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Global Networks

Impact factor: 1.863 5-Year impact factor: 2.266 Print ISSN: 1470-2266 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subjects: Sociology, Anthropology, Geography

Most recent papers:

  • Special issue introduction: maritime networks and transnational spaces.
    David Featherstone.
    Global Networks. September 10, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract This article introduces the key contributions of the special issue on ‘Maritime networks and transnational spaces’. It draws attention to three key thematics that the papers develop. These are a set of engagements between law, space and maritime networks; a set of questions around maritime spaces, subaltern histories and transnational networks and finally a set of concerns around the forms of ‘geopolitical literacy’ articulated by maritime actors (Troutman 2005). Through drawing together these interlocking problematics the articles contribute to a broad agenda highlighting the productive intersection of work on maritime networks and transnational spaces. The introduction sets out some of the ways in which engagements with maritime contexts and scholarship can offer new perspectives on the transnational spatialities of politics, resistance and regulation. - 'Global Networks, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 447-457, October 2019. '
    September 10, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12264   open full text
  • Freighting English law: interpreting maritime spaces, law and the Armenian strategies in the Indian Ocean.
    Santanu Sengupta.
    Global Networks. September 10, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I examine the formation of the English East India Company's legal regime in the Indian Ocean between the mid‐eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. I look at how this process affected maritime trade and space from the vantage point of Armenian merchants' interactions with the colonial regime in the courts of law. The productive tensions arising from the colonial regime's new protocols and the merchants' leveraging tactics make for a complex story of Anglo‐Armenian dialogue. I argue that indigenous agency in the colonial courts complicated the binary colonial/indigenous structure. The idea of legal pluralism that emerges from the article suggests that the identity of an imperial subject or the definition of law was neither a given nor simply imposed through colonial coercion but was a complex product of a long‐term dialogue and rationalization. - 'Global Networks, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 477-498, October 2019. '
    September 10, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12229   open full text
  • Maritime labour, transnational political trajectories and decolonization from below: the opposition to the 1935 British Shipping Assistance Act.
    David Featherstone.
    Global Networks. September 10, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract This article uses a discussion of struggles over attempts by the National Union of Seamen to exclude seafarers from the maritime labour market in the inter‐war period to contribute to debates at the intersection of maritime spaces and transnational labour geographies (cf. Balachandran 2012; Høgsbjerg 2013). By focusing on struggles engendered by the British Shipping (Assistance) Act of 1935, I explore some of the transnational dynamics through which racialized forms of trade unionism were contested. I argue that the political trajectories, solidarities and organizing spaces constructed by the alliances formed to oppose the effects of the act shaped articulations of ‘decolonization from below’ (James 2015). In this way, engaging with the political trajectories and activities of activists from organizations like the Colonial Seamen's Association can reveal new ways of understanding the spatial politics of decolonization and new accounts of who or how such processes were articulated and contested. I conclude the article by arguing that engagement with these struggles can help assert the importance of forms of subaltern agency in shaping processes of decolonization. - 'Global Networks, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 539-562, October 2019. '
    September 10, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12228   open full text
  • German seafarers, anti‐fascism and the anti‐Stalinist left: the ‘Antwerp Group’ and Edo Fimmen's International Transport Workers' Federation, 1933–40.
    Jonathan Hyslop.
    Global Networks. September 10, 2019
    --- - |2 Between the mid‐1930s and the beginning of the Second World War, a group of German seamen based in Antwerp combined with Amsterdam‐based Edo Fimmen, secretary of the International Transport Workers' Federation, to wage a campaign against the Nazi government among the sailors of the German merchant fleet. They organized cells of supporters on German ships, encouraged informal resistance, circulated propaganda and planned sabotage. The Antwerp Group was a breakaway from the Comintern‐aligned International of Seafarers and Harbour Workers (ISH). The Antwerp men were reacting against the ineffectiveness of the response of the German communist leadership to Hitler's takeover of power, and against the growing subordination of the ISH to Soviet interests. By highlighting the role of anti‐Stalinist militants in the anti‐fascism of the 1930s, the article contributes to the recent scholarship on anti‐fascism – a scholarship that has tended to emphasize the transnationalism and ideological diversity of anti‐fascism, rather than seeing it in national terms, or as a monolithic entity controlled by Moscow. - 'Global Networks, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 499-520, October 2019. '
    September 10, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12212   open full text
  • Transnational connections and anti‐colonial radicalism in the Royal Indian Navy mutiny, 1946.
    Andrew Davies.
    Global Networks. September 10, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I explore the spatial politics of the Royal Indian Navy mutiny of 1946 and call for a more maritime sense of ‘the political’. The RIN only existed from 1934 to 1950; it became the Indian Navy after independence. Its mutiny in 1946, which was caused by a number of grievances from anticolonial nationalism to more mundane challenges about the standard of food, continues to be the dominant event in this history. Leela Gandhi (2014) used the RIN mutiny to challenge the binary distinction between elite and subaltern in much Indian historiography by depicting it as an ‘anti‐colonial counterpublic’, or space in which discourses other than the dominant nationalist framings of independence were mobilized. She also regards the mutiny as a potential example of inconsequential ethics in which, instead of worrying about its causes, the mutiny can be read as an experimental space in which democratic politics occurred, rather than one in which people were striving for a ‘successful’ outcome. I argue that, while there is much to be admired in Gandhi's reading of these events, she discounts the maritime nature of the RIN mutiny. In other words, she fails to acknowledge that travelling to different international locations allowed the sailors to learn about democracy and other ideas, which in turn influenced their beliefs about what the future of India, and the RIN, should look like. As a result, I argue for the need to explore in greater depth the important connections that exist between anti‐colonialism, democratic politics and the naval/maritime experience. - 'Global Networks, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 521-538, October 2019. '
    September 10, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12256   open full text
  • Black Atlantic maritime networks, resistance and the American ‘domestic’ slave trade.
    Anita Rupprecht.
    Global Networks. September 10, 2019
    --- - |2 This article on the formation and operation of maritime networks of resistance and solidarity during the United States ‘domestic’ coastal slave trade contributes to the history of Atlantic maritime radicalism in the Age of Revolution. After 1807, the legal trans‐shipment of enslaved people from the Chesapeake to the antebellum slave markets enclosed the seas along the Atlantic seaboard and into the Gulf of Mexico. The legal, geopolitical and physical limitations of slavery at sea turned the Florida Straits – a densely trafficked maritime chokepoint – into a contested space. Rather than viewing this globally significant maritime space as primarily a site of contestation between British imperial sovereignty and US internecine national politics, the focus is on the undercurrents of collective black Atlantic political action, memory and connection that shaped the Straits as a transnational maritime route from slavery to freedom. - 'Global Networks, Volume 19, Issue 4, Page 458-476, October 2019. '
    September 10, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12209   open full text
  • Doing a transversal method: developing an ethics of care in a collaborative research project.
    Stephan Scheel, Francisca GrommÉ, Evelyn Ruppert, Funda Ustek‐Spilda, Baki Cakici, Ville Takala.
    Global Networks. September 04, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Beck and Sznaider call on ‘methodological cosmopolitanism’ to transcend methodological nationalism and account for an increasingly cosmopolitanized reality. We take up their challenge by drawing on our experiences of conducting a collaborative ethnography of methodological changes in the production of population statistics within and between European national and international statistical institutes. Drawing on debates in science and technology studies, we depart from some conceptual presuppositions of methodological cosmopolitanism to define a ‘transversal method’. Referring to this method as performative and ontopolitical, we reflect on how it requires collaboration and, in our ethnography, gave rise to three practical challenges – (1) going beyond the individual project; (2) using each other's field notes; (3) and working against the national order of things. To meet these challenges, we reflect on how this method required us to practise three modes of care – thinking with others, tinkering with field notes, and dissenting within. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    September 04, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12263   open full text
  • First‐generation migrants become grandparents: how migration backgrounds affect intergenerational relationships.
    Anne Carolina Ramos, Heidi Rodrigues Martins.
    Global Networks. August 22, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract First‐generation migrants are not only reaching the age of retirement, but they are also becoming grandparents in the host society. Through the specific case of Portuguese migrants in Luxembourg, we look at what point their migration background becomes important to their intergenerational relationships. We have acquired the data for this article from biographical narrative interviews with ten older first‐generation grandparents and ten second‐generation parents. On the basis of these findings, we address three important aspects of intergenerational relations: (i) how first‐generation migrants socialize their grandchildren, (ii) grandparental mobility patterns and their embeddedness in practices of socialization and care, and (iii) the challenges produced by language in intergenerational relationships. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    August 22, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12261   open full text
  • Theorizing transnational labour markets: a research heuristic based on the new economic sociology.
    Ursula Mense‐Petermann.
    Global Networks. August 20, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I suggest that transnational labour markets are characterized by their multi‐layered embeddedness, not only in national but also in transnational institutional settings. Hence, the national institutional factors formerly at the centre of sociological labour market theories insufficiently explain the newly emerging transnational labour markets. To account for the full complexity and institutional context of the latter, I propose an inductive theoretical approach to transnational labour markets and develop a research heuristic to instruct empirical studies about particular transnational labour markets and inductive theory building. This heuristic draws on analytical categories as developed by the new economic sociology of markets. The empirical example of the transnational labour market that matches eastern European workers to jobs in the German meat industry serves to illustrate how one can use this heuristic, which reveals some preliminary features of transnational labour markets compared with national ones, as well as some research gaps to be addressed by future studies. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    August 20, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12260   open full text
  • Starting somewhere different: methodological cosmopolitanism and the study of world politics.
    Sabine Selchow.
    Global Networks. August 16, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I contribute to the debate on Ulrich Beck's idea of ‘methodological cosmopolitanism’ from a political science perspective. How fruitful is Beck's idea for the study of world politics? How can a political science perspective turn ‘methodological cosmopolitanism’ into a more transdisciplinary subject of debate? Guided by these questions, I speak to two audiences. First, I offer political scientists a distinct strategy for empirical ‘cosmopolitan political science’ research. At the heart of this strategy is a novel object of research, the ‘cosmopolitan outlook’, understood as a discourse that breaks with the ‘national outlook’ to open possibilities for a world beyond ‘reflexive modernization’. With that, I shift the perspective from structure to discourse and broaden the normative grounds on which to assess cosmopolitan reality. Rather than just considering the emergence of normative cosmopolitan ideals, I build into cosmopolitan research the normative, empirical question of whether we see an emergence of a world beyond reflexive modernization. Second, I address scholars outside the field of political science who are interested in methodological cosmopolitanism by offering the ‘cosmopolitan outlook’ as a novel object of study that could also be explored from other disciplinary perspectives and by proposing they put the question of the purpose of methodological cosmopolitanism centre stage. This question can, I argue, constitute grounds for substantial debates on methodological cosmopolitanism not already precluded through disciplinary premises and concerns. Contributing to such a transdisciplinary debate, I distinguish between the long‐term and immediate purpose of methodological cosmopolitanism, the former being about the development of a cosmopolitan language and grammar and the latter about empirical explorations of the reality of the ‘cosmopolitan outlook’, eventually and in a collective and transdisciplinary endeavour building up to contribute to the former. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    August 16, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12262   open full text
  • Expanding transnational care networks: comparing caring for families with caring for homes.
    Titus Schaab, Lauren Wagner.
    Global Networks. July 23, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Although many factors may motivate a migrant to own a house in their country of origin, significant practical labour is needed to maintain it, as both a material structure intended for shelter and as a symbolic object reflecting attachment to a place of origin. Most research in this area focuses on the significance accorded to transnational houses by their owners and families connoted by the ‘myth of return’, but little attention has been given to how the labour of ownership – constructing, maintaining, overseeing and improving the house – is accomplished. In the light of emerging studies on the care labour that remittance houses require, this article suggests a theoretical framework for studying networks of transnational house maintenance on three dimensions of care – trust, communication, and remittances – observed in networks for transnational family care provisions. A review of literature on transnational home ownership indicates that these dimensions are also present, with some differences in application. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 23, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12257   open full text
  • Mobility hub or hollow? Cross‐border travelling in the Mediterranean, 1995–2016.
    Emanuel Deutschmann, Ettore Recchi, Federica Bicchi.
    Global Networks. July 23, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract The Mediterranean is often portrayed as a hub of human mobility. In this article, we test this widespread view by exploring the structure of travel flows in the region over the last two decades (1995–2016). We find that mobility is much higher and increasing more strongly along the northern than along the southern shore, thus creating a growing mobility divide. South‐north and north‐south movements are even scarcer and stagnate or even decline over time. With a Gini coefficient of .87, mobility flows are distributed extremely unequally across country pairs in the Mediterranean. Community detection algorithms reconfirm that mobility predominantly takes place in disparate clusters around the Mediterranean, not across it. These findings imply that a ‘neo‐Braudelian’ view of the Mediterranean as a mobility hub is less justified than a ‘Rio Grande’ perspective that conceives of the Mediterranean as a mobility hollow. Multivariate regression models for network data suggest that geographical distance and, to a lesser extent, political visa regulations, explain the unequal mobility structure better than differences in economic well‐being. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 23, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12259   open full text
  • Climate riskscapes in world port cities: situating urban‐cosmopolitan risk communities via Ulrich Beck's comparative tactics.
    Anders Blok.
    Global Networks. July 18, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Building on empirical research into translocal connections among world port cities in addressing shared challenges of climate risk mitigation and adaptation, in this article I review two widespread tendencies in urban studies – methodological city‐ism and methodological globalism respectively – as a springboard for articulating a methodologically cosmopolitan alternative. This alternative, I argue, involves epistemological issues of how to interrogate ‘the urban’ as assemblages that constitutively draw together the near and the faraway, as well as more practical issues of mobile, multisited, and comparative urban research methods. Empirically, I compare the ways in which urban actors stage global climate risks on the waterfronts of four world cities – Hong Kong, Rotterdam, Yokohama and Copenhagen – to argue that such a comparative tactic of variable ‘riskscapes’ helps situate Ulrich Beck's notion of urban cosmopolitan risk communities more thoroughly into urban studies. In such ways, I suggest, Beck's methodological cosmopolitanism is germane to studying ongoing and far ranging transformation in world political geography, in which transurban networks, communities, and governance arrangements come to complement nation‐state centred institutions. Such conclusions must be tempered, however, by the deployment of Beck's equally strong impetus towards comparative attention to the varieties of second modernity; and doing so, I conclude, aligns well with ongoing transformations in urban studies itself. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 18, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12258   open full text
  • Global value chains in international knowledge work: networks, stratifications and labour markets.
    Graham Hollinshead.
    Global Networks. July 09, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I aim to cast light on the arguably indeterminate phenomenon of the global labour market (GLM) by placing the focus on an industry that has sometimes been perceived as epitomizing homogeneity and ‘world flatness’ in its deployment of geographically dispersed knowledge workers, that of international software development. Engaging in a sanguine analysis of this industry with reference to an empirical study of outsourcing to Ukraine it is revealed that labour markets servicing ICT (Information and communication technology) are subject to deep, if fluctuating, social stratifications. With reference to the notion of the global value chain (GVC), the significance of factors such as knowledge, language, citizenship and age as labour market differentiators for knowledge work is brought to the fore. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 09, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12253   open full text
  • Sailing together from different shores: labour markets and inequality on board merchant ships.
    Patrik Aspers, Carl Sandberg.
    Global Networks. July 09, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In this study, we analyse the consequences of the conditions of the labour‐market contracts for working on board merchant ships. More specifically, we examine how seafarers hired on different contracts work together. Seafarers’ conditions of work differ considerably: some, mainly workers in the West, have permanent contracts with a shipping company, are paid a relatively high monthly wage and can go ashore every second month, whereas others performing the same tasks may have to stay at sea for more than six months at a time, and work for less money on temporary contracts. Drawing on the economic sociology of markets and institutional theory, in this article we present the institutional conditions of globalized labour markets for seafarers and analyse unique data derived from observations and interviews on board merchant ships. We argue that the notion of market is a key explanatory factor for how the work is conducted on board. Theoretically, our elaboration on markets allows us to conceptualize and address global and transnational markets. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 09, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12252   open full text
  • Transnational grandparenting: an introduction.
    Mihaela Nedelcu, Malika Wyss.
    Global Networks. July 05, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract This first special issue dedicated to grandparenting patterns and their significance within transnational families sheds new light on transnational grandparenting as a phenomenon reflecting the convergence of three major transformations in today's societies – global ageing, diversification of migration and mobility flows, and lifestyle individualization. It contains five articles based on empirical studies conducted in several European countries (Switzerland, Luxembourg, Spain, Romania, and the Czech Republic) focusing on transnational families from both boh EU and non‐EU countries (Germany, France, Italy, Brazil, Morocco, Algeria, Switzerland, Britain, Portugal, Romania, and Vietnam). These articles portray transnational grandparenting through the prism of three nexuses (mobile/non‐mobile, migrant/non‐migrant, and kin/non‐kin), thus allowing one to understand grandparents' roles in the transnational circulation of care in the light of contemporary family transformations on the one hand, and of the increased transnationalization of everyday ‘doing family’ practices on the other. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 05, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12249   open full text
  • Grandparents on the move: a multilevel framework analysis to understand diversity in zero‐generation care arrangements in Switzerland.
    Malika Wyss, Mihaela Nedelcu.
    Global Networks. July 05, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Among the various forms of transnational grandparenting is the engagement of the so‐called zero generation – the transnationally mobile parents of adult migrants – in caring for their grandchildren abroad. It constitutes a distinct kind of intergenerational solidarity within transnational families. By taking migrant families in Switzerland as a case in point, in this article we attempt to broaden the existing research by adopting a comparative, qualitative approach towards understanding the commonalities and differences of childcare organization involving grandparental support in European and non‐European transnational families. By taking into account the main objective and the temporality of grandparents' visits in Switzerland, we identify six different types of childcare arrangements. While these arrangements are shaped by the discriminatory Swiss migration regime, several other institutional, familial, and individual factors help to promote or impede them, or to change their dynamics. Thus, we introduce an innovative, multi‐level, analytical approach towards studying the various ways in which the parents of adult migrants of different nationalities take part in the transnational circulation of care. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 05, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12250   open full text
  • Displaying grandparenting within Romanian transnational families.
    Viorela Ducu.
    Global Networks. July 02, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I use the analytical framework of ‘displaying family relationships’ to explore the transnational grandparenting practices of Romanian families. I discuss the theoretical aspects of the concept of displaying with regard to its scope, specificity and manifestation. I emphasize the uniqueness of each instance of displaying, while also revealing the various patterns through which family‐related motivations trigger individual behaviour. Highlighting the intersections between such internal motivations and displaying behaviour, the research underlines the various challenges that transnational grandparents encounter, and the ways in which they react to them. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 02, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12255   open full text
  • An analysis of the homeworker network in Pakistan: a global justice network (GJN) perspective.
    Ghazal Mir Zulfiqar.
    Global Networks. July 02, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Using a global justice network (GJN) approach, in this article I examine the localization of a transnational network for homeworker rights. Based on my field research undertaken in Pakistan between January 2015 and December 2017, I compare different organizing approaches to establish how a politics of vulnerability may be transformed into a politics of voice and mobility. I found that, from the vantage point of the homeworker, the process of organizing rather than the results achieved is what really matters. In the case of Pakistan, union‐style organizing by the Home‐worker Federation, which is mindful of gender and class hierarchies, enhances the homeworkers’ voice, agency and mobility, while also building translocal labour solidarities. Conversely, an NGO‐led national network, with its top–down approach, perpetuates the very hierarchies it was mission bound to dismantle, thus forcing the women to stay spatially imprisoned. Without arguing that one institutional form is superior to the other, I demonstrate that for a GJN to articulate diverse local and global struggles it must be mindful of the hierarchies and boundaries that isolate and silence marginalized workers. It must also genuinely include the grassroots in the production and transference of knowledge. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 02, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12254   open full text
  • Multistakeholder initiatives in global production networks: naturalizing specific understandings of sustainability through the Better Cotton Initiative.
    Lone Riisgaard, Peter Lund‐Thomsen, Neil M. Coe.
    Global Networks. June 18, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In recent years, various academics, consultants, companies and NGOs have advocated a move towards more cooperative approaches to private sustainability standards to address the widely identified shortcomings of the compliance paradigm. However, is it possible to address these limitations by moving towards stakeholder inclusion and capacity building while at the same time catering to the demands of lead firms supplying the mainstream market? In this article, we analyse how the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) seeks to do just that, in the process identifying three key tensions and competing policy concerns with which standard‐setters have had to grapple – (a) stakeholder inclusion vs process‐control/efficiency; (b) stringency of the standard vs scale of production; and (c) capacity building vs auditing. Combining theoretical considerations about governance in global production networks (GPNs) with a convention theory perspective, we explore these inherent tensions and show that due to pre‐existing power relations in the cotton GPN, it is hard to develop more cooperative approaches because market and industrial values tend to win out despite efforts to follow current best practice on sustainability standard‐setting. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    June 18, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12251   open full text
  • Non‐state authoritarianism and diaspora politics.
    Fiona B. Adamson.
