MetaTOC stay on top of your field, easily


Impact factor: 2.43 5-Year impact factor: 2.936 Print ISSN: 0066-4812 Online ISSN: 1467-8330 Publisher: Wiley Blackwell (Blackwell Publishing)

Subject: Geography

Most recent papers:

  • Beyond the Right to the City: Territorial Autogestion and the Take over the City Movement in 1970s Italy.
    Neil Gray.
    Antipode. October 12, 2017
    The cry and demand for the Right to the City (RttC) risks becoming a cliché, merely signifying urban rebellion rather than proving its practical content on the ground. I explore the limits of the thesis via its fraught entanglement with private property rights and the state‐form; and through Lefebvre's radical critique of the state, political economy and rights elsewhere. Rights claims, I contend, unintentionally reify the uneven power relations they aim to overcome, while routinely cauterising the hard‐fought collective social force that forces social gains. As a counter to the RttC thesis, I explore the autonomous Take over the City (TotC) movements of 1970s Italy, arguing that these largely neglected eminently immanent forms of territorial community activism, brought here into dialogue with Lefebvre's conception of territorial autogestion, surpassed the RttC thesis in praxis. The experience of “Laboratory Italy” thus provides highly suggestive lessons for a contemporary politics of urban space.
    October 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12360   open full text
  • Mediterranean Movements and Constituent Political Spaces: An Interview With Sandro Mezzadra and Toni Negri.
    Glenda Garelli, Alessandra Sciurba, Martina Tazzioli.
    Antipode. October 06, 2017
    These conversations between Toni Negri and Sandro Mezzadra (November 2014–October 2015) focus on the politics of Mediterranean boundaries and situate migratory movements across the Mediterranean in the geopolitical context of the Eastern and Southern shore. Looking at the proliferation of wars around the Mediterranean region and reflecting on the legacy of the Arab Uprisings, Mezzadra and Negri revisit the concept of the “autonomy of migration” and critically interrogate its possible contribution to the field of migration and in terms of the current refugee crisis.
    October 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12346   open full text
  • “We will not perish; we’re going to keep flourishing”: Race, Food Access, and Geographies of Self‐Reliance.
    Ashanté M. Reese.
    Antipode. October 06, 2017
    Drawing from 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork in Washington, DC, this article outlines geographies of self‐reliance; a theoretical framework for understanding black food geographies that are embedded in histories of self‐reliance as a response to structural inequalities. Using a community garden as a case study, I argue that the garden functions as a site for addressing several manifestations of structural violence: racist and classist depictions of low‐income and working class people, joblessness, gentrification, and youth underdevelopment. Drawing on self‐reliance ideologies as well as collective and personal histories, the residents exhibit a form of agency that demonstrates unwavering hope in the sustainability of their shared community. Through this analysis, I show that self‐reliance functions as a mechanism through which residents navigate spatial inequalities.
    October 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12359   open full text
  • Environmentality on the Canadian Prairies: Settler‐Farmer Subjectivities and Agri‐Environmental Objects.
    Julia M.L. Laforge, Stéphane M. McLachlan.
    Antipode. October 06, 2017
    State and institutional actors have been shaping settler‐farmer subjectivities in order to transform the landscape and thus the history and geography of the Canadian Prairies. This paper expands the application of environmentality from its origins in colonial forestry to interrogate agriculture on prairie landscapes. The Canadian state used the technologies of environmentality to influence “common sense” attitudes and behaviours, which acted to deterritorialize Indigenous communities and then manipulated their subjectivities to guarantee settler‐farmer access to land. Later, institutions and states moulded settler‐farmer subjectivities of correct farming behaviour in an effort to convert soil, water, and seeds into economic resources. These environmental objects, in turn, acted upon settler‐farmer subjects by setting biophysical and genetic limits such as soil fertility, water quality and quantity, and plant hardiness and disease resistance. Resisting environmentality requires understanding processes of subjugation while also creating counter‐narratives of “good” farming behaviour and Indigenous‐settler relations.
    October 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12362   open full text
  • Space, Social Relations, and Contestation: Transformative Peacebuilding and World Social Forum Climate Spaces.
    Karen Buckley.
    Antipode. October 06, 2017
    The 2013 and 2015 World Social Forums in Tunis, Tunisia hosted thematic “climate spaces” for the first time. This article examines the extent to which these spaces are constitutive of a form of “transformative peacebuilding” aiming to transform social relations and eliminate the structural violence of the world capitalist economy. Both the theoretical and practical activities of civil society at the climate spaces are shown to be transformative but only to the extent that they contest broad processes of trasformismo which transcend differences and obscure the lived realities of governance and resistance. In this sense, civil society groups and movements at the climate spaces are shown to engage with global capitalism to potentially produce new global understanding and action. This generates new understandings of civil society as constitutive of directly resistant modes of social relation that push for radically different visions of climate justice and governance.
    October 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12361   open full text
  • Producing Victimhood: Landmines, Reparations, and Law in Colombia.
    Max Counter.
    Antipode. August 30, 2017
    This research theorizes Colombia's 2011 Victims’ and Land Restitution Law (the Victims’ Law) as a biopolitical program that intends to foster the lives of conflict‐affected populations through providing an array of reparation measures. Based on fieldwork with internally displaced landmine victims in Colombia's Magdalena Medio region, I highlight how the Victims’ Law constitutes the identity of which populations count as “victims” worthy of reparations, how such parameters are contested, and how landmine survivors’ sense of themselves as “victims” is mediated via their experiences with the Victims’ Law and the reparation programs it provides. In particular, I highlight the possibilities and limitations of reparation measures that hinge on small‐scale business incubation programs for landmine victims to show how a legally recognized victimhood category presupposes “self‐responsible” neoliberal subjects who must confront contexts of conflict and state neglect. Basado en el Magdalena Medio colombiano, esta investigación teoriza La Ley de Víctimas y Restitución de Tierras de 2011 cómo un programa biopolítico cuya propósito es cuidar y mejorar las vidas de ciudadanos afectados por el conflicto armado. Con un enfoque especial sobre víctimas de minas antipersonales desplazados en el Magdalena Medio, demuestro cómo la Ley de Víctimas determina cuales vidas se considera “víctimas”, cuales vidas no, y cómo las interacciones con la Ley de Víctimas afectan a sobrevivientes de minas y sus auto‐entendimientos cómo “víctimas”. Específicamente, destaco las posibilidades y limitaciones de los “proyectos productivos” contemplados por la Ley de Víctimas para demostrar que a pesar de unos beneficios materiales que ofrecen a víctimas de minas, no pueden enfrentar la totalidad del trauma que implica ser víctima del conflicto armado. Concluyo que proyectos productivos ponen un énfasis central sobre las víctimas cómo sujetos “responsables” en el sentido neoliberal, mientras que la responsabilidad del mismo estado a atender a la población afectado por el conflicto es muchas veces negado.
    August 30, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12358   open full text
  • Keep Burning Coal or the Manatee Gets It: Rendering the Carbon Economy Invisible through Endangered Species Protection.
    John Carr, Tema Milstein.
    Antipode. August 26, 2017
    As ever expanding accretions of human industrial and residential development pave over endangered Florida manatees’ warm water springs winter habitat, more than half of the manatees have come to depend upon fossil fuel‐burning power plant hot water effluent channels for survival. In an effort to save these manatees, environmental activists have leveraged the US Endangered Species Act to protect the effluent streams and, by extension, have enshrined the power plants themselves as ecological saviors. This study interrogates the paradoxes within the resulting spatio‐legal regime. Recognizing the problematic human/nature binary at the heart of dominant Western practices, our study suggests spatial and legal regimes do not simply reify and reproduce this binary but also produce invisible ecocultural spaces that are essential to prop up an inherently unstable, illusory, and ultimately destructive definition of human existence.
    August 26, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12355   open full text
  • “Our Tarkine, Our Future”: The Australian Workers Union Use of Narratives Around Place and Community in West and North West Tasmania, Australia.
    Ruth Barton.
    Antipode. August 25, 2017
    The Australian Workers Union (AWU) represents the miners on the West Coast of Tasmania. When the future of mining on much of the West Coast was threatened by the environmentalists' proposed National Heritage listing of the Tarkine region, the union campaigned to prevent the listing. Through its embeddedness in place, the AWU was able to use a sense of place, memory and identity to construct a community campaign that moved beyond the West Coast into the North West Coast where many of the miners lived. The union was able to renew its narrative resources by moving work out of the workplace and into the Tarkine. In this way the AWU was able to mobilise community support and shift political power to the local where workers could regain control over their lives and the place where they lived and worked.
    August 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12353   open full text
  • The Abstraction of Care: What Work Counts?
    Caitlin Henry.
    Antipode. August 25, 2017
    Nurses provide essential health care labor, but their work, a mix of caregiving and clinical expertise, is often undervalued and unacknowledged by health care administrators and the policies and practices that govern health care more broadly. Based on interviews with nurses working in the New York metropolitan area and through pairing feminist political economy with literature on abstraction and politics of the possible, I show that the ways in which nurses’ work is measured creates a value hierarchy of tasks. Examining various tools of measurement, I argue that methods for measuring work are rooted in an historical and continuous hierarchy of what counts as work and what has value. For nurses, these processes obscure the essential care work they perform. I argue that bringing an explicit politics of social reproduction to the politics of measuring and accounting for work makes visible necessary and often‐obscured tasks, spaces, and social relations.
    August 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12354   open full text
  • Mediterranean Struggles for Movement and the European Government of Bodies: An Interview with Étienne Balibar and Nicholas De Genova.
    Glenda Garelli, Alessandra Sciurba, Martina Tazzioli.
    Antipode. August 17, 2017
    The conversation between Étienne Balibar and Nicholas De Genova engages with the Mediterranean of migration as a multifaceted, productive, and contested space, which can represent a counterpoint to a deep‐rooted Eurocentric imaginary. Looking at the Mediterranean as a space produced by the mobility of the bodies crossing it and by the combination of different struggles, Balibar and De Genova comment on some of the political movements that have taken center stage in the Mediterranean region in the past few years and suggest that the most important challenge today is to mobilize a “Mediterranean point of view” whereby the political borders of Europe and its self‐centered referentiality can be challenged.
    August 17, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12347   open full text
  • Militarized Capitalism? The Apparel Industry's Role in Scripting a Post‐War National Identity in Sri Lanka.
    Kanchana N. Ruwanpura.
    Antipode. August 09, 2017
    This paper examines new garment factories in the former war zone of North and East Sri Lanka. This paper elucidates the role of the state–military–capital nexus in the Sri Lankan government's efforts to rebuild the nation following a longstanding ethnic war, a post‐war development strategy that has emphasized investment and job creation. Drawing on fieldwork with numerous managers and more in‐depth exploration in one such garment factory, the paper shows how garment industry managers deployed a Sinhala‐Buddhist management ethos to produce an unmarked class of modern workers and, in doing so, played an active role in re‐scripting narratives of the nation. Therefore, we argue that capital is imbricated in the government's militarized nation‐building efforts, and we call for more attention to how the industrial capital–military–state nexus may be shaping and re‐producing power relations in the North and East of Sri Lanka.
    August 09, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12357   open full text
  • Introduction: Italians Do It Better? The Occupation of Spaces for Radical Struggles in Italy.
    Pierpaolo Mudu.
    Antipode. July 20, 2017
    Italy could be considered a social laboratory in relation to radical theories, practices, struggles and radical political conditions. It is worth exploring what kind of laboratory Italy is and investigating some of the features of current struggles that challenge neoliberalism and the revival of fascism. One way to grasp the specificity of the Italian context is by considering an inherent set of social conflicts that take the form of multidimensional challenges, embracing social, cultural, economic and decision‐making dimensions. Put succinctly, a prefigurative politics is the lens suggested to interpret the experience of squatting and commoning, which are the fundamental attributes of many related struggles over housing and Social Centers and environmental protection.
    July 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12349   open full text
  • Communal Performativity—A Seed for Change? The Solidarity of Thessaloniki's Social Movements in the Diverse Fights Against Neoliberalism.
    Lavinia Steinfort, Bas Hendrikx, Roos Pijpers.
    Antipode. July 20, 2017
    The debate on the financial crisis is at an impasse. Neoliberal austerity discourse is often positioned as an almost insurmountable barrier, its disciplinary power affecting even the most change‐oriented citizen‐initiatives existing today. Countering this, this paper highlights the transformative capacity of social movements in Thessaloniki. Drawing from Butler, Laclau and Mouffe, and Gibson‐Graham we develop the notion of “communal performativity” both as an academic and as a practical concept to understand and build trajectories of socio‐economic change. “Communal” denotes the drive of the movements’ participants to interconnect and (re)negotiate with a multiplicity of Others, curbing identity politics to articulate internal differences and Otherness. We see some hopeful signs of bridges being built towards shared trajectories of change that can be understood as different but concrete variations on the abstract counter‐narrative of “breaking with neoliberalism”. Some of these variations challenge, others diversify neoliberal discourses and practices. Ο δημόσιος διάλογος για την οικονομική κρίση είναι σε αδιέξοδο. Η συζήτηση περί νεοφιλελεύθερης λιτότητας συχνά τοποθετείται ως ένα σχεδόν ανυπέρβλητο εμπόδιο, του οποίου η πειθαρχική εξουσία (disciplinary power) επιδρά ακόμα και στις πιο προσδιορισμένες‐στην‐αλλαγή πρωτοβουλίες πολιτών που υπάρχουν σήμερα. Καταπολεμώντας αυτό, το παρόν άρθρο υπογραμμίζει την μεταμορφωτική ικανότητα των κοινωνικών κινημάτων στην Θεσσαλονίκη. Αντλώντας από τους Butler, Laclau και Mouffe και Gibson‐Graham, αναπτύσσουμε την έννοια της ‘κοινοτικής επιτελεστικότητας’ (communal performativity), τόσο ως ακαδημαϊκή όσο και ως πρακτική έννοια να καταλάβουμε και να κτίσουμε διαδρομές κοινωνικο‐οικονομικής αλλαγής. Ο όρος ‘κοινοτική’ υποδηλώνει την προτροπή των συμμετεχόντων στα κινήματα να διασυνδέονται και να (επανα‐)διαπραγματεύονται με την πληθώρα των Άλλων, ελίσσοντας έτσι την πολιτική περί ταυτότητας (identity politics) να αρθρώσει τις εσωτερικές διαφορές και την Διαφορετικότητα. Παρατηρούμε κάποια ελπιδοφόρα σημάδια όπως να κτίζονται γέφυρες προς την κατεύθυνση κοινών διαδρομών αλλαγής, οι οποίες μπορούν να νοηθούν ως διαφορετικές αλλά συγκεκριμένες παραλλαγές του αφηρημένου αντι‐αφηγήματος ‘διαλύωντας τον νεο‐φιλελευθερισμό’. Κάποιες από αυτές τις παραλλαγές δοκιμάζουν, άλλες διαφοροποιούν τις νεοφιλελεύθερες συζητήσεις και πρακτικές.
    July 20, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12351   open full text
  • Hijacking the Narrative: The First World Forum on Natural Capital, #natcap13, and Radical Dissent.
    Brett S. Matulis, Jessica R. Moyer.
    Antipode. July 05, 2017
    The first World Forum on Natural Capital (WFNC) was an important moment in the production of “valued” nature. It brought together bankers, CEOs, and business elites to promote financialized environmental accounting as a solution to ecosystem degradation. Anti‐capitalist activists, however, opposed the further intrusion of economic logic to environmental decision‐making and resisted its progression. While WFNC organizers were able to advance the concept of “natural capital” through traditional (print and web 1.0) media, they struggled to control the social media narrative. Digital activists were able to challenge the official narrative on Twitter and compel organizers to address the associated social and environmental justice concerns. As such, social media produced the conditions for both abstracting nature into value‐bearing commodities and, simultaneously, resisting such abstraction. Drawing on theories of counterpublic organization, public spheres of deliberation, and agonistic confrontation, this paper explores the discursive co‐production of nature in a new digitally mediated world.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12352   open full text
  • Dispossession and the Depletion of Social Reproduction.
    Bina Fernandez.
    Antipode. July 05, 2017
    Gender is largely under‐theorized in the now well‐developed literature on dispossession; this paper contributes to the analysis of the gender dimensions of dispossession by bringing the literature on dispossession into conversation with the feminist literature on social reproduction, specifically, depletion of social reproduction. Drawing on qualitative field research, the paper provides a gendered analysis of the multiple vectors of dispossession affecting the Miyana, a Muslim community living in the Little Rann of Kutch, an estuarine zone in central Gujarat within which prawn harvesting and salt production are their symbiotic seasonal livelihood activities. Using the concept of depletion as a diagnostic tool, I argue that the assessment of depletion due to dispossession requires investigation of the levels of mitigation, replenishment or transformation available to individuals, households and communities within the circuits of production and social reproduction.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12350   open full text
  • Human Rights Beyond Humanitarianism: The Radical Challenge to the Right to Asylum in the Mediterranean Zone.
    Alessandra Sciurba, Filippo Furri.
    Antipode. July 05, 2017
    This article argues for a new centrality of the right to asylum within the Mediterranean zone and the necessity to defend and implement this right beyond the “humanitarian regime”. The first section describes the ways in which humanitarianism's logic has weakened the right to asylum through the implementation of specific EU migration policies since 2013. The second section focuses on the distinction between such a humanitarian regime and the human rights system, assessing the possibility of and necessity for a renewed defense of human rights, starting with the right to asylum. The third section focuses on the Charter of Lampedusa, a radical, alternative normative instrument developed through a grassroots process which involved activists and migrant rights groups and which represents a concrete illustration of how the horizon of human rights might be redefined.
    July 05, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12348   open full text
  • Distinction and the Ethics of Violence: On the Legal Construction of Liminal Subjects and Spaces.
    Nicola Perugini, Neve Gordon.
    Antipode. July 01, 2017
    This paper interrogates the relationship among visibility, distinction, international humanitarian law and ethics in contemporary theatres of violence. After introducing the notions of “civilianization of armed conflict” and “battlespaces”, we briefly discuss the evisceration of one of international humanitarian law's axiomatic figures: the civilian. We show how liberal militaries have created an apparatus of distinction that expands that which is perceptible by subjecting big data to algorithmic analysis, combining the traditional humanist lens with a post‐humanist one. The apparatus functions before, during, and after the fray not only as an operational technology that directs the fighting or as a discursive mechanism responsible for producing the legal and ethical interpretation of hostilities, but also as a force that produces liminal subjects. Focusing on two legal figures—“enemies killed in action” and “human shields”—we show how the apparatus helps justify killing civilians and targeting civilian spaces during war.
    July 01, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12343   open full text
  • Amplifying Environmental Politics: Ocean Noise.
    Max Ritts.
    Antipode. June 28, 2017
    Scientific evidence suggests that rising levels of anthropogenic underwater sound (“ocean noise”) produced by industrial activities are causing a range of injuries to marine animals—in particular, whales. These developments have forced states and development proponents into acknowledging ocean noise as a threat to marine economic activity. This paper delivers a Gramsci‐inspired critique of the modernizations of ocean noise regulation being wrought by science, state and politics. Gramsci was acutely interested in the dynamic and social nature of scientific research, and his writings affirm science's powers and ambitions. At the same time, he was keen to observe how science participates in the process he called hegemony. Using examples drawn from Canada's West Coast, I suggest that capital is engaging ocean noise not only as a regulatory problem issuing from legal duties and legitimacy concerns, but opportunities linked to the commercialization of ocean science.
    June 28, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12341   open full text
  • The Student's Two Bodies: Civic Engagement and Political Becoming in the Post‐Socialist Space.
    Bojan Baća.
    Antipode. June 14, 2017
    Student activism in Montenegro has remained largely unaccounted for in the growing body of literature on civic engagement and popular politics in the post‐Yugoslav space. When students took their discontent to the streets of the Montenegrin capital in November 2011, the dual nature of the student body was rendered visible and audible: while the official student organizations framed their activity as an apolitical expression of discontent over studying conditions, several independent student associations positioned themselves as an extra‐parliamentary opposition to the ruling establishment and called for the creation of a wide anti‐austerity/anti‐corruption coalition. Drawing from critical theory, political sociology, and human geography, this article addresses the questions of why, how, when, and where a part of the student body became political. I argue that a social context that lacks a tradition of politically engaged student movements provides opportunities for a nuanced understanding of political becoming of a hitherto apolitical social group.
    June 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12338   open full text
  • The Urban Majority and Provisional Recompositions in Yangon.
    AbdouMaliq Simone.
    Antipode. June 14, 2017
    Yangon is a city where the now predominant modalities of urban transformation arrived late, and after a prolonged period of political repression. As the urban system has been “set loose” to articulate itself to a broader range of inputs and dispositions, many residents attempt to remake long‐honed yet fragile mechanisms of social interchange in provisional forms. This ethos and practice of provisionality emphasizes ensemble work aimed at recomposing the character of local district life in various locations across Yangon. Most importantly, it raises questions of how an urban majority—as a confluence of heterogeneous ways of life that has long been critical to making viable urban lives in the postcolony—have endured and can continue to endure in changing circumstances. The article draws from critical black thought as a means of generating heuristic concepts to explore the ways in which residents of several Yangon districts make productive use of the simultaneity of seemingly contradictory inclinations.
    June 14, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12344   open full text
  • Political Ecologies of Global Health: Pesticide Exposure in Southwestern Ecuador's Banana Industry.
    Ben Wesley Brisbois, Leila Harris, Jerry M. Spiegel.
    Antipode. June 13, 2017
    Pesticide exposure in Ecuador's banana industry reflects political economic and ecological processes that interact across scales to affect human health. We use this case study to illustrate opportunities for applying political ecology of health scholarship in the burgeoning field of global health. Drawing on an historical literature review and ethnographic data collected in Ecuador's El Oro province, we present three main areas where a political ecological approach can enrich global health scholarship: perceptive characterization of multi‐scalar and ecologically entangled pathways to health outcomes; critical analysis of discursive dynamics such as competing scalar narratives; and appreciation of the environment‐linked subjectivities and emotions of people experiencing globalized health impacts. Rapprochement between these fields may also provide political ecologists with access to valuable empirical data on health outcomes, venues for engaged scholarship, and opportunities to synthesize numerous insightful case studies and discern broader patterns. La exposición a agroquímicos en la industria bananera del Ecuador evidencia procesos de ecología y economía política interactuando en diferentes escalas y que terminan afectando a la salud humana. Este estudio de caso ilustra como la ecología política de la salud puede aportar al creciente campo de la salud global. A partir de una revisión histórica de literatura y de datos etnográficos recopilados en la provincia de El Oro, Ecuador, presentamos tres áreas principales donde la perspectiva de ecología política puede enriquecer el campo de la salud global: caracterización perspicaz de trayectorias multi‐escalares y ecológicamente relacionadas que afectan a la salud; valoración crítica de dinámicas discursivas tales como las narrativas escalares contrapuestas; y apreciación de subjetividades y emociones relacionadas con el ambiente entre personas que viven impactos de salud global. El acercamiento entre estos dos campos también puede proporcionar a los ecólogos políticos acceso a valiosos datos empíricos sobre salud, espacios para la praxis y oportunidades para sintetizar numerosos estudios de casos perspicaces para discernir patrones más amplios.
    June 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12340   open full text
  • Potemkin Revolution: Utopian Jungle Cities of 21st Century Socialism.
    Japhy Wilson, Manuel Bayón.
    Antipode. June 13, 2017
    This paper explores the entanglement of ideology and materiality in the production of the spaces of 21st century socialism. “Millennium Cities” are currently being constructed for indigenous communities throughout the Ecuadorian Amazon, with revenues derived from petroleum extracted within their territories. As iconic spatial symbols of the “Citizens’ Revolution”, the Millennium Cities would appear to embody “the original accumulation of 21st century socialism”—a utopian state ideology promising the collective appropriation of natural resources without the dispossession of the peasantry. Drawing on extensive field research, we argue that they are better understood as a simulation of urban modernity that is symptomatic of the predominance of ground rent in South American capitalism, and which conceals the violent repression of an autonomous indigenous project of petroleum‐based modernization. The original accumulation of 21st century socialism can therefore be interpreted as a “fantasy of origins”, which functions to reproduce the primitive accumulation of capital. Este artículo explora la relación entre ideología y materialidad en la producción de los espacios del socialismo del siglo veintiuno. Las “Ciudades del Milenio” están siendo construidas para las comunidades indígenas a lo largo de la Amazonía ecuatoriana, con las regalías procedentes del petróleo extraído en sus territorios. Como símbolos espaciales icónicos de la “Revolución Ciudadana”, las Ciudades del Milenio encarnan “la acumulación originaria del socialismo del siglo veintiuno”–una ideología utópica del estado que promete la apropiación colectiva de los recursos naturales sin la desposesión del campesinado. Mediante un extenso trabajo de campo, argumentamos que son entendidas mejor como una simulación de modernidad urbana, que es sintomática de la predominancia de la renta de la tierra en el capitalismo de Sudamérica, y que oculta la violenta represión de un proyecto indígena autónomo de modernización basada en el petróleo. Por ello, la acumulación originaria del socialismo del siglo veintiuno puede ser interpretada como una “fantasía de orígenes”, que funciona para reproducir la acumulación primitiva de capital.
    June 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12345   open full text
  • Intergenerational Inequality? Labour, Capital, and Housing Through the Ages.
    Brett Christophers.
    Antipode. June 12, 2017
    This article examines the relevance of generational relations to emerging patterns of inequality in advanced capitalist societies, with a particular focus on inequalities related to housing wealth. At its heart is a critique of the increasingly prevalent argument that generational difference is a crucial axis of inequality today. It argues that while contemporary capitalist societies are certainly characterized by marked inequalities between generations and that the latter are manifested inter alia in housing ownership, understanding such inequalities principally in generational terms is problematic because they reflect deeper, more fundamental, structural inequalities and should therefore be conceptualized as such. The article suggests that the principal significance of generational relations to contemporary inequality dynamics actually concerns economic transfers rather than differences between generations. Within‐family transfers of wealth, especially housing‐related wealth, from older generations to younger ones tend to reproduce pronounced, structurally generated existing patterns of intra‐generational inequality.
    June 12, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12339   open full text
  • Delocalization, Humanitarianism, and Human Rights: The Mediterranean Border Between Exclusion and Inclusion.
    Paolo Cuttitta.
    Antipode. June 10, 2017
    By reflecting on both the exclusionary and the inclusionary role of humanitarian migration and border management in the Central Mediterranean, this paper explores the relationship of humanitarianism with the delocalization of the EU border and with human rights. First, the paper analyses the role of human rights in the institutional humanitarian discourse about migration and border management at the Mediterranean EU border. The paper then analyses the Italian operation Mare Nostrum and, more generally, Italian humanitarianized border management in the Central Mediterranean. In doing this, it shows that humanitarianism contributes to the discursive legitimation and spatial delocalization of exclusionary policies and practices. Moreover, humanitarianism contributes to a symbolically and legally subordinate inclusion of migrants in the European space. While such humanitarian inclusion can be more inclusive than what human rights would require, it is posited as an act of grace rather than an enhancement of human rights. In both its exclusionary and inclusionary dimension, humanitarianism transcends and expands territorial boundaries by outsourcing responsibilities and enhancing delocalized border management.
    June 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12337   open full text
  • World Making, Critical Pedagogies, and the Geographical Imagination: Where Youth Work Meets Participatory Research.
    Luke Dickens.
    Antipode. June 10, 2017
    Renewed interest in the critical geographies of education has raised productive yet under‐examined synergies with reflections taking place among radical youth work and participatory research practitioners. In particular, such intersections point to important ways that the geographical imagination might advance a critical yet creative means of learning through the living material forces of everyday worlds. This paper examines this common ground through a collaborative, London‐based case study exploring young people's sense of home and belonging in the inner‐city. It argues that cross‐overs between the praxis of participatory research and youth work offer generative potential to act alongside young people in the production of autonomous geographical knowledges. Specifically, the case is made for prioritising an imaginative, experiential and intersubjective pedagogical process of “world making”, as an alternative to practices that intervene in, act upon and ultimately “other” the everyday lives of young people.
    June 10, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12342   open full text
  • A Hostile Takeover of Nature? Placing Value in Conservation Finance.
    Kelly Kay.
    Antipode. June 01, 2017
    Conservation finance is a nascent field that claims to “deliver maximum conservation impacts, while, at the same time, generating returns for investors” (Credit Suisse/WWF). While geographers have questioned the ability of conservation finance to play a significant role in international biodiversity conservation, an emerging cohort of boutique private equity firms are actively generating returns on North American conservation projects. This raises the question: how are these firms generating profits, and in turn, returns for their shareholders? Drawing from a Marxian understanding of finance as redistributive, I argue that these firms are generating profits through a process similar to a corporate hostile takeover. Using the examples of ranchland and timberland investment in the United States, I show that (1) the materialities and historical geographies of these landscapes play a crucial role their monetization, and (2) shareholder returns are generated through a combination of traditional real estate sales and revaluations, public monies, and commodity production.
    June 01, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12335   open full text
  • Building More Inclusive Solidarities for Socio‐Environmental Change: Lessons in Resistance from Southern Appalachia.
    Jennifer L. Rice, Brian J. Burke.
    Antipode. June 01, 2017
    It is increasingly recognized that socio‐environmental justice will not be achieved through liberal and cosmopolitical forms of activism alone. Instead, more diverse and inclusive solidarities must be achieved across political ideologies for transformative change. By engaging with one constituency often overlooked by mainstream environmentalists—rural, conservative Americans—we argue for a situated solidarity that can be forged among people whose views of nature, community, and politics differ significantly. This framework rejects totalizing expressions of global ambition that erase important place‐based differences. To explore this ethic, we examine a localized anti‐fracking campaign in western North Carolina to determine how place‐based forms of environmental resistance can be brought in closer connection with the cosmopolitical movement for climate and energy justice. This requires that cosmopolitical movements make room for more customary forms of cultural politics, while conservative movements look beyond their own place‐based struggles to resist mutually experienced forms of oppression. Es cada día más evidente que la justicia socioambiental no se logrará exclusivamente a través de formas de movilización liberales y cosmopolíticas. De lo contrario, el cambio transformativo requiere de solidaridades diversas e inclusivas que trascienden las ideologías políticas. Basado en nuestra colaboración‐investigación con una población sobrepasado por ambientalistas convencionales—estadounidenses rurales y conservadores—proponemos una “solidaridad localizada” que se puede forjar entre poblaciones con distintos conceptos de naturaleza, comunidad, y política. Este marco rechaza a las expresiones universalizadores que borran de las idiosincrasias producidas por arraigarse en un lugar. Para explorar dicha ética de solidaridad, investigamos una campaña contra el fracking (la fracturación hidráulica) en el oeste de Carolina del Norte, para así determinar como las formas localizadas de resistencia ambiental se pueden acercar a los movimientos cosmopolíticos para la justicia climática y de energía. Concluimos que este acercamiento require que los movimientos cosmopolíticos se abren a distintos costumbres y culturas políticas, mientras que los movimientos conservadores miran más allá de sus luchas locales para resistir opresiones comunes.
    June 01, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12336   open full text
  • “Where every breeze speaks of courage and liberty”: Offshore Humanism and Marine Xenology, or, Racism and the Problem of Critique at Sea Level.
    Paul Gilroy.
    Antipode. May 30, 2017
    The 2015 Antipode RGS‐IBG Lecture was delivered by Prof. Paul Gilroy on 2 September at the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) Annual International Conference. Prof. Gilroy's lecture interrogates the contemporary attractions of post‐humanism and asks questions about what a “reparative humanism” might alternatively entail. He uses a brief engagement with the conference theme—“geographies of the Anthropocene”—to frame his remarks and try to explain why antiracist politics and ethics not only require consideration of nature and time but also promote a timely obligation to roam into humanism's forbidden zones.
    May 30, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12333   open full text
  • Complexity, Dynamism, and Agency: How Can Dialectical Biology Inform Geography?
    Camilla Royle.
    Antipode. May 22, 2017
    Dialectical approaches, variously interpreted, have been advocated for by geographers for several decades. At the same time, critical environmental geography has recently become dominated by vital materialist strands of thought, the advocates of which have sometimes framed their own work in opposition to dialectics. Critics perceive two major problems with a dialectical framework; that it cements a nature–society dualism and that it insufficiently accounts for the agency or vitality of non‐human life. This paper seeks to address these criticisms by engaging with work by biologists who have been influenced by dialectical ideas. I outline two examples, Richard Lewontin and Richard Levins’ understanding of the way organism and environment mutually construct each other and research by Ivette Perfecto and John Vandermeer that offers a non‐dualist approach to wildlife conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The article discusses some of the ways in which these understandings might inform contemporary debates in political ecology.
    May 22, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12332   open full text
  • Politics of the Anthropocene: Formation of the Commons as a Geologic Process.
    Kathryn Yusoff.
    Antipode. May 11, 2017
    In the Anthropocene humanity acquires a new collective geologic identity. There are two contradictory movements in this Anthropocenic thought; first, the Anthropocenic trace in the geologic record names a commons from below insomuch as humanity is named as an undifferentiated “event” of geology; second, the Anthropocene highlights the material diversities of geologic bodies formed through historical material processes. This paper addresses the consequences of this geologic subjectivity for political thought beyond a conceptualization of the commons as a set of standing reserves. Discourses of limits and planetary boundaries are contrasted with the exuberance and surplus of fossil‐fuelled energy. Drawing on the political economy of Georges Bataille and the material communism of Maurice Blanchot, I argue for the necessity of a political aesthetics that can traverse the difference between common and uncommon experience in the formation of an Anthropocene commons.
    May 11, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12334   open full text
  • Riding the Rhino: Conservation, Conflicts, and Militarisation of Kaziranga National Park in Assam.
    Sanjay Barbora.
    Antipode. May 04, 2017
    Since 2004, media and public opinion in Assam (India) have focused on increasing instances of poaching of rhinoceros for their horns and presence of Bengali‐speaking Muslim peasants, especially in and around the iconic Kaziranga National Park. From hastily made digital films, to anti‐poaching motifs at Durga Puja pandals, the plight of the rhinoceros has occupied an important position in an acrimonious political discourse on Assamese culture. The innocence and dignity attributed to the animal stands in marked contrast to the lack of discussion on the large numbers of young men who have been killed in anti‐poaching campaigns by the state. This article looks at the interstices of class, culture and commerce in an attempt to understand the popular deification of the rhinoceros and implications of the developmental discourse that seeks to put people and rhino in their “rightful” place.
    May 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12329   open full text
  • But I'm Just an Artist!? Intersections, Identity, Meaning, and Context.
    Jason D. Luger.
    Antipode. May 04, 2017
    This article revisits the complex intersections of identity and meaning in the context of a world in which cosmopolitanism is increasingly questioned. The role of the artist with regard to activism and cosmopolitan flows becomes difficult to navigate but important to probe. Findings drawn from fieldwork indicate that the artist is highly conflicted; often ephemerally aligned with various social movements that may or may not be related; and in a constant state of self‐negotiation and identity formation that are highly dependent on local context. Intersectionality may be a useful frame to reconceptualize the artist as a relationally connected set of constantly shifting identities rather than an assumed category, as sometimes portrayed. Key to this is an appreciation of the role of the observer in this process. Singapore is envisioned as a place of intersecting identity; so, too, are the artists within it, caught between local context and global currents.
