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City and Community

Impact factor: 0.85 5-Year impact factor: 1.141 Print ISSN: 1535-6841 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subjects: Sociology, Urban Studies

Most recent papers:

  • Neighborhood Diversity and Food Access in a Changing Urban Spatial Structure.
    Joowon Jeong, Cathy Yang Liu.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 963-986, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nThis paper examines food access disparity in relation to neighborhood diversity, especially race/ethnicity and poverty in a changing intrametropolitan spatial structure, using the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) as a case study. With detailed grocery store data, this study finds a substantive change in food access between 2003 and 2015 in terms of both the number of grocery stores and the gravity‐based accessibility indicator, although such access varies by neighborhood characteristics and spatial location in terms of central city, inner‐ring suburbs, and outer‐ring suburbs. While access to grocery stores for minority‐concentrated neighborhoods in outer‐ring suburbs is comparable to other neighborhoods, neighborhoods with a high share of African American residents in inner‐ring suburbs and those with a high share of Latino residents in the central city have significantly lower access to food outlets. Neighborhoods with higher poverty rate tend to have more food outlets across the region except for in inner‐ring suburbs.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12426   open full text
  • Contested Spaces: Intimate Segregation and Environmental Gentrification on Chicago's 606 Trail.
    Brandon Harris, Dorothy Schmalz, Lincoln Larson, Mariela Fernandez, Sarah Griffin.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 933-962, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nThe 606, a greenway in Chicago, has been lauded as a transformative revitalization project that provides diverse benefits and connects communities. However, the greenway has become a source of conflict among Latinx residents who question the trail's value and influence on their communities. Using observations and interviews with users and residents, this study examined potential consequences of The 606, including intimate segregation, which occurs when individuals use social and physical barriers to stratify themselves in a shared environment, and impacts of environmental gentrification. Results revealed division along The 606 with Latinx users isolating themselves in western trail segments, citing feelings of exclusion, discrimination, and resistance to gentrification. Conversely, white users were found to avoid western trail segments due to fear and pervasive stereotypes. The study highlights the urban park paradox, where green space provides benefits to communities while simultaneously generating unintentional consequences that potentially reinforce segregation and social inequities.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12422   open full text
  • Racial Inequality between Gentrifiers: How the Race of Gentrifiers Affects Retail Development in Gentrifying Neighborhoods.
    Mahesh Somashekhar.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 811-844, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nResearch often links gentrification to racial inequality. Nevertheless, scholars know surprisingly little about whether the racial composition of gentrifiers moderates the consequences of gentrification. Few quantitative studies compare the effects of gentrification across different racial groups, and those that do tend to limit their outcome of interest to housing. This paper represents perhaps the first ever large‐scale assessment of the ways in which gentrifiers’ racial composition is associated with local retail development. Using data on retailers in over 500 U.S. cities between 2000 and 2010, the paper shows that retail development was significantly slower in neighborhoods gentrified by Blacks rather than Whites. Put differently, White gentrifiers gained a disproportionate amount of the retail development associated with gentrification. Scholars must acknowledge that the consequences of gentrification vary depending on the racial composition of gentrifiers, which is likely one reason why the field struggles to appropriately operationalize and measure gentrification.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12421   open full text
  • Confronting Scale: A Strategy of Solidarity in Urban Social Movements, New York City and Beyond.
    Amaka Okechukwu.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 1060-1083, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nEmerging attention to the spatial dynamics of political contention points to the spatially situated nature of mobilization, and, in turn, how space is socially produced through collective action. Drawing from interviews and archival research, this article examines an urban university social movement organization and its relationship to a larger social movement network in an urban context. In response to university administrators’ adoption of neoliberal policy reform, student activists challenged sociospatial boundaries in their organizing across scale—in their university, the city, region, and across the nation. By adopting a strategy of solidarity, student activists collapsed the boundaries of the university and transformed it into a hub of Leftist social movement organizing for the city and beyond, redefining scale. Findings suggest that the development of urban social movement networks can be understood as a scalar strategy of solidarity for building social movement persistence and power. This social movement network emerged in response to market and State redefinition of urban meaning at the transition to the 21st century. This article illustrates how the sociospatial formation of urban social movement networks challenges the boundaries of contention.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12423   open full text
  • Producing Diverse and Segregated Spaces: Local Businesses and Commercial Gentrification in Two Chicago Neighborhoods.
    Steven Tuttle.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 845-869, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nGentrification processes may involve both racial and class demographic transitions. In these cases, questions about racial segregation and integration become particularly pertinent. Neighborhoods appearing racially diverse, according to quantitative neighborhood‐level measures, may not necessarily exhibit sustained interracial contact. In these contexts, I ask: how do local events and businesses contribute to racial segregation or integration? Using qualitative observations and interviews, I examine racial segregation and diversity in two previously majority‐Latino Chicago neighborhoods. Looking specifically at public and semipublic spaces, I identify patterns of segregation and diversity. I argue that racially or ethnically diverse or segregated spaces can be the product of design or circumstance, with some actively fostering diverse and integrated communities and others becoming integrated largely due to convenience or necessity (as may be the case in grocery stores and other retail outlets). Thus, neighborhood‐level diversity may not necessarily foster integration, but additional actions can be taken by place‐producers.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12448   open full text
  • Commercial Gentrification, Ethnicity, and Social Mixedness: The Case of Javastraat, Indische Buurt, Amsterdam.
    Bahar Sakızlıoğlu, Loretta Lees.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 870-889, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nIn this paper, we investigate the ethnic politics of commercial gentrification. We discuss how ethnicity is conceived of, managed by, and integrated into urban policy; and how the changing ethnic composition of the neighborhood is perceived and lived by entrepreneurs with different ethnic and class backgrounds. We employ the notion of “mixed embeddedness,” coined by Kloosterman et al., to understand the changes gentrification brings about for ethnic minority entrepreneurs and to explain their responses to these changes. Using the case study of a gentrifying street in Amsterdam, namely, Javastraat in Indische Buurt, we draw on an analysis of ethnic packaging at the policy level as well as in depth interviews with ethnically Dutch and ethnic minority entrepreneurs. Our findings shed light on how ethnic minorities survive and manage commercial gentrification on their doorsteps as well as the complexity of social mixedness in gentrifying neighborhoods.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12451   open full text
  • The Meaning and Content of the Concept of the Social in the Scientific Discourse on Urban Social Sustainability.
    Diego A. Barrado‐Timón.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 1103-1121, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nThe introduction and progressive consolidation of the paradigm of sustainability, and specifically that of social sustainability, has led to changes in the content attributed to the idea of the social in scientific discourse on the city and urban contexts. In this article, discourse analysis methods are used to assess these changes quantitatively and qualitatively as well as to highlight the new scientific, political, and ideological content that the concept is acquiring. The conclusion is that two discourses currently compete in redefining the idea of the social in relation to the city: one that we may term traditional or “hard,” linked to ideological positions of the left, and another “soft” or emerging meaning that connects to a great extent with discursive neoliberal logic.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12480   open full text
  • A Path Analysis of Socialization Model in Traditional Market: Behavior, Function, Visual Exposure, and Access and Communication.
    Rana Najjari Nabi, Jamaloddin Mahdinezhad, Bahram Saleh Sedghpour.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 1122-1142, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nPublic spaces serve as an important site of social interaction. They allow people to gather and socialize away from home and work. This article discusses the meaning of urban public space and its role in the socialization of users in the market and the discussion of public space as a part of the socialization of businessmen and people who meet there for shopping, recreation, and establishing social relationships. The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model, using path analysis to examine direct and indirect relationships among factors contributing socialization in the public traditional Iranian Bazaars. Included in a path analysis were 326 cases. As hypothesized, behavior, function, visual exposure, and access and communication of 12 components were found to be effective factors that positively influenced socialization of markets.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12481   open full text
  • “You Soak It up Like a Sponge”: Urban African American Teens’ Perceptions of the Determinants of Dating Abuse Perpetration and Victimization.
    Heather L. Storer, Aubrey Spriggs Madkour, Carl Kendall.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 1084-1102, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nBackground: African American (AA) teens endure disproportionately high rates of adolescent dating abuse (ADA). There is a limited understanding of the community‐specific pathways that contribute to AA youth's higher risk. The purpose of this study is to investigate AA youths’ perspectives on the antecedents of ADA. Methods: Data were collected from interviews (n = 38) with AA teens. Thematic content analysis was employed to identify primary themes across the interviews. Analysis involved multiple rounds of iterative coding and the clustering of thematic constructs. Results: Interview participants described individual‐level and intergenerational explanations of ADA. The majority of participants could not identify community‐level factors. Discussion and Implications: Dating abuse perpetration and victimization were positioned as the product of personal deficits and exposure to abuse in individuals’ family environments. These findings underscore how structural and systemic determinants of dating abuse have not been translated to youth's meaning‐making processes regarding abuse. Implications for diversifying the public discourse on dating abuse will be discussed, and consciousness‐raising on the influence of upstream determinants of abuse will be presented.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12479   open full text
  • Gardening in Times of Urban Transitions: Emergence of Entrepreneurial Cultivation in Post‐Katrina New Orleans.
    Yuki Kato.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 987-1010, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nExpanding scholarship on urban farming has not systematically examined what spurs the proliferation of cultivation practices, especially when the city is undergoing economic and social transitions. This study examines the development of the urban cultivation (UC) scene in New Orleans over the decade following Hurricane Katrina with a particular focus on entrepreneurial UC projects. By contextualizing in‐depth interviews with the growers in the historical events in the city, the study finds that the dominant motives of cultivation projects shifted from social missions to economic interests over time, as the city transitioned from recovery to redevelopment. The study highlights the heterogeneity of UC practices, and questions the current scholarship's tendency to situate urban gardens in opposing theoretical frameworks: tools for neoliberal urbanism or food justice activism. The findings show that the distinction between socially motivated and economically motivated UC cannot be easily drawn. Most of the socially motivated UC projects began adopting market participation over time, while many of the economically motivated UC projects operated as social entrepreneurialism. While growers tended to view themselves as alternative to the dominant political‐economic system, they also undoubtedly benefitted from the market‐driven redevelopment of the city that expanded UC opportunities.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12476   open full text
  • The Neighborhood Context of Eviction in Southern California.
    Michael C. Lens, Kyle Nelson, Ashley Gromis, Yiwen Kuai.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 912-932, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nIn the United States, soaring rent burdens and a dearth of affordable housing leave millions of renters at risk of eviction. The eviction epidemic is particularly pronounced in California where advocates estimate that approximately 500,000 renters are evicted annually. Research has looked at individual‐level determinants of evictions, but we know much less about the spatial dynamics of eviction and associations across neighborhoods. This is largely because data on evictions are sporadic and incomplete. We utilize data from American Information Research Services, Inc., that consists of publicly available California eviction court records for Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and San Diego Counties between 2005 and 2015. We append eviction locations to two waves of the American Community Survey (ACS) to better understand the connection between concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood change and eviction. We find that evictions are much more likely to occur in neighborhoods with higher poverty rates and/or shares of African‐American individuals than in neighborhoods with rising rent or income levels. These findings suggest that court‐based evictions are much more likely to be found in areas with low‐income households and racial minorities than in areas experiencing rapid neighborhood change as evidenced by rising rents or changing demographics.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12487   open full text
  • Understanding the Divergent Logics of Landlords: Circumstantial versus Deliberate Pathways.
    Doron Shiffer‐Sebba.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 1011-1037, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nLandlords are important gatekeepers in the rental market, and scholars have studied landlord perceptions across different markets. But differences between landlord logics within a market, which drive landlord behaviors, have been largely unexamined. Drawing chiefly on 30 in‐depth landlord interviews and 20 observations with property managers in Philadelphia, I argue that landlords exhibit a range of logics. When faced with rental market decisions, some employ profit‐maximizing criteria, whereas others consider social closeness with tenants or the meanings of properties. These differences relate to pathways into property ownership: landlords who obtain property circumstantially focus on profit maximization less than those who purchase property deliberately to pursue profits. This paper extends our understanding of landlords, connecting their pathways to a range of logics within a single market context. It also suggests that policies should consider the logics of landlords they seek to influence.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12490   open full text
  • Housing Outcomes in Turkey: How Do Middle‐Income Households Fare?
    Samantha Friedman, Aysenur Kurtulus, Ismet Koc.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 1038-1059, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nDespite the doubling in size of the middle class and the significant housing increase in Turkey, little research has examined housing outcomes of middle‐income households, particularly relative to affluent households. The housing increase and 2007 Mortgage Law could have reduced housing differences between middle‐income and affluent households, but the rise in gated communities could have increased these differences. Using data from Turkey's 2012 Household and Budget Survey, we find that middle‐income households are significantly less likely than affluent households to own their homes and live in larger homes, and among owner‐occupiers, in homes of higher value. Less pronounced differences are found in their residence in newer homes. Fewer differences in housing outcomes exist between middle‐ and lower‐income households, particularly among owner‐occupiers. These results suggest that the most affluent households, rather than the poorest households, are likely isolating themselves from other households, thereby affecting the future well‐being of middle‐income households.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12483   open full text
  • Geographic Specificity Matters: Centering the Perspectives of Community‐Based Stakeholders for a Holistic Understanding of Gentrification in the Twin Cities.
    Brittany Lewis, Molly Calhoun, Edward G. Goetz, Anthony Damiano.
    City and Community. December 09, 2020
    ["City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 890-911, December 2020. ", "\nAbstract\nThis paper highlights the qualitative component of a larger mixed methodological study that explores how community stakeholders, most impacted by gentrification pressures in the Twin Cities, understand neighborhood change as it impacts their daily lives. The purpose is to expand the current theorization of gentrification through examining the lived experiences of those most impacted. We illuminate where community stakeholders' experiences align with and diverge from the common narrative themes often cited in contemporary gentrification literature such as demographic change and physical displacement. Although common narrative frames emerged, narrative distinctions also materialized. This differentiation highlights how gentrification pressures not only influence the redevelopment of physical space, but also culture and belonging in ways that can be distinctly different even in neighborhoods of close proximity. The implications suggest the importance of geographic specificity in policy and program approaches based on distinct histories of neighborhoods and their residents.\n"]
    December 09, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12492   open full text
  • “Not Just a Lateral Move”: Residential Decisions and the Reproduction of Urban Inequality.
    Stefanie DeLuca, Christine Jang‐Trettien.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nABSTRACT\nDespite decades of research on residential mobility and neighborhood effects, we know comparatively less about how people sort across geography. In recent years, scholars have been calling for research that considers residential selection as a social stratification process. In this paper, we present findings from work our team has done over the last 17 years to explore how people end up living where they do, relying in large part on systematically sampled in‐depth narrative interviews with families. We focus on four key decisions: whether to move; where to move; whether to send children to school in the neighborhood; and whether to rent or own a home. We found that many residential mobility decisions among the poor were “reactive,” with unpredictable shocks forcing families out of their homes. As a result of reactive moving, housing search time frames became shorter and poor parents employed short‐term survival solutions to secure housing instead of long‐term investment thinking about neighborhood and school district quality. These shocks, constraints, and compressed time frames led parents to decouple some dimensions of neighborhoods and schools from the housing search process while maximizing others, like immediacy of shelter, unit quality, and proximity to work and child care. Finally, we found that policies can significantly shape and better support some of these decisions. Combined, our research revealed some of the processes that underlie locational attainment and the intergenerational transmission of neighborhood context.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 451-488, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12515   open full text
  • Sense of Belonging and Commitment as Mediators of the Effect of Community Features on Active Involvement in the Community.
    Lea Zanbar.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nCitizens' active involvement in the community is aimed at improving their welfare and addressing social needs and other urban issues. The current study investigated factors that contribute to such involvement, and empirically examined the theoretical assumption that community belonging and commitment mediate their effect on community involvement. The sample consisted of 1,014 Israeli respondents who completed a self‐report questionnaire tapping community features (size, social support, three dimensions of citizens' perceptions of local services, and leaders), mediating variables representing the individual's attitudes toward the community (belonging, commitment), and the outcome of active involvement in the community. Path analysis supported by indirect effect examination indicated that the effect of some variables was fully mediated by community belonging and commitment. Elsewhere, the mediation reversed the direction of the effect, changing it from negative to positive. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, including operative suggestions for professionals in the field of community interventions.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 617-637, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12420   open full text
  • Gentrification without Segregation? Race, Immigration, and Renewal in a Diversifying City.
    Jackelyn Hwang.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nResearch on how neighborhood racial composition affects where gentrification unfolds yields mixed conclusions, but these studies either capture broad national trends or highly segregated cities. Drawing on the case of Seattle—a majority‐White city with low segregation levels and growing ethnoracial diversity—this study uncovers an underexplored mechanism shaping patterns of uneven development and residential selection in the contemporary city: immigrant replenishment. The share of all minorities is negatively associated with gentrification during the 1970s and 1980s, and, in contrast to expectations, shares of Blacks positively predict recent gentrification while shares of Asians negatively predict it. Increased concentrations of recent immigrants in neighborhoods with greater shares of Asians explain these relationships. These findings suggest that where arriving immigrants move limits residential selection in gentrification and shifts pressures to low‐cost Black neighborhoods. This study highlights how immigration and points of entry are important factors for understanding uneven development in the contemporary city and has implications for the future of racial stratification as cities transform.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 538-572, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12419   open full text
  • Spatially Based Rules for Reducing Multiple‐Race into Single‐Race Data.
