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The Academy of Management Journal

Impact factor: 5.906 5-Year impact factor: 10.031 Print ISSN: 0001-4273 Online ISSN: 1948-0989 Publisher: The Academy of Management

Subjects: Business, Management

Most recent papers:

  • From Employee-Experienced High-Involvement Work System to Innovation: An Emergence-Based Human Resource Management Framework.
    Yixuan Li, Mo Wang, Danielle van Jaarsveld, Gwendolyn K. Lee, Dennis Ma.
    The Academy of Management Journal. 9 days ago
    The influence of human resource management (HRM) on innovation has attracted considerable research attention over the last decade. However, existing studies have primarily focused on the macro-level HRM architecture, limiting our understanding about the cross-level origin of innovation. Developing an emergence-based HRM framework, we propose that employee-experienced high-involvement work system (HIWS) promotes innovation by eliciting collective interactions for knowledge exchange and aggregation. Further, we investigate the emergence enabling process that facilitates employee-experienced HIWS to give rise to organization-level innovation. Specifically, we probe three distinct emergence enablers that amplify the positive influence of HIWS on innovation by shaping the concertedness, direction, and adaptability of collective interactions—that is, the homogeneity of HIWS experiences as the internal mechanism, the strategic importance of innovation as the external mechanism, and the churn in human resources as the temporal mechanism. We tested our theoretical model using data from a nationally representative sample of workplaces in Canada (N = 2,639). Our results suggest that employee-experienced HIWS was positively related to innovation. In addition, this positive effect was amplified by all three emergence enablers (i.e., the homogeneity of HIWS experiences, the strategic importance of innovation, and the churn in human resources).
    July 17, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1101   open full text
  • Networks, Technology, And Entrepreneurship: A Field Quasi Experiment Among Women In Rural India.
    Viswanath Venkatesh, Jason Shaw, Tracy Sykes, Mary Macharia, Samuel Fosso Wamba.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 11, 2017
    We address a grand economic challenge faced by women in rural India. We hypothesized about the interplay of women's social networks (ties to family, ties to community, and ties to men in power), information and communication technology (ICT) use, and time in relating to the initiation and success of women's entrepreneurial ventures. The results from a 7-year field quasi-experiment in 20 rural villages in India provided substantial support for the model. Ties to family and community positively, and ties to men in power negatively, related to ICT use, entrepreneurial activity, and entrepreneurial profit. The ICT intervention also had a strong effect on entrepreneurship, with 160 new businesses in the 10 intervention villages compared to 40 new businesses in the control villages. The results also provide evidence of the dynamic interplay of social networks and ICT use. For ties to family and community, an amplification effect was found such that the highest levels of entrepreneurial activity and success were observed among women with high centrality and ICT use, effects that were stronger over time. For ties to men in power, ICT use was associated with increased entrepreneurial activity only when ties to men in power were low, but these interactive temporary temporal patterns did not emerge for profit. We address the implications of our research for the grand challenges of empowering women in less developed countries.
    July 11, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0849   open full text
  • Pliable guidance: A Multilevel Model of Curiosity, Feedback Seeking, and Feedback Giving in Creative Work.
    Spencer Harrison, Karyn Dossinger.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 07, 2017
    The current research examines the cycle of feedback seeking, feedback giving, and feedback acceptance between individuals developing a creative idea and their social milieu. We advance and test a multilevel model that positions trait curiosity as a key individual difference during the revision and evaluation stages of the creative process. Using a sample of t-shirt designers, their creative drafts, and the questions and comments that feedback seekers and providers posted to an online workshop, we find that curiosity acts as a bridge that connects creative workers with their feedback providers in novel ways. We suggest the notion of pliable guidance as a theoretical umbrella to describe how feedback seekers and providers in creative work look for a balance between direction and freedom to explore. Our findings show that more curious individuals seek feedback by asking more open questions, which allows them to obtain more feedback. We also find that the language of feedback matters for feedback acceptance: Ambivalent feedback is more likely to lead to feedback acceptance and design revision. Finally, our results suggest that curiosity is an important moderator of how creative workers respond to ambivalent feedback. Our research highlights the pivotal role curiosity plays in drawing individuals into a collaborative process when developing their creative ideas, one that is guided and inspired by the social environment.
    July 07, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0247   open full text
  • A Social Mindfulness Approach to Understanding Experienced Customer Mistreatment: A Within-Person Field Experiment.
    Yifan Song, Yihao Liu, Mo Wang, Klodiana Lanaj, Russell Johnson, Junqi Shi.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 30, 2017
    We apply a social mindfulness lens (Van Doesum, Van Lange, & Van Lange, 2013) to understand the phenomenon of perceived customer mistreatment. Recognizing that both recall of prosocial acts and perspective taking invoke the motivation to be mindful in social interactions, we investigated whether these two types of interventions affect customer service employees' experience of customer mistreatment. Additionally, we investigated whether these two interventions might also buffer the relation of employees' daily experience of customer mistreatment and their negative mood at the end of the workday. Finally, we examined whether the interventions, via their effects on daily experience of customer mistreatment and afternoon negative mood, could reduce dysfunctional coping responses in the evening (i.e., employee rumination and maladaptive shopping). We conducted a within-person field experiment utilizing a daily experience sampling approach with 94 customer service employees whom we surveyed for 15 consecutive workdays. Consistent with our expectations, both interventions significantly reduced the daily experience of customer mistreatment compared to a control condition. Recall of prosocial action also significantly buffered the positive relation of daily experience of customer mistreatment with afternoon negative mood. Moreover, both interventions had significant indirect effects on dysfunctional coping responses in the evening. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
    June 30, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0448   open full text
  • The Past is Not Dead: Legacy Identification and Alumni Ambivalence in the Wake of the Sandusky Scandal at Penn State.
    Jennifer L. Eury, Glen E. Kreiner, Linda Klebe Trevino, Dennis A. Gioia.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 30, 2017
    We investigate how the temporal effects of past, present, and future influence organizational identification. We examine an underrepresented but important stakeholder group - organizational alumni - whose prior organizational experiences can leave a "legacy identification," such that alumni continue to define themselves in terms of the organization's ideals and values, even after leaving. We examined alumni responses to the Jerry Sandusky child sexual abuse scandal at Penn State by analyzing a subset of more than 25,000 communications sent by more than 14,000 alumni in the year following the scandal. We found that alumni drew upon their legacy identification as they went through an emotion-laden struggle involving predominantly positive experiences in the past, predominantly negative experiences in the present, and uncertain experiences in the future. We show how targeting processes toward insiders and outsiders affect identification states, including three previously undocumented forms of ambivalent identification: "reconciled identification," "selective identification," and "conditional identification." Our grounded model illustrates the broad applicability of the legacy identification concept, which has strong implications for studying the temporality and complexity of identification processes.
    June 30, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0534   open full text
  • Harvesting Value From Brokerage: Individual Strategic Orientation, Structural Holes, And Performance.
    Giuseppe Soda, Marco Tortoriello, Alessandro Iorio.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 29, 2017
    In this paper we explore the mechanisms underpinning returns to brokerage positions by considering the role of individuals' strategic orientation toward brokering. We conceptualize individuals' strategic orientations in terms of arbitraging versus collaborating behaviors enacted when occupying a brokerage position. Leveraging a novel dataset collected in a global consumer product company, we theorize and find evidence for the fact that arbitraging and collaborating orientations have differential effects on the relationship between brokerage and performance, significantly impacting on individuals' ability to extract value from brokerage. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural analysis of informal networks in organizations.
    June 29, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0123   open full text
  • Maneuvering in Poor Visibility: How Firms Play the Ecosystem Game when Uncertainty is High.
    Brice Dattee, Oliver Alexy, Erkko Autio.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 27, 2017
    Innovation ecosystems are increasingly regarded as important vehicles to create and capture value from complex value propositions. While current literature assumes these value propositions can be known ex-ante and an appropriate ecosystem design derived from them, we focus instead on generative technological innovations that enable an unbounded range of potential value propositions, hence offering no clear guidance to firms. To illustrate our arguments, we inductively study two organizations, each attempting to create two novel ecosystems around new technological enablers deep in their industry architecture. We highlight how ecosystem creation in such conditions is a systemic process driven by coupled feedback loops, which organizations must try to control dynamically: firms first make the switch to creating the ecosystem following an external pull to narrow down the range of potential applications; then need to learn to keep up with ecosystem dynamics by roadmapping and preempting, while simultaneously enacting resonance. Dynamic control further entails counteracting the drifting away of the nascent ecosystem from the firm's idea of future value creation and the sliding of its intended control points for value capture. Our findings shed new light on strategy and control in emerging ecosystems, and provide guidance to managers on playing the ecosystem game.
    June 27, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0869   open full text
  • Are Family Firms Good Employers?
    Jeroen Neckebrouck, William Schulze, Thomas Zellweger.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 27, 2017
    Family firms employ about 60 percent of the global workforce. While it is widely assumed that they are good employers, data about their conduct is mixed. In this study, we extend stewardship and agency theories to test competing propositions about the impact of family on employment practices using data from 14,961 private Belgian firms over a 19-year period. Higher investments, lower dividend payout, and higher risk tolerance indicate that family firms are better financial stewards of their companies than nonfamily firms. However, family firms are worse organizational stewards than nonfamily firms: They offer lower compensation, invest less in employee training, and exhibit higher voluntary turnover and lower labor productivity. Further, and contrary to earlier research, we find that financial practices in private family firms do not change over time, and that the deleterious influence of family on employment practices rises with both firm age and with heightened family involvement. Together, our findings suggest that a more nuanced understanding of stewardship and agency theory is needed to understand the impact of family on the governance of private firms.
    June 27, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0765   open full text
  • Financial Wealth, Socioemotional Wealth And Ipo Underpricing In Family Firms: A Two Stage Gamble Model.
    Josip Kotlar, Andrea Signori, Alfredo De Massis, Silvio Vismara.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 26, 2017
    There are competing theoretical explanations and conflicting empirical evidence for the IPO underpricing phenomenon in family firms. The behavioral agency model predicts that loss-averse family firms discount their shares more than non-family firms in order to minimize losses of socioemotional wealth (SEW). By contrast, the endowment effect in prospect theory suggests that family owners maximize their financial wealth (FW) by including SEW in their perceptions of firm value and demanding a higher IPO price to relinquish it. We reconcile these seemingly incompatible predictions by adding insights on the dynamic properties of the reference point in decision framing. Conceiving IPO pricing as a two-stage gamble, we theorize that initial SEW losses entailed by the listing decision increase the disposition of family owners to underprice IPO shares to possibly offset these losses, or to "break even". In doing so, we advance the behavioral agency model with the aversion to loss realization logic to explain how the decision frames and preferences of family owners change during the IPO process, depending on initial losses of current SEW and new expectations of future SEW. Our analysis of 1,807 IPOs in Europe supports our theoretical expectations, clarifying the trade-off between FW and SEW and explicating the dynamic properties of mixed gambles in family firms.
    June 26, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0256   open full text
  • Saving face: How exit in response to negative press and star analyst downgrades reflects reputation maintenance by directors.
    Joseph S Harrison, Steven Boivie, Nathan Sharp, Richard Gentry.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 26, 2017
    This paper explores the extrinsic and intrinsic motivations driving individual level responses to reputational threats in the context of the director labor market. Integrating work on reputation with self-determination and identity theories, we theorize that negative attention from the media and star equity analysts threatens directors' reputations, motivating proactive behavior to mitigate both the external and internal consequences of reputation damage. Using a sample of directors of S&P 1500 firms between 2003 and 2014, we argue and find that negative media coverage and downgrades by star equity analysts are positively related to director exit, even after controlling for firm performance, overall media visibility, and negative events such as lawsuits and financial restatements. We also find that director status intensifies the effect of negative media coverage on exit, serving as the board chair attenuates the effect of star analyst downgrades on exit, and director tenure intensifies the effects of both negative media coverage and star downgrades on exit. In post-hoc testing, we provide further evidence of director reputation maintenance by demonstrating the counterintuitive finding that negative attention from the media and star analysts also increases directors' likelihood of joining the boards of other S&P 1500 firms.
    June 26, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0471   open full text
  • Does Anger Expression Help Or Harm Leader Effectiveness? The Role Of Competence Based Versus Integrity Based Violations And Abusive Supervision.
    Lu Wang, Simon Lloyd Restubog, Bo Shao, Vinh Lu, Gerben van Kleef.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 19, 2017
    The question of how leaders' expressions of anger influence their effectiveness has long intrigued researchers and practitioners alike. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information (EASI) theory, we suggest the effects of leaders' expressions of anger depend on both the type of violation about which anger is expressed and the type of leader who expresses it. We tested these ideas in a programmatic series of studies using both experimental and field methods. Study 1 shows that a leader's anger expression in response to followers' integrity-based violations enhances observers' perceptions of leader effectiveness, whereas anger in response to followers' competence-based violations diminishes observers' perceptions of leader effectiveness. Study 2 provides evidence that these divergent effects occur because anger in response to integrity-based violations elicits beneficial inferential reactions among followers who observed the anger, whereas anger in response to competence-based violations provokes harmful affective reactions. Study 3 further demonstrates that the negative effects of anger expressed towards competence-based violations are exacerbated and positive effects of anger expressed towards integrity-based violations are weakened when a leader is perceived to be abusive. Together, these findings help reconcile divergent perspectives on the effects of leader anger expression, and suggest that anger can indeed enhance perceived leader effectiveness when it is expressed in the right situation and by the right person.
    June 19, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0460   open full text
  • Not In The Same Boat: How Status Inconsistency Affects Research Performance In Business Schools.
    Michael Jensen, Pengfei Wang.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 16, 2017
    This study examines the consequences of status inconsistency for the performance of multi-unit organizations. Status inconsistency refers to the extent to which social actors occupy status positions accorded different amounts of social esteem and prestige in different social systems. Status inconsistency affects the performance of multi-unit organizations by weakening the well-established positive effects of status on performance because it creates status ambiguity that makes external evaluations of the organization and its individual units more difficult. Distinguishing between high-status and low-status multi-unit organizations, we argue further that status inconsistency is particularly problematic for high-status multi-unit organizations, whereas low-status multi-unit organizations may actually benefit from status inconsistency. We test our arguments using a longitudinal sample comprised of 109 international business schools and their finance, accounting, marketing, management, and operations departments from 2002 to 2013. Our study concludes with a discussion of the contributions our research makes to status theory and research and the managerial relevance of our findings.
    June 16, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0969   open full text
  • Geographic Co-location of Partners and Rivals: Implications for the Design of R&D Alliances.
    Wonsang Ryu, Brian McCann, Jeffrey Reuer.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 16, 2017
    This study advances previous research on the competitive aspects of R&D collaborations that has been mainly interested in knowledge protection concerns in alliances between direct rivals. We join the alliance and agglomeration literatures and argue that geographic co-location between a focal firm's partner and rivals introduces potential indirect paths of knowledge leakage to rivals. Geographic co-location creates significant risks of unintentional knowledge spillovers to rivals while it also increases the likelihood of transactions between the partner firm and the rivals in which firm knowledge can be misappropriated. As a consequence of these risks associated with the co-location of partners and rivals, the focal firm is more likely to employ defense mechanisms when designing alliances. In particular, the focal firm will use equity structures to provide greater monitoring, control, and incentive alignment and will reduce the alliance's scope as well as task interdependence to address knowledge leakage concerns.
    June 16, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0416   open full text
  • When Inter Team Conflict Spirals Into Intra Team Power Struggles: The Pivotal Role Of Team Power Structures.
    Lisanne van Bunderen, Lindred Greer, Daan van Knippenberg.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 12, 2017
    Organizational teams frequently come into conflict with one another over limited resources. Core theories of intergroup conflict suggest that such inter-team resource conflicts unite teams internally, reducing intra-team power struggles. However, conflict spill-over theory suggests that inter-team conflicts may also stimulate competitive power dynamics within teams. We reconcile these two opposing lines of thought by introducing the internal power structure of teams as the key moderator that determines whether inter-team conflict reduces or promotes power struggles within teams. We theorize that while the common fate of members of egalitarian teams makes them likely to unite and pool resources when facing an inter-team conflict, the power differences in hierarchical teams cause members to be differently impacted by the resource-threatening inter-team conflict, leading them to have different perspectives and concerns, thereby promoting internal fights over resources (i.e., power struggles). In turn, such power struggles are expected to negatively affect team performance. We tested these hypotheses with a laboratory study of 85 three-person negotiation teams and a field study of 158 organizational work teams, and find, as expected, that a resource-threatening inter-team conflict promotes performance-detracting power struggles in hierarchical (but not egalitarian) teams.
    June 12, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0182   open full text
  • Misery Loves Company: An Investigation Of Couples' Interrole Conflict Congruence.
    Kelly Schwind Wilson, Heidi M. Baumann, Fadel K Matta, Remus Ilies, Ellen Kossek.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 09, 2017
    Previous research on interrole (family-to-work and work-to-family) conflict has demonstrated that such conflict is detrimental for outcomes in the work and home domains for employees and their family members. Although research has begun to integrate multiple parties into the interrole conflict literature, studies overlook how employee interrole conflict and partner interrole conflict can jointly influence employee outcomes. We advance work-family research by integrating balance theory with the interrole conflict literature to investigate dyadic interrole conflict congruence and challenge the implicit assumption that less interrole conflict always results in superior outcomes. Using a polynomial regression analysis of 141 employee and romantic partner dyads, we demonstrate that congruence between couples' experiences of family-to-work (but not work-to-family) conflict is positively associated with balance satisfaction and ultimately employee job satisfaction and partner relationship satisfaction. Thus, when it comes to balance satisfaction and its downstream correlates, the harmful effects of high family-to-work conflict (FWC) are largely mitigated if an employee's partner shares a similarly high level of FWC, and the beneficial effects of low FWC are largely eliminated if an employee's partner does not share a similarly low level of FWC.
    June 09, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0395   open full text
  • A Competence-Based View of Industry Evolution: The Impact of Submarket Convergence on Incumbent-Entrant Dynamics.
    Bilgehan Uzunca.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 05, 2017
    Understanding intra-industry boundaries is important because it offers insight into firms' strategic options based on their competences. Defining intra-industry heterogeneity in terms of the technological and customer competences that are required to produce and sell different products in each submarket, this paper explores whether the convergence of these competences, i.e., an increase in the degree to which competences can be leveraged across submarkets, exerts differential effects on the success of industry incumbents versus entrants. Empirical evidence from the global semiconductor manufacturing industry shows that convergence in both technological and customer competences decreases entrants' survival chances, whereas a lack of convergence in any one of the two types of competence—that is, in one set of competences or another but not in both—gives entrants sufficient room to gain a foothold in the industry and to potentially disrupt incumbents. As a strategic response to disruption, multiplant industry incumbents can reposition themselves by changing their focus across submarkets while not necessarily exiting the industry entirely. The paper contributes to the literature on industry evolution, disruption, and competitive dynamics and has implications for future research and practice.
    June 05, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1080   open full text
  • Pacification or Aggravation? The Effects of Talking about Supervisor Unfairness.
    Michael Baer, Jessica B Rodell, Rashpal Dhensa-Kahlon, Jason Colquitt, Kate Zipay, Rachel Burgess, Ryan Outlaw.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 05, 2017
    Many employees feel a general sense of unfairness toward their supervisors. A common reaction to such unfairness is to talk about it with coworkers. The conventional wisdom is that this unfairness talk should be beneficial to the aggrieved employees. After all, talking provides employees with an opportunity to make sense of the experience and to "let off steam." We challenge this perspective, drawing on cognitive-motivational-relational theory to develop arguments that unfairness talk leads to emotions that reduce the employee's ability to move on from the unfairness. We first tested these proposals in a three-wave, two-source field study of bus drivers (Study 1), then replicated our findings in a laboratory study (Study 2). In both studies we found that unfairness talk was positively related to anger and negatively related to hope. Those emotions went on to have direct effects on forgiveness and indirect effects on citizenship behavior. Our results also showed that the detrimental effects of unfairness talk were neutralized when the listener offered suggestions that reframed the unfair situation. We discuss the implications of these results for managing unfairness in organizations.
    June 05, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0630   open full text
  • Coordinating Service Provision in Dynamic Service Settings: A Position Practice Relations Perspective.
    Angela Aristidou, Michael Barrett.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 05, 2017
    How is continuity of service provision supported in dynamic service settings (DSS) when interactions span space and time, and are being increasingly infused by technology? We explored this question through our eighteen-month qualitative study of the DSS of UK mental health. We found that the pattern of interaction that emerges is constantly reconfigured through processes of spanning time, stretching space and through distributed agency. Further, we found that service provision does not only occur among work roles with clear (cross)organizational links but also through diverse interaction among current customers and their friends, as well as customer-to-customer interactions. We characterize such service provision which is not anchored to any service organization as being extraorgnizational. Further, we highlight the importance of the history of interactions and how trust built through diverse interactions in the past may influence trust building in current interaction. To explain our findings we introduce the concepts of "position-practices" and position-practice relations (PPR) to theorize how diverse interaction among dispersed actors contributes to service provision continuity in DSS. We develop a conceptual process model which identifies processes of spanning time, and the stretching of space by which the PPR web of service provision is dynamically reconfigured, and with what consequences for both our case as well as other dynamic service settings.
    June 05, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0310   open full text
  • Gender Inclusive Gatekeeping: How (Mostly Male) Predecessors Influence The Success Of Female Ceos.
    Priyanka Dwivedi, Aparna Joshi, Vilmos F. Misangyi.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 30, 2017
    Male-typed leadership schemas have been widely acknowledged as barriers to women's success in leadership roles. We explore how local organizational agents and contexts enable women leaders to overcome these barriers and achieve success at the highest levels in firms. In particular, we focused on CEO succession events and studied how several facets of predecessor CEOs and the succession context combine to influence incoming women's post-succession performance. To do so, we conducted a qualitative comparative case study of all CEO successions that involved female successors between 1989 and 2009 across the largest corporations in the United States. Our findings suggest that women's success occurred when a confluence of local firm-level factors and attributes of the (mostly) male predecessors promoted gender-inclusive gatekeeping during succession. Our QCA approach revealed three recipes for female success: handing over the legacy, partnering the legacy, and turning around the legacy. Moreover, a comparison to a matched-sample of men CEO succession events showed that these three recipes for success are unique to women. Based upon our findings, we propose that male predecessors' gender-inclusive gatekeeping facilitates female leaders' success and occurs when local enabling conditions and the embedded context enact agentic and structural mechanisms to alter leadership schemas.
    May 30, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1238   open full text
  • Resolution, Relief, And Resignation: A Qualitative Study Of Responses To Misfit At Work.
    Elizabeth H. Follmer, Danielle L Talbot, Amy Kristof-Brown, Stacy L. Astrove, Jon Billsberry.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 23, 2017
    Research has portrayed person-environment (PE) fit as a pleasant condition resulting from people being attracted to and selected into compatible work environments; yet, our study reveals that creating and maintaining a sense of fit frequently involves an effortful, dynamic set of strategies. We used a two-phase, qualitative design to allow employees to report how they become aware of and experience misfit, and what they do in response. To address these questions, we conducted interviews with 81 individuals sampled from diverse industries and occupations. Through their descriptions we identified three broad responses to the experience of misfit: resolution, relief, and resignation. Within these approaches we identify distinct strategies for responding to misfit. We present a model of how participants used these strategies, often in combination, and develop propositions regarding their effectiveness at reducing strain associated with misfit. These results expand PE fit theory by providing new insight into how individuals experience and react to misfit - portraying them as active, motivated creators of their own fit experience at work.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0566   open full text
  • How Does a Grand Challenge Become Displaced? Explaining the Duality of Field Mobilization.
    Stine Grodal, Siobhan O'Mahony.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 19, 2017
    Grand challenges are complex problems with far reaching societal implications that lack a clear solution. To make progress, diverse communities often coalesce around an ambitious field goal. However, many field initiatives fall short of their initial goals. When fields mobilize for a grand challenge, what inhibits them from realizing their intended ambitions? This is a critical question not only for grand challenges, but also for institutional theory, which tends to focus on field mobilization rather than on how goals are pursued over time. Field scholars often assume stable participants with goals that easily translate into actions, but fields are dynamic and unlikely to comply with these assumptions. With a longitudinal, multi-method study of the nanotechnology field, we examined how five communities mobilized and pursued the grand challenge of creating molecular manufacturing from 1986 to 2005. We identify a key duality of mobilization: the very strategies employed to successfully mobilize diverse participants to support the grand challenge actually helped displace it with less ambitious goals. We develop a grounded theoretical model explaining goal displacement in the context of grand challenges and in so doing contribute a dynamic political understanding of field level strategic action.
    May 19, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0890   open full text
  • Design Performances: How Organizations Inscribe Artifacts to Change Routines.
    Vern Glaser.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 16, 2017
    Organizations often create and employ artifacts in order to change their routines, but little is known about how artifacts can be designed to intentionally influence routine dynamics. In this paper, I present findings from an inductive, ethnographic study of how a law enforcement agency fabricated a game-theoretic artifact to modify its patrolling routine. Based on my in-depth analysis of the actions associated with creating this game-theoretic artifact, I develop a theoretical model that shows how organizational actors iteratively engage in a series of design performances to envision new sociomaterial assemblages of actors, artifacts, theories and practices. These design performances influence routine dynamics by both eliciting mechanisms of abstracting grammars of action, exposing assumptions, distributing agency, and appraising outcomes and by creating new assemblages that can be deployed in future routine performances. By revealing the generativity of design performances and sociomaterial assemblages, this empirical study contributes to our understanding of routine dynamics, performativity, and strategy tools.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0842   open full text
  • We Ask Men to Win & Women Not to Lose: Closing the Gender Gap in Startup Funding.
    Dana Kanze, Laura Huang, Mark A. Conley, E. Tory Higgins.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 29, 2017
    Male entrepreneurs are known to raise higher levels of funding than their female counterparts, but the underlying mechanism for this funding disparity remains contested. Drawing upon Regulatory Focus Theory, we propose that the gap originates with a gender bias in the questions that investors pose to entrepreneurs. A field study conducted on question and answer interactions at TechCrunch Disrupt New York City during 2010 through 2016 reveals that investors tend to ask male entrepreneurs promotion-focused questions and female entrepreneurs prevention-focused questions, and that entrepreneurs tend to respond with matching regulatory focus. This distinction in the regulatory focus of investor questions and entrepreneur responses results in divergent funding outcomes for entrepreneurs whereby those asked promotion-focused questions raise significantly higher amounts of funding than those asked prevention-focused questions. We demonstrate that every additional prevention-focused question significantly hinders the entrepreneur's ability to raise capital, fully mediating gender's effect on funding. By experimentally testing an intervention, we find that entrepreneurs can significantly increase funding for their startups when responding to prevention-focused questions with promotion-focused answers. As we offer evidence regarding tactics that can be employed to diminish the gender disadvantage in funding outcomes, this study has practical as well as theoretical implications for entrepreneurship.
    April 29, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.1215   open full text
  • Trusting the "Look and Feel": Situational Normality, Situational Aesthetics, and the Perceived Trustworthiness of Organizations.
    Michael Baer, Lisa van der Werff, Jason Colquitt, Jessica B Rodell, Kate Zipay, Finian Buckley.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 21, 2017
    We conducted two studies examining how the "look and feel" of an organization shapes newcomers' trust in that organization. More specifically, we examined the effects of situational normality—the degree to which the work setting appears customary, with everything in proper order. We then introduced the construct of situational aesthetics—the degree to which the work setting has a pleasing and attractive appearance. A field study of new accountants revealed that situational normality and situational aesthetics had indirect effects on trust through perceived trustworthiness, with trust going on to predict coworker ratings of learning behavior. These effects were present even when controlling for psychological contract fulfillment—a variable which represents the rational/historical antecedents of trustworthiness in most trust models. We then replicated those trustworthiness findings in a laboratory setting. Taken together, our results suggest that newcomer trust formation may be shaped by aspects of the work setting that have been heretofore ignored by trust scholars.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0248   open full text
  • Ripping Off The Band Aid: Scrutiny Bundling In The Wake Of Social Disapproval.
    Varkey Titus, Owen Parker, A. Erin Bass.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 21, 2017
    Activities that hazard the possibility of increased scrutiny are an unavoidable reality for many firms. While managers may face the need to engage in these activities, there is little research on when managers decide to do so. Existing theoretical perspectives on status quo deviations do not sufficiently address how managers order the firm's essential activities that differ primarily in terms of the scrutiny those activities engender. Drawing from concepts in the accounting and political science literatures, we advance a "scrutiny-bundling" perspective, which suggests that firms engage in scrutiny-hazarding action in the wake of social disapproval, which we assess via negative media coverage. We further theorize that a strong linkage between the focus of media coverage and the specific scrutiny-hazarding action exacerbates this relationship. We then contend that managers at firms that are either large in size or that perform well relative to their aspirations are less sensitive to social disapproval, and are therefore less likely to engage in scrutiny-bundling. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 100 firms in the upstream petroleum industry and find general support for our hypotheses.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0435   open full text
  • The mixed blessing of leader sense of humor: Examining costs and benefits.
    Kai Chi Yam, Michael Christian, Wu Wei, Zhenyu Liao, Jared Nai.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 18, 2017
    Workplace humor is ubiquitous, yet scholars know little about how it affects employees' behaviors in organizations. We draw on an emerging psychological theory of humor—benign violation theory—to suggest that a leader's sense of humor often conveys counter-normative social information in organizations. We integrate this theory with social information processing theory to develop hypotheses about the effects of a leader's sense of humor on follower behavior. We suggest that although a leader's sense of humor is positively associated with leader member exchange and ultimately work engagement, it can also signal to followers the acceptability of norm violation at work. These perceptions in turn are positively associated with followers' deviance. Furthermore, we propose that these indirect effects are moderated by leader aggressive humor. Data from two three-wave field studies in China and the United States provide support for our hypotheses. Taken together, our results suggest that a leader's sense of humor can be a mixed blessing and elicit unforeseen negative behaviors from their followers.
    April 18, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1088   open full text
  • Introducing Team Mindfulness And Considering Its Safeguard Role Against Conflict Transformation And Social Undermining.
    Lingtao Yu, Mary Zellmer-Bruhn.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 17, 2017
    The authors introduce the concept of team mindfulness, defined as a shared belief among team members that their interactions are characterized by awareness and attention to present events, and experiential, non-judgmental processing of within-team experiences. Team mindfulness is examined as a safeguard against multilevel team conflict transformation processes. Results from three multi-wave field studies validate a team mindfulness instrument and indicate that team mindfulness: 1) negatively relates to team relationship conflict; 2) reduces the connection between task conflict and relationship conflict at the team level; and 3) reduces the cross-level spillover of team relationship conflict to individual social undermining. The research contributes to the growing workplace mindfulness literature by conceptualizing mindfulness at the team-level, and demonstrating its positive effects for team functioning. The results also contribute to research on team conflict and social undermining, showing that team mindfulness is a promising intervention to reduce team conflict and its ill effects. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    April 17, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0094   open full text
  • Compromised Ethics In Hiring Processes? How Referrers' Power Affects Employees' Reactions To Referral Practices.
    Rellie Derfler-Rozin, Bradford Baker, Francesca Gino.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 17, 2017
    In this paper, we explore referral-based hiring practices and show how a referrer's power (relative to the hiring manager) influences other organizational members' support (or lack thereof) for who is hired through perceptions of the hiring manager's motives and morality. We apply principles derived from the literature on attribution of motives to research on relational power to delineate a model that explains employees' moral evaluations of and reactions to referral practices based on the power relationship between a referrer and a hiring manager. Specifically, we predict that employees are more likely to see the acceptance of a referral from a higher- (as opposed to a lower-) power referrer as a way for the hiring manager to gain more power in the relationship with the referrer, thereby attributing more self-interested motives and more counter-organizational motives to the hiring manager in such situations. These motives are then associated with harsher moral judgments of the hiring manager, which in turn lead to less support for the hiring decision. We find support for our model in two experimental studies and two field studies. We discuss implications for the literature on referral practices, ethics, and observers' reactions to power dynamics.
    April 17, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1355   open full text
  • One Step Forward, One Step Back: White Male Top Manager Organizational Identification and Helping Behavior Toward Other Executives Following the Appointment of a Female or Racial Minority CEO.
    Michael McDonald, Gareth D Keeves, James Westphal.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 17, 2017
    In this paper we examine white male managers' intrapsychic and behavioral responses to the appointment of a female or a racial minority CEO at their firm. Drawing from intergroup relations literatures we theorize how and why the appointment of a minority-status CEO is likely to impact the amount of help that white male top managers provide to their fellow executives. We first explain how white male managers' negatively-biased perceptions of racial minority and female CEOs lead them to experience a diminished sense of organizational identification following the appointment of a minority-status CEO. We then examine how this diminished sense of organizational identification is likely to reduce white male managers' general propensities to provide help to other executives at the firm. We finally consider how reduced identification might have especially strong negative implications for the amount of help that white male managers provide to colleagues who are racial minorities or women. Our results consistently support our theoretical expectations that, following the appointment of a female or racial minority CEO, white male top managers tend to experience a diminished sense of organizational identification, and in turn provide less help to colleagues, with this reduction particularly pronounced for help provided to minority-status colleagues.
    April 17, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0358   open full text
  • Heavy Is The Head That Wears The Crown: An Actor Centric Approach To Daily Psychological Power, Abusive Leader Behavior, And Perceived Incivility.
    Trevor Foulk, Klodiana Lanaj, Min-Hsuan Tu, Amir Erez, Lindy Archambeau.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 17, 2017
    Recognizing that powerholders operate in dynamic relational and interdependent work contexts, we posit that the effects of psychological power on powerholders are more complex than currently depicted in the literature. Although psychological power prompts behaviors and perceptions that harm the powerless, these reactions are not consequence-free for the actor. We integrate the social distance theory of power with consent-based theories of power to posit that although psychological power elicits negative behaviors and perceptions, these same reactions hurt leaders' subsequent well-being. To explore this possibility, we conducted an experimental experience sampling study with a sample of managerial employees whom we surveyed for 10 consecutive workdays. We find that leaders enact more abusive behavior and perceive more incivility from others on days when they are exposed to psychological power compared to days when they are not. Leaders higher in agreeableness are less affected by psychological power. In turn, abusive behavior and perceived incivility harm leaders' subsequent well-being as indicated by their reduced need fulfillment and ability to relax at home. We discuss theoretical implications for research on psychological power, abusive leadership, perceived incivility, and leader well-being, as well as practical implications for employees and their organizations.
    April 17, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1061   open full text
  • A Role Resource Approach Avoidance Model Of Job Crafting: A Multi Method Integration And Extension Of Job Crafting Theory.
    Patrick F. Bruning, Michael A. Campion.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 13, 2017
    Job crafting refers to changes to a job that workers make with the intention of improving the job for themselves, and it may include structural (i.e. physical and procedural), social, and cognitive forms. We draw on two studies to develop a role-resource approach-avoidance taxonomy that integrates and extends the dominant role- and resource-based perspectives of job crafting according to characteristics of approach and avoidance. Study 1 used both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze job crafting activities described during employee interviews to understand the nature and outcomes of specific job crafting activities. Study 2 provides quantitative support for the specific job crafting types emerging from Study 1 and further explores job crafting outcomes. Approach role crafting includes role expansion and social expansion, while avoidance role crafting includes work-role reduction. Role crafting outcomes include: increased enrichment, increased engagement, and decreased strain through changes in work role boundaries. Approach resource crafting includes work organization, adoption, and metacognition, while avoidance resource crafting includes withdrawal crafting. Resource crafting outcomes include: increased performance, increased engagement, and reduced strain through the development, acquisition, and conservation of resources. Avoidance crafting positively relates to work withdrawal and tended to have fewer relationships with positive outcomes than approach crafting.
    April 13, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0604   open full text
  • Leader Humor As An Interpersonal Resource: Integrating Three Theoretical Perspectives.
    Cecily Cooper, Dejun Tony Kong, Craig Crossley.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 30, 2017
    We integrate prior theoretical perspectives on humor to test the processes through which leader humor (LH) facilitates subordinate OCBs. In doing so, we argue that humor is a key interpersonal resource for leaders and derive our comprehensive model with logic from three individual-resource-related theories—social exchange theory, conservation of resources theory, and broaden-and-build theory. Leader-triggered positive emotion and subsequent social exchange, operationalized as LMX, functioned as key sequential mechanisms mediating the relationship between LH and subordinate OCBs. LH induced positive emotion in subordinates which fostered high-quality LMX and, in turn, OCBs. Contrary to our expectation, the stress relief explanation of LH was not supported. The present research contributes to our knowledge of humor in organizations, and particularly LH, as it is the first to establish a link between LH and OCBs and also represents the first integration and concurrent examination of three functions of humor. We additionally offer empirical contributions to the humor literature by providing a comprehensive test of prior conceptual arguments regarding mechanisms of LH and validating a measure of LH that can be used in future research. For LMX research, we draw attention to LH as an overlooked but important socioemotional resource for social exchange.
    March 30, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0358   open full text
  • When And Why People Engage In Different Forms Of Proactive Behavior: Interactive Effects Of Self Construals And Work Characteristics.
    Chia-Huei Wu, Sharon Parker, Long-Zeng Wu, Cynthia Lee.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 30, 2017
    When and why do people engage in different forms of proactive behavior at work? We propose that, as a result of a process of trait activation, employees with different types of self-construal engage in distinct forms of proactive behavior if they work in environments consistent with their self-construals. In an experimental Study 1 (N = 61), we examined the effect of self-construals on proactivity and found that people primed with interdependent self-construals engaged in more work unit-oriented proactive behavior when job interdependence also was manipulated. Priming independent self-construals did not enhance career-oriented proactive behavior, even when we manipulated job autonomy. In a field Study 2 (N = 205), we found that employees with interdependent self-construals working in jobs with high interdependence reported higher work unit commitment and higher work unit-oriented proactive behavior than employees in low interdependent jobs. Employees with independent self-construals working in jobs with high autonomy also exhibited stronger career commitment and more career-oriented proactive behavior than those in jobs with low autonomy. This research offers a theoretical framework to explain how dispositional and situational factors interactively shape people's engagement in different forms of proactive behavior.
    March 30, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1064   open full text
  • Rewards For Patents And Inventor Behaviors In Industrial R&D.
    Marco Giarratana, Myriam Mariani, Ingo Weller.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 30, 2017
    This study investigates the effects of rewards in an R&D setting in which employees' inventive efforts lead to patented inventions. Pay for performance (PFP) for inventions is associated with two challenges: Low quality inventions may be rewarded (false positives), and high quality inventions may be overlooked (false negatives). Building on previous findings regarding the motivational and informational effects of rewards, we use social identity theory to predict that different types of inventors react differently to such false positive and false negative information. Specifically, we hypothesize that PFP that produces false positives has detrimental effects on corporate inventors with a taste for science, who are motivated by scientific prestige, reputation, and intellectual curiosity. The empirical results from survey data related to 3,995 inventor-patent pairs show that, for this particular group of inventors, false positives are associated with reduced effort in research activities and fewer interactions with peers in the R&D department. In addition, these effects are stronger when firms have many patents and thus provide less noisy information to corporate inventors.
    March 30, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0633   open full text
  • Moving From Abuse to Reconciliation: A Power-Dependency Perspective on When and How a Follower Can Break the Spiral of Abuse.
    Elijah X. M. Wee, Hui Liao, Dong Liu, Jun Liu.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 24, 2017
    Despite the burgeoning research on abusive supervision, the literature lacks an in-depth understanding of how the followers can successfully break the spiral of abusive supervision over time and influence their leaders to engage in reconciliatory behaviors following abusive supervision. Using power-dependency theory as our framework, we first examine the specific state of power-dependency that predicts abusive supervision. We then theorize balancing operations as coping strategies that the follower can use to address the persistence of abusive supervision over time by changing the power imbalance within the dyad. We hypothesize that through follower's approach balancing operations, the leader is more likely to regard the abused follower as someone who is instrumental to his or her pursuit of goals and resources, resulting in a reduction in future abuse and an increase in leader's future reconciliation. After developing and validating measures of balancing operations, we test the hypotheses using a three-wave panel design with field data from a real estate company (Study 1). In addition, we strengthen our conclusions by replicating our results through a different field sample in a commercial bank (Study 2). The findings' theoretical and practical implications for abusive supervision and followership are discussed.
    March 24, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0866   open full text
  • Those with the most find it hardest to share: Exploring leader resistance to the implementation of team-based empowerment.
    Greg L Stewart, Stacy L. Astrove, Cody J Reeves, Eean R. Crawford, Samantha Solimeo.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 23, 2017
    We use a convergent parallel mixed methods approach to explore barriers to the successful implementation of a team-based empowerment initiative within the Veterans Health Administration. Although previous research has suggested that leaders often actively obstruct empowerment initiatives, little is known about the reasons behind and effects of such hindering. Using a longitudinal quasi-experimental design, we support a hypothesis that higher-status physician leaders are less successful than lower-status nonphysician leaders in implementing team-based empowerment. In parallel, we analyze qualitative data obtained through interviews conducted during the early months of the team-based empowerment initiative in order to identify common themes that facilitated or obstructed implementation. Leader identity work and leader delegation were identified as themes explaining (1) why higher-status leaders struggled with the new empowering role and (2) how specific leader actions either facilitated or inhibited sharing of tasks and leadership. Our results suggest that team-based empowerment creates a status threat for high-status leaders who then struggle to protect their old identity as someone with distinct professional capabilities, which in turn leads to improper delegation behavior. Therefore, in order for team-based empowerment to succeed, leaders may need to change their perceptions of who they are before they will change what they do.
    March 23, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1173   open full text
  • Microfoundations Of Organizational Paradox: The Problem Is How We Think About The Problem.