    May 04, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12327   open full text
  • Introduction: Critical Agrarian Studies in Theory and Practice.
    Marc Edelman, Wendy Wolford.
    Antipode. April 24, 2017
    In this introductory article we argue for renewed attention to life and labor on and of the land—or what we call the field of Critical Agrarian Studies. Empirically rich and theoretically rigorous studies of humanity's relationship to “soil” remain essential not just for historical analysis but for understanding urgent contemporary crises, including widespread food insecurity, climate change, the proliferation of environmental refugees, growing corporate power and threats to biodiversity. The article introduces an innovative and varied collection of works in Critical Agrarian Studies and also examines the intellectual and political history of this broader field. En este artículo introductorio sobre Estudios Agrarios Críticos planteamos que la tierra y el suelo—y las relaciones sociales y de trabajo que se desenvuelven ahí—merecen una renovada atención de parte de los científicos sociales. Los estudios empíricos y teóricamente rigurosos sobre la relación tierra/suelo/humanidad son imprescindibles no sólo para el análisis histórico sino para comprender las crisis contemporáneas urgentes, tales como la inseguridad alimentaria, el cambio climático, la proliferación de refugiados que huyen de desastres ambientales, el creciente poder de las grandes corporaciones y las amenazas a la biodiversidad. El artículo presenta una colección innovadora y variada de trabajos en Estudios Agrarios Críticos y también reflexiona sobre la historia intelectual y política de este campo de estudio.
    April 24, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12326   open full text
  • A “Supertanker” Against Bureaucracy in the Wake of a Housing Crisis: Neoliberalizing Planning in Netanyahu's Israel.
    Igal Charney.
    Antipode. April 21, 2017
    This paper critically questions the state's hostile takeover of planning regulation followed by experimentation initiated by the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu who has been seeking to subordinate the planning apparatus to market calculus and to short‐term political ends. To substantiate this argument, I have examined a large corpus of documents (official government documents, planning records, and court appeals and rulings, and NGO reports) and analyzed the media coverage between 2011 and 2016. By introducing fast‐track planning that is firmly controlled by the central state and focusing on the fictitious delivery of housing units, the structure of the planning regulation has dramatically changed. Further, two already‐dominant government ministries (Finance and Defense) have been significantly empowered, becoming the supervisors of the reformed planning system. In a state captivated by neoliberal fixation and embroiled in a housing crisis, the restructuring of planning governance has been a means to an end.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12331   open full text
  • Trafficking in US Agriculture.
    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios, Yasutaka Yamamoto.
    Antipode. April 21, 2017
    Based on a qualitative methodology that includes in‐depth interviews with 90 Mexican migrant smugglers and 45 Central American farmworkers, this article analyzes the three separate elements of trafficking in US agriculture, namely acts, means, and purposes. We conclude that some US employers participate in human trafficking by financing or helping to recruit and transport Mexican and Central American migrants to the US by means of “abuse of a position of vulnerability” for the purposes of involuntary servitude, debt bondage, and sex exploitation.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12330   open full text
  • Violent Inaction: The Necropolitical Experience of Refugees in Europe.
    Thom Davies, Arshad Isakjee, Surindar Dhesi.
    Antipode. April 21, 2017
    A significant outcome of the global crisis for refugees has been the abandonment of forced migrants to live in makeshift camps inside the EU. This paper details how state authorities have prevented refugees from surviving with formal provision, leading directly to thousands having to live in hazardous spaces such as the informal camp in Calais, the site of this study. We then explore the violent consequences of this abandonment. By bringing together thus far poorly integrated literatures on bio/necropolitics (Michel Foucault; Achille Mbembe) and structural violence (Johan Galtung), we retheorize the connections between deliberate political indifference towards refugees and the physiological violence they suffer. In framing the management of refugees as a series of violent inactions, we demonstrate how the biopolitics of migrant control has given way to necropolitical brutality. Advancing geographies of violence and migration, the paper argues that political inaction, as well as action, can be used as a means of control.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12325   open full text
  • Race and the Pitfalls of Emotional Democracy: Primary Schools and the Critique of Black Pete in the Netherlands.
    Yannick Coenders, Sébastien Chauvin.
    Antipode. April 21, 2017
    A centrepiece of the Dutch festival of Sinterklaas, the blackface character Black Pete, has met with growing contestation in the past decade over its caricatural representation of people of African descent. Attacks on this national “happy object” elicited a host of majority responses that converged in professing non‐racism. As the celebration is primarily thought of as a children's festival, schools across the Netherlands had to decide whether to maintain, alter or suppress the Black Pete character. This article considers the spatial politics of race that informed school decisions about the festival. We show geographical variation in the distribution between change and non‐change. However, we find that both strategies were justified in the name of respect for “black feelings”, even as majority calls for mutual tolerance between proponents and opponents of Black Pete normatively portrayed multicultural society as conflict free and ultimately strove to disarm anti‐racist critique by framing it as anti‐democratic. Zwarte Piet—een centraal figuur in het jaarlijkse Sinterklaasfeest—is vanwege zijn karikaturale representatie van afro‐Nederlanders in het afgelopen decennium in toenemende mate onder druk komen te staan. Omdat de Sinterklaastraditie vooral gezien wordt als kinderfeest, zien veel basisscholen zich gedwongen een beslissing te nemen over de omstreden figuur. In dit artikel bespreken we hoe de ruimtelijke verbeelding van raciale spreiding een rol speelde in de strategieën van scholen om hiermee om te gaan tijdens de viering. Scholen maakten een verscheidenheid aan keuzes. Zowel scholen die niks veranderden aan het feest als scholen die dit wel deden, rechtvaardigden echter hun keuze met een beroep op “zwarte gevoelens”. Dit laatste ging gepaard met de roep om wederzijdse tolerantie tussen voor‐ en tegenstanders van Zwarte Piet. Hiermee riep een witte meerderheid het ideaalbeeld op van de conflictvrije multiculturele samenleving, met als gevolg dat antiracistische kritiek als antidemocratisch kon worden geframed.
    April 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12328   open full text
  • Enclosures from Below: The Mushaa’ in Contemporary Palestine.
    Noura Alkhalili.
    Antipode. March 21, 2017
    This article traces the declining fortunes of the mushaa’, a once‐prominent Levantine culture of common land. Palestinians managed to resist attempts by the Ottoman Empire and the British Mandate to break up the mushaa’. Under Israeli colonization, the remaining commons are now subject to another type of appropriation: individual Palestinian contractors seize hold of mushaa’ land and build on it. This article introduces the concept of “enclosures from below”, whilst looking at the dynamics of seizure of the commons by Palestinian refugees, who once were peasants practising mushaa’ on their lands and are now landless, some having become expert contractors. I show that the contractors consider their actions to be a form of resistance against the settler colonial project, manifested in the advancing of the Wall and settlement expansion. This is described through a case study of the Shu'faat area in Jerusalem. Changing uses of mushaa’ land reflect wider tendencies in the Palestinian national project that has become increasingly individualized. يتتبع هذا المقال الثروات المتناقصة للمشاع، الذي كان يوما ما ثقافة مشرقية سائدة للأراضي المشتركة، حيث استطاع الفلسطينيون مقاومة محاولات الإمبراطورية العثمانية والانتداب البريطاني، التي هدفت إلى تفكيك أراضي المشاع. حاليا، تحت الاستعمار الإسرائيلي، تتعرض أراضي المشاع المتبقية إلى نوع آخر من الاستيلاء: يقوم مقاولون فلسطينيون ويتفحص، ،“enclosures from below” بالاستيلاء على بعض أراضي المشاع والبناء عليها. يقدم هذا المقال مفهوم في الوقت ذاته، ديناميكيات الاستيلاء على بعض أراضي المشاع من قبل لاجئين فلسطينيين، كانوا يوما ما فلاحين في قراهم يستخدمون أراضي المشاع بشكل جماعي للزراعة، وأصبحوا الآن بدون أراضي، وصار البعض منهم مقاولا خبيرا. يبين المقال أيضا أن المقاولين يعتبرون الأنشطة التي يقومون بها هي شكلا من أشكال المقاومة الوطنية ضد مشروع الاستيطان الاستعماري، الذي يتجلى في جدار الفصل والتوسع الاستيطاني، وذلك من خلال دراسة حالة لمنطقة شعفاط في القدس، حيث تعكس الاستخدامات المتغيرة لأراضي المشاع نزعات واسعة في المشروع الوطني الفلسطيني، الذي أصبح فردانيا على نحو متزايد.
    March 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12322   open full text
  • The Right to the World.
    Joseph Nevins.
    Antipode. March 07, 2017
    The global number of refugees, asylum seekers, and those displaced within their countries are at record levels in the post‐World War II era. Meanwhile, efforts by relatively wealthy and powerful nation‐states to exclude unwanted migrants through enhanced territorial control have reached unprecedented heights, producing great harm–most notably premature death–for many. The factors driving out‐migration from homelands made unviable, coupled with multiple forms of violence experienced by migrants, demonstrate the need for an expansion of rights–conceived of as both entitlements and sites of struggle. So, herein, I assert the need for “the right to the world”–specifically a right to mobility and a just share of the Earth's resources–to help realize the promise of a dignified life for all. In making the case for such, the article offers a critical analysis of the contemporary human rights regime and of the “right to the city”.
    March 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12324   open full text
  • Equation and Adequation: The World Traced by the Phillips Curve.
    Geoff Mann.
    Antipode. March 07, 2017
    This paper considers the power of abstract formalization in capitalism, via an account of the politics and geography of an equation. The equation in question lies behind the Phillips curve, which describes the relation between price inflation and unemployment or output. I examine the evolution of the equation and its relation to macroeconomics' renewed emphasis, since the late 1960s, on long‐run monetary neutrality. Considering the Phillips curve and its theoretical and technical armature as social practice, I discuss some of the political and distributional questions that arise from the mode of spatial and temporal abstraction particular to modern macroeconomic analysis and policy‐making. The paper has three parts: a brief history of the Phillips curve, an examination of its modern equation‐form, and an analysis of its part in the dialectical process of “real abstraction”, through which logical space and time prioritize and produce both the spatial “macro” and the temporal “long‐run”.
    March 07, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12321   open full text
  • Strata of the Political: Epigenetic and Microbial Imaginaries in Post‐Apartheid Cape Town.
    Michelle Pentecost, Thomas Cousins.
    Antipode. March 03, 2017
    The epigenetic and microbiomic imaginaries that animate public health discourse on perinatal nutrition and the infant gut in South Africa offer a case study through which to reconsider the ontological presuppositions of “space” that frame epigenetic biopolitics. We suggest that the mutual constitution of the relations at stake in and around questions of nutrition, mothers and infants, the gut and sanitation in Khayelitsha, can be understood through a Deleuzian geomorphological image of “strata of the political”. Strata are conjunctural entanglements that temporarily stabilise when distinctions hold briefly, and that bring into alignment particular relations and forces that distribute life and non‐life. This analytic makes visible and available to political life the spatio‐temporal, socio‐natural blurring of categories that epigenetic and microbiomic discourses could afford. Grounded ethnographic descriptions of these processes of “mattering” can challenge political epistemologies and take further critical perspectives on space to open up possibilities for a robust postgenomic politics.
    March 03, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12315   open full text
  • Counting Carbon: Calculative Activism and Slippery Infrastructure.
    Nicholas Beuret.
    Antipode. February 27, 2017
    The environmental movement in the global North is in a state of impasse. It appears that despite the renewed international focus on climate change, and the actions of innumerable social movements, a “solution” to the problem appears as one, without a viable solution. It is the contention of this paper that climate change has no clearly viable solution as it is a seemingly impossible problem. This paper investigates how the problem of climate change is constructed as a global object of political action and how it functions to render politics into a matter of calculative action, one that seeks—but fails—to take hold of a slippery carbon infrastructure. It concludes by suggesting one possible solution to this dilemma is to turn away from the global scalar logic of climate change and towards a situated focus on questions of infrastructure, or what Dimitris Papadopoulos calls “thick justice”.
    February 27, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12317   open full text
  • A Fleet of Mediterranean Border Humanitarians.
    Maurice Stierl.
    Antipode. February 27, 2017
    EUrope has created a space of human suffering within which military‐humanitarian measures seem urgently required if the mass drowning is to be halted. The framing of migration governance as humanitarian has become commonplace in spectacular border practices in the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, maritime disasters continue to unfold. This article discusses three non‐governmental actors, part of an emerging “humanitarian fleet” that seeks to turn the sea into a less deadly space: the Migrant Offshore Aid Station, Médecins Sans Frontières, and Sea‐Watch. While the rescue of precarious lives and the alleviation of suffering are central concerns, they imagine their humanitarian practices, the subjects of their compassion, and EUrope's role in shaping borderzones in different ways, pointing to a wide humanitarian spectrum. Engaging with the different discursive frames created by the three “border humanitarians”, the article explores what possibilities exist for political dissent to emanate from within humanitarian reason.
    February 27, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12320   open full text
  • Thinking Outside the Bubble of the Global North: Introducing Milton Santos and “The Active Role of Geography”.
    Lucas Melgaço.
    Antipode. February 27, 2017
    Brazilian geographer Milton Santos is one of the most quoted, celebrated, and controversial social scientists of the so‐called “global South”. His body of work employs a rich vocabulary including reinterpretations of concepts such as “totality”, as well as original concepts like “used territory”. These and other concepts have formed the basis of what could be called a “Miltonian” school of thought in geography. However, despite his national and regional importance to Brazil and the “global South” more generally, he has long been overlooked by the English‐speaking community of geographers. The present article intends to bridge this gap by offering an introduction to Santos and to the English translation of one of his most important and hotly debated texts, “The Active Role of Geography: A Manifesto”.
    February 27, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12319   open full text
  • The Active Role of Geography: A Manifesto.
    Adriana Bernardes, Adriano Zerbini, Cilene Gomes, Edison Bicudo, Eliza Almeida, Flavia Betioli Contel, Flávia Grimm, Gustavo Nobre, Lídia Antongiovanni, Maria Bueno Pinheiro, Marcos Xavier, María Laura Silveria, Marina Montenegro, Marisa Ferreira Rocha, Milton Santos, Mónica Arroyo, Paula Borin, Soraia Ramos, Vanir Lima Belo.
    Antipode. February 21, 2017
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    February 21, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12318   open full text
  • Material, Political, and Biopolitical Dimensions of “Waste” in California Water Law.
    Alida Cantor.
    Antipode. February 13, 2017
    California's state constitution prohibits the “wasteful” use of water; however, waste is subjective and context dependent. This paper considers political, biopolitical, and material dimensions of waste, focusing on the role of legal processes and institutions. The paper examines a case involving legal accusations of “waste and unreasonable use” of water by the Imperial Irrigation District in Imperial County, California. The determination that water was being “wasted” justified the transfer of water from agricultural to urban areas. However, defining these flows of water as a waste neglected water's complexity and relationality, and the enclosure of a “paracommons” threatens to bring about negative environmental and public health consequences. The paper shows that the project of discursively labeling certain material resource flows as waste and re‐allocating these resources to correct this moral and economic failure relies upon legal processes, and carries political and biopolitical implications.
    February 13, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12314   open full text
  • An Informational Right to the City? Code, Content, Control, and the Urbanization of Information.
    Joe Shaw, Mark Graham.
    Antipode. February 02, 2017
    Henri Lefebvre talked of the “right to the city” alongside a right to information. As the urban environment becomes increasingly layered by abstract digital representation, Lefebvre's broader theory warrants application to the digital age. Through considering what is entailed by the urbanization of information, this paper examines the problems and implications of any “informational right to the city”. In directing Tony Benn's five questions of power towards Google, arguably the world's most powerful mediator of information, this paper exposes processes that occur when geographic information is mediated by powerful digital monopolies. We argue that Google currently occupies a dominant share of any informational right to the city. In the spirit of Benn's final question—“How do we get rid of you?”—the paper seeks to apply post‐political theory in exploring a path to the possibility of more just information geographies. Henri Lefebvre parle d'un “droit à la ville” comme allant de pair avec le droit à l'information. Alors que de plus en plus de représentations numériques abstraites se superposent à l'environnement urbain, la théorie générale de Lefebvre mérite d'être appliquée à l'ère du numérique. En se penchant sur les enjeux de l'urbanisation de l'information, cet article analyse les difficultés et les implications d'un “droit informationnel à la ville”. Après avoir posé à Google, le vecteur d'information le plus puissant du monde, les cinq questions que Tony Benn avait adressées aux détenteurs de pouvoir, le texte expose les processus dérivant de l'intermédiation de l'information géographique par de puissants monopoles numériques. Il montre que Google occupe actuellement une position dominante dans tout droit informationnel à la ville. Dans l'esprit de la question finale de Benn—“Comment peut‐on se débarrasser de vous?”—cet article vise à appliquer la théorie post‐politique afin d'explorer les voies vers des géographies informationnelles plus équitables.
    February 02, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12312   open full text
  • Unconsented Sterilisation, Participatory Story‐Telling, and Digital Counter‐Memory in Peru.
    Matthew Brown, Karen Tucker.
    Antipode. January 30, 2017
    This article aims to prompt reflection on the ways in which digital research methods can support or undermine participatory research. Building on our experiences of working on the Quipu Project (quipu‐, an interactive, multimedia documentary on unconsented sterilisation in Peru, it explores the ways in which digital technologies can enable participatory knowledge production across geographic, social and linguistic divides. It also considers the new forms of engagement between knowledge‐producers and audiences that digital methods can encourage. Digital technologies can, we contend, help build new spaces for, and modes of engagement with, participatory research, even in contexts such as the Peruvian Andes where digital technologies are not well established or commonly used. Doing so, we argue, entails responding sensitively to the social, linguistic and digital inequalities that shape specific research contexts, and centring the human relationships that are easily sacrificed at the altar of technological innovation. Este artículo tiene por propósito impulsar la reflexión sobre como los métodos de investigación digitales pueden apoyar o menoscabar la investigación participativa. Construyendo desde nuestra experiencia de trabajo en el Proyecto Quipu (, el artículo explora como las tecnologías digitales pueden facilitar la producción participativa de conocimiento a través de las divisiones geográficas, sociales y lingüísticas. También considera las nuevas formas de compromiso que los métodos digitales pueden promover entre los productores de conocimiento y los públicos. Insistimos en que las tecnologías digitales pueden abrir nuevos espacios para, y nuevos modos de compromiso con, la investigación participativa, incluso en contextos como los andes peruanos donde las tecnologías digitales no están bien establecidas ni son muy usadas. Argumentamos que hacer esto implica responder con sensibilidad a las inequidades sociales, lingüísticas y digitales que moldean los contextos de investigación específicos. También supone enfatizar en las relaciones humanas que se sacrifican fácilmente en el altar de la innovación tecnológica.
    January 30, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12316   open full text
  • Contesting the Settler City: Indigenous Self‐Determination, New Urban Reserves, and the Neoliberalization of Colonialism.
    Julie Tomiak.
    Antipode. January 30, 2017
    In settler colonial contexts the historical and ongoing dispossession and displacement of Indigenous peoples is foundational to understanding the production of urban space. What does it mean that cities in what is now known as Canada are Indigenous places and premised on the ongoing dispossession of Indigenous peoples? What roles do new urban reserves play in subverting or reinforcing the colonial‐capitalist sociospatial order? This paper examines these questions in relation to new urban reserves in Canada. Most common in the Prairie provinces, new urban reserves are satellite land holdings of First Nation communities located outside of the city. While the settler state narrowly confines new urban reserves to neoliberal agendas, First Nations are successfully advancing reserve creation to generate economic self‐sufficiency, exercise self‐determination, and subvert settler state boundaries. I argue that new urban reserves are contradictory spaces, as products and vehicles of settler‐colonial state power and Indigenous resistance and place‐making.
    January 30, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12308   open full text
  • The Great War of Enclosure: Securing the Skies.
    Ian G.R. Shaw.
    Antipode. January 25, 2017
    Swarms of police drones, fleets of overhead delivery bots, and flocks of private security drones are set to multiply the complex interfaces between state, capital, and sense. This paper explores the military and economic enclosure of the atmosphere by drones. For centuries, capitalist enclosure has privatized and secured common spaces: territorializing new power relations into the soil. Enclosure now operates through an increasingly atmospheric spatiality. The birth of airpower enabled new vertical regimes of state power, capital accumulation, and violence. Now, drones are materializing both intimate and pervasive colonizations of local, national, and international airspace. Crucially, this discloses new morphologies and ontologies of urban (in)security, in which an atmospheric state polices deterritorialized aerial circulations. Such a reenchanted atmosphere collapses the geopolitical and geoeconomic in uncertain robotic orbits. This paper, which connects past and present, is driven by a deeper concern for the existential dimensions of dronified skyscapes, subjects, and violence.
    January 25, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12309   open full text
  • The Presentation of Self in Philanthropic Life: The Political Negotiations of the Foundation Program Officer.
    Erica Kohl‐Arenas.
    Antipode. January 06, 2017
    This paper explores the negotiations of foundation program officers who aim to challenge structural inequality across regional geographies of poverty. Beyond the limits to confronting capitalist relationships of production as discussed in critical philanthropy literature, this paper shows how the professional “grantor–grantee” relationship reproduces institutional structures of power. Through the lens of Erving Goffman's “presentation of self” and data from archival and ethnographic research on immigrant and farmworker funding in California's Central Valley and recent interviews with program staff at large foundations in New York City, the paper suggests that Goffman's concepts of performance, idealization, negative idealization, and disruption expand upon a Gramscian theorization of hegemony by highlighting a micro‐sociology of power. Building consensus among greatly unequal actors and managing idealized stories about poverty and philanthropy, the foundation program officer brokers political opportunity for grassroots organizations and yet more commonly generates consent.
    January 06, 2017   doi: 10.1111/anti.12304   open full text
  • Landscape and Gentrification: The Picturesque and Pastoral in 1980s New York Cinema.
    Johan Andersson.
    Antipode. December 26, 2016
    In this article I discuss 1980s New York cinema through the conceptual lens of landscape, drawing in particular on the interconnected but separate traditions of the pastoral and the picturesque. While the former mode of representing landscape is idealizing (the shepherd/nymph‐motif), the latter with its origins in the period of the enclosures of the English countryside tends to aestheticize poverty and dispossession. This distinction can productively be deployed in relation to tensions between glamorization and exploitation in 1980s New York cinema, which often dealt with the themes of rent, eviction, and unemployment in postindustrial settings. Focusing in particular on Downtown 81 (Edo Bertoglio, 1981/2000) and Desperately Seeking Susan (Susan Seidelman, 1985), I argue that the current nostalgia for a pre‐gentrified and less regulated New York in popular culture is dependent on these idealizing and aestheticizing tendencies insofar that they conceal or prettify some of the darker aspects of the period.
    December 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12310   open full text
  • South–South Cooperation and the Geographies of Latin America–Caribbean Integration and Development: A Socio‐Spatial Approach.
    Thomas Muhr.
    Antipode. December 13, 2016
    Structured around the case of South–South cooperation in the construction of “complementary economic zones” among the member states of the ALBA‐TCP, Petrocaribe, CARICOM and MERCOSUR, this article argues for a socio‐spatial approach to the study of the Latin America–Caribbean integration and development. Two interrelated arguments are developed: first, in contrast to methodologically nationalist approaches, which typically view the regionalisms that are to form the complementary economic zones as ideologically separate, incompatible or conflicting projects, a socio‐spatial approach in conjunction with a South–South cooperation analytical lens explains their commonality and, subsequently, their interrelatedness and convergence. Second, while this South–South cooperation space is not per se non‐capitalist, a socio‐spatial analysis also facilitates “seeing” the production of a socialist “counter‐space” within this South–South cooperation structure. Estructurado sobre el caso de cooperación Sur–Sur en la construcción de “zonas económicas complementarias” entre los estados miembros del ALBA‐TCP, Petrocaribe, CARICOM y MERCOSUR, este artículo argumenta una aproximación socio‐espacial al estudio de las geografías de integración y desarrollo en Latino América–Caribe. Dos argumentos interrelacionados se desarrollan: en primer lugar, en contraste con aproximaciones nacionalismo metodológicas, las cuales consideran los regionalismos que forman las zonas económicas complementarias como ideológicamente separados, proyectos incompatibles o en conflicto, una aproximación socio‐espacial en conjunto con una lente analítica de cooperación Sur–Sur explica sus características compartidas y, posteriormente, sus interrelaciones y convergencias. En segundo lugar, mientras este espacio de cooperación Sur–Sur no es per se no‐capitalista, un análisis socio‐espacial también facilita “ver” la producción de un “contra‐espacio” socialista en esta estructura de cooperación Sur–Sur.
    December 13, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12307   open full text
  • Brutalism Redux: Relational Monumentality and the Urban Politics of Brutalist Architecture.
    Oli Mould.
    Antipode. December 07, 2016
    Brutalism is an architectural form that is experiencing somewhat of a revival of late. This revival focuses almost purely on its aesthetics, but there is an ethical dimension to Brutalism that often gets overlooked in these narratives. This paper therefore reanalyses the original concepts and ethics of brutalist architecture with a reaffirmation of the original triumvirate of brutalist ethics as articulated by Raynar Banham as monumentality, structural honesty and materials “as found”. The paper then articulates these through the literature on architectural affect to argue that brutalist ethics are continually “enacted” via a relational monumentality that brings the building and its inhabitants together in the practice of inhabitation. Using the case study of Robin Hood Gardens in London, the paper posits that a “brutalist politics” comes into light that can help catalyse a broader critique of contemporary neoliberalism.
    December 07, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12306   open full text
  • Bodies That Walk, Bodies That Talk, Bodies That Love: Palestinian Women Refugees, Affectivity, and the Politics of the Ordinary.
    Ruba Salih.
    Antipode. November 11, 2016
    In this article I interrogate what is lost in war and displacement through the affective memories of Palestinian refugee women who remember through their body and what their body has endured. I reflect on how bodies and spaces connect and disconnect at violent junctures, and on the vital forces vulnerability and precariousness ignite in displacement. Throughout the geography of separations and shifting shelters, refugee women engaged in place‐making, transforming the transience enforced by their continuous evictions into the permanence of home, not as a static identity‐place‐nation, but as a site of dynamic affective, social relations and connections. Read through Michael Hardt's metaphor of “social muscles”, as bodily and emotional drives that blur the boundaries of intimate and social spaces, affective memories can serve as a political horizon that redesigns, in Arendtian terms, the love for the nation as love for concrete relations and for existing in the world.
    November 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12299   open full text
  • The Suburb as a Space of Capital Accumulation: The Development of New Towns in Shanghai, China.
    Jie Shen, Fulong Wu.
    Antipode. November 10, 2016
    Drawing attention to the governing role of capital accumulation and its interaction with the state, this study examines the dynamics of the new wave of suburbanization in China, which is characterized by the development of new towns. New towns essentially function as a spatial fix in China's contemporary accumulation regime. Rather than resulting from capital switching from the primary to the secondary circuits, new towns help to collect funds for the leverage of industrial capital and thus simultaneously sustain both circuits. Meanwhile, the development of new towns is also a process of territorial development, in which municipal governments expand the space of accumulation under strengthened fiscal and land controls and develop a metropolitan structure. Underlying the specific form and dynamics, however, is the worldwide trend of capital switching from declining manufacturing industries in developed countries to the new investment frontier in developing countries.
    November 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12302   open full text
  • Urban Agriculture in the Food‐Disabling City: (Re)defining Urban Food Justice, Reimagining a Politics of Empowerment.
    Chiara Tornaghi.
    Antipode. November 08, 2016
    Recent literature has pointed to the role of urban agriculture in self‐empowerment and learning, and in constituting ways to achieve food justice. Building on this work the paper looks at the potential and constraints for overcoming the residual and contingent status of urban agriculture. The first part of the paper aims to expand traditional class/race/ethnicity discussions and to reflect on global, cultural, procedural, capability, distributional and socio‐environmental forms of injustice that unfold in the different stages of urban food production. The second part reflects on how to bring forward food justice and build a politics of engagement, capability and empowerment. Three interlinked strategies for action are presented: (1) enhancing the reflexivity and cohesion of the urban food movement by articulating a challenge to neoliberal urbanism; (2) converging urban and agrarian food justice struggles by shaping urban agroecology; and (3) regaining control over social reproduction by engaging with food commoning.
    November 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12291   open full text
  • Hope in Hebron: The Political Affects of Activism in a Strangled City.
    Mark Griffiths.
    Antipode. November 08, 2016
    The negative affects of this violent occupation—fear, threat, humiliation—quell hope, setting limits on the potentials of political agency. This article documents the corporeality of the Occupation in Hebron, evoking the body as materially contingent to explore agential capacities within the delimiting affects of the violent sensorium. Drawing on fieldwork with Palestinian activists engaged in providing political tours of Hebron, I argue that by reappropriating the violent affects of occupation, this form of activism demonstrates agency that resists “political depression”. Theoretically, I argue further, at hand is an empirical account of the “autonomy of affect” giving rise to critical hope amid a sensorium of fear. The research presented, therefore, contributes to addressing a key question for resistance in Palestine (and beyond): how fear—a predominant affective register of contemporary politics—might be harnessed towards (renewed) political agency and resistance to oppression.
    November 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12301   open full text
  • Postcolonial Development, (Non)Sovereignty and Affect: Living On in the Wake of Caribbean Political Independence.
    Jonathan Pugh.
    Antipode. November 08, 2016
    This paper sets out a new research agenda for work on postcolonial development, sovereignty and affect. It examines how ideals of postcolonial independence play out through the more heterogeneous affective atmospheres that disrupt neat paradigms of sovereign control and non‐sovereignty in everyday life. The example employed is everyday life in a Caribbean government office, but the paper develops a wider set of new conceptual tools and ethnographic approaches so as to facilitate research in postcolonial studies and affect more generally. 这篇文章提出一个新的关于后殖民发展, 主权及情感的研究纲领。此文研究后殖民独立的理想典范如何呈现在更异质的情感环境里, 及这种呈现如何在日常生活中打乱关于主权控制和非主权的规整范式。这篇文章使用的例子是一个加勒比海政府办公室的日常活动。然而, 通过这个例子, 本文建立了一套更广泛的新概念工具和人种学研究方法以协助后殖民研究和情感领域研究。
    November 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12305   open full text
  • Feminism from the Margin: Challenging the Paris/Banlieues Divide.
    Claire Hancock.
    Antipode. November 08, 2016
    This paper aims to cast light on specifically French constructions of gender, citizenship and nationhood and articulate two bodies of work, one dealing with political mobilizations of racialized minorities in the French context, and the other dealing with gender concerns in urban policy. Emerging social movements in the urban area of Paris are having to take position in a context in which a normative “state feminism” is being used to stigmatize working‐class neighbourhoods in the banlieues as well as their male inhabitants. This paper considers the “double bind” in which feminist activists, and women more generally, find themselves as a result. It argues that some formerly silenced groups are being granted space for expression by the current foregrounding of “women” in urban policy. Drawing on bell hooks' insights on the margin/centre tension in feminist theory as a useful way of thinking about the spatial dimension of these issues, the paper looks at one group in particular that defines itself and its strategies in spatial terms. Cet article interroge les constructions spécifiquement françaises du genre, de la citoyenneté et du national en croisant deux axes de recherche, l'un qui porte sur les mobilisations politiques de minorités racisées dans le contexte français, l'autre qui examine l'introduction d'une perspective de genre dans les politiques urbaines. Les mouvements sociaux émergents dans l'aire urbaine parisienne prennent place dans un contexte de «féminisme d'Etat» normatif qui contribue à stigmatiser les quartiers défavorisés des banlieues et leurs habitants. Cet article s'intéresse à la tension que cette situation cause chez les féministes et les femmes de ces quartiers. Il montre en quoi des groupes auparavant réduits au silence trouvent un espace pour s'exprimer grâce en partie à la mise en avant des “femmes” dans les politiques urbaines. L'opposition marge/centre mise en évidence dans la théorie féministe par bell hooks s'avère heuristique pour penser les dimensions spatiales de ces questions, comme l'illustre le cas d'un groupe en particulier qui se définit et pense ses stratégies en termes spatiaux.
    November 08, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12303   open full text
  • Shared Social License: Mining and Conservation in the Peruvian Andes.
    Timothy B. Norris.
    Antipode. November 02, 2016
    Over the last two decades financial relationships between conservation and extraction have become conspicuously close. Both sectors unabashedly publicized these business deals as a form of greening extraction and marketizing conservation. This essay uses a case study in Perú to propose a tentative theory of how this seemingly incompatible but very profitable union unfolds on the ground. The development of fictitious commodities in nature for each sector is examined and the labor theory of value is combined with the labor of persuasive work to expose a fundamental shared need in both sectors: in Perú's contemporary political and economic context extractive and conservation actors increasingly must persuade landowners—usually indigenous communities—to allow for specific forms of capital to flow through their territory. In some cases this need to secure the “social license” is shared across sectors and the labor to secure the license can be undertaken together. Durante las dos últimas décadas las relaciones financieras entre la conservación y la extracción se han vuelto notablemente estrecha. Ambos sectores descaradamente divulgan sus acuerdos mutuales como una forma de ecologización de extracción y mercantilización de la conservación. Este ensayo utiliza un estudio de caso en Perú para proponer una teoría tentativa de cómo esta unión, aparentemente incompatible pero muy rentable, se revela. El desarrollo de mercancías ficticias en la naturaleza de cada sector se examina y la teoría del valor‐trabajo se combina con el labor de persuasión para exponer una necesidad compartida fundamental entre ambos sectores: en el contexto político y económico del Perú contemporáneo, cada vez más actores extractivas y de conservación se necesita persuadir propietarios de tierras—por lo general las comunidades indígenas—para permitir formas específicas de capital fluir a través de su territorio. En algunos casos esta necesidad de asegurar la “licencia social” es compartida en los dos sectores y la mano de obra para obtener la licencia se puede emprender juntos.
    November 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12300   open full text
  • Prefiguring the State.
    Davina Cooper.
    Antipode. October 31, 2016
    Merging means and ends, prefigurative politics perform life as it is wished‐for, both to experience better practice and to advance change. This paper contributes to prefigurative thinking in three ways. It explores what it might mean to prefigure the state as a concept; takes its inspiration from a historical episode rather than imagined time ahead; and addresses what, if anything, prefigurative conceptions can do when practiced. Central to my discussion is the plural state—taking shape as micro, city, regional, national and global formations. Plural state thinking makes room for divergent kinds of states but does not necessarily foreground progressive ones. Thus, to explore in more detail a transformative left conception of the state, discussion turns to 1980s British municipal radicalism. Taking up this adventurous episode in governing as a “thinking tool”, an imaginary of the state as horizontal, everyday, activist and stewardly emerges.
    October 31, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12277   open full text
  • From Contention to Co‐governance: The Case of the Right to Inhabit Movement in Rome (2000–2013).
    Alejandro Sehtman.
    Antipode. October 26, 2016
    Based on interviews with activists and local government officials and on secondary data, this paper analyzes the development and effects of the Roman Right to Inhabit Movement (RIM) from its origins till 2014. The first section describes the origins and characteristics of the new housing question in Rome. The second presents a brief genealogy of the RIM, paying special attention to how it has framed the housing question. The third describes the activities of the RIM by focusing on its interplay with the city politics and administration and the resulting changes in the housing policy of the city of Rome. The fourth section analyzes the modes of state regulation and of political articulation of the housing question that these transformations have brought about. The final section argues that these emerging arrangements are a significant example of how new forms of social protection are being created by urban movements after the neoliberal erosion of the welfare mechanisms.