    Joseph F. Cabrera, Rachael R. Dela Cruz.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nThere is a discord between the categorization of mixed‐race data in spatial studies, which has become more complex as the mixed‐race population increases. We offer an efficient, spatially based method for assigning mixed‐race respondents into single‐race categories. The present study examined diversity within 25 Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States to develop this racial bridging method. We identify prescriptions for each two‐race category based on average diversity experiences and similarity scores derived from census tract data. The results show the following category assignments: (1) Black–Asians to Black, (2) White–others to White, (3) Asian–others to Asian, (4) White–Blacks to other, (5) White–Asians to White (if Asian >3.0 percent), (6) White–Asians to Asian (if Asian <3.0 percent), (7) Black–Asians to other (if Black >8.5 percent), and (8) Black–Asians to Black (if Black <8.5 percent). We argue that the proposed method is appropriate for all race‐based studies using spatially relevant theoretical constructs such as segregation and gentrification.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 593-616, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12418   open full text
  • The Production of Community in Community Land Trusts.
    Richard Kruger, James DeFilippis, Olivia R. Williams, Azadeh Hadizadeh Esfahani, Deborah G. Martin, Joseph Pierce.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nThis paper explores the ways notions of community are produced and understood by homeowners/ members, staff, and board members of eight Community Land Trusts (CLTs) in the state of Minnesota. The CLT model utilizes a mixed property regime that ensures the permanent affordability of land to make it accessible to low‐income people. In most cases, CLT land is made up of noncontiguous parcels spread across a neighborhood or municipality, embedded in an existing landscape of geographic and social communities. CLTs have been lauded as agents in and for community control of urban land tenure, yet there has been little scholarship on what exactly “community” means to those involved. This article addresses this gap through an analysis of the empirical findings of a three‐year study of CLTs in Minnesota in which participants were asked to think through how they conceptualized the community in the CLTs they were a part of. Our findings show that little sense of community exists among the CLT homeowners we interviewed. Despite this, CLT homeowners did feel a sense of community in their relationships with CLT staff members, and, interestingly, expressed a feeling of (imagined) community with future CLT homeowners.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 638-655, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12452   open full text
  • “Smack in the Middle”: Urban Governance and the Spatialization of Overdose Epidemics.
    Sylvia McKelvie.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nIn recent years, cities in North America have declared public health emergencies in response to opioid‐related overdoses and fatalities. Municipalities are reacting with various interventions and degrees of urgency, whereas harm reduction organizations coordinate the street‐level fight against death. Though drug use has long been concentrated in urbanized and downtown areas, these neighborhoods are being addressed with new national attention. This article draws on qualitative interviews with participants in the Downtown Eastside (DTES) in Vancouver and the Tenderloin in San Francisco. I highlight two interconnected themes: (1) the legacy of distrust between municipal officials and drug users and (2) the disconnection between “epidemics” as narrowly constructed public health emergencies and the needs of communities. Findings show ongoing struggles with “progressive” urban agendas. San Francisco minimized fatalities thanks to the early introduction of unregulated naloxone; however, new anti‐homelessness legislation and police‐led initiatives continue to create social upheaval for drug users. In comparison, the rollout of Vancouver's naloxone program arrived 10 years too late. Organizations are attempting to amplify access to safe injection and overdose prevention sites in the DTES. Using interurban analysis, overdose epidemics can be conceptualized as sociospatial fields of power, providing greater insight into urban marginality and health inequalities.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 704-725, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12456   open full text
  • Sense of Place and Feelings of Safety: Examining Young Adults’ Experiences of their Local Environment using Mobile Surveys.
    Michael L. Chataway.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nThis study aims to examine feelings of safety and the correlates to feelings of decreased worry toward crime within individuals’ proximate environments. Data from adults living in Southeast Queensland (N = 72) were collected using a mobile application. Findings of a thematic analysis of these data suggest that safety perceptions are primarily driven by (a) physical features of the proximate environment, (b) social characteristics of a place, and (c) location familiarity or awareness. This study concludes with a discussion of how these themes may be leveraged to develop more focused fear‐reduction strategies that involve modifying features of the physical environment, improving social characteristics of place and increasing knowledge/awareness of place.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 656-675, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12453   open full text
  • Public Space, Common Space, and the Spaces In‐Between: A Case Study of Philadelphia's LOVE Park.
    Luke M. Cianciotto.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nThis study concerns the struggle for Philadelphia's LOVE Park, which involved the general public and its functionaries on one side and skateboarders on the other. This paper argues LOVE Park was one place composed of two distinct spaces: the public space the public engendered and the common space the skateboarders produced. This case demonstrates that public and common space must be understood as distinct, for they entail different understandings of publicly accessible space. Additionally, public and common spaces often exist simultaneously as “public‐common spaces,” which emphasizes how they reciprocally shape one another. This sheds light on the emergence of “anti‐common public space,” which is evident in LOVE Park's 2016 redesign. This concept considers how common spaces are increasingly negated in public spaces. The introduction of common space to the study of public spaces is significant as it allows for more nuanced understandings of transformations in the urban landscape.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 676-703, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12454   open full text
  • Residential Segregation, Neighborhood Health Care Organizations, and Children's Health Care Utilization in the Phoenix Urbanized Area.
    Kathryn Freeman Anderson.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nResearch has demonstrated health care consequences of racial/ethnic residential segregation. Here, I test one possible mechanism—the distribution of community health care organizations and service providers across urban communities. Using data from a 2013 survey on children's health care utilization in the Phoenix urbanized area combined with data on a 2013 census of health care organizations, I estimate a series of statistical models in order to test this relationship. I find that Latino and Native American segregation is related to a lower density of health care organizations. Furthermore, the lack of these resources increases the odds of a family using a clinic, versus a physician's office, which is a more ideal source of care. Finally, a higher rate of racial/ethnic clustering is also related to greater utilization of a clinic, as opposed to a physician's office, and this association is partially mitigated by distribution of health care organizations.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 771-801, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12475   open full text
  • Exclusion in Upscaling Institutions: The Reproduction of Neighborhood Segregation in an Urban Church.
    Erick Berrelleza.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nThis paper examines the intersection of neighborhood change and parish reconfiguration in Charlestown, MA. The merger of two Roman Catholic churches has unsettled the congregational cultures, just as gentrification is unsettling broader neighborhood dynamics. Based on findings from 28 in‐depth interviews and participant‐observation, I examine the spatial reproduction of neighborhood segregation in the sanctuary of St. Mary's church. Affluent newcomers and “Townies”–stalwart residents who have weathered earlier waves of neighborhood upscaling–form power alliances that result in the exclusion of the poorest residents in the shared space of this urban church. By paying attention to the seating arrangements and other social interactions of churchgoers, I discover that the new parish vision of the merged church–albeit one that purported to celebrate the diverse residents of the neighborhood–resulted in the cultural exclusion of Latinos. Institutional decisions, the desire to maintain ethnic enclaves, and tacit messages of group exclusion reify the race and class divisions of the neighborhood within the walls of the church. I conclude with an exploration of the strategies of resilience to gentrification and merger evident in this case by attending to the actions of the disadvantaged in relation to the changing institution.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 747-770, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12474   open full text
  • Measuring Displacement: Assessing Proxies for Involuntary Residential Mobility.
    H. Jacob Carlson.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nResearch has repeatedly found that displacement is not more likely in gentrifying neighborhoods. Since the dependent variable—displacement—is difficult to measure, researchers resort to a variety of proxy measures for it. I classify three types of proxies: a population approach that measures compositional changes in neighborhoods over time, an individual approach that measures individual housing mobility, and a motivational approach that traces both individual mobility as well as the reasons why a household moved to determine whether that move was involuntary. I examine the prevalence of these approaches across a sample of the literature. I then test the commensurability of the proxy measures with data from New York City by comparing the rank orderings of neighborhoods with the most and least displacement. I find widely different results across the approaches. I explain these results by examining the underlying mechanisms of displacement that are masked by the other approaches.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 573-592, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12482   open full text
  • Cultivating Place: Urban Development and the Institutionalization of Seattle's P‐Patch Community Gardens.
    Charlotte Glennie.
    City and Community. October 05, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nHow does culture influence the political and economic processes shaping cities? Socially rich but unprofitable land uses, such as community gardens, create a trade‐off between maintaining local character and increasing exchange value. To understand how less profitable land uses can prevail in development conflicts, I examined documents and interviewed advocates for Seattle's P‐Patch program, which has secured virtual permanence for its publicly owned garden sites. My historical analysis shows that the P‐Patch advocates, endowed with significant cultural capital, appealed to notions of Seattle's place character and leveraged the city's legal‐policy infrastructure to institutionalize community gardens within Seattle's urban planning framework. The gardens serve a wide constituency, including many low‐income and minority residents, but as neighborhood amenities signifying urban sustainability, they also contribute to gentrification. My findings suggest that residents can leverage culture and local character to protect use value, but equity is far from inherent to this process and therefore requires deliberate consideration.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 3, Page 726-746, September 2020. "]
    October 05, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12464   open full text
  • When Heritage Meets Creativity: A Tale of Two Urban Development Strategies in Kampong Glam, Singapore.
    Vinay Kumar.
    City and Community. June 10, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nIn recent years, cities around the world have increasingly relied on culture‐based development strategies for the revitalization of urban areas, such as urban heritage and the development of a creative economy. Typically, either one of these practices is put in place; however, in Kampong Glam, Singapore, both heritage development and creative economy strategies have been adopted by the national government and local organizations. This paper studies the coincidence of the two main culture‐based urban development strategies and its implications in the same physical urban place. Drawing on geospatial mapping techniques and archival data, we aim to illustrate how the two cultural urban redevelopment strategies manifest and interact in urban space. We find that stakeholders draw on each strategy to counteract the excesses of the other, given their different aims and audiences, so as to regulate the interaction between the two and achieve balance among competing interests in the neighborhood.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 2, Page 398-420, June 2020. "]
    June 10, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12427   open full text
  • Mediterranean Style Gated Communities Around the World: Architecture, Globalization, and Transnational Elites.
    Albert S. Fu.
    City and Community. June 10, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nMediterranean style houses, mansions, and villas are found in elite enclaves around the world. There is a large literature on gated communities. However, the ubiquity of this Mediterranean style as a global and cross‐cultural phenomenon has been underexamined. Enclaves in Africa, Asia, the Americas, and the Middle East often look the same suggesting the global commodification of this aesthetic ideal. Examining the Toskana Vadisi, or Tuscan Valley gated community in Istanbul, Turkey, this article argues such spaces represent global cultural processes, as well the habitus of transnational elites in aspiring global cities. Also, by focusing on a non‐Western city, I am able to analyze how aesthetic ideals are linked to city‐building, in an increasingly competitive world, where cities seek world‐class status by developing amenities for transnational elites.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 2, Page 421-442, June 2020. "]
    June 10, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12447   open full text
  • “Because the World Consists of Everybody”: Understanding Parents’ Preferences for Neighborhood Diversity.
    Jennifer Darrah‐Okike, Hope Harvey, Kelley Fong.
    City and Community. June 10, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nPrevious research, primarily using survey data, highlights preferences about neighborhood racial composition as a potential contributor to residential segregation. However, we know little about how individuals, especially parents, understand neighborhood racial composition. We examine this question using in‐depth interview data from a racially diverse sample of 156 parents of young children in two metropolitan areas. Prior scholarship on neighborhood racial preferences has mostly been animated by expectations about in‐group attraction, out‐group avoidance, the influence of stereotypes, and perceived associations between race and status. However, we find that a substantial subset of parents expressed a desire for racially and ethnically mixed neighborhoods—a residential preference at odds with racial segregation. Parents across race conceptualized neighborhood diversity as beneficial for children's development. They expressed shared logics, reasoning that neighborhood diversity cultivates skills and comfort interacting with racial others; teaches tolerance; and provides cultural enrichment. However, these ideas intersected with racial segregation and stratification to shape parents’ understandings of diversity and hinder the realization of parents’ aspirations. Beliefs about the benefits of neighborhood diversity were rarely a primary motivation for residential choices. Nonetheless, parents’ perceptions of the advantages of neighborhood racial mixing reveal the reach of discourse on the value of diversity and suggest a potential opportunity to advance residential desegregation.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 2, Page 374-397, June 2020. "]
    June 10, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12445   open full text
  • Impacts of Multiscale Racial Concentration on Neighborhood Foreclosure Risk in Immigrant Gateway Metropolitan Areas.
    C. Aujean Lee, Andrew J. Greenlee.
    City and Community. June 10, 2020
    ["\nAbstract\nScholars define emerging gateway metropolitan areas in the United States as regions in which immigrant communities settled after the 1990s. Historically, immigrant and minority neighborhoods are characterized by exclusion from conventional sources of financial capital––factors which compound risks associated with residential instability and foreclosure. Yet, these new gateways may offer protection from foreclosure due to the relative affordability of housing and concentration of racial and ethnic and class advantages. We examine whether foreclosure risk is mediated through spatial processes, race, nativity, and class. We find that race and nativity play a major role in mediating risk across immigrant gateways. Neighborhoods with higher levels of Asian concentration presented lower risk, regardless of nativity and income. In contrast, Latino foreclosure risk varied by nativity, income, and gateway. Emerging gateways are also associated with higher foreclosure risk. Our findings inform resurgent ethnicity theory and how middle‐class immigrant neighborhoods offer improved socioeconomic outcomes without relying on White areas as a standard for immigrant integration.\n", "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 2, Page 352-373, June 2020. "]
    June 10, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12478   open full text
  • “Pudong Is Not My Shanghai”: Displacement, Place‐Identity, and Right to the “City” in Urban China.
    Fang Xu.
    City and Community. June 10, 2020
    [nil, "City & Community, Volume 19, Issue 2, Page 330-351, June 2020. "]
    June 10, 2020   doi: 10.1111/cico.12491   open full text
  • Status Aversion, Attraction and Discrepancy as Drivers of Neighborhood Selection.
    George Galster, Lena Magnusson Turner.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Neighborhood income segregation is a widespread phenomenon. We explore its origins by modeling neighborhood selection by native Norwegian households making inter‐neighborhood moves, distinguishing influences of shares of three income groups and the discrepancy between the individual household's income and neighborhood median. We conduct a conditional logit analysis employing 2013–2014 population register data from the Oslo, Norway, metropolitan area. We find that status composition (shares of low‐ and high‐income households) and status discrepancy (difference between individual household's and neighborhood median disposable incomes) critically shapes neighborhood selection, though heterogeneously across income groups. All income groups sort into neighborhoods that have more of their own status group in residence. Middle‐ or high‐income households avoid neighborhoods with above‐average shares of low‐status households and median incomes that are higher than their own. High‐income households are more attracted to a place the greater the superiority of their incomes compared to the neighborhood median. Our findings suggest that although the drivers of residential income segregation are powerful, public policies aimed at neighborhood diversification have potential efficacy nevertheless. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 937-964, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12435   open full text
  • More than Sound: Record Stores in Majority Black Neighborhoods in Chicago, Milwaukee, and Detroit, 1970–2010.
    Thomas Calkins.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Music consumption imbues a city's neighborhoods with a character all their own, contributing to a vibrant and dynamic map of urban cultures. Brick‐and‐mortar music retailers remain an important site for this consumption, persisting despite challenges posed by digitization. But the landscape of contemporary cultural consumption has been shaped by urban inequality over time. Using a unique dataset of record store locations derived from city directories, and census tract data from the Longitudinal Tract Database (LTDB), this article presents maps and regression results that suggest that the current pattern of music retail has undergone radical shifts between 1970 and 2010 in the cities of Milwaukee, Chicago, and Detroit. Record stores were once more highly clustered in predominantly black areas than they are today. An analysis of record store failure further suggests that in the period between 1980 and 1990, record stores outside of majority white areas had significantly higher probabilities of failure than those within them. This study contributes to scholarship on cultural consumption and urban change by accounting for how segregation shapes the retail landscape. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 853-873, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12433   open full text
  • Urban Regimes in Small Russian Towns.
    Valeri Ledyaev, Alla Chirikova.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract This article presents the outcomes of a research project conducted in five small Russian towns. Different coalitions between local actors take place in all communities. However, coalitions that meet the criteria of the urban regime (in Stone's classical interpretation) have been discovered, with certain reservations, only in two towns. For a number of characteristics, these coalitions differed from regimes in American and European towns: often not quite voluntary nature of coalitions, prevalence of egoistic motives in the coalition‐building, strong dependence of the regimes on the personal factor (personal qualities and resources of local administrators, their experience, relations with regional elites, etc.), absence of formal organizations able to coordinate the interests of coalition members, etc. In the three other local communities, urban regimes have not been built due to personal factors, frequent changes in the local government leadership, or the role of external factors (the nature of the relationship of local elites with regional and federal authorities, methods of influence of regional authorities on local politics). In the public agenda of the regimes (quasi‐regimes), the elements of the status quo and, to a lesser extent, growth, prevail. The outcomes of study allow us to conclude that despite the authoritarian nature of the Russian politics and the differences between Russian and American contexts, urban regimes analysis is quite applicable for the study of power in Russian local communities. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 812-833, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12439   open full text
  • Black Homebuying after the Crisis: Appreciation Patterns in Fifteen Large Metropolitan Areas.