    Global Networks. June 07, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Diaspora politics has been celebrated as a form of transnationalism that can potentially challenge authoritarian regimes. Arguably, opposition groups and political activists can mobilize beyond the territorial limits of the state, thus bypassing some of the constraints to political organization found in authoritarian states. The literature on transnational and extraterritorial repression complicates this model, for it shows that states can use strategies of ‘long‐distance authoritarianism’ to monitor, intimidate and harass diasporic populations abroad. Yet, non‐state actors in the diaspora also sometimes use such repressive strategies to mobilize internally, gain hegemony within the diaspora, and marginalize or eliminate internal rivals. This raises the question of whether such activities can be understood as non‐state forms of authoritarianism. Cases of diasporic politics pertaining to Turkey and Sri Lanka are briefly explored with a view to examining how state and non‐state forms of transnational repression can, under some conditions, result in the dynamics of competitive authoritarianism within a diaspora. In such cases, ‘ordinary’ members of the diaspora may become caught between multiple forms of transnational repression in addition to potentially experiencing marginalization and securitization in their new home. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    June 07, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12246   open full text
  • The transnational lives and third space subjectivities of British Nigerian girls.
    Pamela Jennifer Kea.
    Global Networks. June 07, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in 2012 on British Nigerian young women who have gone to boarding school in Nigeria and returned to attend university in the UK, I use the concept of third space as a heuristic device for understanding their transnational subjectivities and practices. I argue that, for some, this third space is a transgressive one in which they can craft alternative subjectivities and narratives about African culture and political economy. Applying insights from decolonial theory, I seek to build on the transgressive nature of this third space. In positioning themselves variously as Londoners, Nigerians, dual and post‐nationals, they express key features of contemporary transnational European subjectivities. Yet, parental expectations that they marry Nigerians and members of the Nigerian diaspora serve to reproduce the racial distinctions and nationalist rhetoric of colonial modernity that their third space subjectivities contest. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    June 07, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12247   open full text
  • The 3×1 Programme and criminal violence in Mexico.
    Ana Isabel LÓpez GarcÍa.
    Global Networks. June 07, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Are levels of criminal violence lower where emigrants collaborate with the state authorities in the funding and provision of public goods and services? In this article, I examine the causal effect on violence levels in the municipalities participating in Mexico's Three‐for‐One (3×1) Programme for Migrants. Using municipal‐level data for the period between 2001 and 2010, the analysis shows that the implementation of this programme led to an increase in violence in the municipalities in question, and that this effect is driven by the ‘war on drugs’ initiated by the Mexican government in 2006. Because cartels splinter when kingpins are captured, they look for sources of revenue other than drug smuggling. The budgetary gains obtained via the 3×1 Programme inadvertently increased the returns of extortion and directed the attention of organized criminals to the participant municipalities. The evidence highlights some of the unintended effects that the leveraging of emigrants' money may have in home countries where governments make the so‐called ‘kingpin strategy' a centrepiece of their security strategy. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    June 07, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12248   open full text
  • ‘Cukup for me to be successful in this country’: ‘staying’ among left‐behind young women in Indonesia's migrant‐sending villages.
    Bittiandra Chand Somaiah, Brenda S. A. Yeoh, Silvia Mila Arlini.
    Global Networks. April 29, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract By examining the aspirations of young, rural Indonesian women who, unlike their parents, want to stay behind rather than migrate for work, we look at how these women's experiences of feeling left‐behind affect their quests for alternative futures. Using a household relational lens, we employ the mediating concept of enough (cukup) to analyse the aspirations of young women wishing to remain at home. By focusing on their commitment to inter‐generational continuity and care rather than a lack of choice, we are able to offset the discourses associated with the culture of migration and its accompanying remittance euphoria. Our findings showed three main reasons for their choice. First, these young women pursue remittance‐funded higher education as a counter to parental sacrifice. Second, staying allows them both to provide the hands‐on care they themselves were denied as children and to pursue meaningful local careers. Third, the idea that migration has been ‘enough’ is a rational response to the social risks with which migration confronts a family. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    April 29, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12238   open full text
  • Retirement migration and transnational grandparental support: a Spanish case study.
    Marion Repetti, Toni Calasanti.
    Global Networks. April 22, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract People who migrate in retirement often do so to join younger generations who have already migrated, and to help with grandchildren. But what about those retirees who migrate away from their families? Do they still provide grandparental support? To address this question, we examine retirement migrants who reside permanently in their new country, Spain. We find that they are aware of grandparental support expectations, and that their migration decision sometimes creates conflict with their offspring. At the same time, these retirement migrants reshape the meaning of grandparental support. Care considerations influence their destination and housing choices, and they continue to provide care. They feel that their familial relationships are now of a higher quality, despite the distance. At the same time, gender still emerges as a key dimension of grandparental support. The grandparenting of these retirement migrants challenges facile depictions of their motivations and of the equation of quantity and quality of contacts. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    April 22, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12239   open full text
  • Grandparents, kinship ties, and belonging after migration: the perspective of second‐generation grandchildren.
    AdÉla SouralovÁ.
    Global Networks. April 18, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I investigate the roles of grandparents for second‐generation immigrants who live with their parents in a different country from their grandparents. I draw on in‐depth interviews with second‐generation Vietnamese immigrants living in the Czech Republic, where they are very often raised by Czech caregivers. The carers and the children are joined through the process of caregiving and become grandmothers and grandchildren to each other. The analysis focuses on how the interviewees make sense of, interpret, and understand their roles as grandchildren vis‐à‐vis their Czech and Vietnamese grandmothers. It shows how, after migration, the kinship ties are performed, negotiated, and reproduced on a micro level of everyday life, with tasks of caring, homeland visits, and a transnational/face‐to‐face maintenance of intimacy. The article concludes that grandparents play an important role in the grandchildren's sense of belonging both to their family kin and to the homeland. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    April 18, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12240   open full text
  • Refugee resettlement, social media and the social organization of difference.
    Jay Marlowe.
    Global Networks. April 18, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Social media platforms allow refugees separated by distance to share information, provide support and exchange resources across borders. This connection has the potential to transform resettlement experiences as people maintain significant and ongoing relationships with transnational networks. Yet, since refugee resettlement programmes generally only scale up to the national imagination, integration remains a normative framework in most policy spheres. This article presents a 12‐month digital ethnography of 15 refugees settled in New Zealand with a view to examining their transnational practices of social media and its influence on integration and belonging. Drawing on a conceptual framework based on the social organization of difference, it contains a discussion on how online global networks increasingly inform the domains of encounters, representations and configurations. The role of social media for refugee resettlement futures and its implications for integration at times of rapid political, technological and social change concludes the article. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    April 18, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12233   open full text
  • Transnational social capital: the socio‐spatialities of civil society.
    Sarah Peck.
    Global Networks. April 08, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Civil society remains a contested concept, but one that is widely embedded in global development processes. Transnationalism within civil society scholarship is often described dichotomously, either through hierarchical dependency relations or as a more amorphous networked global civil society. These two contrasting spatial imaginaries produce very particular ideas about how transnational relations contribute to civil society. Drawing on empirical material from research with civil society organizations in Barbados and Grenada, in this article I contend that civil society groups use forms of transnational social capital in their work. This does not, however, resonate with the horizontal relations associated with grassroots globalization or vertical chains of dependence. These social relations are imbued with power and agency and are entangled in situated historical, geographical and personal contexts. I conclude that the diverse transnational social relations that are part of civil society activity offer hope and possibilities for continued civil society action in these unexpected spatial arrangements. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    April 08, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12234   open full text
  • Corporate interests within transnational advocacy networks: The International Coalition Against Plain Packaging.
    Julia Smith, Kelley Lee.
    Global Networks. April 08, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract Most of the research on transnational advocacy networks documents progressive, voluntary movements, motivated by values associate with human rights and public goods. There is little critical reflection on the role of corporations within such networks or on the material motivations behind movements. Meanwhile literature on corporate political strategies related to partnerships with civil society is limited to national level analysis. This article presents a case study of the International Coalition Against Plain Packaging, which is conceptualized as a transnational advocacy network, and documents its links to the tobacco industry. We find that, not only have tobacco companies provided network members – publicly presented and perceived as independent – with financial resources, but they have also been involved in producing the information used by the network to debate the benefits of plain packaging. In return, the tobacco industry is able to propagate ideas favorable to its interests through organizations perceived as legitimate experts, and to maintain a network of allies ready to counter tobacco control regulations when and where they arise. Considering the multiple benefits corporations might derive from engaging with transnational advocacy networks, there is need for greater research on private actors’ influence within advocacy networks and on those networks that aim to counter or advance alternatives to progressive ideals. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    April 08, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12235   open full text
  • When the phone stops ringing: on the meanings and causes of disruptions in communication between Eritrean refugees and their families back home.
    Milena Belloni.
    Global Networks. February 25, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract In recent years, a growing number of studies have highlighted the role of technology in facilitating the circulation of the information and images that underpin migrants' journeys and aspirations. However, less attention has been paid to the social circumstances that obstruct these communication flows. Based on ethnographic work in Italy and Eritrea, in this article I show that, despite the technological possibilities that are available, contacts between Eritrean refugees in Italy and their families back home are often extremely limited. This is not the result of infrastructural under‐development, but of a bundle of social and family expectations that my informants perceive as overwhelming. My respondents in Italy maintained many transnational relationships with friends and acquaintances around the world, but generally not with their parents in Eritrea. While revisiting the literature on the moral economy of transnational families, I show that my informants' attempts to move onwards from Italy emerge from their wish to reconnect with their left‐behind kin. Only by reaching the final destination of their geographical and moral journey can they support their families back home. Only this can give them respect in the eyes of their community and restore transnational communication with their families. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    February 25, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12230   open full text
  • Sending Granny to Chiang Mai: debating global outsourcing of care for the elderly.
    Karin Schwiter, Jill BrÜtsch, Geraldine Pratt.
    Global Networks. February 25, 2019
    --- - |2 Abstract This article ties in with existing discussions on global care chains, family separation and the devaluation of social‐reproductive work. We explore the new trend of outsourcing care for the elderly to countries with lower wages. We base our analysis on the debate in the German press and supplement it with insights from ethnographic field observations in two care homes in Thailand. We identify a discourse of abandonment, which shows how outsourcing the care of the elderly unsettles the privilege of sedentarism that is often taken for granted in the Global North. Furthermore, the newspaper articles tend to villainize people who seek care for their loved ones abroad. We argue that both discourses foster a neoliberal rationale of individualized responsibility and obfuscate the deep systemic roots of the care crisis in the Global North. However, by extending the discussion on outsourcing care for the elderly beyond the dominant media discourses, we envisage a rich potential for provoking political debate on the revaluation of care. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    February 25, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12231   open full text
  • A post‐socialist legacy in transnational families: Russian and Polish women in Finland.
    Tatiana Tiaynen‐Qadir, Anna Matyska.
    Global Networks. January 21, 2019
    --- - |2 In this article, we bridge the analytical gap between transnational anthropology and the anthropology of post‐socialism to explore the transnational family lives of Russian and Polish women in Finland. We point to three interrelated aspects of the post‐socialist legacy – (1) an inclusive understanding and practice of family that involves the interactions of immediate and extended family configurations; (2) intergenerational solidarity among women; and (3) feminine subjectivity built on the socialist ideal of a working mother. Our ethnographies illustrate that Russian and Polish women maintain their transnational families through networks of transnationally dispersed extended families. In women's lives and selves, traditional gendered motherhood and the liberal idea of a working woman are combined and supported by women's intergenerational companionship across borders. Our case studies show that such concrete, informal relations of affection and care provide women with a sense of security and self‐worth amid transnational change. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    January 21, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12227   open full text
  • Beyond deportation: researching the control of outward mobility using a space of flows logic.
    Leanne Weber, Sigmund Book Mohn, Francesco Vecchio, Andriani Fili.
    Global Networks. January 20, 2019
    --- - |2 Manuel Castells (1996) famously argued that human processes are increasingly operating according to the logic of flows and it has now become commonplace to analyse movements of people, information and commodities in terms of flows. However, scholars have been slow to capture the dynamics of border enforcement practices in these terms. In this article, we argue that ‘deportation’ can best be understood, not as a discrete practice that is unidirectional, territorial and wholly controlled by individual states, but as a range of diverse practices used by states (and sometimes undermined by other parties) to try to control the circulation of people within a dynamic supra‐national space. By focusing on ‘mobility control continuums’ operating in selected countries at the peripheries of Europe, we capture the dynamics of state intervention in trans‐border flows and thereby contribute towards developing concepts and methodologies for the criminological study of border controls that are ‘sensitive to the complexities of the global’ (Aas 2007). - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    January 20, 2019   doi: 10.1111/glob.12226   open full text
  • Antagonistic governance in South African fruit global production networks: a neo‐Gramscian perspective.
    Matthew Alford.
    Global Networks. November 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Governance is a core focus of the global value chain (GVC) and global production network (GPN) literatures. Recent research claims ‘complementary’ or ‘synergistic’ governance, achieved through the confluence of private, public and civil society actors, is required for sustainable social gains. While moving beyond a narrow focus on economic coordination, such analysis lacks a sufficiently nuanced examination of power relations. In this article, I draw on neo‐Gramscian perspectives to account for ongoing contestation, positing that governance needs to be understood in the context of a broader hegemonic project. ‘Antagonistic governance’ is proposed to conceptualize contestation within and across diverse initiatives, which forge, challenge and transform hegemonic stability in GVC/GPNs. I explore this through the South African fruit sector, in particular, a labour crisis in 2012/13. I argue that we need to move beyond apolitical readings of governance to account for the material and discursive practices through which contestation gets played out, compromises are forged, and hegemonic order is maintained. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    November 29, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12223   open full text
  • Virtualizing diaspora: new digital technologies in the emerging transnational space.
    Daivi Rodima Taylor, William W. Grimes.
    Global Networks. November 29, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Since new distributed ledger technologies hold out a promise to restructure cross‐border flows of people and material resources, they affect globalization and alter transnational spaces. Their capacity to facilitate secure and disintermediated value transfer through crypto‐code and smart contracts enables novel forms of remittance transfer, resource management and digital identity verification – and may also generate new vulnerabilities. In this article, we examine the use of emerging blockchain applications in various migration and diaspora related initiatives in the emerging economies of Africa, Asia and Europe. By building on existing social networks of mutual obligation and quasi‐ethnic affinities, blockchain technologies may facilitate the ability to enlarge the scope of diasporas and change the nature of belonging, sovereignty, migration and statehood. Through exploring the selective foregrounding of mutuality and materiality in such alternative value transfer systems, we seek to explain the dynamics of trust and agency that these networks generate to extend commitments and loyalties in the transnational space. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    November 29, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12221   open full text
  • Is the locus of class development of the transnational capitalist class situated within nation‐states or in the emergent transnational space?
    Carlos GonzÁlez.
    Global Networks. November 19, 2018
    --- - |2 The rise of the modern corporation has disrupted the class structures of nation‐states because, in the era of globalization, such reorganization now occurs across borders. Yet, has globalization been deep enough to facilitate the emergence of a transnational capitalist class (TCC) in which both class formation and consolidation processes are located in the transnational space itself? I contribute to our understanding of the TCC by contrasting the personal characteristics, life histories and capital endowments of members of the British corporate elite with and without transnational board appointments. The existence of the honours system in the UK allows us to compare individuals objectively in terms of their symbolic capital and to link this trait to embeddedness in the TCC. By studying 448 directors from the 100 largest firms in the UK in 2011, I find evidence of a TCC with a class consolidation process that is located within transnational space, but whose class formation dynamics are still tethered to national processes of elite production and reproduction. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    November 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12220   open full text
  • The soft spot of hard code: blockchain technology, network governance and pitfalls of technological utopianism.
    Moritz HÜtten.
    Global Networks. November 19, 2018
    --- - |2 The emerging blockchain technology is expected to contribute to the transformation of ownership, government services and global supply chains. By analysing a crisis that occurred with one of its frontrunners, Ethereum, in this article I explore the discrepancies between the purported governance of blockchains and the de facto control of them through expertise and reputation. Ethereum is also thought to exemplify libertarian techno‐utopianism. When ‘The DAO’, a highly publicized but faulty crowd‐funded venture fund was deployed on the Ethereum blockchain, the techno‐utopianism was suspended, and developers fell back on strong network ties. Now that the blockchain technology is seeing an increasing uptake, I shall also seek to unearth broader implications of the blockchain for the proliferation or blockage of global finance and beyond. Contrasting claims about the disruptive nature of the technology, in this article I show that, by redeeming the positive utopia of ontic, individualized debt, blockchains reinforce our belief in a crisis‐ridden, financialized capitalism. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    November 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12217   open full text
  • Gender, autonomy and return migration: negotiating street harassment in Lima, Peru.
    M. Cristina Alcalde.
    Global Networks. November 14, 2018
    --- - |2 In this article, I approach street harassment broadly as a phenomenon to which women relate globally and as one that affects multiple aspects of their lives, or more specifically their experiences of return migration to Lima, Peru. I propose that street sexual harassment contributes to a restricted sense of autonomy among women return migrants in Lima. I emphasize that, given its pervasiveness, a consideration of street sexual harassment in relation to return migration contributes to a richer, gender‐conscious understanding of women's everyday experiences as return migrants. In examining a little studied yet significant form of everyday violence against women in the context of return migration, this article contributes to the growing literature on the intersections of gender, autonomy, and migration. More specifically, I draw on the experiences of middle‐ and upper‐class Peruvians to examine these intersections. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    November 14, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12218   open full text
  • Why are migrant campaigns different from homeland campaigns? Understanding belonging in context among UK‐Sudanese activists.
    Cathy Wilcock.
    Global Networks. November 14, 2018
    --- - |2 Migrant communities' homeland‐oriented political campaigns are always related to, but often different from, the activism in which local people engage in their homeland setting. In seeking to understand the observed disparities between migrant campaigns and homeland activism, several studies have demonstrated the influence of contextual factors like political opportunity structures on homeland‐oriented migrant politics. Complementing these studies are works that focus on changes to identity and belonging associated with migration and resettlement. In this article, I build on these debates by offering a combined analysis of the intersections between, and interplay of, contextual and identity‐based factors. I use this analytical approach to examine the case of Sudanese political activists resident in the UK. I demonstrate how forms of belonging emerge here as part of – and not in isolation from – the strategic navigations of multiple political contexts and opportunities. In doing so, I contribute to our understanding of how belonging can be contextualized to serve as an analytical lens for understanding homeland‐oriented migrant activism. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    November 14, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12216   open full text
  • Introduction to special section on blockchains and financial globalization.
    Malcolm Campbell‐Verduyn.
    Global Networks. November 14, 2018
    --- - |2 This special section shifts analytical attention onto efforts undertaken by dispersed sets of actors operating in online communities to mobilize a novel internet‐based technology that mysteriously appeared at the height of market volatility in 2008. Applications of blockchain technologies and the challenges presented to longstanding patterns of financial globalization are analysed by a group of scholars with backgrounds in anthropology, political science and sociology. This introductory article first elaborates what blockchain technologies consist of before foreshadowing the insights that the following interdisciplinary investigations yield for comprehending the implications that technological changes pose for global finance specifically and globalization more generally. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    November 14, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12219   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Global Networks. October 15, 2018
    --- - - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 541-542, October 2018.
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12170   open full text
  • Transnational migration, gender and educational development of children in Tajikistan.
    Victor Cebotari.
    Global Networks. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In Tajikistan, a Central Asian country with high rates of emigration, there is little systematic empirical research on the education of children in transnational households. In this study, I use national representative data from 2011 to examine the number of years lag in education of boys (N=1110) and girls (N=1140) aged 7 to 17 who live in different transnational care arrangements compared with those living in non‐migrant households. I demonstrate that being in a transnational household reduces the risk of an educational lag, although there are gender differences when measuring this relationship. In particular, girls are less likely to have an educational lag if the mother or both parents migrate, if the duration of parental absence is shorter rather than longer, and if migrants send remittances home. The legal status of parents abroad and maternal migration are advantageous for boys’ education. These findings highlight the importance of looking at complex transnational forms of living and at gender when assessing the educational outcomes of children in migrant sending contexts. - 'Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 564-588, October 2018. '
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12193   open full text
  • Domestic interest groups and rights mobilization: explaining the case of Slovenia's support for the proposed Convention on the Rights of Older Persons.
    Annie Herro.
    Global Networks. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Slovenia, a country that faced dramatic decline in economic growth and a relatively new European Union member, recently broke with the EU's consensus and announced its support for the proposed Convention on the Rights of Older Persons, a treaty widely expected to be very costly to implement. Using process tracing, counter‐factual analysis and a range of primary and secondary qualitative data sources, in this article I explore the influence of a transnational advocacy network (TAN) on this policy shift and the relevance of national actors and structures. I argue that while people often see TANs as motivated by principled and material imperatives, scholars have mainly explored how and why ostensibly moral transnational actors, such as international non‐governmental organizations, behave instrumentally. In this article, I invert this focus by discussing why a domestic TAN partner – a traditional interest group – mobilized around a human rights issue advanced by a TAN. In doing so, I draw on ideas from social movement studies and, more recently, from international relations to highlight the importance of domestic structures in constituting the identity and interests of individuals and organizations, and therefore their likelihood of supporting transnational norms. I seek to contribute to our understanding of the circumstances under which TANs succeed by unpacking the interactions between the national origin of domestic interest groups, and the crucial links between transnational and domestic groups that are responsible for TANs forming and thereby potentially exerting influence. - 'Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 625-643, October 2018. '
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12192   open full text
  • Resilience among Nigerian transnational parents in the Netherlands: a strength‐based approach to migration and transnational parenting.