    October 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12283   open full text
  • Alternative Food Economies and Transformative Politics in Times of Crisis: Insights from the Basque Country and Greece.
    Rita Calvário, Giorgos Kallis.
    Antipode. October 26, 2016
    Why and how do alternative economies emerge, how do they develop and what is their contribution, if any, to transformative politics? Alternative economies proliferate in the countries worse hit by economic crisis and austerity, such as Spain or Greece. Yet the existing literature is stuck in a counter‐productive division between celebration and critique. We move beyond this division applying philosopher Daniel Bensaïd's understanding of politics to two alternative food economies, one in the Basque Country and one in Greece. We illuminate the activist strategies and specific conjunctures within which the two alternatives emerged and explain how they develop in the face of political‐economic barriers. Alternative economies, we conclude, can be transformational when they are inserted in activist strategies directed to extend conflict, social struggles and challenge the capital–state nexus. ¿Por qué y cómo emergen las economías alternativas, cómo se desarrollan y de que manera contribuyen, si es que lo hacen, a la política transformadora? En los países más afectados por la crisis económica y las políticas de austeridad, como España o Grecia, proliferan experiencias de economías alternativas. Sin embargo, la literatura no ha discutido más allá de las visiones o bien celebradoras o bien críticas de las economías alternativas, generando una división contra‐productiva para la análisis. En este artículo vamos más allá de esta división, aplicando la comprensión de política de Bensaïd a dos economías alimentarias alternativas, una en el País Vasco y una en Grecia. Mostramos las estrategias de activismo y coyunturas específicas dentro de la cuales surgieron ambas alternativas y explicamos cómo se desarrollan frente a barreras institucionales y económicas. De esta manera, concluimos que las economías alternativas pueden ser transformadoras cuando se insertan en estrategias activistas dirigidas a ampliar los conflictos y las luchas sociales desafiando el nexo entre capital y estado.
    October 26, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12298   open full text
  • Squatting Social Centres in a Sicilian City: Liberated Spaces and Urban Protest Actors.
    Gianni Piazza.
    Antipode. October 14, 2016
    The Social Centres in Italy are simultaneously “liberated spaces”, empty and unused large buildings squatted by groups of radical left/antagonist activists to self‐manage social and countercultural activities, and “political contentious places”. They are indeed urban but not only local protest actors, denouncing the scarcity of spaces of sociability outside of commercial circuits, campaigning against market‐oriented urban renewal, property speculation, and on other anti‐capitalistic issues addressed outside the occupied spaces. The long history of Social Centres in Catania, the second largest city of Sicily, is reconstructed and explained through the choices and actions made by the squatters/activists, depending on their political‐ideological orientation, on the one hand; and by the opportunities and constraints of the specific political and socio‐spatial structure, which they had to face, on the other. The Social Centres, CPO Experia, CSOA Guernica, CSA Auro, and more recently CSO Liotru, are the main analysed empirical cases.
    October 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12286   open full text
  • Territories of Struggle: Social Centres in Northern Italy Opposing Mega‐Events.
    Anna Casaglia.
    Antipode. October 14, 2016
    The article takes into consideration the spatialised action of self‐managed Social Centres in Northern Italy over the last 20 years. Considering Genoa, Turin and Milan, we outline the passage from the Fordist era to the post‐industrial cities reconversion, which gave the space—both physical and political—for the emergence of Social Centres. The changes that occurred in the three cities in the following years introduced new features in urban space configuration and organisation. In this frame, we focus on three case studies that serve the purpose of illustrating the role of Social Centres contesting unfair space transformations: Genoa's Expo Colombiane in 1992, Turin's Winter Olympic Games in 2006 and Milan's Expo in 2015. The opposition to these “mega‐events” allows us to analyse the changes related to the forms of conflict put into practice by urban social movements throughout time, and the learning process they underwent.
    October 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12287   open full text
  • Towards an Energy Politics In‐Against‐and‐Beyond the State: Berlin's Struggle for Energy Democracy.
    James Angel.
    Antipode. October 13, 2016
    Social movements in struggle around energy are currently developing an imaginary of “energy democracy” to signify the emancipatory energy transitions they desire. Deploying a scholar‐activist perspective, this paper contributes to debates around the concretisation of the energy democracy imaginary by exploring the relationship of energy democracy movements to the state. To do so, I focus on the experiences of the Berliner Energietisch campaign, which in 2013 forced (and lost) a referendum aiming to extend—and democratise—the local state's role in Berlin's energy governance. Drawing on relational theories of the state, I argue that it is productive to read Berliner Energietisch as enacting an energy politics in‐against‐and‐beyond the state. In making this argument, I draw out implications for theoretical and strategic debates around the commons and the state.
    October 13, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12289   open full text
  • Sovereign Power, Biopower, and the Reach of the West in an Age of Diaspora‐Centred Development.
    Mark Boyle, Elaine Lynn‐Ee Ho.
    Antipode. October 12, 2016
    Why at this particular historical moment has there emerged a rousing interest in the potential contribution of diasporas to the development of migrant sending states and why is this diaspora turn so pervasive throughout the global South? The central premise of this paper is that the rapid ascent of diaspora‐centred development cannot be understood apart from historical developments in the West's approach to governing international spaces. Once predicated upon sovereign power, rule over distant others is increasingly coming to depend upon biopolitical projects which conspire to discipline and normalize the conduct of others at a distance so as to create self‐reliant and resilient market actors. We argue that an age of diaspora‐centred development has emerged as a consequence of this shift and is partly constitutive of it. We develop our argument with reference to Giorgio Agamben's “Homo Sacer” project and in particular the theological genealogy of Western political constructs he presents in his book The Kingdom and the Glory (2011). We provide for illustration profiles of three projects which have played a significant role in birthing and conditioning the current diaspora option: the World Bank's Knowledge for Development Programme (K4D); the US‐based International Diaspora Engagement Alliance (IdEA); and the EU/UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative Migration4Development project (JMDI‐M4D). Drawing upon economic theology, we make a case for construing these projects as elements of the West's emerging Oikonomia after the age of empire. 以“散居为本”的发展时代已迅速崛起. 在这个特殊的历史时刻,移民的祖国逐渐认可了他们对于祖国发展做出的贡献。想要理解这个现象,实属与“西方管理国际空间的历史发展”有着密不可分的关系。当今对散居的统治已经有所转变,并取决于生命政治项目。借助生命政治项目的训导和锻炼,散居的行为将逐渐‘正常化’,从而塑造他们成为自力更生和有弹性的市场参与者。本文论述:以上的转变构成了以“散居为本”的发展时代,并成为这种转变的结果。 本文首先提及吉奥乔·阿甘本《牲人》系列,并以系列中《国王与荣耀》的“政治神学论”为论述基础。其次,通过参见以下三个项目:1. 世界银行:知识为发展计划(World Bank Knowledge for Development Programme [K4D])、2.美国:国际散居参与联盟(International Diaspora Engagement Alliance [IdEA])、3.联合国开发计划署:为发展而迁移计划(EU/UN Joint Migration and Development Initiative Migration4Development project [JMDI‐M4D]) ,本文将说明生命政治这个概念并且阐释它对于“散居为本” 的影响力。最后借鉴“经济神学”,本文解读: 在西方帝国时代后,以上提及生命政治项目潜在成为延续西方新兴圣权的元素。
    October 12, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12281   open full text
  • Multi‐Scalar Practices of the Korean State in Global Climate Politics: The Case of the Global Green Growth Institute.
    Jin‐Tae Hwang, Sang‐Hun Lee, Detlef Müller‐Mahn.
    Antipode. October 10, 2016
    The paper examines the significance of state territoriality and the related multi‐scalar practices of the state in the light of the symptoms of post‐politics exemplified in global environmental governance. The focus rests on the South Korean government's Green Growth (GG) strategy and the efforts to export this strategy as a role model to emerging economies worldwide through the establishment of the Global Green Growth Institute. We begin with the question why the Korean government is going global with a political program that is heavily disputed at home. We then study the practices by which the state manages to maintain its territoriality under the conditions of global climate change. Lastly, we discuss how multi‐scalar practices of environmental governance in the GG strategy are applied by state and non‐state actors both in Korea and abroad.
    October 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12288   open full text
  • Radical Urban Horticulture for Food Autonomy: Beyond the Community Gardens Experience.
    Pierpaolo Mudu, Alessia Marini.
    Antipode. October 07, 2016
    For those who are interested in radical changes, it is important to analyze the forms of resistance that promote self‐managed practices, also at apparently very small scale. In Italy the experience of “community gardens” is usually named “orti urbani”. In the last 10 years, the occupation of abandoned urban spaces to set up orti urbani has increased within the squatting movement. The case of the city of Rome is interesting because there has been a widespread activity to organize self‐managed spaces to grow fruit and vegetable plants. These initiatives make up not only potential spaces of dense social networking, political action and discussion on environmental issues, but also supporting large food autonomous configurations such as Genuino Clandestino, that are challenging dominant food production. A proliferation of orti urbani located in Social Centers, squatted houses or other abandoned spaces represents a scalar strategy to re‐appropriate and commune urban space.
    October 07, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12284   open full text
  • No Place for the Political: Micro‐Geographies of the Paris Climate Conference 2015.
    Florian Weisser, Detlef Müller‐Mahn.
    Antipode. October 03, 2016
    Building upon post‐foundational political philosophies, this article scrutinizes the Paris Climate Conference in December 2015 from a micro‐geographical perspective. The analysis suggests that three different spaces exist at the site of the summit and reveals how their constituting practices and material arrangements rendered “Paris” post‐democratic. We begin with exposing the staged statements of the world's political elites in the meticulously orchestrated Leaders Event as different phenotypes of the post‐democratic condition. We then investigate the formal negotiations in the cordoned‐off backrooms, where positions within the system were at stake, but not the system as such. Finally, we wander through the strictly policed “trade fair” and unveil attempts to entice delegates into techno‐managerial solutions to the climate crisis. In the conclusion, we ponder over the prospects of environmental activism at the COPs in the light of their massive depoliticization.
    October 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12290   open full text
  • Social Centers in Southern Italy: The Caserta Ex‐Canapificio Between Illegality, Migration, and Rurality.
    Romain Filhol.
    Antipode. October 03, 2016
    From the 1980s to the 1990s, squatting for Social Centers (Centri Sociali) has developed as radical left activists engaged in occupying empty buildings all over Italy. While most of the occupations happened in big cities in the Centre and North of Italy, this paper examines the peculiarity of the Social Center Ex‐Canapificio, located in a medium‐size city of an agricultural plain of Southern Italy. More specifically, three particular points are discussed. First, I show how the Social Center has been able to produce access to rights in a context of informality and illegality. Then, I analyze how the Social Center has allowed the setting up of an original social movement fighting for the rights of the poor immigrant workers living in the Campanian Plain. Finally, I enlighten how Ex‐Canapificio's activists have promoted new strategies to succeed in their struggles, despite their geographical distance from the main center of powers. In brief, this paper provides several themes of discussion about the spatialities of squatting and social movements.
    October 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12285   open full text
  • Gendering Palestinian Dispossession: Evaluating Land Loss in the West Bank.
    Caitlin Ryan.
    Antipode. August 29, 2016
    Despite increasing attention to Palestinian territorial dispossession, there is inadequate attention paid to how this dispossession is gendered in its legitimising discourses and practices. Inattention to gender results in a failure to understand the power relations at play in the processes through which Palestinians are dispossessed of their land, the discourses that serve to support that dispossession and the impacts of that dispossession. This article examines the roles of Israeli hegemonic militarised masculinity as deployed in discourses and practices of “security” as well as idealised Zionist femininity and idealised Zionist masculinity as deployed in discourses and practices of “God‐given Righteousness”. It finds that both are effective means of dispossessing Palestinians of their land, and that in settlements in the West Bank, the hegemonic militarised masculinity is often subsumed under idealised Zionist femininity and masculinity when it comes to settlement expansion and the violent dispossession of Palestinian land.
    August 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12280   open full text
  • “It's not like your home”: Homeless Encampments, Housing Projects, and the Struggle over Domestic Space.
    Jessie Speer.
    Antipode. August 22, 2016
    Based on an analysis of housing projects and homeless encampments in Fresno, California, this paper argues that both anti‐homeless policing and housing provision mutually constrain homeless people's expressions of home, such that struggles over domestic space have become integral to the contemporary politics of US homelessness. In particular, this article asserts that contemporary homelessness policy is marked by a clash between competing visions of home. While housing projects in Fresno are based on a model of privatized and surveilled apartments, people who lived in local encampments often asserted alternative notions of home grounded in community rather than family, mutual care rather than institutional care, and appropriation rather than consumption. Meanwhile, local officials viewed such alternative domestic spaces as non‐homes worthy of destruction. Rather than valorizing domestic struggles above public or institutional struggles, this article seeks to move beyond geographic binaries to more holistically approach the politics of US homelessness.
    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12275   open full text
  • Emancipatory or Neoliberal Food Politics? Exploring the “Politics of Collectivity” of Buying Groups in the Search for Egalitarian Food Democracies.
    Ana Moragues‐Faus.
    Antipode. August 22, 2016
    In the context of apolitical tendencies in food studies, this paper explores how alternative food networks can contribute to developing emancipatory food politics rather than constitute a tool to reproduce neoliberal subjectivities. For this purpose, I contend that the post‐political literature offers a useful approach to examining the concept of food politics by developing a more robust theoretical framework, permitting the establishment of linkages with broader contemporary processes of social change. The analysis of an action‐research process with buying groups in Spain is used to examine the “politics of collectivity” at play, that is, how these initiatives institutionalise “the political”. Specifically I explore the motivations mobilised to construct place‐based ethical repertoires and unveil how these groups govern the relationality of consumption practices in the pursuit of broader processes of change. I conclude by discussing the contribution of these initiatives to building egalitarian food democracies. En el contexto de tendencias apolíticas en los estudios agroalimentarios, este artículo explora cómo las redes alimentarias alternativas pueden contribuir a desarrollar una política de la comida emancipatoria, en vez de constituir una herramienta para reproducir subjetividades neoliberales. Para alcanzar este objetivo, la literatura post‐política ofrece un enfoque útil para examinar el concepto de la política de la comida, desarrollando un marco teórico robusto que permite establecer vínculos con otros procesos de cambio social. En este marco, se analiza un proceso de investigación acción participativa con grupos de consumo en España con el fin de entender la “política del colectivo”, es decir, cómo estas iniciativas institucionalizan “lo político”, entendido como una expresión de disentimiento con las actuales configuraciones socio‐ecológicas. Concretamente, este estudio explora las motivaciones movilizadas para construir repertorios éticos territorializados y revelar cómo estos grupos gobiernan la relacionalidad de las prácticas de consumo con el fin de implementar procesos de cambio social más amplios. Concluyo discutiendo la contribución de estas iniciativas a la construcción de democracias alimentarias que promuevan la igualdad.
    August 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12274   open full text
  • Aesthetic Dissent: Urban Redevelopment and Political Belonging in Luanda, Angola.
    Claudia Gastrow.
    Antipode. August 17, 2016
    Over the previous decade, African cities experienced a wave of frenzied construction driven by imaginations of world‐city status. While these projects provoked new discussions about African urbanism, the literature on them has focused more on the paperwork of planning than actual urban experiences. This article addresses this lacuna by investigating residents' reactions to the post‐conflict building boom in Luanda, Angola. I show that Luandans' held highly ambivalent orientations towards the emerging city. Their views were shaped by suspicions about pacts between Angolan elites and international capital that recapitulated longstanding tensions over national belonging. These concerns were voiced via discussions of the very aesthetics of the new city. Buildings became catalysts for expressions of dissent that put into question the very project of state‐driven worlding. The paper therefore argues that the politics of aesthetics are central to grasping the contested understandings of urbanism currently emerging in various African cities.
    August 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12276   open full text
  • The State and Financialization of Public Land in the United Kingdom.
    Brett Christophers.
    Antipode. August 17, 2016
    There exists an influential and growing political‐economic literature on the treatment of land—urban and rural—as a financial asset. But this literature pays little attention to the role of the state, beyond its obvious significance in the formalization of tradable property rights. In particular, the issue of the state's own land, i.e. public land, has been afforded scant scrutiny. Has the state, like other actors, increasingly come to treat the land it owns as a form of financial asset? And if so, how, and with what implications? This article addresses these questions by way of an empirical focus on the history of the UK public estate since the beginning of the 1980s.
    August 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12267   open full text
  • Care‐full Justice in the City.
    Miriam J. Williams.
    Antipode. August 17, 2016
    Feminist theorists in geography and beyond have long been calling for an ethic of care to be considered alongside justice as a normative ideal that can assist us in repairing our world. In urban theory this call has largely remained unheard as an ethic of care remains absent from theorisations of what comprises a just city. In this paper I argue for care to be considered alongside justice as an equally important ethic in our search for justice in the city. I develop the concept of care‐full justice, which assists us in negotiating the inherent tension between the normative and situated in the search for the ideals, and actually existing expressions, of justice and care in the city. I demonstrate the generative potential of this concept and argue that it enables us to re‐think what cities can be and to reveal times and places where this is the case.
    August 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12279   open full text
  • Radical Environmentalism and “Commoning”: Synergies Between Ecosystem Regeneration and Social Governance at Tamera Ecovillage, Portugal.
    Ana Margarida Esteves.
    Antipode. August 17, 2016
    This article explores the scope and limitations of Radical Environmentalism as a source of practices of “commoning”. The application of the radical environmental “Healing Biotope” model in Tamera, an ecovillage located in southern Portugal, further expands the understanding of “commoning” as a social process, as well as of Radical Environmentalism as a cognitive framework. This article distinguishes between the technical and political dimensions of “commoning”. It also identifies two structuring dimensions of Radical Environmentalism, hereby called integrative rationality and the experiential action research and learning methodology. These dimensions support the technical aspect of “commoning” in Tamera by promoting epistemic and methodological coherence between social and environmental technologies. Despite their contested scientific validity, they contribute to the sustainability of the project by promoting synergies between ecological regeneration and social governance. However, they have limited capacity to address the political dimension of “commoning”, related with rank and socio‐economic inequalities among members.
    August 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12278   open full text
  • Evictability and the Biopolitical Bordering of Europe.
    Huub Baar.
    Antipode. August 16, 2016
    Migration and border scholars have argued that the Europeanization and securitization of borders and migration have led to forms of population regulation that constitute a questionable divide between EU and non‐EU groups, as well as between different non‐EU groups. This paper argues that these processes have impacted not only centrifugally, on non‐EU populations, but also centripetally, on the “intra‐EU” divide regarding minorities such as Europe's Muslims and Roma. I explain how a de‐nationalization of the concepts and methods of migration and border studies—beyond methodological nationalism and Eurocentrism—sheds light on the under‐researched impact of the EU's external border regime on minoritized EU citizens. I introduce the notion of “evictability” to articulate this de‐nationalization and discuss the case study of Europe's Romani minority to show how contemporary forms of securitization further divide Europe bio‐politically along intra‐European lines.
    August 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12260   open full text
  • Engagement in a Public Forum: Knowledge, Action, and Cosmopolitanism.
    Jennifer F. Brewer, Natalie Springuel, James Wilson, Robin Alden, Dana Morse, Catherine Schmitt, Chris Bartlett, Teresa Johnson, Carla Guenther, Damian Brady.
    Antipode. August 15, 2016
    Facing challenges to the civic purpose of higher education, some scholars and administrators turn to the rhetoric of engagement. Simultaneously, the political philosophy of cosmopolitanism has gained intellectual favor, advocating openness to the lived experiences of distant others. We articulate linkages between these two discourses in an extended case study, finding that a cosmopolitan ethos of engagement in a rural context can improve (1) understanding among people ordinarily separated by spatialized social‐ecological differences, (2) prospects for longer term environmental sustainability, and (3) the visionary potential of collaborative inquiry. Despite globalization of food systems and neoliberal shifts in fishery management, an annual fisheries forum facilitates coalitions that overcome dichotomies between technocratic and local knowledge, extending benefits to fishing communities, academia, and public policy. Iterative and loosely structured capacity building expands informally through affective processes of recognition and care, as decentralized leadership supports collective mobilization toward alternate futures. Enfrentando los desafíos de los fines cívicos de la educación superior, algunos académicos y administradores tornan a la retórica de engagement o involucración. Al mismo tiempo, la filosofía política del cosmopolitismo ha ganado reconocimiento, abogando por la apertura hacia las vivencias de los demás. Señalamos los vínculos entre estos dos discursos en un extenso estudio de caso, hallando que una ética cosmopolita de engagement en un contexto rural puede mejorar (1) la comprensión entre personas normalmente separadas por diferencias espaciales y socio‐ecológicos, (2) las posibilidades de sostenibilidad medioambiental a largo plazo, y (3) el potencial visionario de la indagación colaborativa. A pesar de la globalización de los sistemas alimentarios y el aumento del neoliberalismo en la gestión de la pesca, un foro anual de pesquerías facilita coaliciones que superan las dicotomías entre el conocimiento tecnocrático y local, lo cual extiende beneficios a las comunidades pesqueras, la academia, y la política pública. Un desarrollo de capacidades iterativo y poco estructurado se expande de manera informal a través de procesos afectivos de reconocimiento y cuidado, mientras el liderazgo descentralizado apoya la movilización colectiva hacia futuros alternativos.
    August 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12270   open full text
  • Of Gardens, Hopes, and Spirits: Unravelling (Extra)Ordinary Community Economic Arrangements as Sites of Transformation in Cape Town, South Africa.
    Emma Noëlle Hosking, Marcela Palomino‐Schalscha.
    Antipode. August 10, 2016
    Debates around diverse economies have flourished in geography in recent years, challenging the consistent and limiting hegemonic framing of the economy as singularly capitalist and global, through making visible the vast array of economic practices that are taking place alongside and beyond capitalist ones at multiple sites and scales. Bringing together debates around community economies, (relational) approaches to scales and place, and Actor Network Theory, in this article we focus on the narrative of Mama Bokolo, a healer/gardener/diverse economic actor in Cape Town. Grounded on her lived experience, we suggest that allegedly local, marginalised actors like Mama are actively contributing to enact liberatory diverse economic arrangements beyond‐the‐local, by articulating networks across places and scales and fostering relations with a range of diverse, human, natural and supernatural actors. In doing so, we elucidate why precisely these more‐than‐local and more‐than‐human elements can be instrumental to enable transformative economic spaces of hope. Kwiminyaka edlulileyo, kukhe kwakho iingxoxo‐mpikiswano ngemiba ephathiselene ngezibhalo ezithetha ngoqoqosho olubanzi. Ezi ngxoxo zithande ukuphikisa ubungxowa‐nkulu nokucinga ngoqoqosho ngendlela exhasa ubungxowa‐nkulu belizwe jikelele. Ezi ngxoxo zibonisa ezinye iindlela zoqoqosho ezenzeka ecaleni nangaphandle kobungxowa‐nkulu kwiindawo ngeendawo. Kweli nqaku sibonisana ngeengxoxo ezimalunga noqoqosho eluntwini. Sibonisa nonxulumano phakathi kwabantu noqoqosho, namanqanaba oqoqosho kwiindawo ngeendawo. I‐Actor Network Theory isincedisa ukuqonda ibali likaMama uBokolo oligqirha, ongunogada, odlala indima kuqoqosho olubanzi nongumntu odala inguqu ehlala eKapa. Ekujongeni indlela aphila ngayo, sixoxa okokuba bonke abantu abanezimbo zokuphila ngokwahlukileyo njengoMama Bokolo banendima abayidlalayo ekudaleni iindlela zoqoqosho ezahlukileyo nangona besebenza ezingingqini zabo. Aba badlali basibonisa uqhagamshelwano kwindawo ezahlukileyo nakumanqanaba ahlukileyo. Bakwabonisa unxulumano phakathi kwabantu, indalo esiyibonayo kwakunye neminye imimoya efana nezinyanya. UMama uBokolo uye asibonise okokuba uqhamshelwano wakhe nabantu bomhlaba nabaphantsi ubalulekile ekudaleni ithemba nenguqu kwindawo zoqoqosho.
    August 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12259   open full text
  • Conveyor‐Belt Justice: Precarity, Access to Justice, and Uneven Geographies of Legal Aid in UK Asylum Appeals.
    Andrew Burridge, Nick Gill.
    Antipode. August 03, 2016
    Ongoing government funding cuts to British legal aid have resulted in the formation of legal deserts and uneven geographies of access to advice and legal representation. Asylum seekers, particularly those subjected to no‐choice dispersal throughout the UK for housing, are enduring the impact of these cuts directly. This paper explores the spatial and legal marginalisation of asylum seekers, drawing upon the findings of a three‐year study of the asylum appeals process. Already precarious, we analyse the manifold spatial marginalisation of dispersed asylum seekers from sources of legal advice and representation. We identify the frames of luck, uncertainty and dislocation as ways to further a spatially cognisant understanding of precarity, alongside identifying strategies employed to counter precarious positionalities.
    August 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12258   open full text
  • Energy Colonialism and the Role of the Global in Local Responses to New Energy Infrastructures in the UK: A Critical and Exploratory Empirical Analysis.
    Susana Batel, Patrick Devine‐Wright.
    Antipode. August 03, 2016
    Governments, namely in the global North, are fostering the deployment of large‐scale low carbon and associated energy infrastructures (EIs), such as power lines, to mitigate climate change. However, when infrastructures are to be deployed, opposition is often found. Environmental justice—involving issues of distributive and procedural justice and recognition—and associated inter‐group relations, has been identified as a key aspect for local opposition. However, research has rarely examined local perceptions of environmental justice and associated practices, such as energy colonialism, within a global perspective. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, we examine if and how different‐level intergroup relations and collective narratives shape people's social‐psychological and geographical imaginaries and responses to EIs. Focus groups were conducted with community members affected by proposals to construct high‐voltage power lines in the UK. Analyses suggest that narratives around England's colonial history—within Britain and beyond Britain—shape responses to EIs. No Norte global, vários governos estão a promover a construção de tecnologias de baixo carbono e outras infra‐estruturas energéticas de larga escala associadas (IE), como linhas elétricas, para mitigar as alterações climáticas. Contudo, oposição à sua construção é frequente. A (in)justiça ambiental e relações intergrupais associadas, têm vindo a ser identificadas como explicativas dessa oposição. Contudo, raramente são analisadas as representações locais de justiça ambiental e práticas relacionadas, como de colonialismo energético, dentro de uma perspetiva global. Adoptando uma abordagem interdisciplinar, examinamos neste artigo se e como relações intergrupais a diferentes níveis—local ao global ‐ e narrativas coletivas associadas, moldam os imaginários geográficos e sócio‐psicológicos em relação às IE. Conduzimos grupos focais com membros de comunidades no Reino Unido a serem afetadas pela construção de linhas elétricas. As análises sugerem que narrativas da história colonial Inglesa—dentro e fora do Reino Unido—influenciam as respostas às IE.
    August 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12261   open full text
  • Political Regulation and the Strategic Production of Space: The European Union as a Post‐Fordist State Spatial Project.
    Jens Wissel, Sebastian Wolff.
    Antipode. August 01, 2016
    This article addresses the spatial differentiation of statehood in the process of European integration, looking at its consequences for the reorganization of political rule. First, we elaborate our theoretical foundations resting in materialist theories of the state. It is argued that hitherto analytical approaches have hardly been able to systematically integrate the societal generation of space. This shortcoming is addressed by drawing on theories of space discussed in radical geography. Second, we trace the spatial transformation of statehood in the EU. Our assertion is that the latter is characterized by the emergence of a multi‐scalar ensemble of state apparatuses. Finally, we discuss the implications of this transformation for the reproduction of domination. We assume that the multi‐scalar form of statehood offers a significant basis for the emergence of authoritarian forms of politics in the EU. At the same time, social conflicts over the political design of the EU are intensifying.
    August 01, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12265   open full text
  • Gramsci and the African Città Futura: Urban Subaltern Politics From the Margins of Nouakchott, Mauritania.
    Armelle Choplin, Riccardo Ciavolella.
    Antipode. July 27, 2016
    This article offers reflection on how Gramscian theories can be useful for critically analyzing the political significance of the actions and resistances of urban subaltern Africans. It interrogates the potential of subaltern political forms to profoundly transform society and to thus prepare for the African “future city”. It merges a theoretical analysis of Gramsci's concepts relating to the città futura—and its relation to concepts of city, subalternity, political initiative and cittadinanza—with a comparative critique of urban theory applied to Africa and especially relating to the politicization of the city in Mauritania. Our reflections are based on Mauritania and the case of Nouakchott, its capital, where we have carried out our research for over a decade. We will interrogate the re‐appropriations or resistances, as well as the autonomous construction of modes of living and of city‐making, made by marginal inhabitants, in order to consider their political potentialities.
    July 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12268   open full text
  • The Poolitical City: “Seeing Sanitation” and Making the Urban Political in Cape Town.
    Colin McFarlane, Jonathan Silver.
    Antipode. July 27, 2016
    In an urbanizing world, the inequalities of infrastructure are increasingly politicized in ways that reconstitute the urban political. A key site here is the politicization of human waste. The centrality of sanitation to urban life means that its politicization is always more than just service delivery. It is vital to the production of the urban political itself. The ways in which sanitation is seen by different actors is a basis for understanding its relation to the political. We chart Cape Town's contemporary sanitation syndrome, its condition of crisis, and the remarkable politicization of toilets and human waste in the city's townships and informal settlements in recent years. We identify four tactics—poolitical tactics—that politicize not just sanitation but Cape Town itself: poo protests, auditing, sabotage, and blockages. We evaluate these tactics, consider what is at stake, and chart possibilities for a more just urban future.
    July 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12264   open full text
  • Absent Regions: Spaces of Financialisation in the Arab World.
    Adam Hanieh.
    Antipode. July 27, 2016
    This paper examines processes of financialisation in the Arab world, a region that has been almost completely absent from the wider financial literature. The paper shows that financialisation is much more than simply the expansion of financial markets within neatly bounded sets of social relations operating at the national scale. In the Arab world, financialisation has been marked by the growing weight of regional finance capital—most specifically, those capital groups based in the Gulf Cooperation Council—in circuits of capital operating at all scales. This has important implications for processes of class and state formation. Approaching financialisation in this manner—moving away from methodologically nationalist assumptions and the literature's largely singular focus on the advanced capitalist core—brings into focus the significance of cross‐scalar accumulation patterns, their spatial hierarchies, and geographic unevenness. The paper thus reaffirms the need for a more spatially sensitive approach to financialisation.
    July 27, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12257   open full text
  • Contesting the Divided City: Arts of Resistance in Skopje.
    Ophélie Véron.
    Antipode. July 23, 2016
    This paper examines issues of power and resistance in “divided cities”. Basing my analysis on fieldwork I carried out in Skopje, Macedonia, I look at how urban space may be constructed and used by hegemonic groups as a means of asserting their power and how, in turn, the city may be a place of resistance where power is contested and public space reappropriated. Drawing on Lefebvre's perspective on the production of space, I compare the conceived city to the lived city and examine how urban inhabitants may resist the division of the city and challenge hegemonic representations. I also draw on Debord's psychogeography to define an artistic, active and participatory approach to urban space through which the inhabitants may re‐conquer their right to the œuvre and to the city. I argue that the city as a lived environment may offer narratives other than division and that there are alternatives to the divided city. Cet article a pour objet d'analyse les questions de pouvoir et de résistance dans les “villes divisées”. M'appuyant sur un travail de terrain mené à Skopje, en Macédoine, j'examine comment l'espace urbain peut être construit et utilisé par des groupes dominants à des fins de pouvoir et comment, en retour, cet espace peut devenir un lieu de résistance, de contestation et de réappropriation citoyenne. La perspective développée par Lefebvre sur la production de l'espace me permet de comparer la ville conçue à la ville vécue et d'ainsi analyser la manière dont les habitants s'opposent aux divisions urbaines et défient les représentations dominantes. Je m'appuie également sur Debord et son concept de psychogéographie pour formuler une approche artistique, active et participative de l'espace urbain, à travers laquelle les habitants peuvent reconquérir leur droit à l'œuvre et à la ville. Je conclus en défendant l'idée que la ville, en tant qu'espace vécu, a la capacité d'offrir d'autres voix que celles des divisions et qu'il existe en conséquence des alternatives à la ville divisée.
    July 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12269   open full text
  • The Evolution of Neoliberal Urbanism in Moscow, 1992–2015.
    Mirjam Büdenbender, Daniela Zupan.
    Antipode. July 23, 2016
    This article examines the urban development of Moscow from 1992 to 2015, arguing that the city's recent transformation from grey asphalt jungle to a “city comfortable for life” is driven by a process of neoliberal restructuring. In particular, the study finds that a set of multi‐scalar dynamics—namely, the global financial crisis, the rise of a local protest movement, and an intensified rivalry between federal and Muscovite elites—were the key driving forces behind Moscow's current evolution. The work advances a conceptual framework of neoliberal urbanisation that enhances the literature on post‐socialist cities and, more generally, the broader debate on actually existing neoliberalism.
    July 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12266   open full text
  • Visibly Mute: Ethical Sociality and the Everyday Exurban.
    David W. Hill, Daryl Martin.
    Antipode. July 23, 2016
    In this paper, we argue for an ethical understanding of exurban environments, which we propose as symptomatic spaces of neoliberalization. We outline the idea that civility within public places is a mode of moral communication grounded in everyday encounters and embedded in the ordinary places in which they are enacted. We also advance the argument that exurban environments, as properties of neoliberal capital, employ distinct strategies to monopolize the use of space and encourage its inattentive occupation. We illustrate this through our case study in the North of England, a business and retail park which we suggest as typical of spaces produced through wider processes of neoliberalization. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the writers and theories explored throughout the piece for a critical understanding of place, one that is premised on the importance of a quotidian understanding of the social, an everyday morality.
    July 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12271   open full text
  • The Medical Tourist and a Political Economy of Care.
    Sharon Bolton, Lila Skountridaki.
    Antipode. July 23, 2016
    Medical tourism has gained prominence in academic, policy and business arenas in describing the growth in the number of people travelling outside of their home country to receive planned medical treatment, with the emphasis on the combination of addressing pressing health concerns with a leisure trip. This conceptual essay offers insights into how patients are being reconceptualised in a neoliberal setting as medical tourists. In so doing it offers two key contributions. First it offers a deeper theorisation of trends in international healthcare through a political economy of care framework. This framework is not only focused on human interaction and experience but also on the political, economic and social space in which human life is played out. Second, it offers new insights into the exploration of human relationships within a market economy so that the medical tourist is seen with new eyes as a relational being.
    July 23, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12273   open full text
  • The Spa‐cial Formation Theory: Transcending the Race–Class Binary in Environmental Justice Literature.
    Elyes Hanafi.
    Antipode. July 20, 2016
    Two schools have dominated environmental justice literature: the race school and the class school. The class school tends to explain cases of environmental injustice exclusively from the vantage point of socioeconomic differences. The race school, however, foregrounds racism as an explanatory framework, while still acknowledging the relative role of class in this regard. Both schools tend to base their analyses primarily upon research findings from empirical/geographical studies. This paper joins its voice with the recently growing body of literature that has started to call for the need to transcend this cumbersome race–class dichotomy and move beyond the mundane pattern of case studies research and statistical data gathering. Specifically, it propounds a theory of spa‐cial formation that illuminates the parallel processes of spatial discrimination and racial subjugation, stresses the historical contingency of environmental racism, and highlights the role of the various cultural images, representations and meanings attached to black geographies in laying the moral and ideational foundations facilitating the process of spatial and environmental discrimination against African Americans.