    Ella Miron-Spektor, Amy Ingram, Josh Keller, Wendy Smith, Marianne Lewis.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 20, 2017
    Competing tensions and demands pervade our work lives. Accumulating research examines organizational and leadership approaches to leveraging these tensions. But what about individuals within firms? Although early paradox theory built upon micro-level insights from psychology and philosophy to understand the nature and management of varied competing demands, corresponding empirical studies are rare, offering scarce insights into why some individuals thrive with tensions while others struggle. In response, we contribute to the microfoundations of organizational paradox with a theoretical model and robust measures that help unpack individuals' varied approaches to tensions. Following rigorous scale development in Study 1, including samples from the US, UK, Israel, and China, we test our model in a large firm in the US using quantitative and qualitative methods. We identify resource scarcity (i.e. limited time and funding) as a source of tensions. We also demonstrate that a paradox mindset - the extent to which one is accepting of and energized by tensions - can help individuals leverage them to improve in-role job performance and innovation. Our results highlight paradox mindset as a key to unlocking the potential of everyday tensions.
    March 20, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0594   open full text
  • Reframing The Decision Makers' Dilemma: Towards A Social Context Model Of Creative Idea Recognition.
    Jennifer Mueller, Shimul Melwani, Jeffrey Loewenstein, Jennifer Deal.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 16, 2017
    Can decision-maker roles—roles with responsibility to allocate resources towards ideas—shape which ideas people in those roles view as creative? Prior theory suggests that expertise should influence creativity assessments, yet examples abound of experts in different roles disagreeing about whether the same idea is creative. We build and test a social context model of creative idea recognition to show how decision-maker roles can shift creativity assessments. In an experimental study, we show that relative to non-decision-making roles, decision-making roles inculcate an economic mindset and so lead to downgrading otherwise creative ideas with cues of low social approval. A field study replicates and extends this finding showing that organizational decision-making roles can habitually evoke an economic mindset that shapes creativity assessments. In both studies, decision-maker role, economic mindset, and social approval levels were unrelated to idea usefulness ratings. By integrating work on organizational roles, economic mindsets, and implicit theories of creative ideas, we provide a broadly applicable theoretical framework to describe how social context shapes creativity assessments. This work has important implications for the creativity and innovation literatures, and suggests a new interpretation of the longstanding puzzle of why organizations desire but often reject creative ideas.
    March 16, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0887   open full text
  • Emerging Intentionality In Routine Dynamics: A Pragmatist View.
    Katharina Dittrich, David Seidl.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 09, 2017
    This paper responds to recent interest in the role of intentionality in the internal dynamics of routines. Previous research has focused on how routine participants bring particular intentions to the performance of a routine and choose the means for accomplishing these ends accordingly. Drawing on both the pragmatist theory of action and a yearlong ethnographic study of a pharmaceutical company, we uncover "emerging intentionality" in routine performances. We show how the foregrounding of means within the concrete situation at hand might lead to the emergence of new ends to pursue. Moreover, we find that the emergence of new ends in routine performances might result in updating the goals for the routine and its associated patterns. With these findings we contribute to a better understanding of the full spectrum of intentional action in routine dynamics, ranging from purposeful action (foregrounding ends) to purposive action (foregrounding means). This expanded perspective on intentionality in routine dynamics suggests a greater potential for continuous routine change than previous research has acknowledged.
    March 09, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0010   open full text
  • Collaborative Stakeholder Engagement: An Integration between Theories of Organizational Legitimacy and Learning.
    Vinit Desai.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 02, 2017
    Organizations often collaborate with stakeholders such as customers, communities, and other groups to pursue shared goals, and these partnerships are known to affect an organization's legitimacy with those groups as well as its access to information from them. While these concerns could be examined within each of their own independent literatures, existing theories are ill-equipped to handle this process in tandem. Thus, studying these collaborations provides an opportunity to more broadly explore how organizations balance knowledge search or exploration efforts with their needs to manage organizational legitimacy. Accordingly, I suggest that collaboration facilitates access to external information, and that organizations pursue it when the information is needed to solve related problems. However, I also argue that collaborations reciprocally allow stakeholders to more directly scrutinize organizational practices. Thus, I predict that organizations suppress their use of collaborations to solve problems when their legitimacy is potentially or already at risk, such as when powerful stakeholders can hold an organization accountable for inappropriate acts or when some organizational actions have already been deemed as controversial. I test related predictions on the community policing efforts of a law enforcement agency panel, finding general support for several of the study's predictions.
    March 02, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0315   open full text
  • Language and Competition: Communication Vagueness, Interpretation Difficulty, and Market Entry.
    Wei Guo, Tieying Yu, Javier Gimeno.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 28, 2017
    Firms have a lot to lose from the entry of competitors into their markets. Grounded in the research on interfirm rivalry and strategic communication, we proposed and tested hypotheses suggesting that when the managers of incumbent firms perceive a high threat of entry, they are more likely to use vagueness in their corporate communications to make their strategies and actions harder to discern. This lessened interpretation results in fewer competitive entries by potential entrants. We used computerized content analysis to quantify the use of vague language in incumbent firms' annual reports and empirically tested our hypotheses through data from the U.S. domestic airline industry. We found robust support for our hypotheses. By revealing that strategic use of language shapes competitive interactions, our research sheds new light on the process through which information is delivered, received, and interpreted by rivals. This process is at the heart of competitive dynamics and strategy research.
    February 28, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.1150   open full text
  • Organizational Affective Tone: A Meso Perspective on the Origins and Effects of Consistent Affect in Organizations.
    Andrew Knight, Jochen Menges, Heike Bruch.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 23, 2017
    Grounded in an open systems perspective, we build and test new theory about how the kinds of industries in which an organization participates influences organizational affective tone and connects to workforce strain. We propose that the more an organization's activities lie in consumer-centric industries (e.g., service, retail), the more positive and less negative the organization's affective tone. We connect consumer-centric industry participation and affective tone by explaining how personnel policies and organizational structure generate and sustain consistent positive and negative affect throughout an organization. Additionally, we examine the effects of organizational affective tone on workforce strain. The results of a survey-based study of 24,015 human resource managers, top management team members, and employees of 161 firms largely support our predictions. We discuss the implications of considering macro contextual factors for understanding affect in organizations.
    February 23, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0671   open full text
  • The Strategic Value Of Selection Practices: Antecedents And Consequences Of Firm Level Selection Practice Usage.
    Youngsang Kim, Robert Ployhart.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 13, 2017
    The expectation that selection practices contribute to organizational performance has been long assumed; however, research on personnel selection has neglected to consider why firms differ in their use of selection practices and whether selection practices relate to organizational performance under different competitive environments. Based on strategic Human Resource Management research, we introduce Contingency Theory to examine whether external (industry characteristics) and internal (prior firm performance and collective turnover) environments affect the use of selection practices, how the adoption of selection practices relates to subsequent firm performance, and whether the external (industry) and internal (selection stages and collective turnover) environments moderate the selection-performance relationship. Using a sample of 413 firms, we found that firms use more selection practices when there is less collective turnover and are within low-growth and stable industries. The results also show that firms employing more selection practices generated greater productivity but not profit. Positive effects occur when firms have less collective turnover and are within dynamic industries, but surprisingly, the effects of selection on performance can actually be negative in stable industries. These findings provide new insights about the strategic value of personnel selection; one that is sensitive to and contingent upon competitive environments.
    February 13, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0811   open full text
  • Corporate volunteering climate: Mobilizing employee passion for societal causes and inspiring future charitable action.
    Jessica B Rodell, Jonathan E. Booth, John Lynch, Kate Zipay.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 10, 2017
    As a society, we grapple with a host of national and global social issues — ranging from hunger and poverty to education to financial stability. Today's corporations are playing an increasing role in efforts to address such concerns, predominantly through corporate volunteering. Yet, because research on corporate volunteering has been primarily focused on the individual volunteer experience, we still know relatively little about how corporate volunteering can help address grand challenges. In this study, we introduce the concept of corporate volunteering climate in order to examine the broader, more system-level functioning of corporate volunteering in workplaces. Drawing on the sensemaking process, we theorize about how a corporate volunteering climate develops — to what extent is it driven by company-level policies versus employee convictions for a cause? We also explore the potential influence of corporate volunteering climate for volunteers and non-volunteers, both in terms of the workplace (through employee affective commitment) and in terms of the broader community (through employee intentions to volunteer, both in corporate opportunities and on personal time). The results of a study conducted with United Way Worldwide suggest that corporate volunteering climate not only arises through either employees' belief in the cause or corporate policies, but also that these forces act as substitutes for one another. Moreover, by fostering a sense of collective pride among employees, this climate is related to affective commitment, as well as both corporate and personal volunteering intentions.
    February 10, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0726   open full text
  • Shady characters: The implications of illicit organizational roles for resilient team performance.
    H. Colleen Stuart, Celia Moore.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 10, 2017
    In this paper we theorize about illicit roles and explore their effects on resilient team performance. We define an illicit role as one whose occupants specialize in activity forbidden by the law, regulatory bodies, or professional societies, in the belief that doing so provides a competitive advantage. Using longitudinal data on professional hockey teams, we examine the enforcer - a player who specializes in the prohibited activity of fighting. We find that team performance is more disrupted by the injury of an enforcer than by the injury of occupants of other formal roles on the team. In addition, team performance recovers more slowly after this setback to the extent the team tries to replace an enforcer, and the performance disruptions associated with his exit are magnified as a function of his experience with his team. We use these findings to develop new theory about organizational roles that operate outside official channels and formal structures. We suggest that such role occupants are more difficult to replace than their formal counterparts, in part because to enact these roles effectively requires experience in the local social context.
    February 10, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0512   open full text
  • When the Dust Settles: The Consequences of Scandals for Organizational Competition.
    Alessandro Piazza, Julien Jourdan.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 02, 2017
    Recent works have documented the dark side of scandals, revealing how they spread, contaminate associated organizations, and taint the perception of entire fields. We complement this line of work by exploring how scandals durably affect competition within a field, translating into relative advantages for certain organizations over others. First, scandals may benefit organizations that provide a close substitute to the offerings of the implicated organization. Second, scandals pave the way for moralizing discourses and practices, shake taken-for-granted assumptions about the moral standing of organizations, and result in a shift in the criteria used to evaluate organizations within the field. Our arguments suggest that organizations whose offerings are most similar to those of the implicated organization, yet perceived as enforcing stricter moral standards, are likely to benefit the most from a scandal. We find support for these arguments in a county-level study of membership in the Catholic Church and sixteen other Christian denominations in the United States in the wake of a series of sex abuse cases perpetrated by Catholic clergy between 1971 and 2000. This study contributes to our understanding of the competitive effects of scandals on organizations, and carries important implications for the management of organizations in scandal-stricken fields.
    February 02, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1325   open full text
  • Pay-For-Performance, Sometimes: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Integrating Economic Rationality with Psychological Emotion to Predict Individual Performance.
    Mark Maltarich, Anthony Nyberg, Greg Reilly, Dhuha "Dee" Abdulsalam, Melissa Martin.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 28, 2017
    This interdisciplinary study integrates economics and psychology based explanations to promote a clearer understanding of how employees respond to the pay-for-performance (PFP) system. By examining the combined performance predictions in the common, but rarely studied, situation in which employees do not meet expectations, we can more clearly view how economic rationality and psychological factors combine to explain employee behaviors in response to PFP. We test our hypotheses using unique longitudinal data from the health care industry. The theoretical insights contribute to a PFP theory that explains how and why PFP functions and in doing so reconciles prior research inconsistencies.
    January 28, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0737   open full text
  • Masters of Disasters? An Empirical Analysis of how Societies benefit from Corporate Disaster Aid.
    Luis Ballesteros, Michael Useem, Tyler Wry.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 27, 2017
    Corporations are increasingly influential within societies worldwide, while the relative capacity of national governments to meet large social needs has waned. Consequentially, firms are being asked to adopt responsibilities that have traditionally fallen to governments, aid agencies, and other types of organizations. There are questions, though, about whether or not this is beneficial for society. We study this in the context of disaster relief and recovery; an area where companies account for a growing share of aid as compared to traditional providers. Drawing on the dynamic capabilities literature, we argue that firms are better-equipped than other types of organizations to sense areas of need following a disaster, seize response opportunities, and reconfigure resources for fast, effective relief efforts. As such, we predict that—while traditional aid providers are important for disaster recovery—relief will arrive faster, and nations will recover more fully when locally active firms account for a larger share of disaster aid. We test our predictions with a proprietary dataset comprising information on every natural disaster and reported aid donation worldwide from 2003 to 2013. Our analysis uses a novel, quasi-experimental technique known as the synthetic control method and shows that nations benefit greatly from corporate involvement when disaster strikes.
    January 27, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0765   open full text
  • The Value of Voice (to Managers): Employee Identification and the Content of Voice.
    Ethan Burris, Kevin Rockmann, Yurianna S. Kimmons.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 27, 2017
    Previous research on employee voice has aimed to understand the antecedents and outcomes of the frequency of speaking up. Yet, how these antecedents translate into outcomes may depend on the content of what employees speak up about and its implications for implementation. We engaged in three studies to explore what individuals speak up about, why they speak up about those things, and the consequences of voicing such content. In a first qualitative field study, we find evidence for three dimensions of voice content: the importance of initiating change, the required resources to enact the desired change, and the interdependencies involved in implementing the desired change. Further, specific targets of identification - either one's local work unit or one's broader profession - shape whether the issues individuals raise take into account barriers related to resources and interdependencies. In a second quantitative field study, we find that voicing on issues related to one's work unit or profession mediates the relationship between employee identification and managers' valuation of voice. Finally, in an experiment, we manipulate importance, resources, and interdependencies of implementation and find these dimensions of voice content influence managerial value of voice. These results offer meaningful theoretical implications for the literatures on employee voice and identification.
    January 27, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0320   open full text
  • Motivation and Ability? A Behavioral Perspective on the Pursuit of Radical Invention in Multi-Technology Incumbents.
    J. P. Eggers, Aseem Kaul.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 26, 2017
    We examine the role of incumbent firms in developing radical technologies, distinguishing between their motivation and ability to develop radical inventions. We argue that the motivation to pursue radical invention will be strongest when performance is moderately below aspiration, and will weaken as performance either falls substantially below aspiration or rises substantially above aspiration. At the same time, ability will increase with performance, resulting in a behavioral mismatch between ability and motivation - firms overinvest in radical invention when performance is moderately below aspiration and underinvest when performance is substantially above aspiration, with these effects being stronger for broad, multi-technology firms. We show empirical support for our arguments using patent data, using an empirical approach that distinguishes the potential radicalness of an invention from its eventual success. Our study highlights the role of established firms as a source of radical invention, and examines the behavioral biases that may limit firms from pursuing competence-enhancing radical technologies.
    January 26, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1123   open full text
  • In the beginning: Identity processes and organizing in multi-founder nascent ventures.
    E. Erin Powell, Ted Baker.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 26, 2017
    We conducted a longitudinal field study of nine nascent ventures attempting to revitalize local municipalities to understand how and why identity processes shape organizing in multi-founder nascent ventures. We develop grounded theory and a process model showing how the patterning of founders' social identities shapes early structuring processes, how this in turn influences the construction of a collective identity prototype and its attempted enforcement by an in-group, and how the overall process influences whether or not founders remain engaged in their joint organizing efforts. Our contributions extend the growing entrepreneurship literature on founder identity from an individual focus toward understanding how founding teams work through organizing issues and from a focus on established organizations to exploring why and whether teams move forward in nascent ventures. We open up a series of important questions for future research about how founders become "who we are."
    January 26, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0175   open full text
  • High Stakes Institutional Translation: Establishing North America's First Government-Sanctioned Supervised Injection Site.
    Thomas B. Lawrence.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 20, 2017
    Around the world, potentially effective responses to serious social problems are left untried because those responses are politically, culturally or morally problematic in affected communities. I describe the process through which communities import such practices as "high-stakes institutional translation". Drawing on a study of North America's first supervised injection site for users of illegal drugs, I propose a process model of high-stakes institutional translation that involves a triggering period of public expressions of intense emotion, followed by waves of translations in which the controversial practice is constructed in discursive and material terms many times over.
    January 20, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0714   open full text
  • Disasters and Community Resilience: Spanish Flu and the Formation of Retail Cooperatives in Norway.
    Hayagreeva Rao, Henrich Greve.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 17, 2017
    Why are some communities resilient in the face of disasters, and why are others unable to recover? We suggest that two mechanisms matter: the framing of the cause of the disaster, and the community civic capacity to form diverse non-profits. We propose that disasters that are attributed to other community members weaken cooperation and reduce the formation of new cooperatives that serve the community, unlike disasters attributed to chance or to nature, which strengthen cooperation and increase the creation of cooperatives. We analyze the Spanish Flu, a contagious disease that was attributed to infected individuals, and compare it with spring frost, which damaged crops and was attributed to nature. Our measure of resilience is whether the community members could form retail cooperatives - a non-profit community organization. We find that communities hit by the Spanish Flu during the period 1918-1919 were unable to form new retail cooperatives in the short and long run after the epidemic, but this effect was reduced over time and countered by civic capacity. Implications for research on disasters and institutional legacies are outlined.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0054   open full text
  • The Other Side: Occupational Interactional Requirements and Work-Home Enrichment.
    Devasheesh Bhave, Alexandru M. Lefter.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 17, 2017
    We examine how occupational interactional requirements influence work-home enrichment. We identify two manifestations of work-home enrichment: through objective indicators of how employees allocate their time at home, and through perceptual reflections of employees on their work-home enrichment. We conceptualize occupational interactional requirements as restorative properties of jobs that provide employees with resources that they transfer to the home domain. In terms of objective indicators, our results indicate that employees transfer these resources by spending more time in resource depleting activities such as caring for household members, and less time in resource replenishing activities such as socializing and relaxing. This suggests that occupational interactional requirements facilitate the reallocation of time in the home domain. In terms of perceptual reflections, we observe that occupational interactional requirements spark employees' vitality, which, in turn, enriches their life at home. Our results attest to considering workplace interactions as resource replenishing features of jobs that provide benefits across work and life boundaries.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0369   open full text
  • Is There a Doctor in the House? Expert Product Users, Organizational Roles, and Innovation.
    Riitta Katila, Sruthi Thatchenkery, Michael Christensen, Stefanos Zenios.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 17, 2017
    We explore the impact on innovation that professional end-users of a product have as inventors, executives, and board members in a young firm. In contrast to prior literature, which has emphasized technology roles, we put the spotlight on the executive and governance roles that many professional users take in young firms. Using an extensive custom-collected dataset of 231 surgical instrument ventures over a 25-year period, we find that professional users strengthen innovation in some roles but block it in others. Physician-users are related with the increase in a firm's innovation when they take a technology role as inventors, and particularly when they take a governance role on the young firm's board. However, despite their frequent involvement in executive roles, physician-executives are less likely to be helpful, and especially likely to block innovation as chief executives. Our results emphasize professional users as a critical external dependency for a young firm's innovation, but show that a mismatch with a particular organizational role may have unanticipated negative effects on innovation. In their roles, users can be helpful by expanding the variety of solutions to the firm's innovation problems, but are significantly less helpful in just improving their selection. Our findings have implications for research on evolutionary perspective on user innovation, organizational roles in young firms, and entrepreneurial policy.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.1112   open full text
  • "Dancing on Hot Coals": How Emotion Work Facilitates Collective Sensemaking.
    Emily D. Heaphy.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 20, 2016
    While organizations and researchers have traditionally conceptualized customers as consumers of their services and products, there is a growing recognition that organizations need to develop more collaborative relationships with clients. In this research, I explore one implication of this shift- how employees respond to client conflicts. In a multi-method qualitative study, I studied patient advocates, hospital employees who mediate conflicts between patients, family and staff. I develop a process model that shows how mediators construct a web of discrete social interactions that, over time, enables them to develop an empathetic account of the conflict, and then selectively deploy it to engage in sensegiving. The process model integrates research on emotions and sensemaking in novel ways. I identified how emotion work triggers emotion dynamics in interactions that facilitate or disrupt sensemaking and sensegiving. I show how plausible accounts are developed over the course of social interactions and that mediators pivoted from sensemaking to sensegiving when the account was characterized by empathy. Overall, this research shows how mediators actively generate, interpret and influence their own and others' emotions, and that mediators' emotion work contributes to the success of collective sensemaking.
    December 20, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0101   open full text
  • Does Proactive Personality Matter in Leadership Transitions? Effects of Proactive Personality on New Leader Identification and Responses to New Leaders and Their Change Agendas.
    Wing Lam, Cynthia Lee, M. Susan Taylor, Helen H. Zhao.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 06, 2016
    Despite the growing frequency of leadership transitions and their significant impact on team and organizational performance, little research has examined why and how teams develop an identification with a new leader or their subsequent receptiveness to the new leader's change initiatives. Drawing from the contrast and congruence effects and the theoretical perspectives of leader identification, this study empirically tests a model in which the congruence of new leaders' and their teams' proactive personalities foster new leader identification, as well as the team's behavioral responses to the new leader's change agenda. This effect is strongest when the new leader's proactive personality is higher than that of the former leader's proactive personality (positive contrast). Our findings of a four-wave "before-and-after" transition survey of 155 hotel employees and 51 new leaders, achieved through polynomial regression analyses, proved very insightful. Essentially, we found that the congruence between a new leader's and his/her team's proactive personalities and the positive contrast between a former leader's and the new leader's proactive personalities enhanced new leader identification and the team's shared identification with the new leader's change agenda, and, thereby led the team to exhibit more behavioral engagement with, and voice behavior about, the new leader's change agenda.
    December 06, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0503   open full text
  • The Danger Of Not Listening To Firms: Government Responsiveness And The Goal Of Regulatory Compliance.
    Edmund Malesky, Markus Taussig.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 02, 2016
    Firms in emerging economies exhibit dangerously low rates of compliance with government regulations aimed at protecting society from the negative externalities of their operations. This study builds on individual-level theories from organizational behavior (procedural justice) and political science (deliberative democracy) to develop new firm-level theory on the mechanism by which a firm is more likely to comply with a regulation after participating in its design by government. We hypothesize and find supporting evidence that such participation increases the likelihood of compliance by positively shaping the firm's view of government legitimacy, but only if the firm views government as responsive to its input. Without this responsiveness, regulatory compliance is even less likely than if the firm did not participate at all. Our empirical work is novel in its focus on the political activities of firms not only within the authoritarian-ruled emerging economy context of Vietnam, but also through study of a highly representative sample dominated by small and medium sized enterprises. We discuss how our work contributes to non-market strategy literatures on corporate social responsibility, self-regulation, and corporate political activity, as well as its implications for public policy.
    December 02, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0722   open full text
  • Constructing a Shared Governance Logic: The Role of Emotions in Enabling Dually Embedded Agency.
    Grace H. Fan, Charlene Zietsma.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 11, 2016
    In a longitudinal qualitative study of a water stewardship council, we build theory about how and why actors embedded in disparate logics across multiple fields can overcome the constraints of their home logics to construct a new, shared governance logic together. Our findings suggest a recursive model of new logic construction in which council members mobilize three emotional facilitators (social emotions, moral emotions, and emotional energy) to affect three logic construction cycles (agreeing on values, shared learning, and enacting shared values). Emotional facilitators work through three agentic mechanisms: enabling actors to become open and reflexive about their home logics and simultaneously increase their commitment to and engagement in constructing a shared governance logic. Ongoing interactions involving emotional facilitators, agentic mechanisms, and logic construction cycles are essential in sustaining the new logic. The process model foregrounds the role of emotions in enabling dually embedded agency, extending extant theory that has tended to focus narrowly on cognitive dynamics. We discuss implications for our understanding of institutional agency, the role of emotions and values in new logic construction, and the role of microlevel interactions in the formation of macrolevel structures.
    November 11, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0402   open full text
  • Discordant vs. Harmonious Selves: The Effects of Identity Conflict and Enhancement on Sales Performance in Employee-Customer Interactions.
    Lakshmi Ramarajan, Nancy Rothbard, Steffanie Wilk.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 07, 2016
    Across multiple studies, we examine how identity conflict and enhancement within people affect performance in tasks that involve interactions between people through two mechanisms: role-immersion, operationalized as intrinsic motivation and role-taking, operationalized as perspective-taking. In Study 1, a longitudinal field study of customer service representatives (n=763) who simultaneously identify with multiple brands they represent to customers, we examine the relationships among identity conflict and enhancement, on the one hand, and objective sales performance, on the other. We find independent effects for identity conflict and enhancement on intrinsic motivation, perspective-taking and performance, such that identity conflict negatively and enhancement positively affects all three variables above and beyond average identification. Intrinsic motivation further mediates the relationships between identity conflict and enhancement on sales in a direction consistent with our theorizing. However, while significant, perspective-taking does not mediate these relationships in the expected direction, because it has a negative effect on sales. In Studies 2a and 2b, both experimental studies, we strengthen causal inference using an experimental moderation-of-process approach (Spencer, Zanna, & Fong, 2005) to constructively replicate and extend our findings. The paper demonstrates how multiple identities within people can have consequences for performance in tasks that involve interactions between people.
    November 07, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.1142   open full text
  • An Inconvenient Truth: How Organizations Translate Climate Change into Business As Usual.
    Christopher Wright, Daniel Nyberg.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 07, 2016
    Climate change represents the grandest of challenges facing humanity. In the space of two centuries of industrial development, human civilization has changed the chemistry of the atmosphere and oceans with devastating consequences. Business organizations are central to this challenge, in that they support the production of escalating greenhouse gas emissions but also offer innovative ways to decarbonize our economies. In this paper, we examine how businesses respond to climate change. Based on five in-depth case studies of major Australian corporations over a 10-year period (2005-2015), we identify three key stages in the corporate translation of climate change: framing, localizing and normalizing. We develop a grounded model that explains how the revolutionary import of grand challenges is converted into the mundane and comfortable concerns of "business as usual." We find that critique is the major driver of this process by continuously espousing the tensions between the demands of the grand challenge and business imperatives. Our paper contributes to the literature on business and the natural environment by identifying how and why corporate environmental initiatives deteriorate over time. More specifically, we highlight the policy limitations of a reliance on business and market responses to the climate crisis.
    November 07, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0718   open full text
  • Hidden Badge of Honor: How Contextual Distinctiveness Affects Category Promotion Among Certified B Corporations.
    Joel Gehman, Matthew Grimes.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 25, 2016
    Why would an organization pursue membership in an organizational category, yet forego opportunities to subsequently promote that membership? Drawing on prior research, we develop a theoretical model that distinguishes between basic and subordinate categories and highlights how organizations may differ in their promotion of the same subordinate category. We hypothesize that a subordinate category's contextual distinctiveness within different basic categories increases promotion, and that these effects are amplified in relatively larger subordinate category peer groups. To test our hypotheses, we developed a proprietary web-based software toolset, CULTR, and gathered data regarding B Corporations' web-based promotion of their certification. We supplemented our statistical analysis with interviews of Certified B Corporation executives and entrepreneurs. Our findings challenge prior assumptions about the causes of promotional forbearance, while extending our understanding of category distinctiveness within contexts as well as sources of intra-category variation.
    October 25, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0416   open full text
  • Bringing the Boss's Politics In: Supervisor Political Ideology and the Gender Gap in Earnings.
    Forrest Briscoe, Aparna Joshi.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 19, 2016
    The gender gap in earnings and rewards remains persistent across many professional and managerial work contexts. In these settings, where there are few objective criteria for performance and organizational mechanisms are weak, we propose that personal political values can serve as a powerful influence on whether supervisors reduce or enhance inequalities in performance-based rewards. We develop theory about how political liberalism versus conservatism affects supervisors' perceptions and allocative decision making. Combining internal personnel and billings data with publicly-available political donation records in a large law firm, we test the effect of political ideology among supervising law firm partners on the performance-based bonuses awarded to male and female subordinate lawyers. We find the male-female gender gap in performance-based pay is reduced for professional workers tied to liberal supervisors, relative to conservative supervisors. We further find this political ideology effect increases for workers with greater seniority in the organization. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the determinants of the gender earnings gap, suggesting that in settings where managers have leeway over rewards and careers, their personal political beliefs have an important influence on outcomes for male and female workers.
    September 19, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2016.0179   open full text
  • When can humble top executives retain middle managers? The moderating role of top management team faultlines.
    Amy Y. Ou, Jungmin (Jamie) Seo, Dongwon Choi, Peter Hom.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 19, 2016
    Upper echelon in organizations must effectively lead middle managers (MM)—central linking pins in strategy processes—but also retain them for loss of their human and social capital can threaten strategy implementation. While long envisioning how leaders motivate subordinates to stay, management scholars have largely neglected how leaders' own teams constitute an organizational context moderating their ability to retain subordinates. Building on a recent micro-level model that leader humility discourages subordinates from voluntarily departing by increasing their job satisfaction, we propose that faultlines in top management teams (TMT) can exert cross-level effects attenuating how humble executives sustain MMs' job satisfaction and how MMs' job dissatisfaction drives their voluntary turnover. A multisource, multiphase dataset of 43 TMTs, 313 top executives and 502 middle managers supports our hypotheses. Our study bridges the macro and micro divide to offer a multilevel inquiry into contextual influences on voluntary turnover, identifies a boundary condition for leader humility effects, and clarifies how TMT faultlines can invoke a detrimental context hindering top executive - MM relationships.
    September 19, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1072   open full text
  • Red Queen Competitive Imitation In The Uk Mobile Phone Industry.
    Claudio Giachetti, Joseph Lampel, Stefano Li Pira.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 16, 2016
    This paper uses Red Queen competition theory to examine competitive imitation. We conceptualize imitative actions by a focal firm and their rivals along two dimensions: imitation scope, which describes the extent to which a firm imitates a wide range (as opposed to a narrow range) of new product technologies introduced by rivals, and imitation speed, namely the pace at which it imitates these technologies. We argue that focal firm imitation scope and imitation speed drive performance, as well as imitation scope and speed decisions by rivals, which in turn influence the focal firm performance. We also argue that the impact of this self-reinforcing Red Queen process on firms' actions and performance is contingent on levels of product technology heterogeneity - defined as the extent to which the industry has multiple designs resulting in product variety. We test our hypotheses using imitative actions by mobile phone vendors and their sales performance in the UK from 1997 to 2008.
    September 16, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0295   open full text
  • Unpacking the CEO-board Relationship: How Strategy-Making Happens in Entrepreneurial Firms.
    Sam Garg, Kathleen Eisenhardt.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 13, 2016
    We examine how venture CEOs effectively engage their boards in the strategy-making process. Using the inductive multiple-case study approach, we track CEO-board interactions inside and outside the boardroom in depth and over time through rare observations of board meetings and rich interview access to CEOs and their boards of directors. Our primary theoretical contributions are to the resource dependence perspective. We clarify the resource v. power tradeoff as a fundamental tension in venture CEO-board relationships. Further, we add a much-needed process framework to resource dependence by highlighting how venture CEOs use 4 behaviors to resolve this tradeoff in an effective strategy-making process. Finally, we contribute a fresh view of the venture CEO-board relationship - i.e., spotlighting the CEO (not board) and boards as CEO-director dyads (not groups). We conclude by noting implications for other key corporate governance perspectives, and indicating boundary conditions for our framework. Overall, we deepen the conversation at the nexus of resource dependence theory and venture governance. Keywords: Corporate governance, new ventures, strategy-making process
    September 13, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0599   open full text
  • Knowledge Dependence and the Formation of Director Interlocks.
    Michael Howard, Michael Withers, Laszlo Tihanyi.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 12, 2016
    In this study, we examine knowledge dependence, a unique form of external dependence firms face when they pursue new technologies. Our focus is on the formation of interorganizational ties as a means to manage the firm's knowledge dependence. Studying the board interlock ties of 717 technology-based firms in 2002-2006, we find that tie formation is more likely when an external counterpart is more closely aligned with the global trajectory of the focal firm's core technology and when the counterpart is more active in defending its intellectual property in this area. As a result of the interlock, the firm is more likely to gain access to the counterpart firm's knowledge resources through R&D alliances and forestall litigation barriers in the use of core technologies. Our findings provide important theoretical implications for the unique role of knowledge resources in interorganizational dependence and tie formation.
    September 12, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0499   open full text
  • Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges: The Role of Advocacy Groups in Search Consortia.
    Anders Olsen, Wolfgang Sofka, Christoph Grimpe.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 12, 2016
    Grand challenges are among the most complex problems for modern societies. Many governments and foundations provide substantial resources to encourage the search for solutions. Due to the significance of these problems, organizations often form partnerships in what we call search consortia to engage in joint search and compete for funding. Prior research on joint search highlights the role of specialized organizations, mainly regarding technological domains, to identify a superior solution. However, stakeholder theory leads us to believe that the success of any solution depends on the acceptance and support of important stakeholders. In this study we suggest that search consortia are more likely to receive funding when they include representatives of stakeholder concerns, so-called advocacy groups. We extend theory on coordinated exploration in joint search by integrating mechanisms from stakeholder theory and argue that advocacy groups improve the generation of potential solutions and provide legitimacy. We test our theory with a unique dataset of 35,249 consortia that proposed solutions to 2,349 grand challenge problems as part of a large European funding program. Our results show that advocacy groups benefit search consortia, particularly when consortia exhibit a high dispersion of technological knowledge and when they are inexperienced.
    September 12, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0730   open full text
  • Ideology and the Microfoundations of CSR: Why Executives Believe in the Business Case for CSR and how this Affects their CSR Engagements.
    Sebastian Hafenbradl, Daniel Waeger.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 08, 2016
    Existing research on executives' belief in the business case for corporate social responsibility (CSR) is built on two premises. The first is that, in order to believe in the business case, executives need factual evidence that this business case indeed exists. The second premise is that those executives who do believe in the business case will readily invest in CSR-related activities. The results from our four studies tell a different story. We show that managers, rather than focusing on factual evidence, believe in the business case because they espouse a fair market ideology - the tendency to justify and idealize the market economy system. At the same time, even though managers espousing a fair market ideology believe in the business case for CSR, they are not more inclined to engage in CSR than managers who do not hold such an ideology, because they also experience weaker emotional reactions to ethical problems. By drawing on system justification theory, we simultaneously explore antecedents and consequences of executives' belief in the business case for CSR and their moral emotions. In doing so, we help advance the knowledge about the microfoundations of CSR.
    September 08, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0691   open full text
  • Compromise On The Board: Investigating The Antecedents And Consequences Of Lead Independent Director Appointment.
    Ryan Krause, Michael Withers, Matthew Semadeni.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 08, 2016
    Board leadership has always been conceptualized as a tradeoff between two desirable yet mutually exclusive organizational attributes. Classical organization theory prescribes unity of command, achieved by combining the CEO and board chair positions; in contrast, agency theory prescribes independent monitoring, achieved by separating the CEO and board chair positions. Extant theory does not acknowledge the possibility that a compromise might exist between these competing theoretical prescriptions, one which might reduce their mutual exclusivity. Such a compromise has emerged in practice, however: the lead independent director. In the present research, we initiate theoretical exploration of this compromise between the prescriptions of agency theory and classical organization theory, addressing the questions of when a board will choose to appoint a lead independent director, who among the independent directors will serve in the position, how lead independent director appointment will impact firm performance, and whether this compromise is a permanent solution or a stepping stone to a more extreme outcome. Analysis of S&P 1500 firms from 2002 to 2012 reveals that lead independent director appointment reflects balanced power on the board, impacts firm performance positively under the right conditions, and generally becomes institutionalized as a permanent governance structure.
    September 08, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0852   open full text
  • Male Immorality: An Evolutionary Account Of Sex Differences In Unethical Negotiation Behavior.
    Margaret Lee, Marko Pitesa, Madan Pillutla, Stefan Thau.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 08, 2016
    Past research finds that men negotiate more unethically than women, although many studies report comparable rates of unethical negotiation behaviors. Based on evolutionary psychology, we predict conditions under which sex differences in unethical negotiation behavior are more versus less pronounced. We theorize that greater levels of unethical behavior among men occur as a consequence of greater male intrasexual competition for mates. This suggests that more male unethical negotiation behavior should primarily emerge in situations associated with intrasexual competition. Using a two-wave survey design, Study 1 found a positive relationship between mating motivation and unethical negotiation behavior for male, but not female employees. Study 2 was a controlled experiment, replicating this effect and showing that the gender difference was most pronounced when negotiating with same-sex, attractive opponents. Study 3 used a similar experimental design and found support for another implication of evolutionary theory—that mating motivation would prompt unethical behavior in both men and women when the behavior constitutes a less severe norm violation. We discuss contributions to the literature on unethical behavior at work, negotiations, and the role of attractiveness in organizations.
    September 08, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0461   open full text
  • To Shift Or Not To Shift? Determinants And Consequences Of Phase Shifting On Justice Judgments.
    Guillaume Soenen, Tessa Melkonian, Maureen Ambrose.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 29, 2016
    Building on fairness heuristic theory and dual-process theories of cognition, we examine individuals' perceptions of phase-shifting. We define phase-shifting as an individual perception that triggers a shift from type 1 to type 2 cognitive processes resulting in the reevaluation of justice judgments. In a longitudinal study of a merger, we empirically test the influence of phase-shifting perceptions on justice judgments, and we identify antecedents of phase-shifting perceptions. We find employees' perceptions of the change as a phase-shifting event moderates the relationship between overall justice judgments prior to change (time 1), and subsequent assessments of justice 6 months later (time 2). We study three situational antecedents (i.e., magnitude of change, managerial exemplarity, and coworker support for change) and one individual antecedent (i.e., dispositional resistance to change) of phase-shifting perceptions. The four hypothesized antecedents together predict 75% of employees' perceptions of the merger as a phase-shifting event. Implications for research and practice regarding organizational justice and organizational change are discussed.
    August 29, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0181   open full text
  • Scaffolding: A Process Of Transforming Patterns Of Inequality In Small Scale Societies.
    Johanna Mair, Miriam Wolf, Christian Seelos.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 26, 2016
    This study advances research on organizational efforts to tackle multidimensional, complex, and interlinked societal challenges. We examine how social inequality manifests in small-scale societies and illustrate how it inheres in deeply entrenched patterns of behavior and interaction. Asking how development programs can be organizing tools to transform these patterns of inequality, we use a program sponsored by an Indian non-governmental organization as our empirical window and leverage data that we collected over a decade. We identify scaffolding as a process that enables and organizes the transformation of behavior and interaction patterns. Three interrelated mechanisms make the transformation processes adaptive and emerging alternative social orders robust: mobilizing institutional, social-organizational, and economic resources; stabilizing new patterns of interaction that reflect an alternative social order; and concealing goals that are neither anticipated nor desired by some groups. Through this analysis, we move beyond conventional thinking on unintended consequences proposed in classic studies on organizations, complement contemporary research about how organizations effect positive social change by pursuing multiple goals, and develop portable insights for organizational efforts to tackle inequality. This study provides a first link between the study of organizational efforts to alleviate social problems and the transformation of social systems.
    August 26, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0725   open full text
  • Not All Inequality Is Equal: Decomposing The Societal Logic Of Patriarchy To Understand Microfinance Lending To Women.
    Eric Yanfei Zhao, Tyler Wry.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 22, 2016
    Many social problems reflect sets of beliefs and practices—or institutional logics—that operate at the societal-level and rationalize the marginalization of certain categories of people. Studies have examined the consequences this has for individuals, but have largely overlooked how organizations that address such issues are affected. To understand this, we apply and extend the institutional logics perspective. Our approach recognizes that practices within different sectors of a society may be shaped by different organizing principles. However, we suggest practices are also likely to reflect—to varying degrees—broader societal logics. Based on this, we argue that societal logics may work through multiple influence channels and affect organizations in non-obvious ways depending on how, where, and with what intensity they manifest in society. We test our theory by analyzing how patriarchy, as a societal-level logic, affects outreach to women by microfinance organizations (MFOs) in 115 nations. We find that patriarchy supports practices in the family, religion, professions and state that suppress this outreach. Yet, in some nations, patriarchy is differently evident across sectors. The resulting contrasts draw attention to women's issues, motivate redress efforts, and catalyze resource flows to MFOs. The greatest outreach to women is in these nations.
    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0476   open full text
  • Understanding Community Dynamics In The Study Of Grand Challenges: How Nonprofits, Institutional Actors, And The Community Fabric Interact To Influence Income Inequality.
    Pascual Berrone, Liliana Gelabert, Federica Massa-Saluzzo, Horacio Rousseau.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 18, 2016
    This paper provides a conceptual model that explains how competitive and institutional dynamics at the community level influence the ability of welfare-oriented nonprofits to eradicate income inequality. To test our framework, we build a large and unique 7-year panel dataset consisting of data from 245 U.S. communities. We find that an increasing number of welfare nonprofits is beneficial for reducing community inequality but this is so up to a point, after which resource competition decreases their effectiveness. This competition for resources is also present when a high density of elite-oriented nonprofits operates in the same community. Hypotheses focused on the institutional dimension receive mixed support. As predicted, welfare nonprofits are more effective when they operate in communities with strong law enforcement capabilities and less effective in politically conservative local contexts. Contrary to our expectations, however, we found that welfare nonprofits are less effective in demographically heterogeneous local contexts and when the government provides effective social policies, thus indicating a possible substitution effect. Surprisingly, nonprofit effectiveness is increased in highly financialized local contexts. Together, our results indicate that issues of competition, institutional alignment and community support in the context of grand challenges are more complex than originally thought.
    August 18, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0746   open full text
  • Some Things Can Never Be Unseen: The Role Of Context In Psychological Injury At War.
    Mark de Rond, Jaco Lok.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 18, 2016
    Recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have re-ignited debates on how to prevent and manage psychological injury among returning troops. These debates point to the psychological cost of war as a grand challenge whose scale and complexity stretch far beyond the already large and growing number of veterans affected. We use a unique ethnography of a military medical team's tour of duty in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, to explore the role of institutional context as a contributing factor to psychological injury from war. We find that exposure to war and its consequences invokes sustained experiences of senselessness, futility, and surreality that are partially rooted in cultural expectations, professional role identity, and organizational protocol, and can threaten people's existential grounding in this institutional context. We argue that what makes work at war traumatic for some and not others is likely affected by the specific context through which people filter, frame, and cope with, their experience. A contextual understanding of psychological injury at war that is based in organizational research can thus form an important part of better addressing this grand challenge.