    Lidewyde H. Berckmoes, Valentina Mazzucato.
    Global Networks. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, we adopt a strength‐based approach to transnational parenting. Recent studies have shown that not all transnational parents have a negative sense of well‐being. Here, we explore parental resilience over a lifespan to understand how mothers and fathers alleviate the strain of spatial separation from their children. Having established from a quantitative study on the same group that neither men nor women necessarily suffer emotionally from separation from their children, we report the findings of a qualitative study on 18 Nigerian men and women in the Netherlands. We look at the strategies and resources that parents employ to overcome the challenges of migration and transnational parenting, to forge a sense of identity and belonging in a migratory context, to ‘do family’ while spatially separated, to deal with the difficult life events associated with migration, and to maintain a sense of agency amid stringent migration regulations. By revealing the importance of cultural and individual resources in fostering resilience, the contribution of our study is to the literature on the influence of structural factors in the promotion of well‐being. - 'Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 589-607, October 2018. '
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12190   open full text
  • Transnationalism and intra‐European mobility among Europe's second generation: review and research agenda.
    Christine Barwick.
    Global Networks. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Most studies on second‐generation transnationalism focus on transnational practices that connect the country of residence to the ancestral home. The second generation, however, is likely to develop other forms of mobility and different destination countries. Particularly in Europe, where citizens have a right to free movement, connecting research on migrant transnationalism to that on intra‐European mobility and the emergence of collective identities allows us more fully to capture second‐generation transnationalism and alternative forms of mobility, including their determinants and consequences. By way of a literature review and a research agenda, I point out the merits of connecting the two research traditions by focusing on the link between transnational ways of being and belonging, national and local contexts that act as push and pull factors for transnationalism and mobilities, and the potential for methodological innovation. - 'Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 608-624, October 2018. '
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12181   open full text
  • Transnational activism in support of national protest: questions of identity and organization.
    Dan Mercea.
    Global Networks. October 15, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I consider the question of whether transnational activism supporting national protest attains a cohesive collective identity on social media while remaining localized organizationally. I examine a corpus of social media data collected during two months of rolling protests in 2013 against the largest proposed open‐cast gold mine at Roşia Montană, Romania, which echoed among Romanian expatriates. A network text analysis of the data supplemented with interview findings revealed concerns with protest logistics as common across the transnational networks of protest localities on both Facebook and Twitter, a finding that testified to the coordinated character of the protests. On the other hand, collective identity emerged as the fruit of attempts to surmount localized protest experiences of geographically disparate but civically‐minded social media users. - 'Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 4, Page 543-563, October 2018. '
    October 15, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12179   open full text
  • Diaspora mobilization and the politics of loyalty in the time of Ebola: evidence from the Sierra Leonean diaspora in the UK.
    David Rubyan‐Ling.
    Global Networks. September 13, 2018
    --- - |2 Following the recent involvement of overseas diasporas and citizen groups in humanitarian crises, scholars are reconsidering how these groups mobilize and what distinguishes them from formal humanitarian organizations. In this article, I document the individual and collective mobilization of a section of the Sierra Leonean diaspora during the 2014/15 Ebola outbreak. I focus on the individual health‐related communications of Sierra Leoneans living in London, on a specific UK‐based diaspora association called the Kono District Development Association‐UK, and on efforts to coordinate the diaspora. Bolten (2012), and Van Hear and Cohen (2017), show that diasporic mobilization operates through ‘nested scales’ of loyalty to kin, association and nation, and that these different loyalties overlap and conflict. I argue that such overlapping engagements challenge policy orientations to ‘national’ diasporas and offer an alternative model of international humanitarianism. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    September 13, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12213   open full text
  • Blockchains, trust and action nets: extending the pathologies of financial globalization.
    Malcolm Campbell‐Verduyn, Marcel Goguen.
    Global Networks. September 07, 2018
    --- - |2 Blockchains combine digital encryption and time stamping technologies to enable digital exchange to occur in manners celebrated by proponents as ‘trust‐free’. Yet, an increasing range of scholars argue that actual applications of the peer‐to‐peer technology shifts, rather than eliminates, trust. In this article, we draw on organizational theory to argue that efforts to remove trust reorganize the action nets that underpin payment systems in manners that extend rather than eliminate longstanding pathologies afflicting financial globalization. Our analysis supports and extends the critiques that blockchain applications are far from ‘trust‐free’. By tracing how efforts to reconfigure the socio‐technical composition of the humans and objects that underpin payment systems, we illustrate how blockchain applications shift the location and character of the technical vulnerabilities that create market instabilities and concentration, as well as elite‐led governance. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    September 07, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12214   open full text
  • The daughter‐in‐law questions remittances: changes in the gender of remittances among Indian migrants to Australia.
    Supriya Singh.
    Global Networks. September 07, 2018
    --- - |2 In this article, I present a cross‐generational analysis of the gendered meanings and politics surrounding monetary remittances. Indian female migrants to Australia, who contribute significantly to household incomes, have recently started to question the sources and directions of remittances. This happens when the woman's earnings are sent, without consultation, to the husband's parents for luxuries, while the family in Australia is struggling. Women in paid work also want to send their earnings to their own parents, particularly if there is financial need. Remittances have become a testing ground for the traditional belief that the husband and his family own the money in the patrilineal marital household. It is possible to interpret male control of remittances without consultation as a form of financial abuse of the wife in the sending household. The article draws on two qualitative studies on five decades of Indian migration to Australia covering 203 people from 112 families. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    September 07, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12215   open full text
  • Trade union pedagogy and cross‐border action.
    Christina Niforou, Andy Hodder.
    Global Networks. August 11, 2018
    --- - |2 In this article, we examine the potential of global union pedagogy to address the structural and political challenges of cross‐border trade‐union action. We do so by proposing an analytical framework that draws on labour relations, political sociology and education to explain educational processes and outcomes as responses to the pitfalls of global labour campaigns and the inadequacy of global and local labour institutions. We proceed to assess the value of our framework by elaborating on its different dimensions – framing, synthesizing, connecting and regenerating – in relation to the educational work of a global union federation, namely the International Transport Workers' Federation. We find that an actor‐centred approach that combines top–down, bottom–up as and horizontal processes of collecting knowledge from different contexts and making links between different countries, industries and parts of supply chains can help actors realize that their seemingly diverse concerns are essentially different manifestations of the same problem. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    August 11, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12210   open full text
  • Geometries of ‘global’ evangelicalism.
    Lena Rose.
    Global Networks. July 03, 2018
    --- - |2 In this article, I explore the power dynamics at play in religious place‐making. I critically discuss the uneven co‐configurations of imaginaries of the ‘local’ and ‘global’ within global evangelicalism. Specifically, I analyse the recent recording of a live album by the famous charismatic Australian band Hillsong United (of Hillsong Church) at various locations in Israel‐Palestine, which was followed by a concert tour in Israel. Palestinian evangelical Christians were critical of this endeavour, for they felt that it marginalized and excluded them from their global evangelical faith family. The frictions between the Palestinian evangelical community and Hillsong United illustrate how dominant evangelical actors create an imagination of the ‘local’, which enters the imaginary of global evangelicalism (and bears material consequences). In the article, I thus argue that privileged financial and cultural resources and travel regimes lead to specific notions of geometries of power in global evangelicalism. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    July 03, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12211   open full text
  • Issue Information.

    Global Networks. June 11, 2018
    --- - - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 375-376, July 2018.
    June 11, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12169   open full text
  • Diaspora and mapping methodologies: tracing transnational digital connections with ‘mattering maps’.
    Donya Alinejad, Laura Candidatu, Melis Mevsimler, Claudia Minchilli, Sandra Ponzanesi, Fernando N. Van Der Vlist.
    Global Networks. May 23, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract There is a methodological tendency in work on diaspora and digital media for quantitative investigations to approach diaspora in static ways that contrast with theories of diaspora as a dynamic cultural formation. On the other hand, qualitative, ethnographic work tends not to engage with digital methods and quantitative data‐driven investigation. In this article, we sketch this methodological and disciplinary disconnect and address it by proposing a model for understanding digitally mediated formations of diaspora that combines digital methods techniques with a sensitivity to ethical and theoretical discussions of migration and diaspora. Drawing on interpretive epistemologies and feminist research ethics, we present a case study analysis of a locally informed, Turkish–Dutch issue. We argue for a method that produces ‘mattering maps’. This involves tracking and visualizing digital traces of an issue across web platforms (Google Search results, Facebook pages, and Instagram posts) and integrating this with an analysis of the face‐to‐face interview responses of a key issue actor. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    May 23, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12197   open full text
  • Between inequality and difference: the creole world in the twenty‐first century.
    Thomas Hylland Eriksen.
    Global Networks. May 11, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract A major theme in contemporary social theory is the questioning and destabilization of boundaries – self/other, culture/nature and gender being the most obvious areas. Not least for this reason, creole identities, ostensibly premised on openness and mixing, deserve renewed attention. Although the term creolization, as borrowed from linguistics, is sometimes used in a broad comparative sense, the creole world refers to the outcome of a particular historical experience, namely that of displacement, slavery, emancipation and its aftermath reverberating into the present. Key terms are uprootedness, cultural mixing and creole languages existing in diglossic situations with metropolitan ones. Creole intellectuals in the Caribbean have celebrated the cultural creativity characteristic of these societies but have been criticized for ignoring class, racism and gender issues. By embracing the egalitarianism and openness of creoledom, they have become vulnerable to criticism of being handmaidens of neoliberalism or neocolonialism. Controversies over creole identity are related to fundamental questions in anthropology. Drawing on material mainly from the Indian Ocean region, in this article I attempt to create a dialogue between debates over creole identity and theoretical questions raised in social and cultural theory concerning the relationship between cultural difference and social inequality. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    May 11, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12199   open full text
  • Mediated remittances: transnational economic contributions from second‐generation Filipino Americans.
    Armand Gutierrez.
    Global Networks. May 11, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I explore the varying logic of second‐generation Filipino‐Americans' decisions to send economic support to family members in the Philippines. I extend the conceptual framework of remittance scripts to that of second‐generation migrants. I find that second‐generation Filipino Americans rely heavily on their first‐generation migrant parents to mediate both remittance requests and sending. As a result, respondents send what I refer to as ‘mediated remittances’. This type of remittance among second‐generation migrants leads to material, relational, and emotional aspects of a transaction being directed towards both first‐generation migrants, as well as non‐migrant recipients. Furthermore, I discuss the repertoire of scripts that second‐generation migrants employ when refusing the request to remit. Analysis of the emotional milieu associated with decisions to remit or not remit reveals an additional dimension beyond the sender–recipient dyad with the inclusion of a mediator. In doing so, this article sheds light on how second‐generation migrants participate in the transnational social field. - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 500-517, July 2018.
    May 11, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12198   open full text
  • Conflicts over knowledge transfer across the border: Korean international students and the conversion of cultural capital.
    Sung‐Choon Park.
    Global Networks. April 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract It is common knowledge that international students are a major conduit of international knowledge transfer and that they become transnational managerial elites and highly skilled migrants. However, few studies show how this transfer occurs. Moreover, people often assume that knowledge transfer is a smooth process. Drawing on in‐depth interviews of former and current Korean international students and non‐migrant Koreans in the United States and South Korea, my study shows that knowledge transfer can, in fact, be highly conflictual. I argue that conflicts in the country of origin between international students (the transferors) and non‐migrants (the recipients) mediate knowledge transfer. I see the conflicts as struggles over the conversion of cultural capital from the Global North into local power and wealth, which reworks Bourdieu's theory of cultural capital for transnational social fields. In so doing, I develop a framework that links knowledge transfer and transnational social reproduction. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    April 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12195   open full text
  • Renegotiating religious transnationalism: fractures in transnational Chinese evangelicalism.
    Jonathan Tam.
    Global Networks. April 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I question to what extent future generations of immigrants will engage in practices of religious transnationalism through their ethnic institutions. I examine how leaders of the next generation of English‐speaking Chinese Canadian evangelicals made sense of their participation in the Chinese Coordination Centre of World Evangelism, a movement that rallies behind both a pan‐Chinese identity and the belief that the Chinese have a special role in evangelizing the world. I argue that the call to religious mobilization grounded in Chinese ethnicity stands on tenuous ground and propose that linguistic, geographical, generational and ideological fractures may diminish the participation of future generations of the Chinese diaspora in ethnically‐based transnational religious organizations. I conclude that these developments would push ‘negotiated transnational religious networks’ into a state of ‘renegotiation'. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    April 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12194   open full text
  • New insights in reproducing transnational corporate elites: the labour market intermediation of executive search in the pursuit of global talent in Singapore.
    Jonathan Beaverstock.
    Global Networks. April 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I provide new theoretical and empirical insights into the reproduction of transnational corporate elites through the process of people moving between firms’ internal labour markets rather than from expatriation. Theoretically, the article advances understandings of the reproduction of transnational corporate elites by drawing on a pioneering engagement with global talent, transnational elites and labour market intermediary discourses. I generate these new theoretical insights through an original case study of how global executive search firms in Singapore create pipelines for the recruitment of transnational corporate elites between firms’ internal labour markets. The findings also highlight the vital role of Singapore's neoliberal labour market practices, as well as its foreign talent programme to ‘win the war for talent'. By situating this research on the agency of executive search in reproducing Singapore's transnational corporate elite, the article's key contribution is to decentre North American and Western perspectives on the reproduction of knowledge on transnational corporate elites. - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 500-522, July 2018.
    April 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12196   open full text
  • Unequal networks: comparing the pre‐migration overseas networks of Indonesian and Filipino migrant domestic workers.
    Anju Mary Paul.
    Global Networks. February 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract Previous studies of Asian migrant domestic workers' pre‐migration overseas networks have tended to be ethnographic, small‐n case studies such that it is unclear if network differences between migrants are due to individual‐ or country‐level differences or both. This article draws from an original survey of 1,206 Filipino and Indonesian domestic workers in Singapore and Hong Kong to reveal statistically significant differences in the pre‐migration overseas networks of these two nationality groups even after controlling for migrants' educational attainment, marital status, employment status, age, year of first migration, and survey location. Multiple regression analysis highlights how Filipino respondents are more likely than Indonesian respondents to have known existing migrants prior to their first migration from their homeland. Filipino respondents' overseas networks are also significantly larger, more geographically dispersed, and comprise more white‐collar contacts. These findings open up new terrain for migration scholars to study the impact of these nationality‐based network differences on the two groups' divergent migration experiences and aspirations. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    February 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12191   open full text
  • Rethinking the origins of transnational humanitarian organizations: the curious case of the International Shipwreck Society.
    Thomas Davies.
    Global Networks. February 19, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract This exploration of the evolution of the International Shipwreck Society (ISS) – a previously neglected transnational humanitarian organization that by the late 1830s had branches in every continent – casts new light on three key aspects of the development of global humanitarianism. First, that there was a secular humanitarian association with a global organizational structure in the 1830s challenges widespread assumptions about the timing of internationally organized humanitarian action. Second, the influence of Chinese precedents on the ISS points to the importance of long forgotten Eastern origins of transnational humanitarianism. And third, the evaluation of the role of individuals in the development of the ISS reveals that early transnational humanitarian organizations faced leadership problems that scholars had previously neglected. In each of these respects, this article provides a new perspective on the origins of global networks. - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 461-478, July 2018.
    February 19, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12189   open full text
  • Leveraging symbolic capital: the use of blat networks across transnational spaces.
    Peter Rodgers, Natalia Vershinina, Colin C. Williams, Nick Theodorakopoulos.
    Global Networks. January 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, we contribute to debates on how social networks sustain migrants' entrepreneurial activities. By reporting on 31 interviews with Eastern European migrants in the UK, we provide a critical lens on the tendency to assume that migrants have ready‐made social networks in the host country embedded in co‐ethnic communities. We extend this limited perspective by demonstrating how Eastern European migrants working in the UK transform blat social networks, formulated in the cultural and political contours of Soviet society, in their everyday lived experiences. Our findings highlight not only the monetarization of such networks but also the continuing embedded nature of trust existing within these networks, which cut across transnational spaces. We show how forms of social capital based on Russian language use and legacies of a shared Soviet past, are just as important as the role of ‘co‐ethnics’ and ‘co‐migrants’ in facilitating business development. In doing so, we present a more nuanced understanding of the role that symbolic capital plays in migrant entrepreneurial journeys and its multifaceted nature. - 'Global Networks, EarlyView. '
    January 16, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12188   open full text
  • Rethinking the informal and criminal economy from a global commodity chain perspective: China–Paraguay–Brazil.
    Rosana Pinheiro‐Machado.
    Global Networks. January 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract The criminalization of Chinese counterfeit goods in the global market calls for a fresh approach to understanding well‐established binary distinctions such as legal/illegal, licit/illicit, and formal/informal. Based on a multi‐sited ethnography in China, Paraguay and Brazil, I examine five commodity chains of two products – toys and watches – and their regulatory frameworks in terms of merchandise status, business formality, and international transaction legality. Certain merchandise produced in the formal economy has no legal definition a priori, but legal variability starts when goods leave the factory. A great interchangeability of a product's legal status existed along its chain according to governance structures, legal cultures, geographical domains, and power relations. These findings suggest that the illicit is a relational category and the so‐called criminal economy is not a segmented market, but part of a global process integrated with formality and marked by great legal variability within and between nations. - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 479-499, July 2018.
    January 16, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12187   open full text
  • Reframing transnational engagement: a relational analysis of Afghan diasporic groups.
    Carolin Fischer.
    Global Networks. January 16, 2018
    --- - |2 Abstract In recent years, there have been repeated calls to refocus studies of diasporic engagements, especially their conceptual underpinnings, underlying assumptions and units of analysis. Based on a qualitative case study of Afghan diasporic groups in Britain and Germany, I propose a refined approach to such engagements. I combine the distinction between different spheres of engagement with key concepts from relational sociology. Afghans in both countries participate in a plethora of transnational engagements, which vary according to the extent of their orientation towards the public or private sphere. At the same time, clearly delineated groups of people undertake engagements observed in different spheres, which different aims and objectives drive. Although informants' attachments to their home country are important, they are not the only basis on which they act. My conceptual angle seeks to inspire critical, nuanced and theoretically rich research on diasporas as social actors and transnational civic engagement in a wider sense. - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 399-417, July 2018.
    January 16, 2018   doi: 10.1111/glob.12186   open full text
  • Mapping the role of ‘transnational family habitus’ in the lives of young people and children.
    Elisabetta Zontini, Tracey Reynolds.
    Global Networks. December 04, 2017
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, we develop the concept of ‘transnational family habitus’ as a theoretical tool for making sense of the ways in which children and young people from a migrant background are ‘doing families’ transnationally. Drawing on over a decade of cumulative research on Caribbean and Italian families in the UK, as well as on a new joint research project, we first investigate the opportunities and consequences of a transnational family habitus on family arrangements, kinship relationships and identity within a transnational context. Second, we analyse the role of these young people's structural location in Britain in shaping the boundaries of their transnational family habitus. We argue that one should see a transnational family habitus as an asset that can potentially disrupt conventional understandings of belonging and processes of inclusion and exclusion. However, we also detail how social divisions of class, race, and increasingly migration status, shape such a habitus. - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 418-436, July 2018.
    December 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12185   open full text
  • National conceptions, transnational solidarities: Turkey, Islam and Europe.
    Zana Çitak.
    Global Networks. December 04, 2017
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I examine the interplay between the institutionalization of Islam in Europe and the transnationalism of Turkey's Directorate for Religious Affairs (Diyanet). Based on extensive fieldwork in Turkey, Austria, Belgium, France and Germany, I demonstrate not only the salience of the nation‐state prerogative on the part of both European states and the Turkish state but also the tension between national conceptions of Muslim identity on both sides amid transnational solidarities. I also argue that, to a certain extent, European policies of detransnationalizing the Muslim field in Europe also intersect with the Diyanet's transnational politics vis‐à‐vis Turkish/Muslim immigrants in their common resistance to the deculturalization of Muslims in Europe. While European countries try to nationalize their respective Muslim communities into their cultural and juridical framework through reterritorialization, the Diyanet has increasingly deterritorialized its activities to preserve a Muslim identity engrained in Turkishness – hence, the coexistence of both a tension and mutual accommodation between Europe and Turkey. - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 377-398, July 2018.
    December 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12184   open full text
  • Voting here and there: political integration and transnational political engagement among immigrants in Europe.
    Ali R. Chaudhary.
    Global Networks. October 24, 2017
    --- - |2 Abstract In this article, I examine voting patterns in origin and receiving country national elections among immigrants in Europe. The existing scholarship on transnational political engagement offers two competing interpretations of the relationship between immigrant integration and transnational engagement, which I classify as the resocialization and complementarity perspectives. The resocialization perspective assumes that transnational political engagement gradually declines as immigrants become socialized into the new receiving society. Conversely, the complementarity perspective assumes that immigrant integration increases transnational political engagement. I test these competing perspectives with survey data collected between 2004 and 2008 for 12 different immigrant groups residing in seven European cities. The analysis examines how immigrant political and civic participation in receiving countries affect their proclivities to vote in homeland elections. I also analyse the effects of receiving and origin country contexts on immigrant voting behaviour in homeland elections. While my findings support both the resocialization and complementarity perspectives, they also highlight the ways in which a set of origin‐country contexts shape immigrant propensities to engage in transnational electoral politics. I observe a degree of complementarity among immigrants with resources who are motivated and eligible to participate in both receiving and origin‐country elections. - Global Networks, Volume 18, Issue 3, Page 437-460, July 2018.