    July 20, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12272   open full text
  • From a Politics of Conviction to a Politics of Interest? The Changing Ontologics of Youth Politics in India and Nicaragua.
    Dennis Rodgers, Stephen Young.
    Antipode. July 19, 2016
    There exists a longstanding association between youth and revolution, partly due to the assumption that the politics of the former are inherently “prefigurative” in nature. Youth politics can often actually be quite conservative, however, as can be observed in contemporary Nicaragua, where rather than attempting to “change the world” in the way that previous militant youth generations were famously associated with, current Sandinista youth activists engage primarily in forms of neo‐patrimonial clientelism. At the same time, the evolving experience of everyday political action by university educated youth in Uttar Pradesh, India highlights how economic endeavours can, under certain circumstances, become a form of politics, often of a more transformative variety than classic forms of collective mobilization. The comparison of Nicaragua and India thus highlights the critical importance of considering the wider environment within which youth mobilize and take action in order to understand how and why particular political “ontologics” emerge. La asociación entre los conceptos de juventud y revolución es de vieja data. Esto es debido a la suposición que la política de los jóvenes es inherentemente “prefigurativo”. Sin embargo, la política de los jóvenes puede en realidad ser bastante conservadora, como se puede observar en la actualidad en Nicaragua, adonde los jóvenes activistas sandinistas de hoy participan principalmente en formas de clientelismo neo‐patrimonial en vez de intentar de “cambiar el mundo” como lo hicieron las generaciones anteriores de jóvenes militantes con los cuales el país está asociado de manera celebrada. Al mismo tiempo, la evolución de la acción política cotidiana de jóvenes universitarios en Uttar Pradesh, India, pone de relieve cómo los esfuerzos económicos pueden, bajo ciertas circunstancias, convertirse en una forma de hacer política, una que a menudo es de una variedad más transformadora que las formas clásicas de movilización colectiva. Por lo tanto, la comparación entre Nicaragua y la India pone de manifiesto la crítica importancia de considerar el contexto más amplio dentro del cual los jóvenes se movilizan y actúan para entender cómo y por qué determinadas “ontológicas” políticas emergen.
    July 19, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12253   open full text
  • The Agnotology of Eviction in South Lebanon's Palestinian Gatherings: How Institutional Ambiguity and Deliberate Ignorance Shape Sensitive Spaces.
    Nora Stel.
    Antipode. July 17, 2016
    A significant part of Lebanon's Palestinian refugees live in unofficial camps, so‐called “gatherings”, where they reside on Lebanese land. Many of these gatherings are now threatened with eviction. By means of two qualitative case studies this article explores responses to such eviction threats. Residents, it turns out, engage in deliberate disinformation and stalling tactics and invoke both a professed and real ignorance about their situation. In contrast to dominant discourses that project Palestinian refugees as illicit and sovereignty undermining, I explain these tactics as a reaction to, and duplication of, a “politics of uncertainty” implemented by Lebanese authorities. Drawing on agnotology theory, and reconsidering the gatherings as sensitive spaces subjected to aleatory governance, I propose that residents’ responses to the looming evictions are a manifestation of the deliberate institutional ambiguity that Lebanese authorities impose on the gatherings. As such, the article contributes to understanding the spatial dimensions of strategically imposed ignorance.
    July 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12252   open full text
  • Ghosts, Memory, and the Right to the Divided City: Resisting Amnesia in Beirut City Centre.
    John Nagle.
    Antipode. July 17, 2016
    Violently divided cities are incubators of ethnic conflicts. Under the auspices of postwar reconstruction, these cities are supposedly disciplined into peace through the regeneration of the city centre, including privatization, commercial adaptation and gentrification strategies. Such dynamics render city centre space amnesiac, with no reference to the history of sectarian violence, and exclusivist by limiting public access. Rather than foster peacebuilding, city centre regeneration exposes the dangerous weakness of the neoliberal peace built on accommodating ethnic and socioeconomic divisions. This paper connects Lefebvre's right‐to‐the‐city to non‐sectarian social movements’ struggle to forge participatory democracy in Beirut's city centre. A key aspect of these movements’ activities is to reprogramme memory—cosmopolitan and inclusivist—into the city centre, a project supporting peacebuilding.
    July 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12263   open full text
  • Working for Inclusion? Conditional Cash Transfers, Rural Women, and the Reproduction of Inequality.
    Tara Patricia Cookson.
    Antipode. July 14, 2016
    Throughout the global South, conditional cash transfer programmes (CCTs) are used to promote socially inclusive development. CCTs are widely evaluated for their capacity to build children's human capital. In contrast, this paper aims to hold “social inclusion” to account by elucidating the impacts of Peru's CCT “Juntos” on the poor, rural mothers who are expected to meet programme conditions. Grounded in extensive ethnographic research in households, clinics, schools, and village halls, the paper interrogates the work of social inclusion in spaces where uneven development manifests itself in privation. Considered in light of critical feminist theories of performativity and social reproduction, the findings shed light on a far less optimistic reality for the work of social inclusion. This paper contributes a rich empirical account to critical literature on cash transfers and the discourses that drive them, and suggests that the circumstances under which women are required to fulfil programme conditions challenge the substance of contemporary “inclusive” development.
    July 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12256   open full text
  • Dancing to the Rhythms of the Fossil Fuel Landscape: Landscape Inertia and the Temporal Limits to Market‐Based Climate Policy.
    Wim Carton.
    Antipode. July 14, 2016
    This article makes a contribution to the critique of market‐based mechanisms for climate and energy policy. It explores the environmental effectiveness of market instruments by engaging a broadly conceived “fossil fuel landscape”, or the material, social, and political inertia of fossil energy dependence, as a factor delimiting policy outcomes. The argument is developed through a focus on the idea of economic efficiency as a key ideological construct underlying market‐based policy, and draws on examples from two different market instruments, namely the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, and the Flemish tradable green certificate scheme. I argue that an understanding of the shortcomings of these, and similar, policies requires acknowledgment of the political and socio‐economic power that emanates from the temporal dynamics of fossil fuel capitalism, which are reproduced when economic efficiency becomes the key focus of climate policy.
    July 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12262   open full text
  • How do Migrant Workers Respond to Labour Abuses in “Local Sweatshops”?
    Jerónimo Montero Bressán, Ayelén Arcos.
    Antipode. June 30, 2016
    This article aims to provide empirical evidence on understanding how migrant workers’ responses to labour exploitation in low‐wage economies are articulated. Inspired by the low levels of conflict among workers in small urban sweatshops in Italy and Argentina, we ask ourselves what contextual and subjective factors prevent workers from organising collectively. Here we argue that in order to understand the nature of their responses, it is necessary to consider not only the organisation of the labour process, but also the class divisions within migrant communities. We also bring in briefly the role of the state in (mis)regulating migrant labour exploitation. We conclude by showing that workers’ responses are highly individualised and that community leaders with economic interests in sweatshop economies may play a role in securing their continuation by channelling the workers’ responses towards the defence of the “ethnic economy”.
    June 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12250   open full text
  • Strategizing for Autonomy: Whither Durability and Progressiveness?
    Shaun S.K. Teo.
    Antipode. June 30, 2016
    What should autonomous formations work towards? How might they strategize to get there? This paper considers these what and how aspects in tandem—a necessary pursuit if clearer pathways to emancipation are to be realized. First, it conceptualizes the relationship between objectives of durability and progressiveness. I introduce “the durability trap”, a situation whereby autonomous formations achieve durability at the expense of their progressiveness, as well as the principles to overcome this. Second, it evaluates how autonomous formations might act collectively and vis‐à‐vis the state to achieve, or not, both durability and progressiveness. I compare the strategies two autonomous formations adopt in response to the development of Media Spree, a redevelopment project in Berlin. I show how symbiotic strategy results in the durability trap and how an interstitial approach works to overcome this. I end by conceiving strategies of interstitiality, symbiosis and rupture as sequential steps to wider transformation.
    June 30, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12251   open full text
  • Uneven Development and Scale Politics in Southern Africa: What We Learn from Neil Smith.
    Patrick Bond, Greg Ruiters.
    Antipode. June 29, 2016
    Southern Africa is probably the most unevenly developed region on earth, combining the most modern technologies and an advanced working class with the world's extremes of inequality and social militancy. The two most extreme countries, both with settler–colonial populations and accumulation processes that created durable class/race/gender distortions and extreme environmental degradation, are South Africa and Zimbabwe—both of which Neil Smith visited in 1995. His contribution to our understanding of political economy, before and after, was exemplary. We consider in this article how Smith's theory assisted in the understanding of crisis‐ridden financial markets within the framework of capital overaccumulation and intensified spatial unevenness; the politics of scale, difference and community; and the ways that class apartheid and durable racism in the two countries together fit within contemporary geopolitical economy.
    June 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12248   open full text
  • Lifetimes of Disposability and Surplus Entrepreneurs in Bagong Barrio, Manila.
    Geraldine Pratt, Caleb Johnston, Vanessa Banta.
    Antipode. June 29, 2016
    Working in collaboration with Migrante International and drawing on testimony of residents in the remittance‐dependent, migrant‐sending community of Bagong Barrio in Caloocan City in Metro Manila, Philippines, we examine the systematic production of lifetimes of disposability that drives labour migration across the generations. The closure of factories and contractualisation of work in the 1980s created the conditions in which labour migration is not a choice but a necessity. Diligent use of remittances to pay for the education of their children in many cases has produced a new generation of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs), and investment in housing often is another route to OFW status. Alongside this narrative of ongoing precarity, we listen closely to the testimony of residents for ways of living that are both subsumed within and somewhat excessive to accounts that might render their lives as merely waste or wasted. Sa tulong ng Migrante International at gamit ang ilang kwento ng mga residenteng patuloy na umaasa sa remittance o padala ng kanilang mga kamag anak na OFW, aming sisiyasatin sa papel na ito ang sistematikong produksyon ng tinatawag ni Neferti Tadiar na “life‐times of disposability” na siyang nagtutulak sa pangingibang bansa ng libo libong Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) mula sa Bagong Barrio, isang barangay sa lungsod ng Caloocan, Maynila. Sa lugar na ito, ang pagsasara ng maraming pabrika at kontraktwalisasyon nung 1980s ay siyang nagtulak sa marami upang maghanap ng trabaho sa ibang bansa. Para sa mga residente ng Bagong Barrio na aming napanayam, ang pagalis ng Pilipinas para sa hanap buhay ay hindi lamang isang personal na pagpapasiya. Isa itong kasagutan sa matinding pangangailangan. Bukod pa rito, karamihan sa mga OFW, sa tulong na rin ng kanilang mga kamag anak ay napipilitang gamitin ang remittance para sa pagaaral ng mga anak o sa pagbili ng lupa at bahay bilang puhunan para sa kanilang mga anak, ang susunod na henerasyon ng OFW sa kanilang pamilya. Sa kontekstong ito ng pawang na siklo ng pangingibang bansa, nais naming pakinggang mabuti ang mga kwento ng mga residente ng Bagong Barrio upang mabigyang pansin ang iba pang uri ng pamumuhay na kontra sa karaniwang pagtingin sa buhay ng Pilipinong migrante, na ito ay nasasayang lamang o isa nang patapon na buhay.
    June 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12249   open full text
  • Neil Smith's Scale.
    John Paul Jones, Helga Leitner, Sallie A. Marston, Eric Sheppard.
    Antipode. June 29, 2016
    In this essay, part of a special issue acknowledging the scholarship of Neil Smith, we trace his contributions to conceptualizing scale. From his important foundational text, Uneven Development, to his later works that fashioned a more malleable, constructivist, and socio‐cultural approach, Neil Smith made lifelong contributions to our understanding of the processes of scale production—contributions that have forever altered how we understand the relationships among space, capitalism, and politics.
    June 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12254   open full text
  • Migration, the Urban Periphery, and the Politics of Migrant Lives.
    Francis L. Collins.
    Antipode. June 29, 2016
    This paper explores the politics of migration through a focus on labor migration regimes and the urban lives of migrants in the Seoul Metropolitan Region of South Korea. In particular, it draws attention to the ways in which migrant lives highlight the limits of the contemporary emphasis on control in migration management regimes. The paper contends that while migration management certainly reworks the socio‐legal status of migrants, the desire for control is often displaced in the everyday presence and practices of migrants as urban residents. In order to develop this argument I focus on the notion of the urban periphery as a spatio‐temporal configuration that manifests marginalization but is also potentially generative, innovative and destabilizing. The paper proceeds by exploring three dimensions of the periphery: (1) the mobile commons that emerges in everyday life; (2) the process of becoming undocumented and the subversion of control; and (3) the tactics of recognition that challenge the peripheral location of migrants. In each case the focus on the urban periphery draws attention to the importance of visibility and invisibility in migration, to the uneven spatio‐temporal configuration of migrant lives in the city, and to the ways in which migrant desires constitute a politics that exceeds what is normatively expected of them. 본 연구는 한국의 외국인 근로자 관련 제도를 이해하고 서울 수도권 내 거주하는 외국인 근로자들의 일상 생활을 살펴봄으로써 국제이주의 본질을 분석해보고자 한다. 현대 국제 사회에서 이주민 관리 제도는 이주자의 사회적 혹은 법적 지위를 보장하는데 성공적이라는 평가를 받고 있다. 그러나, 본 논문의 요지는 도시 내 일상 생활에서 이들의 평범하면서도 평범하지 않은 존재와 실제때문에 이주관리제도의 통제력을 실현하기가 어렵다는 것이다. 도시 변두리의 시공간적 배치의 구성은 사회적 소외감을 드러내지만 생성적, 혁신적, 그리고 와해적인 잠재력이 있다는 이론적 논리 안에서 본 논문은 한국의 외국인 근로자들이 국제이주정책의 본질의 메커니즘과 예상을 어떻게 벗어나는지에 대하여 다음의 세가지 측면에서 연구하였다. 1) 외국인 근로자들의 도시변두리 안의 일상생활에서 생겨나는 사회 연결망, 또는 “모바일 커먼스” 2) 미등록 이주자가 되는 경우과 법에 어긋나게 되는 과정, 그리고 3) 도시 변두리에서 생겨나는 사회적 소외감에 대한 외국인 근로자들 스스로의 이의 제기 인식의 실태을 통해 조사하였다. 본 연구는 국제이주자들의 도시 변두리의 시공간적 배치를 강조함으로써 국제이주의 가시성과 불가시성의 중요성, 도시에 거주하는 이주민 삶의 불공평한 시공간적 배치, 그리고 국제이주민들로부터 통상적으로 기대하는 국제이주의 본질과는 반대로 그들의 열망이 시사하는 국제이주의 본질에 촛점을 맞추었다.
    June 29, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12255   open full text
  • These Bars Can't Hold Us Back: Plowing Incarcerated Geographies with Restorative Food Justice.
    Joshua Sbicca.
    Antipode. June 17, 2016
    Mass incarceration entrenches racial and class inequality and segregation. Before, during, and after low‐income people of color enter prison, they experience a range of barriers and biases that make it difficult to break out of the prison pipeline. This article investigates food justice and restorative justice activists in Oakland, California who are intervening at the point of reentry. I argue for the significance of teasing out the connections between food and carceral politics as a way to expand the practice and understanding of food justice. Specifically, I show how the incarcerated geographies of former prisoners, that is, perspectives and experiences that result due to the prison pipeline, motivate the formation of a restorative food justice. The associated healing and mutual aid practices increase social equity by creating spaces to overcome the historical trauma of mass incarceration, produce living wage jobs, rearticulate relationships to food and land, and achieve policy reforms.
    June 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12247   open full text
  • Epistemological Ignorances and Fighting for the Disappeared: Lessons from Mexico.
    Melissa W. Wright.
    Antipode. May 16, 2016
    Social justice struggles across the Americas have, over the last half century, transformed the urban areas of this region into international staging grounds for protesting the global devastation wrought by capitalist exploitation, state terror and social hatred. This paper maintains that there is much to learn for struggles against this triangulation in other parts of the world. In particular, through a discussion of how contemporary activism in Mexico against feminicidio, drug wars and brutal repression draws from a long legacy of protest across the Americas, I seek to illustrate the relevance for other places as people fight a cruel modernity that evolves through terror, profit and hatred. Critical geography has long contributed to exposing these connections and can still deepen its commitments to mapping the landscapes of the growing populations of disappeared and marginalized peoples in Mexico and elsewhere.
    May 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12244   open full text
  • Subjectification in Times of Indebtedness and Neoliberal/Austerity Urbanism.
    Cesare Di Feliciantonio.
    Antipode. May 16, 2016
    How can we analyse the (re)emergence of squatting in relation to the current housing crisis in Italy? Centred on the case of Rome, the paper theorizes this return as resulting from processes of subjectification in the housing sector linked to the raising of indebtedness as a main dispositif of capitalism under neoliberal/austerity urbanism agendas. The political economy‐oriented literature on neoliberal/austerity urbanism is bridged with the post‐Marxist approach of Maurizio Lazzarato. Debt is seen as the archetype of social relations, shaping and controlling subjectivities, making the “work on yourself” essential to the reproduction of (indebted) society. However, given the circular nature of power, indebtedness can be generative of new processes of subjectification aimed at subverting the same power relation. In this sense, the paper operationalizes the conceptualization of Foucauldian subjectification recently proposed by Judith Revel, emphasizing how subjectification always results from (1) an action/gesture and (2) a consequent deconstruction of the identity. Come analizzare il ritorno della pratica delle occupazioni nel contesto dell'attuale crisi del settore della casa in Italia? Focalizzandosi sul caso di Roma, il contributo analizza tale ritorno come risultante dai processi di soggettivazione nel settore della casa legati all'emergere del debito come principale dispositivo del capitalismo nella fase di adozione di politiche urbane neoliberiste e di austerità. Il contributo combina la letteratura su queste politiche nell'ambito della political economy con l'approccio post‐marxista di Maurizio Lazzarato. Il debito è teorizzato come l'archetipo delle relazioni sociali che dà forma e controlla le soggettività, rendendo il “lavoro su di se” essenziale per la riproduzione della società (indebitata). Tuttavia, data la natura circolare delle relazioni di potere, il debito può dare vita a nuovi processi di soggettivazione finalizzati a sovvertire quella stessa relazione di potere. A tal proposito, il contributo rende operativa la concettualizzazione della soggettivazione foucaultiana sviluppata recentemente da Judith Revel, riconoscendo come la soggettivazione sia sempre il risultato di (i) un'azione o gesto e (ii) una conseguente decostruzione dell'identità.
    May 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12243   open full text
  • Lives Versus Livelihoods? Deepening the Regulatory Debates on Soil Fumigants in California's Strawberry Industry.
    Julie Guthman.
    Antipode. May 16, 2016
    Soil fumigants have been critical to the California strawberry industry's success, but they are also highly toxic to farmworkers and nearby residents. This article traces recent regulatory debates over restrictions on their use which were cast as a contest of lives and livelihoods: activists emphasized the danger of the chemicals while industry emphasized their necessity. Activists’ claims were typical of environmental justice battles that focus on disproportionate toxic exposure to marginalized populations, but I problematize that they downplayed industry concern with farmworker jobs. Drawing on Marx, Foucault and recent literature on surplus populations and disposability, I suggest that the analytical separation of lives and livelihoods is complicit in the making of disposable workers such as California farmworkers. Strategically, upholding the separation was a missed opportunity to leverage the strawberry industry's new‐found concern with farmworker employment and push for measures that protect current and future farmworker health. Fumigantes de la tierra han sido críticos para el éxito de la industria de la fresa de California, pero también son altamente tóxicos para los trabajadores agrícolas y los residentes cercanos. Este artículo describe los recientes debates reglamentarios sobre restricciones en su uso, que fueron emitidos como un concurso de vidas y medios de vida: activistas hicieron hincapié en el peligro de los productos químicos, mientras que la industria hizo hincapié en su necesidad. Demandas de los activistas eran típicas de las batallas de justicia ambiental que se centran en la exposición tóxica desproporcionada a las poblaciones marginadas, pero problematizo que despiden la preocupación de la industria con puestos de trabajo de los trabajadores agrícolas. Sobre la base de Marx, Foucault y literatura reciente sobre las poblaciones excedentes y disponibilidad de acceso, yo sugiero que la separación analítica de la vida y el sustento es cómplice en la fabricación de los trabajadores desechables, tales como los trabajadores agrícolas de California. Estratégicamente, la defensa de la separación fue una oportunidad perdida para aprovechar la recién descubierta preocupación de la industria de la fresa con el empleo de los trabajadores agrícolas y impulsó medidas que protejan la salud de los trabajadores agrícolas actuales y futuras.
    May 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12246   open full text
  • Feminist Forays in the City: Imbalance and Intervention in Urban Research Methods.
    Brenda Parker.
    Antipode. May 16, 2016
    In this paper I argue that imbalances and silences persist in urban research. In particular, there is insufficient attention to anti‐racist and feminist theoretical, methodological, and empirical insights. Intersectional and materialist urban analyses that take difference seriously are under‐represented, while patriarchy, privilege, and positivism still linger. As a partial and aspirational remedy, I propose a “Feminist Partial Political Economy of Place” (FPEP) approach to urban research. FPEP is characterized by: (1) attention to gendered, raced, and intersectional power relations, including affinities and alliances; (2) reliance on partial, place‐based, materialist research that attends to power in knowledge production; (3) emphasis on feminist concepts of relationality to examine connections among sites, scales, and subjects, and to emphasize “life” and possibility; and (4) the use of theoretical toolkits to observe, interpret and challenge material‐discursive power relations. My own critique and research centers on North American cities, but FPEP approaches might help produce more robust, inclusive, and explanatory urban research in varied geographic contexts.
    May 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12241   open full text
  • On Narco‐coyotaje: Illicit Regimes and Their Impacts on the US–Mexico Border.
    Jeremy Slack, Howard Campbell.
    Antipode. May 11, 2016
    Many have debated whether or not human smugglers, known as coyotes, are involved with drug trafficking organizations. Scholars have largely rejected so‐called “narcocoyotaje”, however; we hope to problematize this narrative by adding a new theoretical layer to the discussion. Namely, we explore the ways in which different criminal activities produce hierarchies and control illicit activities within the clandestine geography of the US–Mexico border. These “illicit regimes” operate against the State, creating a hierarchy that dominates other illicit activities in order to maximize profit, avoid detection and consolidate power. While other studies have explored the relationships between the State and illicit practices this article takes the relationship between two illicit industries as its object of study. Doing so will help us move past the simply binary question about whether or not coyotes are involved with drug cartels, and allows us to understand what is being produced by this relationship, and its consequences for everyone involved. El presente artículo analiza el debate sobre el fenómeno del coyotaje y si los coyotes (traficantes de indocumentados) establecen una relación con las organizaciones del narcotráfico. Hasta ahora los estudios han descartado la idea del “narco‐coyotaje” (una asociación entre narcotraficantes y traficantes de migrantes). Sin embargo, la investigación presentada retoma este tema y le da un giro empírico y teórico. Examinamos como las diferentes actividades criminales crean jerarquías que controlan los negocios ilícitos en la frontera de México con los Estados Unidos. Estos “regímenes ilícitos” operan en contra del Estado y construyen estructuras compuestas de diversas ramas de negocios “chuecos” para producir mayores ganancias, evitar la ley y consolidar su poder. Aunque otros estudios abarcan la relación entre el estado y los grupos criminales, este articulo toma como tema de investigación la relación entre dos importantes industrias ilícitas (el contrabando de migrantes y el de narcóticos). Este nuevo enfoque nos ayuda a comprender las limitaciones de las investigaciones que se reducen solo a la cuestión sobre una posible relación entre coyotes y los carteles de drogas; a la vez esto nos da una nueva visión sobre las consecuencias sociales de esta relación criminal.
    May 11, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12242   open full text
  • Constructing a Culture of Solidarity: London and the British Coalfields in the Long 1970s.
    Diarmaid Kelliher.
    Antipode. May 03, 2016
    This article explores relationships of solidarity constructed between London and the British coalfields from 1968 until the 1984–1985 miners’ strike. Foregrounding the development of a culture of solidarity over this period resituates the support movement during the 1984–1985 strike as embedded in longer‐term relationships, which suggests a more equal relationship between coalfield and metropolitan activists than is given by focusing narrowly on the year itself. I argue that a spatially and temporally dynamic sense of the development of these relationships allows us to better grasp the potentially mutual nature of solidarity. Thinking about the construction of this culture of solidarity can contribute significantly to understanding the nature of labour agency. I emphasise the generative nature of solidarity, particularly the ways in which the spatial and social boundaries of the labour movement were challenged through solidarity relationships, allowing in some instances a more diverse conception of working‐class politics.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12245   open full text
  • Broken Windows Policing and Constructions of Space and Crime: Flatbush, Brooklyn.
    Brian Jordan Jefferson.
    Antipode. May 03, 2016
    While broken windows policing has triggered explosive debates about law enforcement and racism across US cities, it has maintained considerable support by racialized urbanites. Focusing on Flatbush, Brooklyn, this paper seeks to understand the striking resilience of broken windows in inner‐city contexts. It uses Laclau and Mouffe's discourse theory to analyze dialogue at Precinct Community Council meetings and interviews with attendees. The paper makes the case that the New York Police Department normalizes broken windows through discursive constructions of social space and crime that naturalize the precinct scale, produce spatial meanings, and cast social difference in the mold of broken windows theory. The article illustrates beyond the politics of racialized fearmongering, the normalization of broken windows also occurs through this meticulous production of geographic knowledge. It also emphasizes that deconstructing the way the police portray space and crime provides signposts for substantive reform to broken windows.
    May 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12240   open full text
  • Carceral Space: Prisoners and Animals.
    Karen M. Morin.
    Antipode. May 02, 2016
    This paper develops a framework for exploring resonances across human and nonhuman carceral geographies. I illustrate the close linkages across prisoner and animal carcerality and captivity focusing on three types of sites and institutions: the prison execution chamber and the animal slaughterhouse; sites of laboratory testing of pharmaceutical and other products on incarcerated humans and captive animals; and sites and institutions of exploited prisoner and animal labor. The main themes that call for a “carceral comparison” among these sites include: the emotional and psychological strain and violence enacted on bodies that is interwoven into their day‐to‐day operations; their geographies (locations, design, and layout) and carefully regulated movements within them; relationships between carcerality and “purpose breeding” that extends across both nonhuman and human populations; the ways in which “animalization” of incarcerated bodies works to create conditions for social death and killability; and the legal and political contexts that produce certain lives as disposable “bare lives”.
    May 02, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12239   open full text
  • The Politics of Carbon Market Design: Rethinking the Techno‐politics and Post‐politics of Climate Change.
    Gareth Bryant.
    Antipode. April 13, 2016
    Carbon markets have provided fertile ground for research on the changing nature of political contestation. MacKenzie locates a “techno‐politics” of carbon markets that creates new possibilities for a “politics of market design”. In contrast, Swyngedouw argues carbon markets are part of a “post‐political” shift that narrows potential pathways through “depoliticisation”. This article engages with these debates by examining three recent attempts to reform the ailing European Union Emissions Trading System: restricting industrial gas offsets, backloading allowance auctions and the 2030 climate and energy package. It conceptualises the respective episodes as contests over the reach, force and priority of value determinations in climate policy, emphasising the contradictory imperatives facing states on each issue. The outcomes of contestation between industry groups and environmental organisations—real but limited reforms and a consolidation of the carbon market over alternatives—demonstrate the constraints facing technocratic campaigning and the ongoing politicisation of climate change.
    April 13, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12237   open full text
  • Green Infrastructure, Grey Epistemologies, and the Urban Political Ecology of Pittsburgh's Water Governance.
    Michael H. Finewood.
    Antipode. April 06, 2016
    This paper explores Pittsburgh's water governance to consider the way divergent approaches to urban stormwater management reproduce existing urban metabolisms and belie more radical possibilities for the urban hydro‐social cycle. Federal action has forced municipalities in the Pittsburgh metropolitan region to make changes to its urban water systems and develop a plan to comply with water quality regulations. Within Pittsburgh's water governance debates, compliance centers on various sets of technological strategies for defining and solving purportedly wicked urban environmental problems. Urban political ecology, here, is used to deconstruct the tensions and convergences between these different stormwater governance strategies. I argue that green infrastructure approaches (whose intentions are to expand practice and participation) are framed by dominant grey epistemological approaches. In this view, alternative and creative forms of greening the city may not necessarily represent a more democratic process, but instead reproduce uneven urban landscapes under greener cover.
    April 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12238   open full text
  • Rethinking Land Struggle in the Postindustrial City.
    Sara Safransky.
    Antipode. March 28, 2016
    The racial and cultural politics of land and property are central to urban struggle, but have received relatively little attention in geography. This paper analyzes land struggles in Detroit where over 100,000 parcels of land are classified as “vacant”. Since 2010, planners and government officials have been developing controversial plans to ruralize Detroit's “vacant” neighborhoods as part of a program of fiscal austerity, reigniting old questions of racialized dispossession, sovereignty, and struggles for liberation. This paper analyzes these contentious politics by examining disputes over a white businessman's proposal to build the world's largest urban forest in the center of a Black majority city. I focus on how residents, urban farmers, and community activists resisted the project by making counterclaims to vacant land as an urban commons. They argued that the land is inhabited not empty and that it belonged to those who labored upon and suffered for it. Combining community‐based ethnography with insights from critical property theory, critical race studies, and postcolonial theory, I argue that land struggles in Detroit are more than distributional conflicts over resources. They are inextricable from debates over notions of race, property, and citizenship that undergird modern liberal democracies and ongoing struggles for decolonization.
    March 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12225   open full text
  • The Labor of (Re)reading Plantation Landscapes Fungible(ly).
    Tiffany Lethabo King.
    Antipode. March 22, 2016
    This article centers Saidiya Hartman's and Hortense Spillers' theorizations of Black fungibility as well as two speculative visual works in order to read Black bodies on plantation landscapes as symbols of transition, process, genderlessness and boundarylessness. I argue that reading Black bodies in this way breaks with the totalizing visual, conceptual and ontological regime of labor that tends to over determine Blackness within critical theories. Two visual fields help me with this counter read: William Gerrard De Brahm's 1757 “Map of South Carolina and a Part of Georgia”, as well as Julie Dash's 1991 images of the porous indigo‐stained hands of former slaves who worked indigo in the film Daughters of the Dust. While these two images oppose one another, their visual conventions enable a break with colonial and humanist scopic regimes like “Black labor” that tend to subsume multiple and intricate processes into the governing logic of labor.
    March 22, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12227   open full text
  • Dynamic Resistance: Third‐Sector Processes for Transforming Neoliberalization.
    Stella Darby.
    Antipode. March 21, 2016
    This paper proposes a holistic framework called dynamic resistance for analysing and animating third‐sector organizations’ contestations of neoliberalization. It argues that the third sector constitutes a rich terrain for transforming neoliberalization processes to promote human flourishing and social justice. Dynamic resistance comprises four elements—rejection, resilience, resourcefulness, and reflexive practice—within a cyclical process which can occur simultaneously at different organizational scales. Four vignettes, drawn from participatory action research, illustrate these processes at Oblong, a grassroots community group in Leeds which now runs a community centre. Despite engagement with neoliberal mechanisms, Oblong provides an example of dynamic resistance in practice, avoiding “mission drift” and prioritizing self‐defined core values of equality, collectivity, empowerment, sustainability, respect and care, and being community led. Dynamic resistance suggests third‐sector organizations’ capacity to construct transformative social empowerment through ever‐changing practices which are proactive and self‐directed as well as responsive.
    March 21, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12235   open full text
  • Entrepreneurial Urbanism After the Crisis: Ireland's “Bad Bank” and the Redevelopment of Dublin's Docklands.
    Michael Byrne.
    Antipode. March 17, 2016
    The development of Dublin's Docklands was paradigmatic of the speculative storm that overwhelmed the Irish economy between the late 1990s and the crisis of 2008. It also served as a textbook case of entrepreneurial urbanism, with the development agency driving private‐led development on a former industrial and waterfront site. Following the crash, however, the key actors have been decimated: the development agency itself, the developers and the banks. This article traces the re‐emergence of Docklands development in order to analyse post‐crisis urban development. I argue that the latest phase of development reproduces key aspects of entrepreneurial urbanism, but also includes novel aspects. In particular, the National Asset Management Agency, a “bad bank” set up to rescue the financial sector, emerges as a major force. The article contributes to debates on urban development after the crash, and the specific relationship between post‐crisis entrepreneurial urbanism and financialization.
    March 17, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12231   open full text
  • Terr(it)or(ies) of Peace? The Congolese Mining Frontier and the Fight Against “Conflict Minerals”.
    Christoph Vogel, Timothy Raeymaekers.
    Antipode. March 15, 2016
    This article traces the geography of the “conflict minerals” campaign and its impact on artisanal mining in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, a region that currently emerges as a pioneer case of traceability and due diligence efforts with regard to the exploitation and trade in tantalum, tungsten and tin. We subsequently analyse the opening and attempted closure of the Congolese resource frontier in the context of recent market reform, and we describe how this process has accompanied a transnational corporate–government nexus bent on monopolising Congo's artisanal 3 T resources. Specifically, we argue how the conflict minerals campaign and its implementation “on the ground” has brought about a harmful, disruptive logic for an artisanal mining sector that is notoriously categorised as unruly, illegal, and informal, but of which upstream stakeholders have in practice been jeopardised by transnational reform. We thus shift the attention from questions on the political economy of “resource wars” towards a deeper understanding of the intersecting spaces of production and regulation that underpin formalisation and traceability of “conflict minerals” in this protracted conflict environment. Cet article retrace la géographie de la campagne contre les «minerais de conflit» et son impact sur l'exploitation minière artisanale à l'est de la République Démocratique du Congo (RDC), une région qui émerge actuellement comme un cas pionnier d'efforts de traçabilité et de diligence raisonnable à l'égard de l'exploitation et du commerce de tantale, tungstène et étain (3 T). Nous analysons l'ouverture et la fermeture tentative de cette «frontière de ressources» en RDC dans le contexte de cette intervention récente, et nous décrivons comment ce processus accompagne l'émergence d'un assemblage transnational qui soutient une monopolisation progressive des ressources artisanales 3 T. Précisément, nous analysons la façon dont la campagne contre les «minerais de conflit» et sa mise en œuvre «sur terrain» a provoqué une logique néfaste et disruptive pour un secteur d'exploitation minière artisanale qui est notoirement jugé indiscipliné, illégal et informel, mais dont les parties prenantes en amont de la chaine d'approvisionnement ont été largement mis en péril. Nous déplaçons ainsi l'attention sur l'économie politique des «guerres de ressources» en portant l'analyse vers une compréhension plus profonde des espaces d'intersection entre production et régulation qui proposent la formalisation et traçabilité des minerais comme solution aux problèmes plus larges liés aux conflits armés.
    March 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12236   open full text
  • The “Blind” State: Government Quest for Formalization and Conflict with Small‐Scale Miners in the Peruvian Amazon.
    Gerardo H. Damonte.