    August 18, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0681   open full text
  • When Does Corporate Social Responsibility Reduce Employee Turnover? Evidence From Attorneys Before And After 9/11.
    Seth Carnahan, David Kryscynski, Daniel Olson.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 16, 2016
    This study places important boundary conditions on the generally accepted notion that CSR will reduce turnover. Our primary argument is that CSR will be most effective at reducing turnover that is motivated by a preference for more meaningfulness at work. We find empirical support for this idea using microdata on attorneys employed by large law firms. We find that firms with higher levels of CSR have moderately lower rates of turnover to startup law firms and through occupation changes, moves which are more likely to be motivated by a preference for meaningfulness than moves to non-startup law firms. Strikingly, the retention benefits of CSR are much stronger after attorneys experience mortality-related shocks that cause them to re-evaluate their jobs (i.e., for New York City-born attorneys following the 9/11 attacks). To our surprise, we also find that firms with higher levels of CSR experience higher turnover rates to non-startup law firms. In addition to our arguments about the importance of meaningfulness, the study provides two important extensions to work examining CSR and turnover: (1) it may be useful to view the CSR-turnover relationship through a risk-management lens, and (2) investments in CSR may increase employee departures from organizations under certain conditions.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0032   open full text
  • A Neurological And Ideological Perspective Of Ethical Leadership.
    David Waldman, Danni Wang, Sean Hannah, Pierre Balthazard.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 16, 2016
    A growing body of literature has considered the outcomes of ethical leadership in terms of positive effects on followers. However, little research has addressed its antecedents. We thus have insufficient knowledge of the personal characteristics or qualities of ethical leaders. Accordingly, the current research draws on conceptualizations of what constitutes the moral self through conceiving such characteristics largely in terms of a neurological index derived through quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG), in combination with ethical ideology. Integrating neuroscience and moral psychology, our findings suggest that the interaction of leader relativism and idealism partially mediates the effects of the brain's default mode network (DMN) in the prediction of ethical leadership.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0644   open full text
  • I Just Can't Control Myself: A Self-Regulation Perspective on the Abuse of Deviant Employees.
    Mary Mawritz, Rebecca Greenbaum, Marcus M. Butts, Katrina A. Graham.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 01, 2016
    Drawing on self-regulation theory, we contribute to the abusive supervision literature by testing supervisors' self-regulation impairment as a key mediator of the relationship between subordinate deviance and abusive supervision. Further, given that the process underlying the relationship between subordinate deviance and abusive supervision may be explained by social exchange theory, we examine the differential strength of supervisor self-regulation impairment versus social exchange as mediating mechanisms. We also explore the moderating effects of subordinate performance and supervisor bottom-line mentality (i.e., a one-dimensional frame of mind that revolves around securing bottom-line outcomes to the neglect of competing priorities) on the relationship between subordinate deviance and supervisor self-regulation impairment. We found that supervisor self-regulation impairment mediated the relationship between subordinate deviance and abusive supervision and the indirect effect was stronger in the presence of high subordinate performance and high supervisor bottom-line mentality. We then replicated these findings in a longitudinal field study across four time periods and demonstrated that self-regulation impairment provides a stronger explanation for the relationship between subordinate deviance and abusive supervision than social exchange. The theoretical and practical implications of our research are discussed.
    August 01, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0409   open full text
  • Healthcare's Grand Challenge: Basic Science on Diseases that Primarily Afflict the Poor.
    Keyvan Vakili, Anita M. McGahan.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 28, 2016
    Perhaps the most compelling Grand Challenge in healthcare is addressing diseases that primarily afflict the poor. In this paper, we examine the effect of the World Trade Organization's (WTO's) 1994 policy of Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which was justified in part by a claim that patents and other intellectual property protections (IPPs) would improve the availability of drugs for 'neglected diseases' such as malaria and tuberculosis. To date, scholars have found little evidence associating TRIPS with clinical trials, patents, or trade in drugs for neglected diseases. We revisit the original economic logic behind TRIPS and introduce a complementary theory that TRIPS encouraged the time-consuming and complex development of the managerial institutions required for the prerequisite basic science for neglected diseases. We test this logic on a large cross-section of scientific publications. The results indicate an increase in basic science on neglected diseases and in applied science on non-neglected diseases in line with our predictions. Further analysis indicates increases in scientific activity authored in low-income countries on locally relevant neglected diseases. We interpret these results to call for application of theories of management to Grand Challenges, and especially to the evaluation of policies such as TRIPS. Addressing the Grand Challenge of healthcare for the poor depends on interventions that deepen the development of managerial institutions of science.
    July 28, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0641   open full text
  • Institutional complexity in turbulent times: formalization, collaboration, and the emergence of blended logics.
    Tommaso Ramus, Antonino Vaccaro, Stefano Brusoni.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 26, 2016
    This paper explores how organizations dealing with institutional complexity manage internal tensions triggered by environmental turbulence. Based on a longitudinal, comparative study, we extend previous research that has identified collaboration and formalization as possible mechanisms to reconcile organizational tensions in such situations. We show that neither of these mechanisms is sufficient in itself to resolve tensions. Rather, it is the structured interaction between collaboration and formalization that allows organizations to successfully blend logics and reconcile their conflicting demands. On the basis of our findings, we develop a process model that explains how organizations change in response to environmental turbulence.
    July 26, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0394   open full text
  • Challenges For Global Supply Chain Sustainability: Evidence From Conflict Minerals Reports.
    Yong H. Kim, Gerald Davis.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 25, 2016
    The vertically-integrated corporation of the 20th century has been replaced by disaggregated global supply chains across many industries. Dis-integration can reduce costs but also limits the ability to monitor and control critical processes, including labor practices and the sourcing of supplies. This article asks: What organizational factors distinguish corporations that are able to vouch for their supply chains from those that are not? The Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 gave companies over three years to determine and report on whether their products contained "conflict minerals" from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) area. Our analysis of every conflict minerals report submitted to the SEC by over 1,300 corporations found that 80% admitted they were unable to determine the country of origin of such materials, and only 1% could certify themselves conflict-free with certainty beyond reasonable doubt. Internationally diversified firms and those with large and more dispersed supply chains were less likely to declare their products conflict-free: complexity reduces the visibility of a firm's supply chain. Our results suggest that widespread outsourcing may have reduced the corporate sector's capacity to account for the practices that yield its products.
    July 25, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0770   open full text
  • Self-reliance: A Gender Perspective on its Relationship to Communality and Leadership Evaluations.
    Rebecca L. Schaumberg, Francis Flynn.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 22, 2016
    We posit a female advantage in the relationship between self-reliance and leadership evaluations. We test this prediction in four studies. First, using multi-rater evaluations of young managers, we find that self-reliance relates positively to leadership evaluations for women, but not for men. Next, in each of three experiments, we manipulate the gender of a leader and the agentic trait he or she displays (e.g., self-reliance, dominance, no discrete agentic trait). We find that self-reliant female leaders are evaluated as better leaders than self-reliant male leaders. In contrast, we find a male advantage or no gender advantage for dominant leaders or leaders who are described positively, but not in terms of any discrete agentic trait. Consistent with expectancy violation theory, the female advantage in the relationship between self-reliance and leadership evaluations emerges because self-reliant female leaders are seen as similarly competent, but more communal, than self-reliant male leaders. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the effects of self-reliance, gender stereotypes, and stereotype violations on leadership evaluations.
    July 22, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0018   open full text
  • When does Medici hurt DaVinci? Mitigating the Signaling Effect of Extraneous Stakeholder Relationships in the Field of Cultural Production.
    Yuliya Shymko, Thomas Roulet.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 20, 2016
    Does corporate philanthropy have an indiscriminately positive effect on recipients? Our baseline argument asserts that relationships with stakeholders outside the field, such as corporate donors, can be perceived as a deviation from the dominant logic at the industry level, and thus as a negative signal by peers. How can recipients mitigate this adverse effect on social evaluations? To answer this question we study how corporate benefaction affects the process of peer recognition in the context of Russian theaters (2004-2011). Firstly, we engage in a qualitative exploration of our setting to contextualize our hypotheses and understand how relationships with corporate donors, depending on their characteristics, affect peer recognition. We then quantitatively test our hypotheses and confirm that the salience of the relationship with extraneous stakeholders - operationalized as the number of corporate donors - has a negative effect on peer recognition. This effect however can be mitigated if theaters choose to limit the breadth, depth and negative valence of the relationship. We contribute to both the institutional logics and stakeholder literature by bringing in a signaling perspective: we show that peer recognition, upon which the maintenance of a dominant logic lies, is directly impacted by the nature of relationships with extraneous stakeholders.
    July 20, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0464   open full text
  • Unequal Bedfellows: Gender Role Based Deference In Multiplex Ties Between Korean Business Groups.
    JungYun Han, Andrew Shipilov, Henrich Greve.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 19, 2016
    Deference within a dyad occurs when one partner acknowledges that the other is entitled to some privileges. Although deference is a well-known consequence of relationships between partners of unequal status, little is known on whether deference in one domain can affect interactions between the same actors in the other domains. This can happen within multiplex relationships, especially when they involve firms that have both business and personal interactions between their key decision makers. We combine insights from the literatures on status, multiplex relationships and competitive positioning to examine how actors' behaviors in a business domain of a multiplex relationship are shaped by the deference norms in a personal domain of the same relationship. We argue that marriages between owner-families of Korean business groups cause deferential behaviors between these families as a function of gender-based status differences within kinship ties. We show empirically that the inter-personal deference resulting from marriage affects business group market entries or exits, and in turn the group's performance. Thus, we shed light on how deference spillovers represent a novel mechanism through which one partner can extract advantage over another within a multiplex relationship.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.1270   open full text
  • Management's Science Practice Gap: A Grand Challenge For All Stakeholders.
    George Banks, Jeffrey Pollack, Jaime Bochantin, Bradley Kirkman, Christopher Whelpley, Ernest O'Boyle.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 19, 2016
    Despite multiple high-profile calls—across decades and from multiple stakeholders—to address the widening gap between science and practice, the relevance of research conducted in the management domain remains in question. To once again highlight this issue and, more importantly, identify solutions, we explore the grand challenge of the science-practice gap by applying stakeholder theory. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted a series of interviews (n = 38) and a focus group with academics and practitioners (e.g., executives, entrepreneurs, government officials) in order to develop a set of theoretical models and propositions that extend stakeholder theory. We supplemented our inductive theory building approach with a survey of academics (n = 828) and practitioners (n = 939) and a qualitative content analysis to identify 22 grand challenges (i.e., eight shared, eight uniquely academic, and six uniquely practitioner). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings and illustrate multiple directions for future research to build permanent bonds—not just temporary links—between science and practice.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0728   open full text
  • Selective Regulator Decoupling and Organizations' Strategic Responses.
    Jonas Heese, Ranjani Krishnan, Frank Moers.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 15, 2016
    Organizations often respond to institutional pressures by symbolically adopting policies and procedures but decoupling them from actual practice. Literature has examined why organizations decouple from regulatory pressures. In this study, we argue that decoupling occurs within regulatory agencies and results from a combination of conflicting institutional pressures, complex goals, and internal fragmentation. Further, regulatory decoupling is selective, i.e., regulators fail to adequately enforce standards only for one set of organizations. Regulated organizations that benefit from selective regulatory decoupling use nonmarket strategies to maintain their favorable regulatory status and in the process selectively decouple their norms in one organizational activity but not others. As an empirical context, we use the hospital industry where regulators have to balance conflicting pressures to be tough on fraud, while maintaining the community's access to essential but unprofitable services such as charity care and medical education. In response, hospital regulators selectively decouple and exhibit leniency in enforcement of mispricing practices towards beneficent hospitals, defined as hospitals that provide more charity care and medical education. In turn, beneficent hospitals selectively decouple their service and profit goals by providing unprofitable services to uninsured patients, while mispricing insured patients to earn higher reimbursements.
    July 15, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0446   open full text
  • Economic downturns undermine workplace helping by promoting a zero-sum construal of success.
    Nina Sirola, Marko Pitesa.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 12, 2016
    Workplace helping is essential to the success of organizations and economies. Given the economic benefits of helping, it seems important that during difficult economic periods the amount of helping does not decline. In this research, we propose and show that it does. We argue that cues that signal the economy is performing poorly prompt a construal that the success of one person implies less success for others. This zero-sum construal of success in turn makes employees less inclined to help. Four studies found evidence consistent with our theory. Study 1 found that worse economic periods are associated with a more zero-sum construal of success using data from 59,694 respondents surveyed across 51 countries and 17 years and objective indicators of their macroeconomic environments. Studies 2 and 3 were experiments among employees of U.S. organizations that found an induced perception that the U.S. economy was performing poorly led to a more zero-sum construal of success and made employees less inclined to help. Study 4 was an unobtrusive experiment among freelance professionals from 47 countries that found that participants' perception that the economy in their country was in a downturn was associated with a more zero-sum construal of success and less helping behavior. This research demonstrates the importance of bridging the macro-micro divide in organizational sciences and considering the impact of macroeconomic changes on individual employee psychology and behavior.
    July 12, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0804   open full text
  • The Face of the Firm: The Influence of CEOs on Corporate Reputation.
    E. Geoffrey Love, Jaegoo Lim, Michael Bednar.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 08, 2016
    It is widely assumed that CEOs shape how people view firms, but the question of how these leaders influence corporate reputations has received little theoretical or empirical attention. This study addresses two core questions in this vein: to what degree do leaders really matter for firm reputation, and which leaders affect their firm's reputation? We develop theory explaining how and why leaders should enter into evaluations of the firms that they lead. Specifically, we propose that CEOs' effects on corporate reputation will depend on leader prominence and on perceptions of leader quality. We thus test hypotheses examining how CEOs' media coverage, industry awards, and outsider standing affect the reputations of their firms. Findings indicate that highly-regarded CEOs enhance their firm's reputations, sometimes substantially, and CEOs who receive negative press coverage damage their firms' reputations. However, CEO prominence alone was not associated with higher firm reputation. We discuss implications for research on top leaders and corporate reputations.
    July 08, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0862   open full text
  • Mobilization in the Internet Age: Internet Activism and Corporate Response.
    Xiaowei R. Luo, Jianjun Zhang, Christopher Marquis.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 23, 2016
    Civil society's inability to hold powerful businesses accountable in authoritarian regimes is a grand challenge in today's global environment. We propose that the development of Internet activism provides a novel mechanism to pressure for corporate response in those societies. Internet activism is dispersed, fast moving and interactive, and hence can effectively focus public attention and potentially undermine a company's public image by generating social comparison. In addition, firms with public image vulnerability may experience magnified pressure from Internet activism as social comparison is accentuated for them. We explore this framework in the setting of corporate donations made in the wake of the 2008 earthquake in Sichuan Province of China, which triggered Internet activism that challenged corporations to contribute to the good of the community. Analysis based on 613 large publicly listed Chinese firms supports our framework.
    June 23, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0693   open full text
  • Symbiont Practices In Boundary Spanning: Bridging The Cognitive And Political Divides In Interdisciplinary Research.
    Sarah Kaplan, Jonathan Milde, Ruth Cowan.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 21, 2016
    Organizing for interdisciplinary research must overcome two challenges to collaboration: the cognitive incommensurability of knowledge and the political economy of research based in the disciplines. Researchers may not engage in interdisciplinarity because they would have to invest in new knowledge unrelated to their discipline or risk losing career-related rewards. Our field study of a university interdisciplinary research center shows that boundary spanning occurred as students interacted with scientific instruments in a symbiotic relationship through what we call symbiont practices: matching disciplinary language and methods with the experimental possibilities of instruments, developing co-specialization between students and instruments, and engaging disciplinary actors to design experiments using instruments. Instruments engendered incipient interdisciplinary possibilities, but they required the students - engaging in symbiont practices - to actualize that potential. Simultaneously, students required instruments in order to be classified, staffed on projects and placed in jobs. These practices resolved both the cognitive and economic challenges of boundary spanning by mobilizing material resources that were costly (cognitively and politically) for actors on either side of the disciplinary divide to engage. In conceptualizing interdisciplinary research as occurring through symbiont practices, we develop a sociomaterial perspective on boundary spanning.
    June 21, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0809   open full text
  • The interplay of team and organizational commitment in motivating employees' interteam conflict handling.
    Joerg Wombacher, Joerg Felfe.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 14, 2016
    Interteam conflict is part of everyday organizational life. Combining evidence from an experimental and a survey study, this paper puts forward and tests two interrelated propositions: 1) employees' team and organizational commitment interact to influence employees' preference for different interteam conflict handling strategies; 2) a high commitment to one entity can lead to the adoption of dysfunctional conflict handling strategies with negative outcomes for the organization unless accompanied by a high commitment to the other entity. To test these propositions, we conducted an experiment (n = 179) to assess participants' reactions to eight reality-based conflict scenarios in which their team's interests collided with those of other teams within the same organization. For each scenario, the conflict description was manipulated with regard to the strength of participants' team and organizational commitment (high vs. low), resulting in an 8 x 2 x 2 factorial design. As expected, results show that high levels of commitment to one entity but not the other involve specific risks for the organization, thus supporting a dual commitment model. The results were largely borne out by a subsequent survey (n = 692) which used validated measures of commitment and conflict management to support claims for construct and external validity.
    June 14, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0718   open full text
  • Failed Stakeholder Exchanges and Corporate Reputation: The Case of Earnings Misses.
    E. Geoffrey Love, Matthew Kraatz.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 14, 2016
    Corporations engage in ongoing exchange relationships with many different stakeholder groups, and they frequently fail to meet these constituencies' concrete and firm-specific expectations (regarding profits, products, etc.). While these events bear an intuitive connection to corporate reputation, several scholars have raised questions about the role of discrete exchanges in overall evaluations of firms. Additionally, scholars have neither systematically examined such effects nor elaborated a formal theory thereof. The present paper fills this gap by developing and testing a middle range theory of this important yet poorly understood relationship. This theory identifies the psychological mechanism (trait attribution) which underlies this relationship and explains how discrete, stakeholder-specific exchange failures can damage reputations of larger corporate entities. It also explains how social and historical information associated with failed exchanges can affect this process. We elaborate and test this theory through a study of the effects of quarterly earnings misses on firms' standing in the Fortune "Most Admired Company" survey. Consistent with our theory, earnings misses did damage firm standing. However, misses did not invariably produce reputational damage and as predicted, their effects were contingent on associated social (e.g., peer firm reliability, institutional context) and historical (e.g., the firm's track record and statements) information.
    June 14, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0968   open full text
  • Is it Better to Give or Receive? The Role of Help in Buffering the Depleting Effects of Surface Acting.
    Marilyn Uy, Katrina Lin, Remus Ilies.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 09, 2016
    The resource depleting effects of surface acting is well established. Yet we know less about the pervasiveness of these effects and what employees can do at work to replenish their resources. Drawing on conservation of resources theory and the ecological congruence model, we examine the extended depleting effects of surface acting and whether social interactions with coworkers (i.e., giving and receiving help) can mitigate the negative consequences of emotional labor by conducting a five-day diary study among customer service representatives (CSRs). Momentary reports from 102 CSRs indicate that within-person daily surface acting positively predicted end-of-day emotional exhaustion, and the effect of emotional exhaustion spilled over to work engagement the following day. Analyzing the within-person moderating effects of giving and receiving help at work, we find that giving help buffered the depletion process while receiving help did not. We discuss the theoretical and practical significance of considering the temporality of the resource depleting effects of surface acting, the role of at-work help giving in buffering the negative effects of emotional labor that could affect the sense of self, and the importance of resource congruence in influencing the efficacy of buffering effects.
    June 09, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0611   open full text
  • 'Devils may sit here': The role of enchantment in institutional maintenance.
    Sabina Siebert, Fiona Wilson, John Hamilton.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 07, 2016
    This paper contributes to the literature on maintenance of institutions by analyzing the case of an old profession - Scottish advocates. Drawing on the neo-institutional perspective on professions, we address the question - what role does organizational space play in institutional maintenance? We draw on our ethnographic study to make a three-fold contribution. Firstly, our case study shows how spaces, and how institutional actors interact with them, have a stabilizing effect on the institution, which leads to two important outcomes: maintenance of closure and reproduction of the status order. Secondly, we show how three spatial phenomena underpinning this stabilizing process are intertwined, thus enabling the process of institutional maintenance: (1) emplacement, (2) enactment of space, and (3) enchantment of space. Thirdly, by foregrounding the role of enchantment evoked by organizational spaces, we highlight the importance of the emotional and aesthetic aspects of institutional maintenance.
    June 07, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0487   open full text
  • Why Is Underemployment Related to Creativity and OCB? A Task Crafting Explanation of the Curvilinear Moderated Relations.
    Bilian Lin, Kenneth Law, Jing Zhou.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 06, 2016
    Based on the job crafting perspective, we theorized a serial curvilinear mediated moderation model that links underemployment to two outcomes that benefit the organization: creativity and organizational citizenship behavior. A three-waved time-lagged survey in teachers and a field study in technical workers provided convergent support of this model. In Study 1, using data from 327 teachers and their immediate supervisors, we found support for our hypotheses that perceived underemployment had an inverted U-shaped relationship with task crafting and that this relationship was moderated by organizational identification. When the teachers' organizational identification was high, they engaged in more task crafting for the organization at intermediate levels of perceived underemployment. We also found that task crafting was positively related to creativity and organizational citizenship behavior. In Study 2, the simulation tasks for 297 technical workers provided convergent evidence for that objective underemployment indirectly influence objective task crafting through perceived underemployment with the inverted U-shaped path from perceived underemployment to task crafting. We discussed the theoretical and practical implications of this research.
    June 06, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0470   open full text
  • How Organizations Respond to Information Disclosure: Testing Alternative Longitudinal Performance Trajectories.
    Jason Miller, Brian Fugate, Susan Golicic.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 02, 2016
    Information disclosure programs (IDPs) are an increasingly common aspect of organizational existence as stakeholders seek to shape organizations' actions by measuring and revealing information regarding performance in various domains. In this manuscript we extend research on how organizations respond to IDPs in three ways. First, we extend theorizing regarding institutional waves to explain why organizations' rate of change on disclosed metrics are likely to follow a tapering pattern such that improvement occurs most rapidly immediately following the start of an IDP and then slows with time. Second, we explain why organizations that exhibit the worst initial performance are also likely to exhibit more pronounced tapering in their rates of change. Third, we begin to reconcile competing predictions regarding how organizational size affects organizations' responses to IDPs by theorizing and testing temporal moderation effects between size and [1] rates of initial improvement and [2] extent of tapering. We test our theory using panel data on motor carrier safety obtained from governmental databases following the implementation of a new IDP in 2010. Our results from fitting mixed-effects models offer new insights regarding the effectiveness of information disclosure programs and, moreover, contribute to our understanding of how institutional pressures affect organizations.
    June 02, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0428   open full text
  • The Conditional Importance of Prior Ties: A Group-Level Analysis of Venture Capital Syndication.
    Lei Zhang, Anil Gupta, Benjamin Hallen.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 31, 2016
    While there is growing scholarly interest in multi-party collaborations that involve three or more firms, most of this literature has focused on the governance, performance, and dissolution of multi-party collaborations. Accordingly, less has been known about which multi-party collaborations are likely to form or the extent to which the formation of multi-party collaborations may differ from the formation of dyadic collaborations. We address these gaps by exploring the formation of multi-party VC syndicates - a context that exhibits substantial multi-party collaboration but that has been less examined through the multi-party lens. We argue and show that multi-party syndication is influenced by a number of group-level constructs. We highlight how group-level VC syndicate formation is not a simple deductive elaboration of dyadic VC syndication, instead involving different constructs and logics. We also offer insight into how status dynamics may differ between dyads and groups.
    May 31, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1088   open full text
  • Glass Breaking, Strategy Making, and Value Creating: Meta-Analytic Outcomes of Females as CEOs and TMT members.
    Seung-Hwan Jeong, David Harrison.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 31, 2016
    We conduct a comprehensive synthesis of the research on how female representation in the upper echelons (i.e., top management teams and CEO positions) might affect firm performance. To help resolve longstanding theoretical, empirical, and substantive debates, we present an integrative conceptual framework based on the overarching concepts of unique resource portfolios, team decision-processes, and role incongruence perceptions. We test predictions from this framework using meta-analytic techniques on a sample of 146 primary studies conducted in 33 different countries. We find that female representation in the upper echelons in general is positively and weakly related to forms of long-term financial performance, but negatively and weakly related to short-term stock market returns. We observe that reduced strategic risk-taking is a mediating mechanism that explains why financial performance is improved. We also show that financial performance improvements are accentuated in environmental and organizational contexts that provide greater decision latitude to executives. Finally, we discuss and provide preliminary tests for extending these effects to other stakeholders (CSP) and different time intervals for performance.
    May 31, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0716   open full text
  • The Multiple Pathways through which Internal and External Corporate Social Responsibility Influence Organizational Identification and Multifoci Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Cultural and Social Orientations.
    Omer Farooq, Deborah Rupp, Mariam Farooq.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 27, 2016
    In this paper, we take a social identity theory perspective to study the mechanisms through which internal and external corporate social responsibility (CSR) influence employee identification and its subsequent outcomes, as well as the boundary conditions on these effects. We posit that CSR actions focusing on external stakeholders enhance perceived prestige whereas CSR actions focusing on employee welfare enhance perceived respect, both of which are argued to influence employees' organizational identification, but which differentially impact different forms of employee citizenship. These relationships were predicted to vary in strength, however, due to individual differences in social (local vs. cosmopolitan) and cultural (individualism vs. collectivism) orientations. Data are presented from 408 employees of a fast moving consumer goods conglomerate operating in South Asia (Study 1) and from 415 employees spanning nine companies in two culturally distinct regions (France and Pakistan, Study 2). Results, which largely supported our theoretical framework, are discussed in terms of their implications for both our understanding of the psychology of CSR, as well as social identity theory more generally.
    May 27, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0849   open full text
  • Multinational Enterprises Within Cultural Space And Place: Integrating Cultural Distance And Cultural Tightness Looseness.
    Duckjung Shin, Vanessa Hasse, Andreas Schotter.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 20, 2016
    Prior research into the effects of cultural differences between MNE home and host countries on expatriate staffing decisions in foreign subsidiaries has produced a large number of conflicting findings. We address some of these conflicting findings and aim to advance theory in two ways. First, we draw on transaction cost economics to explain why and how the effects of cultural distance on the proportion of expatriate parent-country nationals form a curvilinear instead of a linear relationship, as commonly proposed. Second, we integrate the values-based cultural distance concept with the norms-based tightness-looseness concept. This allows us to simultaneously account for cultural differences between countries and location-bound normative cultural effects within countries, which cannot be overcome solely through expatriate learning and adaptation. Using a large global dataset of Japanese MNEs, we find support for a convex relationship between cultural distance and the proportion of expatriate parent-country nationals. We also find a moderating (steepening) effect of tightness-looseness on this relationship. The results reconcile some of the tensions between the subjectivists' values-based approach, which positions culture in the shared cognitions realm, and the structuralists' approach, which places culture in a normative situational environment.
    May 20, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0423   open full text
  • Human Resource Systems, Employee Creativity, and Firm Innovation: The Moderating Role of Firm Ownership.
    Dong Liu, Yaping Gong, Jing Zhou, Jia-Chi Huang.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 20, 2016
    This inter-human resource (HR) systems research investigates whether, how, and when different types of employee-experienced HR systems jointly influence employee creativity. We hypothesize and find that employee-experienced performance-oriented HR systems were more positively related to employee domain-relevant skills when employees experienced stronger maintenance-oriented HR systems. In addition, employee-experienced maintenance-oriented HR systems more strongly augmented the positive relationship between employee-experienced performance-oriented HR systems and domain-relevant skills in privately owned enterprises (POEs) than in state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Employee domain-relevant skills mediated the three-way interactive effect of employee-experienced performance-oriented HR systems, maintenance-oriented HR systems, and firm ownership (POEs vs. SOEs) on employee creativity. Finally, aggregated employee creativity had a stronger positive relationship with firm innovation in POEs than in SOEs. As such, this investigation provides novel theoretical and empirical insights into strategic HR systems, creativity and innovation.
    May 20, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0230   open full text
  • How Organizations Move From Stigma to Legitimacy: The Case of Cook's Travel Agency in Victorian Britain.
    Christian E. Hampel, Paul Tracey.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 19, 2016
    Based on an in-depth historical study of how Thomas Cook's travel agency moved from stigmatization to legitimacy among the elite of Victorian Britain, we develop a dialogical model of organizational destigmatization. We find that audiences stigmatize an organization because they fear that it threatens a particular moral order, which leads them to mount sustained attacks designed to weaken or eradicate the organization. Our model suggests that an organization that experiences this form of profound disapproval can nonetheless purge its stigma and become legitimate through a two-step process: first the organization engages in stigma reduction work designed to minimize overt hostility among audiences by showing that it does not pose a risk to them. Second it engages in stigma elimination work designed to gain support from stigmatizers by showing that it plays a positive role in society. Our study therefore reorients organizational stigma research from a focus on how organizations can cope with the effects of stigma, and considers instead how they can eradicate the stigma altogether. We also shed light on much neglected audience-level dynamics by examining the process through which audiences construct stigma and why these constructions change.
    May 19, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0365   open full text
  • The Emergence of Change in Unexpected Places: Resourcing across organizational practices in strategic change.
    Rene Wiedner, Michael Barrett, Eivor Oborn.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 13, 2016
    In our longitudinal, in-depth case study of strategic change within the English National Health Service we compare three practices related to contracting healthcare services. Contrary to what we would have believed from the extant literature, we found that the most profound change did not emerge in practices that witnessed the greatest increase in the quantity of resources or in which change agents were given the highest degree of control. Instead, change emerged in a practice that was not treated as a priority and that subsequently attracted interest from a very limited number of individuals. Our findings contribute to the resourcing literature by showing that the ability to use resources is shaped by how they are valued and distributed and that strategic change initiatives can act as triggers for resource revaluations and redistributions. Specifically, we demonstrate that strategic change initiatives may contribute to the emergence of favorable conditions for change in practices that do not become associated with valued resources. This is because a lack of valued resources attracts limited interest from stakeholders, thereby allowing changes to emerge as powerful agents face minimal coordination costs and scrutiny when attempting to align arrangements with their own interests. Our study thereby shows how and why change initiatives can trigger divergent developments across multiple practices and lead to change emergence in unexpected places. It also highlights the role of what we call resourcing space in contributing to emergent change.
    May 13, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0474   open full text
  • Building Resilience or Providing Sustenance: Different Paths of Emergent Ventures in the Aftermath of the Haiti Earthquake.
    Trenton Williams, Dean Shepherd.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 09, 2016
    Disaster events threaten the lives, economies, and wellbeing of those they impact. Understanding the role of emergent organizations in responding to suffering and building resilience is an important component of the grand challenge of how to effectively respond to disasters. In this inductive case study we explore venture creation initiated by locals in response to suffering following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In exploring six ventures we found that two distinctive groups emerged in terms of their identification of potential opportunities to alleviate suffering, their access to and use of key resources, the action they took, and ultimately their effectiveness in facilitating resilience. We offer an inductive, grounded theoretical model that emerged from our data that provides insight into and an extension of literature on resilience to adversity and the disaster literature on emergent response groups, opening pathways for management scholarship to contribute in a meaningful way to this grand challenge.
    May 09, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0682   open full text
  • Funding Financial Inclusion: Institutional Logics and the Contextual Contingency of Funding for Microfinance Organizations.
    J. Adam Cobb, Tyler Wry, Eric Yanfei Zhao.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 06, 2016
    Microfinance is a promising tool for addressing the grand challenge of global poverty. Yet, while many studies have examined how microfinance loans affect poor borrowers, we know little about how microfinance organizations (MFOs) themselves finance their lending activities. This is an important oversight because most MFOs do not self-fund their lending, but rather rely on loans from external funders. To better understand microfinance funding, we apply and extend the institutional logics perspective to analyze the lending practices of commercial and public funders, who together provide most of the capital for global microfinance. We argue that these funders adhere to financial and development logics, respectively, and this leads them to invest in different types of MFOs. Yet, in the face of uncertainty, we suggest that the practices motivated by these logics will start to converge in ways that are problematic for a nation's microfinance sector. Using a proprietary database of all traceable loans to MFOs from 2004 to 2012, we find strong support for our hypotheses. Our findings show that the relationship between institutional logics and organizational practices is contextually contingent, and that this insight contributes important understanding about the efficacy of microfinance as a poverty-reduction tool.
    May 06, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0715   open full text
  • Risk Aversion and Guanxi Activities: A Behavioral Analysis of CEOs in China.
    Sonja Opper, Victor Nee, Hakan Holm.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 05, 2016
    In China, the strategic use of personal relationships is pervasive in transactions with government authorities as well as in inter-firm relations. Explanations as to when and why firms rely on guanxi emphasize a close link between organizational resources, environment and corporate strategic choices. Our study shifts attention to the importance of CEO preferences, specifically risk aversion, and suggests an investment theory of strategic reliance on personal relations to achieve organizational goals. To explore the association between CEO risk aversion and reliance on guanxi activities, we combine incentivized behavioral tasks using multiple price list formats for risk elicitation with a manager and firm survey. Our analysis focuses on 345 randomly sampled CEOs of private manufacturing companies in the Yangzi delta region in China. The results confirm the importance of risk preferences in explaining strategic choices and performance effects: there is a negative association between risk aversion and reliance on guanxi activities, although company age and market orientation moderate the behavioral effect of risk preferences. But when risk-averse CEOs utilize guanxi, they tend to be more successful, as measured by the firm's financial performance. More generally, our results underscore the importance of personal preferences as determinants of corporate strategy and performance.
    May 05, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0355   open full text
  • Organizational Learning in Target Setting.
    Carmen Aranda, Javier Arellano, Antonio Davila.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 03, 2016
    This paper examines organizational learning in target setting. Organizations commonly set targets—explicit and quantitative reference points—for their operational units that reflect top management aspirations for these units. Targets are commonly the outcome of a subjective process where supervisors combine their explicit and tacit knowledge to set performance expectations for their units. Using a proprietary database from a large European travel company during a period of rapid expansion, we document the effect of organizational learning by studying how targets change as units mature. In particular, we examine managers' experiential learning from branches' past performance and their vicarious learning from branches in the same region in determining performance expectations over the life cycle of branches. Our results indicate that, in setting performance targets, managers increase the weight of a branch's past performance and decrease the weight of comparable branches' performance as the branch matures. Vicarious learning, where managers extrapolate the performance of comparable branches to a new branch, dominates in the early years. Over time, this type of learning is replaced by experiential learning as experience accumulates. We document how early on in the life of branches, these two types of learning interact; this interaction disappears as branches mature. Furthermore, we find that managers learn differently from successes and failures early in the lives of the new units, and this learning is affected by their magnitude.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0897   open full text
  • Engage me: The mature-age worker and stereotype threat.
    Carol T Kulik, Sanjeewa Perera, Christina Cregan.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 02, 2016
    As the workforce ages, and people retire later in life, organizations will need to develop strategies to engage their mature-age workers. We used a stereotype threat framework to investigate the impact of threat-inducing (young manager, young workgroup, manual occupation) and threat-inhibiting (high performance practices, mature-age practices) contextual cues on mature-age worker engagement. 666 mature-age employees in Australia described their work experiences in three surveys administered over a three-year period. Results indicated that mature-age employees who experienced stereotype threat in the workplace reported lower engagement 11-12 months later. All of the contextual cues impacted stereotype threat and exerted indirect (mediated by stereotype threat) effects on engagement. However, the effects of manager age were moderated by organizational practices. Diversity conscious mature-age practices moderated the indirect effect of manager age, so mature-age practices were particularly beneficial in counteracting negative cues associated with young managers. But diversity blind high performance practices moderated the direct effect of manager age, so high performance practices were especially helpful in generating engagement among mature-age workers with older managers. We recommend that organizations adopt both diversity blind and diversity conscious practices into their diversity management portfolios. The two types of practices are complementary and have additive effects on mature-age worker engagement.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0564   open full text
  • Newcomer Identification: Trends, Antecedents, Moderators and Consequences.
    Jing Zhu, Srinivasan Tatachari, Prithviraj Chattopadhyay.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 25, 2016
    We examine changes in organizational identification among 1,346 newcomers at critical milestones during their first year. Integrating the social identity approach (Haslam, 2004) with the literature on psychological contracts (Rousseau, 1989), we argue that changes in newcomer perceptions of organizational prestige influences changes in their organizational identification over time, mediated by changes in their perceptions of the extent that their psychological contract has been fulfilled. Our five-wave results reveal that perceived prestige, psychological contract fulfillment and organizational identification rise during institutionalized socialization, then fall immediately after this period, and finally recover and stabilize as employees settle into their first assignment. Newcomers' personal prestige markers, including academic qualifications, the proportion of in-group members in the incoming cohort and organizational preferential treatment moderate these change patterns, which subsequently predict the speed and occurrence of their voluntary turnover over three years of employment.
    April 25, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0466   open full text
  • Getting Leopards to Change their Spots: Co-Creating a New Professional Role Identity.
    Trish Reay, Elizabeth Goodrick, Susanne Waldorff, Ann Casebeer.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 24, 2016
    We investigated how professional role identity change can be accomplished in highly institutionalized contexts characterized by resiliency. We show that the collective professional role identity of family physicians was changed through a process of reinterpreting multiple logics and their relationships. Through our inductive analyses, we identified four mechanisms that occurred through social interactions and collectively served to rearrange the constellation of logics guiding physician role identity: (1) revealing the influence of a hidden logic, (2) reinforcing the conflict between logics, (3) reframing the meaning of a dominant logic, and (4) re-embedding the new arrangement of logics. We found that the change in physician professional role identity required significant identity work by a group of actors, but particularly by the managers who had been charged with leading the reform initiative. We contribute to the professional role identity and institutional literatures by showing how others can engage in social interactions with professionals to facilitate the reinterpretation and rearranging of institutional logics that guide collective professional role identity.
    April 24, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0802   open full text
  • Pseudo-Precision? Precise Forecasts and Impression Management in Managerial Earnings Forecasts.
    Mathew Hayward, Markus Fitza.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 22, 2016
    We examine earnings guidance precision as a mechanism of organization impression management (OIM) and, specifically, suggest that strategic leaders use very precise earnings forecasts as an OIM tactic to convey a greater sense of authority and control over organizational performance after material organizational setbacks. Contributing to the OIM literature, we argue that the use of more precise judgment makes use of different physiological mechanisms than kinds of OIM that have been previously studied. Results presented here suggest that a) OIM is an important motivation for more precise earnings forecasts b) precision as an OIM tactic is more likely to arise when managers convey impressions of brighter performance prospects and c) investors generally respond favorably to the tactic.
    April 22, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0304   open full text
  • Echoes of our upbringing: How growing up wealthy or poor relates to narcissism, leader behavior, and leader effectiveness.
    Sean R. Martin, Stephane Cote, Todd Woodruff.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 21, 2016
    We investigate how parental income during one's upbringing relates to his or her effectiveness as a leader after entering an organization. Drawing on research on the psychological effects of income, social learning theory, and the integrative trait-behavioral model of leadership effectiveness, we propose a negative, serially mediated association between higher parental income and lower future leader effectiveness via high levels of narcissism and, in turn, reduced engagement in behaviors that are viewed as central to the leadership role. We test our model using multisource data collected from active soldiers in the United States Army. Results reveal that parental income exerts indirect effects on leadership effectiveness criteria because a) parental income is positively related to narcissism as an adult, b) narcissism relates negatively to engaging in task-, relational-, and change-oriented leadership behaviors, and c) reduced engagement in these behaviors relates to lower leader effectiveness. Our investigation advances theory by identifying pathways through which parental income relates to the effectiveness of leaders in organizations, and by illuminating the origins of a trait (narcissism) that predicts the behavior and effectiveness of leaders.
    April 21, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0680   open full text
  • Resource-based Contingencies of when Team-member Exchange Helps Member Performance in Teams.
    Crystal I. C. Farh, Klodiana Lanaj, Remus Ilies.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 04, 2016
    We integrate social exchange theory with social capital theory to present a resource-based contingency model of when team-member exchange (TMX) helps individual performance in teams. We argue that strong TMX produces obligations to utilize resources (e.g., task information) provided by one's teammates, and these obligations enhance performance when: a) teammates provide resources of high quality, or b) the quality of resources available from individuals outside of the TMX relationship (i.e., the leader) are low, purportedly because TMX-based obligations protect individuals from over-utilizing low quality resources from the leader. We test our model in two studies. In Study 1, multisource team data revealed that TMX enhanced member performance when teammates possessed attributes associated with high quality resources (i.e., high cognitive ability) or when the leader did not. In Study 2, we replicated these findings in a scenario experiment, showing that TMX impacted performance under different resource conditions via felt obligation to utilize teammates' resources. Our findings advance the literature by delineating the teammate- and leader- resource conditions under which TMX benefits member performance, as well as demonstrating felt obligation to utilize teammates' resources as an important mechanism underlying these effects. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    April 04, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0261   open full text
  • When Do Entrepreneurs Accurately Evaluate Venture Capital Firms' Track Records? A Bounded Rationality Perspective.
    Hallen, B., Pahnke, E. C.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 01, 2016
    There has been substantial research on the value of young firms engaging high-quality partners. This literature, as well as the broader firm reputation literature, tends to assume that individuals leading such firms find it relatively easy to accurately assess potential partner quality as reflected in their track record of past performance and behavior. Yet this prior work has largely focused on information-rich environments where potential partners are generally large and receive substantial public attention, and with whom evaluators may have high familiarity. In contrast, we draw on bounded rationality to theorize about how in information-sparse environments, individuals may misperceive the quality indicated by a firm's objective track record. Our argument is that accurate evaluations depend not only on individual's motivation and ability to access information but on the convergence of these factors with attributes of the potential partner being evaluated. We test and find support for our framework using a novel dataset of 1,278 ratings of the quality of 153 early-stage venture capital firms by entrepreneurs that approached these firms for investments. Overall, this paper extends our understanding of firm reputation dynamics to information-sparse contexts, and explores why individuals such as entrepreneurs may often have difficulty accurately evaluating partners.