    Dan Immergluck, Stephanie Earl, Allison Powell.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Some have questioned the financial wisdom of homeownership and, especially, Black homeownership. This is understandable because the mortgage crisis dealt heavy blows to Black homeowners. One concern is that home values may not appreciate as much where Blacks purchase homes. We examine how Black homebuyers fared compared to White and Latino buyers in terms of home appreciation during the 2012 to 2017 recovery. We examine appreciation rates by race and ethnicity across 15 metros. We then estimate the relationship between appreciation and the race and ethnicity of the homebuyer, as well as characteristics of the neighborhood where the home is purchased. We find Blacks saw higher appreciation rates than Whites in high‐ and medium‐appreciation metros, but not in low‐appreciation metros. We also find that in medium‐ and high‐appreciation metros, buyers in racially diverse neighborhoods tended to see higher levels of appreciation. Also in higher‐appreciation metros, those buying in lower‐income neighborhoods tended to see higher appreciation rates, while those in low‐appreciation metros did not. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 983-1002, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12436   open full text
  • Queer Pop‐Ups: A Cultural Innovation in Urban Life.
    Ryan Stillwagon, Amin Ghaziani.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Research on sexuality and space emphasizes geographic and institutional forms that are stable, established, and fixed. By narrowing their analytic gaze on such places, which include gayborhoods and bars, scholars use observations about changing public opinions, residential integration, and the closure of nighttime venues to conclude that queer urban and institutional life is in decline. We use queer pop‐up events to challenge these dominant arguments about urban sexualities and to advocate instead a “temporary turn” that analyzes the relationship between ephemerality and placemaking. Drawing on interviews with party promoters and participants in Vancouver, our findings show that ephemeral events can have enduring effects. Pop‐ups refresh ideas about communal expression, belonging, safety, and the ownership of space among queer‐identified people who feel excluded from the gayborhood and its bars. As a case, pop‐ups compel scholars to broaden their focus from a preoccupation with permanent places to those which are fleeting, transient, short‐lived, and experienced for a moment. Only when we see the city as a collection of temporary spaces can we appreciate how queer people convert creative cultural visions into spatial practices that enable them to express an oppositional ethos and to congregate with, and celebrate, their imagined communities. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 874-895, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12434   open full text
  • “Progress and Perfectability”: Urban Policy, Model Cities, and Community Control in the Shadow of Newark.
    Amy Foerster.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Positioning itself against arguments that claim that the Model Cities program (initially known as the 1966 Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act) was either an unmitigated failure, an attempt to co‐opt activists, or an effort to introduce the “carceral state” nationwide, this paper examines the implementation of Model Cities in a historically integrated suburb and argues that while the program was assuredly only a “limited success,” it did provide both funding and social space in which residents could forge intergenerational and cross‐racial alliances, as well as launch challenges to federal urban renewal policy and notions of community control. As such, this case is illustrative of the role of federal monies in responding to urban dislocation and unrest, and exemplifies the ways in which urban residents can forge bonds of solidarity even in the face of bureaucratic regulations and political obstructions meant to discourage citizen participation. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 915-936, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12432   open full text
  • A City for Itself: A Peripheral Mixed City's Struggle for Cultural Capital.
    Sharon Yavo‐Ayalon, Meirav Aharon‐Gutman, Tal Alon‐Mozes.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Based on the case study of a Fringe theatre festival in a peripheral city in Israel, this article identifies and analyzes a moment of change in power relations between a peripheral city and the country's central city. It offers an alternative perspective to urban discourse, which analyzes art projects in peripheral cities as duplicating colonial relations. We adapted the Marxist concept of a class in itself and a class for itself, from the socioeconomic realm to the urban realm, by using Bourdieu's field theory as a link between the sociology of art and the urban realm. We argue that by taking control over the festival's productive forces, the city evolved from a city in itself to a city for itself. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and architectural research, the article analyzes four decades of urban dynamics leading to this change and proposes a theoretical and methodological framework for deciphering contemporary urban process. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 792-811, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12431   open full text
  • “Change Agents” on Two Wheels: Claiming Community and Contesting Spatial Inequalities through Cycling in Los Angeles.
    Jennifer Candipan.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract This study uses participant observation to examine how an all‐female collective in Los Angeles uses urban cycling culture as a way to contest inequalities and advocate for social change in communities of color. Bridging the literatures on gentrification and social movements, I examine how the collective uses the bicycle as a unifying tool to draw disparate individuals together and, through the group's practices and rituals, generates a shared sense of collective identity and politicized consciousness embedded within the uneven spatial development of Los Angeles. I demonstrate how this politicized consciousness drives a collective spirit of resistance that challenges gentrification by reimagining and re‐embodying space through organized actions and everyday practices. I find that organized anti‐gentrification resistance is not merely reactionary, but rather entails pre‐figurative action and visioning for space and community. Overall, findings speak more broadly to how communities of color facing exclusion and marginalization make claims to space and community. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 965-982, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12430   open full text
  • Creating Urban Sociality in Middle‐Class Neighborhoods in Milan and Bologna: A Study on the Social Streets Phenomenon.
    Niccolò Morelli.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Social Streets are groups of neighbors who want to recreate convivial ties having noticed a weakening of social relationships in their roads of residence. Social Streets start as online Facebook groups to materialize in offline encounters, using conviviality to create virtuous bonds. These are carried out through practices of sociality, inclusive and for free. The main focus of this article is analyzing sociodemographic data of the “Streeters” and of the neighborhoods to understand where they produce conviviality in urban neighborhoods. To do this, the article examines two Italian cities which have the highest number of Social Streets: Milan (72) and Bologna (65). Sociodemographic data from the online survey on “Streeters” in Milan (618 respondents) and Bologna (577 respondents), together with census data from 2011 provided by Istat, have been used. Results show that most “Streeters” are not originally from Bologna and Milan, have a high level of education, and are fully embedded in civic engagement. Through conviviality, Social Streets produce a sense of attachment and can represent a good tool to fight isolation and loneliness in the urban setting. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 834-852, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12415   open full text
  • Along the London Overground: Transport Improvements, Gentrification, and Symbolic Ownership along London's Trendiest Line.
    Marion Lagadic.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Between 2008 and 2011, the dysfunctional North London line was improved and rebranded into a high‐quality, high‐frequency service: the London Overground. Great ambitions for regeneration came with this project: The improved line, running through deprived areas of East London, was expected to bring inward investment and to open access to new opportunities outside the borough to its residents. Seven years after the beginning of the improvement works, Hackney's Overground stations have emerged as hubs for London's trendy, symbolic economy, and the current commercial dynamism has been interpreted by many as indicative of widespread gentrification. Through census data analysis and 58 interviews with local shopkeepers and experts around four stations of the London Overground—Dalston, Hackney Central, Homerton, and Hackney Wick—this study shows that the emergence of a trendy retail scene should not be mistaken for inclusive regeneration. The North London Line improvements catalyzed gentrification both by capital and by collective action, and fostered gentrification in both direct and indirect ways. The expansion of the trendy retail scene, if left uncontrolled by policymakers, will lead to a symbolic displacement of longstanding residents, which will be added to their direct displacement through rising rents and exclusion from employment opportunities in the symbolic economy. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 1003-1027, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12414   open full text
  • Reconsidering Collective Efficacy: The Roles of Perceptions of Community and Strong Social Ties.
    Jason T. Carbone, Stephen Edward McMillin.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Collective efficacy is an often‐studied concept, yet theoretical differences and confusing terminology lead to an inability to translate the concept across disciplines. Utilizing a nationally representative sample, this study employs structural equation modeling combined with a series of hierarchical models to test the hypotheses that the focal independent variables of neighborhood perceptions, strong social ties, and civic engagement as a proxy for weak social ties are each positively associated with collective efficacy while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Findings show that all the focal independent variables were positively associated with collective efficacy. The full model accounts for nearly half the variance in collective efficacy. These results support other, recent research findings that the collective efficacy measure is more highly associated with respondent perceptions of the community and strong social ties than originally theorized. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 1068-1085, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12413   open full text
  • Buffalo's West Side Story: Migration, Gentrification, and Neighborhood Change.
    Robert M. Adelman, Aysegul Balta Ozgen, Watoii Rabii.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Using a multi‐methods approach, we examine socioeconomic and demographic change in Buffalo, New York's, West Side neighborhood. We do this by performing a systematic case study of the neighborhood analyzing census tract data, crime data, key informant interview data from community leaders and organizational representatives, and content analysis data from local newspaper articles. Results suggest that although the neighborhood has shifted dramatically over the last forty‐five years, the changes have been uneven across the West Side. Two divergent areas have emerged: one neighborhood fueled by white gentrifiers and another driven by international migrants. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 770-791, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12412   open full text
  • “Chocolate City, Rest in Peace”: White Space‐Claiming and the Exclusion of Black People in Washington, DC.
    Allison Suppan Helmuth.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Urban sociologists and gentrification scholars have long been interested in examining the combination of structural and micro‐level forces that result in the displacement and exclusion of low‐income residents from changing neighborhoods. However, the types of everyday activities and the social and spatial practices that exclude residents who remain in these neighborhoods are an understudied part of the gentrification story. How are exclusive spaces created? What are the specific social processes that lead to exclusive space? I draw on in‐depth interviews and ethnographic fieldwork to examine how white residents in a historically black neighborhood claim space through their everyday actions and interactions. These space‐claiming practices are at times subtle and at times overt, but often draw on a repertoire of physical, mental, and social practices that combine to create spaces that exclude black people—including long‐term black residents, black gentrifiers, and black visitors to the neighborhood—from public space. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 746-769, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12428   open full text
  • Complaining While Black: Racial Disparities in the Adjudication of Complaints Against the Police.
    Jacob William Faber, Jessica Rose Kalbfeld.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Reports of citizen complaints of police misconduct often note that officers are rarely disciplined for alleged misconduct. The perception of little officer accountability contributes to widespread distrust of law enforcement in communities of color. This project investigates how race and segregation shape the outcomes of allegations made against the Chicago Police Department (CPD) between 2011 and 2014. We find that complaints by black and Latino citizens and against white officers are less likely to be sustained. We show neighborhood context interacts with complainant characteristics: Incidents alleged by white citizens in high‐crime and predominantly black neighborhoods are more likely to be sustained. These findings provide context for understanding tensions between communities of color and the CPD. These results are consistent with theories that individual and institutional actors prioritize white victimhood and reflect the neighborhood effects literature stressing the interaction between individual and contextual factors in shaping outcomes. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 1028-1067, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12388   open full text
  • Community Entitativity and Civic Engagement.
    Monica M. Whitham.
    City and Community. September 11, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract This study applies the social psychological concept of entitativity to communities of place. Entitativity is the property of a collectivity that differentiates a coherent social group from an aggregate of individuals. This concept, which considers aspects of group life such as boundaries, interaction, shared goals, proximity, and similarity, provides a framework for understanding communities of place as a special type of social group. Using survey data from 9,962 residents of 99 Iowa communities, this study assesses how community entitativity relates to forms of civic engagement (e.g., voluntary citizen participation) in small, rural towns. Results indicate community‐level components of entitativity—including rurality, residential stability, sociability, and shared goals—are associated with greater individual‐level resident civic engagement. These findings suggest community entitativity can impact resident motivations and attitudes, with the potential to activate local social capital and contribute to successful community outcomes. Implications for the study of social capital, neighborhood effects, place attachment, and sense of community are discussed. - 'City &Community, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 896-914, September 2019. '
    September 11, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12385   open full text
  • Can Rust Belt or Three Cities Explain the Sociospatial Changes in Atlantic Canadian Cities?
    Lisa Kaida, Howard Ramos, Diana Singh, Paul Pritchard, Rochelle Wijesingha.
    City and Community. August 06, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Research on American secondary cities has largely focused on so‐called “rust belt” cities and has found that they tend to have economic stagnation, racialization, and urban decay in their urban cores occurring after economic crises. Most urban research on Canadian cities has, by contrast, focused on the country's largest cities, Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, and has found that urban cores are getting richer, less diverse, and undergoing infrastructural improvements. We examine each model by looking at four secondary Atlantic Canadian cities (Halifax, Moncton, St. John's, and Charlottetown) that all faced major economic crisis in the 1990s to see whether these models can explain the sociospatial changes occurring in them. Analysis of 1996 and 2006 Canadian Census data finds unlike “rust belt” cities or changes seen in larger Canadian cities, there is no clear sociospatial concentration of change. Rather, change is seen through “hot spots” of economic and physical characteristics of neighborhoods. - 'City &Community, EarlyView. '
    August 06, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12424   open full text
  • Who Speaks for (and Feeds) the Community? Competing Definitions of “Community” in the Austin, TX, Urban Farm Debate.
    Rachel Romero, Deborah A. Harris.
    City and Community. July 17, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Alternative food supporters claim that food produced outside the corporate system can improve the wellbeing of communities. A closer look at these claims raises the question: How are members of the alternative food movement defining “community” and who is being included in and excluded from these definitions? We draw from in‐depth interviews with (1) urban famers and their supporters and (2) neighborhood members of gentrifying East Austin to examine irreconcilable disputes on the process of rewriting Austin's urban farm code. We use Stanley Fish's concept of “interpretive communities” to understand competing definitions of “community” and theorize beyond this point by noting that when communities feel at threat, they come together as coalesced communities to gain support for their stance. The discussions in this paper can be situated within dialogues of critical geography, gentrification, alternative foodways, and public health to show how class, race, and ethnicity remain tied to environmental justice. - 'City &Community, EarlyView. '
    July 17, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12416   open full text
  • The Public Library as Resistive Space in the Neoliberal City.
    Sofya Aptekar.
    City and Community. July 12, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract With reduced hours, decaying infrastructure, and precariously positioned staff, local public libraries provide much needed services in cities devastated by inequality and slashed safety nets. In this article, I draw on ethnographic research of a small public library in a diverse, mostly working class neighborhood in Queens, New York. I show that in addition to providing an alternative to the capitalist market by distributing resources according to people's needs, the library serves as a moral underground space, where middle‐class people bend rules to help struggling city residents. Although the library occasionally replicates hegemonic ideologies about immigrant assimilation, it provides a striking example of cross‐class and interclass solidarities and resistance to the neoliberal social order. I conclude by discussing the potential of public libraries as everyday spaces of subversion and emancipation, as well as research sites for urban scholars. - 'City &Community, EarlyView. '
    July 12, 2019   doi: 10.1111/cico.12417   open full text
  • Making Jerusalem “Cooler”: Creative Script, Youth Flight, and Diversity.
    Noga Keidar.
    City and Community. November 28, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The creative city approach, already one of the most popular urban development models in recent years, continues to spread to new destinations. When urban scholars explain how ideas become canon, including the particular case of the creative city approach, they usually focus on political‐economic mechanisms, the role of global elite networks, and the interests of local economic growth coalitions. These explanations are insightful but miss the political‐cultural projects that cities pursue concurrently to the creative city approach, two aims that sometimes reinforce each other and sometimes contradict. Using interviews and fieldwork, I follow the importation of the creative city approach to the contested city of Jerusalem, and argue that the drive to adopt the creative script cannot be explained only by political‐economic forces, but also by the local political‐cultural projects of preserving Jerusalem as a Zionist city. Moreover, I suggest three directions for interpreting the role of local forces in the adoption and translation of urban ideas. - 'City &Community, EarlyView. '
    November 28, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12339   open full text
  • Mixed Land Use: Implications for Violence and Property Crime.
    Renee Zahnow.
    City and Community. November 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study investigates the effect of mixed land use on violence and property crime in neighborhood block groups while simultaneously considering the presence of criminogenic facilities and sociodemographic conditions. We conduct negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between mixed land use and crime and investigate whether the relationship is moderated by sociodemographic characteristics or the presence of criminogenic facilities. The results suggest that mixed land use may reduce property crime while violent crime is influenced by mixed land use in nearby neighborhoods. There was an additional effect of the presence of particular facilities, notably bars, transportation stations, schools, stores, and gas stations in the neighborhood. There was some evidence that the impact of land use mix on crime varies dependent on residential mobility, ethnic diversity and the presence of bars, transport stations, and schools. Our findings indicate that those responsible for planning urban spaces and developing land use policies should consider differential effects of land use characteristics across neighborhood contexts. - 'City &Community, EarlyView. '
    November 16, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12337   open full text
  • UniverCity: The Vicious Cycle of Studentification in a Peripheral City.
    Nufar Avni, Nurit Alfasi.
    City and Community. November 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Research on studentification has unpacked the spatial, economic, and social impacts that are associated with the growing presence of students in cities. Nonetheless, considerably less attention has been paid to the broader regional and national contexts that shape studentification. Using the case study of Ben‐Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, we argue that the studentification of the city should be understood within its context as the periphery of the country. Despite the university's central location and its involvement in revitalization efforts in the region, Ben‐Gurion University is surrounded by marginalized neighborhoods which have turned into a ``student bubble''. We show that the segregation between the campus and the city results from a vicious cycle that reproduces the city's poor image and disrupts the university's attempts to advance the city and region. Although overlooked by policy‐makers, the implications of this cycle reach far beyond the campus' surrounding and affect the city and to some extent the whole region. - 'City &Community, EarlyView. '
    November 16, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12338   open full text
  • Priming the Pump: Public Investment, Private Mortgage Investment, and Violent Crime.