    Antipode. March 14, 2016
    The Peruvian government is attempting to implement a formalization plan to deal with the chaotic expansion of small‐scale mining activities in the Amazon. However, this plan has been contested, delayed and halted by local miners. Why exactly has it been so hard for the government to enforce a formalization plan in Madre de Dios? This article aims to answer this question by analysing both government efforts to establish control over the region and the challenges it faces in enforcing its formalization plan. It is argued that current resistance to and conflict over the formalization process in Madre de Dios reveals a state governance problem due to the region having been historically governed as a zone for exploitation rather than for social and economic development. Similarly, the analysis highlights the absence of major corporations through which the state can establish a basis for governance, as in other parts of the country. El gobierno peruano ha intentado implementar un plan de formalización para lidiar con la expansión caótica de la minería a pequeña escala en la Amazonía. Sin embargo, dicho plan ha sido impugnado, obstaculizado y detenido por los propios mineros. ¿Por qué es tan difícil para el gobierno llevar adelante el plan de formalización en la región de Madre de Dios? El presente artículo busca responder a esta pregunta a partir del análisis de los esfuerzos del gobierno para establecer control político y los retos que afronta para implementar su plan de formalización. Se argumenta que la resistencia y los conflictos que genera el plan de formalización revelan problemas de gobernabilidad cuyas raíces se encuentran en el hecho de que la región ha sido históricamente gobernada como una zona de extracción de recursos antes que un espacio de potencial desarrollo social y económico. En este sentido, el análisis resalta la ausencia de corporaciones mineras por medio de las cuales, en otras partes del país, el estado ha establecido las bases de un modelo de gobernabilidad mediada.
    March 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12230   open full text
  • Deserving Welcome? Immigrants, Christian Faith Communities, and the Contentious Politics of Belonging in the US South.
    Caroline Nagel, Patricia Ehrkamp.
    Antipode. March 14, 2016
    This article examines articulations of merit and deservingness in relation to immigrants in the US South. In a context of pronounced anti‐immigrant sentiment, scholars have rightfully focused on state practices that marginalize immigrants. Yet xenophobia and exclusion are but one set of responses to immigrants. Societies also construct immigrants as meritorious figures: hard workers, entrepreneurs, and upholders of family values. The figure of the “good immigrant”, like that of the “bad immigrant”, is routinely produced and reproduced in social settings that are not obviously political, including churches. Christian faith communities in the US South, we show, offer the potential for a politics built around inclusive understandings of belonging. But Christian universalism is in constant tension with nationalist ways of thinking and acting. Whether they praise immigrants for their virtues or criticize them for their shortcomings, congregants and pastors tend to cast immigrants in the role of foreign Other. Dieser Aufsatz erörtert wie Einwanderern im Süden der USA gesellschaftlicher Wert und Verdienst zugeschrieben oder abgesprochen werden. Im Rahmen der stark ausgeprägten Anti‐Einwandererstimmung in der Region haben Wissenschaftler zu Recht zunächst staatliche Praktiken, die zur Ausgrenzung von Einwanderern beitragen, untersucht. Fremdenfeindlichkeit und Ausgrenzung sind aber lediglich zwei der möglichen Reaktionen auf Einwanderer. Die Gesellschaft betrachtet Zuwanderer oft auch als verdienstvoll: sie werden als harte Arbeiter, Unternehmer, und Träger von Familienwerten aufgefasst. Das Symbol des “guten Einwanderers” ensteht dabei ebenso wie das des “schlechten Einwanderers” gewöhnlich in sozialen Situationen, die, wie wir beispielhaft für christliche Gemeinden zeigen, bei oberflächlicher Betrachtung nicht offensichtlich als politisch motiviert erscheinen. Jedoch schaffen diese christlichen Glaubensgemeinschaften im Süden der USA Raum für eine integrationsfreundliche Politik der Zugehörigkeit. Dabei stehen allerdings christlicher Universalismus und nationalistisches Denken und Handeln in ständiger Spannung zueinander. Es macht dabei kaum einen Unterschied, ob Gemeindemitglieder und Pastoren Einwanderer für ihre Tugenden loben oder sie für ihre Mängel kritisieren. In der Regel finden sich Einwanderer in der Rolle des fremden „Anderen“ wieder.
    March 14, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12233   open full text
  • Between Water Abundance and Scarcity: Discourses, Biofuels, and Power in Piura, Peru.
    Patricia Urteaga‐Crovetto.
    Antipode. March 09, 2016
    In 2006, transnational ethanol corporations arrived in Chira, a semi‐arid zone located in the Piura region of northern Peru. Large expanses of land were used to produce sugarcane for ethanol, which triggered local concern over the pressure this would mean on the regional water balance. From political ecology, I examine how the state and a corporation produced discourses on the idea of water abundance in the Chira Basin in order to secure water rights, which increased the risk of water scarcity for small communities, pastoralists and farmers in the region. In doing so, I call attention to the discursive strategies aimed to facilitate processes of dispossession under a technical ethos that reinforce capital accumulation. Finally, I argue that water abundance discourses contributed to produce a “waterscape” that not only produced unsustainable water use but also reinforced social inequalities. En el año 2006 varias compañías transnacionales interesadas en producir etanol llegaron al valle del Chira, ubicado en la región de Piura al norte de Perú. Adquirieron grandes extensiones de tierra en esta zona semi‐árida para cultivar caña de azúcar, lo que preocupó a los usuarios locales debido a la presión que ello implicaría sobre el balance hídrico. Desde la ecología política, en este artículo analizo cómo el Estado y una compañía crearon discursos que proyectaban la idea de abundancia de agua en la cuenca del Chira para asegurar sus derechos de agua. Muestro cómo los derechos de agua que fueron asignados a esta compañía con base en la estrategia discursiva de la abundancia de agua incrementaron el riesgo de escasez de agua para las comunidades, pastores y los agricultores de la región. Finalmente, sostengo que estos discursos contribuyeron a producir un paisaje acuático (waterscape) que no sólo generó un uso insostenible del agua sino que también reforzó las desigualdades sociales.
    March 09, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12234   open full text
  • Critical Geographies of Education Beyond “Value”: Moral Sentiments, Caring, and a Politics for Acting Differently.
    Yi’En Cheng.
    Antipode. March 07, 2016
    Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Singapore between 2013 and 2014, this article discusses the ways in which students mobilise different moral and ethical values to perform informal care at a private educational institute. The task is to advance a critical analysis of how students can “act differently” from the dominant strategic and calculative image of a neoliberal actor as portrayed in broader literature. Specifically, I suggest more attention needs to be given to love and care as the basis for radical practices in everyday life. I discuss the themes of deconstructive empathy, friendship solidarities, and intergenerational love to demonstrate how caring practices can produce more‐than‐capitalist subjectivities in the neoliberalising spaces of higher education. The article adds theoretical and empirical flesh to ongoing efforts in exploring “alternative” experiences of neoliberalising education through care, love, and intimacy.
    March 07, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12232   open full text
  • “Go get a job right after you take a bath”: Occupy Wall Street as Matter Out of Place.
    Matthew Bolton, Stephen Froese, Alex Jeffrey.
    Antipode. March 06, 2016
    Anthropological studies of purity reveal how notions of cleanliness influence political and social life. During its 2011 Zuccotti Park occupation in Lower Manhattan, Occupy Wall Street (OWS) contested spatial and symbolic manifestations of neoliberalism by re‐inserting Otherness into sanitized and privatized space. But the demonstration provoked reactions from politicians and news media that entwined discourses of cleanliness and productivity (such as Newt Gingrich's riposte to the protestors: “Go get a job right after you take a bath”). This ethnographic study argues that such representations had spatial and political effects. In particular, our account illuminates the plural agency of Occupiers, where resistance to depictions of dirt and idleness existed alongside the use of such discourses to discipline each other. We trace a discursive legacy of these events as notions of productivity and cleanliness have circulated within activist responses to 2012's Superstorm Sandy and the 2014 Flood Wall Street mobilization.
    March 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12226   open full text
  • Ordinary Emergency: Drones, Police, and Geographies of Legal Terror.
    Tyler Wall.
    Antipode. March 06, 2016
    This paper brings into conversation two ostensibly disparate geographies of state violence: the routine police surveillance and killing of members of the “dangerous classes” in the United States, an issue that is in no way new but nevertheless has gained increased attention over the last year with the Black Lives Matter movement; and the targeted drone strikes against “terrorist suspects” in the “war on terror”. By laying side by side the “war drone” and domestic police power, it becomes readily apparent that despite ostensible differences—foreign vs. domestic, war vs. peace, exceptional vs. normal, military vs. police, legal vs. extralegal—the unmanning of state violence gains much of its political and legal force from the language and categories that have long animated the routine policing of domestic territory. The paper calls for taking the violence of police power more seriously than many drone commentators have.
    March 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12228   open full text
  • Rhetoric in the Representation of a Multi‐Ethnic Neighbourhood: The Case of Via Padova, Milan.
    Pietro L. Verga.
    Antipode. March 06, 2016
    This paper analyses how the neighbourhood of Via Padova in Milan, Italy has been represented and problematized by the media and the last two municipal administrations over the last decade. Since the late 1990s, Via Padova has undergone a significant socio‐demographic transformation, one which has eventually characterised the area as one of the most multi‐ethnic and diverse districts in the whole city. However, this transformation process and the upcoming new framework for the neighbourhood have been explained and approached in very different (and contested) ways. The aim of this paper is to compare the different narratives provided by both the media and also governmental institutions during the formerly right‐wing and current left‐wing administrations, and the implications of this, both in the shaping of a collective image of the area and in the development of local policies. L'articolo analizza come nello scorso decennio il quartiere di Via Padova a Milano sia stato rappresentato e problematizzato dai media e dalle ultime due amministrazioni comunali. A partire dalla fine degli Anni Novanta l'area in questione ha subito un profondo mutamento socio‐demografico che ha progressivamente caratterizzato Via Padova come uno dei settori più eterogenei e multietnici della città. Tuttavia, negli anni sono emerse letture ed interpretazioni discordanti di questo processo di trasformazione e della risultante nuova struttura del quartiere. L'articolo compara le diverse narrative fornite dai media e dalla giunta comunale, sia durante la passata amministrazione di centro‐destra che durante quella attuale di centro‐sinistra, al fine di individuare le implicazioni di queste nella costruzione di un immaginario pubblico del quartiere e nello sviluppo di specifiche politiche locali.
    March 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12229   open full text
  • The Inconsistent City, Participatory Planning, and the Part of No Part in Recife, Brazil.
    Pieter Vries.
    Antipode. March 03, 2016
    This article engages with the trajectory of urban participation in Recife, Brazil, from its start as a governance system aimed at ensuring the right of the poor to the city, to the introduction by the Workers’ Party of participatory budgeting. I argue that participation is used by the state in order to include populations within governmental structures while the poor struggle for the right to belong to the city. Drawing on Alain Badiou's ontology of multiplicity I contend that the urban situation is grounded in inconsistency, as manifested in the existence of a category of people who “sit at the edge of the void”, that neither is included nor belongs. I conclude that the popular mobilizations in Recife in the 1980s constituted a true emancipatory event that exposed the divisions of the city, the existence of a fundamental wrong, and that proclaimed the right of the excluded to the city.
    March 03, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12223   open full text
  • Boom, Bugs, Bust: Egypt's Ecology of Interest, 1882–1914.
    Aaron Jakes.
    Antipode. February 25, 2016
    A century ago, Egypt's British‐run government conscripted thousands of peasant children annually to pick caterpillars from cotton plants. Amidst a double crisis of agro‐ecological degradation and financial collapse, the nationalist movement simultaneously critiqued the exploitation of peasant labor by unproductive foreign finance and endorsed these cotton‐worm campaigns as a national obligation. This article builds upon recent efforts to re‐theorize capitalism as world‐ecology in order to explain this apparently paradoxical position. Rather than frame such confrontations between “society” and “nature” as instances of an elite regime of “techno‐politics”, it argues that both the nationalist critique of foreign capital and the widely felt imperative to wage “war against insects” were features of an “ecology of interest” that multiple waves of financial investment had produced. Egypt's crises provided fodder for anti‐colonial mobilizations. But they also inaugurated a new predicament of developing national capital in a landscape already pillaged as a commodity frontier for empire.
    February 25, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12216   open full text
  • “A plague of wild boars”: A New History of Pigs and People in Late 20th Century Europe.
    Thomas Fleischman.
    Antipode. February 24, 2016
    This paper looks at an ungulate irruption of wild boars that occurred in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the 1970s and 1980s. It argues that this hybrid phenomenon resulted from the confluence of three historically specific, intertwined factors in late 20th century Europe: first, East Germany's embrace of development ideology to remake their farms and forests; second, the simultaneous introduction of a specifically East German conservation program; and third, a new era in the longue durée of human–pig relationships. This ungulate irruption was particular to the GDR and the central European landscape of the Cold War, and only becomes visible through careful attention to the historical context and the materiality of pigs (Sus scrofa). For this reason it is possible to call these pigs new creatures of development. More broadly this paper asks both historians and social scientists to account for the temporal and spatial context when analyzing hybrid phenomena, while also raising important questions about the meaning and application of the neologism Anthropocene.
    February 24, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12217   open full text
  • Isolation Through Humanitarianism: Subaltern Geopolitics of the Siege on Gaza.
    Ron J. Smith.
    Antipode. February 16, 2016
    Scholars have argued that in attempts to achieve geopolitical goals, siege often results in covert assaults against civilian populations. In the Gazan context, siege subjects are rendered as surplus to the Israeli state, and are therefore isolated and deprived of basic human needs as well as human rights. In 2006, siege was enacted against Gaza, enforced by the Egyptian and Israeli militaries. As a consequence, the population of Gaza is isolated from the exchange of goods, services, people, and ideas. This article begins with an analysis of siege as a violent process and as a subset of occupation practices. Using ethnographic data collected in Gaza between 2009 and 2014, this article mobilizes the methods and approach of subaltern geopolitics to undermine the notion of siege as a humanitarian alternative to war. This study reveals the micro‐scale, graduated nature of siege and its impacts on the civilians living in Gaza.
    February 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12224   open full text
  • Unpacking “Accumulation By Dispossession”, “Fictitious Commodification”, and “Fictitious Capital Formation”: Tracing the Dynamics of Bahrain's Land Reclamation.
    Omar Hesham AlShehabi, Saleh Suroor.
    Antipode. February 16, 2016
    We explore the interrelationships between the concepts of fictitious commodities, fictitious capital and accumulation by dispossession. We do so through a detailed examination of the dynamics of land reclamation in the Kingdom of Bahrain during the years 2001–2014. Particularly, we dissect in‐depth the ensemble of social relations and chain of events involved in two specific real estate projects, Norana and Bahrain Financial Harbour, that have come to symbolize Bahrain's neoliberal era. Reclamation was a unique process in which land was explicitly produced as a commodity for market purposes. Primary material of land deeds, company registration documents, and news articles were used to map out the social relations across the state–finance–real estate nexus. We emphasize that our understanding of accumulation by dispossession involving land is greatly enhanced if we view it as a process of reconfiguring the ensemble of social relations using fictitious commodification and fictitious capital formation.
    February 16, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12222   open full text
  • From the Panama Canal to Post‐Fordism: Producing Temporary Labor Migrants Within and Beyond Agriculture in the United States (1904–2013).
    Gabrielle E. Clark.
    Antipode. February 15, 2016
    In the historical study of modern American capitalism, labor unfreedom in agriculture has been conceptualized as an exception to liberal labor relations in the post‐slavery polity, from debt peonage to the threat of deportation from workplaces populated by non‐citizen migrants. At the same time, state‐enforced labor compulsions and restrictions are increasingly part and parcel of what scholars call neoliberal exceptionalism. This article argues that agricultural and neoliberal exceptionalisms are related, by tracing the historical genealogy and juridical production of a restrictive work status, the deportable temporary labor migrant, across political economies in the modern United States, from imperial construction in the Panama Canal Zone, to agriculture, to the knowledge economy. Contrary to existing notions of temporary work visas as a new form of unfreedom in neoliberalized advanced capitalist states, I show how the threat of deportation is older and rooted in the rise of the liberal regulatory state in a post‐slavery, yet persistently racial capitalist political economy. The import of understanding this history of government intervention increases as the liberal regulatory state's coercive logics and practices intensify and circulate in agriculture and under a post‐Fordist regime of accumulation, reproducing racial capitalism in the labor process.
    February 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12218   open full text
  • Rock Stars and Bad Apples: Moral Economies of Alternative Food Networks and Precarious Farm Work Regimes.
    Anelyse M. Weiler, Gerardo Otero, Hannah Wittman.
    Antipode. February 10, 2016
    Alternative food networks face both challenges and opportunities in rethinking the role of precarious employment in food system transformation. We explore how alternative food networks in British Columbia, Canada have engaged with flexible and precarious work regimes for farmworkers, including both temporary migrant workers and un(der)paid agricultural interns. Based on in‐depth interviews, participant observation and document analysis, we find that alternative food actors often normalize a precarious work regime using a moral economy frame. This framing describes precarious farm employment as either a necessary challenge in the transition to sustainability, or merely involving a few individual “bad apple” farmers. Further, this framing involves an aversion to “one‐size‐fits‐all” regulation by the state in favor of consumer‐driven regulation of labor standards. Our analysis suggests that a moral economy framing can obscure systemic inequities in precarious farm employment and dampen the impetus for structural change through collective food movement organizing. Las redes alimentarias alternativas enfrentan tanto desafíos como oportunidades para repensar el papel del empleo precario en la transformación del sistema alimentario. Aquí exploramos las redes alimentarias alternativas en Colombia Británica, Canadá, y cómo se han involucrado en regímenes laborales flexibles y precarios para los trabajadores agrícolas, incluyendo tanto trabajadores migrantes como internos agrícolas impagos o pagados por debajo del salario mínimo. Nuestros hallazgos, basados en entrevistas a profundidad, observación participativa y análisis documental, indican que los actores en las redes alternativas a menudo normalizan un régimen laboral precario utilizando un enmarcado narrativo de economía moral. Este enmarcado describe el empleo agrícola precario ya sea como un desafío necesario en la transición hacia la sustentabilidad, o bien como algo que sólo involucra algunos agricultores que serían “manzanas podridas” en un sistema por lo demás justo. Además, este enmarcado involucra una aversión a cualquier regulación que haga tabla raza en su aplicación por parte del Estado, ya sea a favor de reglas promovidas por el consumidor o para reglamentar los estándares laborales. Nuestro análisis sugiere que el enmarcado de la economía moral puede oscurecer las desigualdades sistémicas en el empleo agrícola precario y disminuir el ímpetu por el cambio estructural a través de la organización de un movimiento alimentario colectivo.
    February 10, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12221   open full text
  • Making Space for Energy: Wasteland Development, Enclosures, and Energy Dispossessions.
    Jennifer Baka.
    Antipode. February 05, 2016
    This paper analyzes why and how wasteland development narratives persist through an evaluation of wasteland development policies in India from 1970 to present. Integrating critical scholarship on environmental narratives and enclosures, I find that narratives of wastelands as “empty” spaces available for “improvement” continue because they are metaphors for entrenched struggles between the government's shifting visions of “improvement” and communities whose land use practices contradict these logics. Since the 1970s, “improvement” has meant establishing different types of tree plantations on wastelands to ostensibly provide energy security. These projects have dispossessed land users by enclosing common property lands and by providing forms of energy incommensurate with local needs, a trend I term “energy dispossessions”. Factors enabling energy dispossessions include the government's increased attempts to establish public–private partnerships to carry out “improvement” and a “field of observation” constructed to obscure local livelihoods. Unveiling these logics will help to problematize and contest future iterations of wasteland development.
    February 05, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12219   open full text
  • The Other Green Revolution: Land Epistemologies and the Mexican Revolutionary State.
    Greta Marchesi.
    Antipode. February 04, 2016
    This paper explores the development of Mexican Revolutionary land epistemologies in the years following the global Great Depression. Demonstrating how ideas about agrarian life informed national development efforts across multiple spheres, including public education, state‐sponsored media, and governmental conservation projects, it argues that human–nature relations were constitutive of state visions of Revolutionary citizenship. Scholarly work interrogating the role of scientific knowledge in land politics has focused on the ways that territorial dispossessions are routed through expert truth claims; this study deviates from that work by asking how resource conflicts can also produce new knowledge to support progressive platforms for change.
    February 04, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12215   open full text
  • Contesting Neoliberal Urbanism in Glasgow's Community Gardens: The Practice of DIY Citizenship.
    John Crossan, Andrew Cumbers, Robert McMaster, Deirdre Shaw.
    Antipode. January 28, 2016
    In this journal, it has been suggested that citizens practising community gardening “can become complicit in the construction of neoliberal hegemony”. Such hegemony is maintained, it is argued, through the day‐to‐day work of neoliberal citizen‐subjects, which “alleviates the state from service provision”. In this paper we acknowledge that community gardens are vulnerable to neoliberal cooptation. But, even where neoliberal practices are evidenced, such practices do not define or foreclose other socio‐political subjectivities at work in the gardens. We contend that community gardens in Glasgow cultivate collective practices that offer us a glimpse of what a progressively transformative polity can achieve. Enabled by an interlocking process of community and spatial production, this form of citizen participation encourages us to reconsider our relationships with one another, our environment and what constitutes effective political practice. Inspired by a range of writings on citizenship formation we term this “Do‐It‐Yourself” (DIY) Citizenship.
    January 28, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12220   open full text
  • Reregulating for Freshwater Enclosure: A State of Exception in Canterbury, Aotearoa New Zealand.
    Amanda C. Thomas, Sophie Bond.
    Antipode. January 15, 2016
    In this paper, we argue that democracy is increasingly indistinguishable from authoritarianism, in a process that is entangled with neoliberalisms. To build this argument, we examine a case study of central government intervention in regional environmental decision making in Aotearoa New Zealand through the lens of Agamben's “state of exception”. The intervention—unprecedented and unconstitutional—squeezed democratic spaces for decision making about freshwater and sought to smooth the way for capital accumulation. The audacity of government actions indicate, we argue, an abandonment of efforts to disguise neoliberal encroachments on democracy, known as the double truth tactic. Yet we also argue that in identifying this as a state of exception, we can examine it as part of a process and therefore demonstrate the possibilities for counter‐hegemonic actions to emerge. I tēnei pepa ka tohea e mātou arā: kua tauwhiwhi haere te ao manapori me ngā mahi whakatuanui a te kāwanatanga me te tūhonotanga o ēnei mahi ki te ariā tōrangapū—ariā pūtea hoki—e kiia nei ko neoliberalism. Ina e hanga ana mātou i tēnei tohetohe ka mātua tirohia tētahi mātaihanga e hāngai pū ana ki te kāwanatanga o Aotearoa me ā rātou mahi whakapōrearea i te mana o te kaunihera ā‐rohe o Ōtautahi, i Aotearoa. Ka tirohia e tātou tēnei take mā ngā arotahi o Agamben e whakaingoatia nei ko te state of exception. Heoi, ko tā mātou e tohe nei i te tū whakatoatoa te kāwanatanga me te kore whakarongo i ngā take me ngā āwangawanga o te kaunihera o Ōtautahi e pā ana ki te mahi, te tango hoki, i ngā wai māori–ahakoa roto mai, awa mai, kōawa mai–hei kohikohi pūtea. Waihoki, i nana te kāwanatanga ki te whati i ngā tīkanga ā‐manapori i a rātou e mau korowai neoliberalism ana. Kei te mōhio ētahi ko te āhua o tērā momo mahi ko te double truth tactic. Kua kitea e mātou he state of exception tēnei. Ka mutu, tērā ētahi hunga e whai hātepe ana hei whakahē atu ki te kāwanatanga. Ko tā mātou, he pai tērā tauira hei whai tikanga manapori, hei whakahouhou hoki i te manapori.
    January 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12214   open full text
  • “I found the truth in Foot Locker”: London 2011, Urban Culture, and the Post‐Political City.
    Gareth Millington.
    Antipode. January 15, 2016
    The article begins with an overview of what is implied in the notion of the “post‐political” before looking closely at post‐political interpretations of the 2011 London riots. It presents a critique of the restricted sense of political subjectivity in such accounts. It demonstrates how participation in the riots and their aftermath may be seen as indicative of an embryonic form of urban politics that works with and against the post‐political city. This discussion is illuminated by an analysis of the discursive space of London hip‐hop which reveals an ironic, complex and reflexive dialogue about identity, justice and politics that is far removed from the caricature offered by “strong” interpretations of the post‐political subject. This is then linked to readings of the post‐political city that place a welcome stress not only on the evacuation of the political dimension from the city, but also on the opportunities for the re‐emergence of the proto‐political.
    January 15, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12211   open full text
  • Submergence: Precarious Politics in Colombia's Future Port‐City.
    Austin Zeiderman.
    Antipode. January 06, 2016
    This article examines popular politics under precarious conditions in the rapidly expanding port‐city of Buenaventura on Colombia's Pacific coast. It begins by identifying the intersecting economic, ecological, and political forces contributing to the precarity of life in Buenaventura's intertidal zone. Focusing on conflicts over land in the waterfront settlements of Bajamar (meaning “low‐tide”), it then describes the efforts of Afro‐Colombian settlers and activists to defend their territories against threats of violence and displacement. In doing so, they must navigate historical legacies of ethno‐racial politics as well as formations of liberal governance and their multicultural and biopolitical logics of vulnerability and protection. The socio‐material conditions of the intertidal zone, and in particular the figure of submergence, are used to illuminate forms of political life in Colombia's future port‐city. The struggles of Afro‐Colombians to contest violent dispossession in Buenaventura reflect the racialized politics of precarity under late liberalism. Este artículo analiza la política popular bajo condiciones precarias en la ciudad portuaria de Buenaventura en el Pacífico colombiano. El texto comienza identificando la intersección de las fuerzas económicas, ecológicas y políticas que contribuyen a la precariedad de la vida en la zona litoral de Buenaventura. Al enfocarse en los conflictos territoriales de los asentamientos costeros de Bajamar, el artículo describe los esfuerzos de los pobladores y activistas afrocolombianos para defender sus territorios contra las amenazas de violencia y desplazamiento. Ellos navegan el legado histórico de las políticas de etnicidad y raza tanto como las formaciones gubernamentales del liberalismo multicultural y biopolítico, y sus lógicas de vulnerabilidad y protección. Las condiciones socio‐materiales de la zona litoral, y especialmente la figura de sumergimiento, son útiles para comprender las formas de la vida política en el futuro puerto colombiano. La lucha de los afrocolombianos para disputar el desplazamiento violento en Buenaventura refleja la racialización de la política de precariedad bajo el contexto del liberalismo tardío.
    January 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12207   open full text
  • Human Trafficking and Online Networks: Policy, Analysis, and Ignorance.
    Jonathan Mendel, Kiril Sharapov.
    Antipode. January 06, 2016
    Dominant anti‐trafficking policy discourses represent trafficking as an issue of crime, “illegal” migration, victimhood and humanitarianism. Such a narrow focus is not an adequate response to the interplay between technology, trafficking and anti‐trafficking. This article explores different levels of analysis and the interplay between human trafficking and technology. We argue for a shift from policy discourses with a very limited focus on crime and victimisation to more systemic understandings of trafficking and more robust micro‐analyses of trafficking and everyday life. The article calls for an agnotological understanding of policy responses to trafficking and technology: these depend upon the production of ignorance. We critique limitations in policy understandings of trafficking‐related aspects of online spaces, and argue for better engagement with online networks. We conclude that there is a need to move beyond a focus on “new” technology and exceptionalist claims about “modern slavery” towards greater attention to everyday exploitation within neoliberalism.
    January 06, 2016   doi: 10.1111/anti.12213   open full text
  • Conceptualising European Privatisation Processes After the Great Recession.
    Julien Mercille, Enda Murphy.
    Antipode. December 21, 2015
    A wave of privatisation is unfolding in Europe in the wake of the financial crisis, but it has yet to receive serious scholarly attention. This paper examines the case of Ireland, where an austerity strategy and European Union International Monetary Fund bailout conditionality have given impetus to the transfer of public assets to the private sector. Theoretically, the paper explains the roots of the phenomenon with reference to a reformulated concept of “accumulation by dispossession” whose usefulness lies in emphasising the politico‐economic drivers of privatisation, which have been neglected in the mainstream literature. A typology is presented that argues that accumulation by dispossession manifests itself, in practice, through four main processes: (1) private repossession of assets nationalised during the financial crisis; (2) restructuring of state‐owned enterprises; (3) commodification of assets and services hitherto located outside the market; and (4) privatised stimulus through public–private partnerships. The paper's framework should be useful to conceptualise ongoing privatisation processes in other European countries.
    December 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12212   open full text
  • The Disappearing State and the Quasi‐Event of Immigration Control.
    Mat Coleman, Angela Stuesse.
    Antipode. December 21, 2015
    Immigration enforcement by sheriffs and police can be characterized as a proliferation of quasi‐events which never quite rise to the status of an event. This poses distinct challenges for feminist‐inspired scholarship on the state which seeks to document, ethnographically, how the state goes about its business on the ground. In this article we draw on our fieldwork experience in North Carolina and Georgia on sheriffs’ and police departments’ use of traffic enforcement and policing roadblocks to scrutinize drivers for their legal status, and ask how our ethnographic approach to the problem of state power inevitably stumbles in relation to the ordinariness of these practices. We conclude that feminist scholarship committed to an ethnography of the state could do much more to think through the potentially aporetic quality of that which is our common object of research—the state in practice. La implementación de leyes migratorias por comisarios y policías podría caracterizarse como una proliferación de cuasi‐eventos que nunca alcanzan la categoría de evento propiamente dicho. Esto plantea diversos retos para la investigación académica feminista que busca documentar, etnográficamente, cómo el estado opera en el terreno. En este artículo, nos basamos en datos de nuestra investigación de campo en Carolina del Norte y Georgia sobre el uso por comisarios y policías de retenes de tráfico para investigar el estatus jurídico migratorio de los conductores. Cuestionamos la medida en que nuestra aproximación etnográfica al problema del poder del estado es inevitablemente afectada por la cotidianidad de estas prácticas. Concluimos que los estudios feministas comprometidos con una etnografía del estado podrían considerar más profundamente la potencial aporía del foco común de estudio, que es el estado en ejercicio.
    December 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12209   open full text
  • The New Washington Consensus: Millennial Philanthropy and the Making of Global Market Subjects.
    Katharyne Mitchell, Matthew Sparke.
    Antipode. December 01, 2015
    This paper outlines the emergence of a New Washington Consensus associated with leading philanthropies of the new millennium. This emergent development paradigm by no means represents a historic break with the market rationalities of neoliberalism, nor does it represent a radical departure from older models of early 20th century philanthropy. Rather, it is new in its global ambition to foster resilient market subjects for a globalized world; and new in its employment of micro‐market transformations to compensate for macro‐market failures. Focusing on reforms pioneered by the new philanthropic partnerships in education and global health, the paper indicates how the targets of intervention are identified as communities that have been failed by both governments and markets. The resulting interventions are commonly justified in terms of “return on investment”. But the problems they target keep returning because the underlying causes of failure are left unaddressed.
    December 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12203   open full text
  • Refusing to be Toured: Work, Tourism, and the Productivity of “Life” in the Colombian Amazon.
    Caitlin E. Craven.
    Antipode. November 30, 2015
    Starting from the contention that exercising a “right to tour” is predicated on the work of producing tourability, I examine how tourability itself is a contested process involving relations of land and labour. Examining the current “resource boom” of ecotourism in the Colombian Amazon, I use an analysis of work and capital accumulation to unravel a seemingly small act of refusal by the community of Nazaret that has barred tourists’ entry to their land. I argue that this act of refusal opens up space for critically examining the relationships of land and labour, especially through the production of “life”, in the accumulation of tourable places in contemporary global capitalism. Engaging literature on both tourism studies and land politics in the Amazon region, I contribute to the scholarship on tourism and work while examining how Indigenous landscapes are being made productive towards the ends of capitalism.
    November 30, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12208   open full text
  • Lessons from Praxis: Autonomy and Spatiality in Contemporary Latin American Social Movements.
    Marcelo Lopes de Souza.
    Antipode. November 30, 2015
    In the course of the 20th century, left‐libertarian thought and praxis never ceased to be present in Latin America, even during the most difficult years of competition with Marxism‐Leninism and of military repression. But it was above all from the 1990s onwards that particularly original kinds of libertarian thought and praxis began to flourish there. Alongside more or less renewed versions of classical anarchism, new forms of praxis and analysis emerged at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century; from Mexican neo‐Zapatism to a part of Argentina's piqueteros to some expressions of Brazil's sem‐teto movement, many new movements and ideas have developed in the last two decades. These new movements are at the same time remarkably libertarian and by no means reducible to the very honourable but somewhat too restrictive label “anarchism”. In fact, many of them are clearly “hybrid”, in the sense that they are products of both left‐libertarian and Marxist influences. Typically, these Latin American movements share a commitment to principles such as horizontality, self‐management and decentralism (which have never been part of Marxism's typical repertoire of practices and principles); moreover, autonomy is a key notion for most of them. Furthermore, spatial practices, territorialisation among them, are proving decisive for many movements and protest actions. The concept of territory is one of those “geographical” concepts that have been intensely subjected, in recent decades, to strong attempts of redefinition and debugging. In this paper, the territory is fundamentally seen (as a first approximation) as a space defined and delimited by and through power relations, and it is important to see that power (both heteronomous and autonomous power) is exerted only with reference to a territory and, very often, by means of a territory. The kind of power exerted by emancipatory social movements does not constitute an exception to this rule. No decorrer do século XX, o pensamento e a práxis da esquerda libertária nunca deixaram de estar presentes na América Latina, mesmo durante os anos mais difíceis da competição com o marxismo‐leninismo e da repressão durante os regimes militares. Porém, foi sobretudo a partir da década de 1990 que alguns tipos particularmente originais de pensamento e práxis libertários começaram a florescer naquele continente. Juntamente com as versões mais ou menos renovadas do anarquismo clássico (como o assim chamado “anarquismo especifista”), novas formas de práxis e análise libertárias mas não propriamente anarquistas surgiram no final do século XX e início do século XXI: dos neozapatistas mexicanos a uma parte dos piqueteros na Argentina e a algumas expressões de movimento dos sem‐teto no Brasil, muitos novos movimentos e ideias têm se desenvolvido nas últimas duas décadas. Esses novos movimentos são, ao mesmo tempo, notavelmente libertários e não redutíveis ao (muito honrado, certamente, mas demasiado restritivo) rótulo de “anarquismo”. Na verdade, muitos deles são, inclusive, claramente “híbridos”, no sentido de que são produtos de influências tanto libertárias quanto marxistas—“hibridismo” esse que, se por um lado pode ter efeitos práticos interessantes, por outro não deixa de representar uma tensão interna, ainda que apenas latente. Normalmente, esses movimentos latino‐americanos partilham um compromisso com princípios libertários tais como a horizontalidade, a autogestão e a descentralização (que, diga‐se de passagem, nunca pertenceram ao repertório típico de práticas e princípios do marxismo); ademais, autonomia é uma noção‐chave para a maioria deles. Além disso, as práticas espaciais, entre elas a de territorialização, estão a se revelar decisivas para muitos movimentos e ações de protesto. O conceito de território é dos conceitos “geográficos” que têm sido intensamente submetidos, nas últimas décadas, a fortes tentativas de redefinição e depuração. Neste trabalho, o território é fundamentalmente visto (a título de uma primeira aproximação) como um espaço definido e delimitado por e através de relações de poder, e é importante assinalar que o poder (tanto o heterônomo quanto o autônomo) só é exercido tendo por referência um território e, muitas vezes, por meio de um território. O tipo de poder exercido pelos movimentos sociais emancipatórios não constitui uma exceção a esta regra.