    April 01, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0316   open full text
  • The Evolution of Issue Interpretation within Organizational Fields: Framing Trajectories and Field Settlement.
    Jean-Baptiste Litrico, Robert David.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 31, 2016
    We seek to understand how actors' interpretations of contentious issues evolve over time within organizational fields and how these interpretations lead to field settlement. Empirically, we examine how groups of actors in the field of civil aviation interpreted the environmental issues of noise and emissions over the period 1996-2010. Actors employed various cultural frames to interpret these issues as they rose and fell in prominence within the field. We develop a framework to track actors' framing trajectories over time, in particular the extent to which these frames reveal actors' stance towards buffering versus integrating issues into their core operations, and describe four such prototypical framing trajectories. We find that actors' framing trajectories were influenced by the extent to which they were directly linked to issues in societal discourse and by direct contact with concerned audiences. Based on our analysis, we build theory of how actor framing of issues evolves over time and leads to field settlement of contentious issues.
    March 31, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0156   open full text
  • The Message is on the Wall? Emotions, Social Media and the Dynamics of Institutional Complexity.
    Madeline Toubiana, Charlene Zietsma.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 25, 2016
    In this paper we explore how emotions influence organizations in situations of institutional complexity. In particular we study members' and leaders' emotive responses and influence activities in response to a disruptive event that led to a violation of expectations. Our findings show that when people's expectations of an organization's actions are violated it can trigger a process of emotional escalation that leads to the destabilization of the organization through the emotional-laden influence activities of shaming and shunning. The violation in our case resulted in strong negative emotions expressed on Facebook. Facebook acted as an emotional echo chamber where negative emotions were amplified and led to members' emotion-driven influence activities eventually triggering regret and adaptation by the organization. We discuss implications for the study of emotions in institutional dynamics.
    March 25, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0208   open full text
  • Pay Formalization Revisited: Considering the Effects of Manager Gender and Discretion on Closing the Wage Gap.
    Mabel Abraham.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 24, 2016
    While most studies of formalization of pay systems suggest that formalization helps reduce inequality, some recent studies suggest the opposite. This study draws on social identity theory to shift this debate from whether formalization reduces inequality to when, or under what conditions, less formalized pay systems may also serve to reduce inequality. Specifically, I consider both the gender of the decision maker and the job of the employee being evaluated. The goal of this study is to determine whether male and female managers differ in how they use the discretion afforded by less formalized pay systems and to identify the implications for pay among employees at different levels of the organizational hierarchy. Among 857 employees in 120 retail branches of a financial services firm, I find evidence of less gender pay inequality in terms of less formalized components of pay for employees reporting to a female manager. However, this effect is only among employees in the lowest organizational ranks. These findings demonstrate that it is critical to take manager gender and the organizational position of the employees being evaluated into account when assessing the relationship between formalization of pay and gender pay inequality.
    March 24, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1060   open full text
  • Emotions Uncorked: Inspiring Evangelism for the Emerging Practice of Cool Climate Winemaking in Ontario.
    Felipe Massa, Wesley Helms, Maxim Voronov, Liang Wang.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 18, 2016
    This paper examines how organizations create evangelists, members of key audiences who build a critical mass of support for new ways of doing things. We conduct a longitudinal, inductive study of Ontario's cool climate wineries and members of six external audience groups who evangelized on behalf of their emerging winemaking practice. We found that wineries drew from three institutionalized vinicultural templates - provenance, hedonic, and glory - to craft rituals designed to convert these audience members. These rituals led to inspiring emotional experiences among audience members with receptive gourmand and regional identities, driving them to engage in evangelistic behaviors. While a growing body of work on evangelists has emphasized their individual characteristics, the role of emotions in driving their activities, as well as how they advocate for organizations, our study demonstrates how evangelism can be built through ritualized interactions with organizations. Specifically, we reveal how organizations develop rituals that translate emerging practices into inspiring emotional experiences for particular members of audiences. This suggests that rituals can be used not only to incite dedication within organizational boundaries, but to inspire members of external audiences to act as social conduits through which emerging practices spread.
    March 18, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0092   open full text
  • Beyond Lobbying Expenditures: How Lobbying Breadth and Political Connectedness Affect Firm Outcomes.
    Jason Ridge, Amy Ingram, Aaron Hill.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 15, 2016
    Firms are increasingly emphasizing lobbying, yet the theoretical rationale explaining the firm-level implications of lobbying remains limited and the empirical evidence contradictory. In particular, extant research largely focuses on aggregate expenditures, suggesting that more lobbying nets firm benefits (typically measured as firm performance). We argue that focusing solely on aggregate expenditures largely ignores how expenditures are targeted and the connections of firms doing the targeting and, as such, that exploring such factors both will add to our understanding of the theoretical mechanisms underlying lobbying and help clarify contradictory results. Specifically, we argue that a lobbying strategy consists of the amount of agencies and legislation targeted (lobbying breadth) and firms' connections in political circles (political connectedness). Empirical results support our contentions that lobbying breadth and political connectedness affect the benefits firms receive from lobbying, which we operationalize using both government contracts and Tobin's Q. Our results support our theoretical arguments that more is not always better in the case of lobbying breadth, as the benefits firms accrue via dispersing lobbying across more entities reaches a point of diminishing returns. Further, political connectedness has both a direct effect and interacts with lobbying breadth in determining firm benefits from lobbying.
    March 15, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0584   open full text
  • Institutional Logics and Power Sources: Merger and Acquisition Decisions.
    Henrich Greve, Cyndi Man Zhang.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 14, 2016
    Institutional theory has explained the greater prevalence of many strategic actions by increases in their legitimacy over time, but it has not explained how firms choose among actions backed by competing institutional logics. We address this topic by linking institutional logics with the theory of organizational coalitions and power to predict how such choices are affected both by external influence (through ownership) and by internal influence (through shared decision making). In particular, we analyze how the old state socialism logic and the new market capitalism logic competed to influence Chinese firms' mergers and acquisitions. We find that these institutional logics affected M&A decisions via the coalitions committed to each logic—coalitions whose balance of power reflected the external power source of ownership and the internal power source of board representation. We also find that each coalition's strength changed as the market capitalism logic became more established during China's economic transition, and that investors viewed M&As by firms with high state ownership skeptically.
    March 14, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0698   open full text
  • The Meaning of My Feelings Depends on Who I Am: Work-related Identifications Shape Emotion Effects in Organizations.
    Samantha Conroy, William Becker, Jochen Menges.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 11, 2016
    Theory and research on affect in organizations has mostly approached emotions from a valence perspective, suggesting that positive emotions lead to positive outcomes and negative emotions to negative outcomes for organizations. We propose that cognition resulting from emotional experiences at work cannot be assumed based on emotion valence alone. Instead, building on appraisal theory and social identity theory, we propose that individual responses to discrete emotions in organizations are shaped by, and thus depend on, work-related identifications. We elaborate on this proposition specifically with respect to turnover intentions, theorizing how three discrete emotions - anger, guilt, and pride - differentially affect turnover intentions, depending on two work-related identifications - organizational and occupational identification. A longitudinal study involving 135 pilot instructors reporting emotions, work-related identifications, and turnover intentions over the course of one year provides general support for our proposition. Our theory and findings advance emotion and identity theories by explaining how the effects of emotions are dependent on the psychological context in which they are experienced.
    March 11, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.1040   open full text
  • Why and When Does the Gender Gap Reverse? Diversity Goals and the Pay Premium for High Potential Women.
    Lisa M. Leslie, Colleen Manchester, Patricia Dahm.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 10, 2016
    Abundant research documents a gender pay gap; women earn less than men, all else being equal. Against the backdrop of an overall female penalty, we propose that the widespread adoption of diversity goals in organizations creates a female premium for certain women. We integrate the economic principle of supply and demand with theory from the field of strategic human resource management and theorize that individuals perceive high potential women—who have the abilities needed to reach the upper echelons of organizations, where women remain underrepresented—as more valuable for achieving organizational diversity goals than high potential men and, in turn, reward them with higher pay. Two field studies (Studies 1 & 3) and two laboratory experiments (Studies 2 & 4) reveal a female premium that is unique to high potential women (Studies 1 & 2), driven by perceptions that high potential women have more diversity value than high potential men (Studies 2 & 4), and larger in contexts where diversity goals are stronger (Studies 3 & 4). Our theory and findings challenge the assumption that the gender pay gap uniformly disadvantages women and offer new insight into why and when the female penalty reverses and becomes a female premium.
    March 10, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0195   open full text
  • Forgone, But Not Forgotten: Toward A Theory Of Forgone Professional Identities.
    Otilia Obodaru.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 08, 2016
    Through an inductive, qualitative study, I develop a process model of how people deal with professional identities they have forgone by choice or constraint. I show that when forgone professional identities are linked to unfulfilled values people look for ways to enact them and retain them in the self-concept. I further identify three strategies that people use to enact foregone professional identities: real enactment (i.e., enacting the forgone identity through real activities and social interactions either at work or during leisure time), imagined enactment (i.e., enacting the forgone identity through imagined activities and interactions, either in an alternate present or in the future), and vicarious enactment (i.e., enacting the forgone identity by observing and imagining close others enacting it and internalizing these experiences). These findings expand our conceptualization of professional identity beyond identities enacted through activities and interactions that are part of formal work roles, and illuminate the key role of imagination and vicarious experiences in identity construction and maintenance.
    March 08, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0432   open full text
  • Evaluating Novelty: The Role Of Panels In The Selection Of R&D Projects.
    Paola Criscuolo, Linus Dahlander, Thorsten Grohsjean, Ammon Salter.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 08, 2016
    Building on a unique, multi-source, and multi-method study of R&D projects in a leading professional service firm, we develop the argument that organizations are more likely to fund projects with intermediate levels of novelty. That is, some project novelty increases the share of requested funds received, but too much novelty is difficult to appreciate and is selected against. While prior research has considered the characteristics of the individuals generating project ideas, we shift the focus to panel selectors and explore how they shape the evaluation of novelty. We theorize that a high panel workload reduces panel preference for novelty in selection, whereas a diversity of panel expertise and a shared location between panel and applicant increase preference for novelty. We explore the implications of these findings for theories of innovation search, organizational selection, and managerial practice.
    March 08, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0861   open full text
  • Does diversity-valuing behavior result in diminished performance ratings for nonwhite and female leaders?
    David R. Hekman, Stefanie Johnson, Maw Der Foo, Wei Yang.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 03, 2016
    We seek to help solve the puzzle of why top-level leaders are disproportionately white men. We suggest that this race- and sex-based status and power gap persists, in part, because ethnic minority and women leaders are discouraged from engaging in diversity-valuing behavior. We hypothesize and test in both field and laboratory samples that ethnic minority or female leaders who engage in diversity-valuing behavior are penalized with worse performance ratings; whereas white or male leaders who engage in diversity-valuing behavior are not penalized for doing so. We find that this divergent effect results from traditional negative race and sex stereotypes (i.e. lower competence judgments) placed upon diversity-valuing ethnic minority and women leaders. We discuss how our findings extend and enrich the vast literatures on the glass ceiling, tokenism, and workplace discrimination.
    March 03, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0538   open full text
  • The Impact Of Ceo Succession With Gender Change On Firm Performance And Successor Early Departure: Evidence From China's Publicly Listed Companies In 1997 2010.
    Zhang, Y. A., Qu, H.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 28, 2016
    Female corporate leadership has drawn increasing attention from academia and practitioners. We contribute to the literature by examining the impact of CEO succession with gender change—i.e., a male CEO succeeded by a female or vice versa. We propose that due to gender differences in executive leadership positions, CEO succession with gender change may amplify the disruption of the CEO succession process and thus adversely affect post-succession firm performance and increase the likelihood of successor early departure. Using data from 3,320 CEO successions in companies listed in China's Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges from 1997 to 2010, we find evidence to support this argument. We also find that the negative (positive) impact of male-to-female succession on firm performance (the likelihood of successor early departure) may be weakened by positive organizational attitudes toward female leadership as indicated by the presence of other female leaders on the firm's board of directors and/or top management team, and the successor's inside origin.
    February 28, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0176   open full text
  • When Job Performance is All Relative: How Family Motivation Energizes Effort and Compensates for Intrinsic Motivation.
    Jochen I. Menges, Danielle V. Tussing, Andreas Wihler, Adam Grant.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 25, 2016
    Supporting one's family is a major reason why many people work, yet surprisingly little research has examined the implications of family motivation. Drawing on theories of prosocial motivation and action identification, we propose that family motivation increases job performance by enhancing energy and reducing stress, and it is especially important when intrinsic motivation is lacking. Survey and diary data collected across multiple time points in a Mexican maquiladora generally support our model. Specifically, we find that family motivation enhances job performance when intrinsic motivation is low—in part by providing energy, but not by reducing stress. We conclude that supporting a family provides a powerful source of motivation that can boost performance in the workplace, offering meaningful implications for research on motivation and the dynamics of work and family engagement.
    February 25, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0898   open full text
  • Artful and contorted coordinating: The ramifications of imposing formal logics of task jurisdiction on situated practice.
    Kathleen Pine, Melissa Mazmanian.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 25, 2016
    Ongoing coordination is the backbone of work process and organizational effectiveness. Coordinating requires that interdependent specialists achieve integrating conditions for coordination—including understanding who is accountable for carrying out a given task, how a sequence of action should proceed, and how one's work fits into the whole on an ongoing basis. Navigating the inevitable disconnect between formal logics of action and the specifics of the local context and situation at hand is a hallmark of effective coordinating. Nevertheless, as work systems designed to direct action with a heavy hand are increasingly implemented in organizations, the disconnect between formal delineations and situated practice is transformed with large negative consequences for organizations. Through 16 months of empirical research using ethnographic methods surrounding implementation of an Electronic Health Records (EHR) system in a hospital obstetric unit, we find that the EHR rendered what was once a productive disconnect between formal logics and situated practice into an unproductive disconnect. Further, this shift engendered a new form of ongoing coordinating. What was once 'artful coordinating' - in which clinicians across occupations drew upon on formal logics, local context and situated contingencies as resources to action and, in so doing, created conditions of predictability and informal accountability - became 'contorted coordinating,' characterized by working around formal logics of the EHR while struggling to meet the demands of local context and situated contingencies and, in so doing, undermining predictability.
    February 25, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0315   open full text
  • Signaler credibility, signal susceptibility, and relative reliance on signals: How stakeholders change their evaluative processes after violation of expectations and rehabilitative efforts.
    David Gomulya, Yuri Mishina.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 22, 2016
    Prior studies have shown that violation of expectations might lead to less favorable evaluations. However, literature remains silent on whether and how the process by which stakeholders evaluate a firm could change subsequent to the violation. Drawing from signaling/screening theory, we examine how evaluative processes might change in the context of financial restatements. We find that investors appear to shift their relative reliance on particular signals in determining a firm's stock price following an earnings restatement. These changes are at least partly reversed following the replacement of an incumbent CEO. We further find that these evaluative changes differ depending on the severity of the violation.
    February 22, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.1041   open full text
  • Health Systems In Transition: Professional Identity Work In The Context Of Shifting Institutional Logics.
    Yiannis Kyratsis, Rifat Atun, Nelson Phillips, Paul Tracey, Gerard George.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 22, 2016
    We investigate how established professionals manage their identities in the face of identity threats from a contested shift in the professional logic that characterizes their field. To do so, we draw on interviews with 113 physicians from five European transition countries who faced pressure for change in their professional identities due to a shift in the logic of healthcare from a logic of "narrow specialism" in primary care that characterized the Soviet health system to a new logic of "generalism" that characterizes primary care in the West. We found three important forms of professional identity threats experienced by physicians during this period - professional values conflict, status loss, and social identity conflict. In addition, we identified three forms of identity work - authenticating, reframing, and cultural repositioning - that the professionals who successfully transitioned to the new identity performed in order to reconstruct their professional identities so that they were aligned with the new logic. Based on these findings, we present a model of how established professionals change their professional identities as a result of a contested shift in the professional logic of their field and discuss the underlying mechanisms through which this occurs.
    February 22, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0684   open full text
  • Moral Symbols: A Necklace Of Garlic Against Unethical Requests.
    Sreedhari Desai, Maryam Kouchaki.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 19, 2016
    This paper investigates whether by exposing superiors to moral symbols subordinates can discourage their superiors from asking them to perform unethical acts. Findings from five laboratory studies and one organizational survey study demonstrated that exposure to moral symbols displayed by the subordinates dissuades superiors from both engaging in unethical behaviors themselves and asking their subordinates to engage in unethical behavior. This paper shows that the display of moral symbols leads to two main consequences of (1) the activation of the concept of morality and increases in individuals' moral awareness to decrease unethical behavior, and (2) eliciting inferences about the moral character of the displayer to lower the likelihood of that person being subjected to unethical directives. Additionally, our findings demonstrate that moral symbols influence ethical decisions despite the powerful positions of superiors and do not bring hidden backlash effects against those who display them. In sum, our findings show that followers can serve as a form of social influence to guide their leader's behavior and reduce the occurrence of unethical acts in the workplace.
    February 19, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2015.0008   open full text
  • Negotiating the Challenges of a Calling: Emotion and Enacted Sensemaking in Animal Shelter Work.
    Kira Schabram, Sally Maitlis.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 09, 2016
    An important and underexamined issue in the study of callings concerns the challenges people face in pursuing a calling and how they negotiate those challenges. This process may be especially intense and consequential because callings involve work that is rooted in people's values and that matters a great deal to them. Drawing on narrative interviews with 50 animal shelter workers, we identify three different "calling paths" that evolve as employees respond to the challenges they encounter. While all individuals in our study entered animal shelter work with similar passion and purpose, and faced similar kinds of challenges, those on different paths interpreted challenges differently, had different emotional responses to them, engaged in different kinds of enacted sensemaking, and developed different accounts of themselves and their guiding purpose, through which they interpreted subsequent challenges. The result was the emergence of three increasingly divergent calling paths over time, culminating in different emotional, psychological and behavioural outcomes. Based on these findings, we develop a model of the recursive process through which individuals negotiate the challenges of a calling, contributing to the literatures on callings and employee responses to workplace challenges.
    February 09, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0665   open full text
  • Is Consistently Unfair Better than Sporadically Fair? An Investigation of Justice Variability and Stress.
    Fadel K Matta, Brent Scott, Jason Colquitt, Joel Koopman, Liana Passantino.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 09, 2016
    Research on organizational justice has predominantly focused on between-individual differences in average levels of fair treatment experienced by employees. Recently, researchers have also demonstrated the importance of considering dynamic, within-individual fluctuations in fair treatment experienced by employees over time. Drawing on uncertainty management theory, we merge these two streams of research and introduce the concept of justice variability, which captures between-person differences in the stability of fairness over time. Contrary to the intuitive notion that more fairness is always better, our work shows that being treated consistently unfairly can be better for employees than being treated fairly sometimes and unfairly other times. Specifically, in a lab study, variably fair treatment resulted in greater physiological stress than both consistently fair and consistently unfair treatment. In a multi-level, experience-sampling field study, we replicated the positive association between justice variability and stress, and we also showed that justice variability exacerbated the positive, daily relationship between general workplace uncertainty and stress. Moreover, daily stress mediated the effects of justice variability on daily job dissatisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Finally, we showed that supervisors with more self-control tended to be less variable in their fair treatment over time.
    February 09, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0455   open full text
  • Imprinting through inheritance: A multi-genealogical study of entrepreneurial proclivity.
    Shmuel Ellis, Barak Aharonson, Israel Drori, Zur Shapira.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 01, 2016
    We offer an organizational lineage-inheritance theoretical framework for understanding the longevity of imprinting effects of two consecutive eras with distinct environmental conditions, values and norms. Adopting a genealogical approach, we find that era-based imprinting is contingent on lineage-based transmissions. Era-based initial conditions strongly influence the entrepreneurial proclivity of the first generation of firms but have no influence on subsequent generations, and each generation is influenced by the entrepreneurial proclivity of the former. We show two mediation effects and one moderation effect, supporting our theoretical argument that the longevity of imprinting effects is due to heredity processes: (1) The effect of era-based initial conditions on the entrepreneurial proclivity of the second generation is mediated by the entrepreneurial proclivity of the first generation. The effect of the entrepreneurial proclivity of the first generation on the third-generation entrepreneurial proclivity is mediated by the entrepreneurial proclivity of the second generation. (2) A mismatch between the mental models of the knowledge-transmitting agents (the founders) and the knowledge-receiving agents (organization members - prospective entrepreneurs) moderates the effect of the entrepreneurial proclivity of one generation on the entrepreneurial proclivity of the next.
    February 01, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0150   open full text
  • Whose Call to Answer: Institutional Complexity and Firms' CSR Reporting.
    Xiaowei Luo, Danqing Wang, Jianjun Zhang.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 21, 2016
    While research on the disclosure of CSR (corporate social responsibility) recognizes the influence of government regulations and guidelines, less attention has been given to the co-existence of conflicting pressures from the state. We develop a framework wherein CSR reporting is viewed as an organizational response to institutional complexity that arises from the conflicting demands from central and local government, and apply it to publicly listed firms in China after the central government agencies issued guidelines on CSR reporting. Some provincial governments' high priority on short-term GDP growth created tension with the central government's expectation on CSR reporting. Firms with attributes that increase scrutiny from both institutional constituencies experienced heightened tension, and they responded with early adoption but low-quality reports. Our framework was supported through a longitudinal analysis between 2008 and 2011. Our study contributes to the literature on CSR disclosure by uncovering the impact of conflicting government pressures, and advances research on institutional complexity by identifying a specific decoupling response.
    January 21, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0847   open full text
  • Too much of a good thing? The dual effect of public sponsorship on organizational performance.
    Julien Jourdan, Ilze Kivleniece.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 14, 2016
    Existing research provides contradictory insights on the effect of public sponsorship on the market performance of organizations. We develop the nascent theory on sponsorship by highlighting the dual and contingent nature of the relationship between public sponsorship and market performance. By arguing that sponsorship differentially affects resource accumulation and allocation mechanisms, we suggest two opposing firm-level effects, leading to an inverted U-shaped relationship between the amount of public sponsorship received and the market performance of sponsored organizations. This non-linear relationship, we argue, is moderated by the breadth, depth and focus of the focal organization's resource accumulation and allocation patterns. While horizontal scope (i.e. increased breadth) and externally oriented resource profile (i.e. reduced depth) strengthen the relationship, market orientation (i.e. increased focus) attenuates it. We test and find strong support for our hypotheses using population data on French film production firms from 1998 to 2008. Our work highlights the performance trade-offs associated with public sponsorship, and carries important managerial and policy implications.
    January 14, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.1007   open full text
  • From Good Soldiers To Psychologically Entitled: Examining When And Why Citizenship Behavior Leads To Deviance.
    Kai Chi Yam, Anthony Klotz, Wei He, Scott Reynolds.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 12, 2016
    Research has consistently demonstrated that organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) produce a wide array of positive outcomes for employees and organizations. Recent work, however, suggests that employees often engage in OCBs not because they want to but because they feel they have to, and it is not clear if OCBs performed for external motives have the same positive effects on individuals and organizational functioning as do traditional OCBs. In this paper, we draw from self-determination and moral licensing theories to suggest a potential negative consequence of OCB. Specifically, we argue that when employees feel compelled to engage in OCB by external forces, they will subsequently feel psychologically entitled for having gone above and beyond the call of duty. Furthermore, these feelings of entitlement can act as moral credentials that psychologically free employees to engage in both interpersonal and organizational deviance. Data from two multi-source field studies and an online experiment provide support for these hypotheses. In addition, we demonstrate that OCB-generated feelings of entitlement transcend organizational boundaries and lead to deviance outside of the organization.
    January 12, 2016   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0234   open full text
  • Why and When Leader's Affective States Influence Employee Upward Voice.
    Wu Liu, Zhaoli Song, Xian Li, Zhenyu Liao.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 28, 2015
    Although researchers have argued that employees often carefully examine social contexts before speaking up to leaders, the role of leaders' affective states has received little attention. The current research addresses this important issue from an emotion-as-social-information perspective by exploring whether, why, and when leaders' affect influences employees' voice behavior. By collecting data of 640 daily interactions from both sides of 85 leader-employee dyads using the experience sampling method (ESM) through mobile surveys, we found that leaders' positive affect was positively related to employees' voice behavior. Furthermore, such a relationship could be accounted for through employees' psychological safety directly via emotional contagion mechanism (through employees' own positive affect) but not directly via signaling mechanism (through employees' assessment of leaders' positive affect), and the effects of both employees' own positive affect and their assessments of leaders' positive affect on psychological safety were stronger when the leader-member exchange relationship was weak. Interestingly, we also found that leaders' negative affect was positively related to employees' voice, but neither emotional contagion nor signaling mechanisms explained this effect. These findings highlight the important role of leaders' affect in the voice process and also provide insights for when employees would choose to speak up to their leaders.
    December 28, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1082   open full text
  • Is Love All You Need? The Effects of Emotional Culture, Suppression, and Work-family Conflict on Firefighter Risk Taking and Health.
    Olivia O'Neill, Nancy Rothbard.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 15, 2015
    In this paper, we build and test theory about the emotional cultures of prototypically masculine organizations. A qualitative study of fire stations in a major metropolitan area revealed that the emotional cultures of firefighting units were defined by two emotions: joviality and companionate love. In addition, emotion suppression, work-family conflict, risk taking and health problems emerged as central themes. A multi-rater survey study of fire fighters across multiple units found that cultures characterized by both high joviality and high companionate love were associated with decreased risk taking behavior outside of work. Additionally, emotion suppressors who experienced high work-family conflict reported more risk taking behavior outside of work. Suppressors who experienced higher work-family conflict reported more health problems in strong cultures of joviality, but fewer health problems in strong cultures of companionate love. Longitudinal exploratory analyses of objective performance indicators revealed that although units characterized by strong joviality had better response times, they were also more likely to have auto accidents and property loss than units weak in joviality, with some evidence that companionate love might attenuate risky behavior on the job. Our findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of masculinity, emotions, and organizational culture.
    December 15, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0952   open full text
  • Knowledge Exchange Processes in Multicultural Teams: Linking Organizational Diversity Climates to Teams' Effectiveness.
    Aida Hajro, Cristina Gibson, Markus Pudelko.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 14, 2015
    We developed an evidence-based model illuminating team knowledge exchange processes as a key link between organizational diversity climate and the effectiveness of multicultural teams (MCTs). Our analysis is based on 143 in-depth interviews and extensive observations of team interactions that occurred in 48 teams from 11 companies. Our findings revealed that teams that oscillated between assertive and cooperative knowledge exchange processes were more effective. We also found such dual processes were more prevalent in organizations that had an engagement-focused diversity climate characterized by utilization of diversity to inform and enhance work processes based on the assumption that cultural differences give rise to different knowledge, insights, and alternative views. Based on our findings we developed specific propositions about optimizing MCT knowledge-exchange processes to guide future research and practice.
    December 14, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0442   open full text
  • Maintaining the Values of a Profession: Institutional Work and Moral Emotions in the Emergency Department.
    April Wright, Raymond Zammuto, Peter Liesch.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 30, 2015
    Specialization within professions creates challenges for maintaining the macro-level values of the profession in the everyday work of specialists at the micro level inside organizations. Conducting a qualitative study of Emergency Department physicians and their interactions with other hospital specialists, we show how specialists maintain professional values through two distinct processes of institutional work in which moral emotions - emotions linked to the interests of others - play a key role. The first process is activated when a perceived episodic problem, which arises from value conflicts in interactions between different specialists, elicits transitory moral emotions that motivate institutional maintenance work through individual action. The second process is activated when a perceived systemic problem, which arises from conflict between professional values writ large and organizational practices, elicits moral emotions that are enduring and shared across specialists. These emotions mobilize collective action in institutional maintenance work that changes the organizational practice. By focusing on values as a source of conflict and a motive for professional action inside organizations, our model contributes a nuanced understanding to the everyday work of professionals and specialists and draws attention to emotion elicitors and emotional scope as affective mechanisms in processes of institutional work.
    November 30, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0870   open full text
  • How do entrepreneurial founding teams allocate task positions?
    HeeJung Jung, Balagopal Vissa, Michael Pich.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 30, 2015
    How do founding team members allocate task positions when launching new ventures? Answering this question is important because prior work shows both that founding team members often have correlated expertise, thus making task position allocation problematic; and initial occupants of task positions exert a lingering effect on venture outcomes. We draw on status characteristics theory to derive predictions on how co-founders' specific expertise cues and diffuse status cues drive initial task position allocation. We also examine the performance consequences of mismatches between the task position and position occupant. Qualitative fieldwork combined with a quasi-experimental simulation game and an experiment provides causal tests of the conceptual framework. We find that co-founders whose diffuse status cues of gender (male), ethnicity (white) or achievement (occupational prestige or academic honors) indicated general ability were typical occupants of higher ranked positions, such as CEO role, within the founding team. In addition, specific expertise cues that indicated relevant ability predicted task position allocation. Founding teams created more financially valuable ventures when task position occupants' diffuse status cues were typical for the position; nonetheless position occupants with high diffuse status cues also appropriated more of the created value. Our results inform both entrepreneurship and status characteristics literature.
    November 30, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0813   open full text
  • To Thine Own Self Be True?: Facades Of Conformity, Values Incongruence, And The Magnifying Impact Of Leader Integrity.
    Patricia Hewlin, Tracy L. Dumas, Meredith Burnett.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 05, 2015
    When employees feel that their values do not match the organization's values, they often respond by pretending to fit in. We examine how leader integrity influences the tendency to create facades of conformity, proposing that employees will actually fake more when leaders are principled. In a laboratory experiment (Study 1), undergraduate students whose values ostensibly differed from their discussion group members and the university administration created more facades when they perceived the discussion group leader as having high integrity. A two-wave survey of employed adults (Study 2), replicated the moderation effect and also revealed negative effects of facade creation on work engagement. In both studies, our results indicate that, ironically, when leader integrity is high, the tendency to create facades of conformity in response to low values congruence is magnified. Additionally, our findings shed light on the notion that positive attributes in leaders may not always result in positive responses from followers. The results from our study also show that facades of conformity may serve as a partial explanatory mechanism in the relationship between values congruence and employee engagement.
    November 05, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0404   open full text
  • Whatever it takes to win: Rivalry increases unethical behavior.
    Kilduff, G., Galinksy, A., Gallo, E., Reade, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 30, 2015
    This research investigates the link between rivalry and unethical behavior. We propose that people will be more likely to engage in unethical behavior when competing against their rivals than when competing against non-rival competitors. Across an archival study and a series of experiments, we found that rivalry was associated with increased unsportsmanlike behavior, use of deception, and willingness to employ unethical negotiation tactics. We also explored the psychological underpinnings of rivalry, which help to illuminate how rivalry differs from general competition and why it increases unethical behavior. The data reveal a serial mediation pathway whereby rivalry heightens the psychological stakes of competition (by increasing actors' contingency of self-worth and status concerns), which leads them to adopt a stronger performance approach orientation, which then increases unethical behavior. These findings highlight the importance of rivalry as a widespread, powerful, yet largely unstudied phenomenon with significant organizational implications. They also help to inform when and why unethical behavior occurs within organizations, and demonstrate that the effects of competition are dependent upon relationships and prior interactions between actors.
    October 30, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0545   open full text
  • How do firms adapt? A fuzzy-set analysis of the role of cognition and capabilities in U.S. defense firms' responses to 9/11.
    Vergne, J.-p., Depeyre, C.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 19, 2015
    How do firms adapt? In recent years, this old question has been given new answers—albeit partial ones. On the one hand, cognition scholars have emphasized managerial attention to environmental change as a key driver of adaptation. On the other hand, dynamic capabilities scholars have underscored the role of asset reconfigurations implemented amidst shifting environments. However, the explanatory powers of the two perspectives have not yet been assessed comparatively. We use fuzzy-set analyses of U.S. defense firms' responses to 9/11 to model the two perspectives as potentially competing or complementary, but our findings suggest that neither dynamic capabilities nor superior cognition must be present for firms to adapt. Instead, we identify four types of adapters (anticipative, responsive, opportunistic, and decisive), as well as the possibility of strategic non-adaptation. These results lead us to reassess the cognition and capabilities literatures and to outline a new, integrative framework to explain adaptation.
    October 19, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1222   open full text
  • The Quest for Originality: A New Typology of Knowledge Search and Breakthrough Inventions.
    Jung, H. J., Lee, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 15, 2015
    We re-examine firm exploration leading to breakthrough inventions by focusing on a new dimension of knowledge search: the search of originality. We conceptualize firm search types with two distinct dimensions⎯search target and search boundary⎯and propose contrasting effects of the search boundary in which firms search prior original knowledge on the propensities for firms to create path-breaking novelties and high-impact breakthroughs. In particular, we demonstrate that searching original knowledge and incorporating it into research and development makes local search outperform boundary-spanning search in generating high-impact breakthroughs. We argue that this advantage of local search arises from the originality that firms search and revitalize. We find robust support from the analysis of U.S. firm nanotechnology patents between 1980 and 2006. Our findings highlight the importance of searching original knowledge and the benefit of local search in creating breakthrough inventions, thereby suggesting a refinement of the conventional framework of knowledge search.
    October 15, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0756   open full text
  • Green by Comparison: Deviant and Normative Transmutations of Job Search Envy in a Temporal Context.
    Brian R. Dineen, Michelle Duffy, Christine Henle, KiYoung Lee.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 15, 2015
    We propose a novel temporal-based theory of how a painful social comparative emotion - job search envy - transmutes as deviant or normative job search behaviors (resume fraud or search effort). We theorize that as job searches progress across time or discrete events, temporal-based pressure increases via perceptions that situations are less changeable or more critical, propelling envious job seekers toward deviant rather than normative search behavior. We propose that market-based pressure, deriving from employment opportunity perceptions, further moderates these effects. In a first study of unemployed job seekers, after more search time passes, job search envy relates to deviant search behavior. Market pressure further qualifies this relationship, although contrary to our prediction, lower market pressure exacerbates rather than attenuates the relationship. Study 2, a two-year study of graduate students engaged in internship and full-time job searches, focuses on event-based temporal pressure and mostly replicates the Study 1 findings. It also indicates that under lower event and market pressures, job seekers expend more effort but do not commit resume fraud in response to job search envy. Overall, we conclude that job search envy transmutes differently depending on temporal- and market-based contingencies and discuss future research possibilities.
    October 15, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0767   open full text
  • Effects of Employees' Positive Affective Displays on Customer Loyalty Intentions: An Emotions-As-Social-Information Perspective.
    Ze Wang, Surendra Singh, Yexin Li, Sanjay Mishra, Maureen Ambrose, Monica Biernat.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 15, 2015
    Employees' positive affective displays have been widely used as a strategic tool to enhance service experience and strengthen customer relationships. Companies have primarily focused their employee training programs on two dimensions of display—intensity and authenticity. Yet there is limited research on when, how, and why these two dimensions affect customer reactions. Drawing on the Emotions as Social Information (EASI) framework (Van Kleef, 2009), we develop a conceptual model in which display intensity and display authenticity differentially influence customer loyalty by changing customers' affective reactions and cognitive appraisals. Further, we propose that the relative impact of either dimension depends on customers' motivation to understand the environment deeply and accurately (i.e., their epistemic motivation). We tested our model in one field study and one laboratory study. Results across these two studies provide consistent support for the proposed model and advance our understanding about how different dimensions of employees' positive affective displays enhance customer reactions. Thus, findings of this research contribute to knowledge on the interpersonal effects of emotions in customer-employee interactions.
    October 15, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0367   open full text
  • Managing Coordination in Multiteam Systems: Integrating Micro and Macro Perspectives.
    de Vries, T., Hollenbeck, J., Davison, R., Walter, F., Van der Vegt, G.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 01, 2015
    Multiteam systems (i.e., teams of teams) are frequently used to deal with complex and demanding challenges that require several teams' joint efforts. Yet, achieving effective horizontal coordination across component teams in these systems remains difficult. Using insights from organizational behavior research, we argue that horizontal coordination between component teams can benefit if a multiteam system is composed of generalist members acquainted with the multiple functions present in the overall system (i.e., high intrapersonal functional diversity; IFD). At the same time, however, such IFD may have detrimental side-effects, because generalists' broad focus may distract them from high-impact, specialized activities (i.e., aspirational behavior). Building on insights from organization theory, we propose that coordination across a multiteam system's hierarchical layers (i.e., vertical coordinated action between a team tasked with system-wide integration and task-specialized component teams) is critical for reaping IFD's benefits while avoiding its costs. These notions were supported in a sample of 236 fourteen-person multiteam systems engaged in a realistic decision-making simulation. Our findings illustrate how combining insights from organizational behavior and organization theory can advance academic knowledge on multiteam systems and offer practical solutions for managing such systems.
    October 01, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0385   open full text
  • The Dark Side of Board Political Capital: Enabling Blockholder Rent Appropriation.
    Sun, P., Hu, H. W., Hillman, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 28, 2015
    Resource dependence theorists argue that boards of directors with political capital can benefit focal firms by reducing uncertainty and providing preferential resources. Here, we develop theory regarding the downside of board political capital. As the principal-principal agency problem characterizes many parts of the world, we argue that board political capital can exacerbate this problem by enabling large blockholders to undertake more appropriation of firm wealth. Further, we explore how this enabling effect is moderated by ownership-, industry-, and environment-level contingencies. We find empirical support for our arguments using 32,174 directors in 1,046 Chinese listed firms over the period 2008 - 2011. Our study sheds light on new ways in which resource dependence and agency theories can be integrated to advance the extant research on board governance and corporate political strategy.
    September 28, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0425   open full text
  • Dual Directors and the Governance of Corporate Spinoffs.
    Feldman, E. R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 14, 2015
    This paper investigates how "dual directors" enable firms that undertake corporate spinoffs to manage their post-spinoff relationships with the firms they divest, as well as the performance implications of dual directors serving simultaneously on these companies' boards. While the presence of dual directors is positively associated with the average stock market returns of parent and spinoff firms, their presence is increasingly positively associated with parent firm performance but increasingly negatively associated with spinoff firm performance as the share of sales a spinoff firm makes to its parent firm rises. These findings show that while dual directors give a parent firm power over its spinoff firm, dual directors only exercise that power at the spinoff firm's expense when that company is highly dependent on its parent firm.
    September 14, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0552   open full text
  • An Approach/Avoidance Framework of Workplace Aggression.
    Ferris, D. L., Yan, M., Lim, V., Chen, Y., Fatimah, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 10, 2015
    The number of constructs developed to assess workplace aggression has flourished in recent years, leading to confusion over what meaningful differences exist (if any) between the constructs. We argue that one way to frame the field of workplace aggression is via approach/avoidance principles, with various workplace aggression constructs (e.g., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining, and workplace ostracism) differentially predicting specific approach or avoidance emotions and behaviors. Using two multi-wave field sample of employees, we demonstrate the utility of approach/avoidance principles in conceptualizing workplace aggression constructs, as well as the processes and boundary conditions through which they uniquely influence outcomes. Implications for the workplace aggression literature are discussed.
    September 10, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0221   open full text
  • Creative, Rare, Entitled, and Dishonest: How Commonality of Creativity in One's Group Decreases an Individual's Entitlement and Dishonesty.
    Vincent, L., Kouchaki, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 03, 2015
    We examine when and why creative role identity causes entitlement and unethical behaviors and how this relationship can be reduced. We found that the relationships among the creative identity, entitlement, and dishonesty are contingent on the perception of creativity being rare. Four experiments showed that individuals with a creative identity reported higher psychological entitlement and engaged in more unethical behaviors. Additionally, when participants believed that their creativity was rare compared to common, they were more likely to lie for money. Moreover, manipulation of rarity of creative identity, but not practical identity, increased psychological entitlement and unethical acts. We tested for the mediating effect of psychological entitlement on dishonesty using both measurement of mediation and experimental causal chain approaches. We further provide evidence from organizations. Responses from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads demonstrated that employees reporting strong creative identities who perceived creativity as rare in their work-group rather than common were rated as engaging in more unethical behaviors by their supervisors. This paper extends prior theory on negative moral consequences of creativity by shedding new light on assumption regarding the prevalence of creativity and the role psychological entitlement plays.
    September 03, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.1109   open full text
  • Come Aboard! Exploring the Effects of Directorships in the Executive Labor Market.
    Boivie, S., Graffin, S., Oliver, A. G., Withers, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 28, 2015
    In this study, we examine the question: What do executives gain from serving on boards? We propose that board service will benefit non-CEO level executives in the executive labor market by acting as a certification mechanism and also by providing access to unique knowledge, skills, and connections. We argue that non-CEO executives who gain directorships will be more likely to be promoted to CEO both inside and outside their home firm, will be more likely to be promoted internally, and will receive higher pay from their home firms. To test our ideas, we employ propensity score matching to construct a longitudinal sample of 2,104 top executives of large, publicly traded companies in the United States over the period 1996 to 2012. Results provide consistent support for our theory.
    August 28, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0840   open full text
  • Stories About Values And Valuable Stories: A Field Experiment Of The Power Of Narratives To Shape Newcomers' Actions.
    Martin, S. R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 20, 2015
    This study draws on social identity theories of behavioral contagion and research concerning narratives in organizations to present and test a framework for understanding how narratives embed values in organizational newcomers' actions. Employing a field experiment using 632 newly-hired employees in a large IT firm that prioritizes self-transcendent values, this study explores how narratives varying in terms of the organizational level of main characters and the values-upholding or values-violating behaviors of those characters influence newcomers' tendencies to engage in behaviors that uphold or deviate from the values. Results indicate that stories about low-level organizational characters engaging in values-upholding behaviors are more positively associated with self-transcendent, helping behaviors and negatively associated with deviant behaviors, than are similar stories about high-level members of the organization. Stories in which high-level members of the organization violate values are negatively related to newcomers' engagement in both helping and deviance more strongly than are values-violating stories about lower-level members. Content analyses of the stories suggest that they convey values in different and potentially important ways. Implications, future directions, and limitations are discussed.