    Emily A. Shrider, David M. Ramey.
    City and Community. November 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Recent neighborhood crime research suggests that increased mortgage investment in local communities can help reduce street crime by defending against physical decline and improving perceptions of the neighborhood, which make informal social control more likely. Unfortunately, the neighborhoods that could benefit the most from this relationship are the least likely to get private mortgage investment, as mortgages tend to flow towards neighborhoods that are already stable. In this paper, we examine whether public investment, which can be targeted at disadvantaged neighborhoods, can play a similar role as private investment in influencing neighborhood outcomes. Specifically, we examine whether Seattle's Neighborhood Matching Fund program, a municipal initiative that provides matching funds to local organizations planning neighborhood improvement projects, is associated with reductions in crime, both directly, through community‐building and physical improvements, and indirectly, by encouraging increased private mortgage investment. - 'City &Community, EarlyView. '
    November 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12344   open full text
  • Formal Social Control in Changing Neighborhoods: Racial Implications of Neighborhood Context on Reactive Policing.
    Charles C. Lanfear, Lindsey R. Beach, Timothy A. Thomas.
    City and Community. November 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Public reports to the police are a key component of the formal social control process and have distinct interracial dynamics. This study examines the relationship between incident severity, neighborhood context, and participant race and patterns in the determination of probable cause and arrest in reactive police contacts. We utilize a complete record of police incidents in Seattle, Washington from 2008 through 2012 including information on race of reporters and targets and type of offense. These data are matched to longitudinal tract‐level census data to evaluate how incident outcomes relate to neighborhood change. Results indicate that black targets are more frequently subject to arrest overall, particularly in changing neighborhoods and when reporters are white. For nuisance crimes such as public disturbances, probable cause is found more often for white reporters but less often in changing neighborhoods. - 'City &Community, EarlyView. '
    November 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12346   open full text
  • Community Crime Prevention in High‐Crime Areas: The Seattle Neighborhood Group Hot Spots Project.
    Cody W. Telep, Julie Hibdon.
    City and Community. November 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Hot spots policing, in which police resources are directed toward small geographic areas with high crime levels, has been widely implemented and evaluated, but less is known about the effectiveness of nonpolice efforts to address high‐crime locations. Here, we examine the effectiveness of two hot spot interventions led by a community‐based nonprofit organization in Seattle, Washington. We use interrupted time series analysis to assess changes in total calls, as well as drug and disorder events at each site and in catchment areas surrounding each site. We find evidence of significant postintervention declines in calls for one treatment site and a decline in disorder in the second site. Overall, the results provide initial evidence that community‐led crime prevention efforts can have a positive impact on calls in crime and disorder hot spots without significant spatial displacement of crime and disorder. Furthermore, these approaches may be an optimal response to residential hot spots in particular, given current concerns about community reactions to intensive police approaches focused primarily on enforcement. - 'City &Community, EarlyView. '
    November 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12342   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 537-539, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12258   open full text
  • Beyond the Map: Unruly Enclaves, Ghostly Places, Emerging Lands, and Our Search for New Utopias, by Alastair Bonnett. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2018. ISBN: 978‐0‐2265‐1384‐3; 304 pp. $25 hardcover.
    Siqi Tu.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 931-932, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12335   open full text
  • The Help‐Yourself City: Legitimacy & Inequality in DIY Urbanism, by Gordon C. C. Douglas. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. ISBN: 9780190691325; 264 pp. $29.95 paperback.
    Oli Mould.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 927-929, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12334   open full text
  • Gentrifier, by John Joe Schlichtman, Jason Patch, and Marc Lamont Hill. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2017. ISBN: 9781442650459; 242 pp. $30 hardcover.
    Alfredo Huante.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 925-927, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12333   open full text
  • Race and the Politics of Deception: The Making of an American City, by Christopher Mele. New York: NYU Press, 2017. ISBN: 9781479880430; 208 pp. $27 paperback.
    Prentiss A. Dantzler.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 929-931, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12332   open full text
  • Political Fit as a Component of Neighborhood Preference and Satisfaction.
    James G. Gimpel, Iris Hui.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We examine the role party identification plays in moderating people's perception of place. Do people rely on heuristics to gauge neighborhood partisan composition? If so, those estimates may influence their perception of fit and neighborhood satisfaction. We find that in the absence of concrete, detailed information, people make quick judgments. Republicans, compared to Democrats and non‐partisans, are more likely to develop impressions based on the specific location characteristics presented here. When perceived to be a political minority in an area, people are less likely to feel that they belong. In addition to conventional economic and life‐cycle factors, political perceptions also affect judgments about the suitability of prospective neighborhoods. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 883-905, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12320   open full text
  • Neighborhood Diversity and the Rise of Artist Hotspots: Exploring the Creative Class Thesis Through a Neighborhood Change Lens.
    Corina Graif.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The diversity of the U.S. urban population has increased dramatically in recent decades, yet the processes through which population diversity may be driving neighborhood change remain insufficiently understood. Building on Claude Fischer's subcultural theory of urbanism and other classic sociological insights, this article makes the case that population diversity shapes the character of place and drives the spatial clustering of artists and art organizations. Contributing to recent debates on Richard Florida's “creative class” thesis, the paper proposes a reorientation of the conceptual and analytical focus from the predominant metropolitan area level to the neighborhood level. Analyses map and examine population and organizational data from over 850 neighborhoods in Chicago over two decades and spatially model neighborhood change. The results indicate that neighborhood diversity predicts over time an intensification of the creative scene, as reflected in rising hotspots of artists and nonprofit art organizations. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 754-787, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12317   open full text
  • A Decomposition of Trends in Blacks’ and Whites’ Exposure to Other‐Race Neighbors, 2001–2011.
    Ying Huang, Scott J. South, Amy Spring, Kyle Crowder.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and two U.S. decennial censuses, we describe trends in blacks’ and whites’ exposure to other‐race neighbors between 2001 and 2011 and then identify the proximate sources of these trends. Our results show that whites experienced an increase in their exposure to black and other minority neighbors and a concurrent decrease in same‐race neighbors. Blacks’ exposure to both black and white neighbors declined somewhat between 2001 and 2011, while their exposure to nonblack minority neighbors increased substantially. Decomposition analysis reveals that increases in whites’ exposure to black neighbors were driven primarily by in situ neighborhood change (i.e., by change surrounding nonmobile neighborhood residents), and only secondarily by shifting patterns of migration to neighborhoods containing more blacks and fewer whites. Changes in blacks’ exposure to white neighbors were shaped by two countervailing forces. While the neighborhoods inhabited by non‐mobile blacks became relatively less black and more white, residentially mobile blacks were increasingly moving to neighborhoods that were more black and less white. Increases in blacks’ and whites’ neighborhood ethnoracial diversity were driven almost entirely by in situ changes around nonmobile blacks and whites. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 590-614, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12315   open full text
  • Eclipsing Community? Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Mechanisms, and Neighborly Attitudes and Behaviors.
    Gregory Sharp.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This study investigates how objective neighborhood characteristics influence attitudinal and behavioral dimensions of community social organization. Grounded in ecological and neighborhood effects traditions, I extend prior inquiries by adjudicating the social mechanisms that link neighborhood disadvantage with residents’ satisfaction and neighboring. Results from longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey indicate that the neighborhood disadvantage perspective garners support when considering neighborhood satisfaction, while the systemic model marshals support for informal neighboring. Consistent with the local danger model, experiencing fearful feelings toward the neighborhood is detrimental to both satisfaction and neighboring. In addition, a cumulative disadvantage effect exists whereby individuals who live in highly disadvantaged areas and perceive the neighborhood as dangerous exhibit the highest levels of dissatisfaction. Having friendship ties living nearby buffers the impact of fear on neighborhood satisfaction, while being socially isolated exacerbates feelings of local danger. These findings suggest that community investment initiatives could mitigate the factors contributing to disadvantaged neighborhoods and foster local satisfaction and engagement as a result. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 615-635, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12327   open full text
  • Neighborhoods as Arenas of Conflict in the Neoliberal City: Practices of Boundary Making Between “Us” and “Them”.
    Maria‐Luisa Mendez.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This paper is concerned with processes of place making among middle class residents in Santiago de Chile, and focuses on the ways in which neighborhood groups seek to receive heritage status for their areas of residence, as a way to contest the demolition of houses in order to build high‐rise buildings. I focus on the tensions inherent in reconciling a critical view of neoliberal residential politics with a securing of their individual or family class position. I bring together debates and evidence about social and spatial boundary making with analysis of strategies of reproduction of class position. The paper focuses on intraclass symbolic boundaries in place making and the local politics and practices involved, by addressing the relationship of the middle classes to territory and their place in the contemporary city (Andreotti et al. 2014; Bacqué et al. 2015; Bridge et al. 2012; Brown‐Saracino 2009; Zukin 2010). I discuss data obtained from research in five inner‐city urban Santiago neighborhoods involving a mix of sources: in depth interviews, nonparticipant observation, content analysis of CMN legal texts, and copies of the files prepared by neighborhood activists. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 737-753, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12326   open full text
  • Gendering Residential Space: From Squatter and Slum Housing to the Apartment Estates in Turkish Renewal Projects.
    Tahire Erman, Burcu Hatiboğlu.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This article argues for the need to understand gendered dimensions of space in a contextualized way. It investigates residential space in three different types of housing settings of the poor, namely, a peripheral squatter neighborhood coded by rurality, a central slum neighborhood coded by criminality, and the housing estates in squatter/slum renewal projects coded by middle‐class urbanity. Based on two field studies conducted in Ankara, Turkey's capital, it challenges the feminine–private versus masculine–public dichotomy: With women's presence inside the neighborhood, the squatter area was a “feminine space,” whereas, with the violent control of neighborhood spaces by local men, the slum area was a “masculine space.” Through its association with urban modernity, the public/private divide was enforced in the housing estates. While in the first housing estate, women's informal practices in its public spaces “feminized” and “ruralized” the estate, in the second housing estate, it made women feel safe inside apartments. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 808-834, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12325   open full text
  • The Connection between Neighboring and Volunteering.
    John Wilson, Joonmo Son.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Sociological theory predicts that volunteers are likely to be more socially integrated into their communities than nonvolunteers. In this study, we test this theory by examining three dimensions of relations to neighbors—contact, social engagement, and the perception that neighbors trust each other. We hypothesize reciprocal relations between volunteering and these three measures. Using cross‐lagged structural equation models applied to two waves of data from the National Survey of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), we find that frequency of contact with neighbors is positively related to volunteering, but there is no reciprocal effect. Frequency of social engagement does not predict future volunteering but volunteers tend to become more socially engaged with their neighbors. Perceptions of neighbors as trusting are unrelated to volunteering. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 720-736, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12324   open full text
  • The Racial Composition of Neighborhoods and Local Schools: The Role of Diversity, Inequality, and School Choice.
    Kendra Bischoff, Laura Tach.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In an education system that draws students from residentially based attendance zones, schools are local institutions that reflect the racial composition of their surrounding communities. However, with opportunities to opt out of the zoned public school system, the social and economic contexts of neighborhoods may affect the demographic link between neighborhoods and their public neighborhood schools. Using spatial data on school attendance zones, we estimate the associations between the racial composition of elementary schools and their local neighborhoods, and we investigate how neighborhood factors shape the loose or tight demographic coupling of these parallel social contexts. The results show that greater social distance among residents within neighborhoods, as well as the availability of educational exit options, results in neighborhood public schools that are less reflective of their surrounding communities. In addition, we show that suburban schools are more demographically similar to their neighborhood attendance zones than are urban schools. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 675-701, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12323   open full text
  • Mobile but Stuck: Multigenerational Neighborhood Decline and Housing Search Strategies for African Americans.
    Nora E. Taplin‐Kaguru.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract While many scholars have demonstrated that entrenched racial residential segregation perpetuates racial inequality, the causes of persistent racial segregation continue to be debated. This paper investigates how geographically and socioeconomically mobile African Americans approach the home‐buying process in the context of a segregated metropolitan region, by using qualitative interviews with working‐class to middle‐income African American aspiring homebuyers. Homebuyers use three principal search strategies to determine suitable neighborhoods: avoiding decline, searching for improvement, and searching for stability. The findings suggest that despite these strategies African American homebuyers end up in areas that may not retain characteristics they desire in terms of racial demographics and amenities, in large part because such neighborhoods remain rare. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 835-857, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12322   open full text
  • Regulating Landlords: Unintended Consequences for Poor Tenants.
    Meredith Greif.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This paper explores “hidden” ways by which cities may inadvertently undermine access to decent, stable, affordable housing—especially for vulnerable renter households—through regulations that sanction landlords for tenant activities on their property. In‐depth semistructured interviews and ethnographic observations with 57 small‐ and medium‐sized landlords in Cleveland, followed over 28 months, show that perceptions of risk, flowing specifically from “nuisance” and water regulations that rendered landlords accountable for tenant activities over which they perceived little control, were common. To manage perceived precarity, landlords reported measures that undermined tenants’ housing security—including excessive screening, hassling, elevated rent amounts, proclivity to evict, and divestment from the lower end of the housing market whose stock continues to dwindle across many cities. City regulations—meant to bolster housing security, community vitality, and infrastructure—appear to be understudied factors that paradoxically reinforce problems of housing insecurity and community decline many vulnerable tenants, and cities, continue to face. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 658-674, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12321   open full text
  • Relying on the Census in Urban Social Science.
    John R. Logan.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Census data have long been a key tool for urban research, and the approaching 2020 Census offers a natural moment to reflect on how we use it. The highly partisan plan to include a citizenship question has recently captured our attention. I suggest that its short‐term effects may be modest since immigrant communities already are suspicious of government surveillance and many will prefer to stay hidden regardless of the census questionnaire. I raise several other kinds of questions about the reliance of urban researchers on census data. These include concerns about how we treat census tracts as neighborhoods, how we accept census statistics at face value, and how readily available and increasingly useful quantitative data sources may be crowding out ethnographic research. I also comment on new approaches such as spatial analysis and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and opportunities for linking individual and place‐level data with one another and following both over time. - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 540-549, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12331   open full text
  • Problems, Puzzles, and the Production of Knowledge: Harnessing Census Data in the Age of Trump.
    Karyn Lacy.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We tend to think of the Census Bureau as merely a bean counter, but the institution performs another, less apparent, role: signaling which demographic shifts carry the most weight in society. Trump's insistence that the Census Bureau include a controversial citizenship question on the 2020 census would mark a decisive shift in the Bureau's ability to count unauthorized immigrants accurately and in the distribution of federal resources to communities where immigrants settle in large numbers. This essay considers what these consequences, should Trump prevail, would mean for social scientists who study immigration. This distressing prospect presents an opportunity for demographers to consider how the work of ethnographers could be utilized to circumvent the data limitations a citizenship question would likely impose. - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 560-564, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12330   open full text
  • Identifying the Urban: Resident Perceptions of Community Character and Local Institutions in Eight Metropolitan Areas.
    Chase M. Billingham, Shelley McDonough Kimelberg.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract What does the term “urban” signify as a descriptor of contemporary communities in the United States? We investigate this question using data from the Soul of the Community survey, examining how people within eight metropolitan areas characterize their communities. A substantial disjunction exists between where within their regions respondents live and how they describe those areas. Many central‐city residents label their communities “suburban” or “rural,” while many outlying residents label their communities “urban.” We contend that people's experiences with important local institutions—specifically, local schools and the local public safety apparatus—shape their understanding of their communities. Logistic regression models support this contention. Controlling for where within their regions respondents live, they are more likely to label their communities “urban” if they perceive local schools to be low in quality and their neighborhoods to be unsafe. Notably, these effects are not consistent across racial and ethnic groups. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 858-882, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12319   open full text
  • Opportunity for Whom? The Diverse Definitions of Neighborhood Opportunity in Baltimore.
    Willow S. Lung‐Amam, Elijah Knaap, Casey Dawkins, Gerrit‐Jan Knaap.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Across the United States, communities are increasingly interested in the spatial structure of opportunity. Recently, several federal programs have promulgated opportunity mapping as a tool to help increase disadvantaged communities’ access to neighborhood opportunity. The increasing institutionalization of opportunity mapping raises questions about how opportunity is defined and by whom. This paper analyzes data from community engagement events held for a regional planning process throughout the Baltimore metropolitan area. During these events, over 100 residents were asked what it means to live in neighborhoods that provide opportunity. The results showed similarities as well as remarkable differences in residents’ definitions of opportunity across race, income, and geography. Racial and ethnic minorities, low‐income groups, and those living in distressed neighborhoods were more likely to identify job accessibility, employment, and job training as key components of and pathways to opportunity, whereas White, higher income groups, and wealthier neighborhoods placed a stronger emphasis on a sense of community, freedom of choice, education, and retirement savings. These differences challenge urban policymakers and planners to consider how greater flexibility in mapping tools, qualitative data, and community‐engaged processes might better reflect the diversity in the ways that residents view and experience opportunity in their everyday lives. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 636-657, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12318   open full text
  • Ethnography, Neighborhood Effects, and the Rising Heterogeneity of Poor Neighborhoods across Cities.