    November 30, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12210   open full text
  • Seeing Green in San Francisco: City as Resource Frontier.
    Sarah Knuth.
    Antipode. November 27, 2015
    The early 21st century witnessed a boom in green building in San Francisco and similar cities. Major downtown property owners and investors retrofitted office towers, commissioned green certification, and critically, explored how greening might pay. Greening initiatives transcend corporate social responsibility: they represent a new attempt to enclose and speculate upon “green” value within the second nature of cities. However, this unconventional resource discovery requires a highly partial view of buildings’ socio‐natural entanglements in and beyond the city. I illuminate these efforts and their obscurities by exploring the experience of an exemplary green building in San Francisco, an office tower that has successively served as a headquarters organizing a vast resource periphery in the American West, a symbol and driver in the transformation of the city's own second nature, a financial “resource” in its own right, and most recently, an asset in an emerging global market for green property.
    November 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12205   open full text
  • Arcangelo Ghisleri and the “Right to Barbarity”: Geography and Anti‐colonialism in Italy in the Age of Empire (1875–1914).
    Federico Ferretti.
    Antipode. November 27, 2015
    This paper addresses the work of early critics of colonialism and Eurocentrism within Italian geography in the Age of Empire. At that time, a minority but rather influential group of Italian scholars, influenced by the international debates promoted by the anarchist geographers Reclus, Kropotkin and Mečnikov, fumed publicly at Italy's colonial ambitions in Africa. Their positions assumed, at least in the case of Arcangelo Ghisleri, the character of a radical critique of both political and cultural European hegemony. These approaches were linked to a similar critique of “internal colonialism”, both Austrian in the Italian‐speaking regions of Trento and Trieste, and Piedmontese in southern Italy. Based on primary sources, and drawing on the international literature on imperial geography and colonial and postcolonial sciences, this paper conjures up the Italian example to discuss how some European geographers of the Age of Empire were also early critics of racism, colonialism and chauvinism, and how these historical experiences can serve current debates on critical, radical and anarchist geographies. Questo articolo analizza il lavoro di uno tra i primi geografi anticolonialisti, Arcangelo Ghisleri, che fu anche tra i protagonisti della circolazione e traduzione delle idee di Élisée Reclus in Italia. Attraverso l'analisi di fonti primarie, mostro come Ghisleri, repubblicano di sinistra, partecipò in una critica dell'imperialismo che non si limitava all'opposizione politica contro singoli eventi come le politiche imperiali italiane in Africa, ma metteva in discussione tutto il discorso coloniale. I circuiti internazionali che elaborarono tali critiche, fortemente influenzati dall'anarchismo, proposero una precoce messa in discussione dell'unicità del punto di vista della geografia, rifiutando l'etnocentrismo e sostenendo visioni scientifiche che tentassero di comprendere empaticamente il punto di vista dell'Altro. Questo articolo porta un contributo ai dibattiti attuali sulle geografie anarchiche esplorando le basi storiche della loro costruzione transnazionale e cosmopolita, nonché ai dibattiti attuali sul postcolonialismo, fornendo un ulteriore caso di studio sulle geografie eterodosse e anticolonialiste in Europa.
    November 27, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12206   open full text
  • After the Ban: The Moral Economy of Property.
    Sig Langegger.
    Antipode. November 20, 2015
    This essay can be read as both a tragedy of neoliberal governance and a paean to the resilience and creativity of humanity. Reporting an ethnographic assessment of the impacts of Denver's recent camping ban on homeless communities, I build on John Searle's constructivist social theory to argue not only that undomiciled people construct homes, but also that they exercise rights to property. Part of a social order, people living on the streets find creative ways to sheathe themselves in home spaces. By depriving them not only of the stability of their homes but also of the social power afforded by property, this ban dismantles heterodox orders, which then decay from anarchy. Nevertheless, accounts provided by homeless individuals themselves demonstrate that primitive property, though always fragile, can withstand emphatic disruption: this continued resilience is seen in the webs of mutual reciprocity previously and subsequently woven beneath, between, and behind state apparatuses.
    November 20, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12204   open full text
  • Rethinking Whiteness and Masculinity in Geography: Drinking Alcohol in the Field in Vietnam.
    Jamie Gillen.
    Antipode. November 16, 2015
    This paper evaluates the spatial politics of fieldwork in Vietnam in order to think through the connections between whiteness, masculinity, and geography. In drawing attention to how the consumption of alcohol underwrites daily activities in Vietnam, as well as fieldwork activities, I show that research ethics are underpinned by unique spatial contexts that do not conform to conventional accounts of masculinity and whiteness in the global North. I make three interrelated arguments. First, I argue that debates in geography about whiteness and masculinity must be understood alongside fieldwork experiences in the global South. Second, I invite geographers to think through how research ethics are shaped by spatially contingent productions of whiteness and masculinity. Lastly, I challenge geographers to keep pace with how disruptive categories like whiteness and masculinity are produced outside of the global North.
    November 16, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12202   open full text
  • Postsecularity, Political Resistance, and Protest in the Occupy Movement.
    Paul Cloke, Callum Sutherland, Andrew Williams.
    Antipode. October 22, 2015
    This paper examines and critically interprets the interrelations between religion and the Occupy movements of 2011. It presents three main arguments. First, through an examination of the Occupy Movement in the UK and USA—and in particular of the two most prominent Occupy camps (Wall Street and London Stock Exchange)—the paper traces the emergence of postsecularity evidenced in the rapprochement of religious and secular actors, discourses, and practices in the event‐spaces of Occupy. Second, it examines the specific set of challenges that Occupy has posed to the Christian church in the UK and USA, arguing that religious participation in the camps served at least in part to identify wider areas of religious faith that are themselves in need of redemption. Third, the paper considers the challenges posed by religious groups to Occupy, not least in the emphasis on postmaterial values in pathways to resistance against contemporary capitalism.
    October 22, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12200   open full text
  • On the Image of the Country and the City.
    Timothy Brennan.
    Antipode. October 05, 2015
    We know from the Grundrisse that Marx felt the division of town and country to be as vital to political economy as the division of classes. From the Manifesto we know that he saw this division as a homological version of the dependency created by capitalism of global South on global North. It was, however, the cultural theorists of twentieth‐century Marxism who internalized this geopolitical imagination and significantly developed it in the form of scales and configurations of spatial meaning contained in the concepts “city” and “country”. The structuralist revolt against history, then, as a bid to arrest historical becoming, must really be seen as a perverse analogue of earlier twentieth century Marxist innovations in the spatialization of time. Thinkers like Ernst Bloch, Henri Lefebvre, and Raymond Williams, although unheralded for this aspect of their work, developed Marx's nascent city/country pairing, exploring the materiality of its metaphor. In geography, it is Neil Smith's Uneven Development that follows in the footsteps of this “classical” motif in literary and cultural theory.
    October 05, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12186   open full text
  • Unfree Radicals: Geoscientists, the Anthropocene, and Left Politics.
    Noel Castree.
    Antipode. October 01, 2015
    Neil Smith's writings about capitalism and what we call “nature” were insightful and influential. This paper asks what Smith would make of the “radical turn” today occurring in the world of international geoscience. If we “think with” Smith, how should we view Naomi Klein's recent statement that geoscientists can act as fifth columnists calling the capitalist way of life into question? In the first half of the essay I address these questions. I summarise and apply the insights of Smith's writings to recent developments in international geoscience. Smith wrote about science in most of his published statements about capitalist ecology and I show that he would ultimately have regarded Klein as hopeful, even naïve. I then go on, in the second half of the essay, to “think against” Smith. I suggest his views on science bespeak a wider, unhelpful separation between Left scholarship in the social sciences and humanities and the STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering, and medicine). Recalling earlier attempts to radicalise science politically, and highlighting the radical potentials of geoscience today, I make the case for forms of interdisciplinarity that might render geoscience more political. Though this case opens space for perspectives beyond the Marxism Smith did so much to develop, he would—I hope—see it as a legitimate part of the Left's long war against capitalism's rule over society and environment.
    October 01, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12187   open full text
  • Planetary Rent Gaps.
    Tom Slater.
    Antipode. September 22, 2015
    In this paper I recapitulate the origins, structure, and purpose of Neil Smith's rent gap theory, and assess the frequently discussed but rarely dissected empirical studies of rent gaps, in order to trace the key analytical and political shifts Smith effected (from consumer preference to mortgage capital circulation, from “natural areas” to state structures, from house prices to capital depreciation, and from middle class demand to class struggle), as well as posit some possible extensions of the theory vis à vis territorial stigmatisation and displacement. This tracing and extending in place, I then consider the rent gap in the context of the emerging body of work on planetary urbanisation, and argue that the theory helps to expose and confront new geographies of structural violence—planetary rent gaps—where the constitutive power of speculative landed developer interests in processes of capitalist urbanisation can be analysed and challenged. If, as David Harvey has recently argued, rent “has to be brought forward into the forefront of analysis … [to] bring together an understanding of the ongoing production of space and geography and the circulation and accumulation of capital” (2010:183, The Enigma of Capital and the Crises of Capitalism, Profile), then it is important to consider what we can learn from the rent gap today, rather than relegate it, as so many seem to do, to something that has already been debated or exhausted in the large literature on gentrification.
    September 22, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12185   open full text
  • Neocolonial Urbanism? La Rénovation Urbaine in Paris.
    Stefan Kipfer.
    Antipode. September 21, 2015
    This paper analyses the programme of redeveloping housing estates in France overseen by the Agence Nationale de la Rénovation Urbaine (ANRU). Under this programme social housing reconstruction is undertaken in a nationally coordinated fashion in order to “valorize”, “secure” and socially “mix” estates. The paper highlights the political and neo‐colonial aspects of this programme and the wider state spatial strategies it is part of. Redevelopment projects not only further gentrifying land‐rent valorization, state rescaling and territorially stigmatizing symbolic violence; they also reorganize territorial relations of domination in multiple, also racialized, neo‐colonial and partly hegemonic ways. In a longer view, they respond to the “urban revolution” of 1968 (Garnier) and to the “anti‐colonial revolution” of independence and anti‐racist movements (Khiari). The paper builds on a framework that articulates marxist (Lefebvrean) and anti‐colonial (Fanonian) lineages while drawing on research on the neo‐colonial aspects of the French state.
    September 21, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12193   open full text
  • Public Space and the Public Sphere: The Legacy of Neil Smith.
    Setha Low.
    Antipode. September 18, 2015
    This article attempts to untangle two threads of the intellectual and political legacy of Neil Smith. The first concerns the work that Neil and I did together on the The Politics of Public Space (Low and Smith , Routledge) on public space and the public sphere and then explains how our paths diverged. I elaborate some of the ways that the public space and public sphere have been expanded by later researchers and that left me with a sense of optimism about the future of public space as a forum for new social and political encounters. The second part of the discussion turns to Neil's thinking and writing as he moved away from having any faith in liberal urban policy, and his conclusion that neoliberalism was waning. Drawing upon publications by his students, I have attempted to assess the impact of his work—particularly on anthropology students focusing on his contribution to gentrification as a global urban strategy and his later turn to revolution as the necessary corrective to the death of neoliberalism. I contrast his revolutionary imperative with my desire to imagine new kinds of translocal public spaces that could expand into a global public sphere.
    September 18, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12189   open full text
  • Geoeconomics in the Long War.
    John Morrissey.
    Antipode. September 15, 2015
    In Neil Smith's American Empire (2003, University of California Press), he makes the case that the current moment of US global ambition is characterized by a network of imperial power that is “exercised in the first place through the world market and only secondarily, when and if necessary, in geopolitical terms”. For Smith, it was crucial that in the din of US geopolitics in the post‐9/11 period we did not lose sight of “the deeper geo‐economic aspiration for global control”, in a “war on terror” that is really a war to “fill in the interstices of globalization” (p xiv). In American Empire, Smith identified three moments of US global ambition over the last century. In this paper, I extend back the starting point for Smith's third moment to a period in the 1990s when United States Central Command (CENTCOM) became fully operational in the military‐economic securitization of the most pivotal region on earth, what it terms the “Central Region”. By drawing on the concept of “geoeconomics”, which Smith increasingly used in his later writing, I show how CENTCOM's mission from the outset can be most aptly described as one of “geoeconomic deterrence”. I highlight in particular how enabling commercial markets has been a key element of grand strategy in what CENTCOM calls its “long war” in the Middle East and Central Asia. In addition, I outline recent calls for the US military to become further and more broadly involved in what some commentators have called “messy capitalism”. I ask the question what kind of capitalism and in whose interests, before concluding by reflecting upon Neil Smith's assessment of the fated contradictions of contemporary US imperial ambition.
    September 15, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12183   open full text
  • The Tight Dialectic: The Anthropocene and the Capitalist Production of Nature.
    Susan W.S. Millar, Don Mitchell.
    Antipode. September 15, 2015
    In this essay we examine the case of Kivalina, Alaska, twice threatened with destruction, in order to understand the importance of the specifically geological concept of the Anthropocene. We argue that the Anthropocene is best understood as part of what Neil Smith called a “tight dialectic” between the history of geography (the production of environmental knowledge) and historical geography (the production of nature and space) as this dialectic is played out within capitalist modes of production. We focus on the relationship between contemporary geo‐engineering and both intentional and unintentional geographical engineering, to make the basic argument that humans have no choice but to produce nature—to engineer environments. The only question is how we shall do so.
    September 15, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12188   open full text
  • Calculating the Debt Gap.
    Andrew Ross.
    Antipode. September 09, 2015
    Using the debate over Scottish independence as a case study, this article analyses how calculating creditworthiness—or “sovereign risk”—has increasingly become the investment yardstick used by the political class to chart the limits to national self‐determination. In considering other species of predatory lending—municipal debt and household debt‐the article also charts the migration of the so‐called “debt trap” from Southern countries to the North over the last decade. It assesses the progress of advanced societies towards a state of creditocracy, in which the goal of the creditor class is to wrap debt around every social good, generating long‐term income streams and repayment obligations that are unsustainable in a functional democracy. The conclusion argues that debt refusal is a legitimate method of salvaging popular democracy.
    September 09, 2015   doi: 10.1111/anti.12184   open full text
  • Pinkwashing, Homonationalism, and Israel–Palestine: The Conceits of Queer Theory and the Politics of the Ordinary.
    Jason Ritchie.
    Antipode. June 03, 2014
    This paper offers a critique of the theory of homonationalism, which has become virtually hegemonic in contemporary queer thought and activism. Some theorists have tried to distance homonationalism from its popular/activist manifestation of “pinkwatching”, which refers to the increasingly vocal efforts of queer anti‐occupation activists to expose the Israeli government's efforts to “pinkwash” its treatment of Palestinians by touting its record on gay rights. The paper argues, however, that both suffer from fundamental conceptual flaws and ultimately have more to do with the contexts in which they circulate—“gay” cities in the US and Europe—than Israel–Palestine. The paper suggests a political and analytical shift away from the totalizing theory of homonationalism—and the simplistic critiques of pinkwashing inspired by it—to a more complex and contextualized focus on the ways in which ordinary bodies are regulated in their movements through time and space.
    June 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12100   open full text
  • Sentimental Capitalism in Contemporary India: Art, Heritage, and Development in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
    Dia Da Costa.
    Antipode. June 01, 2014
    Using a critical cultural politics approach and deploying the concept of sentimental capitalism, this article problematizes the burgeoning creative economy discourse while analyzing spaces of art and heritage production in Ahmedabad, India. I situate the Cotton Exchange exhibit (April 2013) in an erstwhile mill in recent histories of mill closures, genocide, creative economy initiatives and development aspirations of revitalizing degraded space. I argue that in remaking place, art mobilizes sentiments—here, nostalgia and hope—while erasing violence and inequality. Sentimental capitalism is at work in the exhibition by mobilizing artisans as entrepreneurial agents not victims of capitalism; constructing art's aura of grassroots participation and artisanal empowerment while obscuring displacement and exploitation; and fostering cult‐like regard for art's intrinsic and instrumental value as non‐profit and its capacity to engender opportunity, recognition, and even property. While another spatial politics is possible, in Ahmedabad today, art is being mobilized to obscure dispossession and exploitation in the name of urban revitalization and heritage production.
    June 01, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12103   open full text
  • Neoliberal Capitalism and Conservation in the Post‐crisis Era: The Dialectics of “Green” and “Un‐green” Grabbing in Greece and the UK.
    Evangelia Apostolopoulou, William M. Adams.
    Antipode. June 01, 2014
    “Green‐grabbing”, in which environmental arguments support expropriation of land and resources, is a recognized element in neoliberal conservation. However, capitalism's strategic interest in promoting the neoliberalization of conservation is accompanied by attempts to exploit hitherto protected natures without any pretence at “greenness”. In this paper we explore the dialectics between “green” and “un‐green” grabbing as neoliberal strategies in the reconstruction of nature conservation policies after the 2008 financial “crash” in Greece and the UK. In both countries, accelerated neoliberalization is manifested in diverse ways, including initiatives to roll back conservation regulation, market‐based approaches to “saving” nature and the privatization of public nature assets. The intensification of “green” and “un‐green” grabbing reflects capitalism's strategic interest in both promoting and obstructing nature conservation, ultimately leaving for “protected natures” two choices: either to be further degraded to boost growth or to be “saved” through their deeper inclusion as commodities visible to the market.
    June 01, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12102   open full text
  • British Jobs for British Workers? Negotiating Work, Nation, and Globalisation through the Lindsey Oil Refinery Disputes.
    Anthony Ince, David Featherstone, Andrew Cumbers, Danny MacKinnon, Kendra Strauss.
    Antipode. May 28, 2014
    This paper explores the relationships between labour organising, globalisation and national identity through an engagement with the 2009 Lindsey Oil Refinery strikes. Some strikers adopted the controversial slogan ‘British Jobs for British Workers’ in response to employers' attempts to undercut existing wages and conditions with a new migrant workforce. This led to accusations of xenophobia. We make three inter‐related arguments. First, we contend that it is necessary to interrogate the spatialised power relations generated through particular forms of labour agency enacted in relation to globalising processes. Second, since these responses can be politically ambiguous, success in territorially based disputes does not always equate with broader (transnational) class agency. Third, relevant to the project of labour geography, we propose that labour scholars and activists be more attuned to the mundane ambiguities in labour agency, and the subsequent need to frame local action within a broader relational politics of global labour solidarity.
    May 28, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12099   open full text
  • Governing the Commercial Streets of the City: New Terrains of Disinvestment and Gentrification in Toronto's Inner Suburbs.
    Katharine N. Rankin, Heather McLean.
    Antipode. April 25, 2014
    This paper explores the commercial shopping street as a site of racialized class struggle. The argument builds around the study of a disinvested inner‐suburban neighbourhood in Toronto, which furnishes an ideal case through which to achieve the paper's objectives of, first, identifying commercial space as an important site of contestation over competing suburban futures; second, delineating how processes of racialization inform the economies of commercial gentrification and urban renewal; and third, highlighting the epistemological and theoretical insights that emerge when research is conducted collaboratively, among academic, community, and activist groupings. The paper argues that such commercial spaces play a key role in making the city accessible to vulnerable and marginalized groups. Two competing planning agendas centred on reordering commercial space, meanwhile, spell the almost‐certain demise of such arrangements: a “real estate” vision featuring new condominium developments, and a new urbanist resistance favouring “green” and “creative” alternatives. Our engagements with precarious, predominantly immigrant‐owned businesses and community‐based researchers reveal the complicity of both modes of development planning with processes of displacement and structural racism. Specifying these dynamics as “racialized class projects” opens up space for intervention and organizing.
    April 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12096   open full text
  • Disparity Despite Diversity: Social Injustice in New York City's Urban Agriculture System.
    Kristin Reynolds.
    Antipode. April 25, 2014
    Many studies have documented the benefits of urban agriculture, including increased food access, job creation, educational opportunities, and green space. A focus on its social benefits has fed an association of urban agriculture with social justice, yet there is a distinction between alleviating symptoms of injustice (such as disparate access to food or environmental amenities) and disrupting structures that underlie them. Despite its positive impacts, urban agriculture systems may reinforce inequities that practitioners and supporters aim to address. This paper reports findings from a 2‐year study of urban agriculture in New York City, which found race‐ and class‐based disparities among practitioners citywide. Using the lens of critical race theory, it argues that a failure to examine urban agriculture's role in either supporting or dismantling unjust structures may perpetuate an inequitable system. The paper concludes with recommendations for urban agriculture supporters and scholars to help advance social justice at structural levels.
    April 25, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12098   open full text
  • Engaged Universals and Community Economies: The (Human) Right to Water in Colombia.
    Verónica Perera.
    Antipode. April 24, 2014
    While the United Nations' sanctioning of the human right to water was widely celebrated, many debate the adequacy and political potency of the rights discourse to frame water justice. Drawing on multi‐sited, ethnographic‐based fieldwork in Colombia in 2010 and 2011, and prioritizing activists' reflexivity, the paper explores how water activists in the 2007–2011 referendum campaign engaged the universal human right while making user‐run community aqueducts more visible as place‐based, not‐for‐profit, culturally attuned, and valid alternatives to the corporate model of water supply. This case study suggests that the human right to water cannot be separated from water commons, and that communal users and activists engage the universal under their own terms. It also suggests we think of these water models as “economic communities” in Gibson‐Graham's sense: ethical spaces to make explicit our social relations with water, and to cultivate selves and practices that enact alternative socio‐natural relations through water's circulations. La sanción del derecho humano al agua en Naciones Unidas fue ampliamente celebrada. Sin embargo, distintos analistas han cuestionado la capacidad analítica y la potencia política del discurso de derechos humanos para luchar por la justicia hídrica. Este estudio de la campaña del referendo por el agua en Colombia, basado en técnicas etnográficas en 2010 y 2011, explora el modo en que activistas movilizaron el derecho humano universal para visibilizar los acueductos comunitarios como alternativas válidas al modelo corporativo neoliberal de provisión de agua. Estos acueductos son organizaciones culturales locales sin fines de lucro. Este caso sugiere que el derecho humano al agua no puede separarse de la política de los bienes comunes. También sugiere pensar estos modelos hídricos como “comunidades económicas” en el sentido de Gibson‐Graham: espacios éticos donde explicitar nuestras relaciones sociales con el agua y donde cultivar relaciones socio‐naturales alternativas a través de la circulación del agua.
    April 24, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12097   open full text
  • “This is how I want to live my life”: An Experiment in Prefigurative Feminist Organizing for a More Equitable and Inclusive City.
    Janet Siltanen, Fran Klodawsky, Caroline Andrew.
    Antipode. April 14, 2014
    This paper aims to think differently about possibilities for feminist organizing in cities. We use a current experiment with city‐based feminist organizing to explore how it can be possible to work with the local state while at the same time challenging and disrupting understandings and practices that marginalize the diversity of women's needs, contributions and concerns. Trying to work “inside” the local state while maintaining an “outside” critical perspective involves a tricky balancing act between being inside enough to have credibility and effectiveness within the business of city politics and administration, and outside enough to maintain strong connections with the community and grassroots support. In managing this balancing act, we argue that the organization enacts a strategic use of prefiguration both within the organization and when engaging the local state.
    April 14, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12092   open full text
  • Disciplined Mobility and the Emotional Subject in Royal Dutch Lloyd's Early Twentieth Century Passenger Shipping Network.
    Chin‐Ee Ong, Claudio Minca, Martijn Felder.
    Antipode. April 10, 2014
    This paper examines the disciplined mobility and emotional geographies of “between‐deck” passengers in Royal Dutch Lloyd's early Twentieth Century passenger shipping network. Specifically, it is concerned with the ways in which the network was established and with the efforts made to maintain it. It is found that such a disciplinary network furthers the firm's goal of shipping healthy and productive bodies for corporate profits and that transhipment facility Lloyd Hotel in Amsterdam was integral to the performance and maintenance of such a transnational disciplinary network. The key consequence of such disciplined mobility was the creation of an emotional passenger‐migrant subject shaped in relation to the power of corporate, cultural and other authorities in maritime travel and migration. In identifying this historic network of disciplined mobility and its emotional subject, this paper seeks to reveal the emotional geographies relating to mobile subjectivities and the power relations associated with their historically significant travels. En este artículo se examinan tanto la movilidad disciplinada como las geografías emocionales de los pasajeros de tercera clase dentro de la red de transporte de pasajeros del Royal Dutch Lloyd a principios del siglo XX. En concreto, se refiere a las formas en que el Royal Dutch Lloyd estableció la red, así como a sus esfuerzos realizados para mantenerla. Se ha descubierto que este tipo de red disciplinada impulsó el objetivo de la empresa de transportar individuos sanos y productivos para obtener beneficios empresariales. El hotel Lloyd, en Ámsterdam, fue parte integral del desempeño y mantenimiento de esta red disciplinaria transnacional. La consecuencia fundamental de esta movilidad disciplinada fue la creación de un sujeto pasajero‐migrante emocional, formado en relación con el poder de las corporaciones empresariales, culturales, y de otras autoridades que forman parte del mundo del viaje y la migración. Mediante la identificación de esta red histórica de movilidad disciplinada y de sus sujetos emocionales, este artículo pretende poner de relieve las geografías emocionales relacionadas con subjetividades móviles y las relaciones de poder asociadas con sus viajes históricos.
    April 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12091   open full text
  • Women, Communities, Neighbourhoods: Approaching Gender and Feminism within UK Urban Policy.
    Eleanor Jupp.
    Antipode. April 02, 2014
    In recent years some commentators have looked at successive waves of UK urban policy from the perspective of gender, although these commentaries have been somewhat marginal within wider discussions of urban policy and politics. This article seeks to make the case for a renewed emphasis on gender, which moves beyond tracing the role of men and women in relation to urban policy programmes, in two particular ways. First it is argued that a more sophisticated analysis of the gendered nature of urban governance is needed, in other words how forms of gendered labour, subjectivity and power work through and within policy projects; and second that there should be a wider consideration of what feminist visions of cities and politics, both past and present, might contribute to the project of a critical, and hopeful, analysis of urban policy and politics. The paper seeks to make a practical as well as theoretical intervention in relation to gender and feminist perspectives on UK urban policy. It is argued that there has been a silence around such issues in recent years, both in analysis and in policy discourses, and that this silence has masked how gendered labour and power has often been woven into urban governance. For example, forms of women‐centred organising have been relied on in a range of government projects seeking to build community and participation within poor neighbourhoods. Such reliance may be increasing in a context of austerity. As well as this critical analysis of current policy, the paper argues for the reinvigoration of feminist visions of cities that suggest different framings of aspects of urban life. For example, rethinking the lines between public and private spheres might result in different forms of housing or sites of civic participation. Through engaging anew with such perspectives cities might become more just, caring, and equal for all.
    April 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12088   open full text
  • How Capitalism Will Save Colonialism: The Privatization of Reserve Lands in Canada.
    Shiri Pasternak.
    Antipode. April 02, 2014
    This paper surveys the ways in which the First Nations Property Ownership Act (FNPOA) is the site of both tension and alliance between state, non‐state, and local Indigenous interests converging around a common agenda of land “modernization” in Canada. It is a convergence, I argue, that must be read in the context of a reorganization of society under neoliberalism. The FNPOA legislation is discursively framed to acknowledge Indigenous land rights while the bill simultaneously introduces contentious measures to individualize and municipalize the quasi‐communal land holding of reserves. The intersections of alliance around this land modernization project foreground the complex ways in which capitalism and colonialism, though inextricably tied, perform distinguishable economic processes, and how we must be attentive to the particulars of their co‐articulation with local formations of indigeneity.
    April 02, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12094   open full text
  • “Much in Blood and Money”: Necropolitical Ecology on the Margins of the Uganda Protectorate.
    Connor Joseph Cavanagh, David Himmelfarb.
    Antipode. March 31, 2014
    Increasingly, political ecologists invoke the concept of “green grabbing” to refer to the ways in which processes of accumulation by dispossession articulate with various imperatives for environmental protection. This paper traces these contemporary processes to their roots in the colonial era, focusing on how dispossession in the name of environmental protection intersects with complex historical geographies of state formation and internal territorialisation. Drawing upon the case of Mount Elgon in Britain's Uganda Protectorate, in particular, we reconstruct the ways in which the interrelated “birth” of both conservation and transcontinental agrarian markets were intimately connected to the emergence and normalisation of the colonial state itself. In doing so, we propose the term necropolitical ecology as a framework to encompass the ways in which contemporary “green grabs” partially emerge from racialised modes of colonial appropriation, the violence of which often still lingers in agencies and institutions of environmental governance in the contemporary postcolony.
    March 31, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12093   open full text
  • How Finance Penetrates its Other: A Cautionary Tale on the Financialization of a Dutch University.
    Ewald Engelen, Rodrigo Fernandez, Reijer Hendrikse.
    Antipode. March 26, 2014
    If any organization ought to be immune to the forces of financialization, it is a publicly funded university in corporatist Europe. Shielded from the intrusion by financial metrics, values and professionals through a strong historically rooted tradition of self‐management by powerful professional guilds, continental universities should largely have avoided the marketization and managerialization of Anglophone universities. Not so, this case study of a Dutch public university suggests. From 1995 onwards, a shift in real estate management—devolving responsibilities from the Dutch state to universities—served as a Trojan horse for financialization, triggering changes in organizational culture and a power shift from teaching and research professionals to accountants, real‐estate developers, financiers and their ilk. This case suggests that the power of finance is such that no societal domain is immune. The paper ends with a call for more non‐metropolitan case studies of financialization and argues that the only hope for salvation is a more self‐conscious defense of traditional academic values by the guardians of higher learning themselves.
    March 26, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12086   open full text
  • Sub‐surface Property, Free‐entry Mineral Staking and Settler Colonialism in Canada.
    Dawn Hoogeveen.
    Antipode. March 20, 2014
    This article examines mineral rights and claim staking in northern Canada, with a focus on settler colonialism and how liberal understandings of property are embedded in the legal geography of the right to explore for minerals. The history of these legal systems is explained through the “free‐entry” principle understood as the right to stake a mineral claim without consulting with private landholders or Indigenous peoples. Free‐entry debate highlights how ideologies of property are assumed neutral through staking regulations. Based on an analysis of interviews with key informants involved in mining regulation, I analyze the geographic stratification of land into two categories, above and below the surface, as an avenue to understand how dominant ideologies of property reveal a critical site of contestation.
    March 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12095   open full text
  • Safe Space: Towards a Reconceptualization.

    Antipode. March 12, 2014
    The term “safe space” dates to the late twentieth century women's movement, but it has since been used in many different contexts. In this paper, we review and analyze historical and contemporary “safe spaces”. These include “separatist” safe spaces in women's, anti‐racist, and feminist communities, “inclusive” safe space classrooms, and safe spaces in which (non‐human) objects are central. We argue that safe spaces should be understood not through static and acontextual notions of “safe” or “unsafe”, but rather through the relational work of cultivating them. Such an understanding reveals several tendencies. Namely, safe spaces are inherently paradoxical. Cultivating them includes foregrounding social differences and binaries (safe–unsafe, inclusive–exclusive) as well as recognizing the porosity of such binaries. Renegotiating these binaries is necessarily incomplete; a safe space is never completely safe. Even so, we encourage the critical cultivation of safe space as a site for negotiating difference and challenging oppression.
    March 12, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12089   open full text
  • Introduction: Grammars of Urban Injustice.
    Gordon MacLeod, Colin McFarlane.
    Antipode. March 10, 2014
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    March 10, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12085   open full text
  • Eco‐urbanism and the Eco‐city, or, Denying the Right to the City?
    Federico Caprotti.
    Antipode. March 03, 2014
    This paper critically analyses the construction of eco‐cities as technological fixes to concerns over climate change, Peak Oil, and other scenarios in the transition towards “green capitalism”. It argues for a critical engagement with new‐build eco‐city projects, first by highlighting the inequalities which mean that eco‐cities will not benefit those who will be most impacted by climate change: the citizens of the world's least wealthy states. Second, the paper investigates the foundation of eco‐city projects on notions of crisis and scarcity. Third, there is a need to critically interrogate the mechanisms through which new eco‐cities are built, including the land market, reclamation, dispossession and “green grabbing”. Lastly, a sustained focus is needed on the multiplication of workers’ geographies in and around these “emerald cities”, especially the ordinary urban spaces and lives of the temporary settlements housing the millions of workers who move from one new project to another.
    March 03, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12087   open full text
  • Welcoming the World? Hospitality, Homonationalism, and the London 2012 Olympics.
    Phil Hubbard, Eleanor Wilkinson.
    Antipode. February 20, 2014
    In an era of intense “entrepreneurial” city marketing, overt attempts to court LGBT consumers and investors have been made not solely through the promotion of lesbian and gay arts festivals, pride celebrations and “specialised” cultural events, but also through “mainstream” mega‐events. This paper explores this with reference to London's 2012 Olympics, an event which welcomed LGBT spectators, volunteers and participants through a series of initiatives proclaiming the Games as distinctively “gay friendly”. Considering this in the light of queer critiques—particularly those concerning homonationalism—we argue that this marketing of London as sexually diverse relied on the effacement of certain sexual practices and spaces not easily accommodated within normative, Western models of sexual citizenship, tolerance and equality. In conclusion, it is argued that the Olympics represented a moment when particular ideas of sexual cosmopolitanism were deployed to regulate, order and normalise the variegated sexual landscapes of a world city.
    February 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12082   open full text
  • Primitive Accumulation and the Production of Abstract Space: Nineteenth‐century Mire Reclamation on Gotland.
    Tom Mels.
    Antipode. February 20, 2014
    In Henri Lefebvre's work, abstract space entails qualitatively new ways of envisioning and strategically arranging the sites within which capital accumulation and everyday life are to unfold. This paper sets out to delineate how this premise can be profitably used to decipher contested tactics of primitive accumulation. Arguing from a particular case—nineteenth‐century reclamation of mires on the island of Gotland, Sweden—the paper explores how primitive accumulation was made possible through the conjunction of three spatialities, representing three key lines of struggle over abstract space. The abstraction and avowed homogeneity of space was produced and regulated by concurrent ideological maneuvers against customary practice, leveled by scientific discourse, and pursued through a legally endorsed material transformation of nature.
    February 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12083   open full text
  • On the Performativity of Pill Pricing: Theory and Reality in the Economics of Global Pharmaceuticalization.
    Brett Christophers.
    Antipode. February 20, 2014
    One often‐highlighted contemporary phenomenon in the pharmaceuticals industry is the use of “tiered pricing”, where essential medicines are sold more cheaply in low‐income than high‐income countries to widen access. With economists having for decades championed the applicability of such pricing to pharmaceuticals, this could be interpreted as a textbook case of “economic performativity”—the economic world increasingly conforming to economic models. In reality, however, tiered pharmaceutical pricing remains rare. Yet this article nonetheless urges retention of the performativity concept, albeit suitably reworked. For, insofar as the industry demonstrates nominal commitment to the model and to the social principles associated with it, it performs valuable political work. Moreover, it does help perform the pharmaceutical economy, by reproducing it in its existing form: repeatedly questioning the model's workability, Western manufacturers are able to continue to avoid putting it widely into practice and, in the process, jeopardizing the profits generated by conventional pricing.