    October 24, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12171   open full text
  • From smiling to smirking? 3D printing, upgrading and the restructuring of global value chains.
    MÄrtha Rehnberg, Stefano Ponte.
    Global Networks. June 20, 2017
    3D printing (3DP) has been heralded as a revolutionary technology that can alter the way production is organized across time and space – with important redistributive effects on geography and size of production activities. In this article, we examine the impacts that a widespread adoption of 3DP could have on restructuring, upgrading and distributing value added along manufacturing global value chains (GVC) – with brief examples from the aerospace and automotive industries. We highlight two possible scenarios for GVCs – a complementarity scenario of 3DP and traditional manufacturing overlapping, which would reproduce power relations in GVCs and the current distribution of value added in a ‘smiling curve’; and a substitution scenario of 3DP partly or fully superseding traditional manufacturing, which would have more transformational effects in terms of ‘rebundling’ activities, regionalizing or localizing GVCs, and flattening the smiling curve into a ‘smirk’.
    June 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12166   open full text
  • The origin and expansion of regional value chains: the case of Kenyan horticulture.
    Aarti Krishnan.
    Global Networks. May 23, 2017
    Regional value chains (RVCs), involving regional lead firms that trade within a single world region, are increasingly prominent within the Global South. Yet, emerging analyses of RVCs have not adequately interrogated how the expansion of RVCs relates to global value chains (GVCs), how actors in RVCs interact with overlapping chains, or the implications for development. Through a case study of horticulture value chains in Kenya, two main types of RVC–GVC interactions are identified. First, opportunistic RVCs emerged when suppliers found their produce rejected from GVCs for lack of standards compliance and began selling spillover produce in regional markets. Second, a more independent targeted RVC has evolved since suppliers began selling produce directly to regional supermarkets that had established their own regional procurement strategies and private standards. Some suppliers are also involved in hybrid interactions – participating in both opportunistic spillovers and targeted RVCs. The analysis concludes that the expansion of RVCs must be considered in the context of GVCs, leading to more nuanced understandings of the characteristics and development implications of RVCs.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12162   open full text
  • From standard takers to standard makers? The role of knowledge‐intensive intermediaries in setting global sustainability standards.
    Simone Strambach, Annika Surmeier.
    Global Networks. May 23, 2017
    Standards are increasingly being geared towards addressing social and ecological concerns in global production networks, but to facilitate sustainable development locally, global standards need to integrate the context‐specific needs of actors in developing countries. However, most standards are still developed in the Global North, while the inclusion of actors from developing countries remains limited. Nonetheless, there is recent evidence of some countries from the Global South proactively influencing transnational and global standard setting and, in these processes, knowledge is a decisive factor. Accordingly, in this article we argue that a dynamic and knowledge‐based perspective can provide more detailed insights into how actors from developing countries contribute to standard setting processes. In this respect, special types of organizations – namely knowledge‐intensive intermediaries (KIIs) – play an essential, yet unrecognized, role. Here, to illustrate the strategies that KIIs use to influence global standard setting, we investigate the South African organization ‘Fair Trade in Tourism’.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12163   open full text
  • Governance and upgrading in South–South value chains: evidence from the cashew industries in India and Ivory Coast.
    Jannes Tessmann.
    Global Networks. May 23, 2017
    India, the world's largest processor of cashew kernels, depends heavily on imports of raw cashew nuts (RCNs), primarily sourced from Ivory Coast. While the Ivorian processing industry is still in its infancy, in the last decade domestic cashew factories have rapidly increased their capacity. This study is an exploration of how the cashew value chain is organized and what this implies for upgrading prospects in the Ivorian cashew sector. Its findings suggest that the cashew value chain is characterized by a bipolar governance structure comprising a trader‐driven segment between Ivorian farms and Indian processors, and a buyer‐driven segment that links processors to Northern end markets. The results are consistent with studies that describe South–South value chains as being less tightly controlled, with a decreased significance of quality related standards and lower entry barriers than those chains feeding into Northern end markets. Inter‐firm linkages in the Indo–Ivorian RCN channel provide few opportunities for product and functional upgrading of RCN suppliers. Considerable institutional support is needed to overcome the barriers to Ivorian firms' direct participation in the North–South value chain for processed kernels.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12165   open full text
  • Petty commodities, serious business: the governance of fashion jewellery chains between China and Ghana.
    Heidi ØstbØ Haugen.
    Global Networks. May 23, 2017
    In many parts of the world, people access consumer goods mainly via informal economic networks. In this article, I analyse the governance of petty commodity chains through a case study of Chinese fashion jewellery produced for the Ghanaian market. ‘Petty commodity chains’ denotes a particular type of global value chain, where production, trade, and distribution are carried out by small, unregistered businesses, between which personalized relationships and informal infrastructure enable transactions. These chains are neither controlled by lead firms at the production or distribution ends, nor made up of pure market linkages. Weak formal institutions and an intensely competitive commercial environment encourage business actors to establish enduring relationships. Credit relations run through long stretches of the chain and create mutual dependencies. The concept of ‘beholden value chains’ is introduced to describe the co‐dependency between business actors and the coordination of activities in petty commodity chains.
    May 23, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12164   open full text
  • A great leap? Domestic market growth and local state support in the upgrading of China's LED lighting industry.
    Florian Butollo, Tobias Ten Brink.
    Global Networks. May 16, 2017
    In this article we analyse the conditions for industrial upgrading in the Chinese LED industry, which proactive local state policies and expanding domestic markets have greatly facilitated. State initiatives provoked overinvestment, but eventually led to the emergence of competitive domestic enterprises. Simultaneously, firms benefited from a growing domestic market on which they outcompeted foreign companies in mid‐price segments. The combination of these factors accounts for the peculiarly Chinese upgrading experience. Neither the resources provided by a new version of the ‘developmental state’ nor domestic market growth alone can explain the Chinese players' success. Based on these results, and given that the emerging economies have become the most important markets for certain consumer goods – a development that (local) industrial policies for industrial upgrading can influence – we provide further proof that it is necessary to rethink the export‐led upgrading paradigm in theories of globally dispersed production.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12160   open full text
  • In between leaving and being left behind: mediating the mobilities and immobilities of Indonesian non‐migrants.
    Carol Chan.
    Global Networks. May 16, 2017
    In this article, I consider how and why some non‐migrants partially inhabit migrant subjectivities. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Central Java, Indonesia, I describe the experiences of those who embarked on pre‐departure migration processes, but failed to leave the country. Men were often victims of fraud; women typically ran away from the confines of training centres. When redirected away from the border spaces of airports and recruitment centres, they typically identify themselves and are perceived by kin and neighbours as ‘former’ transnational migrants. I analyse how migration infrastructure – intersecting institutions, agents and technologies – produces such subjectivities in‐between conventional migrant and non‐migrant categories. These positions in between leaving and staying illuminate the infrastructural conditions that enable, constrain and mediate transnational mobilities. These cases of non‐departure show the expansive social and spatial effects of migration infrastructure beyond the facilitation of transnational movement. Such less considered (im)mobilities of non‐migrants point to the diverse ways in which migration institutions and agents mediate the circulation of persons between and within national borders.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12161   open full text
  • South–North and South–South production networks: diverging socio‐spatial practices of Indian pharmaceutical firms.
    Rory Horner, James T. Murphy.
    Global Networks. May 16, 2017
    We know less about the structures and processes associated with South–South production networks than about those with a South–North orientation. Using an inductive approach, in this article we explore these differences by analysing the everyday practices that Indian pharmaceutical firms employ to meet production and quality standards, access markets and innovate. We use extensive primary interview evidence to demonstrate that Indian pharmaceutical firms employ different business practices towards Northern and Southern end markets. Our findings reveal the presence of significant discontinuities within the Indian pharmaceutical industry. They also demonstrate how a practice‐oriented approach to the study of GPNs can help to identify some of the micro social processes through which governance is achieved and transformed over time, and divergences in value creation, enhancement and capture trajectories between Southern and Northern end markets.
    May 16, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12159   open full text
  • Making knowledge legitimate: transnational advocacy networks' campaigns against tobacco, infant formula and pharmaceuticals.
    Tatiana Andia, Nitsan Chorev.
    Global Networks. January 20, 2017
    In this article, we examine three different cases in which health activists lobbied the World Health Organization and its member states to regulate the marketing practices of multinational companies. The campaign against tobacco manufacturers resulted in a binding treaty; the campaign against manufacturers of infant formula resulted in a non‐binding code of conduct; and the campaign against pharmaceutical manufacturers failed. We show that existing arguments regarding the success of global social movements and transnational advocacy networks fail to explain the divergent outcomes in these three cases. Instead, we argue that the effectiveness of global advocacy in these cases depended on the level of perceived legitimacy of the knowledge supporting the advocates' claims and on the prestige of the experts participating in the campaigns.
    January 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12156   open full text
  • Migrant family visits and the life course: interrelationships between age, capacity and desire.
    Vincent Horn.
    Global Networks. January 17, 2017
    Migrant visits to the country of origin play a crucial role in transnational family cohesion and migrant well‐being; the research on them so far has focused primarily on the relationship between migrant integration and transnational engagement. In this article, I extend the discussion by adding a life course perspective to Carling and Hoelscher's (2013) framework for studying transnational activities, which incorporates capacity and desire. I explore whether age has an independent effect on migrants' family visits and how it relates to socio‐economic resources, migration status and transnational ties. Using data from a survey of Peruvian migrants around the globe (n=7,741), I show that migrants' stage in the life course has a partial effect on their propensity to travel through the interrelationship between age, capacity and desire. The findings show that the capacity and desire of migrants to visit their country of origin are particularly strong after reaching retirement age, suggesting a favourable combination of resources at later stages in life. However, whether this expresses a positive approach to ageing, or is a strategy to balance transnational family obligations and to postpone return decisions, remains open for future research.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12154   open full text
  • Service outsourcing and labour mobility in a digital age: transnational linkages between Japan and Dalian, China.
    Kumiko Kawashima.
    Global Networks. January 17, 2017
    In this article, I examine the transnational mobility of digital workers and the control of their labour across multiple production sites. The digitalization of work has progressively allowed businesses to outsource IT‐enabled service jobs to cheaper production sites offshore. The growth of the ‘offshore outsourcing' of white‐collar service jobs in East Asia has produced the mobility of cheap digital labour from Japan to Dalian in northeast China. They work at call centres and other Japanese‐speaking workplaces in the lower echelons of the city's IT sector, typically earning salaries in Chinese yuan at, or even below, the average Japanese minimum wage. Based on ethnographic findings, I argue that in the global digital economy, digital services are rendered exploitable through their transnational mobility and that this form of labour migration has developed because of the partial, fluid and contingent nature of the transnational links between the two locations. I analyse how the neoliberal logic of exception underpins the creation of IT parks in China and the casualization of labour in Japan to enable new forms of transnational labour control and capital accumulation.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12157   open full text
  • Building democratic public spheres? Transnational advocacy networks and the social forum process.
    David J. Norman.
    Global Networks. January 17, 2017
    What, if anything, can transnational advocacy networks (TANs) contribute to the democratization of public spheres outside Westphalian frameworks? On the one hand, TANs excel at turning international public campaigns into political influence – connecting people and power across borders. On the other hand, the increasingly policy‐orientated nature of TANs raises questions about their legitimacy in speaking on behalf of multiple publics. In this article, I suggest that a TAN's success in ensuring the political efficacy of public spheres, while at the same time undermining their normative legitimacy, reflects two sides of the same coin. This is a consequence of the recent internal professionalization of advocacy networks. Framing professionalization as a particular form of communicative distortion within TAN decision‐making, I suggest that networks should incorporate internal deliberative mechanisms, adapted from international social forums, to enhance the normative legitimacy of democratic public spheres.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12155   open full text
  • Bringing about the global movement for the rights of nature: sites and practices for intelligibility.
    Cristina Espinosa.
    Global Networks. January 17, 2017
    Legal scholars, environmental organizations, indigenous groups and activists from around the world are energizing an emergent global movement on the rights of nature. To face the environmental crisis, these heterogeneous actors are coming together to reconceptualize nature as a legal subject. In this article, I examine Democracy Schools and Awakening the Dreamer Symposia (ADS) to establish where and how this emergent movement is being organized. The meaning structures, knowledge stocks and identity cues that characterize it are made intelligible to potential adherents through these seminars and workshops. Interpretive analysis reveals that Democracy Schools and ADSs are distinctively mobile and replicable infrastructures. The concept of ‘stagings' was developed to help examine cultural and spatial dynamics in heterogeneous and extensive collective action.
    January 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/glob.12158   open full text
  • Transnational social movements and changing organizational fields in the late twentieth and early twenty‐first centuries.
    Jackie Smith, Samantha Plummer, Melanie M. Hughes.
    Global Networks. November 29, 2016
    Recent decades have seen dramatic changes in the global political arena, including shifts in geopolitical arrangements, increases in popular mobilization and contestation over the direction of globalization, and efforts by elites to channel or curb popular opposition. We explore how these factors affect changes in global politics. Organizational populations are shaped by ongoing interactions among civil‐society, corporate and governmental actors operating at multiple levels. During the 1990s and 2000s, corporate and government actors promoted the ‘neoliberalization of civil society’ and the appropriation of movement concepts and practices to support elite interests. Not all movement actors have been passive witnesses to this process: they have engaged in intense internal debates, and they have adapted their organizational strategies to advance social transformation. This article draws from quantitative research on the population of transnational social movement organizations (TSMOs) and on qualitative research on contemporary transnational activism to describe changes in transnational organizing at a time of growing contention in world politics. We show how interactions among global actors have shaped new, hybrid organizational forms and spaces that include actors other than states in influential roles.
    November 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12152   open full text
  • Understanding the geographical development of social movements: a web‐link analysis of Slow Food.
    Bas Hendrikx, Stefan Dormans, Arnoud Lagendijk, Mike Thelwall.
    Global Networks. November 29, 2016
    Slow Food (SF) is a global, grassroots movement aimed at enhancing and sustaining local food cultures and traditions worldwide. Since its establishment in the 1980s, Slow Food groups have emerged across the world and embedded in a wide range of different contexts. In this article, we explain how the movement, as a diverse whole, is being shaped by complex dynamics existing between grassroots flexibilities and emerging drives for movement coherence and harmonization. Unlike conventional studies on social movements, our approach helps one to understand transnational social movements as being simultaneously coherent and diverse bodies of collective action. Drawing on work in the fields of relational geography, assemblage theory and webometric research, we develop an analytical strategy that navigates and maps the entire Slow Food movement by exploring its ‘double articulation’ between the material‐connective and ideational‐expressive. Focusing on representations of this connectivity and articulation on the internet, we combine methodologies of computation research (webometrics) with more qualitative forms of (web) discourse analysis to achieve this. Our results point to the significance of particular networks and nodal points that support such double movements, each presenting core logistical channels of the movement's operations as well as points of relay of new ideas and practices. A network‐based analysis of ‘double articulation’ thus shows how the co‐evolution of ideas and material practices cascades into major trends without having to rely on a ‘grand', singular explanation of a movement's development.
    November 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12153   open full text
  • The upside‐down roots of a transnational advocacy network: applying an ‘organizational ecology’ approach to the anti‐GMO network.
    Richard Bownas.
    Global Networks. November 16, 2016
    In this article, I examine a transnational advocacy network opposed to the introduction of genetically modified crops and supportive of organic agriculture in India. I argue that this network illustrates some of the consequences of ‘upward oriented linkages’, in which professional NGO brokers focus on constructing relationships with other professional or elite partner bodies such as donor organizations, global retailers and the English language media. The ‘upside‐down’ tree that results has roots pointing upwards to global partners and to domestic elite actors but is less responsive, and less tightly bound, to mass organizations and to its purported non‐elite constituency of marginal farmers. I make this case through a methodological approach I term ‘organizational ecology’ in which I explore the idea of NGO based advocacy organizations as filling ‘niches’ in the larger political ecology of rural India and within this ‘ecology’ forming symbiotic connections to other organizations.
    November 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12148   open full text
  • Return visits and belonging to countries of origin among young people from refugee backgrounds.
    CELIA McMICHAEL, CAITLIN NUNN, SANDRA GIFFORD, IGNACIO CORREA‐VELEZ.
    Global Networks. November 16, 2016
    In this article, we explore the return visits of resettled young people from refugee backgrounds to their personal and/or ancestral countries of origin. We draw on qualitative data from a longitudinal study of people who fled their country of origin at an early age, many of whom were born or lived for protracted periods in countries of asylum, and resettled in Australia. We demonstrate that return visits are not simply a homecoming; the young people's narratives reflect ambivalent relationships to the homeland experienced across multiple domains of belonging. Accounts of return visits refer to three core domains of belonging – practical national belonging, family connection, and attachment to material places. We argue that a return visit gives these youths a valued opportunity to negotiate and develop their homeland connections, though not necessarily an unambiguous opportunity to belong.
    November 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12147   open full text
  • The demobilization of diaspora: history, memory and ‘latent identity’.
    Victoria Redclift.
    Global Networks. November 16, 2016
    In the context of sustained interest in the mobilization of diasporic identities, I consider how and why diasporic identities might be demobilized over time. I use the case of an Indian Pakistani community in the UK and the USA (sometimes referred to as ‘Bihari’) to examine how historical memories of conflict are narrated in diaspora and the impact this has on the presence or absence of ‘diasporic consciousness'. The significance of memory in diasporic and transnational communities has been neglected, especially where the narration of historical events is concerned. The impact of forgetting has received particularly scant attention. I argue that, in the absence of this story, important lessons about the role of history in the formation of community are obscured. In this example, the ‘latent’ identities created on diaspora's demobilization help us to unpick the dyadic relations of ‘home’ and ‘away’ at the heart of essentialist conceptualizations of the concept.
    November 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12150   open full text
  • ‘Journey to the future’: imaginaries and motivations for homeland trips among diasporic Armenians.
    Tsypylma Darieva.
    Global Networks. November 16, 2016
    This article highlights diasporic migrants' transnational linkages with and trips to their homeland. Second and later generations of diasporic Armenians, predominantly from the USA and Canada, claim to travel to the ancestral homeland in Armenia not as heritage tourists to see the holy Mount Ararat but to invest in local development through social work. Based on ethnographic research, in‐depth interviews with volunteers and text materials, this article identifies those specific features of the contemporary diasporic ‘sacred journey’ that differ from conventional return migrations. This new inter‐continental migratory path between North America and Armenia has a temporary character. By analysing the range of reasons why young professional Armenian‐Americans and Armenian‐Canadians should choose to travel the long distance to offer their services, this article provides insight into the decision to become a volunteer in Armenia and the ways non‐profit diasporic organizations channel and mobilize this transnational activity. The study shows that ‘ethnic’ volunteers are highly conscious of the modern understanding of mobility as being a marker of personal social status within the society in which they grew up. The study of a variety of imaginaries among members of a paradigmatic diasporic group, such as Armenians, shows how second and later diasporic generations take advantage of their multi‐cultural background to become transnational global actors.
    November 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12149   open full text
  • The digitization of diaspora engagement: managing extraterritorial talent using the internet.
    Tingyu Kang.
    Global Networks. November 16, 2016
    In this article, I examine how the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) seeks to manage its skilled emigrants in the information age; I investigate the rationales, techniques and imageries underlying the use of the internet by the state. For the research, I used interviews, participant observation and documentary analysis to explore the case of London‐based Chinese professionals and their contacts with the PRC government. The findings demonstrate that two modes of internet use mainly manage these skilled emigrants. First, digitized diasporic associations play a key role in brokering the influences of the government among the diaspora. Second, the PRC government has set up websites to collect and manage information on skilled emigrants pertaining to their labour market potential. A nationalistic discourse of a caring and protective state of origin surround both governing practices. Nevertheless, some emigrants resist these internet‐mediated governing practices, through distrust and a calculated rationality underscored by a neoliberal logic.
    November 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12151   open full text
  • Sustainability standards and certification: looking through the lens of Foucault's dispositif.
    Laura Silva‐CastaÑeda, Nathalie Trussart.
    Global Networks. August 24, 2016
    Over the past few decades, sustainability standards and certification have come to play an important role in the global governance of production and trade. Their purpose is to address the environmental and social problems generated by the globalization of the economy. Yet, as scholars and actors alike have pointed out, framing these problems in terms of technical criteria and procedures might result in rendering some issues invisible and closing potential debate and contestation. Through the empirical analysis of a multi‐stakeholder initiative called the ‘Roundtable of Sustainable Palm Oil', our aim is to explore how civil society organizations and advocacy networks nevertheless draw new lines of power by using, putting to the test, correcting and constructing formalized knowledge. To shed light on these processes of resistance, we advance an analytic that restores the concept of dispositif coined by Michel Foucault in emphasizing both the disruptive and stabilizing lines that compose a dispositif.
    August 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12139   open full text
  • Reconsidering the role of the digital in global production networks.
    Christopher Foster, Mark Graham.