    Mario L. Small, Robert A. Manduca, William R. Johnston.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In the 1980s and 1990s, researchers came to understand poor urban neighborhoods as blighted, depopulated areas, based on important ethnographic observations in a handful of cities. This image helped inform influential theories of social isolation and de‐institutionalization. However, few scholars have examined whether those observations were representative of poor neighborhoods nationwide—and whether they are representative today. Based on a descriptive analysis of the largest 100 U.S. metropolitan areas using normalized census tract boundaries, we document an important transformation in the conditions of poor neighborhoods. We find that the depopulation in poor neighborhoods often reported in cities such as Chicago and Baltimore was, in fact, typical across cities in 1990. Today, it is not. Moreover, heterogeneity across cities has increased: The experience of neighborhood poverty is likely to depend more today than in 1990 on the city in question. In fact, the most typically studied cities, such as Chicago, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Milwaukee, are increasingly atypical in this respect. Addressing today's core questions about neighborhood effects, how and why they matter, requires paying far greater attention to heterogeneity, conducting more ethnographic observation in ostensibly unconventional cities, and addressing the historically extreme conditions in a newly unique subset of cities. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 565-589, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12316   open full text
  • White Integration or Segregation? The Racial and Ethnic Transformation of Rural and Small Town America.
    Daniel T. Lichter, Domenico Parisi, Michael C. Taquino.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Rural America has seemingly been “left behind” in an era of massive immigration and growing diversity. The arrival of new immigrants has exposed many rural whites, perhaps for the first time, to racial and ethnic minority populations. Do rural whites increasingly live in racially diverse nonmetropolitan places? Or is white exposure to racially diverse populations expressed in uneven patterns of residential integration from place to place? We link microdata from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics (1989‐to‐2009 waves) to place data identified in the 1990–2010 decennial censuses. We estimate multilevel, fixed‐effects models of rural white exposure to minority populations that involve linking individual predictors to changing demographic and economic local environments. Using entropy scores, our analyses highlight the extraordinary rise since 1990 in exposure of all rural populations, including whites, to racially diverse communities. Variation in white exposure to rural minorities is driven primarily by changing local demographic and economic conditions. Net of individual background characteristics, whites are significantly less likely to live in racially diverse places than other ethnoracial groups. White population growth is occurring disproportionately in the least racially diverse rural communities. For blacks and other minorities, growth is taking place disproportionately in the most racially diverse places. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 702-719, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12314   open full text
  • Differential Returns?: Neighborhood Attainment among Hispanic and Non‐Hispanic White New Legal Permanent Residents.
    Ilana Redstone Akresh, Reanne Frank.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract We use data from the New Immigrant Survey to examine patterns of residential attainment among Hispanic immigrants who recently became legal permanent residents (LPRs) relative to new LPR non‐Hispanic white immigrants. We focus on whether these Hispanic and non‐Hispanic white immigrants differ in their ability to transform human capital into residential advantage. Our results suggest that the answer depends on the neighborhood attribute in question. When predicting residence in tracts with relatively more non‐Hispanic whites, the answer is yes, with evidence in support of the place stratification model of residential attainment. We find that non‐Hispanic white immigrants have access to relatively whiter neighborhoods than their Hispanic immigrant counterparts, irrespective of differences in education levels. When assessing Hispanic immigrants’ ability to enter socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods, however, the differences we observe are mostly accounted for by compositional differences in sociodemographic and acculturation factors. Taken together, our findings suggest that Hispanic immigrants are more similar to their white immigrant counterparts when it comes to converting higher education into higher income neighborhoods than into increased residential integration with whites; although their exposure to more socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods at all levels of education remains lower than that of their white immigrant counterparts. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 788-807, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12313   open full text
  • The Role of Social Media in Collective Processes of Place Making: A Study of Two Neighborhood Blogs in Amsterdam.
    Pieter Breek, Joke Hermes, Jasper Eshuis, Hans Mommaas.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The wide use of social media has facilitated new social practices that influence place meaning. This paper uses a double case study of two neighborhood blogs in gentrifying communities, to explore the role of social media in sharing place associations and community formation. Drawing on Collins’ theory of interaction ritual chains, this research project investigates how the intertwining of online and offline interaction around the blogs creates interaction chains whereby the place associations of participants in the blog become more aligned, creating an alternative place narrative. Analyses of the dynamics of involvement with the blogs show how social interactions spurred by the blogs generate emotional energy, group solidarity, feelings of morality, meaningful symbols, and feelings of place attachment among the participants. This article illuminates how the emerging process of place (re)making spurred by interaction with the blog emerges from both everyday unplanned behavior and strategic aims of the actors. - 'City &Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 906-924, September 2018. '
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12312   open full text
  • Census Data and its Use in the Study of Residential Inequality.
    Samantha Friedman.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 554-559, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12329   open full text
  • Going Small: Urban Social Science in the Era of Big Data City & Community Forum on Census Data.
    Robert M. Adelman.
    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 550-553, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12328   open full text
  • About the Authors.

    City and Community. September 27, 2018
    --- - - City & Community, Volume 17, Issue 3, Page 933-935, September 2018.
    September 27, 2018   doi: 10.1111/cico.12336   open full text
  • Rethinking the Role of Racial Segregation in the American Foreclosure Crisis.
    Jonathan P. Latner.
    City and Community. October 06, 2017
    Racial segregation is an important factor in understanding the foreclosure crisis, but must be understood to operate in particular and specific ways. The primary, positive impact of segregation on foreclosure risk operates prior to loan origination through the differential access to loan quality by race. Afterward, the impact of segregation is negative. Drawing on a rare dataset of loans that combine loan performance and borrower characteristics, I use a competing risks proportional hazard model to examine the impact of race and racial segregation on risk of foreclosure among borrowers. Results indicate that Black segregation has a large, negative impact on foreclosure risk. Instead, the strongest positive contributor to foreclosure is the negative value of the home relative to the balance of the loan (i.e., “underwater,” as measured by the put option), which is also the mechanism that explains most of the difference in the foreclosure rate by race. The negative impact of racial segregation on foreclosure risk is the result of a mismatch between cities with high levels of segregation and cities with large declines in home prices and related foreclosures.
    October 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12253   open full text
  • Examining Neighborhood Opportunity and Locational Outcomes for Housing Choice Voucher Recipients: A Comparative Study between Duval County, Florida, and Bexar County, Texas.
    Ruoniu Wang, Rebecca J. Walter, Abdulnaser A. Arafat, Xuesong Ding, Ammar A. Naji.
    City and Community. September 25, 2017
    Recent attention has highlighted the importance of providing low‐income households access to opportunity‐rich neighborhoods. Using a neighborhood opportunity framework developed specifically for the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program, this study investigates whether low‐income households participating in the program live in opportunity areas. The results indicate that with scarce high‐opportunity neighborhoods, most HCV households reside in mixed opportunity areas and face tradeoffs when deciding where to live. Voucher holders reside in areas with moderate or poor accessibility and neighborhood conditions compared to other assisted and nonassisted low‐income renters. Opportunity outcomes also vary among different household types of HCV recipients.
    September 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12254   open full text
  • Moving Out: Mapping Mobile Home Park Closures to Analyze Spatial Patterns of Low‐Income Residential Displacement.
    Esther Sullivan.
    City and Community. September 12, 2017
    Mobile homes provide the largest source of unsubsidized affordable housing in the United States. However, in mobile home parks residents live at risk of eviction because they rent the land on which their homes are located. This study formulates a methodology to examine the residential turnover and displacement that result from the closure of these parks. I investigate the spatial distribution of closing mobile home parks through ArcGIS modeling of land‐use data for all 1.2 million parcels in the case study region of Houston/Harris County, Texas, from 2002 to 2011. Findings demonstrate that the spatial distribution of closing mobile home parks is clustered along Houston's expanding city limit in areas where affordable housing development is taking place. Beyond providing spatial documentation of the process through which this important source of affordable housing is lost, this study highlights how low‐income housing pressures and urban redevelopment intersect to shape affordable housing in contemporary metropolitan areas.
    September 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12252   open full text
  • Exploring Nightlife and Urban Change in Bairro Alto, Lisbon1.
    Jordi Nofre, Íñigo Sánchez‐Fuarros, João Carlos Martins, Patrícia Pereira, Isabel Soares, Daniel Malet‐Calvo, Miguel Geraldes, Ana López Díaz.
    City and Community. August 17, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    August 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12248   open full text
  • Rust Belt Boomerang: The Pull of Place in Moving Back to a Legacy City.
    Jill Ann Harrison.
    City and Community. August 14, 2017
    Research and journalistic accounts on the Rust Belt consistently focus on population decline and its consequences. As a result, we know little about the growing trend of return migration of young professionals and knowledge workers to the region. Why have these individuals chosen to return to a place that they once left? I answer this question using in‐depth interviews with young professionals who have moved back to Youngstown, Ohio. Results indicate that return migrants chose to return despite reporting alternative and perhaps more economically rational work opportunities elsewhere. While some reasons can be anticipated from the literature, such as family need, I emphasize how place‐specific considerations worked in combination with economic and social factors to pull them back. Findings hold implications for the literatures on place and return migration and for city planners who believe that return migration presents an opportunity for economic growth of legacy cities.
    August 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12245   open full text
  • Older People's Self‐Selected Spaces of Encounter in Urban Aging Environments in the Netherlands.
    Rianne Melik, Roos Pijpers.
    City and Community. August 01, 2017
    Using a narrative methodology involving 216 older people in six urban aging environments in the Netherlands, we examined how they use and experience (semi‐)public spaces as spaces of encounter, and the meanings they derive from using and experiencing these spaces. The research shows that, first, older people prefer commercial spaces like shopping malls to planned and designed activity spaces in care homes or neighborhood centers. Second, older people struggle with the transformations that have taken place in urban social life since they were young adults. Third, especially frail older people derive meaning from a more passive experience of urban social life, in an observer role. The findings allow us to contribute to ongoing debates on the shifting boundaries between public and private space, and the moral implications of these shifting boundaries from the perspective of a diverse group of older users.
    August 01, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12246   open full text
  • Urbanscapes of Disaster: The Sociopolitical and Spatial Processes Underpinning Vulnerability within a Slum in Mexico.
    Frida Güiza, Yadira Méndez‐Lemus, Michael K. McCall.
    City and Community. June 20, 2017
    Urbanscapes of disaster are socially and environmentally constituted. Drawing upon the theoretical framework of social vulnerability to disasters, the concept of urbanscape is enriched and empirically verified. This paper highlights how urban social hazards are more relevant for vulnerable people than the risk of experiencing the negative effects of extreme natural events. The analysis of floods in a slum located in a Mexican city reveals intricate socioenvironmental conditions underpinning a disaster process. Findings reveal that social, political, and economic hazards (including criminal hazards), imposed by the urban model on its inhabitants, are the most difficult to cope with and adapt to. This paper contributes to the wider literature on disasters, presenting an in‐depth qualitative analysis of the factors propelling urban dwellers to endure in a vulnerable urbanscape, regardless of the physical and environmental conditions at the site.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12230   open full text
  • Hope for Cities or Hope for People: Neighborhood Development and Demographic Change.
    Jelisa Clark, Cynthia Negrey.
    City and Community. June 20, 2017
    This study, recognizing the longstanding criticisms of HOPE VI as a vehicle for gentrification, compares the goals of local officials with the stated goals of HOPE VI in order to investigate the extent to which local officials are using or misusing HOPE VI to achieve local development and revitalization goals. HOPE VI positioned itself as a program intended to deconcentrate poverty, however, in the case of Liberty Green, the focus on neighborhood development embedded within the federal policy results in HOPE VI developments being described as successful based on physical changes at the site rather than outcomes for public housing residents, who largely do not benefit from these changes. Evidence from this study suggests that most of the emphasis for the Liberty Green HOPE VI development revolves around neighborhood and community development goals. And self‐sufficiency, while a goal of the HOPE VI program, remains secondary.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12236   open full text
  • Waiting for Bobos: Displacement and Impeded Gentrification in a Midwestern City.
    Chase M. Billingham.
    City and Community. May 09, 2017
    The degree to which lower‐income residents are displaced by the process of gentrification has been the subject of considerable debate. Displacement is generally framed as a possible, and potentially remediable, outcome of gentrification. This portrayal of the link between gentrification and displacement is problematic, though, because gentrification can proceed without substantial displacement, while displacement frequently occurs in the absence of gentrification. In this article, I use a historical case study to examine the link between displacement and gentrification. Drawing on archival research and media accounts of redevelopment over the course of 50 years in Wichita, Kansas, I demonstrate how a displacement‐first strategy has characterized all attempts to transform the city's “skid row” into the hub of a gentrified downtown core, and I describe how, despite widespread displacement, the gentrification of downtown Wichita has been largely unsuccessful. I discuss the implications of these findings for sociological theories of gentrification and displacement.
    May 09, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12235   open full text
  • The Influence of Women's Neighborhood Resources on Perceptions of Social Disorder.
    Aubrey L. Jackson, Brian Soller, Christopher R. Browning.
    City and Community. April 26, 2017
    Research links neighborhood social disorder with poorer health. But factors beyond observed disorder may influence perceptions that social disorder is problematic. This study investigates whether women's aggregate socioeconomic resources relative to men's in the broader neighborhood context attenuate the extent to which more prevalent observed social disorder within the immediate residential neighborhood contributes to perceptions of more problematic social disorder. This attenuation likely is pronounced among women, for whom sexual harassment in public spaces is a more salient concern compared to men. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, multilevel models analyze individual perceptions of problematic social disorder (N = 3,107) regressed on the interactive effect of observed social disorder within the census block group (N = 525) and women's relative resources within the neighborhood cluster (N = 80). The results show that women's relative resources within the broader neighborhood context protect against women's perceptions that typically undesirable neighborhood conditions are problematic.
    April 26, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12229   open full text
  • “Planning Dissonance” and the Bases for Stably Diverse Neighborhoods: The Case of South Seattle.
    Audrey Lumley‐Sapanski, Christopher S. Fowler.
    City and Community. March 23, 2017
    Recent scholarship has focused extensively on the rise of diverse neighborhoods in U.S. cities. Nevertheless, the theoretical frameworks we have for describing residential settlement patterns generally treat diversity as an unstable and transitory period that is the product of a unidirectional pressure towards segregation. In our analysis of six diverse neighborhoods in Southeast Seattle, we find evidence of processes at multiple scales that not only maintain diversity, but actually reinforce it. From individual decisions about property ownership to broader patterns of regional disinvestment, we find empirical evidence that indicates a need for a more complex theorization of the processes that create and sustain diverse neighborhoods. In our preliminary theorization of these conditions, we call for a conceptualization of residential settlement patterns that is explicitly multiscalar and recognizes a wider range of cultural, economic, and political relations as central to the production of observed patterns of neighborhood settlement.
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12224   open full text
  • Motivations for Growth Revolts: Discretion and Pretext as Sources of Development Conflict.
    Michael Manville, Taner Osman.
    City and Community. March 23, 2017
    This article suggests that “ballot box growth revolts”—instances where citizens use direct democracy to curb development—may be caused by local governments’ use of discretionary development approvals. We further suggest that growth revolts themselves provide a useful window into discretionary approvals, and illustrate how discretion can create conflict. Discretion is appealing to fiscally constrained cities because it lets them bargain with developers over building permissions, and thus helps cities finance public amenities. But it also gives cities incentives to regulate more heavily than they otherwise might, and to regulate pretextually: to write rules primarily for the purpose of bargaining them away. In sum, zoning's increasing use as a tool of fiscal policy can undermine its traditional role of providing assurance about future land use policy. We use various examples to illustrate our argument, including five growth revolts in Southern California.
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12223   open full text
  • Portland Oregon, Music Scenes, and Change: A Cultural Approach to Collective Strategies of Empowerment.
    Jeffrey London.
    City and Community. March 23, 2017
    This article highlights the role of the independent music culture of Portland, Oregon, in establishing a productive culture of consumption and spaces that contribute to the place character of the city. Derived from an ethnographic research project of urban culture and social change in Portland, Oregon, guided interviews and extended participant observation helped to bring to light the cultural economy that artists and musicians make for the city. The cultural production of Portlanders in the indie music community, and those who work and produce in neighborhood settings, has served the city in the most recent period of rapid gentrification. Many scholars have focused on the way bohemian concentrations have led to gentrification; others have highlighted the contingent labor that art makers provide. What I argue here is as the city develops in these ways, artisanal workers and music makers work to use their established networks and situated meaning in the city to fend off these processes and extend their presence in space. Through these collective strategies of empowerment, culture and music move into political discourse and affect political action on the city level.
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12222   open full text
  • The Remarkable Rise and Particular Context of Younger One‐Person Households in Seoul and Tokyo.
    Richard Ronald.
    City and Community. March 23, 2017
    Numbers of one‐person households in East Asia have expanded dramatically in recent decades, especially among younger cohorts living in cities. In explaining this shift, research has largely addressed changes in socioeconomic and policy conditions that have interacted with family and marriage norms. This paper, however, is concerned with interactions of shifting urban and housing conditions that have channeled particular manifestations of single‐dwelling featuring shifts in housing pathways among younger‐adult cohorts toward living alone in rental housing. Focusing on Seoul and Tokyo as centers of growth, we consider how urban features, specifically housing markets and high‐speed renewal of the built‐environment, have shaped and contributed to the rise in one‐person households, as well as how the proliferation of singlehood and living alone is reshaping the lives of younger people in urban neighborhoods. This shift represents a particular disruption in social and spatial reproduction that has implications for cities in this region more generally.