    August 20, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0061   open full text
  • Engaged and productive misfits: How job crafting and leisure activity mitigate the negative effects of value incongruence.
    Vogel, R., Rodell, J. B., Lynch, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 20, 2015
    The work life of misfits - employees whose important values are incongruent with the values of their organization - represents an under-researched area of the person-environment fit literature. The unfortunate reality is that these individuals are likely to be disengaged and unproductive at work. In this manuscript, we entertain the possibility that employees can protect themselves from this situation if they engage in alternative actions that supplement the fundamental needs that go unmet from value incongruence. We integrate theorizing about the motivational role of need fulfillment and work/non-work behaviors in order to examine whether two actions in particular - job crafting and leisure activity - can potentially mitigate the negative effects of value incongruence on employee performance. In a field study of employees from diverse organizations and industries, the results suggest that both job crafting and leisure activity indeed act as a buffer, mitigating the otherwise negative effects of value incongruence on employee engagement and job performance (both task performance and citizenship behavior).
    August 20, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0850   open full text
  • Beginning's end: How founders psychologically disengage from their organizations.
    Rouse, E. D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 18, 2015
    Exit is a critical part of the entrepreneurial process. At the same time, research indicates that founders are likely to form strong identity connections to the organizations they start. In turn, when founders exit their organizations, the process of psychological disengagement might destabilize their identities. Yet, limited research addresses how founders experience exit or how they manage their identities during this process. Through a qualitative, inductive study of founders of technology-based companies, I developed a theoretical model of founder psychological disengagement that delineates how founder work orientations relate to the disengagement paths that founders follow when leaving one organization and starting another. In elaborating theory on psychological disengagement, this study has implications for understanding the psychology of founders, how founders exit and begin again, and psychological disengagement, more broadly.
    August 18, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1219   open full text
  • Delays On The Road To Prosperity: How Firms Realign Through Structural Recombination When Faced With Turbulence.
    Karim, S., Carroll, T., Long, C.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 18, 2015
    This paper examines when firms pursue structural realignment through the recombination of business units. Our results refine and extend contingency theory and studies of organization design by drawing on theories of decision avoidance and delay to describe conditions when firms pursue or postpone structural realignment. Our empirical analysis of 46 firms from 1978 to 1997 operating within the U.S. medical device and pharmaceutical sectors demonstrates that while decision makers initiate structural recombination during periods of industry growth (i.e., munificence), they reduce their recombination efforts during periods of industry turbulence (i.e., dynamism) and managerial turbulence (i.e., growth in top management team size). We also find evidence that firms delay realignment and bide their time for better environmental conditions of declining turbulence and industry growth before pursuing more structural realignment. Together, these findings suggest that decision makers often delay initiating structural recombination until they can effectively process information and assess how structural changes will help them realign the organization to the environment.
    August 18, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0409   open full text
  • My Family Made Me Do It: A Cross Domain, Self Regulatory Perspective On Antecedents To Abusive Supervision.
    Courtright, S., Gardner, R., Smith, T., McCormick, B., Colbert, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 06, 2015
    Drawing on resource drain theory, we introduce self-regulatory resource (ego) depletion stemming from family-to-work conflict (FWC) as an alternative theoretical perspective on why supervisors behave abusively toward subordinates. Our two-study examination of a cross-domain antecedent of abusive supervision stands in contrast to prior research, which has focused primarily on work-related factors that influence abusive supervision. Further, our investigation shows how ego depletion is proximally related to abusive supervision. In the first study, conducted at a Fortune 500 company and designed as a lagged survey study, we found that after controlling for alternative theoretical mechanisms, supervisors who experience FWC display more abusive behaviors toward subordinates, and that this relationship was stronger for female supervisors and for supervisors who operate in environments with greater situation-control. These results were then replicated and expanded in an experience sampling study using a multi-organization sample of supervisors. This allowed us to study the FWC-abusive supervision relationship as it emerges on a day-to-day basis and to examine ego depletion as an explanatory mechanism. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that FWC is associated with abusive supervision, ego depletion acts as a mediator of the FWC-abusive supervision relationship, and that gender and situation-control serve as moderators.
    August 06, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1009   open full text
  • Misfit and Milestones: Structural Elaboration and Capability Reinforcement in the Evolution of Entrepreneurial Top Management Teams.
    Ferguson, A. J., Cohen, L., Burton, M. D., Beckman, C. M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 20, 2015
    We examine how top management team (TMT) misfit, defined as discrepancies between the TMT's functional roles and the qualifications of the managers who fill those roles, affects the evolution of TMT composition and structure in a longitudinal study of entrepreneurial ventures. We distinguish two types of misfit - overqualification and underqualification - and study how each is associated with TMT changes. We further consider the moderating effect of firm development. Results reveal that underqualified TMTs hire new managers to reinforce existing capabilities whereas overqualified TMTs elaborate their role structures. However, achieving developmental milestones (i.e., obtaining venture capital funding and staging an initial public offering) is a critical contingency to TMT change: absent these milestones, firms neither hire new managers nor add roles, even when they seemingly need to do so. These findings contribute to knowledge of how TMTs and new ventures evolve by underscoring the importance of simultaneously attending to TMT composition and structure.
    July 20, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0526   open full text
  • Pull the Plug or take the Plunge: Multiple Opportunities and the Speed of Venturing Decisions in the Australian Mining Industry.
    Rene M. Bakker, Dean Shepherd.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 16, 2015
    Effectively capturing opportunities requires rapid decision-making. We investigate the speed of opportunity evaluation decisions by focusing on firms' venture termination and venture advancement decisions. Experience, standard operating procedures, and confidence allow firms to make opportunity evaluation decisions faster; we propose that a firm's attentional orientation, as reflected in its project portfolio, limits the number of domains in which these speed-enhancing mechanisms can be developed. Hence firms' decision speed is likely to vary between different types of decisions. Using unique data on 3,269 mineral exploration ventures in the Australian mining industry, we find that firms with a higher degree of attention toward earlier-stage exploration activities are quicker to abandon potential opportunities in early development but slower to do so later, and that such firms are also slower to advance on potential opportunities at all stages compared to firms that focus their attention differently. Market dynamism moderates these relationships, but only with regard to initial evaluation decisions. Our study extends research on decision speed by showing that firms are not necessarily fast or slow regarding all the decisions they make, and by offering an opportunity evaluation framework that recognizes that decision makers can, in fact often do, pursue multiple potential opportunities simultaneously.
    July 16, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1165   open full text
  • Flourishing Via Workplace Relationships: Moving Beyond Instrumental Support.
    Colbert, A., Bono, J., Purvanova, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 13, 2015
    In a series of qualitative and quantitative studies, we developed a model of the functions of positive work relationships, with an explicit focus on the role that these relationships play in employee flourishing. Stories that employees told about positive relationships at work revealed that relationships serve a broad range of functions, including the traditionally-studied functions of task assistance, career advancement, and emotional support, as well as less studied functions of personal growth, friendship, and the opportunity to give to others. Building on this taxonomy, we validated a scale - the Relationship Functions Inventory - and developed theory suggesting differential linkages between the relationship functions and outcomes indicative of employee flourishing. Results revealed unique associations between functions and outcomes, such that task assistance was most strongly associated with job satisfaction, giving to others was most strongly associated with meaningful work, friendship was most strongly associated with positive emotions at work, and personal growth was most strongly associated with life satisfaction. Our results suggest that work relationships play a key role in promoting employee flourishing, and that examining the differential effects of a taxonomy of relationship functions brings precision to our understand of how relationships impact individual flourishing.
    July 13, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0506   open full text
  • Knowledge Inheritance, Vertical Integration And Entrant Survival In The Early U.S. Auto Industry.
    Argyres, N., Mostafa, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 10, 2015
    A key finding in the literature on industry evolution and strategy is that knowledge "inherited" from the founder's previous employer can be an important source of a new firm's capabilities. We analyze the conditions under which knowledge that is useful for carrying out a key value chain activity is inherited, and explore the mechanism through which such an inheritance shapes an entrant's strategies and, in the process, influences its performance. Evidence from the early U.S. auto industry indicates that employee spinoffs generated from incumbents that had integrated a key value chain activity were also more likely to integrate that activity than other entrants, which, we suggest, reflects the application of knowledge inheritance relative to that activity. Moreover, we find that the integration of this key activity, stimulated by knowledge inheritance, contributed to the establishment of defensible strategic positioning, thereby enhancing the survival duration of inheriting spinoffs. We thus link together the phenomena of knowledge inheritance, vertical integration, and strategic positioning to explain entrant performance. These three phenomena tend to be treated disparately in the literature, rather than in combination.
    July 10, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0180   open full text
  • Managing The Risks Of Proactivity: A Multilevel Study Of Initiative And Performance In The Middle Management Context.
    Glaser, L., Stam, W., Takeuchi, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 09, 2015
    Drawing on theories of behavioral decision making and situational strength, we developed and tested a multilevel model that explains how the performance outcomes of personal initiative tendency depend on the extent of alignment between organizational control mechanisms and proactive individuals' risk propensities. Results from a sample of 383 middle managers operating in 34 business units of a large multinational corporation indicated that risk propensity weakens the positive relationship between personal initiative tendency and job performance. This negative moderating effect was further amplified when middle managers receive high job autonomy but was attenuated in business units with a strong performance management context. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on proactivity, risk taking, and organizational control.
    July 09, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0177   open full text
  • When In Rome, Look Like Caesar? Investigating The Link Between Demand Side Cultural Power Distance And Ceo Power.
    Krause, R., Filatotchev, I., Bruton, G.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 06, 2015
    Agency theory-grounded research on boards of directors and firm legitimacy has historically viewed CEO power as de-legitimating, often taking this fact for granted in theorizing about external assessors' evaluations of a firm. With few exceptions, this literature has focused exclusively on capital market participants (e.g., investors, securities analysts) as the arbiters of a firm's legitimacy and has accordingly assumed that legitimate governance arrangements are those derived from the shareholder-oriented prescriptions of agency theory. We extend this line of research in new ways by arguing that customers also externally assess firm legitimacy, and that firms potentially adjust their governance characteristics to meet customers' norms and expectations. We argue that the cultural-cognitive institutions prevalent in customers' home countries influence their judgments regarding a firm's legitimacy, such that firms competing heavily in high-power distance cultures are more likely to have powerful CEOs, with CEO power a source of legitimacy—rather than illegitimacy—among customers. We also argue that the more dependent a firm is on its customers and the more salient cultural power distance is as a demand-side institutional norm, the greater this relationship will be. Data from 151 U.S. semiconductor and pharmaceutical firms over a 10-year period generally support our predictions.
    July 06, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0532   open full text
  • When Experts Become Liabilities: Domain Experts on Boards and Organizational Failure.
    Almandoz, J., Tilcsik, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 01, 2015
    How does the presence of domain experts on a corporate board—directors whose primary professional experience is within the focal firm's industry—affect organizational outcomes? We argue that under conditions of significant decision uncertainty, a higher proportion of domain experts on a board may detract from effective decision making and thus increase the probability of organizational failure. Building on exploratory interviews with board members and CEOs, we derive hypotheses from this argument in the context of local banks in the United States. We predict that the greater the level of decision uncertainty—due to rapid asset growth or operation in less predictable markets—the stronger the relationship between the proportion of banking expert directors and the probability of bank failure. Longitudinal analyses of 1,307 banks between 1996 and 2012 support this prediction, even after accounting for both the overall level of professional diversity among directors and banks' different propensities to have an expert-heavy board. We discuss implications for the key dimensions of board composition, the conditions under which the professional background of directors is more or less consequential, and the mechanisms whereby board composition affects organizational outcomes.
    July 01, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1211   open full text
  • How does leader humility influence team performance? Exploring the mechanisms of contagion and collective promotion focus.
    Owens, B., Hekman, D. R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 29, 2015
    Using data from 607 subjects organized in 161 teams (84 laboratory teams and 77 organizational field teams), we examined how leader humility influences team interaction patterns, emergent states, and team performance. We developed and tested a theoretical model arguing that when leaders behave humbly, followers emulate their humble behaviors, creating a shared interpersonal team process (collective humility). This collective humility in turn creates a team emergent state focused on progressively striving toward achieving the team's highest potential (collective promotion focus), which ultimately enhances team performance. We tested our model across three studies wherein we manipulated leader humility to test the social contagion hypothesis (Study 1), examined the impact of humility on team processes and performance in a longitudinal team simulation (Study 2), and tested the full model in a multistage field study in a health services context (Study 3). The findings from these lab and field studies collectively supported our theoretical model, demonstrating that leader behavior can spread via social contagion to followers, producing an emergent state that ultimately affects team performance. Our findings contribute to the leadership literature by suggesting the need for leaders to lead by example, and showing precisely how a specific set of leader behaviors influence team performance, which may provide a useful template for future leadership research on a wide variety of leader behaviors.
    June 29, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0660   open full text
  • What Do I Take With Me?: The Mediating Effect Of Spin Out Team Size And Tenure On The Founder Firm Performance Relationship.
    Agarwal, R., Campbell, B., Franco, A., Ganco, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 29, 2015
    We extend the knowledge-based perspective to consider the impact of spin-out founders on knowledge transfer to new ventures. We argue that existing theory largely ignores the founder's role as team catalyst who mobilizes a team and transmits the team's knowledge to a new venture. We address this gap by building theory on the role of a spin-out founder as a facilitator of co-mobility, and whose impact on firm outcomes is mediated by the size and organizational experience of the recruited team. The support for our hypotheses, through use of linked employee-employer US Census data from the legal services industry, has theoretical and practical implications for the knowledge-based view and human resource strategies for both existing and entrepreneurial firms.
    June 29, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0853   open full text
  • Cooperation Vs Competition: Alternative Goal Structures For Motivating Groups In A Resource Scarce Environment.
    Kistruck, G., Lount, R., Smith, B., Bergman, B., Moss, T.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 25, 2015
    There is a growing consensus that cooperative goal structures are more effective at motivating groups than competitive goal structures. However, such results are based largely on studies conducted in highly-controlled settings where participants were provided with the necessary resources to accomplish their assigned task. In an attempt to extend the boundary conditions of current theoretical predictions, we undertook a field experiment within a base-of-the-pyramid setting where resource scarcity is extremely high. Specifically, we collected data on 44 communities within rural Sri Lanka who were tasked with contributing a portion of their resources to the construction of a school building; 24 were assigned to a competition condition and 20 to a cooperation condition. The results of our field experiment, and subsequent follow-up interviews and focus groups, collectively suggest that competitive goal structures generally lead to higher levels of motivation within a resource scarce environment. However, our results also suggest that cooperative goal structures can be highly motivating when groups are unfamiliar with one another, as cooperating with unfamiliar groups can provide access to valuable and rare knowledge within such settings.
    June 25, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0201   open full text
  • When Justice Promotes Injustice: Why Minority Leaders Experience Bias When They Adhere to Interpersonal Justice Rules.
    Zapata, C., Carton, A., Liu, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 17, 2015
    Accumulated knowledge on organizational justice leaves little reason to doubt the notion that organizational members benefit when leaders adhere to interpersonal justice rules. However, upon considering how justice behaviors influence subordinates' cognitive processes, we predict that interpersonal justice has a surprising, unintended negative consequence. Supervisors who violate interpersonal justice rules trigger subordinates to search for reasons why their supervisors are threatening them, causing subordinates to be more attuned to supervisors' individual characteristics and therefore unlikely to use stereotypes when evaluating them. In contrast, supervisors who adhere to interpersonal justice rules allow subordinates to divert attention away from them, leading subordinates' judgments of their supervisors to be influenced by stereotypes. Consistent with these predictions, in a survey we found that minority supervisors faced bias relative to Caucasian supervisors when supervisors adhered to—but not when they violated—interpersonal justice rules. We replicated this effect in an experiment and established that it is explained by an alternating pattern of stereotype activation and inhibition: participants viewed minority supervisors to be more deceitful than Caucasians when supervisors adhered to—but not when they violated—interpersonal justice rules. We then conducted exploratory analyses and identified one factor (unit size) that mitigates this troubling pattern.
    June 17, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0275   open full text
  • Better Together? Signaling Interactions in New Venture Pursuit of Initial External Capital.
    Plummer, L. A., Allison, T. H., Connelly, B. L.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 17, 2015
    After new ventures have exhausted the limited financial resources of founders, family, and friends, they often pursue initial external capital. To secure investment, entrepreneurs can signal about their venture's latent potential by aligning themselves with reliable third parties. Such affiliations affirm the new venture's legitimacy and provide substantive benefits in the form of mentoring, access to resources, and ongoing monitoring. However, early stage financing is an especially "noisy" signaling environment owing to the large number of startups seeking funding, many of which will not survive. The real value of third party affiliations in this context resides in their ability to unlock the potential of other more pedestrian signals, such as the entrepreneur's characteristics and actions that might otherwise go unnoticed. We borrow from the sensemaking literature to explain how third party affiliation signals disambiguate signals with multiple possible interpretations so that potential investors interpret them positively. Findings support our theory that a startup's characteristics and actions are signals that remain relatively unnoticed unless a startup combines them with a third party affiliation that enhances the signal's value, thus increasing the likelihood of receiving external capital.
    June 17, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0100   open full text
  • Coordinating Knowledge Creation In Multidisciplinary Teams: Evidence From Early Stage Drug Discovery.
    Ben-Menahem, S., von Krogh, G., Erden, Z., Schneider, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 16, 2015
    Based on a multi-year field study of early-stage drug discovery project teams at a global pharmaceutical company, this paper examines how multidisciplinary teams engaged in knowledge creation combine formal and informal coordination mechanisms when faced with unpredictable interdependencies among specialists' knowledge domains. While multidisciplinary teams are critical for knowledge creation in increasingly specialized work environments, the coordination literature has been divided with respect to the extent to which such teams rely on formal coordination structures and informal coordination practices. Our findings show that when interdependencies among knowledge domains are dynamic and unpredictable, specialists design self-managed (sub-)teams around collectively held assumptions about interdependencies based on incomplete information (conjectural interdependencies). These team structures establish the grounds for informal coordination practices that enable specialists to both manage known interdependencies and reveal new interdependencies. Newly revealed interdependencies among knowledge domains, in turn, promote structural adaptation. Drawing on these findings, we advance an integrative model explaining how team-based knowledge creation relies on the mutual constitution of formal coordination structures and informal coordination practices. The model contributes to theory on organizational design and practice-based research on coordination in cross-disciplinary knowledge creation.
    June 16, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1214   open full text
  • Different Views Of Hierarchy And Why They Matter: Hierarchy As Inequality Or As Cascading Influence.
    Bunderson, J. S., Van der Vegt, G., Cantimur, Y., Rink, F.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 09, 2015
    Hierarchy is a reality of group life, for humans as well as for most other group-living species. And yet, there remains considerable debate about whether and when hierarchy can promote group performance and member satisfaction. We suggest that progress in this debate has been hampered by a lack of clarity about hierarchy and how to conceptualize it. Whereas prevailing conceptualizations of hierarchy in the group and organization literature focus on inequality in member power or status (i.e., centralization or steepness), we build on the ethological and social network traditions to advance a view of hierarchy as cascading relations of dyadic influence (i.e., acyclicity). We further suggest that hierarchy thus conceptualized is more likely to capture the functional benefits of hierarchy whereas hierarchy as inequality is more likely to be dysfunctional. In a study of 75 teams drawn from a wide range of industries, we show that whereas acyclicity in influence relations reduces conflict and thereby enhances both group performance and member satisfaction, centralization and steepness have negative effects on conflict, performance, and satisfaction, particularly in groups that perform complex tasks. The theory and results of this study can help to clarify and advance research on the functions and dysfunctions of hierarchy in task groups.
    June 09, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0601   open full text
  • Turning Their Pain To Gain: Charismatic Leader Influence On Follower Stress Appraisal And Job Performance.
    LePine, M. A., Zhang, Y., Crawford, E. R., Rich, B. L.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 04, 2015
    We develop and test a theoretical model that explores how individuals appraise different types of stressful job demands and how these cognitive appraisals impact job performance. The model also explores how charismatic leaders influence such appraisal and reaction processes, and by virtue of these effects, how leaders can influence the impact of stressful demands on their followers' job performance. In Study 1 (n = 74 U.S. Marines), our model was largely supported in hierarchical linear modeling analyses. Marines whose leaders were judged by superiors to exhibit charismatic leader behaviors appraised challenge stressors as being more challenging, and were more likely to respond to this appraisal with higher performance. Although charismatic leader behaviors did not influence how hindrance stressors were appraised, they negated the strong negative effect of hindrance appraisals on job performance. In Study 2 (n = 270 U.S. Marines) charismatic leader behaviors were measured through the eyes of the focal Marines, and the interactions found in Study 1 were replicated. Results from multilevel structural equation modeling analyses also indicate that charismatic leader behaviors moderate both the mediating role of challenge appraisals in transmitting the effect of challenge stressors to job performance, and the mediating role of hindrance appraisals in transmitting the effect of hindrance stressors to job performance. Implications of our results to theory and practice are discussed. Keywords: stress, leadership, job performance, multilevel modeling
    June 04, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0778   open full text
  • Spilling Outside the Box: The Effects of Individuals' Creative Behaviors at Work on Time Spent with their Spouses at Home.
    Harrison, S., Wagner, D. T.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 04, 2015
    Most research on creativity describes it as a net positive: producing new products for the organization and satisfaction and positive affect for creative workers. However, a host of anecdotal and historical evidence suggests that creative work can have deleterious consequences for relationships. This raises the question: how does creativity at work impact relationships at home? Relying on work-family conflict and resource allocation theory as conceptual frameworks, we test a model of creative behaviors during the day at work and the extent to which employees spend time with their spouses at home in the evening, using 685 daily matched responses from 108 worker-spouse pairings. Our results reveal that variance-focused creative behaviors (problem identification, information searching, idea generation) lead to a decline in time spent with spouse at home. In contrast, selection-focused creative behaviors (idea validation) lead to an increase in time spent with spouse. Further, openness to experience moderates these relationships. Overall, the results raise questions about the possible relational costs of creative behaviors at work on life at home.
    June 04, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0560   open full text
  • Empowered to Perform: A multi-level investigation of the influence of empowerment on performance in hospital units.
    D'Innocenzo, L., Luciano, M., Mathieu, J., Maynard, T., Chen, G.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 04, 2015
    Psychological empowerment has been studied extensively over the past few decades in a variety of contexts and appears to be especially salient within dynamic and complex environments such as healthcare. However, a recent meta-analysis found that psychological empowerment relationships vary significantly across studies, and there is still a rather limited understanding of how empowerment operates across levels. Accordingly, we advance and test a multi-level model of empowerment which seeks to better understand the unique and synergistic effects between unit and individual empowerment in hospital units. Analysis of data involving 544 individuals in 78 units, collected from multiple sources over three different time periods, revealed that unit empowerment evidenced a synergistic interaction with individual-level psychological empowerment as related to individuals' job performance, as well as an indirect effect on performance via individual empowerment, while controlling for previous performance levels. Notably, these effects were significant at relatively high, but not at relatively low levels of unit empowerment. Furthermore, we found that unit voice climate increased unit empowerment and thereby enhanced individual psychological empowerment. These findings suggest that, in complex and dynamic environments, empowering work units is an important means by which leaders can enhance individuals' performance.
    June 04, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1073   open full text
  • Why are Abusive Supervisors Abusive? A Dual-System Self-Control Model.
    Liang, L. H., Lian, H., Brown, D., Ferris, D. L., Hanig, S., Keeping, L.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 14, 2015
    Building on prior work showing that abusive supervision is a reaction to subordinates' poor performance, we develop a self-control framework to outline when and why supervisors abuse poor performing subordinates. In particular, we argue poor performing subordinates instill in supervisors a sense of hostility towards the subordinate, which in turn leads to engaging in abusive supervision. Within this self-control framework, poor performance is more likely to lead to abusive supervision when (a) the magnitude of the hostility experienced is higher (e.g., for those with a hostile attribution bias), or (b) the translation of hostility into abusive supervision is unconstrained (e.g., for those who are low in trait mindfulness). In two experimental studies with full-time supervisors where we manipulated the independent variable (Study 1) and the mediator (Study 2), and in a multi-wave and multi-source field study with data collected from supervisor-subordinate teams (50 supervisors and 206 subordinates) at two time points (Study 3), we found overall support for our predictions. Implications for how to reduce the occurrence of abusive supervision in the workplace are discussed.
    May 14, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0651   open full text
  • Local Partnering in Foreign Ventures: Uncertainty, Experiential Learning, and Syndication in Cross-Border Venture Capital Investments.
    Liu, Y., Maula, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 14, 2015
    If partnering with local firms is an intuitive strategy with which to mitigate uncertainty in foreign ventures, then why don't organizations always partner with local firms, especially in uncertain settings? We address this question by unbundling the effects of uncertainty in foreign ventures at the venture and country levels. We contend that, while both levels increase the need for partnering with local firms in foreign ventures, country-level uncertainty increases the difficulty of partnering with local firms and decreases the likelihood of such partnerships. We also posit that experiential learning helps firms manage the two types of uncertainty, and thereby reduces the need for partnering—yet, experience in the host country makes partnering more feasible and increases the likelihood of such partnerships. To test our hypotheses, we conceptualize the decision to partner with a local firm in a foreign venture as a multilayered decision, and model it accordingly. Using a global sample of venture capital investments made between 1984 and 2011, we find support for the distinct effects of venture- and country-level uncertainty as well as for corresponding levels of experiential learning. These findings have implications for the literature on cross-border venture capital investment and international business in general.
    May 14, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0835   open full text
  • Doing More With Less: Innovation Input And Output In Family Firms.
    Duran, P., Kammerlander, N., van Essen, M., Zellweger, T.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 01, 2015
    Family firms are often portrayed as an important yet conservative form of organization that is reluctant to invest in innovation; however, at the same time, evidence shows that family firms are still flourishing and that many of the world's most innovative firms are indeed family firms. Our study contributes to disentangling this puzzling effect. We argue that family firms—owing to the family's high level of control over the firm, wealth concentration, and importance of non-financial goals—invest less in innovation but have an increased conversion rate of innovation input into output and, ultimately, a higher innovation output than non-family firms. Empirical evidence from a meta-analysis based on 108 primary studies from 42 countries supports our hypotheses. We further argue and empirically show that the observed effects are even stronger when the CEO of the family firm is a later-generation family member. However, when the CEO of the family firm is the firm's founder, innovation input is higher and, contrary to our initial expectations, innovation output is lower than that in other firms. We further show that the family firm-innovation input/output relationships depend on country-level factors, namely, the level of minority shareholder protection and the education level of the workforce in the country.
    May 01, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0424   open full text
  • Relational changes during role transitions: The interplay of efficiency and cohesion.
    Jonczyk, C., Lee, Y., Galunic, C., Bensaou, B. M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 01, 2015
    This study looks at what happens to the collection of relationships (network) of service professionals during a role transition (promotion to a management role). Our setting is three professional service firms where we examine changes in relations of recently promoted service professionals (auditors, consultants, and lawyers). We take a comprehensive look at the drivers of two forms of network changes - tie loss and tie gain. Looking backward we examine the characteristics of the contact, the relationship, and social structure and identify which forces are at play in losing ties, revealing an overarching tendency for both cohesion and efficiency forces to play a role. Looking forward, we identify the effect of previous network structures that act as a "shadow of the past" and impact the quality of newly gained relations during the role transitions. Findings demonstrate that role transitions are not only influenced by a few key contacts but that the entire (extant) network of professional relationships shapes the way people reconfigure their workplace relations during a role transition.
    May 01, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0972   open full text
  • Temporal Institutional Work.
    Granqvist, N., Gustafsson, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 30, 2015
    Time is inherently present in empirical research on institutional change - most studies sequence actions and events across stages of development, over time. Yet, research has overlooked how temporality, as a negotiated organizing of time, shapes institutional processes, despite that timing, duration, and tenor of relationships are their foundational elements. To unpack the role of temporality in institutions, we examine how actors engage in temporal institutional work - that is, how they construct, navigate, and capitalize on timing norms in their attempts to change institutions. We draw on an inductive study of an institutional project to establish a novel foundation-based university that subsequently came to pace major statewide university reform. We identify three forms of temporal institutional work: entraining - as a top-down, routinized, reproductive form - and constructing urgency, and enacting momentum - both as bottom-up, issue-driven and generative forms. We show that by engaging in these types of work, actors produce windows of opportunity, synchronicity, and irreversibility as shared beliefs about temporality. These beliefs, in turn, shape how the wider institutional change unfolds. Our study shows that temporal institutional work enables institutional change. We discuss the implications for reconceptualizing institutional research from a temporal perspective.
    April 30, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0416   open full text
  • Managing the Consequences of Organizational Stigmatization: Identity Work in a Social Enterprise.
    Tracey, P., Phillips, N.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 27, 2015
    In this inductive study, we shift the focus of stigma research inside organizational boundaries by examining its relationship with organizational identity. To do so, we draw on the case of Keystone, a social enterprise in the East of England that became stigmatized after it initiated a program of support for a group of migrants in its community. Keystone's stigmatization precipitated a crisis of organizational identity. We examine how the identity crisis unfolded, focusing on the forms of identity work that Keystone's leaders enacted in response. Interestingly, we show not only that the internal effects of stigmatization on identity can be managed, but also that they may facilitate unexpected positive outcomes for organizations.
    March 27, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0483   open full text
  • Micro-Foundations of Firm-Specific Human Capital: When Do Employees Perceive Their Skills to be Firm-Specific?
    Raffiee, J., Coff, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 27, 2015
    Drawing on human capital theory, strategy scholars have emphasized firm-specific human capital as a source of sustained competitive advantage. In this study, we begin to unpack the micro-foundations of firm-specific human capital by theoretically and empirically exploring when employees perceive their skills to be firm-specific. We first develop theoretical arguments and hypotheses based on the extant strategy literature, which implicitly assumes information efficiency and unbiased perceptions of firm-specificity. We then relax these assumptions and develop alternative hypotheses rooted in the cognitive psychology literature, which highlights biases in human judgment. We test our hypotheses using two data sources from Korea and the United States. Surprisingly, our results support the hypotheses based on cognitive bias - a stark contrast to the expectations embedded within the strategy literature. Specifically, we find organizational commitment and, to some extent, tenure are negatively related to employee perceptions of the firm-specificity. We also find that employer provided on-the-job training was unrelated to perceived firm-specificity. These findings suggest that firm-specific human capital, as perceived by employees, may drive behavior in ways not anticipated by existing theory - for example, with respect to investments in skills or turnover decisions. This, in turn, may challenge the assumed relationship between firm-specific human capital and sustained competitive advantage. More broadly, our findings may suggest a need to reconsider other theories, such as transaction cost economics, that draw heavily on the notion of firm-specificity and implicitly assume widely shared and unbiased perceptions.
    March 27, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2014.0286   open full text
  • Venture Capital Ownership As A Contingent Resource: How Owner/Firm Fit Influences Ipo Outcomes.
    Lungeanu, R., Zajac, E.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 03, 2015
    This study seeks to contribute to the literature on corporate ownership and firm performance by advancing an expertise-based perspective that views owners as a contingent resource. Specifically, we propose that heterogeneous prior experiences of corporate owners creates identifiable and evolving differences in owner expertise, and that these differences in expertise, when matched appropriately to firms' specific and changing strategic needs, will be a source of value over the life cycle of a firm. We draw from the venture capital (VC) context to identify ex ante the meaningful differences in owner expertise, as well as the firm-specific situations for which we believe a fit/misfit would exist between VC owners and these private firms. We test and find support for our predictions regarding the performance benefits of well-matched owners and firms using an extensive longitudinal dataset of the population of U.S. private firms seeking to go public from 1997 to 2004 and their VC owners. We discuss the implications of our approach as they relate to future research opportunities across the corporate governance, strategy, and entrepreneurship literatures.
    March 03, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0871   open full text
  • Partners in crime: The effects of diversity on the longevity of cartels.
    Bertrand, O., Lumineau, F.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 24, 2015
    Despite the importance of organizational misconduct, we still do not know much about coordinated misconduct between firms. In this study, we get a better understanding of how the profile of the partners involved in cartels affects the longevity of their joint misconduct activities. Drawing upon diversity theory, we leverage a distinction between three types of diversity—i.e., variety of age-based experience, separation in uncertainty avoidance, and power disparity—in collective organisational misconduct between firms and we study their respective influence on the longevity of cartels. Our empirical analysis gives support to our main arguments: the longevity of cartels tends to be increased by the level of variety of age-based experience and power disparity between partners but reduced by their level of separation in uncertainty avoidance. Implications for the literature on organizational misconduct are discussed.
    February 24, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.1209   open full text
  • The Behavioral Theory of the (Governed) Firm: Corporate Board Influences on Organizations' Responses to Performance Shortfalls.
    Desai, V.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 12, 2015
    The Behavioral Theory of the Firm provides a well evidenced perspective on organizational decision making that has influenced a wide array of literatures, including the substantial body of work on organizational change. This literature suggests that organizations are more likely to undertake major changes when their performance declines below aspirations or targets for acceptable performance, but few studies examine how multiple groups of organizational decision makers, each with potentially conflicting interests, might collectively influence this process. To that end, I incorporate theory regarding corporate boards and their role in organizational decision making. I use this integration to suggest that boards with particular characteristics may have interests that do not align with those of the management team when performance shortfalls occur, using their influence to force compromises or compel managers to reconsider particular changes. I find support for the related predictions that increases in board size and equity ownership suppress change when performance drops, although I find no support for similar arguments regarding board turnover. This approach blends the typically distinct but related literatures on performance feedback and corporate governance, and suggests the role that some boards might play in circumventing the momentum for organizational change.
    February 12, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0948   open full text
  • Mediated Sensemaking.
    Strike, V., Rerup, C.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 09, 2015
    We use a multi-case analysis of nine most trusted advisors (MTAs) in six family firms to introduce the concept of mediated sensemaking - the social position, orientation and actions used by a mediator to facilitate adaptive sensemaking which unfolds when someone begins to doubt the sense already made. Our data capture the mediation process through which the MTA helps the Family Business Entrepreneur (FBE) interrupt momentum in sensemaking by slowing down action and facilitating doubt. Interestingly, the FBE has no motive to slow down and doubt his own sensemaking, yet the MTA can induce him to do so. We unpack the social skills and tactics used by the MTA to accomplish this pacing. We synthesize our findings in a grounded theoretical process theory that captures how the MTA facilitates adaptive sensemaking by regulating the pacing and temporality of the FBE's sensemaking. Key words: mediated sensemaking, adaptive sensemaking, most trusted advisor, family firms
    February 09, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0665   open full text
  • A Two Phase Longitudinal Model Of A Turnover Event: Disruption, Recovery Rates, And Moderators Of Collective Performance.
    Hale, D., Ployhart, R., Shepherd, W.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 04, 2015
    Blending theory on collective turnover and group adaptability, this paper develops a two-phase longitudinal model that explains how and why an individual-level turnover event has effects on collective performance. Phase 1 (disruption) is marked by a sudden and negative change in unit-level performance, while Phase 2 (recovery) is marked by a gradual increase in unit performance over time. We further propose that the positional distribution (manager or employee) of the turnover event and the amount of interdependence within the collective will influence the consequences of a turnover event. Using a sample of 524 branches of a U.S. bank, the results largely support the hypotheses as a turnover event leads to an immediate and negative change in branch-level performance. Notably, there is an interaction between manager and employee turnover events that significantly decrease performance. In the recovery period, branches recover more quickly after losing an employee than they do after losing a manager. However, the moderating effect of branch-level interdependence depends on the position, and there is no statistically significant recovery from a manager turnover event within our performance window. These results highlight the insights of the two-phase model and the need to study collective turnover dynamics over time and across different positions.
    February 04, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0546   open full text
  • How Open System Intermediaries Address Institutional Failures: The Case Of Business Incubators In Emerging Market Countries.
    Dutt, N., Hawn, O., Vidal, E., Chatterji, A. K., McGahan, A. M., Mitchell, W.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 15, 2015
    In emerging-market countries, commercial institutions do not always develop quickly or effectively to support ambitious entrepreneurs. How do intermediaries remedy these problems? We address this question by drawing on institutional literatures to develop the concept of open system intermediaries (OSIs). Our research design involves examining business incubators in emerging markets as a form of OSI. Empirically, we examine the relative emphasis that business incubators in emerging-market countries place on developing markets versus developing specific businesses. The study further examines how private, government, academic, and NGO sponsorship of incubators influences the mix of services that incubators provide. In sum, this work contributes to our understanding of how, why, and when intermediaries emerge to address institutional failures.
    January 15, 2015   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0463   open full text
  • Network Defense: Pruning, Grafting, and Closing to Prevent Leakage of Strategic Knowledge to Rivals.
    Hernandez, E., Sanders, W. G., Tuschke, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 27, 2014
    We explore how firms protect themselves from the risks of knowledge spillover to indirectly connected rivals in a network of interorganizational ties. We argue that the safeguards to limit opportunistic behavior by directly linked firms in a dyad, which have been the focus of extant research, are insufficient to overcome extra-dyadic leakage risks. Instead, firms terminate or avoid ties that expose their knowledge to indirectly linked rivals (pruning and grafting) and embed themselves in dense networks (closing) to prevent strategic knowledge spillover. Through a longitudinal study of German board interlocks during 1990-2003, we find that firms are more likely to prune, graft, and close their networks as they accumulate strategic knowledge and as the firms to which they are interlocked increasingly generate indirect ties to competitors, even when controlling for dyadic safeguards discussed by prior research. We capture strategic knowledge by tracking firms' experience in the former Warsaw Pact countries from immediately after the sudden fall of communism in 1990 until 2003. The study introduces indirect links to rivals as a source of knowledge spillover in networks, shows how firms deal with extra-dyadic risks, and provides a defensive explanation for the evolution of network composition and structure.
    May 27, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0773   open full text
  • I put in effort, therefore I am passionate: Investigating the path from effort to passion in entrepreneurship.
    Gielnik, M., Spitzmuller, M., Schmitt, A., Klemann, D., Frese, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 27, 2014
    Most theoretical frameworks in entrepreneurship emphasize that entrepreneurial passion drives entrepreneurial effort. We hypothesize that the reverse effect is also true and investigate changes in passion as an outcome of effort. Based on theories of self-regulation and self-perception, we hypothesize that making new venture progress and free choice are two factors that help to explain why and under which conditions entrepreneurial effort affects entrepreneurial passion. We conducted two studies to investigate our hypotheses. We conducted a weekly field study with 54 entrepreneurs who reported entrepreneurial effort and passion over eight weeks (341 observations). The results showed that entrepreneurial effort predicted changes in entrepreneurial passion. We conducted an experiment (N = 136) to investigate the effect of effort on passion and the underlying psychological processes in a laboratory setting. The results revealed that new venture progress mediated the effect of entrepreneurial effort on passion and that free choice moderated the mediated effect. Overall, our findings provide a new theoretical perspective on the relationship between entrepreneurial effort and passion.
    May 27, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0727   open full text
  • CEO Ideology as an Element of the Corporate Opportunity Structure for Social Activists.
    Briscoe, F., Chin, M. K., Hambrick, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 09, 2014
    In an effort to comprehend activism toward corporations, scholars have proposed the concept of corporate opportunity structure, or the attributes of individual firms that make them more (or less) attractive as activist targets. We theorize that the personal values of the firm's elite decision makers constitute a key element of this corporate opportunity structure. We specifically consider the political ideology, or conservatism vs. liberalism, of the company's CEO as a signal for employees who are considering the merits of engaging in activism. As an initial test of our theory, we examine the formation of LGBT employee activist groups in Fortune 500 companies in the period 1985-2005, during which the formation of such groups was generally perceived to be risky for participants. Using CEOs' records of political donations to measure their personal ideologies, we find strong evidence that the political liberalism of CEOs influences the likelihood of activism. We also find that CEOs' ideologies influence activism more strongly when CEOs are more powerful, when they oversee more conservative (i.e. less liberal) workplaces, and when the social movement is in the early phase of development. In supplemental analyses, we examine instances of recent CEO succession, showing that a new CEO's liberalism relative to the predecessor CEO especially heightens the likelihood of activism. Our theory and findings contribute to research on social movements, corporate stakeholders, and upper echelons. We identify promising future research opportunities in each of those areas.
    May 09, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0255   open full text
  • Fashion with a Foreign Flair: Professional Experiences Abroad Facilitate the Creative Innovations of Organizations.
    Godart, F., Maddux, W., Shipilov, A., Galinsky, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 08, 2014
    The current research explores whether the foreign professional experiences of influential executives predict firm-level creative output. We introduce a new theoretical model, the Foreign Experience Model of Creative Innovations, to explain how three dimensions of executives' foreign work experiences—breadth, depth, and cultural distance—predict an organization's creative innovations, which we define as the extent to which final, implemented products or services are novel and useful from the standpoint of external audiences. We examined 11 years (21 seasons) of fashion collections of the world's top fashion houses and found that the foreign professional experiences of creative directors predicted the creativity ratings of their collections. The results revealed individual curvilinear effects for all three dimensions: moderate levels of breadth and cultural distance were associated with the highest levels of creative innovations, whereas depth showed a decreasing positive effect that never turned negative. A significant three-way interaction shows that depth is the most critical dimension for achieving creative innovations, with breadth and cultural distance important at low but not high levels of depth. Our results show how and why leaders' foreign professional experiences can be a critical catalyst for creativity and innovation in their organizations.
    May 08, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0575   open full text
  • Reinsurance Trading in Lloyd's of London: Balancing Conflicting-yet-complementary Logics in Practice.