    Global Networks. August 11, 2016
    Global production networks (GPNs) have become a key framework in conceptualizing linkages, power and structure in globalized production. However, this framework has been less successful in integrating the influence of digital information and ICTs in production, and this problematic in a world where relationships and power are increasingly mediated by digital information flows and resources. We thus look to adapt the GPN framework to allow more substantive analysis of ‘the digital’. Primarily, this is done through a theoretical analysis of the three core categories of the GPN framework – embeddedness, value and networks – to highlight how these categories can better integrate a more dynamic and contested conceptualization of the digital. Illustrations from research on the digitalization of tea sector GPNs in East Africa highlight how these theoretical advances provide new insights on the digital and its expanding role in economic production.
    August 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12142   open full text
  • Shopping in Mumbai: transnational sociability from the Netherlands.
    Ruben Gowricharn.
    Global Networks. August 11, 2016
    In this article, I present the concept of sociability as a preferable alternative to current network theories. I apply Simmel's concept of sociability to the bonding that occurs among ethnic networks at both the community and global levels. I argue for the need to separate the sociability elements of enjoyment and pleasure in time and place. I focus on the diaspora tourism of Dutch Hindustanis to show that joy and pleasure occur both when shopping in India and when giving gifts in the Netherlands. Furthermore, I argue that gifts purchased in India create bonding within close ethnic circles. As a result, these gifts become part of the material culture of the group, contributing to a feeling of home, ethnic consciousness and transnational bonds. Finally, I suggest that this joy and pleasure can be repeated because many of these moments are recorded with video cameras and photographs. Through this analysis, I demonstrate that transnational sociability, exemplified in diaspora tourism (specifically in shopping and gift giving), generates bonding both at the ethnic group and global level. I thus aim to add specificity to studies of transnational ethnic networks.
    August 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12140   open full text
  • The boundaries of transnationalism: the case of assisted voluntary return migrants.
    Ine Lietaert, Eric Broekaert, Ilse Derluyn.
    Global Networks. August 11, 2016
    Few studies on transnationalism have focused on migrants who return to their country of origin with insufficient resources and limited mobility. This study sheds light on the transnational connections of those who went back to Georgia and Armenia from Belgium on a voluntary assisted return and reintegration programme. Using Boccagni's (2012) analytical framework, we reveal the returnees' interpersonal, institutional and symbolic transnational ties. Although these ties were often limited and had little effect on their daily lives, and although the migrants' desire to participate in the transnational field rarely matched their ability to do so, they nonetheless attached great value to them symbolically and emotionally. Our findings question current conceptualizations of transnationalism and the focus on the home country as the sole context in which transnational ties should have an impact. We believe that there is a need to pay greater attention to the subjective and symbolic dimensions of the return–transnationalism field, including the relationship between integration and return migration policies.
    August 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12141   open full text
  • Navigating transnational childcare relationships: migrant parents and their children's caregivers in the origin country.
    Miranda Poeze, Ernestina K. Dankyi, Valentina Mazzucato.
    Global Networks. June 27, 2016
    In this article, we investigate the daily work entailed in maintaining informal transnational childcare relationships between migrant parents and the children's kin or non‐kin caregivers in the country of origin. By applying the concept of ‘kin work’, we seek to understand how work is performed within transnational care relationships. Using a simultaneous matched sample methodology that gives equal weight to data on both sides of the transnational relationship, a team of researchers collected ethnographic data from Ghanaian migrant parents in the Netherlands and from their children's caregivers in Ghana. This approach allowed us to investigate the day‐to‐day care work from two perspectives – namely the visible and the invisible actions of the people involved in creating the kinship relationships of care work. Discrepancies in perceptions were uncovered because we compared data obtained on both sides of the relationship. These findings contribute to our understanding of the ways in which long‐distance practices facilitate the maintenance of kin relationships and how the inability to perform these can lead to tensions.
    June 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12135   open full text
  • Reducing the scale? From global images to border crossings in medical tourism.
    John Connell.
    Global Networks. June 27, 2016
    International medical travel has increased in the last 20 years, becoming more diverse and complex, although definitions and data on its growth and structure are inadequate. Many countries, especially in the Global South, have sought to develop medical tourism for both strategic and defensive reasons. Few have been successful. Standard descriptions and images of medical tourism suggest global markets, elite patient travellers and the dominance of cosmetic surgery, alongside the privatization and corporatization of hospital chains. Most international medical travel is, however, short‐distance, diasporic, across adjacent and nearby borders, and of relatively poor patients seeking cheaper, more effective or available care in appropriate cultural contexts, for straightforward procedures. Social networks, rather than the internet, shape choices and decisions on destinations. Porous international borders are crucial to medical travel and have resulted in the emergence of formal trans‐border health regions in the North and spontaneous informal regions in the South, alongside some regional hubs and hierarchies. Globalization is less significant than the grassroots transnationalism of borderland health care.
    June 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12136   open full text
  • Transnational Islamic charity as everyday rituals.
    Marta Bivand Erdal, Kaja Borchgrevink.
    Global Networks. June 27, 2016
    In this article, through a case study of transnational Islamic charity, we explore the intersection between migrant development engagements and religious practices. While migrant engagement in development is well known, the intersections of these with everyday religious practices are less so. We use the prism of ‘everyday rituals', understood as human actions that connect ideals with practices. Everyday rituals not only express but also reinforce ideals, in this case those of Islamic charity in a context of sustained migrant transnationalism. The article draws on 35 interviews about Islamic charity, transnationalism and development with practising Muslims of Pakistani origin in Oslo, Norway. We argue that everyday rituals are a useful tool for exploring the role of religion in motivating migrant development engagements. This is because they include transcendental perspectives, bridge ideals and practices that connect the contemporary to the hereafter, encompass transnational perspectives, and are attentive to the ‘here’ and ‘there’ spatially in migrants’ lives.
    June 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12137   open full text
  • Transnational parenting and the well‐being of Angolan migrant parents in Europe.
    Valentina Mazzucato, Bilisuma Bushie Dito, Marzia Grassi, Jeanne Vivet.
    Global Networks. June 17, 2016
    Studies on the transnational family highlight the emotional difficulties of migrant parents separated from their children through international migration. This article consists of a large‐scale quantitative investigation into the insights of transnational family literature by examining the well‐being of transnational parents compared with that of parents who live with their children in the destination country. Furthermore, through a survey of Angolan migrant parents in both the Netherlands and Portugal, we compare the contexts of two receiving country. Our study shows transnational parents are worse off than their non‐transnational counterparts in terms of four measures of well‐being – health, life satisfaction, happiness, and emotional well‐being. Although studies on migrant well‐being tend to focus exclusively on the characteristics of the receiving countries, our findings suggest that, to understand migrant parents' well‐being, a transnational perspective should also consider the existence of children in the migrant sending country. Finally, comparing the same population in two countries revealed that the receiving country effects the way in which transnational parenting is associated with migrant well‐being.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12132   open full text
  • Rewiring global networks at local events: congresses in the stock photo trade.
    Robert Panitz, Johannes GlÜckler.
    Global Networks. June 17, 2016
    Digital technologies have enabled the geographical expansion of production and the distribution of creative goods and communication. Simultaneously, the number of trade fairs and congresses has increased. This rise of temporary encounters has led to theorizations of events as marketplaces, learning sites and field‐configuring practices. This article elaborates on the metaphor of rewiring to propose and empirically demonstrate a further role of industry events for global business. Drawing on the case of the global stock photo trade, we use a unique survey to map the global network of sales partnerships as well as interviews conducted at international lead congresses to demonstrate how these events are enacted as social relays. Our findings demonstrate how temporary face‐to‐face contact facilitates long distance relationships between organizations and how it dynamically shapes the global industry network. Thus, we contribute to closing the gap between social action at the micro level, organizational linkages at the meso level and the structure of global industry networks at the macro level.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12134   open full text
  • Transnational status and cosmopolitanism: are dual citizens and foreign residents cosmopolitan vanguards?
    Andrea Schlenker.
    Global Networks. June 17, 2016
    Empirically growing transnationalism and normatively demanded cosmopolitanism may be closely connected when considered as different elements of new forms of citizenship beyond the single nation‐state. Do individuals with either full (dual citizenship) or partial (foreign resident) transnational status exhibit more cosmopolitanism than mono citizens? This article decodes the multidimensional character of cosmopolitanism using major democratic theories – liberalism, republicanism, and communitarianism. Multivariate regression analyses of data from a survey among mono citizens, dual citizens and foreign residents in Switzerland reveal that a transnational status is associated with cosmopolitanism in a differentiated way. Dual citizens and especially foreign residents are more likely than mono citizens to exhibit liberal cosmopolitanism; but only dual citizens having full political rights and opportunities in two countries are more likely to exhibit republican cosmopolitanism and only foreign residents excluded from the political community of residence are more likely to exhibit communitarian cosmopolitanism. Each of them can thus be considered as vanguards in specific ways. Our study furthermore demonstrates the added value of disaggregating both cosmopolitanism and transnationalism.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12133   open full text
  • Seeking identity: the transborder lives of mainland Chinese families with children born in Hong Kong.
    Li Xiyuan.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    Between 2001 and 2013, Hong Kong regulations permitted pregnant women from mainland China to travel to Hong Kong to deliver their babies. In this article, based on 30 in‐depth interviews, I explore the transborder lives and identities of these mainland Chinese families who, motivated by cost considerations, citizenship and anticipated benefits for their children, chose to give birth to their babies in Hong Kong. In some cases, family networks providing flexible residential practices and family care, supported these transborder activities. However, the complexities of transborder life reveal the diverse ‘identifications’ within Hong Kong society and mainland families. Because neither administration totally accepts them, they are not full members of either society and so the identities they form are both plural and fragmented.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12118   open full text
  • Global governance and ICTs: exploring online governance networks around gender and media.
    Claudia Padovani, Elena Pavan.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    In this article, we address transformations in global governance brought about by information and communication technologies (ICTs). Focusing on the specific domain of ‘gender‐oriented communication governance ’, we investigate online interactions among different kinds of actors active in promoting gender equity in and through the media. By tracing and analysing online issue networks, we investigate which actors are capable of influencing the framing of issues and of structuring discursive practices. From the analysis, different forms of power emerge, reflecting diverse modes of engaging in online interactions, where actors can operate as network ‘programmers’, ‘mobilizers’, or ‘switchers’. Our case study suggests that, often, old ways of conceiving actors’ interactions accompany the implementation of new communication tools, while the availability of a pervasive networked infrastructure does not automatically translate into meaningful interactions among all relevant actors in a specific domain.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12119   open full text
  • Social embeddedness in a harmonized Europe: the social networks of European migrants with a native partner in Belgium and the Netherlands.
    Suzana Koelet, Christof Van Mol, Helga A. G. De Valk.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    Although intra‐European migration is often considered relatively easy to realize given European citizens' right to freedom of movement, settlement in another European country can still be experienced as socially disruptive. Insights in the insertion processes of European migrants, nevertheless, remain rather scarce. In this study, we analyse the social networks of European nationals with a native partner in Belgium and the Netherlands. The analysis is based on survey data from the EUMARR project (n = 576). First, we study the size and composition of European migrants' local family and friendship networks, and the frequency of contact with these networks. Second, we connect intra‐EU movers' insertion routes to investments in transnational networks in their home country. The results reveal how size, composition and contact with the local and transnational network change over time. Children help to maintain contact with both the local and transnational family network and form a bridge for parents to meet own friends in the host country. Moreover, having own friends and own family around matters for contact frequency with the local networks.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12123   open full text
  • Vernacularization of liberal civil society by transnational Islamist NGO networks.
    Zeynep Atalay.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    Over the last two decades, informal Islamic networks have been re‐establishing themselves as formal NGOs and building transnational coalitions. These newly formed faith‐based NGOs retain their original agendas: promoting Islamic revival and global solidarity by supporting Muslim communities around the world. However, they now reposition themselves as ‘civil society initiatives’ and selectively appropriate the liberal civil society discourse. In this article, I analyse the discursive strategies that local actors undertake when they vernacularize external idea packages that challenge their cognitive preconceptions. The empirical findings of the article demonstrate that the ideological self‐positioning of the local norm‐taker is a key determinant of the vernacularization of micro processes. To reconcile the perceived normative conflict between political Islamist and liberal civil society frameworks, vernacularizers prune the civil society concept down to its associational and communitarian elements, discard its Western connotative associations, reconstruct the concept to match their institutional and cultural preconceptions, and claim its original ownership.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12122   open full text
  • Power, capital, and immigration detention rights: making networked markets in global detention governance at UNHCR.
    Julia Morris.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    With the expanded use of immigration detention and migration management practices worldwide, detention has emerged as a key issue for United Nations and international human rights institutions. A growing international rights movement seeks to make the practice fairer and more humane, leading to the dominance of a mainstream detention rights agenda and counter‐hegemonic system of governance. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Geneva and elsewhere, this article examines the capital, knowledge, and technological expertise that went into the construction of UNHCR's Global Detention Strategy. I highlight the rational calculation undergirding this global detention rights agenda, including the transnational policy networks of NGOs, INGOs, and academics that facilitate the movement's moral authority and capitalist growth. Their practices have become powerful neoliberal development tools, which give veracity to human rights agendas and attract oppositionally‐figured abolitionist praxis.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12124   open full text
  • Model Hong Kong malls and their development in mainland China: consumer iconicity and the trans/national capitalist class.
    Carolyn Cartier.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    Relational geographies of capital and consumption between Hong Kong and mainland China have been forming through tourism engagement in Hong Kong and the development of model Hong Kong malls in China. This analysis of urban restructuring for the consumer economy identifies how landmark Hong Kong malls are reproduced in major cities of China by networks of Hong Kong property firms and mainland elites. Adapting Leslie Sklair's formulation of architectural iconicity in the culture‐ideology of consumerism, this economic relationship, which restructures urban space, constructs iconic built forms and develops Chinese consumerism, marks hegemonic opportunities of a national capitalist class, suggesting how Chinese state capitalism and its Hong Kong networks limit and incrementally engage transnational capital while instantiating Hong Kong‐style consumer iconicity. New malls in mixed‐use developments in China often occupy sites of historical markets and thus affirm Sklair's prediction that iconic architecture increasingly proclaims consumer space while claiming historic forms of public space.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12121   open full text
  • City of sojourners versus city of settlers: transnationalism, location and identity among Taiwanese professionals in London and Toronto.
    Fiona Moore.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    In this article I explore the impact of location on transnational identities through an ethnographic case study of Taiwanese professionals in London and Toronto. I argue, first, that both groups use their transnational identities not just to bridge two cultures, but also as a strategic resource for building connections with many different groups. Second, I argue that the expression of transnational identity is different in each local context, as it is framed through London's identity as a ‘global city of sojourners’, and Toronto's as a ‘global city of settlers’. Finally, I argue that this, combined with the strategic use of identity in each location, influences each group's transnational connections and affects their ability to construct networks.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12120   open full text
  • Inverting the boomerang: examining the legitimacy of North–South–North campaigns in transnational advocacy.
    Christopher L. Pallas.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    The boomerang model is typically used to describe campaigns in which international NGOs respond to requests from local activists, often from marginalized populations, for assistance in addressing local needs. Such campaigns are perceived to represent local interests and have some accountability to local actors. However, while the local–international–local pattern is often accurate, it does not capture the full spectrum of campaign development. This article theorizes an international–local–international or ‘inverse’ boomerang, in which international NGOs facing an international policy blockage initiate a transnational campaign, recruiting local activists to assist in the international advocacy effort. The article demonstrates the theory's plausibility using several cases of Northern‐initiated advocacy. It then examines the implications of the model for campaign legitimacy. It finds that inverse boomerang campaigns benefit from the same presumptions of legitimacy as traditional boomerang campaigns, but that representivity and accountability are substantially weaker, potentially disempowering the campaigns' claimed stakeholders.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12129   open full text
  • Diasporas and transitional justice: transnational activism from local to global levels of engagement.
    Maria Koinova, DŽeneta KarabegoviĆ.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    Scholarship on transitional justice, transnational social movements, and transnational diaspora mobilization has offered little understanding about how memorialization initiatives with substantial diaspora involvement emerge transnational and are embedded and sustained in different contexts. We argue that diasporas play a galvanizing role in transnational interest‐based and symbolic politics, expanding claim‐making from the local to national, supranational, and global levels of engagement. Using initiatives to memorialize atrocities committed at the former Omarska concentration camp in Bosnia and Herzegovina, we identify a four‐stage mobilization process. First, initiatives emerged and diffused across transnational networks after a local political opportunity opened in the homeland. Second, attempts at coordination of activities took place transnational through an NGO. Third, initiatives were contextualized on the nation‐state level in different host‐states, depending on the political opportunities and constraints available there. Fourth, memorialization claims were eventually shifted from the national to the supranational and global levels. The article concludes by demonstrating the potential to apply the analysis to similar global movements in which diasporas are directly involved.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12128   open full text
  • Rethinking migration in the digital age: transglocalization and the Somali diaspora.
    Saskia Kok, Richard Rogers.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    In this study, we examine the transnational networks of the Somali diaspora online. We explore the claims that the web signifies a shift towards a de‐territorialized, transnational diaspora, which constructs its identity and engagement around a transnational imagined community. Based on a network and web content analysis, we assert that the claims about the transnational as the territorial locus of identity and engagement should be revisited. The analysis shows that the Somali diaspora's engagement has a specific multi‐territorial topology through which information and resources are exchanged and a hybrid identity is constructed. Somalis' online engagement, however, is mainly directed towards community‐based practices and social integration in their host‐land, as opposed to transnational advocacy for the homeland. We argue that web data show a particular territorial arrangement and engagement, which we conceptualize as transglocalization, meaning local, networked formations existing alongside the national and transnational, each operating with awareness of the other yet acting separately. The study demonstrates that online network analysis offers promising approaches to diasporic social integration, policy‐making and issue advocacy.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12127   open full text
  • A hegemon fighting for equal rights: the dominant role of COC Nederland in the LGBT transnational advocacy network.
    Megan Osterbur, Christina Kiel.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    Networks are alternatives to hierarchical organizational forms. However, actors in networks have different resources at their disposal, and more powerful participants will try to influence the network as a whole. We identify a dominant node in the European LGBT advocacy network, and explore whether a hegemonic actor in the transnational advocacy network will affect less powerful groups' issue framing. Our project uses software that locates the issue network on the internet, highlighting how transnational advocacy work and digital communication have become inextricably connected. We confirm that Cultuur – en Ontspannings Centrum, known as COC Netherland has higher‐than average centrality measures in the LGBT network. Noting the limitations of hyperlink analysis, we conduct a content analysis of select nodes illustrating the impact of a hegemon. We focus on marriage equality and find tentative support for our hypothesis: organizations with links to COC advocate for stronger forms of legalized same‐sex union than do organizations without ties.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12126   open full text
  • Reactive transnationalism: homeland involvement in the face of discrimination.
    Erik Snel, Margrietha 't Hart, Marianne Van Bochove.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    In this article we examine whether migrants' perceived discrimination in the country of settlement leads to an increase of their transnational involvement. So far, this so‐called ‘reactive transnationalism’ has not been studied extensively. Based on literature on discrimination and transnationalism, reactive transnationalism is expected to be most prominent among socioeconomically successful migrants, particularly among males and those who consider themselves Muslims. Our research among middle‐class migrants in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, indeed shows that the more respondents experienced discrimination, the more transnationally involved they are, both regarding transnational identifications and transnational activities. While no gender difference was found regarding reactive transnational activities, for women perceived discrimination proves to lead to stronger instead of weaker transnational identifications than for men. The fact that no difference was found between Muslim and non‐Muslim respondents regarding reactive transnationalism suggests that, despite heated public debates about ‘Islam’, in the Netherlands, ethnic divides – being considered as ‘Dutch’ or ‘non‐Dutch’ – are even more prominent than religious ones.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12125   open full text
  • The multipolar regionalization of cities in multinational firms' networks.
    CÉline Rozenblat, Faraz Zaidi, Antoine Bellwald.
    Global Networks. May 02, 2016
    This article identifies the most cohesive multi‐polar regions of the network of world cities, which differ from the unipolar centre–periphery model largely created by the high weight of central city connections. We use a community detection algorithm that outlines the high densities of city networks (in relative weights). Various patterns of industries and services, which are divided into two skill levels, are identified. We use a global database of the network of 1.2 million direct and indirect ownership links between the 800,000 subsidiaries of the top 3000 multinational groups in 2013, allowing us to build four comparable networks of 503 metropolitan areas. Comparing the obtained partitions with continental, regional and economic benchmarks, classes of cities partially correspond to free trade zones (FTZs) but exhibit interesting cross‐continental patterns. A few cities, changing their classes according to the activities, are discussed in the light of the multinational firms' strategies.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12130   open full text
  • Introduction to the special issue on transnational lived citizenship.
    Kirsi Pauliina Kallio, Katharyne Mitchell.
    Global Networks. March 02, 2016
    Thinking about citizenship in the context of transnational flows and global actors gives us opportunities to consider new possibilities for politics and human agency in the contemporary era. By joining the interdisciplinary discussions that adopt these approaches, in this special issue on ‘transnational lived citizenship’ we set out to challenge fixed notions of citizenship and to call for its respatialization and repoliticization. Specifically, we stress the importance of the non‐state based material and locatable situated practices, memories and imaginings of particular actors. Importantly, we do not limit the forms of political agency associated with citizenship to individuals, or to the positions, practices and acts related to polity memberships. Rather, we identify how the actors collectively construct and act out citizenship in various socio‐spatial contexts. Moreover, the authors of the individual articles propose new ways of understanding how people, as political subjects, are positioned differently in their communities and societies and how they pursue new political stances and actions in their transnationalizing worlds. Centring ‘the geographical’ as the basis of enquiry, the issue as a whole seeks to provide spatial–theoretical contributions to the interdisciplinary debates on relational and contested citizenship.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12113   open full text
  • Migrants' capacity as actors of development: do skills matter for economic and social remittances?