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/cico.12221   open full text
  • Housing Choices as School Choices: Subsidized Renters’ Agency in an Uncertain Policy Context.
    Annah Bender, Molly Metzger, Vithya Murugan, Divya Ravindranath.
    City and Community. December 26, 2016
    Previous scholarship on the federal Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program has found that HCV renters are less likely than other households living below the poverty line to live in neighborhoods with high‐performing schools. These findings are troubling because HCV renters have some choice about where they live, yet aggregate data linking HCV renters’ neighborhoods with school performance shows that renters tend to be concentrated in impoverished areas with poor schools. To better understand whether and how schools factor into HCV renters’ neighborhood preferences when searching for a home, semistructured interviews with 17 HCV heads‐of‐household in the St. Louis region were conducted. Findings from this project reveal that some HCV renters prioritize school choice when deciding to move, sending their children to schools that may or may not be located within their neighborhood. A minority of families in this study actually enrolled their children in the school district indicated by their address. Three families had intentionally moved to unaccredited districts to take advantage of a transfer law that allowed students in unaccredited school districts to attend an out‐of‐district school. Although not a direct counterpoint to previous scholarship, these findings lend some balance to the idea that HCV renters are compelled to live in districts with lower property values and thus lower performing schools than other households receiving government assistance. HCV renters encounter many constraints on their choice of housing and neighborhood, and legacies of racism, housing discrimination, and predatory landlords may indeed limit renters to poor neighborhoods with underperforming school districts, but as interviews with 17 participants with school‐age children demonstrate, their children may not be attending their neighborhood schools after all. These findings help contextualize HCV renter concentration in low‐income neighborhoods, while further research is needed to address the education and housing policy ramifications of this work on a national scale.
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12204   open full text
  • Pathways to Participation: Class Disparities in Youth Civic Engagement.
    Melody L. Boyd, Jason Martin, Kathryn Edin.
    City and Community. December 26, 2016
    Recent research finds that there is a growing class gap in levels of civic engagement among young whites in the United States. Much of the literature on civic engagement focuses on individual‐ and family‐level factors related to civic engagement. Our evidence suggests that it is critically important to consider variation and change in community‐level factors as well, and that such factors may play a key role in facilitating or inhibiting civic engagement. To explore the puzzle of the growing class gap among young whites in civic engagement, we conducted two‐generation in‐depth qualitative interviews in white working class neighborhoods in Philadelphia and its inner suburbs, with companion interviews among Philadelphia‐area youth living in middle class communities. We complement these interviews with quantitative measures of institutional and demographic changes in these neighborhoods over time. Our evidence suggests that a withdrawal of institutional investments in working class neighborhoods (and relative to middle class neighborhoods), along with an increase in population turnover and racial and ethnic heterogeneity, which has disproportionately impacted working class neighborhoods as well, may be important factors in understanding the growing class gap in civic engagement among white youth.
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12205   open full text
  • Why is Helping Behavior Declining in the United States But Not in Canada?: Ethnic Diversity, New Technologies, and Other Explanations.
    Keith N. Hampton.
    City and Community. December 26, 2016
    This paper explores whether there has been a recent decline in helping behavior in the United States. In a lost letter experiment, 7,466 letters were “lost” in 63 urban areas in the United States and Canada in 2001 and 2011. There has been a 10 percent decline in helping behavior in the United States, but not in Canada. Two arguments anticipate change in the level of help provided to strangers: the rise of new technologies, and neighborhood racial and ethnic diversity. Findings exclude increased privatism as a source for the decline in helping. In 2001 there was no variation in altruistic behavior based on neighborhood diversity. However, areas of the United States where the proportion of noncitizens increased since 2001 experienced reduced helping; the opposite was found in Canada. Possible explanations include changing attitudes toward noncitizens, and differences in public policy related to economic inequality, social inclusion, and the acceptance of multiculturalism.
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12206   open full text
  • The Effect of Incarceration on Residential Mobility between Poor and Nonpoor Neighborhoods.
    Cody Warner.
    City and Community. November 21, 2016
    This study examines the impact of incarceration on residential mobility between poor and nonpoor neighborhoods. Formerly incarcerated individuals move at high rates, but little is known about if or how incarceration impacts movement between neighborhoods of varying quality. I ground my approach in traditional accounts of locational attainment that emphasize pathways and barriers between poor and nonpoor neighborhoods. Results show that incarceration leads to downward neighborhood mobility from nonpoor into poor neighborhoods. Incarceration does not appear to trap formerly incarcerated individuals in poor neighborhoods. Additional analyses show that the effect of incarceration is initially strongest among formerly incarcerated whites, but that there is significant racial variation in neighborhood mobility across time. My results provide evidence that incarceration should be placed alongside human capital characteristics and structural barriers as an important predictor of mobility between poor and nonpoor neighborhoods.
    November 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12207   open full text
  • Neighborhood Inequalities and the Long‐Term Impact of Foreclosures: Evidence from the Los Angeles–Inland Empire Region.
    Emily Tumpson Molina.
    City and Community. September 18, 2016
    It is well documented that the foreclosure crisis was experienced unevenly in metropolitan regions nationwide. Yet it is still unclear how the long‐term impacts of the foreclosure crisis manifested within the American metropolis. This paper identifies where the long‐term negative impacts of the housing crisis were most acute by locating where foreclosed (REO) properties were more likely to remain vacant in the Los Angeles–Inland Empire area, a highly diverse region with high foreclosure rates. Foreclosure vacancies were concentrated in neighborhoods with larger Black and Latino populations, in older urban and inner‐ring suburban neighborhoods, and in poorer neighborhoods with poorly performing schools. These patterns illuminate the enduring and emerging sociospatial inequalities that contribute to contemporary neighborhood decline and will likely shape the Los Angeles region's future, further solidifying longstanding neighborhood and other social inequalities.
    September 18, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12192   open full text
  • The Doors of the Church are Now Open: Black Clergy, Collective Efficacy, and Neighborhood Violence.
    Kashea Pegram, Rod K. Brunson, Anthony A. Braga.
    City and Community. September 18, 2016
    Prior research has documented the historical significance of the black church beyond serving parishioners’ religious and spiritual needs. Specifically, several black churches are involved in community organizing, social service activities, and political action. Scholars, however, have paid less attention to its role as a potent social institution in community crime control and prevention efforts. We conducted face‐to‐face interviews with 30 members of Boston's Ten Point Coalition of activist black clergy to document the motivations for and mechanisms through which ministers became involved in efforts to reduce street violence, the varied methods through which ministers develop strategic coalitions and manage violence reduction initiatives, and the ways ministers address the complex challenges involved in doing this work. Study findings suggest that black churches can serve as sources of collective efficacy that can help mobilize other churches, community organizations, police departments, and neighborhood residents in a coordinated effort to address urban youth violence.
    September 18, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12191   open full text
  • The City as a Fiscal Derivative: Financialization, Urban Development, and the Politics of Earmarking.
    Josh Pacewicz.
    City and Community. September 18, 2016
    Contemporary urban leaders use exotic fiscal and financial schemes to fund development, which scholars theorize as tools for creating public goods or critically as growth entrepreneurs’ speculative self‐enrichment schemes. Neither approach accounts for financing schemes’ reactivity, or their tendency to shape development patterns. This paper facilitates analysis of the latter by developing a new theory of growth coalitions: the politics of earmarking perspective. Urban leaders are akin to local state builders whose superordinate concern is establishing priority over revenues earmarked for noncity functions, a goal they pursue by pairing financing schemes with developments that maximize discretionary revenue under unique geographic, fiscal, and regulatory constraints. I illustrate this perspective's utility by comparing scholarship on California's municipal fiscal crises with an ethnography of development in two Iowa cities. Although reliant on the same financing mechanism—tax increment financing—California's municipal leaders pursued discretionary revenue by incentivizing extravagant commercial developments, whereas Iowa's directed industries to outlying business parks.
    September 18, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12190   open full text
  • “It's Not Just a Bunch of Buildings”: Social Psychological Investment, Sense of Community, and Collective Efficacy in a Multiethnic Low‐Income Neighborhood.
    Emily Walton.
    City and Community. September 18, 2016
    This analysis of social life in a poor, multiethnic public housing neighborhood presents an opportunity for refinement of social disorganization theory. Drawing on data from interviews, focus groups, and participant observations among residents, I find that this neighborhood exhibits substantial collective efficacy, despite social disorganization theory's predictions that the structural conditions of high poverty and racial and ethnic diversity result in low collective efficacy. I explicate two social psychological investment strategies—sense of ownership and symbolic representation—that appear to facilitate a sense of community and ultimately collective efficacy, helping to explain this apparent anomaly. I argue that even in the presence of structural disadvantage, having a strong sense of community provides a basis for beneficial action on behalf of the collective because it constitutes a source of shared expectations about values and norms in the neighborhood. These findings suggest refinements to the social disorganization framework, but also provide foundational ideas for policy interventions that may improve the social lives of residents in disadvantaged neighborhoods.
    September 18, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12189   open full text
  • The Global City versus the City of Neighborhoods: Spatial Practice, Cognitive Maps, and the Aesthetics of Urban Conflict.
    Matt Patterson.
    City and Community. June 22, 2016
    Political‐economy, which conceptualizes space as a resource over which different groups struggle, has long been the dominant perspective in the study of urban conflict. However space is also a cultural object from which actors derive particular meanings. In order to understand how meaningful interpretations of space give rise to urban conflict, this paper examines the architectural expansions of two Toronto museums. Both projects were fiercely opposed by local creative and professional class residents—a group who might be expected to welcome elite architecture and cultural investment. To explain the origins of this conflict, I demonstrate how the museum leadership and surrounding community understood the spatial context of the expansion projects in strikingly different ways. While the former group saw Toronto as a “global city” and looked to international landmarks for precedents, the latter saw Toronto as a “city of neighborhoods” and were more concerned with how the projects contributed to more mundane aspects of the neighborhoods such as parks and playgrounds. I attribute these different “aesthetic” interpretations to the distinct spatial practices and associated cognitive maps of each group.
    June 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12181   open full text
  • Are Landlords Overcharging Housing Voucher Holders?
    Matthew Desmond, Kristin L. Perkins.
    City and Community. June 22, 2016
    The structure of rental markets coupled with the design of the Housing Choice Voucher Program (HCVP), the largest federal housing subsidy for low‐income families in the United States, provides the opportunity to overcharge voucher holders. Applying hedonic regression models to a unique data set of Milwaukee renters combined with administrative records, we find that vouchered households are charged between $51 and $68 more in monthly rent than unassisted renters in comparable units and neighborhoods. Overcharging voucher holders costs taxpayers an estimated $3.8 million each year in Milwaukee alone, the equivalent of supplying 620 additional families in that city with housing assistance. These findings suggest that the HCVP could be made more cost‐effective—and therefore more expansive—if overcharging were prevented.
    June 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12180   open full text
  • Riding the Stagecoach to Hell: A Qualitative Analysis of Racial Discrimination in Mortgage Lending.
    Douglas S. Massey, Jacob S. Rugh, Justin P. Steil, Len Albright.
    City and Community. June 22, 2016
    Recent studies have used statistical methods to show that minorities were more likely than equally qualified whites to receive high‐cost, high‐risk loans during the U.S. housing boom, evidence taken to suggest widespread discrimination in the mortgage lending industry. The evidence, however, was indirect, being inferred from racial differentials that persisted after controlling for other factors known to affect the terms of lending. Here we assemble a qualitative database to generate direct evidence of discrimination. Using a sample of 220 statements randomly selected from documents assembled in the course of recent fair lending lawsuits, we code texts for evidence of individual discrimination, structural discrimination, and potential discrimination in mortgage lending practices. We find that 76 percent of the texts indicated the existence of structural discrimination, with only 11 percent suggesting individual discrimination alone. We then present a sample of texts that were coded as discriminatory to reveal the way in which racial discrimination was embedded within the social structure of U.S. mortgage lending, and to reveal the specific microsocial mechanisms by which this discrimination was effected.
    June 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12179   open full text
  • The Dynamics of Neighborhood Structural Conditions: The Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Homicide over Time and Space.
    Jacob H. Becker.
    City and Community. March 29, 2016
    Several recent spatial analyses conclude the strong positive association typically found between neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and crime in cross‐sectional studies significantly differs across neighborhoods. It is possible this spatial variation is due to within‐neighborhood dynamics of continuity and change, as suggested by ecological theories of neighborhood crime. Using ordinary least‐squares and geographically weighted regression models, I explore the role of within‐neighborhood change on the disadvantage‐homicide relationship across Chicago neighborhoods and find that controlling for historical changes in disadvantage within neighborhoods reduces—but does not eliminate—spatial variation in the cross‐sectional relationship. Within‐neighborhood changes in concentrated disadvantage from 1970 to 2000 are positively related to homicide rates, net of the level of disadvantage in 2000. This suggests the relationship is influenced to some degree by temporal continuity or change in the neighborhood ecological structure, consistent with the dynamic conceptualization of neighborhoods inherent to ecological theories of crime like social disorganization.
    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12152   open full text
  • Weddings in the Town Square: Young Russian Israelis Protest the Religious Control of Marriage in Tel‐Aviv.
    Anna Prashizky, Larissa Remennick.
    City and Community. March 29, 2016
    The article discusses alternative wedding ceremonies staged in urban spaces as a statement of protest among immigrant couples that cannot marry in rabbinical courts, because they are not recognized as Jews. These public weddings are organized and sponsored by the Fishka association of young Israeli adults of Russian origin. Our field‐work at Fishka included participant observation of its various events during 2013–2014, as well as in‐depth interviews with the key informants, promotional materials, and video recordings of their public wedding ceremonies held in the streets of Tel‐Aviv in 2009–2011. Embedded in the social history of the city and framed in the concepts of urban diversity and the politics of belonging, our ethnographic data juxtapose “Russian” street weddings with other public festivals sponsored by Fishka and other protest actions by minority groups. Alternative, civil weddings emerge as a form of active and critical citizenship among young Russian immigrants, seeking solidarity of other Israelis in the joint effort to reform the status quo and enable civil alternatives to Orthodox marriage. The active political stance and cultural activism of Fishka members challenge native Israelis’ monopoly on communal public space; young immigrants are thus carving a place for themselves in the iconic sites of the city's public cultural sphere.
    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12151   open full text
  • Managed Informality: Regulating Street Vendors in Bangkok.
    Quentin Batréau, Francois Bonnet.
    City and Community. March 29, 2016
    The article focuses on the relationship between street vendors and local authorities in Bangkok. We examine the goals, the means, and the effects of everyday regulation of street vending. We document how the district administration produces and maintains informality by creating a parallel set of rules where street vendors enjoy negligible rents and little competition. We provide detailed empirical evidence on earnings, rents, fines, and rules regarding commercial real estate. The district administration's policy of “managed informality” results in a situation where more established informal vendors control less established ones. We hypothesize in the conclusion that the district administration's parallel legal system adjusts to the population's expectations in a political system where the law has little popular support.
    March 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/cico.12150   open full text
  • Urbanism, Neighborhood Context, and Social Networks.
    Erin York Cornwell, Rachel L. Behler.
    City and Community. September 18, 2015
    Theories of urbanism suggest that the urban context erodes individuals’ strong social ties with friends and family. Recent research has narrowed focus to the neighborhood context, emphasizing how localized structural disadvantage affects community‐level cohesion and social capital. In this paper, we argue that neighborhood context also shapes social ties with friends and family—particularly for community‐dwelling seniors. We hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage, residential instability, and disorder restrict residents’ abilities to cultivate close relationships with friends and family, regardless of whether they live in the same neighborhood. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we find that older adults who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods have smaller social networks. Neighborhood disadvantage is also associated with fewer close network ties and less frequent interaction—but only among men. Residents of disordered neighborhoods have both smaller networks and weaker ties. We urge scholars to pay greater attention to how neighborhood context contributes to disparities in network‐based access to resources.
    September 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/cico.12124   open full text
  • Nice‐Nastiness and Other Raced Social Interactions on Public Transport Systems.
    Gwendolyn Y. Purifoye.
    City and Community. September 18, 2015
    Research on public transportation systems has often focused on racialized and institutionalized dynamics that result in poor and ethno‐racial minority neighborhoods being underserved. Few scholars have studied raced social interactions on the buses and trains themselves. In this article, I explore how legacies of racism are reproduced through raced social interactions on public buses and trains in Chicago. Drawing on over 3 years of ethnographic field work and interviews, this article demonstrates how ethno‐racial minorities, particularly Blacks, experience racial hostilities that are often masked as nice‐nastiness. Nice‐nastiness is a type of individual expression that combines expressions of politeness with disdain and distancing. Nice‐nastiness can be expressed as (1) pretending the “other” does not exist; (2) whispering and lowering one's voice; (3) standing instead of taking a seat; (4) letting others have space for auditory expression; and (5) pseudo‐swagger. I locate nice‐nastiness on the racial microaggressions and color‐blindness continuum and show that this expressive tool is shaped, at least in part, by the closeness, confinement and mobility of public transportation, where escape is not possible, unlike in wide‐open spaces. I use public transportation as a space to examine how raced behaviors are enacted in everyday life, and shaped by confinement and motion.