    Smets, M., Jarzabkowski, P., Burke, G., Spee, P.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 08, 2014
    Drawing on a year-long ethnographic study of reinsurance trading in Lloyd's of London, this paper makes three contributions to current discussions of institutional complexity. First, we shift focus away from structural and relatively static organizational responses to institutional complexity and identify three balancing mechanisms - segmenting, bridging, and demarcating - which allow individuals to manage competing logics and their shifting salience within their everyday work. Second, we integrate these mechanisms in a theoretical model that explains how individuals can continually keep coexisting logics, and their tendencies to either blend or disconnect, in a state of dynamic tension which makes them conflicting-yet-complementary logics. Our model shows how actors are able to dynamically balance coexisting logics, maintaining the distinction between them, whilst also exploiting the benefits of their interdependence. Third, in contrast to most studies of newly formed hybrids and/or novel complexity our focus on a long-standing context of institutional complexity shows how institutional complexity can itself become institutionalized and routinely enacted within everyday practice.
    May 08, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0638   open full text
  • An Inductive Study Of Feedback Interactions Over The Course Of Creative Projects.
    Harrison, S., Rouse, E.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 05, 2014
    While there is a vast literature on feedback, it is unclear how much traditional prescriptions for feedback apply during creative projects, since creativity often relies on nonlinear and ambiguous work patterns. We conducted an inductive study of feedback meetings in creative projects in two contexts — modern dance and product design — to understand how feedback might influence the development of creative prototypes. Our emergent findings contribute to theory by revealing the interactive nature of feedback - that feedback providers and creative workers co-construct an problem space that provides openings for changing prototypes. Our analysis revealed sets of moves that feedback providers (personalizing, puzzling, measuring, and prescribing) and creative workers (backgrounding, forecasting, and opening) use to interact. We also found evidence that patterns among these moves helped guide one of two responses moves: excavations, when feedback spurs comprehensive changes by prompting creative workers to return to old ideas, and adjustments, when feedback spurs incremental refinements to the prototype. We integrate these findings into a process model that describes how feedback influences creative projects over time.
    May 05, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0737   open full text
  • Who Defers To Whom And Why? Dual Pathways Linking Demographic Differences And Dyadic Deference To Team Effectiveness.
    Joshi, A., Knight, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 28, 2014
    We develop and test predictions about how demographic differences influence dyadic deference in multidisciplinary research teams and how differential patterns of dyadic deference emerge to shape team-level effectiveness. We propose a dual pathway model, which recognizes that two distinct mechanisms - task contributions and social affinity - account for how team members' demographic attributes contribute to deference. And, we propose that the extent to which these different mechanisms are prevalent in a team has implications for the team's research productivity; deference based on social affinity detracts from and deference based on task contributions enhances productivity. Using longitudinal data from a sample of 55 multidisciplinary research teams comprising 619 scientists, we found general support for our conceptual model. Our findings underscore the importance of accounting for multiple interpersonal mechanisms to understand the complex, multilevel nature of deference in teams.
    April 28, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0718   open full text
  • Professional Image Maintenance: How Women Navigate Pregnancy In The Workplace.
    Little, L., Major, V., Hinojosa, A., Nelson, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 28, 2014
    Women now comprise a significant portion of the workforce, making the effects of pregnancy on professional image (others' perceptions of competence and character at work) more salient. Accordingly, opinions as to how pregnant women should manage others' impressions abound (e.g., Noveck, 2012). However, scholars have not substantiated these views because very little research has explored the impression management strategies used by pregnant women or the outcomes of using such strategies. In this paper, we present three studies that develop and test a model of social identity-based impression management (SIM) techniques used by pregnant workers. In Study 1 (N=35), we utilized qualitative methods to identify the motives and strategies used by pregnant women to manage their professional images. In the second study we collected two samples (N=199 and N=133) to develop and validate two scales based on the motives and strategies identified in Study 1. In Study 3 (N=200), we employed a time-lagged design to examine how SIM motives and strategies affect important workplace outcomes: perceived discrimination, burnout, and returning to one's job after maternity leave. Our findings demonstrate both positive and negative outcomes of the motives and strategies women use to manage their images at work when pregnant.
    April 28, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0599   open full text
  • Product Diversification and Financial Performance: The Moderating Role of Secondary Stakeholders.
    Su, W., Tsang, E.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 25, 2014
    The challenges firms face increase with their product diversification levels because different product markets have different sociopolitical issues. We argue that secondary stakeholders as represented by various nonprofit or non-governmental organizations serve as agents mitigating the external constraints embedded within sociopolitical environments. Firms should therefore maintain relationships with different secondary stakeholder scopes commensurate with their product diversification levels in order to enhance financial performance. We use a sample of U.S. Fortune 500 firms during the period from 1996 to 2003 and find that secondary stakeholders play a positive moderating role in the relationship between product diversification and financial performance. Furthermore, this moderating effect is stronger in the case of unrelated diversification than related diversification.
    April 25, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0454   open full text
  • Does West "Fit" With East? In Search Of A Chinese Model Of Person Environment Fit.
    Chuang, A., Hsu, S., Wang, A.-C., Judge, T.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 23, 2014
    Extant theorizing of person-environment (PE) fit is culture-bound in that it focuses predominantly on PE fit phenomena in the Western worlds. We enrich the PE fit literature by exploring the interpretations of PE fit in a dominant Eastern context (Chinese) with a qualitative study. We interviewed 30 Chinese working adults with diverse backgrounds. Findings suggest an integrated Chinese model of PE fit that constitutes five dominant PE fit themes (i.e., competence at work, harmonious connections at work, balance among life domains, cultivation, and realization). In addition, our study finds empirical evidence of both psychological time and diachronic time with regards to PE fit. With respect to cultural grounding, we reason that Confucian relationalism, selfhood, and appropriateness are particularly helpful in explaining our findings. Other implications and future research are discussed.
    April 23, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.1076   open full text
  • How Firms Respond to Financial Restatement: CEO Successors and External Reactions.
    Gomulya, D., Boeker, W.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 14, 2014
    Although past studies have paid considerable attention to firm reputation, few have investigated the actions firms take following a reputation-damaging event. We identify firms involved in financial earnings restatement and examine whether naming a successor CEO with specific qualities serves to signal the seriousness of a firm's efforts to restore its reputation. Using theories of market signaling, we argue that attributes of successor CEOs significantly influence the reactions of key external constituencies. In particular, firms with more severe restatement tend to name successors who have prior CEO or turnaround experience and more elite education. The naming of such successors results in more positive reactions from the stock market, financial analysts, and mass media. We argue that these attributes communicate to stakeholders and the broader public about the CEO's credibility and the firm's efforts.
    April 14, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0491   open full text
  • Weathering A Metalevel Identity Crisis: Forging A Coherent Collective Identity For An Emerging Field.
    Patvardhan, S., Gioia, D., Hamilton, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 09, 2014
    We employed a longitudinal, grounded-theory approach to investigate the occurrence of an identity crisis in an emerging collective of organizations attempting to form a new academic field. The findings indicate that legacy identities and the nested structure of such organizations have implications for the formation of identity at this level. Specifically, the co-evolution of organization-level and collective-level identities, and the interdependencies between the levels, rendered the collective identity formation process as multiphased, complex, contentious and continuously precarious —ultimately leading to an identity crisis that was resolved not by arriving at a "consensual identity," but rather a "coherent identity." The findings contribute to the nascent stream of literature on collective identity beyond the organizational level by explicating identity-work processes involved in the precipitation, manifestation and resolution of an identity crisis in an emerging field.
    April 09, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.1049   open full text
  • Servant Leadership And Serving Culture: Influence On Individual And Unit Performance.
    Liden, R., Wayne, S., Liao, C., Meuser, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 09, 2014
    In a sample of 961 employees working in 71 restaurants of a moderate-sized restaurant chain, we investigated a key tenet of servant leadership theory - that servant leaders guide followers to emulate the leader's behavior by prioritizing the needs of others above their own. We developed and tested a model contending that servant leaders propagate servant leadership behaviors among followers by creating a serving culture, which directly influences unit (i.e., restaurant/store) performance and enhances individual attitudes and behaviors directly and through the mediating influence of individuals' identification with the unit. As hypothesized, serving culture was positively related both to restaurant performance and employee job performance, creativity, customer service behaviors, and turnover intentions, directly and through employee identification with the restaurant. Same source common method bias was reduced by employing five sources of data: employees, restaurant managers, customers, internal audits by headquarters staff, and external audits by a consulting firm.
    April 09, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0034   open full text
  • The Structural Elaboration of Board Independence: Executive Power, Institutional Logics, and the Adoption of CEO-only Board Structures in U.S. Corporate Governance.
    Joseph, J., Ocasio, W., McDonnell, M.-H.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 09, 2014
    This study builds on structural elaboration theory by developing a model to explain the adoption of board structures that appear to conform to the prevailing institutional logic, but that in fact contradict it. We test our theory with the case of CEO-only board structures, a formal increase in board independence that prior research has shown to lead to greater CEO entrenchment rather than increased shareholder value. Using an event history analysis of the Fortune 250 over a 27-year period, we examine three mechanisms that drive its adoption: executive interests, executive power and elaboration opportunities. We show that the CEO-only structure is more likely to occur in firms where a higher proportion of insiders predate the CEO and where the CEO has greater formal power and agenda control. We also find that powerful CEOs are more likely to realize the structural change following institutional opportunities like the passage of Sarbanes Oxley and organizational contingencies like positive changes in firm performance. By exploring the mechanisms leading to the proliferation of the CEO-only structure, our study contributes to socio-political perspectives on corporate governance as well as to theories of institutional logics and structural elaboration.
    April 09, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0253   open full text
  • Collective Organizational Engagement: Linking Motivational Antecedents, Strategic Implementation, and Firm Level Performance.
    Barrick, M., Thurgood, G., Smith, T., Courtright, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 04, 2014
    We present a comprehensive theory of collective organizational engagement, integrating engagement theory with the resource management model. We propose that engagement can be considered an organization-level construct influenced by motivationally focused organizational practices that represent firm-level resources. Specifically, we evaluate three distinct organizational practices as resources--motivating work design, human resource management practices, and CEO transformational leadership--that can facilitate perceptions that members of the organization are as a whole physically, cognitively, and emotionally invested at work. Our theory is grounded in the notion that when used jointly, these organizational resources maximize each of the three underlying psychological conditions necessary for full engagement, namely psychological meaningfulness, safety, and availability. The resource management model also underscores the value of top management team (TMT) members implementing and monitoring progress on the firm's strategy as a means to enhance the effects of organizational resources on collective organizational engagement. We empirically test this theory in a sample of 83 firms and provide evidence that collective organizational engagement mediates the relationship between the three organizational resources and firm performance. Furthermore, we find that strategic implementation positively moderates the relationship between the three organizational resources and collective organizational engagement. Implications for theory, research and practice are discussed.
    April 04, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0227   open full text
  • How Early Implementations Influence Later Adoptions Of Innovation: Social Positioning And Skill Reproduction In The Diffusion Of Robotic Surgery.
    Compagni, A., Mele, V., Ravasi, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 28, 2014
    We report from a multi-level study investigating the diffusion of robotic surgery in the Italian health care system between 1999 and 2010. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods allowed us to link organization-level processes associated with the adoption and implementation of the innovation with its diffusion at population level. Our findings advance our understanding of how early implementations influence later adoptions, by drawing attention to how the search for social gains pushes some peripheral actors to pioneer an innovation, and to engage in practices of dissemination of their experience that constitute these actors as "exemplary users." These practices eventually trigger and support diffusion even in the presence of persisting uncertainty about the technical and economic benefits of the innovation.
    March 28, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.1184   open full text
  • The Dark Side of Socialization: A Longitudinal Investigation of Newcomer Alcohol Use.
    Liu, S., Wang, M., Bamberger, P., Shi, J., Bacharach, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 26, 2014
    Organizational veterans and external stakeholders such as clients often play an important, informal role in newcomer socialization, influencing newcomer cognition and behavior, and providing learning opportunities and social support that facilitate employee adjustment and performance enhancement. However, from a sensemaking perspective, newcomers may also draw insight from stakeholder behavior in order to better understand how to best meet job-related objectives and expectations. These understandings may manifest as performance-related motives, leading to the adoption of risky behaviors that can be detrimental to newcomer health and organizational effectiveness. Using multi-source, multi-level, and longitudinal data, we demonstrate that the alcohol use norms of both organizational veterans and clients are significantly associated with the performance drinking motives of newcomers in sales and client-service teams, suggesting that veteran and client norms signal to newcomers that drinking alcohol is an effective and legitimate means by which to improve job performance. In addition, we demonstrate that performance drinking motives mediate the positive relationship between veteran and client alcohol use norms and newcomers' frequency of work-based heavy drinking. Finally, we find that the frequency of work-based heavy drinking is positively related to newcomer alcohol misuse and mediates the positive relationship between performance drinking motives and newcomer alcohol misuse.
    March 26, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0239   open full text
  • Framing Controversial Actions: Regulatory Focus, Source Credibility, And Stock Market Reaction To Poison Pill Adoption.
    Rhee, E., Fiss, P.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 26, 2014
    We contribute to the research on organizational accounts by examining the role of different framing languages and the frame articulator's credibility on justifying controversial organizational actions. Drawing on regulatory focus theory and the literature on source credibility, we develop novel arguments as to how a gains versus non-losses framing and the perceived speaker credibility influence stakeholder responses as well as how the effectiveness of these aspects is influenced by context. We test our arguments using data on the framing of the adoption of "poison pills" by U.S. firms between 1983 and 2008. Using content analysis and an event study, we find that a gains framing aligned with the dominant institutional logic leads to a positive stock market reaction, while statements emanating from speakers with potentially self-serving interests negatively affect the stock market reaction. Our findings further show that the effectiveness of framing and source credibility are dependent on contextual attributes such as speaker visibility, prior performance, and practice prevalence.
    March 26, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0686   open full text
  • Family- versus lone-founder-controlled public corporations: Social identity theory and boards of directors.
    Cannella, A., Jones, C., Withers, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 26, 2014
    We distinguish between family companies involving multiple family members as owners and/or managers and lone-founder companies involving only the founder and no other family members. We apply social identity theory and organizational identification to elucidate the differences between these two firms and how the differing organizational identities reflect unique desires for control and influence in both types of firms. We then consider how these differences are reflected in the firm's board structure (i.e., directorship interlocks, director experiences, and director tenures). Specifically, we predict that family firms are more likely to interlock with other family firms, select directors with more experience in family firms, and keep directors on their boards longer. Conversely, we predict that family firms are less likely to interlock with lone-founder firms or select directors with experience in lone-founder-controlled firms. Lone-Founder firms follow a similar pattern. We also consider the consequences of family and lone-founder ownership and board structures on the investment behavior of three classes of institutional investors. We test our hypotheses with a sample of publicly-traded corporations between 1991 and 2006, and report strong support for most of our predictions.
    March 26, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0045   open full text
  • Ostracism, Self-esteem, and Job Performance: When do we Self-verify and When do we Self-enhance?
    Ferris, D. L., Lian, H., Brown, D., Morrison, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 24, 2014
    Self-esteem level has been positioned as a key mediating mechanism accounting for the effects of ostracism on behaviors, invoking the notion that individuals seek to verify their self-perceptions by behaving consistent with those self-perceptions. However, evidence supporting the relation of ostracism and self-esteem level to behavioral outcomes has been mixed. We argue that such mixed effects arise because individuals may alternately seek to verify their self-perceptions via behavioral outcomes (suggesting a relation between self-esteem level and behavioral outcomes), or self-enhance via behavioral outcomes regardless of self-esteem level (suggesting no relation between self-esteem level and behavioral outcomes); the larger question is when we self-verify and when we self-enhance. To that end, we position contingent self-esteem - or the extent to which an individual bases their self-worth on outcomes in a particular domain - as a determining factor in whether we self-verify or self-enhance and present a moderated mediation model to account for varying relations between ostracism and job performance. Our predictions regarding self-verification and self-enhancement motivation are fully supported across an experimental pilot study and two field samples using multi-wave, multi-source study designs. Theoretical and practical implications for self-verification and self-enhancement motivation, as well as negative interpersonal behaviors at work, are discussed.
    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0347   open full text
  • Asymmetric Learning Capabilities and Stock Market Returns.
    Yang, H., Zheng, Y., Zaheer, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 24, 2014
    Drawing on the alliance learning literature, we propose that a firm's relative capability to learn partner-specific know-how holds the key to understand the learning race phenomenon and its performance consequences. Specifically, we argue that a firm with higher specific learning capability relative to its partner's will be rewarded with superior stock performance. We also contend that equity alliance governance and market similarity between partners moderate this relationship in opposite directions. Equity alliance governance motivates firms to suppress competitive learning and thus reduces the positive impact of the specific learning capability gap on abnormal stock returns, while market similarity between partners aggravates the learning race and strengthens the positive impact of the specific learning capability gap. Results of an event study on 610 R&D alliances in the US computing and biopharmaceutical industries in the period of 1984-2003 support our hypotheses. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the learning race, its contingencies, and its performance implications.
    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0675   open full text
  • From Support to Mutiny: Shifting Legitimacy Judgments and Emotional Reactions Impacting the Implementation of Radical Change.
    Huy, Q., Corley, K., Kraatz, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 24, 2014
    Based on a three-year inductive study of one organization's implementation of radical or-ganizational change, we examine the critical role played by middle managers' judgments of the le-gitimacy of their top managers as change agents. Our analysis revealed middle managers' shifting judgments of the change agents' legitimacy that arose with their emotional reactions and produced rising resistance to the change effort. Our inductive model illustrates the dynamic, relational, and iterative relationships among change recipients' legitimacy judgments of change agents and arising emotional reactions in various phases of planned change, which explain recipients' emergent re-sistance to the change effort. Our model allows us to contribute to theory on radical organizational change, resistance to change, and legitimacy judgments.
    March 24, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0074   open full text
  • Real Options Logic Revisited: The Performance Effects of Alternative Resource Allocation Regimes.
    Klingebiel, R., Adner, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 17, 2014
    We delineate three dimensions of resource allocation behavior that allow us to distinguish between real options logic and alternative resource allocation regimes: sequencing, low initial commitment, and re-allocation. We then measure these in a product innovation context to test for the performance effect of real options logic vis-à-vis its alternatives. Sequencing, which distinguishes dynamic allocation regimes more generally, is associated with higher new product sales. Low initial commitment and re-allocation do not show individual direct effects on new product sales. However, when assessed as a match, we find that the fit between low initial commitment and re-allocation (yes-yes; no-no) increases performance significantly. After controlling for such fit as well as sequencing, we find no significant performance difference between real options logic and other regimes. Our findings imply that insufficient identification of real options logic picks up confounding effects, which may provide an explanation for the inconclusive results in prior studies of real options and performance. In addition to bounding the concept more precisely, we contribute to theory by situating real options logic within the broader set of allocation regimes conducive to innovation performance in uncertain, competitive markets.
    March 17, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0703   open full text
  • Bridging yesterday, today, and tomorrow: CEO temporal focus, environmental dynamism, and rate of new product introduction.
    Nadkarni, S., Chen, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 13, 2014
    Using a multi-dimensional framework of CEO temporal focus (the degree to which CEOs characteristically devote attention to perceptions of the past, present, and future), we propose that a company's rate of new product introduction (NPI) is predicted by a CEO's focus on each of the three distinct time frames in interaction with environmental dynamism. Based on a longitudinal (from 1996 to 2003) analysis of 221 firms in 19 industries, we show that in stable environments, new products are introduced faster in firms headed by CEOs with high past focus, high present focus and low future focus. In dynamic environments, new products are introduced faster in firms headed by CEOs with low past focus, high present focus and high future focus. These findings demonstrate how CEO temporal attentional bias shapes the rate of NPI.
    March 13, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0401   open full text
  • Substitutes Or Complements? A Configurational Examination Of Corporate Governance Mechanisms.
    Misangyi, V. F., Acharya, A. G.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 12, 2014
    We examine the nature of the relationships among the bundle of governance mechanisms that have been theorized to effectively control the agency problem. To do so, we performed a qualitative comparative analysis using the fuzzy-set approach to study the combinations of governance mechanisms that yield high firm performance among the S&P 1500 firms. Our configurational approach allowed us to explore the complex interrelationships among the many different governance mechanisms and to elaborate theory on the many ways in which they combine. Our study shows that some type of CEO incentive mechanism and some type of monitoring mechanism are always present among firms that achieve high profitability, thereby suggesting that such mechanisms are complements. Our findings also highlight the simultaneity of substitution and complementarity among and across the various monitoring mechanisms. Finally, our findings suggest that the effectiveness of board independence and CEO non-duality, mechanisms widely held to resolve the agency problem, are a function of how they combine with the other mechanisms in the governance bundle.
    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0728   open full text
  • Investor perceptions of financial misconduct: The heterogeneous contamination of bystander firms.
    Paruchuri, S., Misangyi, V. F.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 12, 2014
    We suggest that when one firm reveals financial misconduct, firms in the industry suffer lower valuations, but do so heterogeneously. To understand this heterogeneity, we conceptualize this contamination as a generalization-instantiation process: investors' generalize the culpability to the industry category and perceive the instantiation of generalized culpability within the industry bystander firms. This theoretical separation allows us to hypothesize the factors that affect the degree to which both of these elements of the contamination process occurs. In particular, we predict that characteristics of the misconduct firm or event— factors that lend to investors' familiarity with the misconduct firms or that prompt attributions of blame for the misconduct—affect the potency of the generalization of culpability to the industry while characteristics of the industry bystander firms—investors' familiarity with such firms or factors that lend to investors' perceptions that they have strong governance—affect the firms' vulnerability to being perceived as instantiating the generalized culpability. We tested our hypotheses on a sample of 725 firms across 84 financial misconduct events, and the results of our event analyses broadly support our predictions. Our study thus has implications for future research on the social view of financial markets, organizational misconduct, and corporate governance.
    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0704   open full text
  • Diplomas, Photos, & Tchotchkes as Symbolic Self-Representations: Understanding Employees' Individual Use of Symbols.
    Byron, K., Laurence, G.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 28, 2014
    Most employees personalize their workspaces with photos, memorabilia and other items - even in the face of constraints such as rules prohibiting personalization. This prevalent use of objects likely reveals much about intrapersonal and interpersonal processes at work. By analyzing employee interviews and workspace inventories and observations, we discover that the objects with which employees personalize their workspaces (and even the absence of objects) symbolize who they are and who they want to be. Through their symbolic representations of self, they find common ground (often through shared non-work experiences), establish a common understanding of employees' work roles, and share personalistic information about the self - all of which contribute to relationship development among employees and their coworkers, customers, and clients. With symbolic representations of self that offer an optimal amount of stimulation, they focus their attention on their goals and values and establish a desired boundary or integration between work and nonwork - both of which contribute to employees' self-regulation. Our findings support the importance of examining micro-level processes related to the physical work environment, as we find that employees shape their work environment in ways that affect both their relationships at work and their self-regulatory functions.
    February 28, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0932   open full text
  • Structural power equality between family and non-family TMT members and the performance of family firms.
    Patel, P., Cooper, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 27, 2014
    The upper echelons of publicly traded family firms may consist of family members and non-family members. Due to ownership and control, family members may wield significant influence in the upper echelons. If non-family members lack sources of influence, they could exhibit lower participation. Limited participation by non-family members lowers access to and integration of knowledge from non-family members, thus, lowering the ability to devise strategic actions that increase performance. Drawing on the structural basis of power, greater equality in structural power (or, compensation, status, and representation) across family and non-family TMT members increases performance in family firms. This relationship is stronger under increasing environmental dynamism and higher governance performance but weaker under the presence of a founder CEO. Using a sample of 231 publicly traded family firms representing 1,934 firm-year observations from 2001 to 2010 and controlling for endogeneity, we find support for the proposed relationships.
    February 27, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0681   open full text
  • Why Do Managers Act Fairly In The First Place? A Daily Investigation Of "Hot" And "Cold" Motives And Discretion.
    Scott, B., Garza, A., Conlon, D., Kim, Y. J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 21, 2014
    Although considerable research has focused on employee reactions to organizational justice, far less research has examined why managers adhere to rules of justice in the first place. Taking a proactive approach to organizational justice, we address this void by examining managerial motives for adhering to distributive, procedural, informational, and interpersonal rules of justice on a day-to-day basis. Results of an experience-sampling study of 90 managers who completed daily surveys over a three-week period revealed that both "cold" cognitive (i.e., effecting compliance, identity maintenance, and establishing fairness) and "hot" affective (i.e., high positive affect and low negative affect) motives were associated with managerial adherence to justice rules. Moreover, "cold" motives were more strongly associated with justice rule adherence for justice dimensions over which managers perceive less discretion, while "hot" motives were more strongly associated with justice rule adherence for justice dimensions over which managers perceived greater discretion. We discuss the implications of our findings for both theory and practice.
    February 21, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0644   open full text
  • Dynamic Decision Making: A Model of Senior Leaders Managing Strategic Paradoxes.
    Smith, W.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 19, 2014
    Senior leaders increasingly embed paradoxes in their organization's strategy, but struggle to effectively manage them. To better understand how they do so, I compared in-depth qualitative data from six top management teams exploring and exploiting simultaneously. Results informed a model of dynamic decision making to effectively engage strategic paradoxes. The details of a dynamic decision making model extend and complicate our understanding of managing paradoxes by depicting dilemmas and paradoxes as interwoven, explicating a consistently inconsistent pattern of addressing tensions, and framing differentiating and integrating practices as both necessary for engaging paradox.
    February 19, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0932   open full text
  • Help-seeking and Help-giving as an Organizational Routine: Continual Engagement in Innovative Work.
    Grodal, S., Nelson, A., Siino, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 12, 2014
    Existing literature on help-giving behavior identifies individual-level factors that affect a help-giver's decision to help another individual. Studying a context in which work was highly interdependent and helping was pervasive, however, we propose that the literature's emphasis on the initial point of consent is incomplete. Instead, we find that workplace help-seeking and help-giving can be intertwined behaviors enacted through an organizational routine. Our research, therefore, shifts the theoretical emphasis from one of exchange and cost to one of joint engagement. More specifically, we move beyond the initial point of consent to recast help-seeking and help-giving as an interdependent process in which both the help-seeker and the help-giver use cognitive and emotional moves to engage others and thereby propel the routine forward. In contrast to the existing literature, an organizational routines perspective also reveals that helping need not be limited to dyads and that the helping routine is shaped by the work context in which help is sought. Finally, we extend these insights to the literatures on routines and coordination and debate how our results might generalize even if helping is not part of an organizational routine.
    February 12, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0552   open full text
  • I Need Time! Exploring Pathways To Compliance Under Institutional Complexity.
    Raaijmakers, A., Vermeulen, P., Meeus, M., Zietsma, C.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 28, 2014
    We examined responses to institutional complexity by studying when and how organizations respond to a coercive institutional demand from a powerful constituent when other important constituents do not accept the demand as legitimate. We experimentally manipulated institutional complexity and gauged the time to compliance of 100 childcare managers in the Netherlands, then asked them to describe and explain their anticipated responses to multiple pressures. We found that institutional complexity leads decision makers to delay compliance, but usually not passively: decision makers used the time before compliance to attempt to reduce institutional complexity by neutralizing opposing pressures, challenging the coercive pressure, adapting the practice to suit opponents and their own personal beliefs, and/or waiting to see how the situation would unfold as multiple parties influenced one another. We found two factors influenced decision-makers choice of responses: their interpretation of institutional complexity and their personal beliefs toward the practice itself. Our findings contribute to an emerging understanding of how decision makers interpret and respond to institutional complexity, and complement recent studies in the institutional complexity literature.
    January 28, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0276   open full text
  • If they can do it, why not us? Competitors as reference points for justifying escalation of commitment.
    Hsieh, K.-Y., Tsai, W., Chen, M.-J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 28, 2014
    This study highlights competitive market conditions as an important structural determinant of escalation of commitment. Bridging escalation behavior literature and competitive dynamics research, we argue that reference to certain rivals may enable or disable decision makers to justify continuing investment in an underperforming initiative, thereby influencing a firm's tendency toward escalating commitment. We test our ideas using data on a set of leading companies in the information technology industry and their investment activities in China. Empirical analysis reveals strong evidence that a firm's escalating tendency is increased by larger competitors' high action volume and smaller competitors' positive performance. In contrast to prior research focus on decision makers' persistence irrespective of external cues, we also find that a firm's escalation behavior is decreased by larger rivals' negative performance.
    January 28, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0869   open full text
  • It's what you make of it: Founder identity and enacting strategic responses to adversity.
    Powell, E. E., Baker, T.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 24, 2014
    We conducted a longitudinal field study of 13 resource-constrained founder-run textile and apparel firms to understand how and why firms vary in their strategic responses to the same prolonged period of adversity. We discovered that founders use their firms in large part as vehicles to defend who they are or to become who they want to be. Building on social psychological theories of identity, we develop grounded theory and a process model that contribute to the founder identity literature by explaining why and how differences in the structure of founder identity - the set of identities that is enduringly salient to a founder in her/his day-to-day work - drive patterned differences in their firms' strategic responses. Our theory bridges two formerly disparate streams of identity theory and contributes significantly toward theoretical understanding of founder identity by demonstrating how singular or multiple identities and most importantly, the structure of multiple identities, drives the firm's strategic response. The processes we describe help explain responses to adversity but also provide a platform for research that may generate new insights into the significance for founders of bringing "who I am" into closer alignment with "who I want to be."
    January 24, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0454   open full text
  • Signaling In Secret: Pay For Performance And The Incentive And Sorting Effects Of Pay Secrecy.
    Belogolovsky, E., Bamberger, P.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 13, 2014
    Although the vast majority of U.S. firms follow a policy of pay secrecy, research provides a limited understanding of its overall utility to organizations. Building on signaling theory, we develop and test a model of the incentive and sorting effects of pay secrecy -- a pay communication policy that limits employees' access to pay-related information and discourages the discussion of pay issues - under varying pay-for-performance (PFP) system characteristics. Results of a multi-round laboratory simulation largely support the proposed moderated-mediation model. They indicate that pay secrecy has an adverse impact on individual task performance that is mediated by PFP perceptions and amplified when pay determination criteria are relative (as opposed to absolute) and attenuated when performance assessment is objective (as opposed to subjective). They also indicate that pay secrecy has a similar adverse effect on participant continuation intentions (mediated through PFP perceptions, amplified when pay determination criteria are relative and attenuated when performance assessment is objective), particularly among high performers. These findings suggest that weak signals associated with a particular managerial practice may become salient when interpreted in the context of other practice-based signals, and that under such conditions, even weak signals may drive negative-oriented inferences having important behavioral implications.
    January 13, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0937   open full text
  • Modernizing without westernizing: Social structure and economic action in the Indian financial sector.
    Chen, G., Chittoor, R., Vissa, B.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 09, 2014
    In seeking to understand whether the transition by Asian countries to market economies mirrors the path taken by the West, we ask how embedded network ties between equity analysts and the CEOs of the firms they follow in India influence the accuracy of analysts' earnings forecasts. We contrast traditional institutions of caste and regional language with contemporary institutions such as universities as the locus for such ties. We posit that CEOs from the post-economic-reform generation in India are more likely to transfer material private information via their school ties while pre-reform generation CEOs favor caste or language ties. We then contrast domestic business groups (BGs) with western MNCs as organizational contexts and argue that BGs legitimate the transfer of private information along particularistic ties, whereas MNCs mitigate such transfers. Our conceptual framework is supported by analyses that draw on a sample of 1,552 earnings forecasts issued from 2001 to 2010 by 296 equity analysts. Our findings suggest that the embeddedness perspective should be broadened to incorporate the influence of larger historical social structures within which economic action is embedded, and to view BGs as carriers and repositories that blend modern management practices with particularistic behavioral patterns among top executives.
    January 09, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.1039   open full text
  • Audience Heterogeneity And The Effectiveness Of Market Signals: How To Overcome Liabilities Of Foreignness In Film Exports?
    Kim, H., Jensen, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 09, 2014
    This study extends research on the importance of market signals in international markets for cultural products by examining not only when market signals are important but also what types of market signals are most important to which audiences. We argue specifically that audience heterogeneity influences the effectiveness of commercial performance and artistic acclaim as market signals in international film markets. Audience heterogeneity refers to the differences in the cultural knowledge and preferences of domestic and foreign consumers (end audiences) and product specialization of domestic and foreign distributors (intermediary audiences). Our empirical setting is the European film industry. We use a large sample of films produced and distributed domestically and internationally in Europe between 2004 and 2009. We find that domestic commercial performance and film festival participation increase international film success but also that their effects depend on the cultural distance between countries and the use of major or independent distribution in the domestic and foreign markets.
    January 09, 2014   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0903   open full text
  • Lessons from a Martial Arts Dojo: A Prolonged Process Model of High Context Communication.
    Cole, B. M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 11, 2013
    Rather than treating the context of communication as an exogeneously determined factor, I investigate the extent to which communicators actively utilize context as a vehicle of communication. Focusing on three cases of "physicality norm" violations observed during a five-year ethnographic study of a Japanese martial arts dojo, I document the use of specific context management and content management practices on the part of the instructors to reconcile the situation in which they have found themselves. The prolonged process model of high context communication that I develop shows how communicators manipulate the two key dimensions of the contexting model of communication: the message content (via continuum staggering and continuum straddling) and the shared understandings that constitute the context in which messages are being delivered and interpreted (via context reliance (i.e., time giving) and context non-reliance (i.e., tearing and reprogramming)), and often over extended periods of time.
    December 11, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0986   open full text
  • Let's Dance! Elastic coordination in creative group work: A qualitative study of modern dancers.
    Harrison, S., Rouse, E.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 06, 2013
    Coordination challenges are an inherent part of group work. They are perhaps more daunting for creative work because coordinating creative work requires allowing for dynamics that seem to "pull the group together," or integrate, while also fostering dynamics that "pull the group apart", or de-integrate. During an inductive study of modern dance group rehearsals, these interactions emerged as central to understanding how groups navigate coordinating creative work. Our emergent findings reveal how groups use autonomy and constraints to accomplish elastic coordination, throughout a creative project.
    December 06, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0343   open full text
  • Front Stage And Back Stage Convening: The Transition From Opposition To Mutualistic Co Existence In Organizational Philanthropy.
    Mair, J., Hehenberger, L.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 02, 2013
    Actors who support dissimilar institutional models can overcome conflict and move toward mutually beneficial co-existence. To see how, we studied the emergence of venture philanthropy, a rationalized approach to organizational philanthropy in Europe. Our analysis leverages multiple sources of data and focuses on field-configuring events as settings for interactions. We show how convening—bringing together dissimilar actors—in different types of events creates relational spaces for negotiation over institutional models, their practices, and their underlying assumptions. Front stage interactions in public spaces are important in making models accessible to a broad audience, whereas backstage interactions in protected spaces allow models to be deconstructed. Our findings show that the interplay between front stage and back stage enables the reframing of institutional models by refining the constituent practices, which neutralizes opposition and facilitates joint courses of action. Our results contrast with popular accounts of competing institutional logics, advance organizational research on the role of events in field trajectories, and inform research on organizational philanthropy.
    December 02, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0305   open full text
  • Why do cooperatives emerge in a world dominated by corporations? The diffusion of cooperatives in the U.S. bio-ethanol industry, 1978-2013.
    Boone, C., Ozcan, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. December 02, 2013
    Why do cooperatives continue to emerge given the strong economic disincentives that exist? And why is it that in some communities they are collocated with their commercial counterparts and in others territorial partitioning occurs? In this paper, we develop a community ecology approach that integrates economic and sociological accounts of cooperatives, in an attempt to reconcile these contradictory observations. Using a detailed panel data set for the county-level founding process of cooperatives in the U.S. ethanol industry from 1978 to June 2013, consistent with economic arguments, we find that the founding rate of cooperatives decreases in the presence of high local corporate ethanol production capacity. However, this negative competitive interdependence is attenuated in local communities where: 1) corporations represent a potential threat to the autonomy of local farmers, 2) there is a generally anti-corporate climate, and 3) there is a well-established organizational infrastructure supporting a cooperative ideology. Consistent with sociological theories that emphasize the mobilizing force of ideology, these local conditions spur collective action among farmers to establish cooperatives in response to the local diffusion of corporations. We show further that the diffusion of plants owned by big business (oil and agribusiness) in communities characterized by a general anti-corporate climate, especially promotes greater ideological contestation, and mobilization of resources to form cooperatives.
    December 02, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0194   open full text
  • Hybrid Vigor: Securing Venture Capital By Spanning Categories In Nanotechnology.
    Wry, T., Lounsbury, M., Jennings, P. D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 25, 2013
    This study develops and tests a set of novel theoretical predictions about the conditions under which category spanning hybridization is rewarded by external audiences. To do this, we revisit the assumption that comprehensible organizational identities are associated with individual categories. Drawing on empirically validated insights from the study of composite concepts in cognitive psychology, we suggest that audiences may have clear understandings about how categories fit together and cognate schema for evaluating firms that span between them. Based on an empirical examination of venture capital funding in the carbon nanotube industry, we find that startups were rewarded or punished for hybridization, contingent on how they mixed the categories of 'science' and 'technology' in their patents, top management team, and collaborations. Overall, our results show strong support for a composite concepts approach and suggest that research on categorization processes should attend to how category spanning is not just a matter of degree, but a matter of degree across multiple dimensions that can be mixed in ways that align more or less closely with audience understands of inter-category relationships.
    November 25, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0588   open full text
  • Eliciting Acceptance for 'Illicit' Organizations: The Positive Implications of Stigma for MMA Organizations.
    Helms, W., Patterson, K.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 15, 2013
    This paper explores the positive implications that stigma has for organizations and how it may lead to broader acceptance for them among social audiences. We conduct a qualitative study of stigmatized- but increasingly accepted- mixed martial arts (MMA) organizations and the audiences that evaluated them through an analysis of interviews, media reports, and texts documenting their experiences. We found the following. First, there were three different types of stigma associated with MMA organizations: aesthetic, lawlessness, and harm-based. Second, MMA organizational actors used stigma to their advantage in two, opposing manners. They coopted negative labels to gain the awareness of supportive audiences as well as drew from them to correct negative evaluations held by critical audiences regarding their organizations. This demonstrates that rather than attempting to 'pass as normal' stigmatized organizational actors can actively construct those attributes that are the focus of stigma and persuade audiences to reconsider their negative evaluations rendering their organizations more acceptable.
    November 15, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0088   open full text
  • Nothing succeeds like moderation: A social self-regulation perspective on cultural dissimilarity and performance.
    Guillaume, Y., van Knippenberg, D., Brodbeck, F.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 12, 2013
    Addressing inconsistencies in relational demography research, we examine the relationship between cultural dissimilarity and individual performance through the lens of social self-regulation theory, which extends the social identity perspective in relational demography with the analysis of social self-regulation. We propose that social self-regulation in culturally diverse teams manifests itself as performance monitoring (i.e., individuals' actions to meet team performance standards and peer expectations). Contingent on the status associated with individuals' cultural background, performance monitoring is proposed to have a curvilinear relationship with individual performance and to mediate between cultural dissimilarity and performance. Multilevel moderated mediation analyses of time-lagged data from 316 members of 69 teams confirmed these hypotheses. Cultural dissimilarity had a negative relationship with performance monitoring for high cultural status members, and a positive relationship for low cultural status members. Performance monitoring had a curvilinear relationship with individual performance that became decreasingly positive. Cultural dissimilarity thus was increasingly negatively associated with performance for high cultural status members, and decreasingly positively for low cultural status members. These findings suggest that cultural dissimilarity to the team is not unconditionally negative for the individual but in moderation may in fact have positive motivational effects.
    November 12, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2013.0046   open full text
  • Antecedents of Individuals' Interteam Coordination: Broad Functional Experiences as a Mixed Blessing.
    de Vries, T., Walter, F., Van der Vegt, G., Essens, P.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 31, 2013
    This manuscript investigates the role of individual team members' breadth of functional experience for their interteam coordination behavior. Integrating personal construct and social identity theory, we examine interpersonal cognitive complexity as a mediating variable and organizational identification as a moderator. We test our hypotheses across two independent field studies, comprising an international peace support training mission (Study 1) and a municipality administration (Study 2). Corroborating our predictions, interpersonal cognitive complexity appeared as a conditional mediating variable that can translate an individual's breadth of functional experience into interteam coordination. The strength and direction of this indirect relationship, however, depended on the individual's identification with the organization as a whole. Moreover, on the team-level of analysis, we found members' overall interteam coordination to positively relate with team performance in Study 2. All in all, this manuscript advances new knowledge on the antecedents, mechanisms, contingency factors, and team-level consequences of members' boundary spanning.
    October 31, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0360   open full text
  • Within or without? How firms combine internal and external labor markets to fill jobs.
    Bidwell, M., Keller, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 23, 2013
    We examine which jobs are more likely to be filled by internal mobility (specifically, promotions and lateral transfers) versus hiring. Building off the assumptions of transaction cost accounts of employment, we develop new theory that focuses on the interaction between the problems of evaluating and integrating external hires on the one hand and the incentive costs of failing to promote eligible workers on the other. These arguments lead us to predict how three specific characteristics of jobs - demands for firm-specific skills, performance variability, and supply of internal candidates - affect how those jobs are staffed. Using seven years of personnel data spanning all jobs from the US offices of a large investment bank, we find that jobs with higher performance variability and a larger grade ratio of junior to senior workers are more likely to be filled by internal mobility. We also find evidence that the effects of performance variability are contingent on the grade ratio, only affecting staffing decisions when the firm does not face strong pressures to promote junior workers in order to maintain incentives. Contrary to expectations, we find no effect for firm-specific skills.
    October 23, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0119   open full text
  • Unpacking Social Defenses: A Resource-Dependence Lens on Technology Ventures, Venture Capital, and Corporate Relationships.
    Hallen, B., Katila, R., Rosenberger, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 11, 2013
    Inter-organizational relationships offer many potential benefits, but they also expose firms to dangers, such as misappropriation, that pull partners apart. This tension between collaboration and competition is central to tie formation, especially for young technology-focused firms who have both high need for resources and high appropriability of their own resources. Prior work has examined legal and timing defenses that enable inter-organizational ties; we focus here on social defenses. In a longitudinal study of equity tie formation between young firms and established corporations, spanning 5 technology-based industries and 25 years, we unpack the effects of social defenses and find, intriguingly, that third-party social defenses are particularly significant when more traditional defenses are unavailable. Beyond providing resources and legitimacy, ties with centrally positioned third parties are a critical mechanism whereby young low-power firms can enhance their power in tie formation. Our study also sheds light on how a portfolio of ties helps young technology firms mobilize resources and manage resource vulnerabilities.