    Georgina Sturge, Özge Bilgili, Melissa Siegel.
    Global Networks. March 02, 2016
    Highly skilled migrants are presumably in a better position than less skilled ones to contribute to development in their countries of origin, largely by way of economic and social remittances. In this article, we use unique data on first‐generation migrants in the Netherlands to test how economic and social remittances differ by skill level. We find that the highly skilled are more likely to remit, to remit larger amounts and to give advice on education, jobs and health matters. Thus, we identify the highly skilled as having a greater capacity to affect development than have migrants of other skill levels. However, nuances exist with respect to this overall result. We illustrate that the low and medium skilled also show some capacity to affect economic development and that a medium skill level is sufficient to be in a position to transfer significantly more knowledge and skills.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12117   open full text
  • Afterword: spatialities of transnational lived citizenship.
    Lauren Martin, Anssi Paasi.
    Global Networks. March 02, 2016
    The articles collected here show how the terms transnational, everyday lives and citizenship inflect each other in different ways, depending on the site and context in question. In this afterword, we want to explore how these three terms change each other and the implications of ‘transnational lived citizenship ’. The articles mark out important theoretical arguments for conceptualizing the spatialities of transnational identity, migrant life and emotional citizenship.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12116   open full text
  • Transnational disruptions: materialities and temporalities of transnational citizenship among Somali refugees in Cairo.
    Elisa Pascucci.
    Global Networks. March 02, 2016
    Literature on both transnationalism and ‘lived citizenship’ has highlighted the multiple, fluid and simultaneous character of migrant experiences of belonging. Geographers, however, have questioned this emphasis on mobility, connections and simultaneity, regrounding research on migrant transnationalism through the study of materiality and embodiment, and pointing to the salience of temporality in defining contemporary migration and asylum regimes. Drawing on ethnographic research with Somali refugees living in Cairo, Egypt, in this article I explore the material and temporal ‘disruptions’ that mark their condition at three interrelated levels. These are the experience of ‘time suspension’ associated with maintaining transnational family connections, the uncertain temporalities characterizing the work of humanitarian agencies, and the ‘everyday emergencies’ that mark daily life in a Cairo neighbourhood. Through the heuristic lens of materiality and assemblage geographies, through the analysis I hope to offer a more nuanced account of the tension between ‘fluidity’ and groundedness in refugees’ transnational practices, as well as an appraisal of the role temporalities and materialities play in emerging forms of ‘irregular citizenship’ in the Global South.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12115   open full text
  • Celebrity humanitarianism, transnational emotion and the rise of neoliberal citizenship.
    Katharyne Mitchell.
    Global Networks. March 02, 2016
    Celebrity humanitarianism is a form of advocacy for the poor and ill, primarily those populations residing in developing regions of the world. Often the celebrities attempt to galvanize support and care for these distant populations through various kinds of emotional practices, which are promoted and sustained across space through the invocation of community and the use of new social media. The articulation of community, empathy and fan activism creates an experience of citizenship that appears to transcend national borders and enables affective relations between distant individuals and places. In this article, I analyse the mechanisms of emotion in the constitution of these deterritorialized networks, including the specific practices and pastoral language that draw individuals into feelings of transnational solidarity, through fan groups and fan–celebrity engagement. Further, I address the ways in which the emotional enrolment of individuals in this vein can be read as part of a larger process of neoliberal citizenship formation and depoliticization, in which subjects are subtly directed away from state‐based responses to problems of poverty and ill health, and towards more individualized, enterprising, and market‐mediated forms of social aid.
    March 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12114   open full text
  • Multiple modes of care: internet and migrant caregiver networks in Israel.
    Rachel H. Brown.
    Global Networks. February 15, 2016
    In this article, I explore how migrant caregivers in Israel/Palestine use internet communication technology (ICT) to contest and navigate the gendered and racialized naturalization of their work and social and legal discrimination. I argue that, within the asymmetrical migrant caregiver/citizen–employer relationship, caregivers use ICT as a coping mechanism, for self‐expression, to fortify relationships of support with family and friends and to strengthen networks of community solidarity and activism. I conclude by suggesting how each of these strategies and daily modes of contestation can be seen as a ‘diagnostic of power’ that reveals the multiple forms that structural violence against migrants can take.
    February 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12112   open full text
  • Mediating the family imaginary: young people negotiating absence in transnational refugee families.
    Zoe Robertson, Raelene Wilding, Sandra Gifford.
    Global Networks. February 08, 2016
    Although transnational families regularly experience extended periods of physical separation and dispersal, the emergence of new media means that most are now practised at sustaining forms of ‘connected presence’ and ‘mediated co‐presence’ across time and space. Thus, migration no longer disrupts all family networks, for many continue to function as sites of support across national borders. However, refugee transnational families are a clear exception, with both physical and mediated contact between kin living in refugee camps or in transit remaining limited, if not impossible. Nevertheless, it is arguable that digital communication technologies have transformed even this experience of family dispersal. In this article, we demonstrate how young people from refugee backgrounds living in Melbourne respond to the absence of their family members by using digital media to construct a family imaginary that serves to sustain a sense of familyhood in contexts of ongoing separation.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12111   open full text
  • ‘Doing family’ through ICT‐mediated ordinary co‐presence: transnational communication practices of Romanian migrants in Switzerland.
    Mihaela Nedelcu, Malika Wyss.
    Global Networks. February 08, 2016
    In this article, we account for the emergence of new ‘being together’ practices that transnational families develop through ICT‐mediated communication. Drawing on the case of Romanian migrants in Switzerland, we show how political and technological factors, family norms and obligations, as well as individual preferences and aspirations interact and generate novel ordinary co‐presence routines that rely on multiple media affordances to recreate a space for family practices and shape different ways of ‘doing family’ at a distance. This study shows how a subtle sense of each other's everyday life combines with possibilities and feelings of ‘being and doing things together’ at a distance, through multimodal interactions, reflected in ritual, omnipresent and reinforced co‐presence routines. Although these routines are the drivers of new forms and feelings of togetherness, they generate ambivalent effects that range from immediate reciprocal wellbeing and emotional comfort to new expectations of solidarity, family tensions and constraints. In conclusion, ICT‐mediated ordinary co‐presence not only mirrors the ‘normal’ functioning of transnational families, but it also reflects, more generally, an expression of the cosmopolitanization of everyday life.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12110   open full text
  • De‐demonizing distance in mobile family lives: co‐presence, care circulation and polymedia as vibrant matter.
    Loretta Baldassar.
    Global Networks. February 08, 2016
    A growing literature is addressing the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on transnational family relationships and the ability of family members to be co‐present (emotionally ‘there’ for each other) across distance. In this article, I examine how relatively wealthy, middle‐class Australian migrants use ICTs to achieve a sense of satisfactory distant co‐presence with their transnational family members. I draw on the concepts of polymedia, vibrant matter and care circulation to explore how families are using ICTs in ways that are transforming forms of co‐presence, as well as some of the pitfalls inherent in their use. I argue that these new forms of co‐presence augment existing reciprocities and obligations and are facilitating ever‐more dynamic and multifaceted relationships across distance.
    February 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12109   open full text
  • Visualizing co‐presence: discourses on transnational family connectivity in ethnic advertising.
    Cecilia Gordano Peile.
    Global Networks. January 14, 2016
    Transnational family members rely on a vast array of strategies to keep in touch with their loved ones scattered in distant places. In this context, providers of mobile phones and money transfer services have quickly identified international migrants as lucrative market niches, producing particular discourses on migrant connectivity through ethnic advertising. In this article, I analyse 30 of these advertisements in Spain from a qualitative and critical perspective in order to explore how they represent migrant management of family relationships at a distance. For this purpose, I articulate transnational family studies with social semiotics of visual communication. My analysis identified the predominance of promises of virtual co‐presence through at least two different strategies – which I called ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ representations of co‐presence – and its conceptual implications for both migrant and non‐migrant subjects.
    January 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12104   open full text
  • Ambient co‐presence: transnational family practices in polymedia environments.
    Mirca Madianou.
    Global Networks. January 04, 2016
    In this article, I develop an argument about a new type of mediated co‐presence termed ‘ambient co‐presence’, which is the peripheral, yet intense awareness of distant others made possible through the affordances of ubiquitous media environments. Drawing on a long‐term ethnography of UK‐based Filipino migrants and their communication practices with their transnational families, I observe the increasing prevalence of an ‘always on’ culture of ubiquitous connectivity. The functions of a social networking site (SNS) such as the ‘news feed’, combined with the portability of internet‐enabled devices and locative services, mean that users can be peripherally, yet constantly aware of the actions and daily rhythms of their peers. This peripheral awareness, which can be pervasive, complements other types of mediated co‐presence and has powerful emotional consequences – both positive and negative – for relationships at a distance. Participants with weak relationships reported an increase in conflict especially through opportunities for surveillance. By contrast, those who enjoyed strong relationships associated ambient co‐presence with low‐level emotional reassurance. In this article, I also observe that ambient co‐presence has implications for community and belonging. Notwithstanding the development of online norms that are culturally specific, I argue that the concept of ambient co‐presence can have cross‐cultural relevance for understanding the consequences of mediated communication.
    January 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12105   open full text
  • Reterritorializing the global knowledge economy: an analysis of geopolitical assemblages of higher education.
    Sami Moisio, Anni Kangas.
    Global Networks. January 04, 2016
    In this article, we analyse the geopolitics of higher education, which we understand as an assemblage through which the functioning of the ‘borderless’ and ‘deterritorializing’ dynamics of the global knowledge economy are respatialized. Discourses, objects and bodies constitute a geopolitical assemblage. We scrutinize in particular the geopolitical discourse of the knowledge economy, the construction of material and immaterial learning environments as one of its governmental technologies as well as the subjectification of individuals as specific kinds of professional citizens. We concretize this with an enquiry into the set of recent university reforms in Finland and the ways in which these contribute to the formation of transnational citizenship.
    January 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/glob.12103   open full text
  • Kenya's tourist industry and global production networks: gender, race and inequality.
    Michelle Christian.
    Global Networks. October 25, 2015
    In this article, I consider the position of gender and race in the tourism global production network in Kenya. To address a gap in scholarship on global production networks, I explore the racial and gender characteristics evident in functionally upgraded national tour operators and socially upgraded workers and community members around the Maasai Mara National Reserve. The main findings address the relation of race and gender to disarticulation practices identified in ‘societal', ‘network’ and ‘territorial’ forms of embeddedness supported by racial and gender representations of skill capabilities and tourist desires. These practices and representations support a production network symbolized by whites, Kenyan‐Asians and expatriates in the highest value segments and jobs, and indigenous African, Maasai and female workers in the lowest value positions. The findings highlight how disarticulation in economic and social upgrading is a gendered and racial process that perpetuates social difference and hierarchy.
    October 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12094   open full text
  • Children's rights advocacy as transnational citizenship.
    Jouni HÄkli, Kirsi Pauliina Kallio.
    Global Networks. October 25, 2015
    In this article, we develop conceptual tools for analysing the practices of children's rights organizations and professionals as transnational citizenship. To this end, we set out to trace a continuum of citizenship practices in which global and local influences and forces enmesh in ways that are difficult to grasp when treated as two separate realms. To theorize the social dynamism and spatial constitution of transnational citizenship as a local–global continuum, we turn to Bourdieu's field theory. By analysing the Committee on the Rights of the Child's handling of the Finnish Periodic Report on children's rights, and how Finnish children's rights advocates mobilize its recommendations, we show that transnational citizenship in the field of children's rights is practised not merely ‘out there’ but also ‘right here’. We conclude by discussing what novel insights field theory has to offer to the study of advocacy practices as transnational citizenship.
    October 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12096   open full text
  • Life and death in Hong Kong in an age of cosmopolitanism.
    James A. Tyner.
    Global Networks. October 25, 2015
    Recent events in Hong Kong direct attention to a disturbing trend – the neglect of (selected) life. The society is increasingly discarding its policies and practices concerning immigrant workers, foreign pregnant women and impoverished men and women, whom it deems unworthy of protection or assistance. In this article, I argue for a radical cosmopolitanism that would entail a commitment not only to preventing the taking of life and building a non‐killing society but also to the elimination of the structural conditions that disallow life to the point of death. Drawing on recent bio‐political debates in Hong Kong, I consider the sovereign right over life and death within the neoliberal state. I argue that the state predicates neoliberal sovereignty on a systemic indifference to life; it calculates its bio‐political decisions according to a bio‐arithmetic of economic productivity and social responsibility; and it allows those whom it deems unworthy ‘to die’. As a potential counter discourse, I outline the coordinates and discuss the implications of a commitment to a radical cosmopolitanism.
    October 25, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12095   open full text
  • Networks of home, travel and use during Hong Kong return migration: thinking topologically about the spaces of human–material practices.
    Allison Hui.
    Global Networks. August 20, 2015
    Despite acknowledgements that migration depends on human–material practices, research into migrant materialities has often focused on limited spatiotemporal frames and the relation of objects to (inter)personal concerns. Taking everyday interactions with materials as of inherent interest, I examine how thinking topologically about multiple spaces helps to trace migrants’ relationships to changing groups of objects. After introducing Mol and Law's concepts of regional, network and fluid space, I discuss three types of networks with diverse relations to them – networks of home, for travel, and of use. Though networks of home are important to migrants, and can remain intact while travelling across regions, they also demonstrate considerable fluidity when interacting with other networks, which themselves affect adaptation and everyday practices. Supported by examples from Hong Kong return migrants, I show how managing multiple material networks, each with multiple spatial relations, is central to being a migrant.
    August 20, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12093   open full text
  • Moralizing emotional remittances: transnational familyhood and translocal moral economy in the Philippines' ‘Little Italy’.
    Evangeline O. Katigbak.
    Global Networks. August 20, 2015
    In this article, I explain the intersections of morality and emotions in the (re)constitution of transnational familyhood and translocal moral economy. I use the case of the Philippines’ ‘Little Italy’ to explore the translocal emotional geographies of sustaining transnational families through what I call ‘emotional remittances', which indicate how emotions move across translocal social fields through remittances. I first probe the understandings of transnational familyhood in the Philippines and then move on to interrogate the translocal moral economy that influences the meanings of, and attitudes towards, emotional remittances. I first argue that the continuation of transnational familyhood implies the subscription to the translocal moral economy embedded in sending societies. Second, this translocal moral economy is underpinned by emotional constructs such as love, ingratitude and guilt, that (re)shape and are (re)shaped by transnational familyhood. The findings and analysis in this article contribute to further theorizations of the interrelations of emotion, remittances and transnational family formation.
    August 20, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12092   open full text
  • Empowering or impeding return migration? ICT, mobile phones, and older migrants’ communications with home.
    Alistair Hunter.
    Global Networks. August 20, 2015
    In the last two decades, transnational social fields have been transformed by advances in information and communication technologies (ICT). Many scholars have noted the empowering effects of these technological advances for migrants. Drawing on the concept of return preparedness, it follows that ICT use should also empower prospective returnees, enabling them to be better informed and prepared for return. However, multi‐sited ethnographic research with older North and West African men living in migrant worker hostels in France finds that ICT use – particularly mobile telephony –impedes return. In some instances, mobile phones serve to amplify the pressures on the men to provide financially for their stay‐at‐home relatives. In others, mobile phones reinforce attachments to France by facilitating networks of solidarity among hostel residents. Instead of returning definitively at retirement, many hostel residents choose a bi‐residence strategy, dividing their time between France and countries of origin.
    August 20, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12091   open full text
  • The resilience of migrant money: how gender, generation and class shape family remittances in Peruvian migration.
    Karsten Paerregaard.
    Global Networks. May 18, 2015
    Scholars and policy makers have argued that because altruism drives remittance sending, migrant money is more resilient to uncertainty than other capital flows. In this article, I question this assumption through ethnographic examination of remittance sending by Peruvian migrant families. When in their lives do Peruvian migrants start to remit? Who are the recipients? What is the purpose of their remittances? How long do they last and why do they stop? I argue that, to answer these questions, we need to investigate how migrants make remittance commitments to different household members, how these attribute value to the remittances and how this value becomes the object of negotiation and contestation. The findings indicate that remittances reinforce existing relations of gender, generation and class in Peruvian society and suggest that while short‐lived remittances are based on contractual commitments and driven by altruism, long‐term remittances are based on emotional commitments and driven by both non‐utilitarian and utilitarian motives.
    May 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12075   open full text
  • Ambivalent citizenship and extraterritorial voting among Colombians in London and Madrid.
    CATHY McILWAINE, ANASTASIA BERMUDEZ.
    Global Networks. May 18, 2015
    In this article, we explore the nature of extraterritorial voting among Colombian migrants in the 2010 elections in London and Madrid. To address the neglected issue of why voter turnout from abroad has been so low, we take into account the views of voters and non‐voters alike to show that, while the external vote privileges the professional and well educated, this does not mean that migrants are not interested in politics back home. Drawing on Bauman (1991), we conceptualize ambivalent citizenship as the paradoxical manner in which, through the external vote, states impose hegemonic notions of citizenship from above, which people embrace in an ambivalent manner from below. We show that the workings of the state make voting a difficult process; they create structural ambivalence for migrants who, even if they practise their citizenship in other ways, exercise individual ambivalence because they find it difficult to engage with a political system back home that they do not trust. The conceptualization of ‘ambivalent citizenship’ therefore encompasses the contradictory complexities inherent in the provision of external voting rights that actively privilege and exclude migrants in mutually constitutive ways.
    May 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12076   open full text
  • New Zealand's turbulent waters: the use of forced labour in the fishing industry.
    Christina Stringer, D. Hugh Whittaker, Glenn Simmons.
    Global Networks. May 18, 2015
    In this article, we make an empirical and conceptual contribution to the emerging debate on unfree labour in the context of labour chains and global value chains. We recast an historical view of poor labour practices aboard some foreign charter vessels fishing in New Zealand's waters as something more nefarious. Applying the International Labour Organization (ILO) and European Commission (EC) operational indicators of human trafficking for forced labour to 293 interviews, we evaluate the extent to which we can consider migrant fishing crew aboard South Korean vessels as victims of forced labour. We find that they are indeed victims of forced labour and that there is a need to extend the ILO/EC operational indicators to take into account exit strategies. Specifically, there is insufficient recognition of deception, exploitation and coercion at the point of exit, which can prevent a trafficked victim from exiting the employment relationship. Thus, it is crucial to take account of all stages, from recruitment to exit, to understand fully unfree labour in labour and global value chains.
    May 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12077   open full text
  • Local and transnational care relations: relatedness and family practice among au pairs in Denmark.
    Karina MÄrcher Dalgas, Karen Fog Olwig.
    Global Networks. March 05, 2015
    An increasing number of young women from the Global South have become au pairs in the Global North since the turn of the millennium. Through ethnographic analysis of three cases of au pairing in Denmark, involving Filipina and Caribbean women, this article discusses the nature of the local as well as transnational family relations in which these women are embedded as au pairs, and the opportunities and restraints that they present. We use anthropological theory to conceptualize family and kinship in terms of notions and practices of relatedness. This offers a useful framework for elucidating the different moral and contractual obligations and expectations associated with these varying family relations, the power asymmetries with which they are linked, and the agency that the au pairs display as they seek to position themselves in the most favourable way in relation to the multi‐directional ties in which they are involved.
    March 05, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12074   open full text
  • The cosmopolitan elite in Germany: transnationalism and postmaterialism.
    Marc Helbling, CÉline Teney.
    Global Networks. March 05, 2015
    In this article, we investigate cosmopolitan attitudes among the people often considered the most cosmopolitan – the elite. Studying the typical class of frequent travellers provides a particularly good opportunity to study the relationship between transnational activities and cosmopolitanism. We also comprehensively investigate the link between postmaterialist values and cosmopolitan attitudes. We test our arguments using an original dataset that includes a relatively large sample of the German positional top elite in the years 2011 and 2012. A comparison between these data and data from a general population survey shows that while transnational activities affect the attitudes of ordinary citizens, increased travelling does not make elites more cosmopolitan. We discuss several reasons why this might be the case. We also observe that postmaterialist values and the ideological environment of the elite play a key role. Finally, we tentatively suggest that cosmopolitan elites do not endanger national social cohesion, as some fear they might. We show that cosmopolitanism and localism are not mutually exclusive and that members of the German elite feel even more attached to their nation than ordinary Germans.
    March 05, 2015   doi: 10.1111/glob.12073   open full text
  • Are Latin America's corporate elites transnationally interconnected? A network analysis of interlocking directorates.
    JuliÁn CÁrdenas.