    September 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/cico.12116   open full text
  • The Runaway Production Complex? The Film Industry as a Driver of Urban Economic Revitalization in the United States.
    Heather Gautney, Chris Rhomberg.
    City and Community. September 18, 2015
    Cities and states across the United States have turned to cultural industries to revitalize their economies, but we argue that the dynamics of agglomeration and labor market governance are crucial to the prospects for local economic growth from these sectors. This paper analyzes recent changes in the American film industry, traditionally a “high road” model of flexible production and employment. We examine the rapid rise of state tax incentives and spatial dispersal of production within the United States, the destabilization of traditional industrial complexes in California and New York, and the development of new centers in states like Louisiana and New Mexico. Our findings suggest that the spatial fragmentation of the industry is undermining established forms of regulation, introducing a new volatility in the labor market, and challenging the ability of localities to benefit from growth in the industry.
    September 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/cico.12115   open full text
  • Fencing a Field: Imagined Others in the Unfolding of a Neighborhood Park Conflict.
    David Trouille.
    City and Community. April 22, 2014
    This article offers a detailed analysis of a neighborhood dispute over fencing a public park. Unlike the archetypal turf battles between longstanding and new neighborhood residents described in previous research, here the daily visits of Latino “outsiders” coming into a local public space produce conflict over park usage and control. The usually cited conditions for conflict, such as reactionary residents resisting ethnic transition and protecting their backyards, do not apply in this case, as the park sits amidst a relatively stable, affluent, white “liberal” neighborhood. This case study shows how sources of tension and trouble extend beyond the property interests and actions of the park users to include the more symbolic and indirect concerns about identity as reflected in park use. Together with longstanding concerns over neighborhood reputation and property values, changing demographics and greater sensitivity to the perception of racism distinctively shaped the unfolding of conflict in this case. The bumpy course of conflict and shifting opinions about the fence shed light on the new complexities and contradictions of contemporary social diversity and exclusion in city parks and other public spaces. Resumen Este artículo ofrece un análisis detallado de una disputa en un barrio en torno al cercado de un parque público. A diferencia de los conflictos arquetípicos al interior de barrios entre residentes antiguos y nuevos descritos en otras investigaciones, en este caso el ingreso diario de latinos “de fuera” a un espacio público produce conflicto sobre el uso y control del parque. Las condiciones normalmente referidas para el conflicto, como residentes reaccionarios resistiéndose a la transición étnica del barrio y el proteger “el patio trasero” (backyard), no actúan en este caso en tanto el parque se ubica en un barrio relativamente estable, afluente y con residentes blancos “liberales”. Este estudio de caso muestra cómo fuentes de tensión y de problemas se extienden más allá de los intereses sobre la propiedad y las acciones de los usuarios del parque para incluir antiguas preocupaciones sobre la reputación del barrio y el valor de la propiedad, cambios demográficos y una creciente sensibilidad a la precepción del racismo, los cuales efectivamente moldean el desarrollo del conflicto en este caso. El curso irregular del conflicto y el cambio de opiniones sobre el cercado del parque dan luces sobre las nuevas complejidades y contradicciones de la diversidad y la exclusión social contemporánea en parques urbanos y en otros espacios públicos.
    April 22, 2014   doi: 10.1111/cico.12052   open full text
  • Parks for Profit: The High Line, Growth Machines, and the Uneven Development of Urban Public Spaces.
    Kevin Loughran.
    City and Community. March 26, 2014
    This paper investigates the growing inequality of public spaces in contemporary cities. In the era of neoliberal urbanism, stratified economic and cultural resources produce a spectrum of unevenly developed public parks, ranging from elite, privatized public spaces in wealthy districts to neglected parks in poor neighborhoods. Contemporary economic and cultural practices in public space are equally segmented, as privileged public spaces such as New York's High Line reflect the consumption habitus of the new urban middle class, while violence, disinvestment, and revanchist policing permeate public spaces on the urban periphery. Using New York's High Line as an archetypal neoliberal space, I trace its redevelopment from a decaying railroad viaduct to a celebrated public park. I argue that contemporary parks and public spaces are best analyzed on a continuum of privilege. Resumen Este artículo investiga desigualdad creciente entre espacios públicos en ciudades contemporáneas. En la era del urbanismo neoliberal, recursos económicos y culturales estratificados producen un espectro de parques públicos de desarrollo desigual, desde espacios públicos privatizados para élites hasta parques desatendidos en barrios pobres. Las prácticas económicas y culturales contemporáneas en los espacios públicos son igualmente segmentadas, como es el caso de espacios públicos como la Línea Elevada de Nueva York que refleja el habitus de consumo de las nuevas clases medias urbanas, mientras la violencia, la falta de inversión y vigilancia punitiva permean los espacios públicos en la periferia urbana. Usando el caso de la Línea Elevada de New York como un espacio neoliberal arquetípico, esbozo su transformación desde un viaducto ferroviario en decadencia hasta un espacio público célebre. Propongo que es mejor analizar los parques y espacios públicos contemporáneos teniendo en cuenta la existencia de un continuum de privilegio.
    March 26, 2014   doi: 10.1111/cico.12050   open full text
  • Performing the Public Man: Cultures and Identities in China's Grassroots Leisure Class.
    Junxi Qian.
    City and Community. March 26, 2014
    This article examines cultural practices and social life in urban public spaces of postreform China, focusing on the everyday leisure, entertainment, and cultural activities spontaneously organized by grassroots residents or groups. It examines performativity in constituting cultural meanings, reproducing everyday identities, and building up mutual engagements, and unravels the ways in which ordinary people devote resources, labor, and energy to keep alive individual or collective identities. Performances of cultural identities in public spaces entail improvised and temporary social relations which emerge from the immediate contexts of mundane spatial practices. Empirical analyses of public performativity in Guangzhou identify three scenarios, namely, the performativity of public teaching, public shows and performances, and the performative displays of cultural difference between carnivalesque dancing and “high‐end culture” in public leisure. Resumen Este artículo examina las prácticas culturales y la vida social en espacios públicos de la China post‐reforma, enfocándose en el ocio cotidiano, entretenimiento y actividades culturales organizadas espontáneamente por residentes o grupos populares. Se examina las representaciones en la constitución de significados culturales, la reproducción de identidades cotidianas y la construcción de compromisos mutuos, y se muestran las formas en las que personas comunes invierten recursos, trabajo y energía para mantener vivas identidades individuales o colectivas. Las representaciones de identidades culturales en espacios públicos ligan relaciones sociales improvisadas y temporales que emergen de los contextos inmediatos de prácticas espaciales mundanas. El análisis empírico de representaciones públicas en Guangzhou identifica tres escenarios, a saber, representaciones de enseñanza en público, espectáculos y representaciones públicas, y muestras representativas de la diferencia cultural entre baile carnavalesco y “alta cultura” en el ocio público.
    March 26, 2014   doi: 10.1111/cico.12049   open full text
  • Neighborhood Disorder, Social Support, and Self‐Esteem: Evidence from a Sample of Low‐income Women Living in Three Cities.
    Terrence D. Hill, Amy M. Burdette, Hanna M. Jokinen‐Gordon, Jennifer M. Brailsford.
    City and Community. January 20, 2014
    Although several studies show that self‐esteem varies according to neighborhood context, few have directly examined potential mediators of this association. In this paper, we use longitudinal survey data from the Welfare, Children, and Families project (1999, 2001) to examine the association between perceived neighborhood disorder and self‐esteem among low‐income urban women with children in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio, testing for city heterogeneity. Building on social disorganization theory and previous research, we examine the mediating influence of social support. Our longitudinal models show that higher levels of disorder at baseline are associated with lower levels of social support and self‐esteem. We also observe that increases in disorder over the study period are associated with concurrent losses in social support and self‐esteem. Our mediation analyses suggest that perceived neighborhood disorder may undermine self‐esteem by limiting opportunities for social support. Reducing signs and perceptions of disorder by improving the social and physical landscapes of neighborhoods may uniquely contribute to self‐worth of low‐income urban women with children. Resumen Aunque varios estudios muestran que la auto‐estima varía de acuerdo al contexto del barrio, pocos han examinado directamente los mecanismos o variables mediadoras potenciales en esta asociación. En este artículo usamos una encuesta longitudinal del proyecto Welfare, Children and Families (1999, 2001) para examinar la asociación entre la percepción de desorden en el barrio y la auto‐estima en mujeres y niños de bajos ingresos en Boston, Chicago y San Antonio, tomando en cuenta la heterogeneidad de la ciudad. A partir de la teoría de la desorganización social y de investigación previa, examinamos el efecto mediador del apoyo social. Nuestros modelos longitudinales muestran que los niveles más altos de desorden en la línea de base están asociados con menores niveles de apoyo social y de auto‐estima. También observamos que aumentos en desorden durante el periodo de estudio están asociados simultáneamente con reducción del apoyo social y de la auto‐estima. Nuestro estudio de la mediación sugiere que la percepción de desorden en el barrio podría disminuir la auto‐estima al limitar las oportunidades de apoyo social. La reducción de las señales y percepciones de desorden a través de la mejora del medio físico y social de los barrios podrían contribuir de manera importante a la mejora de la auto‐estima de mujeres y niños de bajos ingresos en ciudades.
    January 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/cico.12044   open full text
  • Suburban Residence of Black Caribbean and Black African Immigrants: A Test of the Spatial Assimilation Model.
    Grigoris Argeros.
    City and Community. January 20, 2014
    The present study investigates nativity status and place‐of‐birth differences in suburban residence among black ethnic groups. The main objective is to evaluate the extent to which the relationship between black immigrants’ individual‐level socioeconomic status characteristics and suburban outcomes conforms to the tenets of the spatial assimilation model. Using micro‐data from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey, we employed logistic regression models to determine the effects of the relevant predictors on suburban residence of whites and black ethnic groups. The results reveal that black immigrants’ suburban outcomes vary depending upon the racial/ethnic background and nativity status of the reference group. While both black Caribbean and African immigrants are less likely to reside in the suburbs than native‐born white households, they are more likely to do so than native‐born black Americans, even when controlling for differences in income, education, and homeownership. We also find black immigrants’ probability of suburban residence varies by English language proficiency and length of time spent in the United States in ways that contradict the tenets of the spatial assimilation model. Resumen El presente estudio investiga diferencias entre el estatus de nacimiento y el lugar de nacimiento en la residencia suburbana entre grupos étnicos negros. El objetivo principal es evaluar la medida en que la relación entre características de estatus de nivel socioeconómico individual y consecuencias suburbanas de la población negra inmigrante ocurre de acuerdo al modelo de asimilación espacial. Usando micro‐data del 2006 al 2010 de la Encuesta de Comunidades Norteamericanas, empleamos modelos de regresión logística para determinar los efectos de los predictores relevantes en la residencia suburbana de grupos étnicos blancos y negros. Los resultados revelan que las consecuencias suburbanas para los inmigrantes negros varían dependiendo de los antecedentes raciales/étnicos y del estatus de nacimiento del grupo de referencia. Mientras que los inmigrantes negros caribeños y africanos son menos propensos a residir en los suburbios que los blancos norteamericanos, son también más propensos a residir en suburbios que los negros norteamericanos, aún controlando diferencias de ingresos, educación y propiedad de la vivienda. Encontramos también que la probabilidad de residencia suburbana de los inmigrantes negros varía de acuerdo a la fluidez con la que hablan inglés y su tiempo de residencia en los Estados Unidos en formas que contradicen los supuestos del modelo de asimilación espacial.
    January 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/cico.12035   open full text
  • On Becoming “Too Belgian”: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Conformity Pressure through the City‐as‐Context Approach.
    Klaartje Kerckem, Bart Putte, Peter Stevens.
    City and Community. January 20, 2014
    While considerable research has shown that coethnic communities exercise pressure on their members to conform to certain normative patterns, there is little research that explains variability within coethnic groups regarding ethnic conformity pressure. Drawing on fieldwork and semistructured interviews with children and grandchildren of Turkish immigrants living in Ghent and five mining towns in Belgium, we explain differences in ethnic conformity pressure through a comparative examination of how macrostructural characteristics of cities shape community‐level ethnic conformity pressure. We demonstrate that a city's migration history and social geography are related to the degree of social closure and normative consensus within an ethnic community, and that its ethnic heterogeneity and interethnic relations impact how much people depend on their coethnic community for social support. These in turn shape the internal sanctioning capacity of the community and its power to enforce normative patterns, especially of gender roles. The study shows that locality matters in the integration, assimilation, and acculturation of migrants, even disadvantaged ones who share the same national background. Resumen Mientras que una cantidad considerable de investigación ha mostrado que comunidades co‐étnicas ejercen presión sobre sus miembros para que acepten ciertos patrones normativos, existe poca investigación que explique la variabilidad dentro de los grupos co‐étnicos respecto a la presión sobre la conformidad étnica. En base a trabajo de campo y entrevistas semi‐estructuradas con hijos y nietos de inmigrantes turcos que viven en Ghent y en cinco villas mineras en Bélgica, explicamos diferencias en presión por parte de la conformidad étnica a través de un examen comparativo de cómo características macro‐estructurales de ciudades moldean presión por la conformidad étnica a nivel comunidad. Demostramos que la historia de la migración de la ciudad y la geografía social están relacionadas con el grado de cerrazón social y de consenso normativo dentro de una comunidad étnica, y que su heterogeneidad étnica e inter‐relaciones étnicas tienen impacto en cuánto los individuos dependen en su comunidad co‐étnica para conseguir apoyo social. Éstos, a su vez, moldean la capacidad de sancionar interna de la comunidad y su poder para imponer patrones normativos, especialmente en los roles de género. El estudio muestra que la localidad importa para la integración, asimilación y la aculturación de migrantes, incluso para aquellos en desventaja que comparten el mismo origen nacional.
    January 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/cico.12041   open full text
  • Organizational Parochialism: “Placing” Interorganizational Network Ties.
    Jeremy R. Levine.
    City and Community. January 20, 2014
    Are interorganizational network ties “placeless” or “placed”? The study of organizations, particularly the study of interorganizational network ties, has reemerged in urban sociology, yet the urban literature on place and the organizations literatures on organizational network activity are not fully integrated. This article bridges these theories through an investigation of the social and spatial underpinnings of interorganizational network ties. Quantitative analysis of data from 152 interviews with nonprofit organizations serving youth across 12 contiguous neighborhoods in Boston reveals a propensity for organizations to share resources within the local neighborhood, controlling for proximity to other organizations, organizational characteristics, and various network properties. Qualitative data suggest a multilevel social process underlying the parochial network structure, illustrating the context for collaboration, restrictions on extra‐local exchange, and incentives guiding a local focus. Based on this evidence, I propose a theory of organizational parochialism, extending research on organizations, networks, and urban social processes. Resumen ¿Están los vínculos de redes inter‐organizativas “fuera del lugar” o “en un lugar”? El estudio de las organizaciones, particularmente el estudio de los vínculos de redes inter‐organizativas, ha resurgido en la sociología urbana, pero la literatura urbana sobre el lugar y la literatura sobre actividad de redes organizativas no están completamente integradas. Este artículo conecta estas teorías a través de una investigación de los apuntalamientos sociales y espaciales de los vínculos de redes inter‐organizativas. Análisis cuantitativo de información en base a 152 entrevistas a organizaciones sin fines de lucro que trabajan con jóvenes a lo largo de doce barrios contiguos de Boston revela que las organizaciones son propensas a compartir recursos al interior del barrio local, controlando la proximidad a otras organizaciones, las características organizativas, y varias características de las redes. Información cualitativa sugiere un proceso social multi‐nivel en la base de la estructura de la red parroquial, mostrando el contexto para la colaboración, las restricciones sobre el intercambio extra‐local, y los incentivos que guían una concentración local. En base a esta evidencia, propongo una teoría del parroquialismo organizativo, extendiendo la investigación sobre organizaciones, redes sociales, y procesos sociales urbanos.
    January 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/cico.12043   open full text
  • Dilemmas of Disaster Zones: Tax Incentives and Business Reinvestment in the Gulf Coast after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
    Kevin Fox Gotham.