    February 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12084   open full text
  • Rent, Real Estate, and Flood Mitigation in New Orleans East.
    Vern Baxter.
    Antipode. February 20, 2014
    This paper presents results from a study of environmental harm created in the collision of real estate speculation and the political process that governed extension of the urban frontier of New Orleans into its eastern wetlands. Near term concerns of rent‐seeking real estate capital and the contested politics of urban infrastructure expansion challenged a fragmented state charged with regulatory oversight and protection of investments in land and citizens. The paper engages theoretically the relative inattention of urban political ecology theory to rent as a way to theorize how capital flows through land, and argues for increased attention to the problem of land rent and the multiple scales of political engagement that manage ecological crisis immanent in the metabolism of nature and society under capitalism.
    February 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12080   open full text
  • Why Indians Vote: Reflections on Rights, Citizenship, and Democracy from a Tamil Nadu Village.
    Grace Carswell, Geert De Neve.
    Antipode. February 20, 2014
    This paper contributes to an empirical and theoretical understanding of democracy and political participation in India through an ethnographic study of the meanings attached to voting in rural Tamil Nadu. Based on a study of voting in a rural constituency during the 2009 national elections, the paper explores the variety of motivations that compel people to vote. It explores how voting is informed by popular understandings of rights and duties as citizens, programmatic policies and their local implementation, commitment to caste and party loyalties, and authority of charismatic leaders. The paper explores the roots of the political consciousness and rights awareness that underpin high levels of electoral participation. It suggests that elections form unique moments that allow ordinary people to experience an individual sense of citizenship and of democracy itself while at the same time allowing them to pursue projects of recognition, respect and assertion as members of communities. It is precisely this dual feature that makes voting so enduringly attractive to India's contemporary electorate.
    February 20, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12081   open full text
  • Extinction is the Dream of Modern Powers: Bearing Witness to the Return to Life of the Sinixt Peoples?
    Sean Robertson.
    Antipode. January 28, 2014
    The Arrow Lakes Band was the only form of legal recognition ever made available to the Sinixt nation by Canada before they were declared extinct. The Oatscott reserve and the state were cartographies that both summoned and willed away the Sinixt. I attempt a “politics of witnessing” of recent Sinixt activities as they push back against these colonial enframings and displacements. I then contextualize biopower within settler society to chart the production of the state through a cultural economy of racialization and erasure, and through a clearing of the land based on more explicit imaginative geographies. The declaration of the extinction of the Sinixt illustrates Indian reserves less as a disciplinary and more a sovereign technology. And yet it is quintessentially modern owing to the absence of instrumental violence. Finally, the limitations of witnessing and the space Indigenous peoples make for alliances are examined.
    January 28, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12075   open full text
  • New‐Build Gentrification and the Everyday Displacement of Polish Immigrant Tenants in Greenpoint, Brooklyn.
    Filip Stabrowski.
    Antipode. January 17, 2014
    In response to research that has downplayed or denied the reality of gentrification‐induced displacement, critical urban geographers have called for rethinking the concept of displacement. This article takes up that call by examining the impact of new‐build gentrification on the everyday place‐making abilities of Polish immigrant tenants in Greenpoint, Brooklyn. Based on nearly four years of work as a tenant organizer, this article looks at the forms of “everyday displacement”—the ongoing loss of the agency, freedom, and security to “make place”—experienced by immigrant tenants who struggle to remain in the neighborhood. Drawing upon Lefebvre's spatial triad and Blomley's work on the social relations of property, this article argues that everyday displacement is experienced through the production of new spaces of prohibition, appropriation, and insecurity that constitute a form of neighborhood erasure.
    January 17, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12074   open full text
  • Digging into the Creative City: A Feminist Critique.
    Heather McLean.
    Antipode. January 17, 2014
    This paper contributes a critical and intersectional feminist analysis and methodological approach to debates about creative city policies and practices. Through a narrative description of community‐engaged arts interventions based on action research with the Toronto Free Gallery, an artist‐run centre and activist space, I demonstrate how feminist arts activism uncovers the multiple exclusions that creative city policies and practices entrench. In some ways, community‐engaged arts interventions can be complicit in exclusionary gentrification dynamics, particularly the production of spaces of white privilege and heteronormativity. But neoliberal imperatives are not always over determining. Feminist artists and activists are also finding ways to performatively and playfully push back at this highly regulated, gendered, and raced regime.
    January 17, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12078   open full text
  • Urban Community Gardens as Spaces of Citizenship.
    Rina Ghose, Margaret Pettygrove.
    Antipode. January 17, 2014
    A growing body of literature conceptualizes urban agriculture and community gardens as spaces of democratic citizenship and radical political practice. Urban community gardens are lauded as spaces through which residents can alleviate food insecurity and claim rights to the city. However, discussions of citizenship practice more broadly challenge the notion that citizen participation is inherently transformative or empowering, particularly in the context of neoliberal economic restructuring. This paper investigates urban community gardens as spaces of citizenship through a case study of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. It examines the impacts of community gardens on citizenship practice and the effects of volunteerism on the development of community gardens. It explores how grassroots community gardens simultaneously contest and reinforce local neoliberal policies. This research contributes empirically and theoretically to scholarship on urban food movements, neoliberal urbanization, collaborative governance, and citizenship practice.
    January 17, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12077   open full text
  • The Spirits are Crying: Dispossessing Land and Possessing Bodies in Rural Cambodia.
    Alice Beban, Courtney Work.
    Antipode. January 14, 2014
    In 2009, a land spirit disrupted plantation development within a contested Economic Land Concession in Cambodia. The spirit, along with efforts of a monk and NGO, ultimately persuaded state officials to return 5 ha of land to the local temple. In this paper, we bring together literature on the anthropology of religion, political economy of land possession, and critical development studies; we demonstrate that land spirits continue as members of political patronage chains at both the state and the local level, and show how the non‐capitalist logics of spirit negotiations both challenged and legitimized large‐scale land acquisition projects. The spirit was not subsumed by, but rather shaped, contemporary capitalist expansion in ways that call for a critical examination of the ontological certainty that all land is designed for human production and consumption.
    January 14, 2014   doi: 10.1111/anti.12073   open full text
  • Agamben, Postcoloniality, and Sovereignty in South Korea.
    Seung‐Ook Lee, Najeeb Jan, Joel Wainwright.
    Antipode. December 26, 2013
    This paper examines modern Korean politics through the framework of Giorgio Agamben's theories of sovereign power, bare life, and the state of exception. Though his political analysis draws from the European history, we contend that the nature of his method attests to the possibility of analogical examples in non‐Western places. Thus, we argue that a postcolonial encounter with Agamben may enrich our understanding of sovereignty and political geography. In the Korean context, such an analysis needs to consider that sovereign power has been shaped by the itineraries of colonialism and empire. Korea's political space is deeply marked by the legacy of Japanese colonialism, the imperial interventions by the U.S., and the division of the peninsula. Thus, Korea offers a valuable lens through which to read Agamben's critique of sovereignty. Our paper offers such a reading to argue that a state of exception functions as the underlying nomos for postcolonial Korea.
    December 26, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12070   open full text
  • Barrio Women's Invited and Invented Spaces Against Urban Elitisation in Chacao, Venezuela.
    Juan Velásquez Atehortúa.
    Antipode. December 20, 2013
    Outright victories against urban elitisation are rare in the current urban revolution. This article highlights how urban elitisation is confronted in Chacao, the most elite and urban part of Venezuela. Initially it reviews how this urban elitisation created the main economic, political and military strongholds of the opposition to the Bolivarian revolution. Then, in contesting it, the urban and Bolivarian revolutions feed each other through women's participation in invited and invented spaces of citizenship. From such spaces, Chacao women in their settler's movement organised struggles of insurgent citizenship to stop elitist urban renewal agendas and develop further forms of insurgent urbanism to conduct an urban renewal from below and establish a New Socialist Community for 600 families. They emerged as a revolutionary class to implement Bolivarian policies addressing the inefficiency and opportunism of the bureaucratic state and contesting urban elitisation with an anti‐capitalist and anti‐imperialist insurgent urbanism.
    December 20, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12072   open full text
  • White But Not Quite: Normalizing Colonial Conquests Through Spatial Mimicry.
    Mori Ram.
    Antipode. December 20, 2013
    The role of mimicry in the construction and deconstruction of social identities has enriched our understanding of power relations considerably. However, as a spatial practice, mimicry has received scant consideration. In what ways can space itself become an object of mimicry? What strategies and practices are involved in this process and with what political objectives? The current paper treats these questions by analyzing processes of mimetic spatial production aiming to transform the Israeli‐occupied territory of Mount Hermon into an “ordinary” western ski resort. Yet this concerted effort produces a variety of tensions and contradictions that ultimately undo the normalization of the colonial space, comprising a test case of the convoluted ways in which mimicry of space, not merely in space, generates various forms of slippage, excess and ambivalence.
    December 20, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12071   open full text
  • “If we don't push homeless people out, we will end up being pushed out by them”: The Criminalization of Homelessness as State Strategy in Hungary.
    Éva Tessza Udvarhelyi.
    Antipode. December 19, 2013
    In recent years, the intensity of the criminalization of homelessness in Hungary gave rise to a veritable tug‐of‐war between the ruling party and grassroots activists. In fact, today it is the only country in the world where the possibility of penalizing homelessness is encoded in the constitution itself. In this paper, I first provide an overview of the rise of homelessness since the late 1980s. Then, I go on to examine changing public and political attitudes towards homelessness in post‐socialist Hungary and place the growing trend towards penalization in the larger context of an emerging criminal paradigm. After examining the recent authoritarian turn, I argue that the radical intensification of criminalization is a strategy not only to secure political dominance, but also to obscure the failure of the state to address the social, political and economic contradictions that became salient at the time of the regime change.
    December 19, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12068   open full text
  • Narratives of Modernity, Masculinity, and Citizenship Amid Crisis in Abidjan's Sorbonne.
    Jordanna Matlon.
    Antipode. December 19, 2013
    In this article I relate prominent depictions of the African urban crisis, particularly informality, and its implications for masculine subjectivity in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Drawing on five months of ethnographic fieldwork I conducted in 2008 and 2009, I consider the Sorbonne, a nationalist space in Abidjan, where partisans of former President Laurent Gbagbo contested the crisis narrative and their place in it. Literally and ideologically, Sorbonne orators and spectators moved themselves and their country from the periphery to the urban and global core. Dans cet article, je rapporte des représentations bien connues de la crise urbaine en Afrique, en particulier l'informalité, et ses implications pour la subjectivité masculine à Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. En me basant sur cinq mois de recherche ethnographique que j'ai menée entre 2008 et 2009, j'examine la Sorbonne, un espace nationaliste à Abidjan, où les partisans de l'ancien président Laurent Gbagbo ont contesté la narrative de la crise et leur place dans cette crise. Littéralement et idéologiquement, les orateurs et les spectateurs de la Sorbonne ont placé leur pays, ainsi qu'eux‐mêmes, de la périphérie vers le centre urbain et mondial.
    December 19, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12069   open full text
  • Disrupted Futures: Unpacking Metaphors of Marginalization in Eviction and Resettlement Narratives.
    Kavita Ramakrishnan.
    Antipode. December 03, 2013
    In this paper, I examine how linguistic tropes that emerged during ethnographic fieldwork in a Delhi resettlement colony both capture and reaffirm the experiences of forced eviction and marginalization on the urban periphery. By analyzing the urban subjectivities embedded in recurrent metaphors, I explore how people “make sense” of dispossession and ultimately, articulate their “place” in the city. Drawing on Lakoff and Johnson (1980, Metaphors We Live By; 1999, Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought), I argue that the utilization of metaphors in everyday language influences how people structure their relationships—with the state, with other residents of the resettlement colony, and with the city itself—and captures the pervasive uncertainty of resettlement. Unpacking such metaphors as “guides” to thought and practice can contribute to theories on spaces of insecurity and performativity of the marginalized in the city.
    December 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12067   open full text
  • Neoliberal Reason and Its Forms: De‐Politicisation Through Economisation.
    Yahya M. Madra, Fikret Adaman.
    Antipode. November 28, 2013
    This paper offers a historically contextualised intellectual history of the entangled development of three competing post‐war economic approaches, viz the Austrian, Chicago and post‐Walrasian schools, as three forms of neoliberalism. Taking our cue from Foucault's reading of neoliberalism as a mode of governmentality under which the social is organised through “economic incentives”, we engage with the recent discussions of neoliberal theory on three accounts: neoliberalism is read as an epistemic horizon including not only “pro‐” but also “post‐market” positions articulated by post‐Walrasian economists who claim that market failures necessitate the design of “incentive‐compatible” remedial mechanisms; the Austrian tradition is distinguished from the Chicago‐style pro‐marketism; and the implications of the differences among the three approaches on economic as well as socio‐political life are discussed. The paper maintains that all three approaches promote the de‐politicisation of the social through its economisation albeit by way of different theories and policies. © 2013 The Author. Antipode © 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd.
    November 28, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12065   open full text
  • Adaptation Machines and the Parasitic Politics of Life in Jamaican Disaster Resilience.
    Kevin J. Grove.
    Antipode. November 11, 2013
    This paper unpacks a politics of life at the heart of community‐based disaster management to advance a new understanding of resilience politics. Through an institutional ethnography of participatory resilience programming in Kingston, Jamaica, I explore how staff in Jamaica's national disaster management agency engaged with a qualitatively distinct form of collective life in Kingston's garrison districts. Garrison life has been shaped by the confluence of political economic, cultural, geopolitical force relations, which creates a hyper‐adaptive life that exceeds the techniques and rationalities of neoliberal disaster resilience. I draw on autonomist Marxist and Deleuzian readings of biopolitics to identify a new subject of disaster politics that I call, after Deleuze and Guattari, “adaptation machines”, decentralized apparatuses of capture that are parasitically reliant on the population's immanent adaptive capacities. The concept of adaptation machines enables us to envision resilience politics as a struggle over how to appropriate vulnerable peoples’ world‐forming constituent power.
    November 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12066   open full text
  • The Hollowing Out of Brazilian Metropolitan Governance As We Know It: Restructuring and Rescaling the Developmental State in Metropolitan Space.
    Jeroen Klink.
    Antipode. November 08, 2013
    Despite regulatory and financial rollout of the state at a number of scales, and a strengthening of the institutional framework that guides territorial planning and management, Brazilian metropolitan governance continues to be characterized by fragmented and relatively competitive organizational structures. Likewise, the Brazilian metropolis is marked by economic dynamism and intense socio‐spatial and environmental contradictions. Much of the mainstream literature on metropolitan governance has emphasized a natural “optimum” scale for planning and management in city‐regions, articulated by public and private stakeholders aimed at the coordinated delivery of economic, social and environmental services. Combining the literature on new state spaces and critical Brazilian urban‐regional studies, this paper provides an alternative framework to understand the impasse of Brazilian metropolitan areas, which is grounded within a geo‐historic reading of the contradictory projects and strategies of the developmental state and the contested nature of metropolitan scale itself. Apesar de um aumento da atuação do Estado, nas multiplas escalas, no campo da regulação e do financiamento, e também considerando o fortalecimento do arcabouço institutional que norteia o planejamento e gestão territorial, a governança metropolitana brasileira ainda se caracteriza pela presença de estruturas relativamente fragmentadas e competitivas. Da mesma forma, a metrópole brasileira é marcada pela confluência entre o dinamismo econômico e as contradições socioespaciais e ambientais. Grande parte da literatura hegemônica sobre governança metropolitana têm enfatizada a existência de uma escala natural, e “ótica”, para nortear o planejamento e a gestão em cidades‐regiões, que seria articulada por agentes públicos e privados em torno da provisão coordenada de uma serie de serviços econômicos, sociais e ambientais. Procurando estabelecer um diálogo entre a literatura sobre escalas e regimes de organização e atuação territorial do Estado e os estudos urbano‐regionais brasileiros críticos, apresentamos um arcabouço teórico alternativo para compreender os impasses que cercam as áreas metropolitanas brasileiras. A perspectiva apresentada neste artigo é baseada numa leitura geográfica e histórica acerca dos projetos e das estratégias contraditórios do Estado desenvolvimentista, e da natureza contestada da própria escala metropolitana.
    November 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12064   open full text
  • Race and the Making of Southeast San Francisco: Towards a Theory of Race‐Class.
    Rachel Brahinsky.
    Antipode. November 08, 2013
    San Francisco is engaged in a redevelopment project that could bring millions in investment and community benefits to a starved neighborhood—and yet the project is embedded in an urban development process that is displacing residents. In trying to unsettle these contradictions, this paper achieves two aims. First, I unearth a little known history of redevelopment activism that frames debate around the current project. Second, I use this history to argue for a reframing of the language of race. To wit: although the social construction of race and racism is well established, race is still deeply understood in everyday life as natural. This paper offers a theoretical fusing of race and class, “race‐class”, to help us think race through a vital constructionist lens. Race‐class makes present the economic dynamics of racial formation, and foregrounds that race is a core process of urban political economy. Race‐class works both “top‐down” and “ground‐up.” While it is a vehicle for capital's exploitation of people and place, race‐class also emerges as a mode of power for racialized working‐class residents. © 2013 The Author. Antipode © 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd.
    November 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12050   open full text
  • Ten Square Miles Surrounded By Reality? Materialising Alternative Economies Using Local Currencies.
    Peter North.
    Antipode. August 15, 2013
    This article examines the success of paper‐based alternative currencies in facilitating convivial, sustainable localised economies. Based on fieldwork in the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany, it discusses the capacity of activists to create alternative forms of currency that communicate the organisers’ visions of a localised economy, before examining material practices: for whom do the currencies work, and who struggles to use them? Using insights from a diverse economies perspective, the article argues that we cannot read off the likelihood of an economic actor using the currency from the extent of their local economic embeddedness: economic actors in similar positions respond to the same stimuli in different ways, and local business owners and activists can form productive alliances to develop their shared project. The article concludes by arguing that local currencies should be used more proactively to stimulate new forms of concrete local production to meet locally identified needs. Este artículo examina el éxito de las monedas alternativas de papel en facilitar economías localizadas conviviales y sostenibles. Basado en trabajos de campo en los Estados Unidos, el Reino Unido y Alemania, se analiza la capacidad de los activistas para crear formas alternativas de moneda que comuniquen las visiones de una economía localizada de los organizadores, antes de examinar las prácticas materiales: ¿para quién funcionan las monedas y para quién supone dificultades? Usando percepciones desde una perspectiva de “economías diversas”, el artículo argumenta que no se puede deducir la probabilidad de que un actor económico utilice la moneda en base a su grado de arraigo en la economía local: los actores económicos en posiciones similares responden a los mismos estímulos de diferentes maneras, y empresarios y activistas locales pueden formar alianzas productivas para desarrollar su proyecto compartido. El artículo concluye argumentando que las monedas locales deben utilizarse de manera más proactiva para estimular nuevas formas de producción local concreta para satisfacer las necesidades identificadas a nivel local.
    August 15, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12039   open full text
  • Practices of Solidarity: Opposing Apartheid in the Centre of London.
    Gavin Brown, Helen Yaffe.
    Antipode. August 01, 2013
    International solidarity is frequently presented as an asymmetrical flow of assistance travelling from one place to another. In contrast, we theorise the more complex, entangled and reciprocal flows of solidarity that serve to enact social change in more than one place simultaneously. The international campaign against apartheid was one of the most widespread, sustained social movements of the last century. This paper examines the spatial practices of the Non‐Stop Picket of the South African Embassy in London (1986–1990). Drawing on archival and interview material, we examine how the Picket produced solidarity with those resisting apartheid in South(ern) Africa. We argue that how the need for anti‐apartheid solidarity was framed politically cannot be understood in isolation from how it was performed in practice. The study of solidarity is enriched by paying attention to the micropolitics of the practices through which it is enacted and articulated through key sites. La solidaridad internacional es frecuentemente presentada como un flujo asimétrico de asistencia viajando de un lugar al otro. A diferencia, teorizamos los más complejos, enredados y recíprocos flujos de la solidaridad, cuales sirvan para promulgar el cambio social en mas de un lugar en forma simultánea. La campaña internacional en contra apartheid fue una de los movimientos sociales más amplios y sostenido del siglo pasado. Este artículo examina las prácticas espaciales del piquete continuo en frente a la Embajada de Sudáfrica en Londres (1986–1990). Sobre la base de materiales de archivos y entrevistas, examinamos como el piquete producía solidaridad con los que resistían apartheid en el Sur de África. Argumentamos que cómo la necesidad para la solidaridad contra el apartheid se enmarca políticamente no puede ser entendido en forma aislada de cómo fue realizado en la práctica. El estudio de la solidaridad se enriquece prestándole atención a la micropolíticas de las prácticas a través de la cual se promulgó y articula a través de los sitios clave.
    August 01, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12037   open full text
  • “The Old Man is Dead”: Hip Hop and the Arts of Citizenship of Senegalese Youth.
    Rosalind Fredericks.
    Antipode. July 29, 2013
    The 2012 Senegalese presidential elections engulfed the country in unprecedented controversy, violence, and protest. Urban youth in Dakar animated the massive opposition movement that eventually led to the incumbent's defeat through voter registration, public critique, and mass mobilization. Two prominent factors fomenting youth action were the direct engagement of a host of well known rappers and the pervasive power of hip hop culture. This article probes the valence of the globalized art form of hip hop as a medium of political identity formation and a language of resistance in these elections through considering the spatial practices and imaginaries of rappers and their followers. It argues that hip hop fosters new geographies of citizenship inspiring urban youth to transgress prescribed boundaries in allowed speech and political behavior to make new claims on their city and nation. Insight is drawn for understanding youth politics, the power of music, and questions of urban citizenship. L'élection présidentielle sénégalaise de 2012 a englouti le pays dans une controverse de violence et de protestation sans précédent. Les jeunes en milieu urbain à Dakar ont animé le mouvement d'opposition massif qui a finalement conduit à la défaite du titulaire par le biais de l'inscription des électeurs, la critique publique, et la mobilisation de masse. Deux facteurs importants fomentant l'action de la jeunesse étaient l'engagement direct d'un groupe de rappeurs connus et le pouvoir omniprésent de la culture hip hop. Cet article interroge la valeur de cette forme d'art globalisé du hip hop comme un moyen de formation de l'identité politique et une langue de la résistance dans ces élections à travers une considération des pratiques spatiales et des imaginaires de rappeurs et leurs public. Elle affirme que hip hop facilite de nouveaux espaces de la citoyenneté qui inspirent la jeunesse urbaine à transgresser les limites prescrites dans les discours autorisés et le comportement politique afin de faire de nouvelles demandes de leur ville et de la nation. Un aperçu est offert pour mieux comprendre la politique de la jeunesse, le pouvoir de la musique et les questions de citoyenneté urbaine.
    July 29, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12036   open full text
  • From Darkness into Light: Race, Population, and Environmental Advocacy.
    Jade Sasser.
    Antipode. July 23, 2013
    Environmentalists and environmental organizations in the USA have long identified population growth as a key threat to environmental sustainability at local and global scales. The neo‐Malthusian logics they invoke embed racialized images and categories in defining population “problems”, yet increasingly social justice language is invoked in population debates as a “solution” in the context of international development. This article explores the historical and contemporary characterizations of race as a central component of population–environment advocacy. It focuses on locations of race narratives in both the conceptualizations of population growth as an environmental problem, and family planning as a global solution. Through a critical analysis of the “population justice” framework, I argue that new discursive approaches attempt to reposition population work as socially just, while eliding critical analyses of race.
    July 23, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12029   open full text
  • From Revanchism to Ambivalence: The Changing Politics of Street Vending in Guangzhou.
    Gengzhi Huang, Desheng Xue, Zhigang Li.
    Antipode. July 18, 2013
    By focusing on Guangzhou's street‐vending policy transformation, this article explores how exclusionary practices of urban politics in China are undermined by those who it seeks to exclude and the progressive political climate that questions the exclusionary framework. The exclusion of street vendors in Guangzhou has been led by the National Sanitary City campaign as a revanchist project. It has been discovered that while the exclusionary strategies are rendered difficult to operate due to the resistance of street vendors who develop a flexible, individualized and small‐scale activism to maintain their livelihoods, the discourse of social harmony at national level has driven local authorities to seek alternatives expected to alleviate social resistance and address people's livelihoods. However, rather than an overturn of the punitive framework, an ambivalent approach, recognized in a recent critique of revanchism, has been adopted to mediate the tension between the needs to retain attractive city images and address the livelihoods of the poor in Chinese cities.
    July 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12031   open full text
  • Not Everyone Has (the) Balls: Urban Exploration and the Persistence of Masculinist Geography.
    Carrie Mott, Susan M. Roberts.
    Antipode. July 18, 2013
    In geographic scholarship, urban exploration (urbex) has been examined as an embodied practice with radical potential for re‐appropriating urban spaces. However, geographic literature on urban exploration has largely ignored the particular qualities of the urban explorer as a subject and neglected feminist scholarship on embodiment and social difference. Based on our examination of both popular and academic treatments of urbex we identify a prevalent and largely unacknowledged culture of masculinism. We ask: Whose bodies explore? What counts as experience? What constitutes the exchange between body and place? And, with what effects? Addressing these questions permits considerations of exclusions and marginalizations left unaddressed in much geographic literature on urbex.
    July 18, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12033   open full text
  • Performative Research for a Climate Politics of Hope: Rethinking Geographic Scale, “Impact” Scale, and Markets.
    Jenny Cameron, Jarra Hicks.
    Antipode. July 15, 2013
    Research is increasingly recognised as a generative and performative practice that contributes to shaping the world we come to live in. Thus part of the research “process” involves being explicit about the worlds we want our research to contribute to and reflecting on how the concepts we use might help or inhibit this agenda. This paper is based on our commitment to strengthening the contributions that grassroots renewable energy initiatives might make to a climate changing world. However, to detect the potential of these initiatives, familiar concepts of scale and markets have to be recast. This paper uses insights from the academic literature and research into grassroots renewable energy initiatives to show how scale and markets can be rethought, thereby making it possible to detect some of the ways that grassroots renewable energy initiatives are helping transform ways of living and working, and building hope in a climate changing world.
    July 15, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12035   open full text
  • The Politics of Emotion in Participatory Processes of Empowerment and Change.
    Barbara Van Wijnendaele.
    Antipode. July 15, 2013
    In this article I reflect on the role of critical analysis and emotions in participatory approaches to empowerment and change. I argue that, in participatory research and practice, certain cognitive and analytical knowledges are prioritized as principal catalysts of empowerment and transformation at the cost of recognizing, and making full use of, the empowering potential of emotional and embodied knowledges. This argument is developed based on 2 years of fieldwork in a local youth participation project in Mejicanos, a poor and violent neighborhood in El Salvador, aiming at empowering young people by involving them in participatory action research (PAR). As part of my research, I looked critically at the young people's PAR process, asking whether and how they felt empowered by it and whether and how social change came about. Originally, the research did not focus on emotions, yet, in an inductive fashion, emotions and embodied knowledges evolved from fieldwork as crucial elements in understanding participation, empowerment and social transformation.
    July 15, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12034   open full text
  • Encountering Poverty: Space, Class, and Poverty Politics.
    Victoria Lawson, Sarah Elwood.
    Antipode. July 12, 2013
    Our paper focuses on moments and spaces of encounter in which middle class people come into contact with “poor others”. Much critical poverty work focuses on the re‐inscription of difference across class, race and gender lines. We explore where, when and how middle class actors engage with “poor others” in ways that (sometimes) lead to shifts in neoliberal and individualized understandings of poverty. Our paper explores boundary‐breaking transformative moments that arise through spatial encounters. Drawing on Valentine's “zones of encounter” we explore how middle class encounters with poverty are mediated by two sets of spatial processes: processes of (self)government and of radical contact. We draw illustrative examples from two projects: on rural poverty in the Pacific Northwest and on community development in Chicago. In each case we trace the ways in which these spaces of encounter foster governance and/or contact processes that reproduce or disrupt dominant discourses about poverty.
    July 12, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12030   open full text
  • The Crisis of the “Disadvantaged Child”: Poverty Research, IQ, and Muppet Diplomacy in the 1960s.
    Paul S. B. Jackson.
    Antipode. July 11, 2013
    In the early 1960s, the US federal government deemed poverty to be a national crisis, and actively intervened to solve this problem. My question for this article is how did preschool education become a key site to remedy this crisis? Government interventions were a combination of poverty research, racialized politics, and child development. I show how the discipline of early childhood education cohered around the term “disadvantaged child”, in turn influencing the War on Poverty policies, including the basis of Head Start preschool education. During this same decade proponents of Sesame Street—with private funding, along with extensive testing mechanisms by consultants—argued that the television could reach more children, therefore be more cost effective. This paper investigates how surplus populations became determined and demarcated, as early as three years old. I question how televised preschool taught “affective skills” and proper social relations during times of political crisis.
    July 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12027   open full text
  • A Visceral Politics of Sound.
    Gordon Waitt, Ella Ryan, Carol Farbotko.
    Antipode. July 08, 2013
    Questions of bodies and embodiment are a critical focus for geographers. In this paper we advance discussion of the mobilisation of bodies that investigates the interconnections between the visceral and discursive, through paying attention to the affordances of sound. We draw on our ethnographic research of the Climate Camp parade held during October 2009 in Helensburgh, New South Wales, Australia. Using feminist theory and visceral understandings of socio‐political life, we explore sounds to illustrate how people's beliefs about climate change are mobilised at this parade. We argue that visceral experiences of the rhythmic affordances of sounds—flow, pulse and beat—provide us insights as to how people are mobilised into action. Our results explore bodily judgements of sounds to illustrate how a visceral approach can help to mobilise bodies in ways that can both upset, and reproduce, particular beliefs, subjects and places.
    July 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12032   open full text
  • Aleatory Sovereignty and the Rule of Sensitive Spaces.
    Elizabeth Cullen Dunn, Jason Cons.
    Antipode. July 08, 2013
    Addressing life in borders and refugee camps requires understanding the way these spaces are ruled, the kinds of problems rule poses for the people who live there, and the abilities of inhabitants to remake their own lives. Recent literature on such spaces has been influenced by Agamben's notion of sovereignty, which reduces these spaces and their residents to abstractions. We propose an alternate framework focused on what we call aleatory sovereignty, or rule by chance. This allows us to see camps and borders not only as the outcomes of humanitarian projects but also of anxieties about governance and rule; to see their inhabitants not only as abject recipients of aid, but also as individuals who make decisions and choices in complex conditions; and to show that while the outcome of projects within such spaces is often unpredictable, the assumptions that undergird such projects create regular cycles of implementation and failure.
    July 08, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12028   open full text
  • Asylum and the Post‐Political: Domopolitics, Depoliticisation and Acts of Citizenship.
    Jonathan Darling.
    Antipode. July 05, 2013
    This paper explores the ways in which practices of asylum governance serve to depoliticise those seeking asylum in the UK. In critiquing claims over the “post‐political” nature of contemporary governance, the paper proposes a focus upon situated practices of depoliticisation which displace those seeking asylum through the production of specific sites of accommodation and specific discourses of risk, security and moralised concern. The paper questions the tendency within “post‐political” thought to strip the potential of modes of informal citizenship through arguing that minor acts of resistance are ineffectual and illusory. In response, the paper explores irregular migrant's “acts of citizenship”, and suggests that such prosaic acts can be powerful forms of political interruption through which new ways of seeing asylum are constructed. The paper concludes by suggesting that an incremental politics orientated around such acts of interruption is essential to challenge the material, affective and discursive closures of asylum domopolitics.
    July 05, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12026   open full text
  • Developmentalities and Donor–NGO Relations: Contesting Foreign Aid Policies in New Zealand/Aotearoa.
    Andrew McGregor, Edward Challies, John Overton, Lee Sentes.
    Antipode. June 13, 2013
    In this paper we draw on the concept of governmentality to examine the relationships between donors and northern non‐governmental organisations (NGOs) during moments of policy change. Our case study comes from New Zealand/Aotearoa where a change in government has seen aid policy shift from poverty alleviation to sustainable economic development. We detail three mechanisms through which the government sought to normalise this change: changes in language and fields of visibility; institutional reform; and funding delays and cuts. Far from being complete, however, we also trace how some NGOs contested the new agenda through engaging in the practice of politics and how, at least temporarily, new more politicised development subjectivities were created. While our study raises awkward questions about the autonomy of NGOs within current funding environments, we also emphasise the productive possibilities and openings that emerge as one set of development ideas and techniques, or developmentalities, shifts to another.
    June 13, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12017   open full text
  • Labour, Migration and the Spatial Fix: Evidence from the UK Food Industry.
    Sam Scott.
    Antipode. June 10, 2013
    Abstract The paper argues that David Harvey's () concept of the “spatial fix” (Antipode 13(3):1–12) can help us to understand contemporary labour migration. According to Harvey, the spatial fix is a response by capital to periodic crises that may involve both ex situ (finding new markets and production sites) and in situ solutions (importing and/ or improving labour). Drawing on experiences in the UK food industry, via 37 employer interviews, I show that in situ restructuring has become hegemonic and that an associated “good migrant worker” rhetoric has emerged. This rhetoric has two dimensions. Most obviously, low‐wage employers stress the apparently superior hard and soft skills of migrants. Some, however, also link low‐wage immigration to a purposeful shift in power from labour to capital. In both respects, migration functions as a regulatory project and “spatial fix”, and employers' “need” for migrant labour is primarily about maximising labour power in downgraded jobs more than about absolute labour shortages. Implications for policy Employer reliance on migrant labour is not new. It is important, therefore, that policymakers do not get too carried away by contemporary low‐wage immigration. Nevertheless, this phenomenon appears to occur even when, in theory at least, employers could recruit domestically. The fact that they do not, demonstrates the ways in which recruitment, even at the bottom of the labour market, is not just about getting people in post, but about getting the right kind of people in post. Labour shortages, then, are an issue of quality and quantity; and employers' ability to use periphery‐to‐core migration to increase both is what constitutes the “in situ spatial fix”. The challenge for policymakers is to weigh up the undoubted economic benefits of this “fix” (especially significant for sectors that are undergoing prolonged restructuring, like the UK food industry) against the impact it can have in depressing pay and conditions and further marginalising would‐be domestic workers.
    June 10, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12023   open full text
  • Brave New World? Ruminations on Race in the Twenty‐first Century.
    Carolyn Finney.
    Antipode. June 06, 2013
    What if we “renovated” race as a concept to reflect new configurations, possibilities and disruptions? In this essay, I consider how we might “do” race differently in our theorizing and praxis by interrogating the framings and the language we use to understand and engage race in all its permutations. I encourage us to see “informal moments of intervention” in the public sphere as resilience central to informing our theory. By engaging multiple sites of production and placing our intellectual and creative selves at the center of those relationships, we can potentially uncover/discover/recover race as an emergent concept that more accurately depicts and articulates where and who we are in the present.
    June 06, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12021   open full text
  • From Politicization to Policing: The Rise and Decline of New Social Movements in Amsterdam and Paris.
    Justus Uitermark, Walter Nicholls.