    Global Networks. December 10, 2014
    Conflicting perspectives appear when thinking about the emergence of a cohesive transnational corporate network in Latin America. On the one hand, regional political integration, foreign investment growth, increased cross‐border mergers and acquisitions, and cultural and linguistic homogeneity may have fostered transnational networks among Latin America's corporate elites. On the other hand, domestic‐based business groups, family control and trade orientation to the USA may have hindered the emergence of a cohesive transnational corporate network in Latin America. Based on a network analysis of interlocking directorates among the 300 largest corporations in Latin America, I ask whether the region's corporate elites interconnect at the transnational level and form a cohesive transnational corporate network. I found few transnational interlocks, a lack of cohesion in the transnational corporate network and no regional leaders. Corporate elites in Latin America are not transnationally interconnected and so a cohesive transnational corporate network has not emerged. I discuss implications and avenues of future research.
    December 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12070   open full text
  • Making connections between global production networks for used goods and the realm of production: a case study on e‐waste governance.
    Graham Pickren.
    Global Networks. December 10, 2014
    Recent scholarship on waste within economic geography and global production network (GPN) studies has identified several unique characteristics of networks for used goods vis‐à‐vis ‘traditional’ GPN studies focused on production, exchange and consumption. However, in un‐bracketing GPNs to include analysis of post‐consumption activity, identifying how the distinct moments of production, exchange, consumption and disposal/recycling are related becomes a crucial task. Towards this end, I present a case study on the governance of e‐waste networks that draws upon discussions of performativity and Hudson's cultural political economy approach to GPNs. In my analysis, I demonstrate how multiple factors, such as ideological differences over how to handle e‐waste, the non‐standardized nature of used goods, as well as production factors such as design choices and planned obsolescence, all shape and disrupt efforts to standardize and coordinate resource recovery and hazard mitigation in the post‐consumption phase of electronic goods. Such analysis moves past the novelty of GPNs for used goods toward a more integrated understanding of GPNs as a whole.
    December 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12071   open full text
  • Tamil diaspora and the political spaces of second‐generation activism in Switzerland.
    Monika Hess, Benedikt Korf.
    Global Networks. May 27, 2014
    In this article, we study the emergence of the political spaces of activism of second‐generation Swiss Tamils resulting from a critical event – the suffering of Tamils during and after the final battle in early 2009 of a civil war in northern Sri Lanka that had lasted for decades. We contend that we can explain the geographies of newly emerging second‐generation activism committed to achieving Tamil Eelam through two factors. These are first, this generation's multiple senses of belonging both to Switzerland and to the Tamil ‘nation’ and, second, the way a specific politics of affect remoulded second‐generation identities because the pain of witnessing the brutality of war and suffering of Tamils occurred concurrently with a perceived lack of interest from their ‘new home’ (Switzerland). The combination of these factors made them want to acknowledge their Tamil ‘roots’ and encouraged them to become politically active. Consequently, these second‐generation activists primarily sought to engage with their host society – to awaken it from its indifference to the suffering of Tamils and from its passivity in taking action on an international level. We thereby witness the emerging of a new type of Tamil activism in Switzerland, which is firmly located in and bound to the host country.
    May 27, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12052   open full text
  • Discursive representations and policy mobility: how migrant remittances became a ‘development tool’.
    Matt Bakker.
    Global Networks. May 27, 2014
    In this article, I focus on two sets of practices that researchers and policy advocates carry out within international organizations and think tanks promoting what I term the remittances‐to‐development (R‐2‐D) agenda. Their work conjured up, elaborated and diffused a representation of remittances as a financial flow and made remittances visible as a promising source of development finance for the global South. First, there is the work of discursive representation in which the advocates of the R‐2‐D agenda collected, compiled and visually represented data to draw out the characteristics of remittances that would make them attractive to development policymakers. Second, there were the policy transfer efforts, in which the champions of the R‐2‐D agenda wielded various forms of soft power to convince national government officials to ‘improve’ remittances statistics by adopting new measurement techniques. These practices turned remittances into a neoliberal development tool.
    May 27, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12055   open full text
  • Between global dreams and national duties: the dilemma of conscription duty in the transnational lives of young Korean males.
    Kirsten Younghee Song.
    Global Networks. May 27, 2014
    In this study, I examine the dilemmas arising from the tension between citizen duties and youthful aspirations in a globalizing world. The state's requirement of military conscription structures the transnational lives of young Korean male migrants. More particularly, the timeline for serving the duty works as a primary temporal reference for the males' initial migration planning and future projections. Drawn from ethnographic fieldwork and in‐depth interviews among a community of young Koreans in New Jersey, USA, my research reveals that their life planning in accordance with this institutional schedule is vulnerable to unexpected changes. The consequences are potentially detrimental to their futures, which not only differ from their individual ideals but also contain a high risk of marginalization both in Korea and in the USA. Building on the transnational migration literature, which focuses predominantly on spatiality, individual rights/agency and the marginalization of women migrants, I am concerned with temporality, citizens' duties and the constraints of masculinity as important parts of unravelling the complexities of transnational life.
    May 27, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12056   open full text
  • Transnational healthcare seeking: how ageing Taiwanese return migrants view homeland public benefits.
    Ken Chih‐Yan Sun.
    Global Networks. March 31, 2014
    In this article, I argue that, by offering ageing return migrants new opportunities both to organize their lives and to rethink their social attachments, the extension of public healthcare in Taiwan constitutes a new contextual feature of the transnational social field bridging Taiwan and the USA. I use the concept of ‘transnational healthcare seeking’ to describe how returning seniors try to maintain their physical, psychological and social well‐being by accessing the benefits of public healthcare available in their homeland rather than in the USA. Furthermore, I offer the concept of ‘logics of social right’ to demonstrate how older returnees seek to reconfirm their social commitment to their homeland and to defend their entitlement to its state‐provided benefits against public criticism that they are free riders. In so doing, this article contributes a nuanced understanding of how ageing migrants imagine, pursue and construct an ideal later life across national borders.
    March 31, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12050   open full text
  • Competition in online job marketplaces: towards a global labour market for outsourcing services?
    Niels Beerepoot, Bart Lambregts.
    Global Networks. March 31, 2014
    A new form of service outsourcing has emerged, namely the global online job marketplace for freelance contractors. Such platforms are currently the closest proxy to the idea of a global labour market where everyone competes for jobs regardless of location. In this article, we examine how competition manifests itself on one such global online platform, namely oDesk. We present a comparative analysis of the relative wages and the rewarding of skills and expertise of contractors from selected countries and investigate whether, via labour arbitrage, wage convergence takes place between Western and developing countries. We find that wage convergence is noticeable but experience and skills hardly translate into better remuneration. While service outsourcing (or microwork) via global online marketplaces provides new employment opportunities for freelancers around the world, the intense competition and the inherent restrictions of this type of marketplace limit the financial gains for most contractors.
    March 31, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12051   open full text
  • A reconceptualization of state transnationalism: South Korea as an illustrative case.
    Ku Sup Chin, David Smith.
    Global Networks. March 31, 2014
    Our reconceptualization of state transnationalism underlines the active role that states can play in generating and sustaining cross‐border flows between a nation's homeland and its diasporic communities. This represents a sort of ‘middle ground’ between formerly hegemonic ‘state centric’ approaches to global processes (focusing heavily on the ‘international’) and more recent ones emphasizing ‘transnational’ dynamics (which primarily arise through the agency of cross‐border migrants). We discuss a typology of approaches and avoid the tendency to set nation‐states against global and transnational processes. In fact, we highlight the various ways in which states often initiate key transnational flows, such as migration and the integration of diasporic communities into the sending nation, as well as maintain and regulate various processes instigated by immigrants. As an iconic case, we present an illustrative study of the South Korean government and Korean diasporic communities in the USA. Finally, in a brief conclusion, we outline some challenges for future research.
    March 31, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12053   open full text
  • ‘The distance between us’: a comparative examination of the technical, spatial and temporal dimensions of the transnational social relationships of highly skilled migrants.
    Louise Ryan, Amanda Klekowski Von Koppenfels, Jon Mulholland.
    Global Networks. March 31, 2014
    In this article, through comparing two highly skilled migrant groups in London, we explore how new types of information and communication technologies (ICTs) shape the form and content of transnational practices through time and space. In so doing, we aim to contribute to several debates in the field of migration studies. First, our findings highlight enduring practical constraints emanating from everyday routines and responsibilities, thus questioning the extent to which ICTs may be shrinking the globe and freeing people, even highly skilled ones, from spatial and temporal fixity. Second, we challenge assumptions about the ease of transnationalism by exploring the range and complexity of long‐distance interpersonal relationships and their dynamics over time. Third, by focusing on a comparison of relatively affluent, highly skilled migrants, we question the usefulness of the category of ‘middling migrants’. Our findings illustrate that, within this general and wide ranging category, there are diverse experiences, expectations and opportunities of maintaining contact with friends and family at home.
    March 31, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12054   open full text
  • The transnational effect of multicultural policies on migrants' identification: the case of the Israeli diaspora in the USA.
    Elyakim Kislev.
    Global Networks. January 10, 2014
    While it is difficult to gauge the effect of multicultural policies within countries, it is even more difficult to measure them across countries. In this article, I use fundamental multicultural changes that have occurred in Israeli society in recent decades as a case study, and track their effect on how Israelis who reside in the USA identify with Israel. Analysing the US census and the American Community Survey, I have focused my research on three groups of Israeli‐born migrants in the USA – Israeli Arabs, ultra‐Orthodox Jews and the Jewish majority. Findings indicate that originating from a minority community in the homeland predicts not only a different rate, but also different longitudinal trends of Israeli identification. I offer several possible explanations for these variations, but an in‐depth analysis of the Israeli case indicates that the transnational effect of the changing multicultural agenda in Israel is the leading mechanism at play.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12043   open full text
  • Transnational networks and transcultural belonging: a study of the Spanish second generation in Switzerland.
    Marina Richter, Michael Nollert.
    Global Networks. January 10, 2014
    Migration scholars often assume a close association between transnational social practices and transcultural forms of belonging. Nonetheless, we argue that the distinction of both concepts is analytically important and helpful in understanding the transnational lives of second‐generation migrants. To analyse the biographical accounts and network maps of second‐generation Spaniards living in Switzerland, we draw a theoretical distinction between social practice (transnational networks) and forms of belonging (transcultural belonging). Our analysis shows second‐generation migrants maintaining social networks over time, interrupting them, or reconnecting with them. Their sense of belonging may either endure or fade. Although the interconnection between social networks and the sense of belonging is neither straightforward nor causal, we can nevertheless identify five types of network/belonging combinations. These types describe the various ways in which second‐generation migrants are likely to articulate transnational networks and transcultural belonging in their lives.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12044   open full text
  • Technologies of the spouse: intimate surveillance in Senegalese transnational marriages.
    Dinah Hannaford.
    Global Networks. January 10, 2014
    Rapid advances in communication technology in the last 20 years have enabled migrants to sustain social and economic investment in multiple geographic locations, or, to be transnational. In this article, by analysing non‐migrant Senegalese women's experiences in marriages with migrant Senegalese men, I critically engage in discussions about the role of technology in transnational family dynamics. In the intimate negotiations of transnational married life, these women feel profoundly ambivalent about the role of communication technologies in their lives. Instead of enabling ‘emotional closeness’, the virtual presence of their absent husbands frequently represents a spectre of suspicion, control and surveillance.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12045   open full text
  • ‘Equally at home on Beacon Hill and Hill 16’? Transnational identities among Irish‐born return migrants from the United States.
    David Ralph.
    Global Networks. January 10, 2014
    In this article, I examine the transnational identities that return migrants create upon resettlement in their country of origin. Specifically, I draw on interviews with Republic of Ireland‐born return migrants from the United States between the years 1996 and 2006. The analysis shows that return migrants – like other migrant groups – maintain and establish translocal identities and practices that straddle ‘here’ (Ireland) and ‘there’ (United States) upon return. However, the article goes further, asking why returnees develop such border‐spanning social fields. Some recent scholarship suggests that some migrants develop transnational identities as an adaptive response to a hostile receiving society. The analysis here shows a similar process at play for certain return migrants in the post‐return environment. Doubtless, for some returnees, a transnational identity is a natural outgrowth of having spent several years in the United States. Yet for others, one can better explain this transnational identity as a coping strategy to buffer resettlement anxieties and disappointments.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12046   open full text
  • Labour in global production networks: workers in the qualifying industrial zones (QIZs) of Egypt and Jordan.
    Shamel Azmeh.
    Global Networks. January 10, 2014
    The role of labour in global production networks (GPNs) requires further theoretical and empirical research. Through the case of the qualifying industrial zones (QIZs) in Egypt and Jordan, I look at how different production and labour control regimes have emerged in the two countries to exploit preferential access to the US market. I analyse how the requirements of US buyers necessitate the building of a flexible, low‐cost, geographically mobile production and labour‐control regime that can meet the needs of buyers in terms of cost, time to market, fluctuations in demand and shifts in sourcing policy. Migrant labour from Asia and the formation of an associated dormitory labour regime facilitated the establishment of such a regime in Jordan. The social embeddedness of workers in Egypt, by contrast, hindered this process.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12047   open full text
  • Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances.
    Cindy Horst, Marta Bivand Erdal, JØrgen Carling, Karin Afeef.
    Global Networks. January 10, 2014
    Migrant remittances have received unprecedented attention over the past decade and scholars have interpreted remittance flows from a range of vantage points. In this article, we explore the meaning of remittances from three perspectives – (1) as an ingredient of terrorism and crime; (2) as a contribution to development; and (3) as an obstacle to integration. We explore these perspectives through an analysis of eight years of public debate in Norway and a review of the academic literature. Our analysis shows that remittances are open to public scrutiny, often within a strongly normative framework. Such public scrutiny is at odds with the private nature of remittances and affects migrants' everyday lives both structurally and emotionally. This scrutiny of remittances also suggests underlying assumptions about migrants' legitimate loyalties and belonging that fail to take adequate account of their multiple attachments.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12048   open full text
  • Privileged Japanese transnational families in Hawaii as lifestyle migrants.
    Hiroki Igarashi.
    Global Networks. January 10, 2014
    This study of privileged Japanese families in Hawaii revisits the claim that East Asian transnational families relocate overseas either to improve their well‐being or to enhance their status through their children's international education. Existing scholarship has focused mainly on the second pattern of status‐seeking migration, conceptualized as ‘education migration’. By employing Benson and O'Reilly's concept of ‘lifestyle migration’, I consider the less widely studied case of migration strategies designed to increase well‐being. The central difference between the two types of migrants lies in the way that migrant women construct their gendered identity through their transnational split‐household arrangement – a freer self (lifestyle migrants) or a sacrificial self (education migrants). In conclusion, I call for further research on this neglected topic and propose an important dimension to facilitate lifestyle migration, gender.
    January 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/glob.12049   open full text
  • Networks of capital, networks for migration: political–economic integration and the changing geography of Mexico–US migration.
    Matthew R. Sanderson.
    Global Networks. November 18, 2013
    While economic globalization has altered the geography of international migration and introduced an array of new sources and destinations, our understanding of the specific mechanisms that link economic globalization to migration remains limited. In this article, I attempt to extend previous research by undertaking an empirical case study of Mexican migration to the USA. Using a unique dataset, I construct multivariate models to test whether, in the context of economic integration, occupations channel migration between similar sectors of the Mexican and US economies. I focus on the food‐processing sector because of its role in the geographic dispersal of Mexican immigration. The results show a strong channelling of Mexican immigration along an occupational line linking the Mexican and US food‐processing sectors. The implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which ushered in a period of intensive political and economic integration, strengthened this occupational channel. By seeing the changing geography of Mexico–US migration in the context of economic globalization, this study casts light on the micro‐level foundations of the globalization–migration nexus.
    November 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12042   open full text
  • French connections: the networking strategies of French highly skilled migrants in London.
    Louise Ryan, Jon Mulholland.
    Global Networks. October 18, 2013
    Although the migration studies literature often takes social networks for granted, these social ties are not spontaneous but require effort and nurturing. There has been insufficient research on the actual process of networking, especially among highly skilled migrants. Our understanding of why and how migrants form networks with particular characteristics is still poor. In this article, we argue that it is necessary to consider both the structure and content of networks – the nature of the relationships as well as the flow of resources within various social ties. Drawing on qualitative data from a study of highly skilled French migrants in London's business and financial sector, we use a microanalysis of network‐making processes. In the context of London as a dynamic and highly competitive financial centre, we examine the importance of opportunities, skills and shared interests in building new social relationships from scratch. In addition, we also assess how mobility and proximity, virtual communication and co‐presence impact on geographically dispersed networks and why some long distance relationships endure while others fade over time. By bringing together classic literature on professional networking and wider discussions on how relationships are managed across time and space, our work contributes to a fuller understanding of why and how highly skilled migrants form networks with particular characteristics.
    October 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12038   open full text
  • Exploring the joint dynamics of intercity internet and corporate networks: a stochastic actor‐based modelling approach.
    Xingjian Liu.
    Global Networks. October 18, 2013
    In this article, I show one possible solution to synthesis dynamics in multiple intercity networks. I adopt a stochastic actor‐based modelling approach to explore the co‐evolution of an intercity corporate network of 57 globalized advanced producer service firms across 93 cities, and another intercity internet network between these 93 cities, for the period 2004–2010. Stochastic actor‐based models (SABMs) help to connect interactions among cities and firms on the local scale with empirically observed networks on the global scale. My analysis accounts for the co‐evolution/interdependence among multiple world city networks (WCNs) and associated network changes in individual WCNs with exogenous city‐related covariates and endogenous local network structures.
    October 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12039   open full text
  • How social media transform migrant networks and facilitate migration.
    Rianne Dekker, Godfried Engbersen.
    Global Networks. October 18, 2013
    We argue that social media are not only new communication channels in migration networks, but also that they actively transform the nature of these networks and thereby facilitate migration. Despite some limitations, which stem from the ‘digital divide’ and the lower trustworthiness of virtual ties, qualitative data reveal four relevant ways in which social media facilitate international migration. First, they enhance the possibilities of maintaining strong ties with family and friends. Second, they address weak ties that are relevant to organizing the process of migration and integration. Third, they establish a new infrastructure consisting of latent ties. Fourth, they offer a rich source of insider knowledge on migration that is discrete and unofficial. This makes potential migrants ‘streetwise’ when undertaking migration. Based on these empirical findings we conclude that social media are transforming migration networks and thereby lowering the threshold for migration.
    October 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12040   open full text
  • Navigating return: the gendered geographies of skilled return migration to Ghana.
    Madeleine Wong.
    Global Networks. October 18, 2013
    In this article, I extend the literature on return migration by exploring the gendered mechanisms of return for highly skilled Ghanaian migrants. Drawing on interviews with Ghanaian women and men who returned in their prime productive years, I examine their decision‐making, the strategies they implement and the challenges they negotiate in the process. While the decision to return was straightforward, the actual processes circumscribing it contained tensions and compromises that involved renegotiations of gender identities, roles and norms, which themselves intersected with class differences. The empirical analyses emphasize how skilled migrants capitalize on their class status, social networks and transnational activities as means not only to return but also, for some, to mitigate the impacts of separation for themselves and their families as they seek to accomplish specific goals.
    October 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12041   open full text
  • Transnational lifestyles among Russian Israelis: a follow‐up study.
    Larissa Remennick.
    Global Networks. September 05, 2013
    Despite the expanding use of the transnational perspective, grounded qualitative research on everyday expressions of transnationalism has been scant. In this article, I explore the economic and social ties with former homelands among three categories of former Soviet immigrants of the 1990s in Israel, namely ethnically mixed families split by emigration; young professionals and entrepreneurs; and retirees who keep two homes – one in Israel and the other in Russia or Ukraine. To follow temporal changes in transnational lifestyles, I interviewed the same informants twice, in 2000 and 2010. The findings suggest that transnational activities reflect life‐course changes and can evolve in several possible directions. These are (1) an attrition of ties with former homelands with increasing integration in the host country; (2) a steady or ascending pace of transnational activities eventually leading to return migration; and (3) permanent low‐grade ties with former homelands and networking with co‐ethnics in other countries of the post‐Soviet diaspora. I conclude that relatively few migrants can sustain intense transnational lifestyle over many years; there are several critical life‐course points when most transnational migrants have to decide where their home is.
    September 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12033   open full text
  • Between two families: the social meaning of remittances for Vietnamese marriage migrants in Singapore.
    Brenda S. A. Yeoh, Chee Heng Leng, Vu Thi Kieu Dung, Cheng Yi'en.
    Global Networks. September 05, 2013
    Scholars who have applied transnational perspectives to studies of migration and remittances have called for a move beyond the developmentalist approach to accommodate an expanded understanding of the social meanings of remittances. Researchers working in Asia have begun to view the remittances of money, gifts and services that labour migrants send to their families as transnational ‘acts of recognition’, as an enactment of gendered roles and identities, and as a component of the social practices that create the ties that bind migrants to their ‘home’ countries. In this article, we depart from the more common focus on remittance behaviour among labour migrants and turn instead to examine how, as marriage migrants, Vietnamese women generate and confer meaning on the remittances they send. First, from the women's viewpoint, we discuss the extent to which expectations vested in being able to generate remittances for the natal family by marrying a Singaporean man not only translate into motivation for marriage migration but also shape the parameters of the marriage. Second, we show how sending remittances are significant to the women as ‘acts of recognition’ in the construction of gendered identities as filial daughters, and, through the ‘connecting’ and ‘disconnecting’ power of remittances, in the reimagining of the transnational family. Third, we discuss the strategies that women devise in negotiating between the conflicting demands and expectations of their natal and marital families and in securing their ‘place’ between two families. We base our findings on an analysis of interviews and ethnographic work with Vietnamese women and their Singaporean husbands through commercial matchmaking agencies.