    City and Community. January 20, 2014
    Over the last decade, the U.S. federal government has increasingly turned to spatially targeted tax incentives to promote postdisaster revitalization. The logic behind this policy orientation is that targeting public subsidies to particular disaster zones will speed community recovery and encourage business reinvestment. To evaluate this claim, this paper uses the case of the Gulf Opportunity (GO) Zone of 2005 that provided tax incentives to businesses in the Gulf Coast area affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from 2006 through December 2011. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data, I find that damage was not a consistently significant determinant of GO Zone bond allocation at the parish level. Rather, GO Zone bonds were mainly allocated in low‐damage areas and underutilized in New Orleans and heavily damaged areas. Though policy makers designed the program to stimulate small business recovery, GO Zone benefits went to large businesses located in areas least damaged by the hurricanes. Overall, the allocation of bonds using a first‐come, first‐served strategy combined with the huge size of the GO Zone reduced the effectiveness of the incentives offered and reinforced the disincentives for locating business and investment in disaster‐devastated areas. Resumen Durante la última década, el Gobierno Federal de los Estados Unidos se ha inclinado cada vez más hacia crear incentivos tributarios focalizados espacialmente para promover la revitalización luego de desastres. La lógica detrás de esta orientación de política es que al focalizar subsidios públicos hacia zonas de desastre específicas se aceleraría la recuperación de las comunidades de la zona y se fomentaría la reinversión de negocios. Para evaluar esta propuesta, este artículo usa el caso del Golf Opportunity (GO) Zone del 2005 que proveyó incentivos tributarios a negocios en el área de la Costa del Golfo afectada por los huracanes Katrina y Rita desde el 2006 hasta diciembre del 2011. En base a información cualitativa y cuantitativa, encuentro que el daño no era consistentemente un determinante significativo para beneficiarse de los incentivos del GO Zone a nivel comunidad. En cambio, los incentivos del Go Zone fueron principalmente dirigidos a áreas con niveles bajos de daños y áreas sub‐utilizadas en Nueva Orleans así como en áreas altamente dañadas. Aunque los diseñadores de políticas concibieron el programa para estimular la recuperación de pequeños negocios, los beneficios del GO Zone se dirigieron a grandes negocios ubicados en áreas poco dañadas por los huracanes. En general, la distribución de beneficios usando una estrategia en la que “el que viene primero, se sirve primero” en combinación con la gran escala del GO Zone redujeron la efectividad de los incentivos ofrecidos y reforzaron los des‐incentivos para ubicar negocios e inversiones en áreas devastadas por desastres.
    January 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/cico.12048   open full text
  • Do‐It‐Yourself Urban Design: The Social Practice of Informal “Improvement” Through Unauthorized Alteration.
    Gordon C. C. Douglas.
    City and Community. September 16, 2013
    There are numerous ways in which people make illegal or unauthorized alterations to urban space. This study identifies and analyzes one that has been largely ignored in social science: explicitly functional and civic‐minded informal contributions that I call “do‐it‐yourself urban design.” The research, which began as an investigation into more “traditional” nonpermissable alterations, uncovered these cases—from homemade bike lanes and street signs to guerrilla gardens and development proposals—that are gaining visibility in many cities, yet are poorly accounted for by existing perspectives in the literature. This article examines the existing theories and evidence from interviews and other fieldwork in 14 cities in order to develop the new analytical category of DIY urban design. I present findings on the creators of these interventions, on their motivations to “improve” the built environment where they perceive government and other development actors to be failing, and on the concentration of their efforts in gentrifying areas. This introduces the possibility of conflict and complicates their impact. I argue that DIY urban design has wide‐ranging implications for both local communities and broader urban policy. Resumen Existen muchas formas por las cuales la gente hace alteraciones ilegales o desautorizadas al espacio urbano. Este estudio identifica y analiza una de estas formas que ha sido ignorada en las ciencias sociales: contribuciones informales que son explícitamente funcionales y de espíritu cívico a las que llamo “diseño urbano hágalo usted mismo” (DIY por sus siglas en inglés). Esta investigación, que empezó como una investigación sobre alteraciones más “tradicionales”, muestra casos –desde ciclovías hechas en casa y símbolos callejeros hasta jardines por invasión y propuestas de desarrollo— que ganan visibilidad en varias ciudades y que sin embargo son poco reconocidos por las perspectivas existentes en la literatura urbana. Este artículo examina las teorías existentes y evidencia de entrevistas y otro trabajo de campo en catorce ciudades, a fin de desarrolla la categoría analítica nueva de “diseño urbano hagalo usted mismo.” Presento información sobre los creadores de estas intervenciones, en sus motivaciones para “mejorar” la infrastructura urbana donde se percibe al gobierno y a otros actores del desarrollo como poco efectivos, y en la concentración de sus esfuerzos en áreas en gentrificación. Esto genera posibilidades de conflicto y complica sus impactos. Señalo que el Diseño Urbano Hágalo Usted Mismo tiene implicancias de alta trascendencia tanto para comunidades locales como para políticas urbanas más amplias.
    September 16, 2013   doi: 10.1111/cico.12029   open full text
  • The Distribution and Evolution of Physical Neighborhood Problems during the Great Recession.
    Ryan Allen.
    City and Community. September 13, 2013
    While the Great Recession had clear effects on economic growth, unemployment, and household wealth and earnings in the United States, it also likely affected the quality of neighborhoods. Situated in the literature on locational attainment and economic shocks, this research considers how a national economic crisis affects physical neighborhood problems and existing disparities between minority and white households in experiencing these problems (e.g., street disrepair, trash, abandoned buildings, window bars). Results indicate that neighborhood problems increased between 2005 and 2009 and large and persistent disparities existed between some minority groups and white non‐Hispanics in experiencing these problems, even after controlling for potentially confounding factors. However, there is little support for the idea that disparities between minorities and white non‐Hispanics in experiencing neighborhood problems increased during this time. These research findings suggest that large and pervasive shocks, such as an economic recession, can influence locational attainment by changing neighborhood quality in absolute terms but may not affect the relative hierarchy of place. La Distribución y Evolución de los Problemas Físicos Barriales durante la Gran Recesión Mientras que la Gran Recesión tuvo efectos claros en el crecimiento económico, el desempleo y el bienestar e ingreso familiar en los EE.UU., también tuvo efectos en la calidad de los barrios. Situándose en la literatura sobre logro locacional y shocks económicos, este artículo muestra cómo una crisis económica nacional afecta los problemas físicos barriales y las desigualdades existentes entre familias blancas y de grupos minoritarios al experimentar estos problemas. Los resultados indican que los problemas barriales aumentaron entre 2005 y 2009 y que desigualdades grandes y persistentes existieron entre algunos grupos minoritarios y blancos no hispanos al pasar por problemas, incluso luego de controlar factores que potencialmente generarían confusiones. Sin embargo, existe poca evidencia a favor de la tesis que las disparidades entre grupos minoritarios y blancos no hispanos experimentando problemas barriales hayan aumentado durante este periodo. Los resultados de la investigación siguieren que shocks grandes y generalizados, como una recesión económica, pueden afectar el logro locacional al cambiar la calidad de los barrios en términos absolutos pero no necesariamente afectar la jerarquía espacial relativa.
    September 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/cico.12025   open full text
  • The Effects of Gentrification on Neighborhood Public Schools.
    Micere Keels, Julia Burdick‐Will, Sara Keene.
    City and Community. September 13, 2013
    Gentrification is generally associated with improvements in neighborhood amenities, but we know little about whether the improvements extend to public schools. Using administrative data (from spring 1993 to spring 2004) from the third largest school district in the United States, we examine the relationships between gentrification and school‐level student math and reading achievement, and whether changes in the composition of the student body account for any changes in achievement. After testing several alternative specifications of gentrification, we find that, in Chicago, gentrification has little effect on neighborhood public schools. Neighborhood public schools experience essentially no aggregate academic benefit from the socioeconomic changes occurring around them. Furthermore, they may even experience marginal harm, as the neighborhood skews toward higher income residents. For the individual student, starting first grade in a school located in a gentrifying neighborhood has no association with the relative growth rate of their test scores over their elementary school years. Resumen La gentrificación está generalmente asociada a mejoras en los servicios locales. Sin embargo, sabemos poco sobre si estas mejoras se extienden a las escuelas públicas. Usando información administrativa (desde el verano del 1993 a la primavera del 2004) del tercer distrito escolar más grande los EE.UU. examinamos la relación entre gentrificación y rendimiento a nivel escuela en matemáticas y lectura, y si los cambios en la composición del alumnado tienen efectos en dicho rendimiento escolar. Luego de probar varias alternativas, encontramos que, en Chicago, la gentrificación tiene poco efecto en las escuelas públicas locales. Las escuelas públicas locales no experimentan en general algún beneficio académico agregado de los cambios socioeconómicos que ocurren alrededor de ellas. Es más, estas incluso pueden experimentar un daño marginal en la medida que el espacio local es colmado de residentes de mayores ingresos. Para el estudiante, empezar el primer grado en una escuela ubicada en un barrio en gentrificación no guarda alguna relación con la mejora en sus pruebas escolares a lo largo de sus años de educación primaria.
    September 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/cico.12027   open full text
  • From Environmental Trauma to Safe Haven: Place Attachment and Place Remaking in Three Marginalized Neighborhoods of Barcelona, Boston, and Havana.
    Isabelle Anguelovski.
    City and Community. September 13, 2013
    In recent years, local activists in the Global North and South have been organizing to improve degraded and abandoned spaces in marginalized neighborhoods by creating parks, playgrounds, urban farms, or community gardens. This paper integrates existing knowledge on urban place attachment and sense of community with scholarship on environmental justice in order to understand the role of place attachment in environmental mobilization in distressed neighborhoods across political systems and urbanization contexts. It examines the different forms of connections that activists develop and express toward neighborhoods with long‐time substandard environmental conditions and how their experience of the neighborhood shapes their engagement in environmental revitalization projects. This comparison of three neighborhoods in Barcelona, Boston, and Havana shows that activists in all three places intend for their environmental endeavors to express grief at the loss of community, fears of erasure, and emotional connection and feelings of responsibility to place. To address environmental trauma, they aim to construct nurturing, soothing, “safe havens,” recreate rootedness, and remake place for residents. De Trauma Ambiental a Refugio Seguro: Apego al Lugar y Transformación Espacial en Tres Barrios Marginales en Barcelona, Boston y La Habana(Isabelle Anguelovski) En años recientes, activistas locales en el norte y sur globales se han ido organizando para mejorar espacios degradados y abandonados en barrios marginales creando parques, zonas recreativas, granjas urbanas o parques comunales. Este artículo integra el conocimiento existente sobre apego al lugar y sentido de comunidad con trabajo académico sobre justicia ambiental para entender el rol del apego al lugar en la movilización ambiental en barrios con esta problemática a través de sistemas políticos y contextos de urbanización. Se examina las formas distintas de conexión que los activistas desarrollan y expresan hacia barrios con condiciones ambientales desfavorables de larga data y en cómo sus experiencias del barrio moldean su compromiso con proyectos de rehabilitación ambiental. Esta comparación de tres barrios en Barcelona, Boston y La Habana muestra que los activistas en estos tres lugares buscan, a través de sus actividades ambientales, expresar nostalgia por la pérdida de la comunidad. Para enfrentar el trauma ambiental, ellos buscan construir “refugios seguros” educativos y calmantes que buscan recrear el enraizamiento y transformar los lugares para los residentes.
    September 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/cico.12026   open full text
  • Participation in Context: Neighborhood Diversity and Organizational Involvement in Boston.
    Van C. Tran, Corina Graif, Alison D. Jones, Mario L. Small, Christopher Winship.
    City and Community. September 13, 2013
    We use unique data from the Boston Non‐Profit Organizations Study, an innovative survey containing rich information on organizational participation across seven social domains in two Boston neighborhoods, to examine the relationship between ethnic diversity and participation in local organizations. In particular, we identify neighborhood‐based social ties as a key mechanism mediating the initial negative association between diversity and participation. In contrast to previous work, we measure participation using both the domain‐based and group‐based approach, with the former approach uncovering a wider range of organizational connections that are often missed in the latter approach. We also investigate the relationship between interpersonal ties and organizational ties, documenting how primary involvement with an organization facilitates the development of further interpersonal ties and secondary forms of organizational involvement. We then discuss implications of our findings for urban poverty research. Participación en Contexto: Diversidad Barrial e Involucramiento Organizacional en Boston (Van C. Tran, Corina Graif, Alison D. Jones, Mario L. Small y Christopher Winship) Usamos información única del Estudio sobre Organizaciones Sin Fines de Lucro en Boston, una encuesta innovadora que contiene información rica sobre participación en organizaciones en siete dominios sociales en dos barrios de Boston, para examinar la relación entre diversidad étnica y participación en organizaciones locales. En particular, identificamos lazos sociales a nivel barrio como un mecanismo clave que media en la asociación negativa entre diversidad y participación. En contraste con trabajos previos, medimos participación usando la aproximación a nivel dominio y a nivel grupo, siendo la primera aproximación la que descubre un gran rango de conexiones organizacionales que muchas veces son desapercibidas por la segunda aproximación. También investigamos la relación entre lazos interpersonales y lazos organizacionales, y mostramos cómo un involucramiento primordial con una organización facilita el desarrollo de vínculos interpersonales posteriores y formas secundarias de involucramiento organizacional. Luego discutimos las implicancias de nuestros resultados para la investigación sobre pobreza urbana.
    September 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/cico.12028   open full text
  • Neighborhood Access to Transit by Race, Ethnicity, and Poverty in Portland, OR.
    Brian S. McKenzie.
    City and Community. June 17, 2013
    Scholarly discussions of accessibility and spatial mismatch largely ignore transit's role in linking vulnerable populations to opportunity. Yet as the nation's low‐income population has become more suburban in recent decades, transit access may become an increasingly valuable, yet scarcer link to opportunity for those with the fewest resources and housing options. This study explores differences in transit access for neighborhoods with high concentrations of heavy transit users. Using data from the 2000 Census and the 5‐year 2005–2009 ACS, it compares changes in transit access levels across neighborhoods with high concentrations of blacks, Latinos, and the poor in Portland, OR. Results show that Portland's neighborhoods of Latino concentration had the poorest relative access to transit. Further, levels of transit access declined for neighborhoods of black and Latino concentration during the study period. Resumen Discusiones académicas sobre accesibilidad y el “desajuste espacial” (spatial mismatch) ignoran el rol del transporte en conectar a las poblaciones vulnerables a distintas oportunidades. Mientras la población de ingresos más bajos se ha vuelto más suburbana en las últimas décadas, el acceso al transporte podría tornarse en un bien de alto valor pero más escaso en términos de oportunidades para aquellos con menores recursos y opciones de vivienda. Este estudio explora diferencias en acceso al transporte en barrios con mayor concentración de usuarios de transporte masivo. Usando información del Censo del año 2000 y de 5 años de la Encuesta de Comunidades Americanas (ACS), se comparan cambios en el nivel de acceso al transporte en barrios con alta concentración de población negra, latina y pobre en Portland, OR. Los resultados muestran que los barrios de alta concentración de latinos en Portland tienen el peor acceso al transporte en términos relativos. Más aún, los niveles de acceso al transporte bajaron en los barrios con alta concentración de población negra y latina durante el periodo de estudio.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/cico.12022   open full text
  • Subsidized Housing and the Concentration of Poverty, 1977–2008: A Comparison of Eight U.S. Metropolitan Areas.
    Yana Andreeva Kucheva.
    City and Community. June 17, 2013
    This paper examines the link between subsidized housing and the concentration of poverty. I use newly available data from the Department of Housing and Urban Development that extends from the earliest years of subsidized housing reform to the present day. I find that substantial changes in the poverty rate of neighborhoods occurred predominantly in census tracts that experienced more than a 5 percent increase or decrease in their share of subsidized units, indicating that more subsidized housing is associated with greater poverty. However, the increase in the poverty rate of neighborhoods that experienced more than a 5 percent increase in either building‐based or voucher units was due to the movement of poor subsidized individuals into those neighborhoods rather than changes in the poverty rate of individuals who do not live in subsidized housing. Resumen Este artículo examina la conexión entre vivienda subsidiada y concentración de la pobreza. Utilizo información nueva y actualizada del Departamento de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano que incluye desde los primeros años de la reforma de la vivienda subsidiada hasta la actualidad. Encuentro que ha ocurrido un cambio sustancial en las tasas de pobreza de barrios, principalmente en áreas censales que experimentaron un incremento o decrecimiento de más de cinco por ciento en su composición de viviendas subsidiadas, lo cual indica que existe una asociación entre mayores números de viviendas subsi‐diadas y mayor pobreza. Sin embargo, el aumento en la tasa de pobreza de barrios que experimentaron un incremento de más de cinco por ciento en unidades de tipo edificio o por vales ocurrió por el ingreso en esos barrios de individuos pobres subsidiados y no por un cambio en la tasa de pobreza de individuos que no habitan en viviendas subsidiadas.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/cico.12014   open full text
  • Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ.
    Len Albright, Elizabeth S. Derickson, Douglas S. Massey.
    City and Community. June 17, 2013
    This paper offers a mixed‐method analysis of the municipal‐level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mount Laurel, New Jersey—the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mount Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities. Resumen Con el uso de varios métodos de análisis, este artículo ofrece un análisis de las consecuencias a nivel municipal de un proyecto de vivienda asequible construido en la zona suburbana de New Jersey. Los opositores a proyectos de vivienda asequible generalmente sugieren que la creación de este tipo de proyectos daña a las comunidades aledañas. Las consecuencias temidas incluyen incrementos en crimen, reducción del precio de las propiedades, y aumento de los impuestos. Para evaluar estos argumentos, éste artículo usa el caso de Mt. Laurel, NJ – el caso de un proceso judicial y el subsecuente proyecto de vivienda asequible. Utilizando un diseño de grupos de control a través de una serie de tiempo, comparamos las tasas de criminalidad, el valor de las viviendas y el valor de los impuestos a la propiedad en Mt. Laurel con los de municipalidades cercanas que no tienen proyectos de vivienda asequible similares. Encontramos que la apertura de dicho proyecto de vivienda asequible no está asociada con cambios en los niveles de criminalidad, en los valores de las viviendas, e impuestos. Asimismo discutimos prácticas de administración y cuestiones de diseño que pueden haber mitigado las externalidades negativas potenciales.
    June 17, 2013   doi: 10.1111/cico.12015   open full text