    October 11, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0003   open full text
  • Should I Quit My Day Job? A Hybrid Path To Entrepreneurship.
    Raffiee, J., Feng, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 08, 2013
    Research suggests that the risk and uncertainty associated with entrepreneurial activity deters entry and contributes to the high rates of new business failure. In this study we examine how the ability to reduce these risks by means of hybrid entrepreneurship—the process of starting a business while retaining a "day job" in an existing organization—influences entrepreneurial entry and survival. Integrating insights from real options theory with logic from the individual differences literature, findings from survival analysis suggest individuals who are risk-averse and have low core self-evaluation are more likely to enter hybrid entrepreneurship relative to full-time self-employment. In turn, we find that hybrid entrepreneurs who subsequently enter full-time self-employment (i.e., quit their day job) have much higher rates of survival relative to individuals who enter full-time self-employment directly from paid-employment. Adding support to our theory that the survival advantage is driven by a learning effect which takes place during hybrid entrepreneurship, we find the survival advantage to be stronger for individuals with entrepreneurial experience. The implications of these findings for theories of entrepreneurship and real options are discussed.
    October 08, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0522   open full text
  • Abusive Supervision Climate: A Multiple Mediation Model Of Its Impact On Group Outcomes.
    Priesemuth, M., Schminke, M., Ambrose, M., Folger, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 04, 2013
    In this paper we introduce the construct of abusive supervision climate, the collective perceptions employees hold regarding abusive supervision in their work unit. We thereby extend research on abusive supervision to the team level, which allows us to explore its relationship with outcomes not addressed by individual-level theories of abuse. First, we explain the emergence of abusive supervision climate through the lens of social information processing theory. Then, drawing on team process and effectiveness models, we develop a multiple mediation model that identifies two distinct mechanisms by which abusive supervision climate impacts group-level outcomes: social identity and collective efficacy. Results demonstrate that abusive supervision climate influences social- and task-related group outcomes through these two mediation processes.
    October 04, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0237   open full text
  • Toward An Input Based Perspective On Categorization: Investor Reactions To Chemical Accidents.
    Diestre, L., Rajagopalan, N.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 16, 2013
    We build on the literature on categorization to develop and test a model of input-level spillover effects. Our model predicts that when one firm suffers an accident with an input, investors will punish other users of that input by discounting their stocks, and the magnitude of this negative spillover can be predicted by the non-responsible firm's level of input usage. We also hypothesize that the magnitude of the punishment will be moderated by intermediaries' assessments of the input: ex-ante regulatory sanctions on the input will amplify negative spillovers, while the presence of input-level associations will weaken these effects. Finally, we predict that similarity between the responsible and non-responsible firm on two peripheral attributes—input-portfolio and geographic location—will amplify the negative effect of input usage. We find strong support for our predictions in an event study that examines the stock market valuations of 270 non-responsible manufacturing firms triggered by 78 industrial accidents with a toxic chemical. We highlight our study's theoretical and empirical contributions to the categorization and spillover literatures.
    September 16, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.1096   open full text
  • Social Exchange Implications Of Own And Coworkers' Experiences Of Supervisory Abuse.
    Peng, A., Schaubroeck, J., Li, Y.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 16, 2013
    This study examines how the quality of individuals' social exchange relationships with their leaders and separately, their work unit peers, mediate the interactive effects of abusive supervision directed toward themselves (own abusive supervision) and toward their work unit peers (peer abusive supervision) on individual task performance and helping behavior directed toward coworkers. Testing the model using a sample of 358 workers from 25 organizations, we found support for our hypotheses that leader-member exchange (LMX) and affect-based trust in peers each partially mediated the interactive effects of own and peer abusive supervision. Workers who exhibited high levels of task performance and engaged in more helping behaviors tended to have both low own abusive supervision and low peer abusive supervision. Own abusive supervision was unrelated to the behavioral outcomes among workers whose peers were victims of supervisory abuse. We discuss the implications of relational dynamics with peers and one's immediate supervisor for understanding the scope of the impact of abusive supervision on follower outcomes.
    September 16, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0080   open full text
  • Managing to Stay in the Dark: Managerial Self-Efficacy, Ego Defensiveness, and the Aversion to Employee Voice.
    Fast, N., Burris, E., Bartel, C.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 13, 2013
    Soliciting and incorporating employee voice is essential to organizational performance, yet some managers display a strong aversion to improvement-oriented input from subordinates. To help explain this maladaptive tendency, we tested the hypothesis that managers with low managerial self-efficacy (i.e., low perceived ability to meet the elevated competence expectations associated with managerial roles) seek to minimize voice as a way of compensating for a threatened ego. The results of two studies support this idea. In a field study, managers with low managerial self-efficacy were less likely than others to solicit voice, leading to lower levels of employee voice (Study 1). A follow-up experimental study showed that (a) manipulating low managerial self-efficacy led to voice aversion (i.e., decreased voice solicitation, negative evaluations of an employee who spoke up, and reduced implementation of voice), and (b) the observed voice aversion associated with low managerial self-efficacy was driven by ego defensiveness (Study 2). We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings as well as highlight directions for future research on voice, management, and leadership.
    September 13, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0393   open full text
  • The Relational Ecology Of Identification: How Organizational Identification Emerges When Individuals Hold Divergent Values.
    Besharov, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 12, 2013
    This research builds theory about how identification develops when members differ in which organizational values they hold to be important. It is relatively well established that conflict and dis-identification arise under such conditions. In the socially responsible retail company I studied, in contrast, I found identification as well as dis-identification. Both outcomes emerged from members' interactions with others whose values and behaviors differed from their own. Identification arose when managers interpreted and enacted organizational values for frontline employees by developing integrative solutions, removing ideology, and routinizing ideology. Dis-identification developed in the absence of these practices. The resulting process model suggests a relational ecology of identification, in which identification emerges from the combination of bottom-up interactive processes among organizational members and top-down interpretations and enactments by managers. I discuss implications for theories of identification, multiple identities, and ideology in organizations.
    September 12, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0761   open full text
  • CEO Career Variety: Effects on Firm-level Strategic and Social Novelty.
    Crossland, C., Zyung, J., Hiller, N., Hambrick, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 23, 2013
    We introduce the concept of CEO career variety - defined as the array of distinct professional and institutional experiences an executive has had prior to becoming CEO. Using a longitudinal sample of Fortune 250 CEOs, we hypothesize, and find strong evidence, that CEO career variety is positively associated with firm-level strategic novelty - manifested in strategic dynamism (period-on-period change) and strategic distinctiveness (deviance from industry central tendencies). We also find mixed evidence that CEO career variety is positively associated with social novelty - manifested in top management team turnover and heterogeneity.
    August 23, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0469   open full text
  • A Social Structural Perspective On Employee Organization Relationships And Team Creativity.
    Jia, L., Shaw, J., Tsui, A., Park, T.-Y.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 26, 2013
    We develop a social-structural perspective on the relationship between employee-organization relationships (EOR) and team creativity. We argue that the mutual investment EOR approach, in which employers expect high levels of employee contributions and offer extensive inducements, will be associated with higher team creativity, relative to other EOR approaches. We also advance the argument that this relationship will be mediated by team-member work-related communication density and that the mediated relationship will be stronger when team members' tasks are complex. We find support for the model in a two-wave study of 1,807 employees in 229 teams in 55 Chinese high technology organizations. We discuss the implications for future employment relationship research and practice.
    July 26, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0147   open full text
  • The Catalyst Effect: The Impact of Transactive Memory System Structure on Team Performance.
    Mell, J., van Knippenberg, D., van Ginkel, W.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 23, 2013
    Research on transactive memory systems (TMSs) implicitly assumes that metaknowledge (i.e., the "knowledge of who knows what") is uniformly distributed among team members. Relaxing this assumption results in a more realistic notion of team cognition in which the distribution of metaknowledge can take different forms. Demonstrating the importance of this conceptual shift, we compare teams in which metaknowledge is concentrated within one central member (a centralized TMS structure) with teams in which metaknowledge is distributed evenly among the members (a decentralized TMS structure). We predicted that centralized metaknowledge can give teams a performance advantage over decentralized metaknowledge, because centralized metaknowledge can allow the central member to function as a catalyst for information exchange and integration. We proposed this catalyst effect to be contingent on the extent to which the distribution of task information among members poses high coordination demands to effectively integrate members' knowledge. In a laboratory team decision making experiment (N = 112) we found the predicted interaction effect between TMS structure and the distribution of task information. Furthermore, the experiment supported our hypotheses about the mediating role of the transactive retrieval process and the ensuing team information elaboration.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0589   open full text
  • The Stigma of Affirmative Action: A Stereotyping-Based Theory and Meta-Analytic Test of the Consequences for Performance.
    Leslie, L., Mayer, D., Kravitz, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 23, 2013
    Affirmative action plans (AAPs) are designed to facilitate workplace success for members of the groups they target (e.g., women, ethnic minorities), yet may have the ironic effect of stigmatizing AAP targets and, in turn, decreasing their performance outcomes. Prior work has focused on the stigma of incompetence as the primary mechanism that links AAPs to performance; however, the broader social psychological literature suggests that additional mechanisms may also play a role. We use stereotyping theories to develop a more comprehensive model of the pathways through which AAPs limit targets' performance outcomes. Drawing from the stereotype content model, we propose that the negative effect of AAPs on others' evaluations of targets' performance is driven by perceptions of incompetence and low warmth. Drawing from stereotype threat theory, we propose that the negative effect of AAPs on targets' self-evaluated and objective performance is driven by perceptions of low self-competence, negative state affect, and perceived stereotyping by others. Meta-analytic path-analyses support our hypotheses. Our theory and findings demonstrate that multiple mechanisms explain the negative consequences of AAPs for targets' performance outcomes, highlight differences in reactions to AAP targets among others versus the self, and provide insight into preventing the unintended negative effects of AAPs.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0940   open full text
  • The Influence Of Social Position On Sensemaking About Organizational Change.
    Lockett, A., Currie, G., Finn, R., Martin, G., Waring, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 19, 2013
    Traditionally, scholars have examined the influence of actors' sensemaking on context; in this paper we explore the reverse. Employing Bourdieu's Theory of Practice we explore how actors' unique contexts, as encapsulated by their social positions, provide the important "raw materials" for their sensemaking. Drawing on a case-study of three focal actors, located in different social positions in the English National Health Service, but tasked with enacting a common organizational change, we explore how actors' capital endowments and dispositions shape their sensemaking about organizational change. To synthesize our findings, we develop a theoretical model of the influence of social position on sensemaking.
    July 19, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0055   open full text
  • "Defining What We Do -- All Over Again": Occupational Identity, Technological Change, and the Librarian/Internet-Search Relationship.
    Nelson, A., Irwin, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 15, 2013
    Although a growing literature explores occupational identity, or the overlap between "who we are" and "what we do," this literature has not fully considered how occupational identity may interact with technological change. In this paper, we explore this interaction, asking how an occupation's identity shapes and is shaped by its interactions with a new technology. We focus, specifically, on the relationship between librarians and Internet search. Drawing on an analysis of 22 years of articles from library journals, we demonstrate how and why librarians initially discounted Internet search and differentiated themselves from it. We argue that these responses were associated with a "paradox of expertise," by which librarians failed to innovate with one of the most important information technologies in history, despite their identity as masters of information. Later, however, we demonstrate how librarians engaged with this same technology, drawing upon it to redefine their occupational identity. Our findings demonstrate how occupational identity conditions the interpretation of a technology, while also showing how these interpretations can change with ongoing interactions. We also illustrate how occupational identity itself can change in response to new technology. Finally, we elaborate upon why expert insiders may not actually be best positioned to pursue emerging technologies.
    July 15, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0201   open full text
  • Interpersonal Trust Within Negotiations: Meta Analytic Evidence, Critical Contingencies, And Directions For Future Research.
    Kong, D. T., Dirks, K., Ferrin, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 15, 2013
    Trust has long been recognized by scholars and practitioners alike as an important factor for negotiation success. However, there has been little effort to date to empirically review or theoretically synthesize the research on trust in the context of negotiations. We present a social exchange framework that describes the processes through which trust influences negotiation behaviors and outcomes. We identified three critical contingencies that modified the effects of trust on negotiation behaviors and outcomes. A meta-analysis on a sample of 38 independent studies provided considerable support for the model and also confirmed the importance of the three contingencies for understanding the effects of trust. The framework and accompanying empirical evidence provide a needed theoretical and empirical integration of the trust and negotiation literatures. Based on the theory and meta-analytical findings, we identified critical gaps and limitations in existing research and proposed a research agenda to address key theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues identified by our framework and review.
    July 15, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0461   open full text
  • Managers and analysts: An examination of mutual influence.
    Washburn, M., Bromiley, P.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 27, 2013
    Securities analysts' predictions of firm earnings per share constitute important performance targets for firms. Firm managers attempt to both influence analysts' targets and achieve the targets. We draw on the impression management literature to offer hypotheses regarding how firm performance relative to prior targets influences the impression management activities of issuing forecast guidance, having conference calls with analysts, and issuing firm press releases. We also consider the influence of these impression management activities on subsequent analysts' targets. We test this dyadic representation of impression management activities using a longitudinal panel of large firms. Findings suggest managers take a variety of actions that vary with firm performance, and that some of those actions influence subsequent analyst targets under some conditions.
    June 27, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0420   open full text
  • Fdi Spillovers Over Time In An Emerging Market: The Roles Of Entry Tenure And Barriers To Imitation.
    Zhang, Y., Li, Y., Li, H.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 27, 2013
    In this study we examine how foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers to domestic firms in an emerging market occur over time. From the organizational learning perspective, we propose that as entry tenure of foreign firms in an industry increases, domestic firms can learn from the foreign firms over time and improve their productivity. We further build upon the competitor imitation argument to propose that this effect will be stronger when barriers to imitation faced by the domestic firms are lower. Based upon a comprehensive panel dataset on manufacturing firms in China in 1998-2007, our findings strongly support these arguments. We find that entry tenure of foreign firms in an industry has a positive relationship with the productivity of individual domestic firms in the same industry, albeit at a diminishing rate. We also find that this positive relationship is stronger when the foreign firms have lower export intensity, lower intangible asset intensity, and have followed a more rhythmic (i.e., less irregular) entry pattern—situations characterizing lower barriers to imitation.
    June 27, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0351   open full text
  • Knowledge Networks, Collaboration Networks, and Exploratory Innovation.
    Wang, C., Rodan, S., Fruin, M., Xu, X.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 27, 2013
    Innovation in firms is doubly embedded: in a social network of collaborations between researchers and in knowledge network composed of linkages between knowledge elements. The structural features of the two networks are distinct and influence innovation in different ways through separate mechanisms. Using patent data from a leading US microprocessor manufacturer, we constructed the firm's collaboration and knowledge networks and examined the effects of two structural features, structural holes and degree centrality, on researchers' exploratory innovation. The results show that a researcher with knowledge elements rich in structural holes tends to bring fewer novel knowledge elements to the firm, while structural holes in the collaboration network stimulate exploratory activities. The average degree centrality of a researcher's knowledge elements in the knowledge network has an inverted-U-shaped relationship with her exploratory innovation, while degree centrality in the collaboration network has a negative effect. These findings suggest that knowledge and social network structures influence where research scientists search for discoveries and their innovative productivity.
    June 27, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0917   open full text
  • Job Titles as Identity Badges: How Self-Reflective Titles Can Reduce Emotional Exhaustion.
    Grant, A., Berg, J., Cable, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 27, 2013
    Job titles help organizations manage their human capital and have far-reaching implications for employees' identities. Because titles do not always reflect the unique value that employees bring to their jobs, some organizations have recently experimented with encouraging employees to create their own job titles. To explore the psychological implications of self-reflective job titles, we conducted field research combining inductive qualitative and deductive experimental methods. In Study 1, a qualitative study at the Make-A-Wish Foundation, we were surprised to learn that employees experienced self-reflective job titles as reducing their emotional exhaustion. We triangulated interviews, observations, and archival documents to identify three explanatory mechanisms through which self-reflective job titles may operate: self-verification, psychological safety, and external rapport. In Study 2, a field quasi-experiment within a healthcare system, we found that employees who created self-reflective job titles experienced less emotional exhaustion five weeks later, whereas employees in two control groups did not. These effects were mediated by increases in self-verification and psychological safety, but not external rapport. Our research suggests that self-reflective job titles can be important vehicles for identity expression and stress reduction, offering meaningful implications for research on job titles, identity, and emotional exhaustion.
    June 27, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0338   open full text
  • How Directors' Prior Experience With Other Demographically Similar Ceos Affects Their Appointments Onto Corporate Boards And The Consequences For Ceo Compensation.
    Zhu, D., Westphal, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. June 05, 2013
    In recent years, new director appointments have increasingly posed a dilemma for corporate leaders: while CEOs prefer individuals who have similar backgrounds to them, they face increased pressure to appoint new directors who have a different demographic profile. We suggest that CEOs may resolve this dilemma by appointing new directors who have prior experiences working with other demographically similar CEOs. We then explain why this tendency is stronger when new directors are demographically more different from CEOs. Moreover, we posit that new directors' prior experiences with other similar CEOs will reduce the negative effect of their demographic differences from the CEO on CEO compensation. Longitudinal analysis of Fortune 500 companies' new director appointments and subsequent CEO compensation provided support for our theoretical expectations. This study identifies an important new role that interlock ties to other CEOs can play in corporate governance and leadership. In particular, we suggest that such ties are a means by which CEOs evaluate whether a new director will support their leadership and decision making. In explaining the role of directors' ties to other CEOs in influencing director appointments and CEO compensation, this study also highlights the important influence of triads on CEO-director dyadic relations.
    June 05, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0590   open full text
  • With or Without You: When Does Managerial Exit Matter for the Dissolution of Dyadic Market Ties?
    Broschak, J., Block, E.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 30, 2013
    This paper investigates the relationship between the number of managers who exit advertising agencies and advertisers and the dissolution of dyadic market ties. We investigate how the locus of managerial exit (advertiser vs. agency) and the hierarchical level from which exit occurs (executives vs. exchange managers) influence the likelihood that market ties dissolve. We theorize that the amount of managerial exit from organizational roles disrupts dyadic market ties through its effect on three mechanisms of social capital: investments in relationship-specific assets, formal control over market ties, and the intensity of interaction with exchange partners. We further consider how the fragility of market ties, poor financial performance of advertisers and short duration of market ties, conditions the effects of managerial exit on the likelihood of market tie dissolution. In short, we theorize about which managerial roles matter more to the dissolution of market ties, why they matter, and when they matter. We test our predictions using longitudinal data on 232 dyadic market ties between advertisers and New York City advertising agencies. Our results indicate that number of executives and exchange managers who exit on both sides of market ties affects tie dissolution, but that these effects are neither symmetrical between advertisers and advertising agencies nor uniform across the hierarchical levels from which exit occurs, and vary with the strength of market ties. We discuss the implications of our findings for the study of market ties.
    May 30, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0169   open full text
  • Reputation And Decision Making Under Ambiguity: A Study Of U. S. Venture Capital Firms' Investments In The Emerging Clean Energy Sector.
    Petkova, A., Wadhwa, A., Yao, X., Jain, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 28, 2013
    This study examines the role of reputation on decision making under ambiguity. Drawing on social cognition and behavioral theories, we propose that a firm's reputation exerts dual pressures on its decision making under ambiguity. On the one hand, reputation increases firm aspirations for future performance and promotes engagement in risky strategies to achieve them. On the other hand, preserving the already established reputation requires firms to deliver consistent performance over time, which promotes greater use of risk reduction strategies. Our analyses of the U.S. venture capital firms' investments in the clean energy sector from 1990 to 2008 demonstrate that while reputable firms are more likely to invest in the emerging sector, they also employ risk reduction strategies more extensively. The sector's legitimation further influences these firms' investment decisions both directly and through its interaction with firm reputation.
    May 28, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0651   open full text
  • Turnkey or Tailored? Relational Pluralism, Institutional Complexity, and the Organizational Adoption of More or Less Customized Practices.
    Raffaelli, R., Glynn, M. A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 28, 2013
    We examine how the organizational adoption of new practices is influenced by relational pluralism, i.e., an organization's multiple ties to actors inside and outside its industry. We theorize that institutional mechanisms of practice diffusion underlying relational networks, and filtered by organizational characteristics, influence the adoption of practices that are more customized (tailored) or less customized (turnkey). We hypothesize: first, that organizations participating in extra-industry professional networks will, through normative conformity, be more likely to adopt turnkey practices; second, that the normative pressure of professional networks will interact with the mimeticism of industry peers such that organizations will be more likely to adopt tailored practices; and third, organizational filters will affect adoption of all practices. Using unique survey data from 161 F500 organizations, supplemented by archival and qualitative data, we focus on two Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practice variants. We find significant support for our first two hypotheses and mixed support for our third: organizational infrastructure and identity significantly affect practice adoption, albeit in different ways, but only marginal support for leadership and elite organizational status. Our results point to how a complex web of relational ties affects the organizational adoption of practice variants that differ in their degree of customization.
    May 28, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.1000   open full text
  • It's Not Fair...Or Is It? The Role Of Justice And Leadership In Explaining Work Stressor Job Performance Relationships.
    Zhang, Y., LePine, J., Buckman, B., Wei, F.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 23, 2013
    We develop and test a theoretical model of multilevel moderated mediation in which organizational justice serves as an intervening mechanism that explains associations among two dimensions of work stressors (challenges and hindrances) and five dimensions of job performance (task performance, helping, voice, counterproductive behavior, and creativity) over and above the intervening role of strain. We also consider how leadership influences the intervening role of justice in the stressor - job performance relationships by virtue of the effect it has on how stressors are interpreted with regard to fairness. Results of a study of 339 employees and their supervisors provide support for this model across dimensions of performance, albeit unexpectedly, the moderating effect of leadership is contingent on the type of leadership and stressors. Transactional leaders reduce the negative effect of hindrance stressors on job performance because they weaken the negative link between hindrance stressors and justice perceptions. Alternatively, transformational leaders enhance the positive effect of challenge stressors on job performance because they foster a positive link between challenge stressors and justice perceptions. We discuss how this intriguing pattern of moderated mediation could be explained using theory and research on regulatory focus.
    May 23, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.1110   open full text
  • How Organizations Foster the Creative Use of Resources.
    Sonenshein, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. May 14, 2013
    Using a multi-year qualitative study, I explain how employees at a fast growing retail organization used creative resourcing—that is, the manipulation and recombination of objects in novel and useful ways to solve problems. I induce two core organizational processes (autonomous resourcing and directed resourcing) that explain how organizations foster ongoing creative activities in response to different perceived resource endowments. In doing so, I add clarity to a mixed literature that argues on one hand that limited resources foster creativity, and on the other hand, that abundant resources foster creativity. Instead, I reorient the questions scholars ask by shifting the conversation away from variance-explanation models and towards understanding organizational processes, specifically around how employees use resources in dynamic ways and how managers enable them to do so. My study unpacks how the link between resources and creativity is rooted deeply in the actions of managers and employees embedded in organizations over time. In elaborating theory around these actions, I contribute to scholarly and practitioner understanding around how organizations foster creativity in a variety of resource environments.
    May 14, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0048   open full text
  • Exploring the locus of invention: The dynamics of network communities and firms' invention productivity.
    Sytch, M., Tatarynowicz, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 29, 2013
    Departing from prior research analyzing the implications of social structure for actors' outcomes by applying either the ego-network or the global-network perspective, this study examines the implications of network communities for the invention productivity of firms. Network communities represent dense and non-overlapping structural groups of actors in the social system. The network-community lens helps identify new ways to study firms' access to diverse knowledge inputs in a dynamic system of interorganizational relationships. Specifically, we examine how the membership dynamics of a network community affect the invention productivity of member firms by either enabling or constraining access to broad, diverse knowledge inputs. Our findings suggest, first, that a firm reaps the greatest invention benefits in a network community with moderate levels of membership turnover. Second, a firm attains the greatest invention productivity when its own rate of movement across different network communities is moderate. Third, we find that community members located in the core of their network communities can benefit more from membership dynamics and prior community affiliations than those on the periphery. In empirical analyses, we use the evolving community structure of the network of interorganizational partnerships in the global computer industry over 1981-2001 to predict firms' patenting rates.
    April 29, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0655   open full text
  • Do Interviewers Sell Themselves Short? The Effect of Selling Orientation on Interviewers' Judgments.
    Marr, J., Cable, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 25, 2013
    Drawing on alternative perspectives about the automaticity of dispositional judgments, we examine whether the motivation to attract the other (i.e., selling orientation) in interpersonal first meetings (e.g., job interviews) helps or hinders the accuracy and validity of dispositional judgments. In a laboratory study (Study 1) we found that selling orientation reduced the accuracy of interviewers' judgments about applicants' core self-evaluations. Then, we investigated the real-world implications of selling orientation in a field study (Study 2) with two different samples (Samples A and B) and found that a selling orientation negatively influenced the predictive validity of interviewers' judgments. Specifically, when selling orientation was low, interviewers' judgments accurately predicted which applicants would be most (and least) successful as newcomers in the organization (in terms of citizenship, performance and fit). However, when selling orientation was high, interviewers' judgments no longer predicted applicant outcomes. Together, these results suggest that making dispositional judgments in interpersonal first meetings is an effortful process that is hindered by focusing on other goals (e.g., selling). We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings.
    April 25, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0504   open full text
  • Human Capital Flows: Using Context Emergent Turnover (Cet) Theory To Explore The Process By Which Turnover, Hiring, And Job Demands Affect Patient Satisfaction.
    Reilly, G., Nyberg, A., Maltarich, M., Weller, I.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 25, 2013
    The dynamic systems view of voluntary turnover rates advocated in context-emergent turnover theory is used to explore how and why human capital flows impact unit performance over time. We examine hiring rates and employee transfer rates as distinct system components that work alongside voluntary turnover rates to affect job demands, and ultimately patient satisfaction. Our work explores this dynamic system of interrelated constructs, and explains and compares their mutual causality over time. The sample examined consists of 12 nursing units in a large hospital over 72 monthly observations, with patient satisfaction as the measure of unit performance.
    April 25, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0132   open full text
  • Corporate Governance and Investors' Perceptions of Foreign IPO Value: An Institutional Perspective.
    Bell, G., Filatotchev, I., Aguilera, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 25, 2013
    This paper investigates stock market responses to the different constellations of firm-level corporate governance mechanisms by focusing on foreign IPOs in the U.S. We build on sociology-grounded research on financial market behavior and suggest a "nested" legitimacy framework to explore U.S. investor perceptions of foreign IPO value. Using a fuzzy-set theoretic methodology, we demonstrate how different combinations of monitoring and incentive-based corporate governance mechanisms lead to the same level of investor valuations of firms. Moreover, institutional factors related to the minority shareholder protection strength in the foreign IPO's home country represent a boundary condition that affects the number of governance mechanisms required to achieve U.S. investors' high value perceptions. Our findings contribute to the sociological perspective on comparative corporate governance and the inter-dependencies between organizations and institutions.
    April 25, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0146   open full text
  • Executive Departures Without Client Losses: The Role Of Multiplex Ties In Exchange Partner Retention.
    Rogan, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 25, 2013
    To reduce vulnerability to exchange relationship loss when executives leave, firms often form multiple ties to the same exchange partners. Despite the assumed importance of interorganizational multiplexity for relationship retention, theory and evidence for its effect are lacking. Analysis of a longitudinal sample of client ties of advertising firms confirms that in general multiplexity improves retention. However, only relationships that span intra-organizational units with convergent interests reduce the positive effect of advertising agency executive departures on client tie loss. The findings highlight the need to consider the implications of intraorganizational structure for theories of interorganizational relationship retention and suggest an additional rationale for the persistence of the holding company structure in professional services firms despite limited returns to scale.
    April 25, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.1049   open full text
  • No Pain, No Gain: An Affect-based Model of Developmental Job Experience and the Buffering Effects of Emotional Intelligence.
    Dong, Y., Seo, M.-G., Bartol, K.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 18, 2013
    Drawing on an overarching framework of transactional stress theory, this study develops and tests an affect-based model of developmental job experience (DJE) that explicates the affective mechanisms through which DJE is associated with both positive and negative individual outcomes - advancement potential and turnover intention - and the buffering role of emotional intelligence (EI) in the affective processes. In a sample of 214 early-career managers, we found that DJE was related to increased advancement potential by boosting employees' pleasant feelings, but it can also fail to do so by increasing their unpleasant feelings. Moreover, whereas it is not surprising that there was a negative relationship between DJE and turnover intention mediated by pleasant feelings, they also demonstrated a positive relationship via unpleasant feelings, depending on employees' levels of EI. Specifically, the results suggested that DJE was positively related to turnover intention only for low-EI employees, but not for high-EI employees.
    April 18, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0687   open full text
  • Power To The Principals! An Experimental Look At Shareholder Say On Pay Voting.
    Krause, R., Whitler, K., Semadeni, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 05, 2013
    With recent legislation mandating that publicly traded corporations submit their CEOs' compensation for a non-binding shareholder vote, a systematic understanding of shareholder preferences has never been so important. In spite of this, we know relatively little about what impacts shareholders' preferences and, subsequently, their ultimate voting behavior. We integrate two theories in order to help frame the question and to help predict shareholder behavior. Agency theory predicts that shareholders, as principals, will disapprove of high CEO rewards and poor firm performance, symmetrically assessing gains and losses. Prospect theory predicts that shareholders will be loss averse, responding much more strongly to being in a loss position than to being in a gain or neutral position. We combine these theories' predictions in two lab experiments in which we simulate a shareholder say-on-pay vote, hypothesizing that shareholders will be concerned with agency costs, but only from a loss position. The results of these simulated votes suggest that shareholders do value pay-for-performance, consistent with agency theory. However, shareholders exhibit this focus on agency-normative prescriptions asymmetrically, showing loss aversion consistent with prospect theory. This finding has significant implications for both theory and practice as shareholder votes become a regular and high-profile occurrence.
    April 05, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0035   open full text
  • Making the Most of Where You Are: Geography, Networks, and Innovation in Organizations.
    Funk, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. April 02, 2013
    The importance of geography for innovation has long been recognized. Regions like Silicon Valley help companies generate ideas in part by facilitating knowledge exchanges among local organizations. Despite the central place of geography in many explanations of innovation, existing theories remain limited in several respects. Importantly, because they have sought to explain knowledge acquisition, current perspectives do not account for how firms that are proximate to many industry peers internalize, process, and use the volumes of information available to them locally. Further, contemporary theories do not address how, despite lacking the advantages of proximity, some geographically remote firms produce important innovations. The author connects insights from macro and micro level theories of innovation to propose that geography can enhance or constrain firms' performance, but such effects are moderated by intraorganizational network structures. Data on collaborations among inventors and the geographic locations of 454 U.S. firms active in nanotechnology R&D between 1990 and 2004 are used to show that as proximity to industry peers decreases---and spillovers become less common---inefficient networks are beneficial because they create and sustain diversity internally. For firms with high proximity, more cohesive network structures that facilitate information processing are desirable.
    April 02, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0585   open full text
  • Do they walk the talk or just talk the talk? Gauging acquiring CEO and director confidence in the value-creation potential of announced acquisitions.
    Devers, C., McNamara, G., Haleblian, J., Yoder, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 28, 2013
    We explore whether acquiring CEOs and directors act consistently with the idea that their newly announced acquisitions will increase long-term firm value. Specifically, we examine post-announcement adjustments to CEOs' equity-based holdings and find acquiring CEOs tend to exercise options and sell firm stock following acquisition announcements. Moreover, positive short-term market performance exacerbates this effect. Further, we find directors tend to grant their acquiring CEOs stock options, post-acquisition announcement, presumably to more tightly align CEO-shareholder interests. These findings suggest CEOs and directors manage acquiring CEOs' equity-based holdings such that they do not appear to anticipate long-term value creation from their acquisitions.
    March 28, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0555   open full text
  • Lunch Breaks Unpacked: The Role Of Autonomy As A Moderator Of Recovery During Lunch.
    Trougakos, J., Hideg, I., Cheng, B., Beal, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 25, 2013
    Work recovery research has focused mainly on how after-work break activities help employees replenish their resources and reduce fatigue. Given that employees spend a considerable amount of time at work, understanding how they can replenish their resources during the workday is critical. Drawing on Ego Depletion (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000) and Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), we employed multisource experience sampling methods to test the effects of a critical boundary condition, employee lunch break autonomy, on the relation between lunch break activities and end-of-workday fatigue. Although specific energy-relevant activities had main effects on end-of-workday fatigue, each of these effects was moderated by the degree of autonomous choice associated with the break. Specifically, for activities that supported the psychological needs of relatedness and competence (i.e., social and work activities, respectively), as lunch break autonomy increased, effects switched from increasing fatigue to reducing fatigue. To the extent that lunch break activities involved relaxation, however, lunch break autonomy was only important when levels of relaxation were low. We conclude that lunch break autonomy plays a complex and pivotal role in conferring the potential energetic benefits of lunch break activities. Contributions to theory and practice are discussed.
    March 25, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.1072   open full text
  • Competitive Parity, Status Disparity, and Mutual Forbearance: Securities Analysts' Competition for Investor Attention.
    Bowers, A., Greve, H., Mitsuhashi, H., Baum, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 18, 2013
    Most studies of responses to change in competitive environments focus on competitor-specific adaptations. However, rivals are often acutely aware of one another, and this awareness should influence their competitive behavior. In this study, we focus on three market structures that affect competitive behavior: competitive parity, status disparity, and multipoint contact. In particular, we examine how securities analysts responded to a regulatory discontinuity, Regulation Fair Disclosure (Reg-FD), which promoted competitive parity by eliminating privileged access to proprietary firm information as a critical source of competitive advantage. We predict and find that Reg-FD activated mutual forbearance among analysts linked through multipoint contact. We also predict and find that high-status analysts forbear more strongly. Analysts' responses to heterogeneity in competitive advantage thus depend importantly on their competitive overlap and status, with notable implications for their behavior and the information they provide to investors.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0818   open full text
  • Conscience Without Cognition: The Effects Of Subconscious Priming On Ethical Behavior.
    Welsh, D., Ordonez, L.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 18, 2013
    Research in the field of behavioral ethics has traditionally viewed ethical decision making as rational and deliberate. However, some recent research has proposed a dual process model of ethical decision making that has both conscious and subconscious components (Reynolds, 2006). We extend current theory by using subconscious ethical and unethical priming to test the effects of subconscious processes on ethical behavior through an automatic process of schema activation and implicit association. Studies 1 and 2 extend self-concept maintenance theory (Mazar, Amir, & Ariely, 2008) by exploring the mediated process through which subconscious ethical and unethical primes trigger the activation of moral standards, thereby influencing categorization and subsequent responses to morally ambiguous situations. Study 3 demonstrates that both subconscious ethical and unethical priming reduce dishonesty even when participants are unmonitored and are given difficult performance goals that previously have been shown to lead to unethical behavior.
    March 18, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.1009   open full text
  • On Melting Summits: The Limitations of Field-Configuring Events as Catalysts of Change in Transnational Climate Policy.
    Schussler, E., Ruling, C., Wittneben, B.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 14, 2013
    Although field-configuring events have been highlighted as catalysts of institutional change, we still know little about the specific conditions that allow such change to occur. Based on a longitudinal study of a series of United Nations climate conferences in the context of the transnational climate policy field we analyze how different types of field-configuring events interact in producing or preventing institutional change. We uncover variations in event structures, processes and outcomes that explain why these conferences have not led to meaningful solutions to combat human-induced global warming. Results in particular highlight that growing field complexity and issue multiplication compromise the change potential of a field-configuring event series. We argue that events change from field-endogenous catalysts of change into sites of field maintenance when diverse actors find event participation useful for their own purposes, but their activity disconnects from the institutions at the center of an issue-based field. In discussing how field-configuring events can be purposefully staged and enacted, but also how they are influenced by developments in a field our study contributes to a more complete understanding of field-configuring events, particularly in contested transnational policy arenas.
    March 14, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0812   open full text
  • Courage as identity work: Accounts of workplace courage.
    Koerner, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 14, 2013
    This study focuses on the intersection of identity dynamics and workplace courage. I examine accounts of courage submitted by business professionals and articulate the identity processes underlying the accounts. The narratives illustrate four storylines that reflect four distinct forms of courage, and one storyline reflecting a lack of courage. In the accounts, identity tensions precipitate courageous acts, and courage-based identity work is used to reconcile the tensions. The findings suggest that in accounts of workplace courage, courageous behavior is viewed as an important form of identity work that helps individuals to minimize incongruities between their self- and social identities.
    March 14, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0641   open full text
  • Friends and Foes: The Dynamics of Dual Social Structures.
    Sytch, M., Tatarynowicz, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 06, 2013
    This paper investigates the evolutionary dynamics of a dual social structure encompassing collaboration and conflict among corporate actors. We apply and advance structural balance theory to examine the formation of balanced and unbalanced dyadic and triadic structures, and to explore how these dynamics aggregate to shape the emergence of a global network. Our findings are threefold. First, we find that existing collaborative or conflictual relationships between two companies engender future relationships of the same type, but crowd out relationships of the different type. This results in (1) an increased likelihood of formation of balanced (uniplex) relationships that combine multiple ties of either collaboration or conflict and (2) a reduced likelihood of formation of unbalanced (multiplex) relationships that combine collaboration and conflict between the same two firms. Second, we find that network formation is driven not by a pull toward balanced triads, but rather by a pull away from unbalanced triads. Third, we find that the observed micro-level dynamics of dyads and triads affect the structural segregation of the global network into two separate collaborative and conflictual segments of firms. Our empirical analyses used data on strategic partnerships and patent-infringement and antitrust lawsuits in biotechnology and pharmaceuticals from 1996 to 2006.
    March 06, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0979   open full text
  • Coerced Practice Implementation in Cases of Low Cultural Fit: Cultural Change and Practice Adaptation During the Implementation of Six Sigma at 3M.
    Canato, A., Ravasi, D., Phillips, N.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 05, 2013
    In this paper, we present the findings of a longitudinal study of coerced practice implementation in the face of a low degree of fit between the practice and an organization's culture. Contrary to current predictions that a lack of cultural fit will eventually be resolved through the adaptation of the new practice, our findings portray the implementation of culturally dissonant practices as an ongoing process involving the mutual adaptation of organizational practices and culture. Our emerging model describes the cultural changes induced by the coercive implementation of new practices as involving a partial change in shared beliefs and behavioral patterns, and the more general enrichment of the cultural repertoire of members.
    March 05, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0093   open full text
  • Leviathan as a Minority Shareholder: Firm-Level Implications of Equity Purchases by the State.
    Inoue, C., Lazzarini, S., Musacchio, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. March 05, 2013
    In many countries, firms face institutional voids that raise the costs of doing business and thwart entrepreneurial activity. We examine a particular mechanism to address those voids: minority state ownership. Due to their minority nature, such stakes are less affected by the agency distortions commonly found in full-fledged state-owned firms. Using panel data from publicly traded firms in Brazil, where the government holds minority stakes through its development bank (BNDES), we find a positive effect of those stakes on firms' return on assets and on the capital expenditures of financially constrained firms with investment opportunities. However, these positive effects are substantially reduced when minority stakes are allocated to business group affiliates and as local institutions develop. Therefore, we shed light on the firm-level implications of minority state ownership, a topic that has received scant attention in the strategy literature.
    March 05, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0406   open full text
  • Organizational Sponsorship and Founding Environments: A Contingency View on the Survival of Business Incubated Firms, 1994-2007.
    Amezcua, A., Grimes, M., Bradley, S., Wiklund, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 28, 2013
    Organizational sponsorship refers to attempts to mediate the relationship between new organizations and their environments by creating a resource-munificent context intended to increase survival rates among those new organizations. This includes efforts such as business incubation, venture capital, and governmental policies that create resource munificent environments for entrepreneurial activity. Existing theories are prone to treat such resource munificence as the inverse of resource dependence, indicating that the application of new resources in an entrepreneurial context should always benefit new firms. These existing theories, however, often overlook heterogeneity in both the types of applied resources as well as the founding environmental conditions. By attending to these nuances, we reveal that resource munificence is not necessarily predictive of organizational survival. Employing a dataset of 178 university-based incubators hosting 2110 new organizations from 1994 to 2007, we find that the resource munificence related to sponsorship can potentially decrease or increase survival rates among new organizations, and that these effects are contingent on the fit of the resource type with the geographic-based founding density. These findings confirm the need for a more nuanced theory of sponsorship that attends to the mechanisms and conditions whereby resource munificence is likely to alter new organization survival rates.
    February 28, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0652   open full text
  • The Impact of Social Context on the Relationship between Individual Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism: The Roles of Different Foci of Job Satisfaction and Work-unit Absenteeism.
    Diestel, S., Wegge, J., Schmidt, K.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 26, 2013
    Building upon recent conceptualizations of different foci of job satisfaction and theories of social-contextual influence, we develop and test an integrative cross-level model of the individual relationships between both externally focused satisfaction (referring to job conditions) and internally focused satisfaction (referring to the work unit) and absenteeism. For both of these foci, we hypothesize differential three-way interactive effects of work-unit absenteeism patterns as characterized by their mean and dispersion levels as well as individual satisfaction levels on subsequent individual absenteeism. Based on two German multi-level samples, our analyses demonstrate that the negative relationship between externally focused satisfaction and individual absenteeism is strongest in the presence of high mean and dispersion levels of work-unit absenteeism, whereas this relationship is weaker when either the mean or the dispersion levels of work-unit absenteeism or both are low. In contrast, the negative relationship between internally focused satisfaction and individual absenteeism is strongest under conditions of low mean and dispersion levels of work-unit absenteeism, whereas this relationship is weaker when either the mean or the dispersion levels of work-unit absenteeism or both are high. The present findings suggest that simultaneously improving individual internally focused satisfaction and reducing work-unit absenteeism is the most promising approach to reducing individual absenteeism.
