informants and experts from local and regional governmental bodies, trade unions, employment offices, and private educational agencies in the main towns of the Veneto region.Various types of vocational training for immigrant workers are considered, from traditional full‐time courses financed by the European Social Fund to new projects for the selection and pre‐training of immigrants in their countries of origin. The extent to which these policy tools are able to meet the actual needs of immigrant workers and of the local business sector is investigated, as well as their problematic interaction with the national regulatory framework for immigration control.
    December 15, 2009   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00578.x   open full text
  • Multicultural Challenges in Korea: the Current Stage and a Prospect.
    Nam‐Kook Kim.
    International Migration. October 12, 2009
    This paper examines the recent challenges of cultural diversity in the Republic of Korea and predicts possible developments in the future. I explain the current stage of development in the Korean society towards multiculturalism through a three‐stage framework: tolerance, legalization of non‐discrimination, and multiculturalism. Each stage of development will be analysed through several sub measures. To better understand Korea’s unique situation, I also contrast two different perspectives, namely, state top‐down and society bottom‐up explanations. I will counter the claim of the state‐initiated instrumental multiculturalism thesis that assumes a proactive Korean government’s initiative to control immigration and adopt multicultural policy as a strategy to compensate for a labour shortage. This paper will instead argue from the liberal democracy thesis. Democratization in Korea has confirmed the relevance of liberal democracy thesis, which presupposes two conditions: the increasing demand for cultural rights by minorities and liberal constitutional government’s inevitable acceptance of such demands. Unlike the claim of state‐initiated instrumental multiculturalism, strong voices of NGOs in civil society since the mid‐1990s have influenced the development of a multiculturalism friendly atmosphere. The Korean government has also been under the pressure of political correctness toward the inevitable acceptance of cultural diversity with the deepening of democratic consolidation as well as globalization.
    October 12, 2009   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00582.x   open full text
  • Japanese‐Brazilians and the Future of Brazilian Migration to Japan.
    David McKenzie, Alejandrina Salcedo.
    International Migration. September 29, 2009
    The number of Japanese‐Brazilians working in Japan grew from less than 15,000 in 1989 to more than 300,000 in 2006. This rapid growth in migration was initiated by a law change in Japan allowing third‐generation Japanese‐Brazilians to work in Japan, the “push” of poor economic conditions in Brazil, and the “pull” of a booming economy in Japan. Cultural links between Japan and the Japanese‐Brazilians, together with the development of highly efficient organized labour recruitment networks, have acted to foster this, leading to the creation of what some experts believe to be a self‐sustaining migration system. We use a new representative survey of Japanese‐Brazilians to examine the sustainability of this migration flow. We find both the economic and cultural reasons for emigration to be weakening. Japanese‐Brazilians now occupy the upper tiers of the income and occupational distributions in Brazil, and the majority of the third‐generation are not participating in many aspects of the Japanese community in Brazil. Moreover, demographic analysis shows that over the next 20 years, the share of migration‐age Japanese‐Brazilians who are fourth‐generation will rise considerably, with such individuals not eligible to migrate under current Japanese immigration law. As a consequence, we predict the rapid growth in the Japanese‐Brazilian population in Japan will soon turn to a gradual decline in migrant numbers, and in the long term, erode the stability of this new migration system.
    September 29, 2009   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00571.x   open full text
  • A comparative study of net transfers for different immigrant groups: Evidence from Germany.
    Christer Gerdes.
    International Migration. September 28, 2009
    In the wake of immigration to Western welfare states, certain aspects, such as the financial cost of providing social welfare, have become a subject of debate. The net amount of costs and tax payments, sometimes referred to as net transfers, has been used as a measure for evaluating the sustainability of welfare state systems. The present study analyses determinants of the volume of net transfers in Germany in 2002 with reference to immigrants from Poland, Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Lebanon and Iran. The study focuses on the differences and similarities between their outcomes. In line with previous research, the results below suggest that employment situation and family composition explain a large part of the differences in net transfers. One outcome that has not previously been adequately addressed, however, is that the legal immigration status granted on arrival in Germany is of considerable importance.
    September 28, 2009   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00573.x   open full text
  • When Battlefields become Marketplaces: Migrant Workers and the Role of Civil Society and NGO Activism in Thailand.
    Piya Pangsapa.
    International Migration. August 05, 2009
    The vast majority of migrant workers in Thailand are employed predominantly in low‐paying occupations commonly described as “3‐D jobs” (dangerous, dirty, and difficult). Currently, there are nearly two million documented and undocumented migrant workers, mostly from neighbouring Burma, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and Cambodia, employed in various industries, including domestic service, throughout the country. While over half a million migrants are officially registered to work in the country, both documented and undocumented migrant workers remain unprotected primarily due to the lack of concrete measures to monitor, implement and enforce laws regarding working and living conditions. Regardless of where they are employed, migrant workers face common problems: low wages; harmful working conditions, poor living conditions; discrimination and harassment, the threat of arrest and deportation; and lack of access to basic resources such as medical care and legal assistance. Based on preliminary research conducted in the summer of 2005, this article looks at the situation of migrant factory and domestic workers in Thailand and explores the ways in which local activists, NGOs, community‐based organisations, and international bodies have been looking to assist and protect migrant workers. Successful migrant workers’ struggles and ongoing efforts of mobilization have been made possible with the help of these support groups, and raise the possibility that union and NGO activity have the potential to improve the situation of migrants in Thailand. This also raises the question of whether advocacy groups should be acting in lieu of the state rather than alongside the state, especially when it appears that they are fulfilling their civic duty as enforcer and monitor of migrant workers’ problems.
    August 05, 2009   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00559.x   open full text
  • English Acquisition and Japanese Language Maintenance Among Japanese‐American Youth.
    Sayaka Kawamura, Franklin Goza.
    International Migration. July 20, 2009
    Despite the growing number of Japanese speaking immigrants in the United States and the pronounced linguistic dissimilarity between Japanese and English, few studies have examined English proficiency levels or Japanese language maintenance. We use 2000 data from the 5 per cent IPUMS file to examine English proficiency and language maintenance among first‐, second‐, and third‐or higher‐ generation Japanese immigrant youth in the United States. Before presenting multivariate results for our dependent variables, descriptive statistics are presented detailing numerous significant differences within and across generations. Furthermore, the second‐generation is divided into subgroups based on each parent’s birthplace. This study also contrasts the results of Japanese‐Americans with those of Korean‐Americans, speakers of another language very distinct from English, in an attempt to ground the significance of our findings. Findings provide support for many of the hypotheses advanced. They also reveal that our regression models generally did a much better job explaining English acquisition among Japanese‐Americans than Korean‐Americans.
    July 20, 2009   doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2009.00538.x   open full text