    Antipode. June 04, 2013
    This paper analyzes the rise and decline of social movements in Amsterdam and Paris, focusing in particular on the organizations of left‐wing immigrant workers. These organizations performed crucial roles for new social movements in the 1970s and 1980s but were isolated and coopted in the 1990s and early 2000s. To explain why this is so, we engage in a dialogue with Jacques Rancière and develop an understanding of cities as strategic sites for both politicization and policing. Cities serve as sites of politicization because they are incubators of the relational conduits that enable activists from different sectors to engage with one another's struggles and look beyond narrow temporal and spatial horizons. However, cities also serve as sites of policing because authorities constantly attempt to reconfigure governmental arrangements in such a way that civil society serves as an extension of the government and comes to fulfill an instrumental role in the development and implementation of policy. Just as politicizing implies the widening of temporal and spatial horizons, policing implies the narrowing of such horizons. The analysis shows the social movements of the 1960s lost steam in two of the major hubs of the new left and reveals some of the more universal mechanisms through which cities generate or quell dissent.
    June 04, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12025   open full text
  • Negotiating Particularity in Neoliberalism Studies: Tracing Development Strategies Across Neoliberal Urban Governance Projects.
    John Lauermann, Mark Davidson.
    Antipode. May 03, 2013
    A reading of critical perspectives on neoliberalism would suggest that it is dead but dominant, a revanchist zombie that appears paradoxically ubiquitous despite its inherent idiosyncrasy. We argue that neoliberalism's paradoxical death, dominance, and retrenchment can be interpreted by analyzing the dialectic of universalizing processes and particular forms within capitalism. Neoliberal projects draw political import from systemic, universalizing tendencies in capitalism, particularly those ideological processes by which contradictions and crises come to be discursively, institutionally, and politically conceptualized within the same paradigm from which they emerged. Building on well developed research frameworks in neoliberalism studies, we propose a set of analytical tools to interpret links between particular projects and homogenizing practices. We illustrate this with a case study of urban “megaevents” (eg Olympic Games or football World Cup), demonstrating how ideological commitments to event‐based development strategies allow both the homogenizing imposition of entrepreneurial urban policy, and localized innovations in urban governance.
    May 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12018   open full text
  • The Urban Injustices of New Labour's “New Urban Renewal”: The Case of the Aylesbury Estate in London.
    Loretta Lees.
    Antipode. May 03, 2013
    This paper discusses the urban injustices of New Labour's “new urban renewal”, that is the state‐led gentrification of British council estates, undertaken through the guise of mixed communities policy, on the Aylesbury estate in Southwark, London, one of the largest council estates in Europe. In this particular case of post‐political planning I show how the tenant support for the regeneration programme was manipulated and misrepresented and how choices were closed down for them, leaving them ultimately with a “false choice” between a regeneration they did not want or the further decline of their estate. I look at what the estate residents thought/think about the whole process and how they have resisted, and are resisting, the gentrification of their estate. I show revanchist and post‐political practices, but ultimately I refuse to succumb to these dystopian narratives, very attractive as they are, for conflict/dissent has not been completely smothered and resistance to gentrification in and around the Aylesbury is alive and well. I argue that we urgently need to re‐establish the city as the driver of democratic politics with an emancipatory agenda, rather than one that ratifies the status quo or gets mired in a dystopic post‐justice city.
    May 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12020   open full text
  • Marxist Critiques of the Developmental State and the Fetishism of National Development.
    Hae‐Yung Song.
    Antipode. May 03, 2013
    The developmental state has been heavily discussed in various disciplines and across diverse political spectrums. However, the statist notion formulated by institutionalists that the developmental state is autonomous from society and therefore effective in achieving “national development” has more often been taken for granted than problematised. The statist notion of the developmental state has also been accepted and reproduced or challenged merely inadequately by Marxist critics. By analysing how and why currently available Marxist assessments of the developmental state fail to challenge statism, this article offers an alternative theory of the developmental state by drawing on both social form critique and world system analysis. It then locates the origins of statism itself in the dynamics of global capitalism, in which the totality of capitalist social relations (understood as global from its inception) are hierarchically and unevenly constituted. From this it extends Marx's critique of commodity fetishism to the question of the international (the relationship between the nation state and world market) and criticises the statist notion of the developmental state from the perspective of a critique of the fetishism of national development.
    May 03, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12024   open full text
  • Racializing Cities, Naturalizing Space: The Seductive Appeal of Iconicities of Dispossession.
    Uli Linke.
    Antipode. April 11, 2013
    In pursuit of a critical geography of globality, my essay examines how racial hegemonies are sustained and perpetuated by the ways in which urban spaces inhabited by peoples on the margins of the world economy are imagined, represented, and brought to public visibility. Central to my inquiry is how iconic representations of “slum life” are produced for a white consumer public. Propelled by fantasies of racial essence, primal bodies, and exotic naturalism, the iconicities of “shantytowns” and the “black ghetto” are circulated as popular commodity forms throughout Europe's metropolitan centers. In analyzing this process, I identify “africanism” (spaces of contested black civility, premodern savagery, urban jungle) and “tropicalism” (naturalized landscapes of color and houses, childlike creativity, and happy workers) as representational codes for how “slums” as sites of urban dispossession are racially mapped and consumed.
    April 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12012   open full text
  • Urbanisation and Financialisation in the Context of a Rescaling State: The Case of Spain.
    Daniel Coq‐Huelva.
    Antipode. April 02, 2013
    The secondary circuit is a central element in the processes of capital accumulation, and its relevance has become more acute in recent years as urban planning, housing, and real estate have become privileged arenas of the territoriality “variegated” processes of neoliberalisation. This paper explores three theoretical concepts, all closely associated with neoliberalisation: the rescaling of the state, urban entrepreneurialism and financialisation. The paper uses these three theoretical concepts to explain, on the one hand, the increasing relevance of housing and real estate and, on the other hand, their connection with two of the major manifestations of the current financial crisis: excessive private indebtedness and the credit crunch. Analysing the Spanish case is particularly revealing because of the intensity of construction work until 2007, the severity of the subsequent economic crisis, and the wide range of agents involved in the growth of a neoliberalised and financialised secondary circuit of capital in Spain.
    April 02, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12011   open full text
  • Labour Control in the Tobacco Agro‐spaces: Migrant Agricultural Workers in South‐Western Ontario.
    Robert Michael Bridi.
    Antipode. April 02, 2013
    International labour migration programs provide a vulnerable workforce that services various sectors in developed economies. The agriculture sector is one arena in which the employment of migrant workers has become more pervasive. Annually, approximately 30,000 workers are employed in the Canadian agriculture sector through the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP). In this paper, I focus on the SAWP workers in tobacco farming, and investigate the ways that labour control is achieved on two small‐scale farms. I draw upon original empirical evidence from interviews with three Mexican and nine Jamaican workers, two union representatives, and two farm owners in South‐Western Ontario, Canada. My findings show that various factors at multiple scales shape the labour control regime and significantly advantage farm owners over workers. Based on my findings, I argue that the labour control regime is conditioned exogenously by multi‐scalar factors and generated endogenously at the point of production.
    April 02, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12016   open full text
  • Antipode to Terror: Spaces of Performative Politics.
    Daanish Mustafa, Katherine E. Brown, Matthew Tillotson.
    Antipode. April 01, 2013
    Focusing on Pakistan we address the human geography of politics and violence to argue that organized political violence is not only about death and destruction but also, more importantly, about the control of the public sphere, and vitally, the reorganization of space. To make this argument we also extend Arendt's thesis on totalitarianism and the human condition. Our argument is grounded in a review of the activities of Tehrik‐e‐Taliban, Pakistan's (TTP) during their brief control of the Swat valley in Pakistan. We argue that TTP's spectacular violence eliminates “worldliness”, plurality and life, so that spontaneous action is denied and the public sphere is destroyed through the universalization of terror. The practical implication of our argument is that, in significant contrast to state and military actions to date, productive measures to resist violence should protect the performance of politics in an extended public sphere. © 2013 The Author Antipode© 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd.
    April 01, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12014   open full text
  • Performing Rootedness in the Negev/Naqab: Possibilities and Perils of Competitive Planting.
    Emily McKee.
    Antipode. April 01, 2013
    Through ethnographic and historical analysis of the Negev region of Israel, this article examines competitive planting as a common tool in land conflicts. In a context of disputed land ownership, some Bedouin Arab residents plant crops in defiance of government policy. Government enforcers of land‐use regulations destroy many of these crops and engage in counterinsurgent tree‐planting. I suggest that planting is such a potent tactic because it draws on “environmental idioms” of agricultural labor, the rootedness of trees, and a fundamental Jewish‐Arab opposition that have been central to the development of both Israeli and Palestinian nationalisms. For Bedouin Arabs, whose relationship to both nationalisms has long been contested, the multivalent symbolism of planting makes it a particularly promising tactic for asserting land claims. Further, I contend that these plantings demonstrate both the power of environmental idioms to structure land claims along ethnic lines and the creative potential of participants to challenge dominant environmental discourses by adding new connotations.
    April 01, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12013   open full text
  • Rescaling White Space in Post‐apartheid Johannesburg.
    Andy Clarno.
    Antipode. March 25, 2013
    This paper traces three political mobilizations in the wealthy suburbs of Johannesburg: a boycott of redistributive tax policies, the creation of gated communities and residents’ associations, and the demand for residential city improvement districts (CIDs). I argue that state rescaling and networked governance are constituted through struggles over governmental power. I also argue for more attention to race in the political economy of scale. Struggles over the scalar, networked, and territorial dimensions of governance are constitutive moments in the shifting articulation of race, class, and space. An analysis of articulation highlights the role of territory, identity and imagination in the production of space, demonstrates that neoliberal forms of networked governance are products of struggle, and reiterates the feminist argument that governmental interventions are about more than just capital accumulation.
    March 25, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12015   open full text
  • Race, Waste, and Space: Brownfield Redevelopment and Environmental Justice at the Hunters Point Shipyard.
    Lindsey Dillon.
    Antipode. March 11, 2013
    This paper advances the concept of “waste formations” as a way of thinking together processes of race, space, and waste in brownfield redevelopment projects. Defined as formerly industrial and contaminated properties, in the 1990s brownfields emerged as the grounds for new forms of urbanization and an emerging environmental remediation industry. Through their redevelopment, the twentieth century's urban wastelands—environmentally degraded, economically divested, and often racially marked—have become sites of investment, resignification, and value formation. The concept of waste formations provides a critical framework on the ways these socio‐ecological transformations rework twentieth century urban inequalities—in particular, the articulation of waste and toxic waste—and the ways they produce new geographies of environmental injustice through the displacement of toxic waste to newly waste‐able spaces. This paper develops an analytic of waste formations and applies it to the process of brownfield redevelopment at the Hunters Point Shipyard in southeast San Francisco.
    March 11, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12009   open full text
  • Negotiating Neoliberal Empowerment: Aboriginal People, Educational Restructuring, and Academic Labour in the North of British Columbia, Canada.
    Suzanne E. Mills, Tyler McCreary.
    Antipode. February 25, 2013
    Aboriginal peoples in Canada are gaining influence in post‐secondary education through Aboriginal‐directed programs and policies in non‐Aboriginal institutions. However, these gains have occurred alongside, and in some cases through, neoliberal reforms to higher education. This article explores the political consequences of the neoliberal institutionalization of First Nations empowerment for public sector unions and workers. We examine a case where the indigenization of a community college in British Columbia was embedded in neoliberal reforms that ran counter to the interests of academic instructors. Although many union members supported indigenization, many also possessed a deep ambivalence about the change. Neoliberal indigenization increased work intensity, decreased worker autonomy and promoted an educational philosophy that prioritized labour market needs over liberal arts. This example demonstrates how the integration of Aboriginal aspirations into neoliberal processes of reform works to rationalize public sector restructuring, constricting labour agency and the possibilities for alliances between labour and Aboriginal peoples.
    February 25, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12008   open full text
  • Citizenship and Belonging in the Rural Fringe: A Case Study of a Hindu Temple in Sydney, Australia.
    Laura Beth Bugg.
    Antipode. February 25, 2013
    Despite Australian multicultural policy that asserts the right of all citizens to maintain and practice their religion, formal citizenship has not guaranteed the welcome or belonging of migrant religious groups at the neighbourhood scale. This is most starkly reflected in contests over the inclusion of minority religious spaces in the Australian landscape, which increasingly take place in the rural–urban fringe of metropolitan areas. This work examines the controversy over a proposed Hindu temple in metropolitan Sydney and reveals insights into the way that rural–urban fringe space is imagined, understood and experienced by land use planners, residents and temple members. Critical discourse analysis of policy documentation along with interviews reveals that land use planners circumscribe belonging in the landscape through the use of zoning ordinances and design controls, local residents mark the boundaries of white privilege through narratives of heritage and cultural difference and temple members claim rights to citizenship based on assertions of sameness.
    February 25, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12007   open full text
  • The Right to the City and Critical Reflections on China's Property Rights Activism.
    Hyun Bang Shin.
    Antipode. February 21, 2013
    Wholesale clearance and eviction that typify China's urban development have often resulted in discontents among urban residents, giving rise to what critics refer to as property rights activism. This paper is an attempt to critically revisit the existing debates on the property rights activism in China. The paper refers to the perspective of the “right to the city” to examine whose rights count in China's urban development contexts and proposes a cross‐class alliance that engages both migrants and local citizens. The alliance itself will have substantial political implications, overcoming the limited level of rights awareness that mainly rests on distributional justice in China. The discussions are supported by an analysis of empirical data from the author's field research in Guangzhou, which examines how local and non‐local (migrant) residents view nail‐households resisting demolition and forced eviction.
    February 21, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12010   open full text
  • “They have the right to throw us out”: Élisée Reclus’New Universal Geography.
    Federico Ferretti.
    Antipode. January 02, 2013
    Abstract:  The anarchist and geographer Élisée Reclus (1830–1905) argued for the idea of universal brotherhood for all the peoples of the world in his encyclopaedic work the Nouvelle Géographie Universelle (NGU) (1876–1894). The nature of Reclus’ argument and its representations of Europe, otherness and colonialism, however, are contested today, and it is unclear what insights it might offer to contemporary students of colonialism and post‐colonialism. In this paper I engage with two emblematic cases—British rule over India and French occupation of Algeria—as they are presented in the NGU, considering Reclus’ analysis of imperialism and his novel critique of colonial power. In doing so I wish to demonstrate that far from being conventional, the NGU is a radical and interesting resource for those struggling to construct a critical discourse on Europe, otherness and colonialism.
    January 02, 2013   doi: 10.1111/anti.12006   open full text
  • Dispossession by Accumulation? Mining, Water and the Nature of Enclosure on the Bolivian Altiplano.
    Tom Perreault.
    Antipode. December 27, 2012
    Abstract:  This paper examines processes of primitive accumulation and livelihood dispossession on the Bolivian Altiplano. Through empirical examination of the social and environmental effects of mining waste, the paper demonstrates that indigenous campesino community members are experiencing livelihood dispossession by way of three interrelated forms of accumulation: accumulation of toxic sediments on agricultural fields; accumulation of water and water rights by mining firms; and accumulation of territory by mining operations. In the case under examination, full proletarianization is not taking place, and processes of dispossession are not a “fix” for an overaccumulation crisis. The paper argues for greater attention to the contingent role of nature's materiality in processes of dispossession and accumulation.
    December 27, 2012   doi: 10.1111/anti.12005   open full text
  • The Myth of “Broken Britain”: Welfare Reform and the Production of Ignorance.
    Tom Slater.
    Antipode. December 18, 2012
    Abstract:  This article takes on the challenge of what Robert Proctor calls “agnotology” (the study of ignorance) to analyse the current assault on the British welfare state by think tanks, policy elites and conservative politicians. The assault is traced back to the emergence of the Centre for Social Justice think tank, founded in 2004 by the current Work and Pensions Secretary Iain Duncan‐Smith. I argue that a familiar litany of social pathologies (family breakdown, worklessness, antisocial behaviour, personal responsibility, out‐of‐wedlock childbirth, dependency) is repeatedly invoked by the architects of welfare reform to manufacture ignorance of alternative ways of addressing poverty and social injustice. Structural causes of poverty have been strategically ignored in favour of a single behavioural explanation—“Broken Britain”—where “family breakdown” has become the central problem to be tackled by the philanthropic fantasy of a “Big Society”. My agnotological approach critically explores the troubling relationship between (mis)information and state power.
    December 18, 2012   doi: 10.1111/anti.12002   open full text
  • Neoliberalizing Border Management in Finland and Schengen.
    Eeva‐Kaisa Prokkola.
    Antipode. December 18, 2012
    Abstract:  This paper provides a critical examination of the development of border management in Finland and the Schengen Area, the point of departure being that contemporary performances of border enforcement and security cannot be understood as distinct from the process of neoliberalization. The particular case which is examined is that of the Finnish Border Guard (FBG) service. Border management in Finland provides an interesting case not only because Finland is responsible for controlling the Schengen, European Union–Russian border but also because since Finnish state reforms in the early 1990s, neoliberal rationales have increasingly provided the guidelines for how to calculate and optimize border security. This paper emphasizes that the rationales of border management should be made transparent and opened for public debate. The analysis is structured around the themes of internationalization, competitiveness, risk prevention and the functioning of society, all of which are regarded as the key rationales of neoliberalized border governance.
    December 18, 2012   doi: 10.1111/anti.12003   open full text
  • “Partitioning the Sensible” at Park 51: Rancière, Islamophobia, and Common Politics.
    Derek Ruez.
    Antipode. December 18, 2012
    Abstract:  This paper uses Jacques Rancière's conception of the partition of the sensible to interrogate the aesthetic regimes and spatial coordinates that animated public debate about Park 51—the Islamic community center near the World Trade Center site in Manhattan. Understanding conflicts over mosques as potential struggles over the conditions of membership in a community, I suggest that many of the arguments in favor of Park 51 reinforced a partition of the sensible in which Islamophobia could resonate. At stake in these debates—which turned on different understandings of the distance that separated the proposed center from the WTC site—is the relationship between American Muslims and the narratives of trauma constructed around the September 11th attacks. I conclude by exploring the projects proposed by Park 51 organizers as potential sites of everyday micropolitics that could subtly “jolt” existing orders in the interest of reconfiguring the “common sense” of a community.
    December 18, 2012   doi: 10.1111/anti.12004   open full text
  • Does the Punitive Need the Supportive? A Sympathetic Critique of Current Grammars of Urban Injustice.
    Geoff DeVerteuil.
    Antipode. December 13, 2012
    Abstract:  This paper is a sympathetic critique of mainstream grammars of urban injustice, arguing that they are frequently too one‐sided and selective to adequately grasp the full complexity of urban realities. Most prominently, I contend that urban injustice and punitiveness co‐exist with, if not sometimes depend upon, more supportive responses within urban space. I therefore counterbalance the spectacular logics of punitive urbanism and the everyday logics of control with a tripartite approach to logics assembled within the urban voluntary sector (abeyance, care and survival) as a way to reconnect to a broader set of practices. Two case studies are used to illustrate these contentions.
    December 13, 2012   doi: 10.1111/anti.12001   open full text
  • The Squatters' Movement in Europe: A Durable Struggle for Social Autonomy in Urban Politics.
    Miguel A. Martínez López.
    Antipode. December 07, 2012
    Squatting empty properties for living or to develop public activities has lasted in European cities for more than three decades. Although local and national contexts differ significantly, there are also some general trends and patterns that deserve careful attention. When squatting occasionally appears in public debates, controversy is generated and many gaps open between academic, social and political perceptions. In this article I use evidence from several European cities to argue that the squatters' movement has produced an original impact in urban politics. The main feature of this impact has been to generate a relatively wide autonomous and mainly non‐institutional mode of citizen participation, protest and self‐management. How has this been possible? Which are the specific contributions made by this urban movement? These are questions that both scholars and activists continuously claim to be relevant, so that this research attempts to offer some general answers based on detailed comparisons and experiences. La okupación de inmuebles vacíos para residir o para desarrollar actividades públicas en ellos se ha prolongado en las ciudades europeas durante más de tres décadas. Aunque los contextos locales y nacionales difieren significativamente, existen también algunas tendencias y pautas generales que merecen una detallada consideración. Cuando la okupación aparece ocasionalmente en los debates públicos, es habitual que genere mucha controversia y percepciones académicas, sociales y políticas muy distintas. En este artículo utilizo la evidencia disponible en varias ciudades europeas para sostener que el movimiento de okupaciones ha producido un impacto original en la política urbana. La principal característica de ese impacto es la apertura de un modo de participación ciudadana, de protesta y de autogestión con una relativamente amplia autonomía al margen de las instituciones. ¿Cómo ha sido posible ese desarrollo?¿Cuáles son las contribuciones específicas realizadas por este movimiento urbano? Estas son las cuestiones que tanto investigadores/as como activistas han considerado a menudo como relevantes, de tal modo que el presente texto intenta ofrecer algunas respuestas generales a partir de comparaciones y experiencias concretas.
    December 07, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01060.x   open full text
  • Gatekeepers of the Urban Commons? Vigilant Citizenship and Neoliberal Space in Multiethnic Paris.
    Andrew Newman.
    Antipode. October 19, 2012
    This article draws from ethnographic research on a recently built park in one of Paris' predominately West African and Maghrebi districts. It demonstrates how urban design is used to “build‐in” neoliberal subjectivities to the city. This design approach appropriates a tradition of street democracy held by neighborhood associations and redirects their disproportionately middle class, French membership into managerial roles traditionally held by municipal agencies. This neoliberal political subjectivity, which I term vigilant citizenship, makes monitoring and controlling the social composition of the urban commons a form of civic engagement for middle class urbanites. In Paris, this vigilance is fueled by anxieties over the presence of West African and Maghrebi youth in public spaces. Activists do not passively adopt this neoliberal role; they strike a delicate balance as gatekeepers, weighing inclusion against an expectation to maintain a “successful” public space conforming to a republican model of citizenship.
    October 19, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01052.x   open full text
  • “But One Needs to Work!”: Neoliberal Citizenship, Work‐Based Immigrant Integration, and Post‐Socialist Subjectivities in Berlin‐Marzahn.
    Tatiana Matejskova.
    Antipode. October 12, 2012
    This paper examines how middle‐aged and older post‐Soviet immigrants in eastern Berlin navigate the neoliberalized landscape of work‐based integration in face of their long‐term unemployment. I first show how these immigrants' own insistence on the centrality of paid work for their feeling integrated contributes to their experience of collective despondency and enrollment in exploitative quasi‐markets, including workfare. Focusing on this insistence, I examine how it draws strength primarily from their continued subscription to the conceptions of self as deeply socially embedded, and of work as a practice of such an embedding, adopted through their Soviet‐era socialization into the culture of dispersed personhood and obligation to work, rather than from their adoption of neoliberal concepts of citizenship in Germany. Contributing to geographies of post‐socialist experience of neoliberalized regimes of citizenship and immigrant integration, this paper thus highlights how some of the aspects of post‐socialist subjectivities dovetail unexpectedly with the neoliberal project.
    October 12, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01050.x   open full text
  • Speculating on Slums: Infrastructural Fixes in Informal Housing in the Global South.
    Vandana Desai, Alex Loftus.
    Antipode. September 27, 2012
    In this paper, we seek to revisit earlier work on the theory of rent, situating it in the current period of economic crisis and in relation to informal housing in the global South. More than ever, land is treated as a pure financial asset. Finance capital now exerts a profound influence over the production of space and exposes the built environment to the kinds of speculative binges that we have witnessed over the last decade. This is now as much a feature of living conditions in the poorest settlements of the global South as it is in the financial heartlands of the global North. We question key assumptions behind development interventions by arguing that infrastructural upgrading may decrease the security of tenure of residents of informal housing and call for a more nuanced approach that recognises the (post)colonial histories of urbanisation structuring access to land and housing.
    September 27, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01044.x   open full text
  • Governing Homo Subprimicus: Beyond Financial Citizenship, Exclusion, and Rights.
    Mark Kear.
    Antipode. September 14, 2012
    The paper presents an alternative to scholarship on the distributional politics of finance that emphasizes citizenship‐based claims to new financial rights. To compensate for the dominance of exclusion‐based etiologies of financial marginality in financial geography, I reframe financial exclusion as a problem of financial government—that is, as a problem of conducting the conduct of risky populations without threatening the security and autonomy of financial markets. Drawing on Foucault's distinction between technologies of discipline and security, I describe how barriers to the extension of financial government create tiered processes of financial subject formation. The inchoate “subprime’ financial subject produced is the correlate of a specialized financial governmentality—a homo subprimicus eminently governable by financial means. I close by calling for greater attention to questions regarding the relationship between technologies for valorizing bare life, new systems of financially mediated value extraction, and emerging capitalist class processes.
    September 14, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01045.x   open full text
  • Play for Protest, Protest for Play: Artisan and Vendors' Resistance to Displacement in Mexico City.
    Veronica Crossa.
    Antipode. September 14, 2012
    Play, laughter and theatrical forms of activism have been recently documented by scholars interested in the politics and spatiality of resistance. This article focuses on the playful techniques of resistance deployed by street vendors and artisans in Mexico City as a result of the displacement generated by a recently implemented policy popularly called Plazas Limpias (clean plazas). Through a case study Coyoacan, a tourist‐oriented neighbourhood known for its historical richness and aesthetic qualities, I show how street vendors and artisans who were removed from plazas in the area engaged in a number of playful resistance strategies which drew on the symbolic and material importance of place. I argue the street vendors and artisans deployed playful techniques of resistance for two reasons. First, play helped develop emotions that were crucial for the sustainability of the movement. Second, playful strategies of resistance were practiced because of the symbolic importance of Coyoacan as a place of creativity, play, performance, and art.
    September 14, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01043.x   open full text
  • Traditional Retail Markets: The New Gentrification Frontier?
    Sara Gonzalez, Paul Waley.
    Antipode. September 10, 2012
    This paper presents traditional retail markets in the UK caught between a narrative of decline and revival, on the edge of a gentrification frontier. Traditional indoor and outdoor markets have become somewhat residual in many British cities but essential for many low‐income citizens that rely on their affordability. At the same time, the market is being reinvented for a wealthier type of customer interested more in local, environmentally friendly, ethical and “authentic” shopping experience. We take the case of Kirkgate Market in Leeds, the largest of its kind in Britain to analyse the process of disinvestment by the local authority, displacement of traders and customers and rebranding of the market for a new wealthier customer base. The paper is based on an action‐research project on which one of the authors is involved alongside traders and other campaigners to defend the public nature of Kirkgate Market in Leeds. Este artículo presenta el mercado tradicional en el Reino Unido atrapado en una doble narrativa de caída y ascenso, al bode de la frontera de la gentrificación. Los mercados tradicionales de abastos han sido relegados a una situación residual en muchas ciudades británicas pero son esenciales para una parte de la población en rentas bajas que depende de sus económicos precios. Al mismo tiempo, el mercado se está reinventando de cara a una clientela con más poder adquisitivo que busca una experiencia local, verde, ética y “auténtica”. Tomando el caso de Kirkgate Market en Leeds, el más grande en el Reino Unido, analizamos el proceso de desinversión municipal, la exclusión de comerciantes y clientes y la reimaginación del mercado para clientes más acaudalados. El artículo está basado en un proyecto de investigación‐acción con comerciantes y otros ciudadanos para la defensa del mercado de Kirkgate.
    September 10, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01040.x   open full text
  • State Responses and Migrant Experiences with Human Smuggling: A Reality Check.
    Ilse Liempt, Stephanie Sersli.
    Antipode. July 27, 2012
    Using Bigo's (2002) notion of “the governmentality of unease” this article reveals a shift in popular discourse around human smuggling in Western Europe and Canada since the 1990s towards increasing criminalization. To analyze this process of criminalization we have identified three recurring elements: boat arrivals; high fees and “bogus” asylum seekers; and the involvement of organized crime. The finding that smugglers today are generally perceived as “evil criminals” who undermine states' ability to manage migration and who need to be punished is contrasted with data derived from interviews with smuggled migrants in the Netherlands and Canada that offer an alternative, more socially embedded understanding of human smuggling. We posit that this reality check and a more nuanced understanding of human smuggling are needed for the protection of international migrants.
    July 27, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01027.x   open full text
  • The Politics of the Evicted: Redevelopment, Subjectivity, and Difference in Mumbai's Slum Frontier.
    Sapana Doshi.
    Antipode. July 25, 2012
    In recent years cities around the world have undergone mass slum clearances for redevelopment. This study of Mumbai offers an alternative interpretation of urban capital accumulation by investigating the differentiated political subjectivities of displaced slum residents. I argue that Mumbai's redevelopment entails not uniform class‐based dispossessions but a process of accumulation by differentiated displacement whereby uneven displacement politics are central to the social production of land markets. Two ethnographic cases reveal that groups negotiate redevelopment in contradictory ways, supporting or contesting projects in varying moments. Redevelopmental subjectivities are influenced at key conjunctures by market‐oriented resettlement, ideologies of belonging, desires for improved housing, and participation in non‐governmental groups. This articulated assemblage of power‐laden practices reflects and reworks class, gender, and ethno‐religious relations, profoundly shaping evictees' experience and political engagement. The paper concludes that focusing on differentiated subjectivities may usefully guide both analysis and social justice practice aimed at countering dispossession.
    July 25, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01023.x   open full text
  • Many Chains to Break: The Multi‐dimensional Concept of Slave Labour in Brazil.
    Siobhán McGrath.
    Antipode. July 19, 2012
    This article examines the concept of slave labour through two case studies from Brazil. One involves internal migrant workers and the other cross‐border migrant workers. There have been accusations of slave labour in both cases. I argue that slave labour is a multi‐dimensional concept and that cognate notions (eg forced and unfree labour) could also be reconceived as multi‐dimensional. Recent works have proposed that a continuum viewing labour relations as more or less free should replace dichotomies such as free vs unfree. I argue for taking this further to recognise, first, that workers may be more or less free in different ways, and second, that the resulting conditions of employment can be characterised as more or less degrading, also in different ways. This multi‐dimensional approach allows for a better understanding of the heterogeneity of apparently unfree labour relations and for greater recognition of the agency of workers labelled as slaves.
    July 19, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01024.x   open full text
  • Announcing Swine Flu and the Interpretation of Pandemic Anxiety.
    Jonathan Everts.
    Antipode. July 19, 2012
    This paper discusses the ways in which 2009 novel swine‐origin influenza A (H1N1) was announced and resonated with current pandemic anxieties. In particular, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are used as a lens through which recent pandemic anxieties can be analysed and understood. This entails a closer look at the securitisation of public health and the challenges and struggles this may have caused within public health agencies. In that light, CDC' formal entanglement with global health security and its announcement of the H1N1 pandemic are interpreted, followed by an ethnographically informed focus on various people who were engaged in the H1N1 emergency response and their practices and practical struggles in the face of pandemic anxiety.
    July 19, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01021.x   open full text
  • Luxemburg on Tahrir Square: Reading the Arab Revolutions with Rosa Luxemburg's The Mass Strike.
    Sami Zemni, Brecht De Smet, Koenraad Bogaert.
    Antipode. June 26, 2012
    The protests on Tahrir Square in Cairo have come to symbolize the Arab uprisings of 2011. They have proven that Arab political life is more complex than the false choice between authoritarian rule or Islamist oppositions. The popular uprisings witnessed the emergence of “the Arab peoples” as political actors, able to topple entrenched authoritarian leaders, challenging repressive regimes and their brutal security apparatuses. In our contribution we want to analyze the political dynamics of these uprisings beyond the salient immediacy of the revolutionary events, by taking, as our guide, Rosa Luxemburg's pamphlet The Mass Strike (2005 [1906], London: Bookmarks). An interesting theoretical contribution to the study of revolution, Luxemburg's book provides us with tools to introduce a historical and political reading of the Arab Spring. Based on fieldwork and thorough knowledge of the region, we draw from evidence from the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions and the more gradual forms of political change in Morocco.Re‐reading the revolutionary events in Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco through the lens of The Mass Strike offers activists on the ground insights into the dialectic between local and national struggles, economic and political demands, strike actions and revolution. The workers protests in Tunisia and Egypt during the last decade can be grasped as anticipations of the mass strike during the revolution; the specific mode in which workers participate as a class in the revolutionary process. This perspective enables an understanding of the current economic conflicts as logical forms of continuity of the revolution. The economic and the political, the local and the national (and one may add the global), are indissoluble yet separate elements of the same process, and the challenge for revolutionary actors in Tunisia and Egypt lies in the connection, organization and fusion of these dispersed moments and spaces of struggle into a politicized whole. Conversely, an understanding of the reciprocity between revolutionary change and the mass strike allows activists in Morocco to recognize the workers' movement as a potentially powerful actor of change, and trade unionists to incorporate the political in their economic mobilizations.
    June 26, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01014.x   open full text
  • Servicing Customers in Revolutionary Times: The Experience of the Collectivized Barcelona Water Company during the Spanish Civil War.
    Santiago Gorostiza, Hug March, David Sauri.
    Antipode. June 22, 2012
    Debates on the total or partial privatization of water usually follow the rationale that efficient and rational management is best left to the private sphere. In this paper and using a historical example, we attempt to assess critically this assumption arguing that efficiency and rationality in resource management are and have been an asset of collective management as well. We present the case of the Barcelona Water Company, run by its workers during the Spanish Civil War, to illustrate how in certain cases, gains in economic efficiency and rational management that had been impossible to accomplish under standard private management, were achieved by collective action. Workers management during this period not only improved efficiency and rationality but to a large extent did so also procuring equity and fairness in the provision of water to the citizens of Barcelona despite the harsh conditions brought about by the war.
    June 22, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01013.x   open full text
  • Knowing “Good Food”: Immigrant Knowledge and the Racial Politics of Farmworker Food Insecurity.
    Laura‐Anne Minkoff‐Zern.
    Antipode. June 22, 2012
    Abstract:  This article explores the ways that farmworkers, many of whom come from a culture deeply rooted in food and agricultural practices, cope with food insecurity by utilizing their agricultural and nutritional knowledge. Food assistance providers in the USA often treat farmworkers’ inability to afford healthy food as a lack of knowledge about healthy eating, reinforcing racialized assumptions that people of color don't know “good” food. I argue that in contrast to food banks and low‐income nutrition programs, home and community gardens provide spaces for retaining and highlighting agricultural, cultural, and dietary practices and knowledge. This paper investigates the linkages between workers’ place in the food system as both producers and consumers, simultaneously exploited for their labor, and creating coping strategies utilizing agrarian and culinary knowledge. I argue that food security and healthy eating, rather than being a matter of consumers making healthy “choices”, is a matter of class‐based and racial differences in the food system.
    June 22, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01016.x   open full text
  • Doing Justice to Bodies? Reflections on Food Justice, Race, and Biology.
    Julie Guthman.
    Antipode. June 20, 2012
    Abstract:  The food justice concept takes disproportionate prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes among people of color as evidence of injustice. Yet several measurements of obesity are based on norms derived from white bodies, which can also be a source of injustice. Part of the conceptual problem lies with reticence to discuss questions of material bodily difference as it relates to race given the legacy of racial science. Noting the distinction between racialism and racism, this article explores ways to think about biological difference in raced bodies, without reducing it to genetics. It draws on insights from Foucauldian notions of race and the new science of epigenetics to suggest that biological difference is more an effect of racism than a cause. Several pathways to obesity exist that have less to do with current day food access or genetic inheritance than with differential exposures that are somatized epigenetically.
    June 20, 2012   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2012.01017.x   open full text
  • Corrigendum.

    Antipode. August 22, 2011
    There is no abstract available for this paper.
    August 22, 2011   doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2011.00935.x   open full text