    February 26, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.1087   open full text
  • Finding meaning through volunteering: Why do employees volunteer and what does it mean for their jobs?
    Rodell, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 25, 2013
    Volunteering is prevalent and on the rise in the United States, but little research has examined the connection between individuals' volunteering and their jobs. In the absence of that research, it remains unclear whether employees volunteer to build on meaningful work experiences or to compensate for the lack of them. Similarly, it remains unclear whether volunteering is beneficial to the job in some way or if it is a distraction, akin to "moonlighting." In this manuscript, several theoretical perspectives from the multiple domain literature - particularly, compensation, enhancement, and resource drain - are employed across two studies to examine the intersection between volunteering and work domains. Results suggested that volunteering was associated with both volunteer and job meaningfulness, and that the pull of meaningful volunteer work was even stronger when employees had less meaning in their jobs. The results further revealed benefits of volunteering for employers. Volunteering was related to job absorption but not job interference, and was therefore associated with better performance on the job. Implications of these findings for future theorizing on volunteering are discussed.
    February 25, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0611   open full text
  • Why are Job Seekers Attracted by Corporate Social Performance? Experimental and Field Tests of Three Signal-Based Mechanisms.
    Jones, D., Willness, C., Madey, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 21, 2013
    Research on employee recruitment has shown that an organization's corporate social performance (CSP) affects its attractiveness as an employer, but the underlying mechanisms and processes through which this occurs are poorly understood. We propose that job seekers receive signals from CSP that inform three signal-based mechanisms that ultimately affect organizational attractiveness: job seekers' anticipated pride from being affiliated with the organization, their perceived value fit with the organization, and their expectations about how the organization treats its employees. We hypothesized that these signal-based mechanisms mediate the relationships between CSP and organizational attractiveness, focusing on two aspects of CSP: an organization's community involvement and pro-environmental practices. In an experiment (N = 180) we manipulated CSP via a company's web pages. In a field study (N = 171) we measured CSP content in the recruitment materials used by organizations at a job fair and job seekers' perceptions of the organizations' CSP. Results provided support for the signal-based mechanisms and we discuss the implications for theory, future research, and practice.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0848   open full text
  • It's Not Easy Being Green: Self-Evaluations and Their Role in Explaining Support of Environmental Issues.
    Sonenshein, S., DeCelles, K., Dutton, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 15, 2013
    Using a mixed methods design, we examine the role of self-evaluations in influencing support for environmental issues. In study 1, an inductive, qualitative study, we develop theory about how environmental issue supporters evaluate themselves in a mixed fashion, positively around having assets (self-assets) and negatively around questioning their performance (self-doubts). We explain how these ongoing self-evaluations, something we label situated self-work, are shaped by cognitive, relational and organizational challenges individuals interpret about the issue from a variety of life domains (work, home or school). In study 2, an inductive, quantitative, observational study, we derive three profiles of environmental issue supporters' mixed selves (self-affirmers, self-critics and self-equivocators) and relate these profiles to real issue supportive behaviors. We empirically validate key constructs from study 1 and show that even among the most dedicated issue supporters, doubts play an important role in their experiences and may be either enabling or damaging depending on the composition of the mixed self. Our research offers a richer view of both how contexts shape social issue support and how individuals' self-evaluations play a meaningful role in understanding the experience and ultimately the issue supportive behaviors of those individuals working on social issues.
    February 15, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0445   open full text
  • The Riddle of Heterarchy: Power Transitions in Cross-Functional Teams.
    Aime, F., Humphrey, S., DeRue, D., Paul, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. February 04, 2013
    In this paper, we develop the concept of a power heterarchy, which is a conceptualization of power structures in groups that is more dynamic and fluid than traditional hierarchical structures. Through a study of 516 directional dyads in 45 teams, we demonstrate that heterarchical structures where the expression of power actively shifts among team members to align team member capabilities with dynamic situational demands can enhance team creativity. Our results indicate that this positive effect of power heterarchies on team creativity is contingent on the team perceiving the shifts in interpersonal power expressions as legitimate. We discuss the implications of this heterarchical power structure for research on group functioning, power, and legitimacy in organizations.
    February 04, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0756   open full text
  • Information Exposure, Opportunity Evaluation And Entrepreneurial Action: An Empirical Investigation Of An Online User Community.
    Autio, E., Dahlander, L., Frederiksen, L.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 24, 2013
    We study how an individual's exposure to external information regulates the evaluation of entrepreneurial opportunities and entrepreneurial action. Combining data from interviews, a survey, and a comprehensive web log of an online user community spanning eight years, we find that technical information shaped opportunity evaluation, and social information about user needs drove individuals to entrepreneurial action. Our empirical findings suggest that reducing demand uncertainty is a central factor regulating of entrepreneurial action, an insight that received theories of entrepreneurial action have so far overlooked.
    January 24, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0328   open full text
  • National Animosity and Cross-border Alliances.
    Arikan, I., Shenkar, O.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 24, 2013
    We extend cross-border strategic alliance knowledge base by introducing dyad-specific antagonism (animosity between nation pairs), and hold that the formation and the type of firm-level cross-border alliances are nontrivially impacted by the conflicting relations and animosity between their home nations. We examine the formation of alliances between firms among nation-dyads with and without a history of conflicts. The frequency and magnitude of conflicts increases the perception of likelihood of opportunism and dyad-specific risks materially affect the context in which firms make alliance decisions. As animosity between nations increases, the number and the probability of forming alliances within the dyad decreases. Conditional on the expected number of alliances, increased antagonistic actions of nations outside the dyad and the dissimilarity in the historical conflicts that each nation engaged in outside of the dyad (i) increase the number of equity alliances, and (ii) decrease the number of non-equity alliances as a proportion of total number of alliances. We find positive main effects of learning to contract through prior experience only for equity rather than non-equity alliances. The reputation effects for antagonism based on the relationships with nations outside of the dyad negatively moderates the positive learning effects of prior equity-alliance experience.
    January 24, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0210   open full text
  • Newcomers Abroad: Expatriate Adaptation During Early Phases Of International Assignments.
    Firth, B., Chen, G., Kirkman, B., Kim, K.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 24, 2013
    Integrating work from the expatriate adjustment and newcomer socialization literatures within a motivational framework, we propose that motivational states and stress cognitions impact expatriates' work adjustment patterns over time, which in turn influence important assignment attitudes. In accordance with our theorizing, analyses of longitudinal data collected from 70 expatriates during their first four months of international assignment indicated that cross-cultural motivation and psychological empowerment related positively to initial levels of adjustment, and indirectly and negatively to work adjustment change. Challenge stressors positively related to changes in work adjustment over time. In turn, changes in work adjustment significantly related to expatriates' assignment satisfaction and premature return intention above and beyond average levels of work adjustment. These findings extend our understanding of how and why expatriate work adjustment evolves over time, as well as the unique influence that differences in adjustment change have on important expatriate outcomes.
    January 24, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0574   open full text
  • Alumni Effects and Relational Advantage: The Impact on Outsourcing when Your Buyer Hires Employees from Your Competitors.
    Carnahan, S., Somaya, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 10, 2013
    Research examining the impacts of employee mobility on inter-firm relationships suggests that firms earn positive relational spillovers when their former employees, or alumni, depart to join other organizations. Drawing on the theory of relational advantage (Dyer & Singh, 1998), we extend this line of work by examining how a supplier firm is affected when a buyer hires alumni from the supplier's competitors. Using detailed data on mobility between patent law firms and their Fortune500 clients, we find that supplier firms receive less outsourced business when buyers hire employees from the focal supplier's competitors. Further, this negative effect decreases when the focal supplier has its own alumni already working for the buyer firm, and increases when the buyer firm has higher turnover or hires locally from competing suppliers. The paper thus underscores the importance of former employees (firm alumni) in the competition for valuable business relationships.
    January 10, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0089   open full text
  • Falling From Great (And Not So Great) Heights: How Initial Status Position Influences Performance After Status Loss.
    Marr, J., Thau, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 10, 2013
    We investigate how initial status position influences the quality of task performance in the aftermath of status loss. We argue that despite the benefits of having status, high-status individuals experience more self-threat and, consequently, have more difficulty performing well after status loss than do low-status individuals who experience a comparable loss of status. In a field study of professional baseball players (Study 1), we found that while low-status players' performance quality was unaffected by status loss, the quality of high-status players' performance declined significantly after losing status. In a high-involvement group experiment (Study 2) we found that high-status individuals who lost status were less proficient than both high-status individuals who did not lose status, and low-status individuals who lost a comparable amount of status. However, supporting the proposed self-threat mediation, self-affirmation restored the quality of high-status individuals' performance (Study 3). We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings.
    January 10, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0909   open full text
  • What goes around comes around: Knowledge hiding, perceived motivational climate, and creativity.
    Cerne, M., Nerstad, C., Dysvik, A., Skerlava&jnodot;, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. January 04, 2013
    Knowledge hiding prevents colleagues from generating creative ideas, but it may also have negative consequences for the creativity of the knowledge hider. Drawing on social exchange theory, we propose that when employees hide knowledge, they trigger a reciprocal distrust loop in which coworkers are unwilling to share knowledge with them. We further suggest that these effects are contingent on the motivational climate such that the negative effects of hiding knowledge on one's own creativity are enhanced in a performance climate and attenuated in a mastery climate. A field study of 240 employees, nested into 34 groups, revealed a negative relationship between knowledge hiding and the knowledge hider's creativity as well as the moderating role of a mastery climate. Study 2 replicated these findings in an experimental study of 132 undergraduate students, testing a reciprocal distrust loop and comparing it with an alternative intra-psychic explanatory process based on situational regulatory focus. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
    January 04, 2013   doi: 10.5465/amj.2012.0122   open full text
  • Lords of the Harvest: Third-Party Influence and Regulatory Approval of Genetically Modified Organisms.
    Hiatt, S., Park, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 26, 2012
    Little is known about the factors that influence regulatory-agency decision making. We posit that regulatory agencies are influenced by the firms they regulate, but not exclusively via dyadic exchanges as is traditionally argued in the regulatory capture and business-government literatures. Instead, regulatory decisions are indirectly shaped via third-party actors who shield agencies from legitimacy threats. Focusing empirically on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), we find that product assessments by powerful stakeholders and peer agencies influence product approval and that their effects vary under different threats. We also discuss the implications of these findings for business-government relations, nonmarket strategy, and organization theory.
    November 26, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0128   open full text
  • Corporate Control and the Speed of SBU-Level Decision Making.
    Kownatzki, M., Walter, J., Floyd, S., Lechner, C.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 26, 2012
    Decision speed has long been recognized as a critical determinant of firm performance, particularly in dynamic environments. Extending prior studies, which have largely focused on firm-level decision speed in small- and medium-sized organizations, this study explores how control mechanisms set by corporate headquarters in multi-business firms influence decision speed at the strategic business unit (SBU) level. Using a multi-method approach, we first inductively derive six types of corporate control, before deductively examining their effects on SBU-level decision speed in five international multi-business organizations. Our results suggest that three corporate control types enhance decision speed (goal setting, extrinsic incentives, and decision process control), two have no effect (negative incentives and conflict resolution), and one has a negative effect (strategy imposition). By integrating results from our qualitative and quantitative analyses, we are also able to identify transparency/alignment, outcome orientation, participation, trust, and timely feedback as the key mechanisms accounting for these effects.
    November 26, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0804   open full text
  • Abusive supervision and retaliation: A self-control framework.
    Lian, H., Brown, D., Ferris, D. L., Liang, L., Keeping, L., Morrison, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 26, 2012
    There are conflicting perspectives on whether subordinates will or will not aggress against an abusive supervisor. To address this paradox we develop a self-control model of retaliatory behavior wherein subordinates' self-control capacity and motivation to self-control influence emotional and retaliatory reactions to provocations by enabling individuals to override their hostile impulses. In Study 1, we demonstrate that self-control capacity, motivation to self-control (supervisor coercive power), and abusive supervision interact such that the strongest association between abusive supervision and supervisor-directed aggression occurs when subordinates are low in self-control capacity and perceive their supervisor to be low in coercive power. In Study 2 we extend this finding, testing a moderated mediation model wherein hostility towards a supervisor represents the hostile impulse resulting in retaliatory behavior, mediating the relation between abusive supervision and supervisor-directed aggression. Results from Study 2 indicate that self-control capacity allows individuals to regulate the hostile feelings experienced following abusive supervision, while self-control capacity and supervisor coercive power jointly moderate the tendency to act on one's hostile feelings towards an abusive supervisor. Implications for retaliatory behaviors at work are discussed.
    November 26, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0977   open full text
  • The Costs of Ambient Cultural Disharmony: Indirect Intercultural Conflicts in Social Environment Undermine Creativity.
    Chua, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 12, 2012
    Intercultural tensions and conflicts are inevitable in the global workplace. This paper introduces the concept of ambient cultural disharmony—indirect experience of intercultural tensions and conflicts in individuals' immediate social environment—and demonstrates how it undermines creative thinking in tasks that draw on knowledge from multiple cultures. Three studies (a network survey and two experiments) found that ambient cultural disharmony decreases individuals' effectiveness at connecting ideas from disparate cultures. Beliefs that ideas from different cultures are incompatible mediate the relationship between ambient cultural disharmony and creativity. Alternative mechanisms such as negative affect and cognitive disruption were not viable mediators. Although ambient cultural disharmony disrupts creativity, ambient cultural harmony did not promote creativity. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for research in workplace diversity and creativity.
    November 12, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0971   open full text
  • The Business Group as an Information Resource: An investigation of business group affiliation in the Indian software services industry.
    Lamin, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 02, 2012
    While business groups benefit firms when markets fail, does group affiliation continue to be an advantage for firms in deregulated, globally competitive industries? I argue affiliation allows firms to tap into the knowledge and connections of sister affiliates. This enables them to attract clients from across more industries and foreign markets than can unaffiliated firms, and attain higher international sales as well. Using data from the Indian software industry, I find support for these hypotheses but only for 2000-2002, when competition increased due to additional deregulation. These results suggest business groups continue to provide benefits to group-affiliated firms including information on market opportunities and reputation signaling to clients.
    November 02, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0716   open full text
  • Shoot For The Stars? Predicting The Recruitment Of Prestigious Directors At Newly Public Firms.
    Holehonnur, A., Pollock, T.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 02, 2012
    This study explores how CEOs' and outside directors' desires for the benefits of signaling and homophily intertwine with their concerns over maintaining power and preserving local status hierarchies to affect the likelihood a firm recruits prestigious outside directors to its board. Using pooled cross-sectional data on the five years following the IPOs of 210 firms that went public between 2001 and 2004, we found that prestigious CEOs and directors viewed the recruitment of prestigious new directors differently, and that these perceptions were moderated by factors that increase the salience of risk of the potential losses to the CEO and existing board members.
    November 02, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0639   open full text
  • "I Care About Nature, but...": Disengaging Values in Assessing Opportunities that Cause Harm.
    Shepherd, D., Patzelt, H., Baron, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 23, 2012
    Some managers and entrepreneurs decide to act in ways that result in harm to the environment despite the fact that such actions violate their own values. Building on moral self-regulation theory (Bandura, 1991), we propose that entrepreneurs' assessments of the attractiveness of opportunities that harm the natural environment depend on the simultaneous impact of values and personal agency. By cognitively disengaging their pro-environmental values, decision makers (i.e., entrepreneurs) can (under certain circumstances) perceive opportunities that harm the environment as highly attractive and thus suitable for exploitation. The results of a judgment task that generated 1,264 opportunity assessments nested within 83 business founders offered support for this general prediction and also indicated that the extent of founders' disengagement of their pro-environmental values was stronger when they had high, rather than low, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and stronger when industry munificence was perceived as low rather than high. We discuss our new measure of moral disengagement in a decision-making context and the implications of the study's findings for extant literatures on moral disengagement and sustainable entrepreneurship.
    October 23, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0776   open full text
  • Rocking the Boat but Keeping it Steady: The Role of Emotion Regulation in Employee Voice.
    Grant, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 18, 2012
    Employees are often driven to speak up by intense emotions such as frustration, anger, and dissatisfaction. Yet the very emotions that spur employees to express voice may compromise their ability to express it constructively, preventing managers from reacting favorably. I propose that to speak up frequently and constructively, employees need knowledge about effective strategies for managing emotions. Building on theories of emotion regulation, I develop a theoretical model that explains the role of managing emotions in the incidence and outcomes of voice. In a field study at a healthcare company, emotion regulation knowledge (1) predicted more frequent voice, (2) mediated by the emotional labor strategies of deep acting and surface acting, and (3) enhanced the contributions of voice to performance evaluations. These results did not generalize to helping behaviors, demonstrating the unique role of emotion regulation in challenging rather than affiliative interpersonal citizenship behaviors. This research introduces emotion regulation as a novel influence on voice and its consequences.
    October 18, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0035   open full text
  • The benefits of climate for inclusion for gender diverse groups.
    Nishii, L.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 09, 2012
    I introduce the construct of Climate for Inclusion, which involves eliminating relational sources of bias by ensuring that identity group status is unrelated to one's access to resources, creating expectations and opportunities for heterogeneous individuals to establish personalized cross-cutting ties, and integrating ideas across boundaries in joint problem-solving. I show that within inclusive climates, interpersonal bias is reduced such that gender diversity is associated with lower levels of conflict. In turn, the negative effect that group conflict typically has on unit-level satisfaction disappears. This has important implications, as unit-level satisfaction is negatively associated with turnover in groups.
    October 09, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2009.0823   open full text
  • From Bench to Board: Gender Differences in University Scientists' Participation in Corporate Scientific Advisory Boards.
    Ding, W., Murray, F., Stuart, T.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 09, 2012
    This paper examines the gender gap in the likelihood that academic scientists join corporate scientific advisory boards (SABs). We assess (i) demand-side theories that relate the gap in scientists' rate of joining SABs to the opportunity structure of SAB invitations, and (ii) supply-side explanations that attribute the gap to scientists' preferences for work of this type. We statistically examine the demand- and supply-side perspectives in a national sample of 6,000 life scientists whose careers span more than 30 years. Holding constant professional achievement, network ties, employer characteristics and research foci, male scientists are almost twice as likely as females to serve on the SABs of biotechnology companies. We do not find evidence in our data supporting a choice-based explanation for the gender gap. Instead, demand-side theoretical perspectives focusing on gender-stereotyped perceptions and the unequal opportunities embedded in social networks appear to explain some of the gender gap.
    October 09, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0020   open full text
  • What Matters When: A Multistage Model And Empirical Examination Of Job Search Effort.
    Kidwell, V., Grosser, T., Dineen, B., Borgatti, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 04, 2012
    We develop a multistage self-regulatory perspective on job search effort assuming active job seekers conducting job searches within a job search goal life span. Specifically, we propose that time pressure increases as the goal of finding employment becomes more proximal, while job search uncertainty decreases. Based on these premises, we integrate social comparison theory, control theory, and the attentional focus model of time pressure to hypothesize how various intrapersonal (i.e., prior effort, job search progress) and socio-contextual (i.e., effort put forth by peers in one's social network) factors relate to job seekers' self-regulation of effort at different stages (i.e., preparatory, active-extensive, and active-intensive) of a job search process. In two studies of job seekers, we find that (1) prior job seeker effort is positively related to current effort across stages, (2) average peer job search effort is more strongly and positively related to job seeker effort earlier in job search, and (3) job search progress (i.e., the ratio of interviews to applications in Study 1 and perceived progress in Study 2) is negatively related to job seeker effort later in job search. Theoretical implications and future research directions are discussed.
    October 04, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0546   open full text
  • Inside The Hybrid Organization: Selective Coupling As A Response To Conflicting Institutional Logics.
    Pache, A.-c., Santos, F.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 27, 2012
    This paper explores how hybrid organizations, which incorporate competing institutional logics, internally manage the logics that they embody. Relying on an inductive comparative case study of four work integration social enterprises embedded in competing social welfare and commercial logics, we show that, instead of adopting strategies of decoupling or compromising, as typically suggested in the literature, these organizations selectively coupled intact elements prescribed by each logic. This strategy allowed them to project legitimacy to external stakeholders without having to engage in costly deceptions or negotiations. We further identify a specific hybridization pattern that we refer to as "Trojan horse", whereby organizations that entered the field with low legitimacy because of their embeddedness in the market logic strategically incorporated elements from the social logic in an attempt to gain legitimacy and acceptance. Surprisingly, they did so more than comparable organizations originating from the social logic. These findings suggest that, when lacking legitimacy in a given field, hybrids may manipulate the templates provided by the multiple logics in which they are embedded in an attempt to gain acceptance. Overall, our findings contribute to a better understanding of how organizations may survive and thrive when embedded in pluralistic institutional environments.
    September 27, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0405   open full text
  • Institutional Polycentrism, Entrepreneurs' Social Networks And New Venture Growth.
    Batjargal, B., Hitt, M., Tsui, A., Arregle, J.-L., Webb, J., Miller, T.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 25, 2012
    What is the interrelationship among formal institutions, social networks, and new venture growth? Drawing on the theory of institutional polycentrism and social network theory, we examine this question using data on 637 entrepreneurs from four different countries. We find the confluence of weak and inefficient formal institutions to be associated with a larger number of structural holes in the entrepreneurial social networks. While the effect of this institutional order on the revenue growth of new ventures is negative, a network's structural holes have a positive effect on the revenue growth. Furthermore, the positive effect of structural holes on the revenue growth is stronger in an environment with a more adverse institutional order (i.e., weaker and more inefficient institutions). The contributions and implications of these findings are discussed.
    September 25, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0095   open full text
  • Between You and Me: Setting Work-Nonwork Boundaries in the Context of Workplace Relationships.
    Trefalt, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 19, 2012
    This study examined how individuals do boundary work, the process of negotiating, setting, moving, and adjusting boundaries between work and life outside of work. In an inductive qualitative study of 70 attorneys in a large U.S. law firm, I found that boundary work cannot be fully understood unless we consider relationships within which it happens. Attorneys engaged in different types of boundary work in different types of relationships that activated either approach or avoidance motivation to pursue substantive (i.e., boundary-related) and relational goals. Boundary work led to measurable and predictable outcomes—success in boundary setting and impact on relationships—that depended on the nature of the relationships and the type of boundary work used. I propose a theoretical model of boundary work, a set of propositions, and discuss theoretical and practical importance of examining boundary work in the context of interpersonal relationships.
    September 19, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0298   open full text
  • Not Let In On The Secret To Success: How Low Levels Of Mentoring From Incumbent Directors Negatively Affect Women And Racial Minority First Time Directors' Appointments To Additional Corporate Boards.
    McDonald, M., Westphal, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 07, 2012
    This study contributes to the literature on women and minorities in corporate leadership by developing theory that can help to explain the persistent under-representation of women and minorities among those who are seen as members of the "corporate elite" because they hold multiple corporate board seats. Our conceptual framework suggests how disadvantages in the receipt of mentoring regarding prevailing norms in the corporate elite are negatively affecting the ability of women and minorities to secure multiple board appointments. Our theory explains why women and minority first-time directors receive comparatively less mentoring regarding a core norm in the corporate elite that outside directors should avoid exercising independent control over firm strategy. Our theory also explains why lower levels of mentoring result in women and racial minority first-time directors receiving relatively fewer appointments to other boards. This study also contributes to the corporate leadership literature by explaining how fundamental inter-group biases are negatively impacting the demographic diversity of the corporate elite. This paper further highlights a specific social mechanism that undermines efforts to move towards more meritocratic outcomes in corporate leadership such that those who are relatively qualified will have greater success in rising to the highest-level positions in the corporate world.
    September 07, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0230   open full text
  • Impact Of Information Technology Capital On Firm Scope And Performance: The Role Of Asset Characteristics.
    Ray, G., Xue, L., Barney, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 06, 2012
    This research draws on transaction-cost and resource-based theory to examine how information technology (IT) capital moderates the relationship between different types of assets and firm scope—both vertical integration and diversification. The analysis suggests that IT capital enables firms with narrowly valuable assets to be less vertically integrated and less diversified, and enables firms with broadly valuable assets to be more vertically integrated and more diversified. The moderating influence of IT capital on the relationship between different types of assets and firms' vertical and product market scope is consistent with transactions-cost as well as resource-based traditions.
    September 06, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0874   open full text
  • Building Positive Resources: Effects Of Positive Events And Positive Reflection On Work Stress And Health.
    Bono, J., Glomb, T., Shen, W., Kim, E., Koch, A.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 06, 2012
    This three-week longitudinal field study with an experimental intervention examines the association between daily events and employee stress and health, with a specific focus on positive events. Results suggest both naturally occurring positive work events and a positive reflection intervention are associated with reduced stress and improved health, though effects vary across momentary, lagged, daily, and day-to-evening spillover analyses. Findings are consistent with theory-based predictions: positive events, negative events, and family-to-work conflict independently contribute to perceived stress, blood pressure, physical symptoms, mental health, and work detachment, suggesting organizations should focus not only on reducing negative events, but also on increasing positive events. Findings show that a brief, end-of-workday positive reflection led to decreased stress and improved health in the evening.
    September 06, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0272   open full text
  • When Power Makes Others Speechless: The Negative Impact of Leader Power on Team Performance.
    Tost, L., Gino, F., Larrick, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 04, 2012
    We examine the impact of the subjective experience of power on leadership dynamics and team performance and find that the psychological effect of power on formal leaders spills over to affect team performance. We argue that a formal leader's experience of heightened power produces verbal dominance, which reduces team communication and consequently diminishes performance. Importantly, because these dynamics rely on the acquiescence of other team members to the leader's dominant behavior, the effects only emerge when the leader holds a formal leadership position. Three studies find consistent support for this argument. The implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    September 04, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0180   open full text
  • Directive versus empowering leadership: A field experiment comparing the impact on task proficiency and proactivity.
    Martin, S., Liao, H., Campbell-Bush, E.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 20, 2012
    Using a field experiment in the United Arab Emirates, we compared the impact of directive versus empowering leadership on customer-rated core task proficiency and proactive behaviors. Results demonstrated that both directive and empowering leadership improved work unit core task proficiency, but only empowering leadership improved proactive behaviors. Examination of boundary conditions revealed that directive leadership improved proactive behaviors for work units that were highly satisfied with their leaders, whereas empowering leadership had stronger effects on both core task proficiency and proactive behaviors for work units that were less satisfied with their leaders. We discuss implications for both theory and practice.
    August 20, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0113   open full text
  • Looking Backward Instead Of Forward: Aspiration Driven Influences On The Efficiency Of The Capital Allocation Process.
    Arrfelt, M., Wiseman, R., Hult, G. T. M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. August 02, 2012
    This study examines the influence of backward-looking, reference-dependent decisions on forward-looking capital allocation investment choices across business units within a firm. Specifically, we develop an integrated behavioral framework for predicting how aspirations for business unit performance affect the efficiency of the internal capital allocation process. Results suggest that contingent on dispersion in business unit performance and on firm slack, performance aspirations have pervasive effects such that current performance above and below aspirations influences the efficiency of the allocation process. Given that prior examinations of aspiration-driven behavior have generally focused on changes in strategic organizational actions (e.g., R&D investment) without further considering the quality or appropriateness of such actions, this study contributes by also focusing on the appropriateness of capital allocations with clear implications for allocation efficiency.
    August 02, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0879   open full text
  • Avoiding the trap of constant connectivity: When congruent frames allow for heterogeneous practices.
    Mazmanian, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 30, 2012
    What happens when an organization provides employees a technology that enables constant connectivity to email? How and why do some groups manage the potential for connectivity in a way that increases flexibility on the job and personal 'free' time, while others create expectations of expanded accessibility to work? A three-year qualitative study of the enactment of mobile email devices in a footwear manufacturer provides empirical grounding to address these questions. Focusing on the experience of two occupational functions, this research argues that congruent frames of heterogeneous communication practices enabled one group to develop communication norms that circumvented the trap of constant connectivity, while assumptions of homogeneous communication practices in the other group led to expanded accessibility and erosion of personal time. This study examines how such alternate trajectories of use emerged and discusses the key dimensions of difference between groups - identity, materiality, vulnerability and visibility - that help account for these differences. In introducing the distinction between homogeneous and heterogeneous trajectories of use, and explicating how such trajectories emerge, this paper offers several theoretical insights: it suggests that there is a distinction between the congruence of technological frames of reference and the content of these frames; it provides an explanation for why groups might enact mobile communication technologies in a manner that does not lead to constant connectivity; and it highlights how shared assumptions of heterogeneity relate to systems of social control.
    July 30, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0787   open full text
  • Walking The Tight Rope: An Assessment Of The Relationship Between High Performance Work Systems And Organizational Ambidexterity.
    Patel, P., Messersmith, J., Lepak, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 24, 2012
    This study explores central questions related to the connections between a firm's HR system and its ability to exhibit organizational ambidexterity. We build off of existing work on the behavioral view of ambidexterity to assess the extent to which the utilization of certain HR practices may be linked to a context marked by discipline, stretch, trust, and support. We further argue that these disparate practices may be combined into a single high performance work system (HPWS), which allows the firm to achieve both the alignment and adaptability necessary to produce ambidexterity. As such, we examine HPWS as a systematic tool for enhancing organizational ambidexterity. We explore this link using data from 215 high-tech SMEs and find that HPWS utilization is positively related to a measure of organizational ambidexterity. In turn, ambidexterity mediates the relationship between HPWS utilization and firm growth.
    July 24, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0255   open full text
  • Power, Moral Clarity, and Punishment in the Workplace.
    Wiltermuth, S., Flynn, F.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 24, 2012
    We propose that power increases how severely people punish a transgressor. Further, we argue that this greater severity stems from an increased sense of moral clarity instilled by the psychological experience of power. We investigate the linkages among power, moral clarity, and punishment across multiple studies. Individuals with an increased sense of power advocated more severe punishments for transgressors than did those with a diminished sense of power. Further, moral clarity mediated the link between power and severity of punishment. We discuss the implications of these findings for managers in organizations and researchers interested in punitive reactions to moral transgressions.
    July 24, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0960   open full text
  • Support, Undermining, and Newcomer Socialization: Fitting In During the First 90 Days.
    Kammeyer-Mueller, J., Wanberg, C., Rubenstein, A., Song, Z.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 20, 2012
    While much organizational socialization occurs through interpersonal interactions, evidence regarding how these processes unfold over time has not been forthcoming. Results from a 14-wave longitudinal study with a sample of 264 organizational newcomers show that support of newcomers from coworkers and supervisors declines within the first 90 days of employment. Early support and undermining had more significant relationships with work outcomes assessed after 90 days of employment than did increases or decreases in support and undermining over that time period, suggesting early support and undermining may lay a foundation for later work outcomes. Proactive behavior partially mediated the relationship between support and more distal work outcomes including withdrawal behaviors. Supervisor undermining was uniquely associated with higher turnover hazard.
    July 20, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0791   open full text
  • Developing Trust With Peers And Leaders: Impacts On Organizational Identification And Performance During Entry.
    Schaubroeck, J., Peng, A., Hannah, S.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 20, 2012
    This study extends existing research about how peers and leaders influence newcomers' adjustment to an organization or profession by examining how specific trust perceptions evolve over time. We test a model of how affect-based trust in one's leader and work unit peers develops from a basis of cognition-based trust and later influences organizational identification and role-related performance. U.S. Army soldiers were examined at the beginning, middle, and end of an intensive 14-week residential entry program of training and collective socialization. Cross-lagged structural equation analyses supported a causal relationship of individuals' cognition-based trust on affect-based trust directed toward their unit peers and, separately, their leaders. Individuals with high levels of chronic relational identity exhibited a stronger time-lagged relationship between cognition-based trust and affect-based trust for trust in peers, but not for trust in the leader. Affect-based trust in the leader had lagged influences on organizational identification and role-related performance at Time 3. Affect-based trust in peers was related over time to organizational identification but not role-related performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the separate influences of social exchange and social identity processes on newcomer adjustment, with distinct roles played by peers and leaders.
    July 20, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0358   open full text
  • Self Love's Lost Labor? A Self Enhancement Model Of Workplace Incivility.
    Chen, Y., Ferris, D. L., Kwan, H. K., Yan, M., Zhou, M., Hong, Y.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 20, 2012
    We present a self-enhancement model of workplace incivility to account for the effects of exposure to incivility on task performance. In particular, we predict that workplace incivility thwarts one's ability to self-enhance at work, resulting in employees divesting their sense of self from work via disengagement processes. Maintaining high levels of task performance subsequently ceases to be a source of self-enhancement for employees who have disengaged their sense of self from work. We also examined the extent to which the desire for self-enhancement (i.e., narcissism) moderated the effect of incivility on engagement. Using two multi-wave, multi-source data collected in China, our results provide full support for our hypotheses, address untested theoretical predictions and provide new theoretical directions for incivility research.
    July 20, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0906   open full text
  • What Clients Don't Get About My Profession: A Model of Perceived Role-Based Image Discrepancies.
    Vough, H., Cardador, T., Bednar, J., Dane, E., Pratt, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 20, 2012
    While most work on image has focused on character traits, we argue that, with respect to professions, roles represent an important, underexplored source of image. Employing qualitative data from 85 members of four professions, we identify "role-based image discrepancies" - misalignments between what professionals perceive as the content of professional work and what professionals believe others think constitutes professional work - as a salient and costly issue for professionals. Specifically, we find that professionals believe that clients' perceptions of their roles lead clients not only to devalue the profession but also to have misaligned expectations about the process and outcomes of the professional-client relationship. Further, professionals perceive that these client evaluations hinder the professional-client interaction and, consequentially, lead to productivity and emotional costs. In response to the recognition of these potential costs, professionals are motivated to manage role-based images and client evaluations through specific problem-focused image management tactics. We develop a model of role-based image discrepancy management that encapsulates these findings and identify mechanisms that link role-based image discrepancies with their outcomes and with professional responses. Our findings carry theoretical and practical implications pertinent to professions, professionals, and image management.
    July 20, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0490   open full text
  • Is this how I will be treated? Reducing uncertainty through recruitment interactions.
    Walker, H. J., Bauer, T., Cole, M., Bernerth, J., Feild, H., Short, J.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 20, 2012
    While a great deal of research has investigated strategies for increasing job seekers' initial attraction to organizations, far less is known about how job seekers respond to recruitment activities after application submission. We draw from signaling, uncertainty reduction, and uncertainty management theories to develop a conceptual model of the relationship between recruitment interactions (contact episodes) after application submission and organizational attraction. We test this model in three independent studies with data collected at multiple time periods. Study 1 employed a time-lagged research design with actual job seekers. Findings showed that justice perceptions associated with recruitment interactions influence organizational attraction indirectly and directly via positive relational certainty (i.e., reduced uncertainty regarding how organizational relations might be upon entering the organization). Study 2 used a controlled experimental design to provide additional evidence of the relational certainty mechanism through which justice signals influence attraction. Finally, Study 3 incorporated a longitudinal (repeated measures) design to examine reactions to recruitment interactions across 10 weeks. Results indicated that the relationship between justice signals and organizational attraction via positive relational certainty is dynamic in nature, suggesting that organizations should carefully manage their communications throughout the recruitment process.
    July 20, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0196   open full text
  • Can Surgical Teams Ever Learn? Towards a Theory of Transitive Team Learning in Action Teams.
    Vashdi, D., Bamberger, P., Erez, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. July 20, 2012
    Recognizing that current theories of team learning do not apply to short-term action teams, we conceptualize how action teams may learn, and test hypotheses regarding the performance-related effects of such learning, the mechanisms mediating such effects, and the conditions governing their magnitude. We operationalized the level of Action Team Learning (ATL) in terms of the regularity and number of role-based, guided team reflexivity experiences of an action team's members. Testing our hypotheses on 250 surgical teams, we find that higher levels of ATL are associated with shorter surgical duration, with this effect mediated by team helping and workload sharing, particularly under conditions of greater team task complexity. Additionally, we find higher levels of ATL to be directly associated with a reduced number of adverse events in low-complexity surgeries.
    July 20, 2012   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0501   open full text
  • Expatriate Knowledge Transfer, Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity, And Subsidiary Performance.
    Chang, Y. Y., Gong, Y., Peng, M.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 17, 2011
    In this study, we theoretically identify three dimensions of expatriate competencies—ability, motivation, and opportunity seeking—for knowledge transfer. Integrating the ability-motivation-opportunity framework and the absorptive capacity perspective, we propose that expatriate competencies in knowledge transfer influence subsidiary performance through the knowledge received by the subsidiary, but that this indirect effect is stronger when subsidiary absorptive capacity is greater. We collected multisource, time-lagged data from 162 British subsidiaries of Taiwanese multinational firms. The results supported our hypotheses. We contribute to expatriation theory and research by revealing specific expatriate competencies as well as identifying boundary conditions for successful expatriate knowledge transfer.
    November 17, 2011   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0985   open full text
  • Variations In R&D Investments Of Family And Non Family Firms: Behavioral Agency And Myopic Loss Aversion Perspectives.
    Chrisman, J., Patel, P.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 09, 2011
    The behavioral agency model (BAM) suggests that to preserve socioemotional wealth, loss averse family firms usually invest less in R&D than non-family firms. However, BAM's predictions are inconsistent with the well-accepted premise that family firms have a long term investment orientation. We reconcile these seemingly incompatible predictions by adding insights from the myopic loss aversion framework, which deals with the impact of decision-making time horizons. The combination of these two prospect theory derivatives lead us to hypothesize that family firms will usually invest less in R&D than non-family firms but the variability of their investments will be greater owing to differences in the compatibility of long- and short term family goals with the economic goals of the firm. However, when performance is below aspiration levels, we theorize that family goals and economic goals will tend to converge. In this situation the R&D investments of family firms are expected to increase and the variability of those investments decrease, relative to non-family firms. Analysis of 964 publicly-held family and non-family firms from the S&P 1500 between 1998 and 2007, support our hypotheses, confirming the need to take the heterogeneity of family firms more fully into account.
    November 09, 2011   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0211   open full text
  • Technology Market Combinations And The Identification Of Entrepreneurial Opportunities: An Investigation Of The Opportunity Individual Nexus.
    Gregoire, D., Shepherd, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. November 05, 2011
    Although prior research has highlighted that individuals differ in their ability to identify opportunities for entrepreneurial action, little attention has been paid to the effects that differences across opportunities may have on their initial identification. Integrating theoretical work on the nature of entrepreneurial opportunities with cognitive science research on the use of similarity comparisons in making creative mental leaps, we develop a model of opportunity identification that examines the independent effects of an opportunity idea's similarity characteristics, and the interaction of these characteristics with an individual's knowledge and motivation. We test this model with a within-subject experiment where we asked two samples of entrepreneurs to form beliefs about opportunity ideas for technology transfer. Results indicate that the superficial and structural similarities of technology-market combinations impact the formation of opportunity beliefs, and that individual differences in prior knowledge and entrepreneurial intent moderate these relationships. In addition to casting light on cognitive reasons why some entrepreneurial opportunities may be more or less difficult to identify, our theorizing and findings point towards reasoning strategies that may facilitate the identification of multiple (and potentially more valuable) opportunities, not only for new technologies, but also for new products, services, and/or business models.
    November 05, 2011   doi: 10.5465/amj.2011.0126   open full text
  • Modeling How to Grow: An Inductive Examination of Humble Leader Behaviors, Contingencies, and Outcomes.
    Owens, B., Hekman, D.
    The Academy of Management Journal. October 16, 2011
    Although a growing number of leadership writers argue leader humility is important to organizational effectiveness, little is known about the construct, why some leaders behave more humbly than others, what these behaviors lead to, or what factors moderate the effectiveness of these behaviors. Drawing from 55 in-depth interviews with leaders from a wide variety of contexts, we develop a model of the behaviors, outcomes, and contingencies of humble leadership. We uncover that leader humility involves leaders modeling to followers how to grow and produces positive organizational outcomes by leading followers to believe that their own developmental journeys and feelings of uncertainty are legitimate in the workplace. We discuss how the emergent humility in leadership model informs a broad range of leadership issues including organizational development and change, the evolution of leader-follower relationships, new pathways for engaging followers, and integrating top-down and bottom-up organizing.
    October 16, 2011   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0441   open full text
  • Generalizing Newcomer's Relational And Organizational Identifications: Processes And Prototypicality.
    Sluss, D., Ployhart, R., Cobb, M., Ashforth, B.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 23, 2011
    Recent theory proposes that relational identification generalizes to organizational identification through affective, cognitive, and behavioral mediating mechanisms. The generalization process is strengthened when the relational other is prototypical, that is, seen as promoting the core values of the organization. We investigate these propositions via two field studies. First, we find, via temporally-lagged data from 186 newcomers to the telemarketing industry, that relational identification with the supervisor generalizes to organizational identification through affective (i.e., affect transfer), cognitive (i.e., social influence), and behavioral (i.e., behavioral sensemaking) mediating mechanisms. Second, we find, via temporally-lagged data from 1101 newcomers to the U.S. Army, that the newcomer's relational identification with the supervisor generalizes to the newcomer's organizational identification, but only when the supervisor is perceived to be prototypical. Our combined findings suggest that: (1) multiple identifications are more integrative than exclusive; (2) one's organizational membership may be more personalized and relational than previously assumed in extant research.
    September 23, 2011   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0420   open full text
  • From Practice To Field: A Multi Level Model Of Practice Driven Institutional Change.
    Smets, M., Morris, T., Greenwood, R.
    The Academy of Management Journal. September 20, 2011
    This paper develops a model of practice-driven institutional change; that is, change that originates in the everyday work of individuals, but results in a shift in field-level logic. In demonstrating how improvisations at work can generate institutional change, we attend to the earliest moments of change that extant research neglects; and we contrast existing accounts that focus on active entrepreneurship and the contested nature of change. We outline the specific mechanisms by which change emerges from everyday work, becomes justified, and diffuses within the organization and field, as well as precipitating and enabling dynamics that trigger and condition these mechanisms.
    September 20, 2011   doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.0013   open full text