    September 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12032   open full text
  • Situating transnational families' care‐giving arrangements: the role of institutional contexts.
    Majella Kilkey, Laura Merla.
    Global Networks. September 05, 2013
    Scholars sometimes conceptualize migrants and their kin as ‘transnational families' in acknowledgement that migration does not end with settlement and that migrants maintain regular contacts and exchange care across borders. Recent studies reveal that state policies and international regulations influence the maintenance of transnational family solidarity. We aim to contribute to our understanding of how families' care‐giving arrangements are situated within institutional contexts. We specify an analytical framework comprising a typology of care‐giving arrangements within transnational families, a typology of resources they require for care giving, and a specification of institutions through which those resources are in part derived. We illustrate the framework through a comparative analysis of two groups of migrants – Salvadorans in Belgium and Poles in the UK. We conclude by arguing that while institutions matter they are not the sole factor, and identify how future research might develop a more fully comprehensive situated transnationalism.
    September 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12034   open full text
  • Strategic coupling as capacity: how seaports connect to global flows of containerized transport.
    Wouter Jacobs, Arnoud Lagendijk.
    Global Networks. September 05, 2013
    Strategic coupling refers to the process of matching local assets with global network demands. Although the concept has benefited from an increase in relational thinking, several critical issues remain unresolved. In this article, we identify and discuss three such issues – the characteristics of the entities involved in strategic coupling, the way in which the ‘local’ is conceptualized in the context of ‘global’ positioning, and the understanding of strategic action. To address these issues, we use Cox's notion of ‘spaces of dependence and engagement’ in combination with Ball's concept of the ‘structure of provision’. The case of the port of Rotterdam demonstrates the value of our perspective in elucidating the process of ‘strategic coupling’ within global networks of containerized traffic.
    September 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12035   open full text
  • How manufacturing industries connect cities across the world: extending research on ‘multiple globalizations’.
    Stefan KrÄtke.
    Global Networks. September 05, 2013
    In this article, I concentrate on a macro‐level analysis of inter‐urban linkages in a ‘world city network’. Empirical research on the formation of a world city network has mostly concentrated on global service providers. Yet, globally operating manufacturing firms also choose distinct urban regions throughout the world as locational anchoring points. In this article, using social network analysis, I present the first global‐scale analysis of how manufacturing firms connected cities across the world (in 2010). To detect the differing ‘sectoral profiles’ and nodal centralities of cities functioning as geographical hubs of transnational production networks, it is necessary to analyse the network structure of distinct industrial subsectors within the global urban system. The data collected for analysis cover 120 top global firms from three manufacturing subsectors, of which two are analysed in more detail than the third. I then compare the nodal centralities of cities included in these subsectors' global networks with the GaWC research on the producer services sector that has been at the centre of previous analyses of the world city network. The comparison reveals the cities' differing positioning within ‘multiple globalizations’. The aim of the article is to extend research on world city networks.
    September 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12036   open full text
  • Evidence of a transnational capitalist class‐for‐itself: the determinants of PAC activity among foreign firms in the Global Fortune 500, 2000–2006.
    Joshua Murray.
    Global Networks. September 05, 2013
    Transnational capitalist class (TCC) theory is rooted in the claim that the globalization of the economy has led to a globalization of economic interests and of class formation. However, systematic evidence linking the indicators of transnational class formation with political behaviour is largely missing. In this article, I combine data on board of director interlocks among the 500 largest business firms in the world between 2000 and 2006 with data on the political donations to US elections of foreign corporations via the corporate political action committees (PACs) of their subsidiaries, divisions or affiliates. Controlling for the various interests of individual firms, I find that foreign firms that are highly central in the transnational intercorporate network contribute more money to US elections than do the less central foreign firms. Given prior research on board of director interlocks, this finding suggests that a segment of the transnational business community has emerged as a class‐for‐itself.
    September 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12037   open full text
  • Democracy or autonomy? Indymedia and the contradictions of global social movement networks.
    Todd Wolfson.
    Global Networks. June 03, 2013
    In this article, I examine the indymedia movement as exemplar of a transnational network where the dynamics of democracy and local autonomy come into tension. Indymedia was launched during the World Trade Organization protests in Seattle in 1999. Since 1999, indymedia has mushroomed into a transnational social movement based network. Through the lens of indymedia's networked structure, I examine the tension between participatory decision‐making and local autonomy. In specific I look at the decision of the global indymedia network to reject a large grant from the Ford Foundation because of Ford's history in the Argentine dirty wars. The heated episode, which almost forced the growing network to shut down, brings to the fore the complex contradictions of local autonomy and shared decision‐making in the age of networks. Moreover, this episode and indymedia in general, brings to light the inability of decentralized networks to build proactive power, highlighting the disorganizing and at times debilitating logic of contemporary social movements.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12030   open full text
  • Worlds to endure: weathering disorder from Arnhem Land to Chicago.
    Jeremy Walker.
    Global Networks. June 03, 2013
    In this article I consider the cosmopolitical enfolding of Western and indigenous ontologies of order and disorder implicit in the production of a ‘carbon offset’ by the West Arnhem Land Fire Abatement (WALFA) project. The resumption in Arnhem Land of broad‐scale land management by indigenous fire ecologists and its reframing as ‘carbon farming’ is contextualized within an historical analysis of the distinctions made between ‘magical thinking’ and ‘rational’ notions of agency, causality and cosmic order. I move from the account of Australian totemism in classical anthropology, through cold war climatology, to the theories of rational expectations that support contemporary carbon trading. Examining the entangling of Aboriginal and late‐modern pyrotechnical orders, I contrast ubietous (place‐oriented) ontologies of land, law and cosmic order with their Western counterparts in sovereignty, land law and finance theory. Arguing that the elder Australians possessed a philosophically coherent political economy grounded in detailed earth sciences and topological networks of economic practices, I reverse the anthropological mirror back upon the economic doctrines of the neoliberal era, which advocate the reimposition of order on the wild climate by means of a comprehensive financialization.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12029   open full text
  • ‘Disorderly conduct’: on the unruly rules of public communication in social network sites.
    Elke Wagner, Martin Stempfhuber.
    Global Networks. June 03, 2013
    In this article, we examine typical styles and practices of public communication on social network sites (SNSs) in order to confront the traditional concept of publics as machines for creating order. Through an ethnographic case study of the SNS Facebook, we show how indeterminacy, ambiguity and constant irritation, rather than arguments or reason, produce the communicative order. A decidedly disorderly style of communication and connectivity emerges. Indeterminacy, from our point of view, is a solution to the problem of speaking privately in public and to an indefinite audience. We use these findings to problematize the insights of network theory and Niklas Luhmann's systems theory that only out of noise can we generate order – we can also generate it through noise. Since order undermines itself through the creation of ambiguous communicative possibilities, a new kind of public sphere is created.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12028   open full text
  • Second Italy: distance education in a Second‐Life international studies project.
    Ilaria Vanni.
    Global Networks. June 03, 2013
    Reflecting on recent literature on digital literacies, I consider the use of the virtual world Second Life in distance education. To do so, I draw on theories of learning that accommodate elements of instability and uncertainty. Tacit learning is the process of acquiring knowledge from interaction and experience, or mess and play growing out of interactive and networked processes, as opposed to understanding teaching as passing knowledge down. I explore these points through a case study, Isola del Giglio, which is a learning site built in Second Life as part of a double degree in international studies at the University of Technology, Sydney. In the article, I describe the students' learning experiences during their exchange year in Italy and the in‐world learning experience in Second Life.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12027   open full text
  • Humanitarian collective security: restoring order?
    James Goodman.
    Global Networks. June 03, 2013
    In 2005, the United Nations reinterpreted its charter to facilitate humanitarian intervention, defining military action to prevent serious human rights abuses as a legitimate means of maintaining international peace and security. Under circumstances of ‘genocide, ethnic cleansing and other such crimes against humanity’, states have a ‘responsibility to protect’ the victims and, if required, to use military means to do so. This new state responsibility is a response to new asymmetries in the exercise of sovereign power worldwide. In theory, it imposes new conditions on the exercise of state sovereignty that extend the principle of collective security beyond states to include all people. In practice, it gives those with the capacity to intervene, namely the dominant powers, the responsibility to intervene in the affairs of weaker ‘failing’ states. In this article, I use official texts to explore this new humanitarian collective security. Drawing on a range of accounts, including the Australian experience of intervention in East Timor, I argue that the grounds for humanitarian intervention lie as much in the defence of order as in the pursuit of justice. Dominant states assert their shared vulnerability and justify intervention as pre‐empting presumed threats; they thus recruit humanitarianism for state security. Humanitarianism, however, is not so easily contained. As military practice collides with normative rhetoric, deep contradictions emerge between order and justice. Normative claims implode and spill over, feeding alternative humanitarianisms founded on mutuality and solidarity. The disordering order–justice dialectic can thereby prefigure reorderings beyond hegemonism.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12026   open full text
  • Nonlinear causality in Castells's network society: disorder as problem and opportunity under globalization.
    Bob Hodge.
    Global Networks. June 03, 2013
    In this article I consider Castells's network society trilogy as a key site for examining claims that globalization today is driven by a new paradigm, in which networks and digital technologies play a decisive role in producing revolutionary new forms of economics, politics, culture and society. To theorize this change I draw on a rich, explicit account of non‐linear causal processes found in far‐from‐equilibrium cybernetics, foregrounding the all‐pervasive, constitutive phenomenon of disorder, coming from below as well as above through a multiplicity of networks, old and new, digital and non‐digital.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12025   open full text
  • The tangled hydra: developments in transglobal peer‐to‐peer culture.
    Francesca Da Rimini.
    Global Networks. June 03, 2013
    Internet‐enabled file sharing via peer‐to‐peer (P2P) systems is a transglobal activity involving millions of people circulating vast amounts of information. ‘Anonymous peers’ exchange data via autonomous networks that are simultaneously external to, and embedded within, market structures. A transnational alliance of technology and media industries and governments employs technological barriers, legal instruments and, belatedly, commercial alternatives to constrain the phenomenon. Such ‘digital enclosures’ trigger productive rebellious acts by programmers, intellectual property activists and file sharers inhabiting overlapping informal networks. Escalating cycles of retaliation and resistance spawn further disorder in the informational domain. The period 2009–12 has been a watershed for technological trends, landmark legal battles and supranational treaties. However, scant attention is paid to how ‘digital piracy’ disturbs the logic of capital by instituting material practices that tolerate contradictory positions on free culture and electronic freedom, creating new contexts for social experimentation and recomposition.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12024   open full text
  • The information society: permanent crisis through the (dis)ordering of networks.
    Jonathan Paul Marshall.
    Global Networks. June 03, 2013
    People often assume that computerized networks are relatively stable and well connected. This implies that the network society, or information society, is also relatively stable, well ordered and adaptive. However, computer software and networks repeatedly fail or prove inadequate, so we cannot assume that network society is stable. Similarly, misinformation is as expected and socially important as information. By taking this disorder seriously, it becomes possible to observe data that paradigms that primarily seek order exclude and to reveal some of the fundamental paradoxes of the information society that simultaneously both undermine and establish that society. By means of these informational paradoxes, I consider and elucidate some network and software failures from January 2011.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12023   open full text
  • Disordering network theory: an introduction.
    Jonathan Paul Marshall, James Goodman.
    Global Networks. June 03, 2013
    Whereas theories of the information society/network society tend to regard networks as generally resilient and adaptable, the articles in this special issue treat disorder as inherently important in social theory and in the analysis of networks. By taking disorder seriously, the contributors recognize that it is something more than a correctable failure or a symptom of decay. This introduction makes five main claims about disorder. First, ordering networks can contain and generate their oppositions and produce what some of those within those networks call disorder. Second, networks of commodification, survival and the making of culture come into conflict. Third, information is necessarily distorted, or blocked, in information capitalism. Fourth, networks are sometimes functional precisely because they are unstable and ambiguous. And, fifth, disorder can be creative and indeed may offer hope of an escape from fatal ordering, but perhaps not into a new order.
    June 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12022   open full text
  • Gender, labour and the law: the nexus of domestic work, human trafficking and the informal economy in the United Arab Emirates.
    Pardis Mahdavi.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    Based on ethnographic fieldwork with female migrants in the United Arab Emirates, the focus of this article is on the confluence of human trafficking discourses, gendered migration, domestic work and sex work in the UAE. I explore three main findings. First, domestic work and sex work are not mutually exclusive. Second, women choose to enter sex work in preference to domestic work because of poor working conditions in the latter. Third, global policies on human trafficking that seek to restrict female migration have inspired female migrants in the Gulf in search of higher wages and increased autonomy to look for employment in the informal economy. Employing a theoretical lens that emphasizes structural violence, the article chronicles the individual and macro social factors structuring the transition of female migrants from the formal economy of domestic and care work into the informal economy of sex work.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12010   open full text
  • Voluntary standards, expert knowledge and the governance of sustainability networks.
    Stefano Ponte, Emmanuelle Cheyns.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    Products certified according to their environmental and social sustainability are becoming an important feature of production, trade and consumption in the agro‐food sector. ‘Sustainability networks’ are behind the emergence and growth of these new product forms, often evolving into multi‐stakeholder initiatives that establish and manage base codes, standards, certifications and labels. As sustainability moves into the mainstream, understanding the governance of these networks is essential because they partly reshape the structure and characteristics of commodity flows. In this article, we examine the role of expert knowledge and process management in governing two multi‐stakeholder initiatives (the Marine Stewardship Council and the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil) and in shaping their distributional effects. We find that the ability of developing countries, especially small‐scale actors within them, to shape standard setting and management to their advantage depends not only on overcoming important structural differences in endowments and access to resources, but also on more subtle games. These include promoting the enrolment of one expert group or kind of expert knowledge over another, using specific formats of negotiation, and legitimating particular modes of engagement over others.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12011   open full text
  • International mobility of professional knowledge from the Global South: Indian IT workers in the Netherlands.
    Jack Burgers, Giorgio Touburg.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    Although there are many studies on both expatriates and the phenomenon of brain drain, there are few on those professionals who move from a less to a more advanced economy through a transfer from one division of a transnational corporation to another. In a study of Indian IT professionals employed by the Dutch division of the producer‐service company Capgemini, we assessed the reasons for their recruitment and the type of professional knowledge they bring to the job. Our main findings are that the international mobility of Indian professionals is not just a matter of reducing labour costs and that, though some Indian IT professionals engage in routine programming activities, others are involved in activities that require tacit forms of knowledge. This applies to those who link the Dutch and Indian offices of Capgemini and to those who acquire assignments operating in the epistemic community of the international business milieu.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12012   open full text
  • Forced transnationalism: transnational coping strategies and gendered stigma among Jamaican deportees.
    Tanya Golash‐Boza.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    Once forcibly returned to their countries of citizenship, how and why do deportees engage in transnational relationships? Through analyses of 37 interviews with Jamaican deportees, I approach the question of why deportees engage in transnational practices and reveal that deportees use transnational ties as coping strategies to deal with financial and emotional hardship. This reliance on transnational ties, however, has two consequences: (1) male deportees who rely on transnational strategies to survive face a gendered stigma because they must relinquish the provider role and become dependants; and (2) the transnational coping strategies serve as a reminder of the shame, isolation and alienation that deportees experience because of their deportation. This consideration of the consequences of transnational relationships sheds light on why some migrants are transnational and others are not.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12013   open full text
  • Transnational youth transitions: becoming adults between Vancouver and Hong Kong.
    Justin K. H. Tse, Johanna L. Waters.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    In the context of the academic interest shown in the enduring transnationalism of contemporary migrants and in the modes of transitions to adulthood in different global settings, in this article we examine the transnational lives of adolescents moving between Vancouver (Canada) and Hong Kong. While there is a lot of literature on the parents' political and economic calculations, there is very little on how adolescents in these situations articulate their geographical sensibilities. We draw on three periods of fieldwork undertaken in 2002, 2008 and 2010 during which we employed a transnational methodology to interview young people in Vancouver and Hong Kong. We argue that becoming an adult involves a process in which, in their discussions about the geographical and emotional distance between themselves and their families, young people articulate their own complex emotions towards specific places in their transnational social field. Their families sporadically interrupt the adolescents' otherwise independent lives with fragmented modes of supervision. By examining the complex intentions and emotions behind circular migration from the perspective of transnational youth in a community of split families, we advance the discussion on transnational geographies, particularly of the family in the context of a flexible global economy.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12014   open full text
  • Visits to the country of origin: how second‐generation British Pakistanis shape transnational identity and maintain power asymmetries.
    Marta Bolognani.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    In this article, I identify the need for more nuanced approaches to transnational emotional attachment, especially with regard to the second generation. Interviewing second‐generation British Pakistanis while on their holidays in Pakistan and comparing the findings with data collected in the UK provides a more realistic exploration of the phenomenon than would have been possible with only narratives collected before and after the trips. In contrast to current utopian views of egalitarian transnationalism negotiated at a personal level, known in the literature as transnationalism from below, I argue that the visits of second‐generation British Pakistanis perpetuate global power asymmetries. Furthermore, such visits may help British Pakistanis redefine their identity in relation to Pakistan, the UK and Islam, thus contributing to the formation of a new transnational identity. In the conclusion, I suggest that leisure visits can still carry the potential for important political and economic relations for Pakistan in times of need.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12015   open full text
  • Understanding the position of end nodes in the world city network: using peer city analysis to differentiate between non‐hub cities.
    Ulrich Mans.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    In the current debate on the world city network and inter‐city connectivity, a large number of cities, particularly in developing countries, have received limited attention. Despite a growing interest in emerging market cities, many scholars still focus on the more affluent parts of the global economy. In an attempt to redress this imbalance, I present an assessment for use on cities that are not at the centre of the network; but what we consider ‘end nodes’. I build my argument on Taylor's interlocking model for assessing city connectivity and zoom in on the types of networks that non‐hub cities create through their inter‐linkages with so‐called peer cities in the same economic sector. I take these ego networks as a starting point and then lead the argument on to view city networks from a non‐hub perspective. This allows me to identify the existing linkages between different peer cities within as well as between selected city networks. The renewable energy business in India puts this argument to an empirical test. My findings confirm that this way of looking at city connectivity allows one to assess specifically for city end nodes and thereby contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the world city network.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12016   open full text
  • Memoir/manuals of South Korean pre‐college study abroad: defending mothers and humanizing children.
    Nancy Abelmann, Jiyeon Kang.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    In this article, we analyse the memoir/manuals of three ‘goose’ families. These are South Koreans whose children participate in pre‐college study abroad (PSA). One parent (typically the mother) accompanies the child while the other (usually the father) remains at home to support the venture. Although many South Koreans aspire to study abroad, both the mothers and children of goose families have attracted wide criticism – the mothers for being narrowly instrumental and too family centred, worried only about social reproduction and mobility and the children for forsaking their nation, foregoing their filial duties and, perhaps, failing abroad. These memoir/manuals defend the goose mother and protect the PSA child against such charges. As memoirs, they depict remarkable people worthy of documentation. As manuals, they offer (at least some) guidance for mothers and families contemplating this particular family strategy. The memoir/manuals open a window to the challenges and anxieties of PSA in South Korea today.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12017   open full text
  • The political transnationalism of Ecuadorians in Barcelona, Madrid and Milan: the role of individual resources, organizational engagement and the political context.
    Laura Morales, Katia Pilati.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    In this article, we examine the transnational political engagement of Ecuadorians in three European cities – Barcelona, Madrid and Milan. Drawing on previous studies that emphasize the role of organizational and institutional resources for political mobilization (as well as those that take into consideration respondents’ resources and the migration process), we analyse the results of a survey conducted between 2006 and 2008 on approximately 300 Ecuadorian individuals in each of these three cities. We examine two different dimensions of Ecuadorian political transnationalism at the individual level, namely attitudinal and participatory. Contrary to previous findings, our results show that recently arrived Ecuadorians and those with less stable household conditions are more involved in transnational politics. Associational involvement shows multiple effects. Engagement in Ecuadorian associations fosters political interest in and information about Ecuador, whereas involvement in any organization promotes electoral transnational politics. The political context is only relevant when accounting for participation in Ecuadorian elections.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12018   open full text
  • Online methodological appendix.
    Laura Morales, Katia Pilati.
    Global Networks. February 12, 2013
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    February 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12019   open full text
  • The democratic deficit of transnational environmental activism: a case study of e‐waste governance in India.
    Thomas Swerts.
    Global Networks. February 05, 2013
    The literature on transnational activism often associates environmental NGOs with democratic legitimacy, grassroots representation and environmental justice. Authors employ case studies to demonstrate how engaging in transnational networks increases the political agency of environmental NGOs. Yet, there is a tendency mostly to select successful cases. In this article, I investigate the political activities of the environmental NGO, Toxics Link, surrounding the recycling of electronic waste in India. Based on qualitative research, this study shows how the political incorporation of Toxics Link in transnational advocacy networks and domestic governance networks constrains their political agency. The structural exclusion of e‐waste labourers from Indian policy negotiations negates the discursive claims of legitimacy, representation and justice. These incorporation processes create a democratic deficit. I use the insights gained from this case study to provide a critical assessment of theories of transnational environmental activism.
    February 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/glob.12009   open full text